Sample records for jordan

  1. [Jordan].

    PubMed

    The capital of Jordan is Amman. As of 1995, Jordan had a population of 5.4 million governed by a parliamentary monarchy regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $5.8 billion and $1390. Per capita income declined by 6.3% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Jordan owed $7.1 billion, then being serviced at $878 million. For the same year, Jordan exported $4.151 billion in goods and services and imported $4.783 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 3.3% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 67.9 years, the infant mortality rate was 36 per 1000 births, 97% had access to health services, and 99% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347065

  2. Jordan.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    Jordan is a country of 91,000 sq km, only 11% of which is arable. The 1980 population was 2.8 million, growing at 3.65% per year. Most of the people are of Arab stock, including between 1 and 1 1/4 million Palestinians. 95% of the people are Sunni Muslims. The national language is Arabic, and literacy is 71%. The infant mortality rate in 1984 was 50/1000, and life expectancy is 64 years. Suffrage is universal. The 1986 gross domestic product was $4.3 billion, per capita $1530; the growth rate was 2.6%. 80% of the people are employed in agriculture and 20% in industry. The major resources are phosphate and potash. The dinar is worth $0.35. Jordan's economy grew during the 1960s and 1970s, and it achieved the 10% growth rate called for in its 1st 5-year plan (1976-80). The 2nd 5-year plan saw a slow-down in the economy, and the 3rd 5-year plan aims at a growth rate of only 5.1% and the creation of 97,000 new jobs. A major weakness of the economy is its dependence on money from abroad -- $0.5 billion from other Arab countries, wages of expatriate Jordanians working in the Gulf states, and $1.7 billion in US aid between 1952 and 1987. 1986 exports amounted to $732 million, imports to $2.4 billion. Jordan was settled by Canaanites around 2000 BC and was ruled successively by Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, and from 1919 to 1946 Britain. The independent Hashemite Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, was founded in 1946. War with Israel ended with the establishment of the present official border in 1949, but Israel has occupied the West Bank of the Jordan since 1967, and the militant pro-Syrian Palestinian fedayeen maintained a guerrilla war within Jordan until 1973. In 1974 King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. However, by reconvening Parliament in 1984 with representatives from the West Bank, the King contradicted his recognition of the claims of the Palestine Liberation Organization to represent all Palestinians. King Hussein has urged the Palestine Liberation Organization to accept UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 and renounce the use of violence. The November 1987 Arab League summit in Amman was a major victory for Hussein's diplomatic efforts. PMID:12177997

  3. Cancer care in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razeq, Hikmat; Attiga, Fadwa; Mansour, Asem

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Jordan after cardiovascular diseases. Due to increase in life expectancy and prolonged exposure to risk factors, cancer mortality and morbidity are expected to increase as the young population ages. This increase will constitute a challenging burden on healthcare systems in Jordan and many other neighboring countries. Planning is key to managing the expected rise in the demand for cancer care, and this will require public health initiatives to guarantee access to quality cancer care. Over the past decade, cancer care in Jordan has witnessed remarkable improvement through access to advanced diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, we address the history of cancer care in Jordan, including cancer statistics, infrastructure, workforce as well as cancer care outcomes. We also discuss many of the challenges that we face and offer suggestions for the improvement of cancer management in Jordan and the region. PMID:25732671

  4. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[?], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, ? is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  5. Relapsing fever in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Babudieri, B.

    1957-01-01

    The author reports on a survey carried out by him in 1954 on relapsing fever in Jordan. In that country the disease is largely tick-borne, the main vector being Ornithodoros tholozani. Some of the frequent cases in the town of Nablus and the village of Marda in West Jordan may, however, be caused by O. coniceps. The centres of infection are some of the numerous caves scattered throughout the hilly areas and certain houses in which chickens are kept. It is believed that the vector ticks could be successfully exterminated by the use of insecticides and by the adoption of certain procedures outlined by the author. Arsenobenzol compounds and penicillin have been shown not to be very effective for the treatment of relapsing fever, but good results have been obtained with Aureomycin and Terramycin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:13472437

  6. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  8. Jordan Form and Quantum Tomography

    E-print Network

    Artur Czerwi?ski

    2015-06-01

    In this brief article we indicate a connection between Jordan normal form of a square matrix and the stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography. We show that the index of cyclicy of a generator of evolution, which receives much attention in the stroboscopic tomography, can be defined and computed by referring to the Jordan decomposition of a square matrix. The result presented in this work shows a relation between terminology from quantum tomography and linear algebra.

  9. Treatability assessment of Jordan Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, P.C.; Ball, L.M.; DiGiano, F.A.; Miller, K.L.; Taylor, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    At the time the study was initiated, Jordan Lake was being considered as a source of municipal drinking water by several communities in the central Piedmont of N.C. This research project evaluated three treatment scenarios for Jordan Lake water. The first consisted of conventional coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration, followed by chlorination. The other two involved advanced treatment schemes, one incorporating adsorption using granular activated carbon to remove disinfection by-product precursors and any synthetic organic chemicals in the raw water, and the other employing ozonation and chlorination as an alternative disinfection program to free chlorine. The results show that the treatment train involving granular activated carbon adsorption produced a water with the lowest total organic carbon concentration and the lowest formation of trihalomethanes and total organic halides.

  10. The Geometry of Jordan Matrix Models

    E-print Network

    Michael Rios

    2005-07-15

    We elucidate the geometry of matrix models based on simple formally real Jordan algebras. Such Jordan algebras give rise to a nonassociative geometry that is a generalization of Lorentzian geometry. We emphasize constructions for the exceptional Jordan algebra and the exceptional Jordan C*-algebra and describe the projective spaces related to the exceptional cubic matrix model and the E_6 matrix model. The resulting projective spaces are shown to be exceptional versions of projective twistor space, thus revealing the existence of exceptional twistor string theories that are dual to octonionic matrix models.

  11. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  12. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Assault by burning in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  14. Jordan form of the difference of projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetoshkin, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Jordan canonical form of the difference of projectors P — Q for the eigenvalues ? ? -1, 0, 1 is proved to be made up of pairs of Jordan blocks; i.e., if there are several blocks J k (?), then there are exactly the same number of blocks J k (-?). For a block J k (±1) with k > 1, there is necessarily a pair block J l (?1), where | k — l| < 1.

  15. Water scarcity in the Jordan River basin.

    PubMed

    Civic, M A

    1999-03-01

    This article reports the problem on water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. In the Jordan River basin, freshwater scarcity results from multiple factors and most severely affects Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. One of these multiple factors is the duration of rainfall in the region that only occurs in a small area of highlands in the northwest section. The varying method of water use parallels that of Israel that utilizes an estimated 2000 million cu. m. The national patterns of water usage and politically charged territorial assertions compound the competition over freshwater resources in the region. The combination of political strife, resource overuse, and contaminated sources means that freshwater scarcity in the Jordan River basin will reach a critical level in the near future. History revealed that the misallocation/mismanagement of freshwater from the Jordan River basin was the result of centuries of distinct local cultural and religious practices combined with historical influences. Each state occupying near the river basin form their respective national water development schemes. It was not until the mid-1990s that a shared-use approach was considered. Therefore, the critical nature of water resource, the ever-dwindling supply of freshwater in the Jordan River basin, and the irrevocability of inappropriate policy measures requires unified, definitive, and ecologically sound changes to the existing policies and practices to insure an adequate water supply for all people in the region. PMID:12290383

  16. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

    1999-07-23

    The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of recording. In addition, Hittiyah is being calibrated for coda magnitude estimation and is placed favorably to estimate mechanism and magnitude for earthquakes along the Dead Sea Rift and the Gulf of Aqaba.

  17. Geometric Thought Within School Mathematics Textbooks in Jordan Amal Khasawneh

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    source of mathematics content in Jordan's schools, and the best to represent the national math curriculum this international demand with the role of textbooks in Jordan, there is a national mathematics curriculum which mathematics curriculum for the basic s

  18. Pseudo-euclidean Jordan algebras Amir Baklouti and Said Benayadi

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Pseudo-euclidean Jordan algebras Amir Baklouti and Sa¨id Benayadi Universit´e Paul Verlaine-Metz, LMAM, CNRS UMR 7122, Ile du Saulcy, F-57045 Metz cedex, France Abstract A pseudo-euclidean Jordan an associative scalar product on J. We study the structure of the pseudo-euclidean Jordan K-algebras (where K

  19. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. Jordan J. Gerth A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Sky Cover By Jordan J. Gerth A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements, Professor, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences #12;#12;i Sky Cover Jordan J. Gerth1 Department of Atmospheric, Madison, Wisconsin 1 Corresponding author address: Jordan Gerth, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological

  1. MAS275 Probability Modelling Example 24: Dr Jonathan Jordan

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Jonathan

    MAS275 Probability Modelling Example 24: Monopoly Dr Jonathan Jordan School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield Spring Semester, 2014 Dr Jonathan Jordan MAS275 Probability Modelling #12 are labelled with a street or other location. Dr Jonathan Jordan MAS275 Probability Modelling #12;Monopoly

  2. Jordan algebras arising from intermolecular recombination

    E-print Network

    Bremner, Murray

    theory of the symmetric group to decompose this new identity into its irreducible components. We show identity. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to decompose this 1 #12;new identity a nonassociative polynomial identity of degree 4 which implies the Jordan identity. We use the representation

  3. Sparse Recovery on Euclidean Jordan Algebras

    E-print Network

    2013-02-03

    Feb 3, 2013 ... We consider the sparse recovery problem on Euclidean Jordan ..... Proof. Case 1 If x and y operator commute, then it is easy to verify that ...... [11] C. B. Chua, The primal-dual second-order cone approximations algorithm for ...

  4. (American Alliance of Museums) Jordan Schnitzer

    E-print Network

    #12; JSMA (American Alliance of Museums) Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art Japanese Art MUSEUM CAFÉ MUSEUM STORE ARTIST PROJECT SPACE APS Foyer PRESSMAN LOBBY Wilson O ce Suite Art Japanese Art BARKER GALLERY Special Exhibitions MUSEUM CAFÉ MUSEUM STORE ARTIST PROJECT SPACE APS

  5. The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Marzouk, Akmal M.; Ahmad, Fayez

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in Jordan is marked by a major depositional hiatus that differs in magnitude from place to place due to variable structural movements of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt that resulted in irregularity of Jordan/Levant depositional basin after the deposition of Maastrichtian succession. To elucidate the nature of this hiatus, fieldwork was carried out at a number of locations including lithofacies and stratigraphic analysis, and a multi-proxy study of microplanktonic biostratigraphy (calcareous nannofossilis and planktonic formaminifera). However, the duration of this hiatus extended over latest Maastrichtian and early Danian stages. This is based on the absence of the planktonic foraminifera; Pseudoguembelina hariaensis (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebra (CF2), Plummerita hantkeninoides (CF1), Guembelitria cretacea (P0), Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P&) zones and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides (P1a) subzones and the coeval calcareous nannofossils Nephrolithus frequens and Markalius inversus zones. We estimate that in the paleo-lows areas an unexpected 3.96 Ma hiatus is present. Conversely, in swell areas, the duration of the hiatus represents the entire Danian-Selandian interval and revealed an unexpected 10.33 Ma hiatus, especially in the central part of Jordan. Subsequently, a marked transgression took place over the whole of Jordan which resulted in the prevalence of deep water conditions (Zones P4 or equivalent NP7/8); this caused the deposition of a retrogradational parasequence set of middle shelf pelagic marl and chalk during a rapid relative rise of sea-level. A correlative hiatus and time gap have also been reported in different parts of the Arabian and African plates, indicating that Jordan was influenced by regional tectonics that combined with the latest Maastrichtian sea-level fall resulted in a long-term sub-marine hiatus and/or non-deposition of sediments. A combination of sea level changes and tectonic uplift are the likely cause for such a long gap in the sediment record in the region.

  6. Groundwater Protection and Management Strategy in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali El-Naqa; Ammar Al-Shayeb

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater resources are essential in Jordan that require careful planning and management in order to sustain human socio-economic\\u000a development and various ecosystems. However these vital resources are under the threat of degradation by both mismanagement\\u000a and over-exploitation that leads to contamination and decline of water levels. A new by-law, which specifically addresses\\u000a pollution prevention and protection of water resources used

  7. On polynomial identities in associative and Jordan pairs

    E-print Network

    . The question of whether a theory of general identities of Jordan systems could be developed remained however1 On polynomial identities in associative and Jordan pairs Fernando Montaner 1 Departamento de a polynomial identity if and only if it satisfies a homotope polynomial identity. In the obtention

  8. Evolutionary Module Acquisition Peter J. Angeline and Jordan Pollack

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Evolutionary Module Acquisition Peter J. Angeline and Jordan Pollack Laboratory for Artificial 43210 pja@cis.ohio-state.edu pollack@cis.ohio-state.edu To Appear in the Proceedings of: The Second search technique (Rich 1983), Evolutionary Module Acquisition Peter J. Angeline and Jordan Pollack

  9. Evolutionary Module Acquisition Peter J. Angeline and Jordan Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Evolutionary Module Acquisition Peter J. Angeline and Jordan Pollack Laboratory for Artificial 43210 pja@cis.ohio­state.edu pollack@cis.ohio­state.edu To Appear in the Proceedings of: The Second search technique (Rich 1983), Evolutionary Module Acquisition Peter J. Angeline and Jordan Pollack

  10. National Mechatronics Day Philadelphia University, April 23, 2013, Jordan

    E-print Network

    National Mechatronics Day Philadelphia University, April 23, 2013, Jordan Program Tuesday, 23rd. - Mechatronics Chair Talk (Dr. Mohammed Bani Younis). - Jordan National Tempus Office (Prof. Ahmad Abu Al:00 ­ 10:30 Coffee Break 10:30 ­ 12:00 Sessions I: Mechatronics, Research and Social Networks

  11. Flood Analysis and Mitigation for Petra Area in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radwan A. Al-Weshah; Fouad El-Khoury

    1999-01-01

    Petra is located in the southwest region of Jordan about 200 km south of Amman, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra was carved in sandstone canyons by the Nabatean over 2,000 years ago. Today the city is a major tourist attraction, its monuments being considered the jewels of Jordan. Floods pose a serious threat to the

  12. Language and Cultural Maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A.; Al-Ali, Mohammed N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the language situation among the Gypsies of Jordan within the framework of previous theories on language maintenance and shift as proposed by Le Page, Fishman, Dorian and Kelman. The study investigates language and cultural maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan to permit comparison of the relative influences of various…

  13. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  14. Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

  15. Jordan-algebraic approach to convexity theorems for quadratic ...

    E-print Network

    2005-12-16

    fying tool for the description and analysis of interior-point algorithms. In the ... primitive idempotents in a simple Euclidean Jordan algebra (or its conic hull). ..... Proof Since S is closed, nonempty and does not contain straight lines, it contains.

  16. Löwner's Operator and Spectral Functions in Euclidean Jordan ...

    E-print Network

    Dec 24, 2004 ... spectral functions under the framework of Euclidean Jordan algebras. ..... argument to the proof in Rellich [42, p.31], we can conclude that there ...... Convergence of a modification of Lemaréchal's algorithm for nonsmooth opti-.

  17. VARINA VAUGHN -WINONA JORDAN SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Department of Biological Science

    E-print Network

    Naylor, Gavin

    VARINA VAUGHN - WINONA JORDAN SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Department of Biological Science Florida (indicate % of support from loans, scholarships, work, parents, spouse, etc.). Supporting Letters (2 or more). Individuals writing letters of recommendation should send them electronically to the Scholarship Committee

  18. Solar sites assessment in Jordan using fuzzy logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qmar Badran; Emad Abdulhadi; Hussien Sarhan

    2008-01-01

    Due to the current increase in oil prices, economic growth, increasing population, and the growing energy demand in Jordan,\\u000a the provision of reliable energy supply at reasonable cost is considered a crucial element of economic reform. The present\\u000a study utilizes fuzzy logic to assess solar sites in Jordan and to decide which sites should be given the highest priority\\u000a with

  19. Thee'tale Tits process of Jordan algebras revisited Holger P. Petersson

    E-print Network

    Thee'tale Tits process of Jordan algebras revisited Holger. Geburtstag gewidmet 0. Introduction The 'etale Tits process, which was called the toral Tits process by Petersson-R* *acine [12], may be viewed as a Jordan-theoretical method

  20. The Jordan River Basin: 2. Potential Future Allocations to the Co-riparians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. H. Phillips; Shaddad Attili; Stephen McCaffrey; John S. Murray

    2007-01-01

    The Jordan River drains parts of four States and one territory (Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Jordan and Palestine), and is an important regional source of water. A previous paper in this series discussed the flow allocations from the Jordan River to the co-riparians which were proposed in the Johnston Plan of 1955, noting that recently declassified documents shed new light on

  1. Barbara Jordan's symbolic use of language in the keynote address to the national women's conference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Martin; Vicky Gordon Martin

    1984-01-01

    Barbara Jordan's keynote address to the National Women's Conference provides a focus for this analysis of her symbolic use of language. Numerous qualities contribute to Jordan's effectiveness as a rhetor, however, four dimensions of effective political language, drawn primarily from the works of Murray Edelman, serve as interdependent considerations for this analysis. The four dimensions are: (1) How Jordan creates

  2. NORM PRESERVERS OF JORDAN PRODUCTS BOJAN KUZMA, GORAZD LESNJAK, CHI-KWONG LI, TATJANA PETEK, AND

    E-print Network

    Li, Chi-Kwong

    NORM PRESERVERS OF JORDAN PRODUCTS BOJAN KUZMA, GORAZD LESNJAK, CHI-KWONG LI§, TATJANA PETEK, AND LEIBA RODMAN§ Abstract. Norm preserver maps of Jordan product on the algebra Mn of n�n complex matrices. For many other norms, it is proved that, after a suitable reduction, norm preserver maps of Jordan product

  3. Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

  4. Education reform and the quality of kindergartens in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan—the implementation of public kindergartens—and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of kindergartens was selected to represent these new public kindergartens (n = 84) and previously existing private kindergartens (n = 23). Independent observers rated the quality of kindergarten environments in seven domains. Overall, 13% of public kindergarten environments were observed to be inadequate, 43% were of minimal quality, 43% were good, and 1% were excellent. In four of the seven domains, the quality of public kindergartens was significantly higher than the quality of private kindergartens; there were no significant differences in the other domains. Findings suggest the importance of continuing to implement high quality kindergartens in Jordan and of incorporating evaluations into education reform. PMID:21170163

  5. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  6. Wind as an alternative source of energy in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M Habali; Mohammad Amr; Isaac Saleh; Rizeq Ta’ani

    2001-01-01

    The interest and motivation for harnessing wind power have grown tremendously during the nineteen-eighties in many developed countries as a result of frequent energy crises on the one hand and persisting issues of environmental pollution on the other. These activities have stimulated at the same time, the scientific and research community in Jordan to launch a serious series of investigations

  7. Food Habits of the Yellowstone Whitefish Prosopium Williamsoni Cismontanus (Jordan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Laakso

    1951-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the food habits of 385 whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni cismontanus (Jordan)) and 52 trout from the Yellowstone and Gallatin Rivers was made. Collections were taken over a period of 1 year beginning in September, 1947, on the Yellowstone and on the Gallatin Rivers. Fingerling whitefish used the same food organisms as did adults but consumed smaller numbers

  8. MICHAEL I. JORDAN Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Vitae MICHAEL I. JORDAN Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department@cs.berkeley.edu EDUCATION PhD in Cognitive Science, 1985 University of California, San Diego. MS in Mathematics (Statistics. RESEARCH AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE Professor ­ Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

  9. Euclidean Jordan Algebras, Hidden Actions, and $J$-Kepler Problems

    E-print Network

    Guowu Meng

    2011-05-11

    For a {\\em simple Euclidean Jordan algebra}, let $\\mathfrak{co}$ be its conformal algebra, $\\mathscr P$ be the manifold consisting of its semi-positive rank-one elements, $C^\\infty(\\mathscr P)$ be the space of complex-valued smooth functions on $\\mathscr P$. An explicit action of $\\mathfrak{co}$ on $C^\\infty(\\mathscr P)$, referred to as the {\\em hidden action} of $\\mathfrak{co}$ on $\\mathscr P$, is exhibited. This hidden action turns out to be mathematically responsible for the existence of the Kepler problem and its recently-discovered vast generalizations, referred to as $J$-Kepler problems. The $J$-Kepler problems are then reconstructed and re-examined in terms of the unified language of Euclidean Jordan algebras. As a result, for a simple Euclidean Jordan algebra, the minimal representation of its conformal group can be realized either as the Hilbert space of bound states for its $J$-Kepler problem or as $L^2({\\mathscr P}, {1\\over r}\\mathrm{vol})$, where $\\mathrm{vol}$ is the volume form on $\\mathscr P$ and $r$ is the inner product of $x\\in \\mathscr P$ with the identity element of the Jordan algebra.

  10. Infection Control Procedures in Commercial Dental Laboratories in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi

    The risk of cross-infection in dental clinics and laboratories has attracted the attention of practitioners for the past few years, yet several medical centers have discarded compliance with infection control guidelines, resulting in a non-safe environ- ment for research and medical care. In Jordan, there is lack of known standard infection control programs that are conducted by the Jordanian Dental

  11. Analysis of Dynamical Recognizers Alan D. Blair & Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Analysis of Dynamical Recognizers Alan D. Blair & Jordan B. Pollack Dept. of Computer Science Volen Center for Complex Systems Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254­9110 blair@cs.brandeis.edu pollack@cs.brandeis.edu September 7, 1995 (revised June 14, 1996) Abstract Pollack (1991) demonstrated that second­order recurrent

  12. Connectionism: Past, Present, and Future Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Connectionism: Past, Present, and Future Jordan B. Pollack Computer & Information Science modeling on neurally­inspired mechanisms have come to be called Connectionism. Rather than being brand is evidently a form of connectionism, one of the switchboard variety, though it does not deal in direct

  13. Characterization of cell phone use while driving in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhannad Ismeik

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that the use of cell phones while driving can impair driving performance thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. The conducted studies have indicated that with an increase in general cell phone use, phoning while driving has also grown. For around 80% of Jordan's population that own cell phones, phoning while driving has

  14. Prevalence of Headache and Migraine among School Children in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussein F. Alawneh; Hussein A. Bataineh

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of headache and migraine among school children in the Irbid, Jordan and to determine the relationship between headache and various factors especially migraine. Materials and Methods: A cross-section population study was performed over a period between January 2005 and September 2005. Subjects were selected by multistage stratified sampling procedure.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Recent Changes in Relative Humidity in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A. Abu-Taleb; Ameen J. Alawneh; Mahmoud M. Smadi

    2007-01-01

    This study examines recent changes in annual and seasonal relative humidity variations in Jordan. The analysis indicates an increasing trend in relative humidity at different stations. The analysis shows a significant increasing trend at Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM) station with a rate of increase 0.13% per year. These increasing trends are statistically significant during summer and autumn seasons. Finally, a

  16. Composite wormholes in vacuum Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    S. M. Kozyrev; S. V. Sushkov

    2008-12-30

    New classes composite vacuum wormhole solutions of Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravitation is presented and analysed. It is shown that such solution holds for both, a bridge between separated Schwarzschild and Brans Universes and for a bridge connecting two Schwarzschild asymptotically flat regions joined by Brans throat. We have also noticed that there are some new possible candidates for wormhole spacetimes.

  17. Composite spherically symmetric configurations in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    S. Kozyrev

    2010-09-23

    In this article, a study of the scalar field shells in relativistic spherically symmetric configurations has been performed. We construct the composite solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equation by matching the conformal Brans solutions at each junction surfaces. This approach allows us to associate rigorously with all solutions as a single glued "space", which is a unique differentiable manifold M^4.

  18. Negation Errors in English by University of Jordan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisouh, Zuhair S.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study attempted to determine whether the English negation errors made by the University of Jordan's students were similar to the English negation errors proposed by Klima and Bellugi (1966), or influenced by the Arabic syntactic structures of negative sentences. Data of negative structures were gathered, and error counts were…

  19. JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

  20. Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; J. A. G. Leur

    1987-01-01

    Single-head progenies derived from barley landraces collected along the Fertile Crescent in Syria and Jordan were evaluated for agronomic, morphological, and quality traits in a typical barley growing area in Northern Syria. A large diversity was observed both between and within collection sites, and in most cases the variation was useful for breeding purposes. Single plant progenies were identified with

  1. CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky Allegro PCB Design

    E-print Network

    Patel, Chintan

    CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky Allegro PCB Design Allegro PCB Design) and generates output layout files that are suitable for PCB fabrication. This tutorial is the second part of the PCB project tutorial. Before starting with PCB Design, you must have a completed schematic

  2. VARINA VAUGHN -WINONA JORDAN SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Department of Biological Science

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    VARINA VAUGHN - WINONA JORDAN SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Department of Biological Science Florida of recommendation should send them electronically to the Scholarship Committee, rsherrod@bio.fsu.edu . Below enter the names and addresses of two biological science faculty members and/or plant professionals who

  3. Local PI Theory of Jordan Systems II Fernando Montaner*

    E-print Network

    Local PI Theory of Jordan Systems II Fernando having a generalized identity: If J is anondegenerate Jorda* *n system with nonzero PI-elements, then the extended central closure of J has nonzero so* *cle, equal to its PI-ideal. Introduction

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dairy products in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nida’ M. Salem; Rafat Ahmad; Hussein Estaitieh

    2009-01-01

    The use of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been banned in Jordan officially in 1981, and of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 1995. However, residues of such compounds can still be found in the environment and in foodstuffs. Dairy products are an important exposure route for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to humans. For this reason, the presence of OCP residues

  5. The Supermagic Square in characteristic 3 and Jordan superalgebras

    E-print Network

    Cunha, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the classical Freudenthal Magic Square has been extended over fields of characteristic 3 with two more rows and columns filled with (mostly simple) Lie superalgebras specific of this characteristic. This Supermagic Square will be reviewed and some of the simple Lie superalgebras that appear will be shown to be isomorphic to the Tits-Kantor-Koecher Lie superalgebras of some Jordan superalgebras.

  6. The extended Freudenthal Magic Square and Jordan algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Cunha; Alberto Elduque

    2007-01-01

    The Lie superalgebras in the extended Freudenthal Magic Square in characteristic 3 are shown to be related to some known simple\\u000a Lie superalgebras, specific to this characteristic, constructed in terms of orthogonal and symplectic triple systems, which\\u000a are defined in terms of central simple degree three Jordan algebras.

  7. Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayez Abdulla; Hani Abu Qdais; Atallah Rabi

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the medical waste management practices used by hospitals in northern Jordan. A comprehensive inspection survey was conducted for all 21 hospitals located in the study area. Field visits were conducted to provide information on the different medical waste management aspects. The results reported here focus on the level of medical waste segregation, treatment and disposal options practiced

  8. Sustaining Successful School Reform: An Interview With Jordan Horowitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Inside High School Reform: Making Changes that Matter (WestEd) shares the critical lessons and compelling successes of 28 California Academic Partnership Program school reform efforts. In this interview, lead author Jordan Horowitz, WestEd's senior project director in evaluation research, recently shared some of the book's findings, and answered…

  9. MAPS PRESERVING PERIPHERAL SPECTRUM OF JORDAN PRODUCTS OF OPERATORS

    E-print Network

    Li, Chi-Kwong

    MAPS PRESERVING PERIPHERAL SPECTRUM OF JORDAN PRODUCTS OF OPERATORS JIANLIAN CUI AND CHI-KWONG LI preserving the peripheral spectrum of the product AB + B A, and prove that such maps are of the form A UAU which preserve the spectrum are exten- sively studied in connection with a longstanding open problem

  10. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F.; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. Methods: A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Results: Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07–0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500–999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. <250 JD monthly, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.31–4.31). There were also significant associations between perception of harm and addictiveness and each outcome. Discussion: Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan. PMID:20418383

  11. FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT JORDAN HARVEY AT KNOWMAD ADVENTURES jordan.knowmad@gmail.com 1 877 616 8747 www.KnowmadAdventures.com

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT JORDAN HARVEY AT KNOWMAD ADVENTURES jordan.knowmad@gmail.com · 1 877 abundant flora and fauna. #12;KNOWMAD ADVENTURES, INC. | PO Box 50572, Minneapolis, MN 55405 | info.knowmad@gmail, Minneapolis, MN 55405 | info.knowmad@gmail.com | 1 877 616 8747 | www.KnowmadAdventures.com MAY 4 Depart

  12. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities. PMID:19951428

  13. The Jordan Pair content of the magic square and the geometry of the scalars in N=2 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truini, P.; Olivieri, G.; Biedenharn, L. C.

    1985-04-01

    The close connection between Jordan and Lie algebras makes these Jordan structures of interest to physicists. The Freudenthal-Tits Magic Square, which exemplifies this connection, has recently entered into constructing supergravity. We show how Jordan pairs-which are, from several points of view, a most natural Jordan structure-are imbedded in the Magic Square. We compare our approach with that of Gürsey and show show the Hermitian symmetric spaces parametrized by the scalars of N=2, d=4 supergravity theories are related either to Jordan pairs or to geometries of projective dimension two, whose elements belong to a Jordan pair.

  14. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  15. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan. PMID:22576137

  16. Why Do the Quantum Observables Form a Jordan Operator Algebra?

    E-print Network

    Gerd Niestegge

    2010-01-21

    The Jordan algebra structure of the bounded real quantum observables was recognized already in the early days of quantum mechanics. While there are plausible reasons for most parts of this structure, the existence of the distributive nonassociative multiplication operation is hard to justify from a physical or statistical point of view. Considering the non-Boolean extension of classical probabilities, presented in a recent paper, it is shown in this paper that such a multiplication operation can be derived from certain properties of the conditional probabilities and the observables, i.e., from postulates with a clear statistical interpretation. The well-known close relation between Jordan operator algebras and C*-algebras then provides the connection to the quantum-mechanical Hilbert space formalism, thus resulting in a novel axiomatic approach to general quantum mechanics that includes the types II and III von Neumann algebras.

  17. The Quality of Potable Water Types in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mufeed I. Batarseh

    2006-01-01

    Four different potable water types: tap water, desalinated water in private plants, homes filtrated and sealed bottled water\\u000a were collected from four provinces in Jordan and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters and trace metals content.\\u000a The results showed that quality of potable water varied depending on many factors such as: water quality at source, types\\u000a of purification system, and the

  18. Euclidean Jordan Algebras and Interior-point Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Faybusovich

    1997-01-01

    We provide an introduction to the theory of interior-point algorithms of optimization based on the theory of Euclidean Jordan algebras. A short-step path-following algorithm for the convex quadratic problem on the domain, obtained as the intersection of a symmetric cone with an affine subspace, is considered. Connections with the Linear monotone complementarity problem are discussed. Complexity estimates in terms of

  19. Is There a Jordan Geometry Underlying Quantum Physics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Bertram

    2008-01-01

    There have been several propositions for a geometric and essentially non-linear formulation of quantum mechanics, see, e.g.,\\u000a (Ashtekar and Schilling, in On Einstein’s Path, Springer, Berlin, [1998]; Brody and Hughston, J. Geom. Phys. 38:19–53, [2001]; Cirelli et al. J. Geom. Phys. 45:267–284, [2003]; Kibble, Commun. Math. Phys. 65:189–201, [1979]). From a purely mathematical side, the point of view of Jordan algebra

  20. Brans-Dicke wormholes in the Jordan and Einstein frames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Nandi; B. Bhattacharjee; S. M. K. Alam; J. Evans

    1998-01-01

    We examine the possibility of static wormhole solutions in the vacuum Brans-Dicke theory both in the original (Jordan) frame and in the conformally rescaled (Einstein) frame. It turns out that, in the former frame, wormholes exist only in a very narrow interval of the coupling parameter, viz., -3\\/2

  1. Structure formation constraints on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    Viviana Acquaviva; Carlo Baccigalupi; Samuel M. Leach; Andrew R. Liddle; Francesca Perrotta

    2005-05-09

    We use cosmic microwave background data from WMAP, ACBAR, VSA and CBI, and galaxy power spectrum data from 2dF, to constrain flat cosmologies based on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Using a parametrization based on \\xi=1/4\\omega, and performing an exploration in the range \\ln\\xi \\in [-9,3], we obtain a 95% marginalized probability bound of \\ln\\xi 120.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dairy products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Salem, Nida' M; Ahmad, Rafat; Estaitieh, Hussein

    2009-10-01

    The use of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been banned in Jordan officially in 1981, and of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 1995. However, residues of such compounds can still be found in the environment and in foodstuffs. Dairy products are an important exposure route for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to humans. For this reason, the presence of OCP residues in 233 dairy product samples; comprising milk, butter, cheese, labaneh and yoghurt collected from Jordan was determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, DDT and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor and HCB. Levels of these compounds were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 9% (21/233), 8.5% (20/233), 6% (14/233) and 2.1% (5/233) of the examined samples were contaminated with beta-HCH, pp'-DDE, alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH, respectively. Heptachlor and alpha-endosulfan were only present in less than 2% of the analyzed samples. None of the samples revealed the presence of aldrin, op'-DDD, pp'-DDD, op'-DDE, op'-DDT, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan, endrin and HCB at their detection limits. The order for the contamination in the analyzed dairy products was labaneh>cheese>yoghurt>butter>milk. This study has provided the preliminary information on the concentration of OCPs in dairy products for the first time in Jordan. The results will help in a scientific assessment of the implications of pesticide residues with regards to human risks in Jordan. PMID:19695668

  3. Evaluation of Traffic Noise Pollution in Amman, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Jamrah; Abbas Al-Omari; Reem Sharabi

    2006-01-01

    The City of Amman, Jordan, has been subjected to persistent increase in road traffic due to overall increase in prosperity, fast development and expansion of economy, travel and tourism. This study investigates traffic noise pollution in Amman. Road traffic noise index L\\u000a 10(1 h) was measured at 28 locations that cover most of the City of Amman. Noise measurements were

  4. Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Northern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Dwairy, Amal N.; Al-Akour, Nemeh

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity—not having sufficient quantities of good-quality foods—is inversely related to physical and mental health and directly related to poor dietary intake. The objectives of this research were to (a) measure the prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan, (b) study the socioeconomic factors associated with an increased risk of food insecurity, and (c) investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and women's reported body-weight. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based questionnaire. In total, 500 women were interviewed in the waiting rooms of the outpatient clinics of two major public hospitals in northern Jordan. Food insecurity was assessed using the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. The prevalence of food insecurity was 32.4%. Income below the poverty-line, illiteracy, unemployment, rented housing, and woman heading the household were among the socioeconomic factors that increased the probability of food insecurity. No evidence was found to support the relationship between obesity and food insecurity. Except grains, food-insecure women with hunger had lower intake of all food-groups. This study demonstrated that the problem of food insecurity is present in Jordan. Food-insecure women with hunger are at a risk of malnutrition. Interventions that target reduction of the factors associated with food insecurity are necessary. PMID:22524119

  5. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...Technical Cooperation ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2013 U.S.-Jordan Environmental...Cooperation; (3) Article 5 (Environment) of the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on the...

  6. The Jordan Pair content of the magic square and the geometry of the scalars in N=2 supergravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Truini; G. Olivieri; L. C. Biedenharn

    1985-01-01

    The close connection between Jordan and Lie algebras makes these Jordan structures of interest to physicists. The Freudenthal-Tits\\u000a Magic Square, which exemplifies this connection, has recently entered into constructing supergravity. We show how Jordan pairs-which\\u000a are, from several points of view, a most natural Jordan structure-are imbedded in the Magic Square. We compare our approach\\u000a with that of Gürsey and

  7. Gauss-Jordan Method (GJ) Matrix Multiplication Linear Independence (LI) Rank Inverse Math 364: Principles of Optimization, Lecture 2

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    Gauss-Jordan Method (GJ) Matrix Multiplication Linear Independence (LI) Rank Inverse Math 364-Jordan Method (GJ) Matrix Multiplication Linear Independence (LI) Rank Inverse We review some basic ideas and methods from linear algebra, including Gauss-Jordan method, matrix multiplication, linear independence

  8. Hom-Maltsev, Hom-alternative, and Hom-Jordan algebras

    E-print Network

    Donald Yau

    2010-02-21

    Hom-Maltsev(-admissible) algebras are defined, and it is shown that Hom-alternative algebras are Hom-Maltsev-admissible. With a new definition of a Hom-Jordan algebra, it is shown that Hom-alternative algebras are Hom-Jordan-admissible. Hom-type generalizations of some well-known identities in alternative algebras, including the Moufang identities, are obtained.

  9. Coevolving HighLevel Representations Peter J. Angeline and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Coevolving High­Level Representations Peter J. Angeline and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory Columbus, Ohio 43210 pja@cis.ohio­state.edu pollack@cis.ohio­state.edu To Appear in: Artificial Life III. Angeline and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research Computer and Information

  10. Coevolving High-Level Representations Peter J. Angeline and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Coevolving High-Level Representations Peter J. Angeline and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory Columbus, Ohio 43210 pja@cis.ohio-state.edu pollack@cis.ohio-state.edu To Appear in: Artificial Life III and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research Computer and Information Science

  11. Structure of the earth's crust in Jordan from potential field data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Al-Zoubi; Z Ben Avraham

    2002-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data were collected and used to study the crustal structure of Jordan. Three new geophysical maps of Jordan were created: a Moho discontinuity map, a crystalline basement surface map, and a map showing the lowest limit of magnetic blocks. Depths of the Curie Isotherm were also calculated. Results indicate that the depth to the Moho discontinuity in

  12. Potential for use of Kochia prostrata and perennial grasses for rehabilitation in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although rangelands in Jordan are often degraded, they provide valued and traditional lifestyles through livestock production. A series of studies were conducted to evaluate practical approaches to restore degraded arid rangelands in Jordan. Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Sh...

  13. The Tectonic Geomorphology and the Archeoseismicity of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Al-Taj; A. Abed; N. Abou Karaki; M. Atallah; M. Ferry; M. Meghraoui

    2007-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) extends 1000 km from the Sinai triple junction in the south to the Tauros- Zagros collision zone in Turkey in the north. In Jordan, the DST consists of three morphotectonic elements; the Wadi Araba in the south, the Dead Sea basin in the middle and the Jordan Valley in the north. The Dead Sea is

  14. Jordan Tatter Scholarship in Horticulture Sponsored by the Michigan Vegetable Council

    E-print Network

    Jordan Tatter Scholarship in Horticulture Sponsored by the Michigan Vegetable Council and the Michigan Horticultural Society Graduate Student Application Form Submission Deadline: October 1 (annually) Submit application to behe@msu.edu Summary: The Jordan Tatter Scholarship in Horticulture was initiated

  15. Intersection number of paths lying on a Digital Surface and a new Jordan Theorem

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    on the 3d digital boundary of a con- nected object. We consider two kinds of paths for differentIntersection number of paths lying on a Digital Surface and a new Jordan Theorem S´ebastien FOUREY- tersection number allows us to prove a Jordan curve theorem for some surfels curves which lie on a digital

  16. Factors affecting medical students in formulating their specialty preferences in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef Khader; Dema Al-Zoubi; Zouhair Amarin; Ahmad Alkafagei; Mohammad Khasawneh; Samar Burgan; Khalid El Salem; Mousa Omari

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in medicine as it may affect student learning and academic performance. However, no such studies have been undertaken in medical schools in Jordan. Therefore, we carried out this study to investigate the career preferences of medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology

  17. The Jordan River Basin: 1. Clarification of the Allocations in the Johnston Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. H. Phillips; Shaddad Attili; Stephen McCaffrey; John S. Murray

    2007-01-01

    The Johnston Plan of 1955 relating to the use of the waters of the Jordan River basin is amongst the most frequently cited examples of proposals for the allocation of international watercourses to co-riparians. The Johnston Plan sought to define an equitable allocation of the basin waters to the co-riparians of the Jordan River at that time (Syria, Lebanon, Israel

  18. The Water Rights of the Co-riparians to the Jordan River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. H. Phillips; Shaddad Attili; Stephen McCaffrey; John S. Murray; Mark Zeitoun

    Access to sufficient volumes of water of appropriate quality is a vital human need, and the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has recently recognized the human right to water. The co-riparians of the Jordan River basin (Lebanon, Syria, Israel, the occupied Palestinian territories and Jordan) suffer differing degrees of water stress, as measured by international benchmarks.

  19. An Analysis of Therapeutic, Adult Antibiotic Prescriptions Issued by Dental Practitioners in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najla Saeed Dar-Odeh; Osama Abdalla Abu-Hammad; Ameen Sameh Khraisat; Mohamed Ali El Maaytah; Asem Shehabi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic adult antibiotics prescribed by dental practitioners working in the Jordan University Hospital. Methods: Adult dental prescriptions for therapeutic antibiotics issued between 1 January 2003 and 31 May 2004 by dental specialists working in the Jordan University Hospital were included in this study. Data included the name of the antibiotic

  20. GIS-based evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in the Russeifa area, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali El-Naqa; Nezar Hammouri; Mustafa Kuisi

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, groundwater quality has been deteriorating in many parts of Jordan as result of agriculture expansion, solid waste disposal, and industrialization. A preliminary assessment of vulnerability to groundwater contamination in Russeifa watershed area was undertaken because of the presence of the largest solid waste disposal site in Jordan, which is known as Russeifa landfi ll. The major geological

  1. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  2. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their vulnerability. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6°C by 2050. These upward temperature trends are projected to continue beyond 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. It is concluded that the Overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Jordan is high, where impacts such as drought and increased temperatures and decreased precipitation will be more pronounced. Major implications on rain fed agriculture are possible shorter growing season, increasing moisture and heat stress to field and horticultural crops and eventually low income and food insecurity. There were different impacts among studied communities, which is related to the: economic capability, local knowledge, physical infrastructure, institutional capacity, modern technology used, age group of farmers and diversification of their income.

  3. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected and taken account for. The study showed that common fingerprint elements and practices would have led to misinterpretations in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment and calls for a sound knowledge on catchment characteristics before the implementation of such a method.

  4. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 ?m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 ?m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. PMID:20623320

  5. Brans-Dicke wormholes in the Jordan and Einstein frames

    E-print Network

    K. K. Nandi; B. Bhattacharjee; S. M. K. Alam; J. Evans

    2009-05-31

    We examine the possibility of static wormhole solutions in the vacuum Brans-Dicke theory both in the original (Jordan) frame and in the conformally rescaled (Einstein) frame. It turns out that, in the former frame, wormholes exist only in a very narrow interval of the coupling parameter, viz., -3/2

  6. Brans-Dicke theory: Jordan vs Einstein Frame

    E-print Network

    A. Bhadra; K. Sarkar; D. P. Datta; K. K. Nandi

    2006-05-19

    It is well known that, in contrast to general relativity, there are two conformally related frames, the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame, in which the Brans-Dicke theory, a prototype of generic scalar-tensor theory, can be formulated. There is a long standing debate on the physical equivalence of the formulations in these two different frames. It is shown here that gravitational deflection of light to second order accuracy may observationally distinguish the two versions of the Brans-Dicke theory.

  7. Early Bronze Age Dolmens in Jordan and their orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, A.; Polcaro, F.

    This work presents the results of a survey of dolmen fields of the Early Bronze I in Jordan, in the Wadi Zarqa Valley, started in October 2004 and still in progress. Our data show, with a very high statistical significance, that in many sites of the Early Bronze IA a large majority of dolmens were built oriented along the N-S direction. A first interpretative hypothesis of these results, based on the astronomical contents of the mythology of the nearby civilizations culturally connected to the Palestinian area, is suggested.

  8. Pain management in Jordan: nursing students' knowledge and attitude.

    PubMed

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad

    Pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. Because nursing students are the nurses of the future, it is important to ensure that students receive adequate education about pain management in nursing schools. The purpose of this study is to evaluate nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. A cross-sectional survey was used. The sample comprised 144 students from three nursing colleges in Jordan. Sixty-one percent were female and the average age was 21.6 years (SD 1.7). The students' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used. The rate of correct answers ranged from 11.1% to 64%. Students showed a low level of knowledge regarding pain management-the average score was just 16 (SD 5.11) out of 40. Students were weak in their knowledge of pain medications pharmacology (actions and side effects). Less than half of students (47.9%) recognised that pain may be present, even when vital signs are normal and facial expressions relaxed. Finally, students showed negative attitudes towards pain management, believing that patients should tolerate pain as much as they can before receiving opioids; almost half (48%) of students agreed that patients' pain could be managed with placebo rather than medication. In conclusion, Jordanian nursing students showed lower levels of pain knowledge compared with other nursing students around the world. This study underlines the need to include pain-management courses throughout undergraduate nursing curricula in Jordan. PMID:24280924

  9. Declining rainfall and regional variability changes in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Kazi; Gorelick, Steven M.; Dennedy-Frank, P. James; Yoon, Jim; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2015-05-01

    Jordan, with limited rainfall, has per capita water availability of 135 m3/yr making it one of the water-poorest countries in the world. We analyzed the most comprehensive modern rainfall data set to date, consisting of 44 years of daily measurements from 58 stations primarily in the western, populated and agricultural portion of Jordan over the period 1970-2013 to assess temporal trends, variability, and spatial patterns. From 1995 to 2013, 13 of 19 years showed rainfall less than the mean, which has a probability <8.35% of chance occurrence. We used nonparametric statistical analysis and found 38 of 58 stations experienced an annual rainfall decrease at an average rate of 1.2 mm/yr. Over all 58 stations, the average decrease was 0.41 mm/yr. The annual coefficient of variation of daily rainfall showed a long-term increase of ˜2-3% at 90% of stations. Analysis of annual variance of daily rainfall suggests decreasing variance in the low rainfall areas to the southwest and east and increasing variance in the high rainfall areas to the northwest, a pattern consistent with principal component analysis. Strict multiple hypothesis testing procedures using the k-familywise error rate approach reinforced and confirmed the statistically significant regional rainfall decline as well as the spatial patterns of increasing and decreasing rainfall variability.

  10. Comparisons of Four Methods for Evapotranspiration Estimates in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.

    2014-12-01

    We compared evapotranspiration (ET) estimates in Jordan calculated by four theoretically-different methods. The first method was the FAO Single Crop Coefficient method. Our calculation took into account 20 dominant crop species in Jordan, utilized the global Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data set, and generated spatially heterogeneous crop coefficients. The second approach was the Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) method. It was used with Landsat TM/ETM+ images to calculate instantaneous ET at the moment of satellite overpass, and the results of multiple images were combined to derive seasonal and annual ET estimates. The third method was based on the 1-km land surface ET product from MODIS, which was calculated using MODIS-observed land cover and photosynthetically active radiation. The fourth method was based on the SWAT model, which combines the Penman-Monteith equation and vegetation growth to estimate daily ET rates at the watershed scale. The results show substantial differences in both magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of ET estimates across different regions from the four methods. Such differences were particularly evident in the Highlands region, where irrigation plays a critical role in local water balance. Results also suggest that land cover data is a major source of uncertainty in estimating regional ET rates. Although it is difficult to conclude which method was more reliable due to the limited availability of validation data, the results suggest caution in developing and interpreting ET estimates in this arid environment.

  11. Maternal health care utilization in Jordan: a study of patterns and determinants.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, C M; Potter, J E

    1991-01-01

    This article analyzes the patterns and determinants of maternal health care utilization in Jordan, using data from the Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey of 1983. The study focuses on the 2,949 women who had a child in the five years preceding the survey. Through multivariate analyses of differentials in the utilization of prenatal care and health care at delivery, the study assesses the effect of sociodemographic factors, including residence, education, parity, and standard of living. The coverage of maternal health care in Jordan is discussed in relation to the overall organization of health services, the various providers of care, and the role of cultural factors. PMID:1949100

  12. Towards improved partnerships in the water sector in the Middle East : A case study of Jordan

    E-print Network

    Odeh, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the use of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the water sector in Jordan, a Middle East pioneer with respect to experimenting with different approaches to delivering water services in both ...

  13. Impact of managers emotional intelligence on marketing creativity in Jordan Commercial banks" Innovative Marketing, International

    E-print Network

    Impact of managers emotional intelligence on marketing creativity in Jordan Commercial banks" Innovative Marketing, International Research Journal, vol 6, Issue3, 2010 Abstract: Purpose of paper: This study aims to investigate the Impact of Managers Emotional Intelligence on marketing creativity

  14. ASYMPTOTICS FOR HESSENBERG MATRICES FOR THE BERGMAN SHIFT OPERATOR ON JORDAN REGIONS

    E-print Network

    Saff, E. B.

    ASYMPTOTICS FOR HESSENBERG MATRICES FOR THE BERGMAN SHIFT OPERATOR ON JORDAN REGIONS EDWARD B. SAFF.S. National Science Foundation grants DMS-0808093 and DMS-1109266. 1 #12;2 E. SAFF AND N. STYLIANOPOULOS Let

  15. Trivial Minimal Ideals of Jordan Systems 1 Jos'e A. Anquela, Teresa Cort'es

    E-print Network

    for decades. The question, for linear Jordan algebras, was posed in 1969 by Zhevlakov (* *see [5-simple or trivial. In [4], Block had shown that D-simple algebras coul* *d be described in terms of simple algebras

  16. Faculty for Factory: A University-Industry Link Program in Jordan

    E-print Network

    for mechatronics in Jordan · The size of the "production, automation, and manufacturing" industry is small and livestock 2. Packaging, paper, cardboard and office supplies 3. Mining 4. Leather and garments 5

  17. How Symbiosis Can Guide Evolution Richard A. Watson Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    How Symbiosis Can Guide Evolution Richard A. Watson Jordan B. Pollack Dynamical and Evolutionary organisms of distinct species without direct transfer of genetic information. 1 Introduction Symbiosis relationship) are mutually beneficial. Despite being undeniably common, the phenomenon of symbiosis

  18. Kerosene poisoning in children: a report from northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, F

    2002-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted over 4 years to evaluate the children with kerosene ingestion in northern Jordan. One hundred and twenty children aged 11 months to 6 years (mean age 2.2) were studied. The majority of patients (90%) were below the age of 4. Most of the cases (42%) were seen during the summer season. The most common presenting symptoms were: cough (70.6%); tachypnoea (59.6%), and fever (55.1%). In 25 patients the parents had induced vomiting before arrival. The main sites of storage for kerosene were: under stairs (36.7%); the kitchen; (33.3%) and bathroom (11.7%). The main containers used were soft drink bottles, water jugs and water glasses. The patients were treated symptomatically, and all except one who was comatose on admission made a complete recovery. Health education and preventive measures are given. PMID:11991021

  19. The quality of potable water types in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Batarseh, Mufeed I

    2006-06-01

    Four different potable water types: tap water, desalinated water in private plants, homes filtrated and sealed bottled water were collected from four provinces in Jordan and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters and trace metals content. The results showed that quality of potable water varied depending on many factors such as: water quality at source, types of purification system, and the storage methods. None of the analysed parameters exceeded the national and international guideline for potable water except Nickel (Ni). The maximum concentration of Ni was found in tap water which can be attributed as network distribution system and metal storage tanks influences. The highest levels of salinity was evident in tap water. Potable water produced at homes using different types of purification systems indicated lowest levels of salinity. Minor variations in physiochemical parameters and trace metal contents were found between local and imported bottled water brands. PMID:16917709

  20. General analysis of inflation in the Jordan frame supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: kazunori@post.kek.jp, E-mail: fuminobu.takahashi@ipmu.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We study various inflation models in the Jordan frame supergravity with a logarithmic Kähler potential. We find that, in a class of inflation models containing an additional singlet in the superpotential, three types of chaotic inflation can be realized: the Higgs-type inflation, power-law inflation, and inflation with/without a running kinetic term. The former two are possible if the holomorphic function dominates over the non-holomorphic one in the frame function, while the inflation with/without a running kinetic term occurs when both are comparable. Interestingly, the fractional-power potential can be realized by the running kinetic term. We also discuss the implication for the Higgs inflation in supergravity.

  1. The Jordan Report 2000: Accelerated Development of Vaccines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On March 2, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) released its latest report on the state of vaccine research and development. This edition of the Jordan Report "highlights the triumphs of vaccinology during the 20th century and the ways in which new technologies promise better vaccines against both old and new disease-causing organisms." Prepared by 24 scientists from NIAID with contributions from outside researchers, the 173-page report offers a comprehensive overview of vaccine development against nearly 60 diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Users can read the full text of the report (in .pdf format), the press release, and a White House statement on a new vaccine initiative. The site also offers links to a number of related NIAID publications, fact sheets, and sites.

  2. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

  3. Deriving the Jordan structure of finite-dimensional quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilce, Alexander; Barnum, Howard

    2012-02-01

    The Koecher-Vinberg theorem tells us that formally real Jordan algebras are equivalent to finite-dimensional order-unit spaces having homogeneous, self-dual cones. Recent work by the authors and others has identified various conditions that imply the homogeneity and self-duality of the cones generated by the states and effects of a generalized probabilistic model. This talk highlights two results: one shows that a certain package of conditions, relating the the symmetries of a system and the existence of certain correlations between systems, is sufficient to ground a model's self-duality. Another shows that any dagger-monoidal category of homogeneous, self-dual probabilistic theories having locally tomographic composites and containing a system with the structure of a qubit, must consist of self-adjoint parts of complex matrix algebras --- must, in other words, be a standard finite-dimensional quantum theory.

  4. Local Tomography and the Jordan Structure of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard; Wilce, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Using a result of H. Hanche-Olsen, we show that (subject to fairly natural constraints on what constitutes a system, and on what constitutes a composite system), orthodox finite-dimensional complex quantum mechanics with superselection rules is the only non-signaling probabilistic theory in which (i) individual systems are Jordan algebras (equivalently, their cones of unnormalized states are homogeneous and self-dual), (ii) composites are locally tomographic (meaning that states are determined by the joint probabilities they assign to measurement outcomes on the component systems) and (iii) at least one system has the structure of a qubit. Using this result, we also characterize finite dimensional quantum theory among probabilistic theories having the structure of a dagger-monoidal category.

  5. Investigation of desert subsoil nitrate in Northeastern Badia of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Al-Qudah, Khaldoun A

    2013-01-01

    High levels of naturally occurring nitrate were observed under desert pavement surfaces in NE Badia of Jordan. The subsoil nitrate inventory varies from about 24,351 to 28,853 kg NO(3)(-)/ha to a depth of 60 cm which is more than two times greater than nitrate in nonpavement soils, although both soils occurred within similar landscape and microclimate conditions. The results indicated that pavement particle size and cover percent are the primary factors contributing to the observed variations in nitrate accumulation. Desert pavement soils fully covered with fine clasts showed higher nitrate concentrations compared to soils moderately covered with coarse-grained pavements. The results also showed that high levels of nitrate were generally reached between 20 and 30 cm depth before the concentrations decreased. Chloride showed distribution profiles similar to those of nitrate. No observable difference was observed in nitrate level under desert pavement with abundant lichens compared to non-lichen pavement surface. PMID:23178770

  6. Database compilation: hydrology of Lake Tiberias (Jordan Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shentsis, Izabela; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    A long-term series of water balance data over the last 50 years is compiled to gain insights into the hydrology of the Lake Tiberias (LT) and surrounding aquifers. This database is used within the framework of a German-Israeli-Jordanian project (DFG Ma4450-2) in which numerical modeling is applied to study the mechanisms of deep fluid transport processes affecting the Tiberias basin. The LT is the largest natural freshwater lake in Israel. It is located in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift. The behavior of the lake level is a result of the regional water balance caused mainly by interaction of two factors: (i) fluctuations of water inflow to the Lake, (ii) water exploitation in the adjacent aquifers and consumptions from the lake (pumping, diversion, etc). The replenishment of the lake occurs through drainage from surrounding mountains (Galilee, Golan Heights), entering the lake through the Jordan River and secondary streams (85%), direct precipitation (11%), fresh-saline springs discharging along the shoreline, divertion from Yarmouk river and internal springs and seeps. The major losses occur through the National Water Carrier (ca. 44%), evaporation (38%), local consumption and compensation to Jordan (in sum 12%). In spite of the increasing role of water exploitation, the natural inflow to the Lake remains the dominant factor of hydrological regime of the Tiberias Lake. Additionally, series of natural yield to the LT are reconstructed with precipitation data measured in the Tiberias basin (1922-2012). The earlier period (1877-1921) is evaluated considering long rainfall records at Beirut and Nazareth stations (Middle East Region). This data enables to use the LT yield as a complex indicator of the regional climate change. Though the data applies to the LT, this example shows the importance of large database. Their compilation defines the correct set-up of joint methodologies such as numerical modeling and hydrochemical analyses aimed to understand large-scale hydrological processes.

  7. Remedial measures to control seepage problems in the Kafrein dam, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osama K. Nusier; Ahmed Alawneh; Abdallah I. Malkawi

    2002-01-01

    .   The Kafrein dam, 480 m long and 30 m high, is located on the Wadi Kafrein, a few kilometres from the active Jordan Valley\\u000a fault. The Jordan Valley Authority proposed raising the crest of the existing dam by approximately 7 m and extending the length\\u000a of the embankment to 554 m, in order to increase its storage capacity by 6 million m3 to a total

  8. Gastric malignancies in Northern Jordan with special emphasis on descriptive epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal E. Bani-Hani; Rami J. Yaghan; Hussein A. Heis; Nawaf J. Shatnawi; Ismail I. Matalka; Amjad M. Bani-Hani; Kamal A. Gharaibeh

    AIM: To study the epidemiology of gastric malignancies in Jordan as a model for Middle East countries where such data is scarce. METHODS: Pertinent epidemiological and clinicopathological data for 201 patients with gastric malignancy in north of Jordan between 1991 and 2001 were analyzed. RESULTS: Male: female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean age was 61.2 years, and 8.5% of the

  9. Waste Water Reuse for Agriculture Pilot Project at the Jordan University of Science and Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad Al-Ghazawi; Jumah Amayreh; Laith Rousan; Amal Hijazi

    Because of water scarcity in Jordan, marginal water (treated wastewater in particular) use in agriculture is highly required.\\u000a However, this needs to be done with precautions to avoid harming the valuable agricultural soils and to prevent any consumer\\u000a health risk.\\u000a \\u000a The Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) has a large campus (11 km2) and has reused water from the

  10. Erosion risk assessment and sediment yield production of the King Talal Watershed, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Al-Sheriadeh; A. Z. Al-Hamdan

    1999-01-01

    King Talal Dam (KTD) watershed is the most important one in Jordan. At its outlet lies the KTD (80 MCM capacity) which serves\\u000a irrigation purposes in the Jordan Valley. However, the dam suffers from accelerated annual sedimentation. Therefore, this\\u000a study is directed to assess the erosion risk over the watershed, and to simulate actual annual sediment yield at the dam

  11. Expected future runoff of the Upper Jordan River simulated with CORDEX climate change data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The Jordan River, flowing from the Mount Hermon area to the Dead Sea, is an important freshwater source in the region. Its water is almost fully used by withdrawal from Lake Kinneret, fed to a large extent from the upper Jordan River (UJR) basin. Future climate change is expected to increase the pressure on the water availability in a region already now suffering from scarcity of water. Simulation of the future UJR discharge is therefore a societal highly relevant key scientific task. The contribution presents simulations of the future discharge of the Upper Jordan River based on climate change data from five different RCM models run in two Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX) experiments. This data are applied together with the hydrological simulation model WaSiM-ETH. Obtained findings extend the previous simulations performed within the GLOWA Jordan River project (www.glowa-jordan-river.de), an interdisciplinary research project providing scientific support for sustainable water management in the Jordan River region. The presentation discuses the difficult constraints of hydrological simulations in the UJR region, which include complex terrain, karstic features and missing observational meteorological reference. It describes the setup of the applied hydrological model and concentrates upon the obtained results. The performed simulations for the period from 1976 to 2100 indicate an increasing annual mean temperature for 20071-2100 by 2.6 K above the 1971-2000 mean. The simulated ensemble mean precipitation is predicted to decrease in this period by 20 %. Related to the mean for 1976 - 2000, the discharge of the upper Jordan River is simulated to decrease by 25.3% until 2100

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Battikhi, M N G

    2003-10-01

    In order to justify the surveillance control system and hygiene policy in Jordan, this study evaluated the occurrence of diarrhoea during the period 1988-2000, focusing on cases caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. From January 1988 to December 2000, the number of notified diarrhoeal cases by the Ministry of Health in Jordan was 1,399,563 million. Other groups of patients confined to the Governorate of Amman was diagnosed at Al-Battikhi Medical Laboratories. One-way ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD) were carried out for statistical analysis. The number of reported diarrhea cases was 1,399,563, 53.0% were males, and 47.0% were females, among them, 80.3% were < 20 years and 19.7%, were > 20 years. Out of 245,255 patients tested for S. typhi and S. pararyphi, positive stool culture were 1992 (0.6%). Out of these, 960 (48.2%) were males and 1,032 (51.8%) were females (P = 0.028). The highest incidence rate (10.8) was observed in the year 1993, while the lowest incidence rate (0.9) was found in year 2000. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found between the number of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi cases and year. The seasonal variation was also found to be significant (P < 0.0001), with the summer period showing the highest incident rate. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between number of typhoid and paratyphoid cases and districts. A significance difference between number of typhoid and paratyphoid cases with age and sex. The group most affected was school age and adolescence. The demographic situation plays an important role in reporting typhoid and paratyphoid cases, where there might be an urgent indication for a better surveillance control system on water resources and disposal systems. S. typhi and S. paratyphi antibiotics resistance pattern showed they were resistant to tetracycline (56.0%, 58.0%), ampicillin (45.0%, 48.0%), trimethoprim (43.0%, 47.0%), cephtazidime (12.0%, 13.5%) chloramphenicol (6.8%, 7.2%), gentamycin (3.0%, 4.0%) neomycin (2.1. 1.8%), calvulanic acid (augmentin (1.4%, 2.2%) and norofloxacin (0.92%, 1.1%). Susceptibility to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, cetfriaxone, ofloxacine, imepenim, cefixime and cefotaxime was 100.0%. The increase in percentage of antibiotic resistant strain might indicate a need for a further prescribing policy for treatment. PMID:14596347

  13. Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Fayez; Abu Qdais, Hani; Rabi, Atallah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the medical waste management practices used by hospitals in northern Jordan. A comprehensive inspection survey was conducted for all 21 hospitals located in the study area. Field visits were conducted to provide information on the different medical waste management aspects. The results reported here focus on the level of medical waste segregation, treatment and disposal options practiced in the study area hospitals. The total number of beds in the hospitals was 2296, and the anticipated quantity of medical waste generated by these hospitals was about 1400 kg/day. The most frequently used treatment practice for solid medical waste was incineration. Of these hospitals, only 48% had incinerators, and none of these incinerators met the Ministry of Health (MoH) regulations. As for the liquid medical waste, the survey results indicated that 57% of surveyed hospitals were discharging it into the municipal sewer system, while the remaining hospitals were collecting their liquid waste in septic tanks. The results indicated that the medical waste generation rate ranges from approximately 0.5 to 2.2 kg/bed day, which is comprised of 90% of infectious waste and 10% sharps. The results also showed that segregation of various medical waste types in the hospitals has not been conducted properly. The study revealed the need for training and capacity building programs of all employees involved in the medical waste management. PMID:17507209

  14. Sanitary conditions of public swimming pools in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Atallah; Khader, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Aqoulah, Ashraf Abu

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. PMID:18180541

  15. Sanitary conditions of public swimming pools in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Atallah; Khader, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Abu Aqoulah, Ashraf

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. PMID:19139533

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia viruses from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Mustafa M; Al-Rukibat, Raida K; Hananeh, Wael M; Nasar, Abdelrahman T; Al-Zghoul, Mohammad B

    2012-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is distributed worldwide. BLV has many effects on the health status and productivity of infected animals and is a potential risk for humans. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of and genotype bovine leukemia viruses on Jordanian dairy farms. Nested PCR coupled with RFLP and direct sequencing of a partial fragment of the env gene were carried out. Two BLV genotypes were found, genotypes 1 and 6. These genotypes were identified by nested PCR-RFLP of 444 bp of the env gene by restriction digestion with HaeIII, Bcl I and Pvu II. However, BLV-Jordan-10 seems to represent an entirely new genotype in our phylogenetic analysis. The nucleotide sequence identity between these two Jordanian BLV genotypes (1 and 6) was 96.2 %. The nucleotide sequence identity between Jordanian BLV genotype 1 and other reference BLV genotype 1 strains ranged from 99 % to 99.5 %. The nucleotide sequence similarity of the Jordanian BLV genotype 6 to other BLV genotypes ranged from 90 % to 96.7 %. A neutralizing motif and CD8(+) T-cell epitope were found in the env protein of both Jordanian isolates. In this study, we documented the presence of two BLV genotypes (1 and 6) on Jordanian dairy farms. PMID:22914962

  17. Observational signatures of Jordan-Brans-Dicke theories of gravity

    E-print Network

    Viviana Acquaviva; Licia Verde

    2008-01-06

    We analyze the Jordan-Brans-Dicke model (JBD) of gravity, where deviations from General Relativity (GR) are described by a scalar field non-minimally coupled to gravity. The theory is characterized by a constant coupling parameter, $\\omega_{\\rm JBD}$; GR is recovered in the limit $\\omega_{\\rm JBD} \\to \\infty$. In such theories, gravity modifications manifest at early times, so that one cannot rely on the usual approach of looking for inconsistencies in the expansion history and perturbations growth in order to discriminate between JBD and GR. However, we show that a similar technique can be successfully applied to early and late times observables instead. Cosmological parameters inferred extrapolating early-time observations to the present will match those recovered from direct late-time observations only if the correct gravity theory is used. We use the primary CMB, as will be seen by the Planck satellite, as the early-time observable; and forthcoming and planned Supernov{\\ae}, Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and Weak Lensing experiments as late-time observables. We find that detection of values of $\\omega_{\\rm JBD}$ as large as 500 and 1000 is within reach of the upcoming (2010) and next-generation (2020) experiments, respectively.

  18. Conditional probability, three-slit experiments, and the Jordan algebra structure of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Gerd Niestegge

    2012-09-30

    Most quantum logics do not allow for a reasonable calculus of conditional probability. However, those ones which do so provide a very general and rich mathematical structure, including classical probabilities, quantum mechanics as well as Jordan algebras. This structure exhibits some similarities with Alfsen and Shultz's non-commutative spectral theory, but these two mathematical approaches are not identical. Barnum, Emerson and Ududec adapted the concept of higher-order interference, introduced by Sorkin in 1994, into a general probabilistic framework. Their adaption is used here to reveal a close link between the existence of the Jordan product and the non-existence of interference of third or higher order in those quantum logics which entail a reasonable calculus of conditional probability. The complete characterization of the Jordan algebraic structure requires the following three further postulates: a Hahn-Jordan decomposition property for the states, a polynomial functional calculus for the observables, and the positivity of the square of an observable. While classical probabilities are characterized by the absence of any kind of interference, the absence of interference of third (and higher) order thus characterizes a probability calculus which comes close to quantum mechanics, but still includes the exceptional Jordan algebras.

  19. A comparison of the learning styles of the students with faculty teaching style profiles at the Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Martin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of match between the learning styles of students and the teaching styles of the faculty at the Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary (JETS) in Amman, Jordan. Bernice McCarthy's 4MAT learning style instrument, the Learning Type Measure® (LTM) was used to profile 112 students. The results showed two significant differences in style

  20. Pascual Jordan, Glory and Demise and his legacy in contemporary local quantum physics

    E-print Network

    Schrör, B

    2003-01-01

    After recalling episodes from Pascual Jordan's biography including his pivotal role in the shaping of quantum field theory and his much criticized conduct during the NS regime, I draw attention to his presentation of the first phase of development of quantum field theory in a talk presented at the 1929 Kharkov conference. He starts by giving a comprehensive account of the beginnings of the new quantum theory and then passes to his recent discovery of quantization of ``wave fields'' and problems of gauge invariance. The most surprising aspect of Jordan's presentation is however his strong belief that his field quantization is a transitory not yet optimal formulation of the principles underlying causally localizable quantum physics. The expectation of a future more radical change coming from the main architect of field quantization already shortly after his discovery is certainly quite startling. I try to answer the question to what extend Jordan's 1929 expectations have been vindicated. The larger part of the ...

  1. The snowmelt of Mt. Hermon and its contribution to the sources of the Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil'ad, D.; Bonne, J.

    1990-03-01

    The water resources of the upper Jordan River Basin, particularly the main springs, are partially fed by the snowmelt of Mt. Hermon. Mount Hermon is an uplifted anticline extending along the northern border of Israel, and covering an area of ˜ 1200 km 2, of which 750 km 2 is included in the Jordan River watershed. Most of Mt. Hermon is composed of karstic limestone of Jurassic age, > 2000 m thick. The annual amount of precipitation over the Jordan River sources watershed is estimated to be 8.5 × 10 8 m 3. The water yield of the Jordan tributaries is 5 × 10 8 m 3, with 4 × 10 8 m 3 of it being discharge from karstic springs. To date, there are almost no data or estimates of the magnitude of snowmelt recharge and its areal and temporal distribution. Inaccessibility to most parts of the mountain is the main reason for the lack of data. During the last four years research has been conducted to find characteristic parameters that represent the relationship between the Mt. Hermon snowcover and its contribution to dry weather discharge of the Jordan River tributaries. Snow depth and water content were measured at several locations in the altitude range 1500-2100 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The snow-covered area was obtained from Landsat images and from aerial photographs. The snow lines were delineated on 1:250 000 scale maps and their area was measured. These data were compared with the dry weather water yield of the Jordan tributaries and the main springs. Significant contribution from the snowpack was found only above 1400 m. The areal extent of the pertinent snowcover is 185 km 2, representing about 25% of the total drainage basin of the Jordan head waters. The mean water content at the snow gaging sites increased from 10 cm at an elevation of 1500 m-65 cm at an altitude of 2100 m a.s.l. Based on these values, a preliminary estimate yielded a volume of 5 × 10 7 m 3, which is about 30% of the dry weather discharge. This may be considered as the potential snowmelt recharge to the Jordan River main springs.

  2. Hermitian Jordan Triple Systems, the Standard Model plus Gravity, and Alpha = 1/137.03608

    E-print Network

    F. D. T. Smith

    1993-02-09

    A physical interpretation is given for some Hermitian Jordan triple systems (HJTS) that were recently discussed by Gunaydin (hep-th/9301050). Quadratic Jordan algebras derived from HJTS provide a formulation of quantum mechanics that is a natural framework within which exceptional structures are identified with physically realistic structures of a quantum field theory that includes both the standard model and MacDowell-Mansouri gravity. The structures allow the calculation of the relative strengths of the four forces, including the fine structure constant ALPHA = 1/137.03608.

  3. On the use and computation of the Jordan canonical form in system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1974-01-01

    This paper investigates various aspects of the application of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix in system theory and develops a computational approach to determining the Jordan form for a given matrix. Applications include pole placement, controllability and observability studies, serving as an intermediate step in yielding other canonical forms, and theorem proving. The computational method developed in this paper is both simple and efficient. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques. Examples are included for demonstration purposes.

  4. An algorithm for calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1973-01-01

    Jordan canonical forms are used extensively in the literature on control systems. However, very few methods are available to compute them numerically. Most numerical methods compute a set of basis vectors in terms of which the given matrix is diagonalized when such a change of basis is possible. Here, a simple and efficient method is suggested for computing the Jordan canonical form and the corresponding transformation matrix. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector, and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques.

  5. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

  6. The Contested Energy Future of Amman, Jordan: Between Promises of Alternative Energies and a Nuclear Venture

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Contested Energy Future of Amman, Jordan: Between Promises of Alternative Energies and nuclear energy. Alternative eco-friendly energy resources represent only a small part of the potential authorities and local business elites are often seen as major players in the energy transition in the city

  7. Subversive Feminism: The Politics of Correctness in Mary Augusta Jordan's "Correct Writing and Speaking" (1904).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Mary Augusta Jordan's "Correct Writing and Speaking," a rhetoric text authored for women who studied writing and speaking outside of the formal academy. Suggests that the text's attention to the history of the English language and the evolution of arbitrary standards imposed by cultural forces makes it subversively feminist. (RS)

  8. ENROLLED WSU INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Argentina 2 35 Jordan 9 69 Serbia 2

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    ENROLLED WSU INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS 1 Argentina 2 35 Jordan 9 69 Serbia 2 2 Armenia 1 36 Kenya 4 70 snapshot Washington State University INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS Spring 2011 International Student Statistics ...................................................................... Intensive American Language Center (Sp1) F-1 Optional Practical Training VISA TYPE #12;

  9. Accreditation in Higher Business Education in the Private Sector: The Case of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hala Ahmad Sabri; Ghaleb Awad El-Refae

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the development of a quantitative research designed to examine the accreditation system of undergraduate Business Administration program in private universities in Jordan, in comparison with the standards of the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) in the United Kingdom. The research has set out a description of Jordanian accreditation process of private universities and the QAA system of quality

  10. Evaluation of small home-use reverse osmosis units in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi; Mousa S. Mohsen

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the water quality of domestic RO units used in Jordan along with bottled and tap water. Analyses of the quality of water sources (RO, bottled and tap) and water cost are carried out. The methodology of this research is based on both lab experimental analysis and field survey of several RO units. It was concluded

  11. Effectiveness of Web Quest Strategy in Acquiring Geographic Concepts among Eighth Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the Effectiveness of using Web Quest Strategy in acquiring the geographic concepts among eighth grade students in Jordan. The study individuals consisted of (119) students in the scholastic year 2013-2014. Four sections were randomly selected from two schools divided into experimental and control groups. They were…

  12. On the Union of Jordan Regions and Collision-Free Translational Motion Amidst Polygonal Obstacles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klara Kedem; Ron Livne; János Pach; Micha Sharir

    1986-01-01

    Let ?1,..., ?m bem simple Jordan curves in the plane, and letK1,...,Km be their respective interior regions. It is shown that if each pair of curves ?i, ?j,i ?j, intersect one another in at most two points, then the boundary ofK=?

  13. The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets J. Jordan Price, Kevin P. Johnson and Dale H. Clayton

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets J. Jordan Price, Kevin P. Johnson and Dale H. Clayton Price, J. J., Johnson, K. P. and Clayton, D. H. 2004. The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets. Á/ J. Avian Biol. 35: 135Á/143. The abilities of some cave-nesting swiftlets to echolocate has traditionally

  14. Dynamics of Co-evolutionary Learning Hugues Juill e Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Dynamics of Co-evolutionary Learning Hugues Juill e Jordan B. Pollack Computer Science Department & Pollack, 1993] based on a competition for coverage of the data set. As the population reproduces, the #12, 1992] with a recent follow up by Pollack, Blair and Land [Pollack et al., 1996], by Sims and Ray

  15. Dynamics of Coevolutionary Learning Hugues Juill'e Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Dynamics of Co­evolutionary Learning Hugues Juill'e Jordan B. Pollack Computer Science Department by [Koza, 1992]. In­ stead of using absolute fitness, we use a rela­ tive fitness [Angeline & Pollack, 1993] with a recent follow up by Pollack, Blair and Land [Pollack et al., 1996], by Sims and Ray in evolving life

  16. Arabic language proficiency and the academic achievement of foreign university students at the University of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadia Adel Khazna Katbi

    2000-01-01

    This study examined how the academic achievement of foreign university students at the University of Jordan was related to their Arabic proficiency. The aim of this study is to shed light on and to provide an understanding of the factors that link the Arabic language proficiency of foreign students with their academic achievement. To elaborate, one of the significant factors

  17. Political Economy of Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: The Case of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaan, Taher H.; Al-Salamat, Mamdouh N.; Hanania, May D.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes patterns of expenditure on higher education in Jordan, explores the current system's adequacy, efficiency, and equity, and identifies its strengths and weaknesses in light of current constraints and future challenges. Among the constraints are the relatively low public expenditure on higher education, leaving households to…

  18. Potential for Use of Kochia Prostrata and Perennial Grasses for Use in Rangeland Rehabilitation in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Shad.], three native shrubs, two introduced Atriplex shrub species native to cold deserts in the western United States and drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties ...

  19. Potential of Kochia prostrata and perennial grasses for rangeland restoration in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Shad.], three native shrubs, two introduced Atriplex shrub species native to cold deserts in the western United States and drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties w...

  20. Can macroeconomic factors explain equity returns in the long run? The case of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gazi Mainul Hassan; Hisham M. Al refai

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing literature on how macroeconomic variables can have effects on equity returns in both developed and emerging stock markets. We test for the long run relationship between some key macroeconomic indicators and equity returns in Jordan. Using both General-to-Specific (GETS) methodology and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration, we find that the trade surplus, foreign

  1. Paleostress analysis of the Cretaceous rocks in the eastern margin of the Dead Sea transform, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdullah A. Diabat; Mohammad Atallah; M. R. Salih

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the first paleostress results from fault-slip data on Cretaceous limestone at the eastern rim of the Dead Sea transform (DST) in Jordan. Stress inversion of fault-slip data is performed using an improved right dieder method, followed by rotational optimization (Delvaux, TENSOR Program). The orientation of the principal stress axes (?1, ?2 and ?3) and the ratio of

  2. A 3D Magnetotelluric Study of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ritter; J. Schmidt; U. Weckmann; H. Thoss; A. Abueladas; V. Haak

    2001-01-01

    In two experiments in 2000 and 2001, we recorded magnetotelluric data at 138 sites across the Dead Sea Transform Fault (Arava Fault) in Jordan. The sites are distributed along 10 profiles, covering an area of 10 square kilometres. 2D inversion results of the magnetotelluric data and the induction vectors indicate very clearly that the DST is associated with a strong

  3. Real Exchange Rate Behavior and Economic GrowthEvidence from Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilker Domaç; Ghiath Shabsigh

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the real exchange rate misalignment (RERMIS) on the collective economic growth of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia. The paper constructs three measures of exchange rate misalignment based on purchasing power parity; a black market exchange rate; and a structured model. The empirical investigation confirmed the adverse effect of RERMIS on growth, using all measures

  4. Human Capital Planning in Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Human Resource Development Initiative in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…

  5. GIS MODELLING OF LAND DEGRADATION IN NORTHERN-JORDAN USING LANDSAT IMAGERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Essaa

    An empirical model based on high resolution spatial and temporal remotely sensed data offers the ability to assess the degradation impacts of changes in land cover in a spatial context. In an attempt to assess the impacts of changing land cover on soil, a GIS-based erosion model has been developed to predict annual soil loss by water in northern Jordan.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis in Jordan: a cross sectional study of disease severity and associated comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, Khaldoon M; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Ayesh, Mahmoud H; Smadi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to target is advocated using disease activity measures. The impact of RA on the general health status of affected patients in Jordan is not well described. This study reported the severity of RA in Jordan and its association with consequent disabilities and comorbidities. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at King Abdullah University Hospital in the north of Jordan. All patients who were diagnosed with RA were included. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, disease activity score (DAS 28), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) were collected. Both DAS 28 and CDAI were utilized to categorize RA disease activity. A total of 465 patients with RA were included: 82% were females; mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 47.62±14.6 years; and mean disease duration ± SD was 6±4.45 years. The mean ± SD for the DAS 28 and CDAI was 5.1±1.5 and 23±14.2, respectively. According to the DAS 28, 51% of the patients were in the high disease activity category and only 5% were in remission. On the other hand, according to the CDAI, 44% were in the high disease activity category and only 1% were in remission. In Jordan, patients with RA have a high severe disease rate and a low remission rate. The disease is often progressive and associated with comorbidities that need to be managed. PMID:24876781

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis in Jordan: a cross sectional study of disease severity and associated comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Alawneh, Khaldoon M; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Ayesh, Mahmoud H; Smadi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to target is advocated using disease activity measures. The impact of RA on the general health status of affected patients in Jordan is not well described. This study reported the severity of RA in Jordan and its association with consequent disabilities and comorbidities. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at King Abdullah University Hospital in the north of Jordan. All patients who were diagnosed with RA were included. Patients’ demographics, comorbidities, disease activity score (DAS 28), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) were collected. Both DAS 28 and CDAI were utilized to categorize RA disease activity. A total of 465 patients with RA were included: 82% were females; mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 47.62±14.6 years; and mean disease duration ± SD was 6±4.45 years. The mean ± SD for the DAS 28 and CDAI was 5.1±1.5 and 23±14.2, respectively. According to the DAS 28, 51% of the patients were in the high disease activity category and only 5% were in remission. On the other hand, according to the CDAI, 44% were in the high disease activity category and only 1% were in remission. In Jordan, patients with RA have a high severe disease rate and a low remission rate. The disease is often progressive and associated with comorbidities that need to be managed. PMID:24876781

  8. Lead and Cadmium Contamination in Roadside Soils in Irbid City, Jordan: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Massadeh; M. Tahat; Q. M. Jaradat; I. F. Al-Momani

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the amount and distribution of Pb and Cd in roadside soils adjacent to two main roads in Irbid, Jordan, from October 2001 to July 2002. A total of 260 samples were collected from Irbid-Howara Street and Yarmouk University Street. Lead and Cd content were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The environmental significance of this study

  9. A D-dimensional Heckmann-like solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    S. M. Kozyrev

    2007-12-18

    In this short letter we present a some rigorous vacuum solutions of the D-dimensional Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equations. In contrast with the well known Brans-Dicke solutions, to the search of static and spherically symmetric space-time we choose the widespread Hilbert coordinates.

  10. Implicit and Explicit Processes in Motor Learning Jordan A. Taylor and Richard B. Ivry

    E-print Network

    Ivry, Rich

    1 Implicit and Explicit Processes in Motor Learning Jordan A. Taylor and Richard B. Ivry Department and Neuroscience Department of Psychology University of California, Berkeley 3210 Tolman Hall #1650 Berkeley, CA the goal or the desired consequence of the movement and 2) specifying the parameters of the movement

  11. Born--Jordan Quantization and the Equivalence of Matrix and Wave Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Maurice A. de Gosson

    2014-07-28

    The aim of the famous Born and Jordan 1925 paper was to put Heisenberg's matrix mechanics on a firm mathematical basis. Born and Jordan showed that if one wants to ensure energy conservation in Heisenberg's theory it is necessary and sufficient to quantize observables following a certain ordering rule. One apparently unnoticed consequence of this fact is that Schr\\"odinger's wave mechanics cannot be equivalent to Heisenberg's more physically motivated matrix mechanics unless its observables are quantized using this rule, and not the more symmetric prescription proposed by Weyl in 1926, which has become the standard procedure in quantum mechanics. This observation confirms the superiority of Born-Jordan quantization, as already suggested by Kauffmann. We also show how to explicitly determine the Born--Jordan quantization of arbitrary classical variables, and discuss the conceptual advantages in using this quantization scheme. We finally suggest that it might be possible to determine the correct quantization scheme by using the results of weak measurement experiments.

  12. Techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste management in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Abu Qdais

    2007-01-01

    Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. This is obvious in many developing countries around the world. Currently, several countries have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, these countries, including Jordan, which forms the case study presented here, have

  13. The Production of Yoghurt with Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Infants in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Cultures of presumptive lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated from eight infants living in Amman, Jordan. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, three promising isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium infantis. These strains were employed to make yoghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time, a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with

  14. Internet banking in Jordan : The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. AbuShanab; J. M. Pearson

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of internet banking in Jordan. The paper also attempts to validate the appropriateness of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) within the context of internet banking. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was developed based on previous work in the areas of

  15. Evaluating Market-Oriented Water Policies in Jordan: A Comparative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad R. Shatanawi; Odeh Al-Jayousi

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that the establishment of tradable water rights will play an important role in increasing productivity and sustainability of water use in developing countries. Due to economic growth, scarcity is expected to be conducive to water market development. This article presents the potential for and feasibility of markets in water rights in Jordan through a comparative study of

  16. Compositional Similarities between Hot Mineral Springs in the Jordan and Suez Rift Valleys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Mazor

    1968-01-01

    THE chemical composition of the Hammam Farun hot spring (72° C) in the Suez Rift Valley has been found to be almost identical to that of the Tiberias Hot Springs (60° C) in the Jordan Rift Valley (Figs. 1 and 2 and Table 1). This finding is of vital importance in the evaluation and sorting out of various hypotheses that

  17. Recording and Preserving Cultural Heritage in the Middle East. Aerial Archaeology in Jordan, 1997-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, D.

    2009-04-01

    Aerial archaeology plays a crucial role in Western Europe in finding, recording, monitoring and presenting cultural heritage. In the Middle East, however, although it was pioneered almost a century ago, it has subsequently played a slight role in cultural heritage management. Since 1997 there has again been aerial reconnaissance for archaeology in Jordan and now that project has begun to be funded on a scale that will permit it to undertake a far more systematic role. This is of crucial importance anywhere in the Middle East where population rises have been especially high and impacted on landscapes and archaeology. Jordan has probably the highest rate of increase anywhere in the region - c. 1800% since 1943 - so that there, more than anywhere else, a cost-effective tool like Aerial Archaeology is of vital importance. There have been over 160 hours of flying undertaken since 1997 with some 20,000 photographs of hundreds of sites. Jordan remains the only country in the Middle East with such a programme but recent Workshops in Aerial Archaeology in Jordan were opened to archaeologists from neighbouring countries and played a role in raising awareness of the potential of the technique.

  18. Inorganic analysis of dust fall and office dust in an industrial area of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qasem M. Jaradat; Kamal A. Momani; Abdel-Aziz Q. Jbarah; Adnan Massadeh

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the determination and comparison of heavy metals and water-soluble anions and cations in indoor dust and outdoor dust fall in the petroleum refinery area in Jordan. Three sampling sites were considered in the Jordanian petroleum refinery complex for the collection of dust fall and office dust samples. These samples were analyzed for water-soluble anions (F?, Cl?,

  19. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  20. Water management with water conservation, infrastructure expansions, and source variability in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Rosenberg; Richard E. Howitt; Jay R. Lund

    2008-01-01

    A regional hydroeconomic model is developed to include demand shifts from nonprice water conservation programs as input parameters and decision variables. Stochastic nonlinear programming then jointly identifies the benefit-maximizing portfolio of conservation and leak reduction programs, infrastructure expansions, and operational allocations under variable water availability. We present a detailed application for 12 governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It

  1. Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in the Kingdom of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efraim Lev; Zohar Amar

    2002-01-01

    The results of a survey of present-day traditional medicinal materials conducted in 1998–1999 in the Kingdom of Jordan are reported. The study covered selected markets of medicinal substances of ethnic communities throughout the kingdom, and also included questioning of the sellers about the healing characteristics of the various materials. The survey yielded information on many and varied medicinal substances, of

  2. A Journey to Jordan: A Social Studies Unit for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This curriculum unit, intended to be used with elementary school students, provides information about two neighboring Middle Eastern countries, Israel and Jordan, to allow comparisons not only between the two countries but also about the students' own neighborhood. The unit presents objectives, strategies, materials needed, background notes,…

  3. A Topic Model for Word Sense Disambiguation Jordan Boyd-Graber

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    A Topic Model for Word Sense Disambiguation Jordan Boyd-Graber Computer Science Princeton probabilistic topic model that includes word sense as a hidden variable. We develop a probabilistic posterior) in the topic model and show that automatically learned domains improve WSD accuracy compared to alter- native

  4. Measuring the Overhead of Intel C++ CnC over TBB for Gauss-Jordan Elimination

    E-print Network

    Tang, Peiyi

    Measuring the Overhead of Intel C++ CnC over TBB for Gauss-Jordan Elimination Peiyi Tang Department only by the data dependencies be- tween the tasks. Both Intel C++ Concurrent Col- lections (CnC algorithm and implemented it in TBB. We compare the performances of TBB and CnC, which is built on top

  5. Prelogarithmic Operators and Jordan Blocks in SL(2)k Affine Algebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gastón Giribet; F ´ õsica del Espacio

    2001-01-01

    The free field description of logarithmic and prelogarithmic operators in noncompact Wess-Zumino-Witten model is analyzed. We study the Jordan blocks structure of the ˆ {SL(2)k} affine algebra and the role of the puncture operator in the theory in relation with the unitarity bound.

  6. Working memory for patterned sequences of auditory objects in a songbird Jordan A. Comins a

    E-print Network

    Gentner, Timothy

    Working memory for patterned sequences of auditory objects in a songbird Jordan A. Comins a , Timothy Q. Gentner b,* a Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 Keywords: Working memory Serial recall Communication Songbirds European starling a b s t r a c

  7. Assessment of medical wastes management practice: A case study of the northern part of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bdour; B. Altrabsheh; N. Hadadin; M. Al-Shareif

    2007-01-01

    This study includes a survey of the procedures available, techniques, and methods of handling and disposing of medical waste at medium (between 100 and 200 beds) to large (over 200 beds) size healthcare facilities located in Irbid city (a major city in the northern part of Jordan). A total of 14 healthcare facilities, including four hospitals and 10 clinical laboratories,

  8. Medical waste management in Jordan: A study at the King Hussein Medical Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rami. Oweis; Mohamad. Al-Widyan; Ohood. Al-Limoon

    2005-01-01

    As in many other developing countries, the generation of regulated medical waste (RMW) in Jordan has increased significantly over the last few decades. Despite the serious impacts of RMW on humans and the environment, only minor attention has been directed to its proper handling and disposal. This study was conducted in the form of a case study at one of

  9. A Free Energy Model for Thin-film Shape Memory Alloys Jordan E. Massad*1

    E-print Network

    A Free Energy Model for Thin-film Shape Memory Alloys Jordan E. Massad*1 , Ralph C. Smith1 and Greg Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Dept., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 ABSTRACT Thin-film shape memory alloys comparison with thin-film NiTi superelastic hysteresis data. Keywords: Shape memory alloy model; thin film

  10. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  11. Gregory M. Saunders, Peter J. Angeline, and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Gregory M. Saunders, Peter J. Angeline, and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial 43210 saunders@cis.ohio-state.edu Abstract This paper introduces GNARL, an evolutionary program which), it is a better candidate for inducing network structures (Angeline, Saunders, and Pollack, 1993; Fogel et al

  12. Gregory M. Saunders, Peter J. Angeline, and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Gregory M. Saunders, Peter J. Angeline, and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial 43210 saunders@cis.ohio­state.edu Abstract This paper introduces GNARL, an evolutionary program which), it is a better candidate for inducing network structures (Angeline, Saunders, and Pollack, 1993; Fogel et al

  13. How Symbiosis Can Guide Evolution Richard A. Watson Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    How Symbiosis Can Guide Evolution Richard A. Watson Jordan B. Pollack Dynamical and Evolutionary information. 1 Introduction Symbiosis, in its general definition, is simply the living together of different, the phenomenon of symbiosis, and especially mutualism, has for the most part been treated as a curio; a transient

  14. The Mixed Effects of Schooling for High School Girls in Jordan: The Case of Tel Yahya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adely, Fida

    2004-01-01

    Access to schooling for adolescent girls in Jordan is still relatively new. It has been only in the past generation that girls have gone on to high school in significant numbers, and outside of urban areas this phenomenon is even more recent. Given a near universal rate of high school entry today, it is important to investigate the effect of this…

  15. Impacts of Global Climate Change Scenarios on Water Supply and Demand in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maher F. Abu-Taleb

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of global climate change is one of the least addressed factors in water resources planning in developing countries. The potential impacts of climate change are examined for Jordan, where a methodology is presented for improved management of water demand under the uncertainties associated with climate change. A temperature\\/precipitation sensitivity model is constructed and combined with water demand

  16. Graduates in the kitchen. Educating girls: Jordan, Morocco and Syria.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D

    1993-01-01

    Muslim girls in Jordan have become better educated due to 3 decades of free and compulsory (10 years) schooling policy. Fertility has declined from 7.7 during 1971-75 to 5.6 during 1987-90. 58% of Jordanian women use some form of family planning (FP). Over 90% of eligible children are enrolled in school and 60% go on for advanced 2-year vocational or specialized training. There are actually more girls than boys in school. Although female literacy is high, only 14% are engaged in the labor force. A leader from the Business and Professional Women's Club related that man is considered the breadwinner. Some professions are considered unsuitable for women's employment. Traveling after dark alone is considered problematic for a decent woman. A visit to a school revealed that girls envisioned receiving training and working until marriage, having children, and looking after grandchildren. Many thought 3-4 children was an appropriate family size. Government statistics show that men enroll primarily in the industrial training courses and agriculture, while women tended toward more manual vocations such as sewing, knitting, cooking, hair styling, and secretarial skills. Out of the entire class there were only 2 or 3 girls who envisioned working after having children. Husbands were assumed to always work; if unemployment occurred, the girls thought that a factory job might be a possibility. Conversations with several women in the engineering school were conducted in a lecture hall rather than the cafeteria so the boys would not think they were making themselves available to them. Concern was also expressed about working with men, but the issue of unwanted approaches was dismissed during work hours because of their academic qualifications. Only if one worked lake in the day would there be anticipation of problems. There were many styles of dress for women ranging from modern Western garb to traditional attire in grey and black with a slit for the eyes. The most traditional woman expressed that she saw no difficulty in becoming a structural engineer because her personality would triumph. PMID:12318177

  17. Factors affecting medical students in formulating their specialty preferences in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef; Al-Zoubi, Dema; Amarin, Zouhair; Alkafagei, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Burgan, Samar; El Salem, Khalid; Omari, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in medicine as it may affect student learning and academic performance. However, no such studies have been undertaken in medical schools in Jordan. Therefore, we carried out this study to investigate the career preferences of medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology and determine factors that might influence their career decisions. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out among second, fourth and sixth year medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan during the academic year 2006/2007. A total of 440 students answered the questionnaire which covered demographic characteristics, specialty preferences, and the factors that influenced these career preferences. Possible influences were selected on the basis of a literature review and discussions with groups of medical students and physicians. Students were asked to consider 14 specialty options and select the most preferred career preference. Results The most preferred specialty expressed by male students was surgery, followed by internal medicine and orthopaedics, while the specialty most preferred by female students was obstetrics and gynaecology, followed by pediatrics and surgery. Students showed little interest in orthopedics, ophthalmology, and dermatology. While 3.1% of females expressed interest in anesthesiology, no male students did. Other specialties were less attractive to most students. Intellectual content of the specialty and the individual's competencies were the most influential on their preference of specialty. Other influential factors were the "reputation of the specialty", "anticipated income", and "focus on urgent care". Conclusion Surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, and obstetrics and gynaecology were the most preferred specialty preferences of medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. PMID:18501004

  18. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...States. We have completed a pest risk assessment for this commodity to identify pests of quarantine significance...assessment, have prepared a risk management document to identify phytosanitary...from Jordan to mitigate the pest risk. We have concluded...

  19. Building community in low-income areas : designing a new architectural language for community centers in Jordan

    E-print Network

    Ali, Dalia Osama

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a vocabulary of principles to be used in the design of future community centers in Jordan. Community centers provide the stage for bringing members of the community together to meet and ...

  20. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  1. Reply to "Comment on 'Operational Earthquake Forecasting: Status of Knowledge and Guidelines for Implementation by Jordan et al. [2011]'

    E-print Network

    Reply to "Comment on 'Operational Earthquake Forecasting: Status of Knowledge and Guidelines Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) report [Jordan et al. 2011], Crampin [2012] claims Yamaoka11, Jochen Zschau12 1 Southern California Earthquake Center, Los Angeles, USA 2 University

  2. Late Holocene activity of the Dead Sea Transform revealed in 3D palaeoseismic trenches on the Jordan Gorge segment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shmuel Marco; Thomas K. Rockwell; Ariel Heimann; Uri Frieslander; Amotz Agnon

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional excavations of buried stream channels that have been displaced by the Jordan Fault, the primary strand of the Dead Sea fault zone in northern Israel, demonstrate that late Holocene slip has been primarily strike–slip at a minimum rate of 3 mm\\/yr. The palaeoseismic study was carried out in the Bet-Zayda Valley, the delta of the Jordan River at the

  3. The under-representation of women in information technology and computing in the Middle East: A perspective from Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laila Khreisat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the participation of women in computing and information technology (IT) in Jordan. It investigates the percentages of women at all levels of education—from the secondary level through the graduate level—and their participation in the IT workforce. Women in Jordan are still under-represented in the computing and IT fields, and my study

  4. Intermediate accelerated solutions as generic late-time attractors in a modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    Cid, Antonella; Leyva, Yoelsy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of a Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field, $\\Phi$, with a power-law potential in the presence of a second scalar field, $\\phi$, with an exponential potential, in both the Jordan and the Einstein frames. We prove that in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, the de Sitter solution is not a natural attractor. Instead, we show that the attractor in the Jordan frame corresponds to an "intermediate accelerated" solution of the form $a(t)\\simeq e^{\\alpha_1 t^{p_1}}$ as $t\\rightarrow \\infty$ where $\\alpha_1>0$ and $00$ and $0Jordan frame. In the special case of a quadratic potential in the Jordan frame, or for a constant potential in Einstein's frame, the above intermediate solutions are of saddle type. These results were proved using the center manifold theorem, which is not based on linear approximation.

  5. Water loss from Jordan Creek near Allentown, Pennsylvania - 1973 to 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steacy, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of water-loss studies for Jordan Creek near Allentown, Pa. are presented in both tabular and graphical form. The reach studied is approximately 24 miles long and extends from a point near Lowhill, Pa. to a point in Allentown, Pa. The drainage area at Allentown is about 76 square miles. In portions of the study area, Jordan Creek loses considerable parts of its flow to the permeable limestones and dolomites that it traverses. Seven current-meter measurements were made at each of ten sites along the reach, during the period 1973 to 1976. The results of the above measurements are analyzed and presented in a form suitable for use in planning the operation of a proposed reservoir which may be built near the upstream end of the reach. Three examples of how the results may be used are presented.

  6. Mortality and causes of death in Jordan 1995-96: assessment by verbal autopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, S. A.; Massad, D.; Fardous, T.

    1999-01-01

    Mortality indicators and causes of death in Jordan were assessed by verbal autopsy. A random sample of 100 clusters of ca. 300 households each were monitored for one year by notification assistants selected from the study area itself. Registered deaths were reported to research assistants who visited the family to complete the verbal autopsy form, which was structured and contained about 100 questions. Causes of death were determined by two physicians according to preset algorithms. A total of 965 deaths were reported among 198,989 persons, giving a crude death rate of 5 per 1000 population per year. The three leading causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system, malignancies and accidents. In the absence of a health information system, verbal autopsy as implemented in Jordan can serve as a reliable substitute. PMID:10516786

  7. Advances in Persistent Object Systems, Morrison, Jordan, and Atkinson (Eds.). Morgan Kaufmann, 1999 Swizzle barrier optimizations for orthogonal persistence in Java

    E-print Network

    Hosking, Antony

    Advances in Persistent Object Systems, Morrison, Jordan, and Atkinson (Eds.). Morgan Kaufmann, 1999 and Morrison 1995]. Orthogonal persistence presents this abstraction for all objects uniformly, regardless

  8. Peace and Prospects for International Water Projects in the Jordan-Yarmouk River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Just; John K. Horowitz; Sinaia Netanyahu

    \\u000a Water scarcity has become acute in many regions because of economic and population growth and resource degradation. Most economically\\u000a feasible but yet undeveloped water projects involve multiple jurisdictions so cooperation is required. This chapter examines\\u000a international cooperation in water sharing, with an application to two potential international water projects between Israel\\u000a and Jordan. The first requires bilateral cooperation between Israel

  9. Impact of Storage Tanks on Drinking Water Quality in Al-Karak Province-Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anf H. Ziadat

    2005-01-01

    One hundred water samples were collected from the residential galvanized steel water storage tanks from three different regions of Al-Karak Province in the southern part of the country Jordan. Samples were analyzed for major anions (HCO3, F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4-2), major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni), in order

  10. Geophysical images of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan reveal an impermeable barrier for fluid flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ritter; T. Ryberg; U. Weckmann; A. Hoffmann-Rothe; A. Abueladas; Z. Garfunkel

    2003-01-01

    High-resolutionseismictomography and magneto-telluric (MT) soundings of the shallow crust show strong changes in material properties across the Dead Sea Transform Fault (DST) in the Arava valley in Jordan. 2D inversion results of the MT data indicate that the DST is associated with a strong lateral conductivity contrast of a highly conductive layer at a depth of approximately 1.5 km cut-off

  11. Dhahal structure: an example of transpression associated with the Dead Sea transform in Wadi Araba, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOHAMMAD ATALLAH; HAKAM MUSTAFA; HANI EL-AKHAL; MASDOUQ AL-TAJ

    ATALLAH, M., MUSTAFA, H., EL-AKHAL, H. & AL-TAJ, M. 2005. Dhahal structure: an example of transpression asso- ciated with the Dead Sea transform in Wadi Araba, Jordan. Acta Geologica Polonica, 55 (4), 361-370. Warszawa. The Dhahal Mountains located at the eastern margin of the northern Wadi Araba sinistral fault represent an example of a transpression associated with the Dead Sea

  12. Age determinations in the Precambrian basement of the Wadi Araba area, southwest Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghaleb Jarrar; Albrecht Baumann; Horst Wachendorf

    1983-01-01

    The Precambrian basement of Jordan belongs to the northern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Age determinations by U-Pb isotopic analyses on sized and magnetic zircon fractions, a monazite and an apatite sample and by Rb-Sr isotopic studies on whole-rocks and minerals of metasedimentary rocks, granodiorites, granites and dykes have elucidated the following events: (1)A major regional high-grade metamorphism accompanied by

  13. Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Kuwait, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esien A. Usanga; Reem Ameen

    2000-01-01

    A total of 3,501 male subjects from six Arab countries living in Kuwait were investigated for quantitative and phenotypic distribution of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The ethnic origins of those investigated were Kuwait, Egypt, Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. The distribution of G6PD deficiency among the different ethnic groups varied widely, ranging from 1.00% for Egyptians to 11.55% for

  14. Self-reported needle-stick injuries among dentists in north Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Khader; S. Burgan; Z. Amarin

    The incidence of needle-stick injuries and the reporting attitudes among dentists in the north of Jordan were assessed with a cross-sectional survey. The study included 170 general dental practitioners (119 males and 51 females), of whom 113 (66.5%) were injured within the preceding 12 months. Needle-stick injury was significantly associated with higher age and a higher number of patients treated

  15. A Generalization of the Jordan-Schwinger Map:. the Classical Version and its q Deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Man'ko; G. Marmo; P. Vitale; F. Zaccaria

    1994-01-01

    For all three-dimensional Lie algebras the construction of generators in terms of functions on four-dimensional real phase space is given with a realization of the Lie product in terms of Poisson brackets. This is the classical Jordan-Schwinger map, which is also given for the deformed algebras { {SL}}q(2,{ R}), ?q(2) and ?q(1). The algebra { U}q(n) is discussed in the

  16. A generalization of the Jordan-Schwinger map: classical version and its q--deformation

    E-print Network

    V. I. Man'ko; G. Marmo; P. Vitale; F. Zaccaria

    1993-10-08

    For all three--dimensional Lie algebras the construction of generators in terms of functions on 4-dimensional real phase space is given with a realization of the Lie product in terms of Poisson brackets. This is the classical Jordan--Schwinger map which is also given for the deformed algebras ${\\cal {SL}}_{q}(2,\\R)$, ${\\cal E}_{q} (2)$ and ${\\cal H}_q(1)$. The ${\\cal U}_{q}(n)$ algebra is discussed in the same context.

  17. WHY STATES CO-OPERATE OVER SHARED WATER: THE WATER NEGOTIATIONS IN THE JORDAN RIVER BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Jägerskog

    The focus of this paper is on foreign-policy decision-making in circumstances of water scarcity. It focuses on how the issue of water has been treated in the negotiations within the Peace Process between Israel and the Palestinians and Israel and Jordan respectively. It also analyses the implementation phase. The aim is to explain why and under what conditions co-operation between

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Q. Talafha; S. M. Hirche; M. M. Ababneh; A. M. Al-Majali

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with bovine\\u000a viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 non-vaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007.\\u000a Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against BVDV were\\u000a detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square

  19. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Neospora spp. Infection among Asymptomatic Horses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Rutley, David L

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection. PMID:25925174

  20. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in undergraduate university female students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Al-Sheyab, N A; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquiring Toxoplasma gondii infection by undergraduate female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional study from September 2013 to July 2014 analysed 202 blood samples for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a semi-constructed questionnaire was completed by participants to gather information about Toxoplasma infection risk factors. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 66·5% of the females. Only one sample was positive for both IgG and IgM. Using ? 2 test, six factors showed significant association with T. gondii infection (P ? 0·01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female students living in houses, wet areas, with income >US$750/month and using spring (untreated) water were 47·42, 10·20, 5·00, 3·25 more times at risk to be seropositive for T. gondii, respectively, compared to female students living in apartments, dry areas, with income ?US$750/month and using treated water, respectively. This study concluded that T. gondii infection in female university students in Jordan is high and most women become infected before marriage; however, congenital toxoplasmosis is still likely to occur in Jordan. Thus, dissemination of protective measures and knowledge by healthcare professionals is essential especially for pregnant women. PMID:25543692

  1. Scalar fields in the nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) theory

    E-print Network

    M. W. Kalinowski

    2015-07-07

    In this paper we construct the Nonsymmetric Jordan-Thiry Theory unifying N.G.T., the Yang-Mills' field, the Higgs' fields and scalar forces in a geometric manner. In this way we get masses from higher dimensions. We discuss spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Higgs' mechanism and a mass generation in the theory. The scalar field (as in the classical Jordan-Thiry Theory) is connected to the effective gravitational constant. This field is massive and has Yukawa-type behaviour. We derive the equation of motion for a test particle from conservation laws in the hydrodynamic limit. We consider a truncation procedure for a tower of massive scalar fields using Friedrichs' theory and an approximation procedure for the lagrangian involving Higgs' field. The geodetic equations on the Jordan-Thiry manifold are considered with an emphasis to terms involving Higgs' field. We consider also field equations in linear approximation. We consider a dynamics of Higgs' field in the framework of cosmological models involving the scalar field. The scalar field plays here a role of a quintessence field. We consider phase transition in cosmological models of the second and the first order. We consider a warp factor known from some modern approaches. We consider a toy model of a time-machine. We consider a mass of a quintessence particle, various properties of a quintessence field. We calculate a speed of sound in a quintessence and fluctuations of a quintessence caused by primordial metric fluctuations.

  2. A Wide-Angle Seismic Profile Across the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift (Transform)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Ayyash, K.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Mechie, J.; Weber, M.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the DESERT 2000 project a seismic wide-angle reflection / refraction (WRR) experiment was completed for the first time across the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift (Transform). The NW-SE trending 260 km long profile, which passed through Palestine, Israel and Jordan, crossed the rift in the Arava valley about 70 km south of the southern end of the Dead Sea. During the experiment 13 shots, including two quarry blasts, were recorded by 99 three-component instruments spaced 1-4.5 km apart along the whole length of the profile and 125 vertical component geophone groups with 100 m spacing along a 12.5 km long section of the profile in the Arava valley. Both the P- and S-wavefields were successfully recorded. First results will be presented. The results will provide a picture of the P- and S-velocity structures across the rift and together with older mainly N-S trending seismic wide-angle profiles in the region will constrain models of the formation of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift (Transform).

  3. Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Southeast Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.; Wolf, R.J.; Adolphson, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer is part of a sequence of sedimentary bedrock units in southeast Minnesota. The Jordan Sandstone is a white to yellow, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone. The Prairie du Chien Group comprises two dolomitic formations, which are vuggy and fractured and interbedded with thin layers of shale. The aquifer was deposited from Paleozoic seas that occupied the Hollandale embayment. The surface of the aquifer dips toward the interior of the embayment where it is as deep as 750 feet below land surface and as thick as 500 feet. Permeability is secondary in the Prairie du Chien Group because of solution cavities and fractures and is intergranular in the Jordan Sandstone. Water in the aquifer is confined and generally flows to the north and east into the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers. A ground-water divide separates part of the flow southward into Iowa. This aquifer supplies more water than any other in the State. Quality of water is generally good throughout the aquifer. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate type water is most common. The potential for contamination from surface sources is low except near the Mississippi River valley, where the overlying drift is thin. The most serious water-quality problem is contamination by chemical wastes in St. Louis Park. (USGS)

  4. Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, S M; Algharaibeh, G R

    2007-08-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes upper respiratory tract infection in chickens and turkeys. There is a serious respiratory disease in chickens, resulting in catastrophic economic losses to chicken farmers in Jordan. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of APV as a factor in the respiratory disease of chickens in Jordan by serological and molecular methods. Thirty-eight chicken flocks were examined by competitive ELISA (23 broilers, 8 layers, and 7 broiler breeders), and 150 chicken flocks were examined by reverse-transcription PCR (133 broiler flocks, 7 layer flocks, and 10 broiler breeder flocks). Avian pneumovirus antibodies were detected in 5 out of 23 broiler flocks (21.7%), 6 out of 8 layer flocks (75%), and 7 out of 7 broiler breeder flocks (100%). Avian pneumovirus nucleic acid was detected in 17 broiler flocks (12.8%) and 3 layer flocks (42.9%). None of the broiler breeder flocks tested by reverse-transcription PCR was positive. All of the 20 detected APV isolates were subtype B. This is the first report of APV infection in Jordan. In conclusion, the Jordanian poultry industry, vaccination programs should be adjusted to include the APV vaccine to aid in the control of this respiratory disease. PMID:17626813

  5. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  6. HONEYBEE AGROBIODIVERSITY: A PROJECT IN CONSERVATION OF APIS MELLIFERA SYRIACA IN JORDAN Balarisi Tarimsal-Biyoçeitlilii: Ürdün'de Apis mellifera syriaca Arisinin Korunmasi Projesi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. HADDAD; S. FUCHS

    The existence of the autochthonous honey bees of Sy ria, Lebanon, Palestinian Authority, Israel and Jordan, Apis mellifera syriaca , is endangered by persistent honey bee imports of commercial breeder lines into the region. We investigated 26 colonies from 12 locations in Jordan by morphometric methods in comparison to reference samples of 7 relevant subs pecies. Results showed, that samples

  7. Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Clay Templeton, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Modeling Diverse Standpoints in Text Classification: Learning to Be Human by Modeling Human Values. iConference, 2011.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Clay Templeton, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Modeling Diverse Standpoints{Fleischmann:Templeton:Boyd-Graber-2011, Author = {Kenneth R. Fleischmann and Clay Templeton and Jordan Boyd-Graber}, Booktitle = {i Hornbake Building, South Wing College Park, MD 20742-4345 kfleisch@umd.edu Thomas Clay Templeton University

  8. Asad B. Sayeed, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Bryan Rusk, and Amy Weinberg. Grammatical structures for word-level sentiment detection. North American Association of Computational Linguistics, 2012.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Asad B. Sayeed, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Bryan Rusk, and Amy Weinberg. Grammatical structures for word-level sentiment detection. North American Association of Computational Linguistics, 2012. @inproceedings{Sayeed:Boyd-Graber:Rusk:Weinberg-2012, Author = {Asad B. Sayeed and Jordan Boyd-Graber and Bryan Rusk and Amy Weinberg}, Booktitle

  9. Are the Conflicts between Israel and Her Neighbors Over the Waters of the Jordan River Basin an Obstacle to Peace? Israel-Syria As A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Shuval

    2000-01-01

    Are the conflicts over water resources between Syria, Lebanon and Israel who share the transboundary waters of the Jordan River Basin a major obstacle to the peace process? The Syrians and Lebanese have in the past claimed as their own all of the sources of the Jordan River which arise in their territory. International water law provides a strong legal

  10. Jordan Boyd-Graber, David M. Blei, and Xiaojin Zhu. A Topic Model for Word Sense Disambiguation. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 2007.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Jordan Boyd-Graber, David M. Blei, and Xiaojin Zhu. A Topic Model for Word Sense Disambiguation Disambiguation}, } 1 #12;A Topic Model for Word Sense Disambiguation Jordan Boyd-Graber Computer Science a probabilistic posterior inference algorithm for simultaneously disambiguating a corpus and learning the domains

  11. Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping for the Basaltic aquifer of the Azraq basin of Jordan using GIS, Remote sensing and DRASTIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rida Al-Adamat; I. D. L. Foster; Serwan MJ Baban

    2003-01-01

    Water consumption in Jordan already exceeds renewable freshwater resources by more than 20% and, after the year 2005, freshwater resources are likely to be fully utilised. Over 50% of supply derives from groundwater and this paper focuses on a small part of the northern Badia region of Jordan that is underlain by the Azraq groundwater basin where it has been

  12. DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

  13. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  14. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A

    2014-11-21

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. Results: High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. Conclusion: A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program. PMID:25415630

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding in the north of Jordan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khassawneh, Mohammad; Khader, Yousef; Amarin, Zouhair; Alkafajei, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 6–12 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98), and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78). Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding. PMID:16995953

  16. Slope failure on the Jordan River Delta in the Dead Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Almagor, G. (Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-06-01

    The Dead Sea is a longitudinal (80 km {times} 20 km) terminal lake that was formed by the active Syrian-African transform fault. Considerably saline inflow from the Jordan River and a very high evaporation rate have led to the excessive salinity (360 g/L) and water density (1.226-1.232 g/cc) of the lake. The rate of evaporite precipitation is 630-2,000 mg/cm{sup 2}/yr. Clastic sediments from the Jordan River have formed a very moderately sloping (about 2{degree}) delta that covers the northern lake to a distance of 8 km offshore and to a depth of 300 m. Many irregularly shaped mounds of sediment that are acoustically transparent and that contain numerous discontinuous reflectors cover the delta slope. They extend over several hundred square meters each and rise 2-5 m above their surroundings. These sediments indicate active downslope slumping processes. The small-scale sedimentary pattern and the engineering properties of the sediments were examined by testing 6 core samples collected at various depths along the Jordan delta. Lengths range from 0.90 to 3.20 m. Depth of coring was restricted by an extremely hard, impenetrable layer of halite, and the topmost 10-25 cm consists of unconsolidated, recently deposited grainy halite. Euhedral crystals of halite are disseminated throughout the entire length of the core samples, especially in the deep-water cores. The high salinity of the pore water and the presence of large amounts of disseminated halite within the cores required modifications of the standard soil mechanics laboratory testing procedures. The sediments are predominantly dark brown, layered kaolinitic silty clays. They contain numerous conspicuous black organic-matter and sulfide-bearing layers and white aragonite and gypsum layers. Occasionally, slump structures are encountered.

  17. Modeling Household Water Consumption in a Hydro-Institutional System - The Case of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 CM per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 CM, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. This poses a severe challenge to the already strained institutions in the Jordanian water sector. The Stanford-led G8 Belmont Forum project "Integrated Analysis of Freshwater Resources Sustainability in Jordan" aims at analyzing the potential role of water sector institutions in the pursuit of a sustainable freshwater system performance. In order to do so, the project develops a coupled hydrological and agent-based model, allowing for the exploration of physical as well as socio-economic and institutional scenarios for Jordan's water sector. The part of this integrated model in focus here is the representation of household behavior in Jordan's densely populated capital Amman. Amman's piped water supply is highly intermittent, which also affects its potability. Therefore, Amman's citizens rely on various decentralized modes of supply, depending on their socio-economic characteristics. These include water storage in roof-top and basement tanks, private tanker supply, and the purchase of bottled water. Capturing this combination of centralized and decentralized supply modes is important for an adequate representation of water consumption behavior: Firstly, it will affect the impacts of supply-side and demand-side policies, such as reductions of non-revenue water (including illegal abstractions), the introduction of continuous supply, support for storage enhancements, and water tariff reforms. Secondly, it is also necessary to differentiate the impacts of any policy on the different socio-economic groups in Amman. In order to capture the above aspects of water supply, our model is based on the tiered supply curve approach, developed by Srinivasan et al. in 2011 to model a similar situation in Chennai, India. To tailor our model to the situation in Amman, we rely on sectoral data, existing literature analyses and expert discussions with Jordanian water sector representatives. Our modeling approach allows us to directly compare policies affecting both centralized and decentralized elements of the system within a common framework.

  18. Serological screening for celiac disease in schoolchildren in Jordan. Is height and weight affected when seropositive?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad K Nusier; Hedda Konstanse Brodtkorb; Elisabeth Siv Rein; Ahmed Odeh; Abdelrahman M Radaideh; Helge Klungland

    2010-01-01

    Background  Celiac disease (CD) emerged as a public health problem, and the disease prevalence varies among different races. The present\\u000a study was designed to investigate the prevalence of CD using serological markers in apparently healthy schoolchildren in Irbid\\u000a City, Jordan. Additionally, the effect of positive serology on height, weight and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population consisted of

  19. Progress report on the geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Darling, R.; Davis, D.A.; Gwynn, J.W.; Murphy, P.J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Two known geothermal areas have been investigated previously in the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah. These reports indicate meteoric water is being circulated to depth and heated by the ambient temperature derived from normal heat flow. This warm water subsequently migrates upward along permiable fault zones. The gravity survey conducted in the valley indicates a number of fault blocks are present beneath the unconsolidated valley sediments. The faults bounding these blocks could provide conduits for the upward migration of warm water. Four areas of warm water wells, in addition to the two known geothermal areas, have been delineated in the valley. However, the chemistry of the Jordan Valley is quite complex and at this time is not fully understood in regard to geothermal potential. Thick sequences of unconsolidated valley fill could conceal geothermal areas due to lateral dispersion or dilution within the principal aquifer, as well as retardation of warm water flow allowing time for cooling prior to discharge in wells or springs. Other areas are possibly diluted and cooled by high quality, ground water recharge from snow melt in the Wasatch Range.

  20. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26038907

  1. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  2. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. (Natural Resource Authority, Amman (Jordan))

    1996-01-01

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  3. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. [Natural Resource Authority, Amman (Jordan)

    1996-12-31

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  4. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  5. Settling flood hazard conflict: the Utah Lake and Jordan River experience

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Whether water resource developers are utility operators, cities, industrialists of agriculturalists, their interests and those of affected landowners must accommodate each other. They must come together as men, and compromise their difficulties. Past disputes and their resolutions are guides to present and future flood-hazard settlement. Utah Lake and the Jordan River were once the setting for an equitable settlement of a flood hazard. In 1885, President John Taylor (President Taylor) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints played a significant role in bringing about a compromise between downstream water users in Salt Lake County, Utah, and adversely affected upstream landowners in Provo and other parts of Utah County. Subsequent periodic flooding resulted in a second compromise agreement a century later. This paper considers the Utah Lake and Jordan River experiences. It examines the two compromises, how they came about, and their impact upon water resource management. In addition to their historical interest, these settlements provide useful guidance for negotiation and resolution of flood hazard disputes.

  6. Dark matter an effect of gravitation permeability of material in Jordan, Brance - Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    V. I. Bashkov; S. M. Kozyrev

    2001-03-03

    Analyzing the static spherically symmetric and rotating ellipsoid solutions in the Newtonian limit of Jordan, Brance - Dicke theory we find the following. In empty space scalar-tensor theories have trivial solution of field equation with constant scalar potential (efficient value of gravitation constant). In this case no celestial-mechanical experiments to reveal a difference between scalar-tensor theories and Einstein theory is not presented possible. However, scalar field, inside the matter, has characteristics like gravitation permeability of material similar electromagnetic permeability of material in Maxwell theories of electromagnetism. Investigation of obtained exact solutions for given functions of a matter distributions in the Newtonian limit of Jordan, Brance - Dicke theory show the efficient value of gravitation constant depends on density of matter, sizes and form of object, as well as on the value of theories coupling constant. That for example led to weakening gravitation force in the central regions of a Galaxies. This assumption constitutes the way to explain observed rotation curves of Galaxies without using cold dark matter.

  7. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  8. Stray dogs of northern Jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens.

    PubMed

    Qablan, Moneeb Ahmad; Kubelová, Michaela; Siroký, Pavel; Modrý, David; Amr, Zuhair Sami

    2012-07-01

    Dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several hemopathogens including zoonotic agents and can serve as readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods. Three hemopathogens had been detected for the first time in Jordan. The PCR prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis, and piroplasmid DNA were 39.5%, 28.9%, and 7.9% (n=38) respectively. Sequencing of amplicons of PCR with universal primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasmids shows the highest similarity to equine piroplasmids species Theileria equi from two dogs and Babesia caballi from a single dog. Ticks of two genera Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis, were detected in this study (n=268). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species (95.1%, n=255), followed by Haemaphysalis erinacei (3%, n=8) and Haemaphysalis parva (1.9%, n=5). The two Haemaphysalis species were detected for the first time from dogs in Jordan. Regarding its high prevalence, we expect R. sanguineus being a possible vector of detected pathogens. PMID:22434363

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Neospora caninum infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora caninum infection in 62 dairy herds (n = 671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through personal interviews with farmers. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with N. caninum seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against N. caninum in individual cows and cattle herds was 35 and 66.5 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the percentage of seropositive animals between different age groups. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed workers frequently visiting nearby farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to N. caninum, while presence of a calving pen was suggested as a protective factor. Amman, Balqa, and Mafrak governorates had significantly lower seroprevalence to N. caninum compared to other Jordanian governorates. Results of this study indicated that N. caninum infection may be widespread in Jordan. PMID:22869339

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Al-Majali, Ahmad M

    2012-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in 62 nonvaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against C. abortus were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against C. abortus in individual cows and cattle herds were 19.9 % and 66.3 %, respectively. Univariable Chi-square analysis revealed three variables with P ? 0.25 that were further offered to multivariable logistic regression analysis. Small-sized herds were identified as a risk factor for seropositivity to C. abortus, while sweeping followed by water hosing and using disinfectants were identified as protective factors. Cows in the age groups of >8 and ? 10 years old and >2 and ? 6 years old had the highest and lowest significant seroprevalence to C. abortus, respectively. Results of this study indicated that C. abortus is highly prevalent in Jordan's dairy herds and Chlamydophila infection could be controlled by applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms. PMID:22528533

  12. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from brined white cheese in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Taha, Mohammad H; Al-Holy, Murad A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Rousan, Walid M; Shaker, Reyad R

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from different dairy food products. Several foodborne outbreaks of listeriosis have been associated with consumption of cheese. The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in brined white cheese (BWC) sold in Jordan, and to determine the susceptibility of isolated L. monocytogenes to antimicrobials. Three hundred and fifty samples of 5 different types of BWC (akkawi, boiled, halloumi, pasteurized, and shellal) were collected from a local market in Jordan. The ISO (11290-1) procedure was followed for isolation and identification of Listeria spp. from cheese samples and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for confirmation of L. monocytogenes isolates. The VITEK2 automated system was used for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. in cheese sample was 27.1%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 39 (11.1%) samples. Other isolated species were L. grayi (6.9%), L. innocua (2%), L. ivanovii (4%), L. seeligeri (2%), and L. welshimeri (0.3%). The pH values and salt concentrations of L. monocytogenes positive cheese samples ranged from 5.10 to 6.32 and 5.64 to 13.16, respectively. L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to imipenem, gentamicin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to fosfomycin, oxacillin, and clindamycin. PMID:22897495

  13. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, A Q; Hirche, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al-Majali, A M; Ababneh, M M

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 non-vaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against BVDV were detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for BVDV seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against BVDV in individual cows and cattle herds was 31.6% and 80.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BVDV in medium and large size herds was significantly higher than that in smaller herds. There was no significant difference in BVD seroprevalence between different age groups. Random-effects logistic regression model revealed two major factors associated with seropositivity to BVDV; exchange of visits between adjacent farm workers and not isolating newly purchased animals before addition to the herd. The seroprevalence of BVDV in cows located in the northern Jordanian governorates was significantly higher than that in other studied governorates. Results of this study indicated that BVDV is highly prevalent in Jordan and BVDV infection could be controlled by livestock-trade control, and applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms. PMID:18654834

  14. Current situation and the development of the dairy industry in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, O Assah; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Hemme, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    The development of the dairy industry plays an important role in the economy of Middle Eastern countries. Judged by its growth rate, the dairy industry is viewed as one of the most progressive food industries in the Middle East. During the early 1970s, countries established executive programs to promote dairy farming; the major objective was to attain self-sufficiency in milk production. A massive investment was set up for importing top class cattle, complying with top industry operating standards, and a simultaneous introduction of the latest technology in processing, packaging, and distributing. Milk production has grown tremendously at rates of 6.6% and 4.9% in Syria and Saudi Arabia, respectively, between 2002 and 2007, which resulted in these nations being almost self-sufficient. Regarding Jordan, milk production has not yet met this target. An excessive growth in the dairy industry is quite noticeable in this region with an expanding capacity for exports. The aim of this study is to show the most recent trends and future prospects of the dairy industries in Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. It also attempts to investigate the drivers for the development of milk production, consumption, and trade in the region. PMID:20352329

  15. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  16. Medical waste management in Jordan: A study at the King Hussein Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Oweis, Rami [Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo; Al-Widyan, Mohamad [Biosystems Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: widyan@just.edu.jo; Al-Limoon, Ohood [Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo

    2005-07-01

    As in many other developing countries, the generation of regulated medical waste (RMW) in Jordan has increased significantly over the last few decades. Despite the serious impacts of RMW on humans and the environment, only minor attention has been directed to its proper handling and disposal. This study was conducted in the form of a case study at one of Jordan's leading medical centers, namely, the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC). Its purpose was to report on the current status of medical waste management at KHMC and propose possible measures to improve it. In general, it was found that the center's administration was reasonably aware of the importance of medical waste management and practiced some of the measures to adequately handle waste generated at the center. However, it was also found that significant voids were present that need to be addressed in the future including efficient segregation, the use of coded and colored bags, better handling and transfer means, and better monitoring and tracking techniques, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel.

  17. Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

  18. Archaeological evidences of the tectonic activity of Shueib Structure (NW Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awabdeh, Mohammad; Azañón, J. Miguel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Booth-Rea, Gillermo

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological damage in buried ruins often offers an excellent record of recent tectonic activity. The lower Jordan valley has experienced a continuous occupation in the last 5000 year, being frequent archaeological remains of human settlements along the valley. In this work we studied the Early Neolithic-to-Middle Islamic Periods archaeological site of Tall al-Hammam (Arabic name, ¨Hill of Baths¨). This ruin is located 27 km southwest of Amman city and it constitutes the largest Bronze Age archaeological site in Jordan. It consists of two main parts; the Upper Tall and the Lower Tall. This ruin lies within the southwestern termination of the Shueib structure (SHS); a Cretaceous fold-bend fault structure thought inactive through the entire Cenozoic. The relics, in the lower Tall, show clear fault-related damage in some walls. Two Middle Bronze Age (MBA) walls are displaced 26 and 20 cm respectively, according with a NNE-SSW fault plane. Apart of wall displacements, hundreds of joints and cracks in boulders of the walls are present. They strike generally NW-SE and NE-SW. Both archaeological evidences, boulder fractures and walls distortion, are coherent with the present-day tectonic setting of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in the region, and suggest a Quaternary reactivation of the SHS.

  19. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  20. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by dental students at the Dental Teaching Center in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M Barrieshi-Nusair; M. A Al-Omari; A. S Al-Hiyasat

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate radiographically the technical standard of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the Dental Teaching Center in Jordan.Methods. A random sample of 8500 records of dental patients was examined. A total of 542 endodontically treated teeth with 912 roots were evaluated. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical

  1. Seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in Northern Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad M. Al-Majali; Nazmi O. Hussain; Nadim M. Amarin; Aggrey A. Majok

    2008-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease that affect sheep and goat industry in Asia and Africa. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of PPR in sheep and goat flocks from five different governorates (Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, Mafraq and Zarka) located in Northern Jordan. Serum samples from 929 and 400 sheep and goats,

  2. Robot Coverage Control by Evolved Neuromodulation Kyle I. Harrington, Emmanuel Awa, Sylvain Cussat-Blanc, Jordan Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    -Blanc, Jordan Pollack Abstract-- An important connection between evolution and learning was made over a century exploited for the control of robots with artificial GRNs K. Harrington, E. Awa, and J. Pollack@brandeis.edu, sylvain.cussat-blanc@irit.fr, pollack@brandeis.edu) [41], [27], [19], [10], where robots evolved useful

  3. Quasi-Orthogonal Maps for Dynamic Language Recognition Alan D. Blair1 and Jordan B. Pollack2

    E-print Network

    Blair, Alan

    Quasi-Orthogonal Maps for Dynamic Language Recognition Alan D. Blair1 and Jordan B. Pollack2 1 Dept, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, pollack@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Although recurrent neural networks,introduced in (Pollack, 1991)has been extended in a number of directions both experimental (Giles et al., 1992, Watrous

  4. QuasiOrthogonal Maps for Dynamic Language Recognition Alan D. Blair 1 and Jordan B. Pollack 2

    E-print Network

    Blair, Alan

    Quasi­Orthogonal Maps for Dynamic Language Recognition Alan D. Blair 1 and Jordan B. Pollack 2 1. of Computer Science, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, pollack@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Although, introduced in (Pollack, 1991) has been extended in a number of directions both experimental (Giles et al

  5. Estimation of animal and olive solid wastes in Jordan and their potential as a supplementary energy source: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamal Abu-Ashour; Hani Abu Qdais; Mohammad Al-Widyan

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is a potential source of energy that can reduce our dependency on oil as the main source of energy. In addition to municipal solid waste, animal and olive wastes are the main sources of organic waste in Jordan. In 2005, there were more than 2.4 million heads of sheep, about 72 thousand cows, and 40 million hens being raised

  6. Coping With Ambiguity in a LargeScale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan,

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    In an interlingual knowledge­based machine trans­ lation system, ambiguity arises when the source lan­ guage analyzerCoping With Ambiguity in a Large­Scale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan, Teruko Mitamura, Eric H. Nyberg, 3rd Center for Machine Translation Carnegie

  7. Coping With Ambiguity in a Large-Scale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan,

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    In an interlingual knowledge-based machine trans- lation system, ambiguity arises when the source lan- guage analyzerCoping With Ambiguity in a Large-Scale Machine Translation System Kathryn L. Baker, Alexander M. Franz, Pamela W. Jordan, Teruko Mitamura, Eric H. Nyberg, 3rd Center for Machine Translation Carnegie

  8. “You Reap What You Plant”: Social Networks in the Arab World—The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Harrigan

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this paper is threefold. First, to describe the general evolution of bonding and bridging social capital in Jordan. Second, to explore the role of state policies in affecting the various forms of social capital. Finally, to analyze how poverty and economic reform influence the extent and nature of social capital. Social networks, a crucial element of

  9. Analysis of the water, energy, environmental and socioeconomic reality in selected Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan and Morocco)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana S. Sánchez; Vicente J. Subiela

    2007-01-01

    The water scarcity is a common situation in many Mediterranean countries. Desalination by REs can be an interesting solution for isolated or high cost water areas. Within this framework, the ADIRA1 project aims the development of autonomous desalination systems in 11 selected sites of those areas in five target Mediterranean countries (Morocco, Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt and Jordan) in order to

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Plant and Air of Scrapyard of Discarded Vehicles at Zarqa City, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qasem M. Jaradat; Adnan Masadeh; Mohammed A. Zaitoun; Baheyah M. Maitah

    2005-01-01

    Ninety soil samples, forty plant samples (Anabasis articulata), and twenty air samples were collected from the scrap yard of discarded vehicles near Zarqa city, Jordan. These samples were analyzed for heavy metals: Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Al, and Fe. Longitudinal and vertical profiles of soil samples were studied. Generally, the levels of all heavy metals studied in the scrap

  11. Design and Implementation of an NCS-NeuroML Translator Nathan M. Jordan Kimberly B. Perry Nitish Narala

    E-print Network

    Dascalu, Sergiu

    Design and Implementation of an NCS-NeuroML Translator Nathan M. Jordan Kimberly B. Perry Nitish files be- tween two different languages, the NCS input language and the NeuroML format. It provides brain processes and functions, but will also give NCS users an opportu- nity to compare their modeling

  12. Hydraulic properties of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, southeastern Minnesota, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, James F.

    1999-01-01

    An aquifer test of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was conducted in the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community located southwest of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A well open to the Jordan Sandstone was pumped at 600 gallons per minute for 57 hours. Drawdown was monitored in three observation wells located near the pumped well. These wells were open to: (1) the Jordan Sandstone, the principal unit of the aquifer; (2) the Prairie du Chien Group, a secondary, carbonate-rock unit of the aquifer; and (3) a confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer. Test results indicate that the Jordan Sandstone had a transmissivity of 6,267 ft2/d, a storativity of 1.193 x 10-4, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 31 ft/d based on a saturated thickness of 204 ft, and a ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 5.29 x 10-4. The pumped well was hydraulically connected to the Prairie du Chien Group observation well. No drawdown was observed in the observation well completed in the confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer; thus, a hydraulic connection of this observation well to the pumped well was not indicated.

  13. Jordan and Lange: The California Junior College as Protector of Teaching. Working Papers in Education ED-94-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Edward A.

    A group of contemporary historians has recently accused community and junior colleges of not offering the American masses new opportunities of upward social mobility, but instead of serving to divert them away from four-year colleges and universities. In particular, historians have taken issue with the efforts of David Jordan, of Stanford…

  14. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance Against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azmi D. Hawari; Fawzi Al-Dabbas

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by

  15. Determination of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Common Chemical Agents in Cleaning and Disinfection in Hospitals of North Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani A. Masaadeh; Adnan S. Jaran

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Hospital cleanleness and hygene are consederd among the most important aspects of clinical success and in preventing nosocomial infections. In this study we will address the problem of effectiveness of commonly used chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection in hospitals of north Jordan. For evaluating the effectiveness of chemical agents. Approach: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined

  16. Effect of Khirbet As-Samra treated effluent on the quality of irrigation water in the Central Jordan Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Shatanawi; Manar Fayyad

    1996-01-01

    Khirbet As-Samra (KA) treated wastewater is being used in irrigation in the Central Jordan Valley. The treated water is collected in King Talal Dam (KTD) and then mixed with King Abdullah Canal (KAC) water, which is diverted from the Yarmouk River for further use in agriculture. The treated water has adversely affected the water quality of Yarmouk River. Comparison of

  17. CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky (This tutorial is a continuation of the Capture CIS Tutorial)

    E-print Network

    Patel, Chintan

    CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky (This tutorial is a continuation of the Capture CIS Tutorial) Allegro PCB Design Allegro PCB Design is a circuit board layout tool that accepts a layout-compatible circuit netlist (ex. from Capture CIS) and generates output layout files that are suitable for PCB

  18. The Influence of Historical and Political Events on the Development of Social Studies Education in Jordan's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazzi, Khaled

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study about the factors that affect social studies development in Jordan's secondary schools. An evaluation of data obtained within the limitations of this study relative to the development of social studies education, in particular, and education, in general, indicates that the principle of the Great Arab…

  19. Current sedation practice among general dental practitioners and dental specialists in Jordan: an example of a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Ryalat, Soukaina; Dar-odeh, Najla; Alsoleihat, Firas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here aimed to identify current sedation practice among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and specialist dental practitioners (SDPs) in Jordan in 2010. Methods Questionnaires were sent by email to 1683 GDPs and SDPs who were working in Jordan at the time of the study. The contact details of these dental practitioners were obtained from a Jordan Dental Association list. Details on personal status, use of, and training in, conscious sedation techniques were sought by the questionnaires. Results A total of 1003 (60%) questionnaires were returned, with 748 (86.9%) GDPs and 113 (13.1%) SDPs responding. Only ten (1.3%) GDPs and 63 (55.8%) SDPs provided information on the different types of treatments related to their specialties undertaken under some form of sedation performed by specialist and/or assistant anesthetists. Approximately 0.075% of the Jordanian population received some form of sedation during the year 2010, with approximately 0.054% having been treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The main reason for the majority of GDPs (55.0%) and many SDPs (40%) not to perform sedation was lack of training in this field. While some SDPs (26.0%) indicated they did not use sedation because of the inadequacy of sedative facilities. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the provision of conscious sedation services in general and specialist dental practices in Jordan is inconsistent and inadequate. This stresses the great need to train practitioners and dental assistants in Jordan to enable them to safely and effectively perform all forms of sedation. PMID:23700369

  20. Socio-economic differentials in child mortality: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The study described levels and trends in child mortality in Jordan and provided a multivariate model relating child mortality to socioeconomic differentials. The South pattern from the Coale-Demeny model family life tables was chosen for the analysis of the proportions dead among children ever born, which was converted into the probability of dying by age. The probability of dying by the age of 5 years declined from 270/1000 live births around 1950 to 90/1000 by 1975. By age 5 the risks of child mortality have fallen to relatively low levels. Viability of the child was conceptualized as related to nutrition and body growth. Nutrition was considered to be affected by household socioeconomic conditions, culture, community conditions, early childhood factors, and household hygiene and disease prevention. The Mosley and Chen framework was not usable due to lack of data. Socioeconomic factors were included as important determinants of proximate determinants: type of place of residence, parental education, household income, housing conditions, and marriage age. Data were obtained from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey and the 1981 Jordan Demographic Survey, which provided consistent and reliable child mortality estimates. Age heaping at digits of 0 and 5 did occur. The multivariate analysis involved ordinary least squares regressions for estimating the relationship between the child mortality measure and a variety of independent, categorical variables represented as dummy variables. Findings indicated that rural residence was associated with higher child mortality risks in 1976 and 1981. Children of mothers or fathers with fewer than 6 years of education had higher child mortality risks. Maternal education levels of more than 6 years were thought to have a greater impact on rural child mortality. Variables which were unrelated to child mortality included method of lighting, source of water supply from wells and private taps, and duration of marriage. Household water supply from public taps was significantly associated with lower rural child mortality risks in 1976 and 1981. Marriage age of 20 years or higher was only significant in the 1976 data. The results suggested a widening differential associated with socioeconomic differences over time. Little variance was explained by the variables. Programs need to target health services to less educated rural women. PMID:12287528

  1. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB-MgNaCl) represent the saline end members. Existing water types are mixtures of the 3 end members. There is a consistency in results and analysis of geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geophysical data. There are three probable sources of increase in groundwater salinity: mixing with saline end members (RVB/DSB); dissolution of minerals of the Lisan Formation (calcite, dolomite, gypsum and halite); and to some extent, agricultural effluent pollution.

  2. A triggered lightning flash containing both negative and positive J. Jerauld, M. A. Uman, V. A. Rakov, K. J. Rambo, and D. M. Jordan

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    . A. Rakov, K. J. Rambo, and D. M. Jordan Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Lightning. Citation: Jerauld, J., M. A. Uman, V. A. Rakov, K. J. Rambo

  3. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Joan W; Heath, Nancy L; Emery, Amber A; Toste, Jessica R; Daoud, Fawzi A

    2015-01-01

    While previous research has demonstrated cross-national differences in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), most studies to date have taken place in North America. The present study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of NSSI in a sample of 952 Jordanian adolescents (49.8% female) between the ages of 11-19 years. Participants completed a screening measure to assess occurrence of NSSI and its characteristics. Results indicate an overall lifetime prevalence of 22.6% (n = 215), with significantly more males (26.98%, n = 129) than females (18.14%, n = 86) reporting having engaged in NSSI at least once in their lifetime. This study provides empirical evidence that adolescent engagement in NSSI occurs at similar prevalence levels in Jordan, relative to North American samples, whereas gender comparisons of prevalence and characteristics revealed several differences. PMID:25058810

  4. Effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice among Muslim women in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, S; Al-Khozahe, H O; Ohtsuka, R

    2006-06-01

    Based on the authors' interview survey for 275 Muslim women of an ethnically divergent community in Amman, Jordan, this study examined the psychosocial effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice, using the normative interpretations of legal provisions in Islam (hukm). The categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) reduced the eight items regarding family planning and contraception use to two factors, i.e. the pressures of childbearing and acceptability of contraception use, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Even though the majority of the female subjects were conservative rather than innovative in terms of reproduction norms and significant interrelations were observed between their reproduction norms and contraception practice, approximately 70% of the female subjects who were closely in consonance with the normative interpretations of their religious leader had used contraception. It is thus indicated that religious leaders may play significant roles in increase of contraception practice among Muslim women. PMID:16854689

  5. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50?% inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p?=?0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:22174075

  6. Awareness of preconception care among women and men: A study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Akour, N A; Sou'Ub, R; Mohammad, K; Zayed, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine awareness of Jordanian married women and men of preconception care. A total of 763 (537 women and 226 men) Jordanians who attended maternal and child healthcare centres in a city, in the centre of Jordan, were included in the current study. The Health before Pregnancy Questionnaire was used to collect the data from participants, while they waited to be seen by the healthcare provider in the health centres. Family history of chronic disorders, 1st-degree consanguineous marriages and planning pregnancy were associated with awareness of preconception care. Around 50% of participants were aware of the serious impact that a woman's and man's family history can have on the health of their babies. The majority of participants were aware of changes that should be made prior to conception. PMID:25265237

  7. Self-reported needle-stick injuries among dentists in north Jordan.

    PubMed

    Khader, Y; Burgan, S; Amarin, Z

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of needle-stick injuries and the reporting attitudes among dentists in the north of Jordan were assessed with a cross-sectional survey. The study included 170 general dental practitioners (119 males and 51 females), of whom 113 (66.5%) were injured within the preceding 12 months. Needle-stick injury was significantly associated with higher age and a higher number of patients treated daily. Of those who were injured, 77.9% did not report the injury. Reasons for not reporting needle-stick injury were: because it took place before use on a patient (41.2%), ignorance of the risk (20.8%), being busy (25.0%) and dissatisfaction with follow-up procedures (13.0%). The study highlights the need for continuous education programmes about handling of sharp dental instruments and reporting injuries. PMID:19469442

  8. After the doctorate: a qualitative study investigating nursing research career development in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawafleh, Ahmed; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Evans, Catrin

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the development of postdoctoral nursing research careers in non-Western contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Jordanian graduates of UK PhD programs. Interviews were held with 16 graduates who worked in the nursing faculty of seven different universities in Jordan. Participants reported that their doctoral degree had equipped them with confidence and enthusiasm for developing a research career. Mentorship, leadership, and peer support were identified as essential to supporting ongoing research activity. Access to these sources of support was variable and participants also described a range of institutional and organizational structures that directly or indirectly discouraged them from developing research productivity. This research suggests that support for postdoctoral novice researchers is an important area for further attention - for Jordanian universities, for UK PhD supervisors (and their associated academic departments), and for the wider nursing community. PMID:23347142

  9. Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Kuijt, Ian; Finlayson, Bill

    2009-07-01

    Food storage is a vital component in the economic and social package that comprises the Neolithic, contributing to plant domestication, increasingly sedentary lifestyles, and new social organizations. Recent excavations at Dhra' near the Dead Sea in Jordan provide strong evidence for sophisticated, purpose-built granaries in a predomestication context approximately 11,300-11,175 cal B.P., which support recent arguments for the deliberate cultivation of wild cereals at this time. Designed with suspended floors for air circulation and protection from rodents, they are located between residential structures that contain plant-processing instillations. The granaries represent a critical evolutionary shift in the relationship between people and plant foods, which precedes the emergence of domestication and large-scale sedentary communities by at least 1,000 years. PMID:19549877

  10. Inorganic analysis of dust fall and office dust in an industrial area of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Qasem M; Momani, Kamal A; Jbarah, Abdel-Aziz Q; Massadeh, Adnan

    2004-10-01

    This article deals with the determination and comparison of heavy metals and water-soluble anions and cations in indoor dust and outdoor dust fall in the petroleum refinery area in Jordan. Three sampling sites were considered in the Jordanian petroleum refinery complex for the collection of dust fall and office dust samples. These samples were analyzed for water-soluble anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, C2O4(2-), and SO4(2-)) and cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) using auto-suppressed ion chromatography. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Al) were determined using flame or graphite-furnace atomic absorption. No correlations were found between heavy metal concentrations in dust fall and office dust samples, indicating different sources. High enrichment factors for heavy metals were found in dust-fall samples, except for Fe and Cr. Zinc showed the highest and cadmium the lowest flux rates. PMID:15325874

  11. Use of the Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test with learning disabled children.

    PubMed

    Strichart, S S

    1978-12-01

    This investigation established the reliability of the Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test for learning disabled children. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .89 to .92 for a sample of 91 children, 5 through 12 yr., attending private schools for children with learning disabilities. Reversal errors decreased with age for boys and girls, although girls 9 through 12 made significantly fewer errors than did boys in the same age range. Learning disabled children made more errors at all ages than normal children. This test instrument was determined to be a measure of the global tendency to make visual reversal errors and was viewed as an appropriate part of the learning disabilities diagnostic procedure. PMID:745916

  12. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  13. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by hospital staff in north Jordan.

    PubMed

    Na'was, T; Fakhoury, J

    1991-03-01

    The nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 550 hospital staff members of four hospitals in north Jordan. Of the 109 (19.8%) individuals tested who were nasal carriers of S. aureus, only 32 (5.8%) were found to be carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The carriers were four doctors, 23 nurses, three laboratory technicians, one maid and an administrator. It was noted that 25 (78.1%) of these carriers were in constant contact with patients in operating theatres, surgical wards or intensive care units. It was not clear whether the carriers were short- or long-term carriers, or whether they were persistent sources of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Decontamination of these carriers was considered among other control measures to avoid the dangerous outcome of hospital outbreaks caused by this potential pathogen. PMID:1675651

  14. Population structure of the Pacific black halibut Reinhardtius matsuurae Jordan et Snyder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakov, Y. P.

    1998-09-01

    A blood serum electrophoresis study of black halibut ( Reinhardtius matsuurae Jordan et Snyder) in the North Pacific revealed polymorphic protein systems of esterases (Est-1, Est-2) and transferrin (Tf). Comparison of genetic similarity among black halibut from different locations of the northern Pacific Ocean showed that groups inhabiting areas with stable water circulation were genetically more different than groups inhabiting geographically distant waters that were connected by sea currents. It is concluded that black halibut in the North Pacific consists of two types of metapopulations. The first type comprises populations inhabiting waters with a stable water circulation which entrains the pelagic eggs and larvae. The other type comprises an aggregate of local populations connected to a central population through water currents that transport the pelagic eggs and larvae.

  15. Embedding smooth and formal diffeomorphisms through the Jordan-Chevalley decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribón, Javier

    In [Xiang Zhang, The embedding flows of C? hyperbolic diffeomorphisms, J. Differential Equations 250 (5) (2011) 2283-2298] Zhang proved that any local smooth hyperbolic diffeomorphism whose eigenvalues are weakly nonresonant is embedded in the flow of a smooth vector field. We present a new and more conceptual proof of such result using the Jordan-Chevalley decomposition in algebraic groups and the properties of the exponential operator. We characterize the hyperbolic smooth (resp. formal) diffeomorphisms that are embedded in a smooth (resp. formal) flow. We introduce a criterion showing that the presence of weak resonances for a diffeomorphism plus two natural conditions imply that it is not embeddable. This solves a conjecture of Zhang. The criterion is optimal, we provide a method to construct embeddable diffeomorphisms with weak resonances if we remove any of the conditions.

  16. Anti-TNF therapy in Jordan: a focus on severe infections and tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Alawneh, Khaldoon M; Ayesh, Mahmoud H; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Saadeh, Salwa Shihadeh; Smadi, Mahmoud; Bashaireh, Khaldoun

    2014-01-01

    Background A high rate of infection has been reported in patients receiving treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF). This study describes the rate of and risk factors for serious infections in patients receiving anti-TNF agents in Jordan. Methods This retrospective observational study was conducted at a large tertiary referral center in the north of Jordan. Between January 2006 and January 2012, 199 patients who received an anti-TNF agent (infliximab, adalimumab, or etanercept) were included. Patients received the anti-TNF treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or other conditions. A serious infection was defined as any bacterial, viral, or fungal infection that required hospitalization, administration of appropriate intravenous antimicrobial therapy, and temporary withholding of anti-TNF treatment. Results The mean duration of anti-TNF treatment was 26.2 months. Steroids were used in 29.1% of patients, while 54.8% were given additional immunosuppressant therapy (methotrexate or azathioprine). Only one anti-TNF agent was given in 70.4% of patients, while 29.6% received different anti-TNF agents for the duration of treatment. Serious infections were documented in 39 patients (19.6%), including respiratory tract infections (41%), urinary tract infections (30.8%), and skin infections (20.5%), and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in three patients (7.7%). Exposure to more than one anti-TNF agent was the only factor associated with a significant increase in the rate of infection (relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.06–4.0, P=0.03). Conclusion Serious infections, including tuberculosis, were a common problem in patients receiving anti-TNF agents, and exposure to more than one anti-TNF agent increased the risk of serious infection. PMID:24790412

  17. A retrospective study on imported malaria in Jordan. 1. Malaria among Jordanian UN peacekeeping forces.

    PubMed

    Kanani, K; Amr, Z-S; Shadfan, B; Al-Rashadan, M; Bani Hani, R

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is considered as one of the most threatening diseases affecting peacekeeping forces serving in malaria endemic countries. The Jordanian Armed Forces participated in many of the United Nations peacekeeping missions in over 20 countries across the world. Thin and thick blood smears were collected from military personnel returning to Jordan, and relevant data including occupation, age, sex, residence address and the country they served in were recorded. Mefloquine 250 mg/week was prescribed for prophylaxis during the period of stay for three contingents of Jordanian military forces deployed to East Timor. Members of two contingents were given post exposure prophylactic treatment of Doxycycline 100 mg coupled with Primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days soon after returning to Jordan. Blood smears were taken from all soldiers suspected to be affected by malaria, and were monitored over a period of 15 weeks. A total of 811 malaria cases were reported during 1992-2011 among Jordanian military personnel whom served in over 20 countries. Most cases were reported among troops returning from Eretria (54.74%), East Timor (18.86%), Ivory Coast (9.12%) and Sierra Leone (5.1%). Troops aged between 20-40 years constituted 96.3% of the total reported cases. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium vivax (83.5%), followed by Plasmodium falciparum (13.6%). The attack rates (AR) of malaria/100 soldiers among the three contingents were 10.8% for Timor 1, with no post-exposure prophylaxis, and 2.8% for Timor 2 and 3 with post-exposure prophylaxis. There was an evident reduction of malaria attack rate and relapse rate between the two groups Timor 1 (without post-exposure prophylaxis) and Timor 2 and 3 (given post exposure prophylaxis). PMID:24639137

  18. Climatic change impacts on water balance of the Upper Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, A.; Kunstmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Near East (EM/NE) is an extremely water scarce environment. It is expected that problems will increase due to climate change and population growth. The impact of climate change on water availability in EM/NE and in particular the Jordan River catchment is investigated in this study. Focus is set on the Upper Jordan River catchment (UJC) as it provides 1/3rd of freshwater resources in Israel and Palestine. It is a hydro-geologically extremely complex region with karstic groundwater flow and an orography with steep gradients. The methods used are high resolution coupled regional climate - hydrology simulations. Two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) of the global climate model ECHAM4 have been dynamically downscaled using the non-hydrostatic meteorological model MM5 in two nesting steps with resolutions of 54x54 km2 and 18x18 km2 for the period 1961-2099, whereby the time slice 1961-1989 represents the current climate. The meteorological fields are used to drive the physically based hydrological model WaSiM applied to the UJC. The hydrological model computes in detail the surface and subsurface water flow and water balance in a horizontal resolution of 450 x 450 m2 and dynamically couples to a 2-dim numerical groundwater model. Parameters like surface runoff, groundwater recharge, soil moisture and evapotranspiration can be extracted. Results show in both scenarios increasing yearly mean temperatures up to 4-5 K until 2099 and decreasing yearly precipitation amounts up to 25% (scenario A2). The effect on the water balance of the UJC are reduced discharge and groundwater recharge, increased evaporation and reduction of snow cover in the mountains which usually serves as an important freshwater reservoir for the summer discharge.

  19. Epidemiologic study on Besnoitia besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Ababneh, Mohammad M; Abutarbush, Sameeh M

    2015-07-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite and the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis which is considered as a re-emergent disease in Europe. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with B. besnoiti infection in 68 dairy herds (n?=?806 cows) in Jordan during the period from January to June 2007 and the spring of 2014. Data regarding herd's management was obtained by filling questionnaires through personal interviews with farmers. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect antibodies against B. besnoiti. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to B. besnoiti. At the individual cow and herd level, the true prevalence of seropositive animals was 6 and 28.7 %, respectively. Cows between 2 and 6 years of age had significantly higher seroprevalence of B. besnoiti than other age groups. The highest seroprevalence of B. besnoiti was found in Zarqa and Irbid governorates. Multivariable logistic regression model identified that exchanging visits by farm workers to neighboring farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to B. besnoiti, while smaller herd size and twice a day farm cleaning using sweeping and water hosing were identified as protective factors. This is the first study that investigated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical manifestation of B. besnoiti infection as well as to identify the possible presence of other Besnoitia species and definitive hosts for the parasite. PMID:25843571

  20. Quantifying sediment connectivity in Wadi Al-Arab (NW Jordan) using a sediment budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Pöppl, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Due to data scarcity, sediment connectivity most often only qualitatively describes the potential transfer of sediments through a landscape. However, quantitative information on sediment delivery is of special relevance for modelling approaches as well as for sustainable land and water management, especially in water scarce regions such as Jordan, where valuable water reservoirs suffer from sediment pollution. Measurements are needed to quantify sediment outputs of the different land units and to trace their pathways though the catchments. This study uses the outcomes of a multiple response sediment budget approach conducted in the Wadi al-Arab catchment in northwest Jordan (263.5 km²) to quantify sediment connectivity. The catchment shows a Mediterranean to semi arid climate and consists of carbonatic and marly geology of the Upper Cretaceous. The topography ranges from rolling hills in the East to steeper mountainous areas in the North and West were olive orchards are the main agricultural use. Soil erosion measurements in the main land use units and relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, and natural vegetated slopes uncovered the potential ranges of soil erosion rates in these units. Furthermore, the annual sediment yield in the Wadi Al Arab water reservoir was calculated. With the extrapolation of the erosion rates of the main contributing land use units and the annual sediment amount that reaches the sink, a maximum value of lateral sediment connectivity could be quantified, reaching up to 18%. A multiple sediment fingerprint method was used to delineate the relative contribution of each measured source to the sink based on the lake sediment samples. Supported by additional 137Cs analysis of terrace samples and a survey of the Wadi bed a high longitudinal connectivity could be derived. The applied method mix allowed the quantification of lateral sediment connectivity on catchment scale and gave a comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal connectivity in the Wadi bed, this way serving as possible data base to test available sediment connectivity models.

  1. Uranium and Potentially Toxic Metals During the Mining, Beneficiation, and Processing of Phosphorite and their Effects on Ground Water in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulkader M. Abed; Rushdi Sadaqah; Mustafa Al Kuisi

    2008-01-01

    Representative samples were collected from various stages of phosphorite mining and beneficiation from the Al-Abiad and Al-Hasa\\u000a mines in central Jordan and the Eshidiyya mine in southern Jordan. After open pit mining, the rock is crushed and dry-sieved\\u000a to pass 12 mm in order to concentrate the ore. The sieved material is then agitated, washed with fresh water, and wet sieved

  2. The effects upon children in Jordan of the imprisonment of their fathersA social work perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fakir Al Gharaibeh

    2008-01-01

    EnglishThis study examined the effects upon children in Jordan of fathers being imprisoned. Interviews were conducted with 26 mothers of children and NUDIST was used for qualitative data analysis. As elsewhere, the study confirmed that children are adversely affected and stigmatized: problems related to emotional development, behaviour and schooling were evident.FrenchCette étude examine les effets sur les enfants de Jordanie

  3. Application of a two-dimensional electrical tomography technique for investigating landslides along the Amman-Dead Sea highway, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Awni T. Batayneh; Abdullah A. Al-Diabat

    2002-01-01

    Electrical tomography geophysical surveys were conducted with the SYSCAL-R2 resistivity instrument at the location of instantaneous rock failure of a few 1,000s m3 along the Amman-Dead Sea highway, Jordan, providing a ground image for investigating landslide sites which caused material damage and closed the road. This slide occurred along two major fault planes after heavy rainfall in a rock consisting

  4. Model Investigations on the Groundwater System in Jordan – A Contribution to the Resources Management (National Water Master Plan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Schmidt; Ali Subah; Nidal Khalif

    In Jordan, groundwater is one of the major water resources and depends strongly on the regularity of the seasonal precipitation.\\u000a Although there is a considerable annual precipitation its contribution to the groundwater recharge is limited in time and\\u000a quantity. Precipitation is highly variable and drought periods occur frequently. Therefore, climate changes and the future\\u000a groundwater development are of vital interest

  5. Larval stages of digenetic trematodes of Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) (Thiaridae) snails from Yarmouk River, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naim S. Ismail; Sami K. Abdel-Hafez

    1983-01-01

    Seven new types of cercariae are described from the freshwater snailMelanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) collected from Yarmouk River, north Jordan, during 1982: two virgulate xiphidiocercariae, a microcotylous xiphidiocercaria belonging to the “Pusilla” sub-type, a brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria, a microcercous cercaria, and two pleurolophocercous cercariae. These cercariae are namedCercaria melanopsi I throughVII. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior

  6. Groundwater vulnerability assessment and evaluation of human activity impact (HAI) within the Dead Sea groundwater basin, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Al-Hanbali; Akihiko Kondoh

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability to contamination was determined within the Dead Sea groundwater basin, Jordan, using the DRASTIC\\u000a model and evaluation of human activity impact (HAI). DRASTIC is an index model composed of several hydrogeological parameters\\u000a and, in this study, the recharge parameter component was calculated as a function of rainfall, soil permeability, slope percentage,\\u000a fault system, and the intersection locations between

  7. Groundwater in the Shallow Aquifer of the Jericho Area, Jordan Valley – Noble Gas Evidence for Different Sources of Salinization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Lange; Konrad Hammerschmidt; Hans Friedrichsen; Amer Marei; Stephan M. Weise

    Arid to semi-arid conditions that generally promote water scarcity are common in many regions in the Near East. Moreover,\\u000a various places in that geographic domain are affected by groundwater salinization. This challenge is also shared by the Jericho\\u000a area, located on the western side of the lower Jordan Valley, about ten kilometres NW of the Dead Sea. Due to a

  8. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60°C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A.H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67°C), Gofra (68°C), the Russian Garden (40°C), and the Yesha well (53–65°C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation.

  9. Mumps: immune status of adults and epidemiology as a necessary background for choice of vaccination strategy in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Batayneh, Naji; Bdour, Salwa

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against mumps in 333 students at Jordan University was assessed using the ELISA technique. Most of the students (93.7%) were seropositive for mumps. About 50% of unvaccinated students and students vaccinated using the optional single-dose MMR vaccine had mumps. The incidence rate of mumps in different age groups and sexes, the geographic distribution and the seasonality of mumps infection prior to the adoption of compulsory MMR vaccination were investigated during the period from 1988 to 2000. Mumps occurred in all age groups in both sexes and the incidence rate was higher in children aged 5-14 years than in adults. There was a higher frequency in winter and spring with epidemic peaks in 1988, 1993 and 2000. Southern Jordan had the highest incidence rate due to low vaccination coverage by the private clinics. The data support the introduction of compulsory MMR vaccination in Jordan for all susceptible individuals. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the compulsory single-dose vaccine and, based on the outcome, a second dose of this vaccine is also recommended in order to achieve and maintain a high level of immunization. PMID:12390410

  10. Human and animal brucellosis in Jordan between 1996 and 1998: a study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, F K; El-Qaderi, S; Hailat, N Q; Razziq, R; Al-Darraji, A M

    2004-12-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses. The human blood samples were collected from two groups: first, from 800 apparently healthy people who were reporting to community hospitals for routine health checks and secondly, from 100 people from groups with a high-risk of contracting brucellosis, such as veterinarians, sheep-herders and laboratory technicians. The Brucella antibody titres for the 900 human serum samples were obtained using the microtitre agglutination test. The cumulative percentage of the serum samples showing a titre reading greater than 1:80 was higher in the at-risk group than among the normal population (7% compared to 4.1%). Although these results were not statistically significant, the higher percentage of positive reactors among the high-risk group may indicate an increased risk factor among professional agricultural and veterinary personnel in Jordan. It was concluded that brucellosis is common in sheep and goats in Jordan, subjecting the human population to high risks. Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination has been internationally recognised as the key to successfully controlling the disease. All animals in Jordan were repeatedly vaccinated between 1996 and 1998 on a trial basis, using a reduced dose of 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU). Cumulative data on the annual rate of human cases of brucellosis indicate that fewer people are affected each year. The same is true for the rate of abortions in animals. Such evidence strongly suggests that the vaccination programme has been successful. However, as wild strains of Brucella have also been isolated from vaccinated animals, the authors recommend increasing the amount of vaccine to a full dose of 1 to 2 x 10(9) CFU and vaccinating young female animals between the ages of three and eight months. To avoid brucellosis in humans, people should be educated about the dangers of contact with infected animals and the consumption of raw milk and milk products. PMID:15861878

  11. Anthropogenic Influence On Groundwater Quality In Jericho and And Adjoining Wadis (Lower Jordan Valley, Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, S.; Khayat, S.; Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Lower Jordan Valley is part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift. The graben is filled by sedmiments of limnological and marine origin. Towards the Dead Sea, the occurance of gipseous and salty sediments on the valley floor increase. The southern part of the Lower Jordan Valley, where the city of Jericho is situated, is an arid area (<150 mm precipitation/year), with less amount of exploitable fresh groundwater or surface water. Jericho was founded on an alluvial fan, closely to the western mountain range in front of mouth of Wadi Qilt. The fan serves as reservoir for infiltrating water from wadi runoff and groundwater from the crataceous aquifers of the western shoulder. The fan is surrounded by unsuitable aquifers of the graben, which are filled with saline water. The aim of this study, which takes place inside the multilateral SMART-project, is to understand the vulnerability of the Jericho groundwater aquifers in connection with lowering the groundwater table by overexploitation and the intensively use of pesticides Jericho and its vicinity are of most importance for the Palestinians. However, beside the about 25,000 residents, the tourism industry and the vital agriculture depend on sufficient and expoitable fresh water resources. Because the demand of water is increasing, overexpoitaion takes place. Due to over extraction of groundwater a huge depression cone is evolving during the dry season which is filled up again according to the groundwater recharge in the rainy season. Concomitantly, depression cone in the fresh water aquifers leads to an infiltration of the surrounding saltwater. The amount of saltwater which infiltrates into the freshwater resource was calculated by different stable isotope methods (d2H, d18O) and hydrochemical analyses of wellwater. The agriculture is main consumer of groundwater - over 60% of the pumped water is used for inefficient irrigation. Additionally, an intensive use of pesticides in concentrated liquid and gaseous forms for vegetable gardening hold the danger to pollute the groundwater via irrigation return flow. This return flow most probably endangers the quality of the water resource, because shallow wells nearby extract it directly from the underground. However, one result of the first screening campaign concerning pesticide remnants in the groundwater wells of Jericho, just traces have been detected. Thus, the higher amount of chemicals is retained by the soil during infiltration of irrigated water. The detected low concentrations in groundwater of the fan may be the result of outleaching from agricultural areas from the mountain range. The flood water of Wadi Qilt infiltrates partly in the fluviatil sediments. The ongoing investigations in the Wadi Qilt-Jericho area include an approach of combined hydrochemical and hydraulic studies to simulate the complex groundwater system at the edge of the graben and to prepare a sustainable groundwater management strategy for the area of Jericho.

  12. Adverse Reactions to Field Vaccination Against Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Hananeh, W M; Ramadan, W; Al Sheyab, O M; Alnajjar, A R; Al Zoubi, I G; Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Tuppurainen, E S M

    2014-08-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging disease in the Middle East region and has been recently reported in Jordan. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. Geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. Sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. Of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administration. The duration between vaccine administration and appearance of adverse clinical signs ranged from 1 to 20 days (Mean = 10.3, SD ± 3.9). Clinical signs were similar to those observed with natural cases of lumpy skin disease. These were mainly fever, decreased feed intake, decreased milk production and variable sized cutaneous nodules (a few millimetres to around 2 cm in diameter) that could be seen anywhere on the body (head, neck, trunk, perineum), udder, and/or teats. Nodules were raised and firm initially and then formed dry scabs that could be peeled off the skin. The characteristic deep 'sit fast' appearance was rarely seen and most lesions were superficial. Some cattle had swollen lymph nodes, while a few pregnant animals aborted. The percentage of affected cattle ranged from 0.3 to 25% (Mean = 8, SD ± 5.1). Fever, decreased feed intake, and decreased milk production were seen in 83.9, 85.7, and 94.6% in cattle on the affected farms, respectively. All affected cattle displayed skin nodules over their entire bodies, while 33.9 and 7.1% of the affected farms reported nodular lesions present on the udders and teats, respectively. No mortalities were reported due to vaccine adverse reactions. Duration (course) of clinical signs ranged from 3 to 20 days (Mean = 13.7, SD ± 4.1). Two types of LSD vaccines were used by the farmers in this study. The first one was a sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccine derived from the RM65 isolate [Jovivac(®) , manufactured by Jordan Bioindustries Centre (JOVAC)] and the other an unlabelled one, which was later identified using PCR as a strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Blood and skin samples collected from cattle vaccinated with the LSDV vaccine were positive for LSDV using both general and species-specific PCR primers, whereas those from cattle vaccinated with the Jovivac(®) vaccine were negative. Adverse reactions observed in cattle after administration of the LSDV vaccine were reported to be more severe than those seen after Jovivac(®) vaccine administration and were comparable with clinical signs observed in natural infections. PMID:25098267

  13. Jordan-Wigner formalism for arbitrary 2-input 2-output matchgates and their classical simulation

    E-print Network

    Richard Jozsa; Akimasa Miyake; Sergii Strelchuk

    2014-07-13

    In Valiant's matchgate theory, 2-input 2-output matchgates are 4x4 matrices that satisfy ten so-called matchgate identities. We prove that the set of all such matchgates (including non-unitary and non-invertible ones) coincides with the topological closure of the set of all matrices obtained as exponentials of linear combinations of the 2-qubit Jordan-Wigner (JW) operators and their quadratic products, extending a previous result of Knill. In Valiant's theory, outputs of matchgate circuits can be classically computed in poly-time. Via the JW formalism, Terhal & DiVincenzo and Knill established a relation of a unitary class of these circuits to the efficient simulation of non-interacting fermions. We describe how the JW formalism may be used to give an efficient simulation for all cases in Valiant's simulation theorem, which in particular includes the case of non-interacting fermions generalised to allow arbitrary 1-qubit gates on the first line at any stage in the circuit. Finally we give an exposition of how these simulation results can be alternatively understood from some basic Lie algebra theory, in terms of a formalism introduced by Somma et al.

  14. Issues of water supply and contemporary urban society: the case of Greater Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Potter, Robert B; Darmame, Khadija; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-11-28

    Over the last two decades, Jordan has suffered a chronic water crisis, and is the tenth most water-scarce nation on Earth. Such water stress has been well illustrated in the case of Greater Amman, the capital, which has grown dramatically from a population of around 2000 in the 1920s, to 2.17 million today. One of the distinctive characteristics of the water supply regime of Greater Amman is that since 1987 it has been based on a system of rationing, with households receiving water once a week for various durations. Amman is highly polarized socio-economically, and by means of household surveys, both quantitative and qualitative, conducted in high- and low-income divisions of the city, a detailed empirical evaluation of the storage and use of water, the strategies used by households to manage water and overall satisfaction with water supply issues is provided in this paper, looking specifically at issues of social equity. The analysis demonstrates the social and economic costs of water rationing and consequent management to be high, as well as emphasizing that issues of water quality are of central importance to all consumers regardless of their socio-economic status within the city. PMID:20956372

  15. A Unique Human-Fox Burial from a Pre-Natufian Cemetery in the Levant (Jordan)

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Stock, Jay T.; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J. N.; Miracle, Preston T.; Banning, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000–11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500–11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of ‘Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian. PMID:21298094

  16. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.

    1984-07-01

    Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques utilized in this study include a temperature survey and chemical analysis of wells and springs, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. Also, further site specific gravity modelling for the Warm Springs fault geothermal area and initial modelling for the entire valley were also conducted. Areas identified as having potential low-temperature geothermal resources at depth are: (1) the north-central valley area; (2) an east-west portion of the central valley; and (3) a north-south oriented area extending from Draper to Midvale. Each of these areas exhibits ground-water temperatures 20/sup 0/C or greater. Each area has thermal wells with common ion characteristics similar to both Crystal Hot Springs and the Warm Springs fault geothermal systems. Significant concentrations of Sr, Li, B, and F are present in many of these wells.

  17. Byzantine maritime trade in southern Jordan: The evidence from Port of Aila ('Aqaba).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nasarat, Mohammed

    Eusebius of Caesarea, in (Onomasticon) said that: "Ailath (Aila) is situated at the extremity of Palestine between the southern desert and the Red Sea where cargo was transported by ship from both Egypt and India". There is no doubt that port of Aila- 'Aqaba was important for the sea trade during the Byzantine Period and ancient times. Aila acquired significance in the Byzantine Empire commerce and seafaring according to the information derived from the Byzantine historians, documents and pilgrim's archaeological excavations. This paper focuses on Byzantine Maritime Trade in port of Aila during the period between the fourth and seventh centuries A.D, its importance in the flourishing of trade of southern Jordan, and its relations with other major trade centers such as Gaza, Alexandria and Ethiopia. It appears that port of Aila played a major role in the economy of Byzantine Empire and international trade as attested in the accounts of historians, pilgrims who visited the area during this period, and archaeological excavations which revealed that Aila was at least a transit point and perhaps even a production site for fish sauce or related products in the Byzantine period.

  18. Principal Components of Thermography analyses of the Silk Tomb, Petra (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    This communication presents the results of an active thermography survey of the Silk Tomb, which belongs to the Royal Tombs compound in the archaeological city of Petra in Jordan. The Silk Tomb is carved in the variegated Palaeozoic Umm Ishrin sandstone and it is heavily backweathered due to surface runoff from the top of the cliff where it is carved. Moreover, the name "Silk Tomb" was given because of the colourful display of the variegated sandstone due to backweathering. A series of infrared images were taken as the façade was heated by sunlight to perform a Principal Component of Thermography analyses with IR view 1.7.5 software. This was related to indirect moisture measurements (percentage of Wood Moisture Equivalent) taken across the façade, by means of a Protimeter portable moisture meter. Results show how moisture retention is deeply controlled by lithological differences across the façade. Research funded by Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914 and CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the equipment from RedLAbPAt Network

  19. The Chameleon Effect in the Jordan Frame of the Brans--Dicke Theory

    E-print Network

    Israel Quiros; Ricardo García-Salcedo; Tame Gonzalez; F. Antonio Horta-Rangel

    2015-06-20

    In this paper we investigate the chameleon effect in the different conformal frames of the Brans--Dicke theory. Given that, in the standard literature on the subject, the chameleon is described in the Einstein frame almost exclusively, here we pay special attention to the description of this effect in the Jordan and in the string frames. It is shown that, in general, terrestrial and solar system bounds on the mass of the BD scalar field, and bounds of cosmological origin, are difficult to reconcile at once through a single chameleon potential. We point out that, in a cosmological context, provided that the effective chameleon potential has a minimum within a region of constant density of matter, the Brans--Dicke theory transmutes into general relativity with a cosmological constant, in that region. This result, however, can be only locally valid. In cosmological settings de Sitter--general relativity is a global attractor of the Brans--Dicke theory only for the quadratic potential $V(\\phi)=M^2\\phi^2$, or for potentials that asymptote to $M^2\\phi^2$.

  20. The Chameleon Effect in the Jordan Frame of the Brans--Dicke Theory

    E-print Network

    Quiros, Israel; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, F Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the chameleon effect in the different conformal frames of the Brans--Dicke theory. Given that, in the standard literature on the subject, the chameleon is described in the Einstein frame almost exclusively, here we pay special attention to the description of this effect in the Jordan and in the string frames. It is shown that, in general, terrestrial and solar system bounds on the mass of the BD scalar field, and bounds of cosmological origin, are difficult to reconcile at once through a single chameleon potential. We point out that, in a cosmological context, provided that the effective chameleon potential has a minimum within a region of constant density of matter, the Brans--Dicke theory transmutes into general relativity with a cosmological constant, in that region. This result, however, can be only locally valid. In cosmological settings de Sitter--general relativity is a global attractor of the Brans--Dicke theory only for the quadratic potential $V(\\phi)=M^2\\phi^2$, or for ...

  1. Pain Assessment and Management in Critically ill Intubated Patients in Jordan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayasrah, Shahnaz Mohammad; O’Neill, Teresa Mary; Abdalrahim, Maysoon Saleem; Sutary, Manal Mohammed; Kharabsheh, Muna Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe: (1) pain indicators used by nurses and physicians to assess pain, (2) pain management interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) used by nurses, and (3) indicators used by nurses to verify pain intervention effectiveness. Methodology A total of 301 medical records of currently admitted patients from six different ICUs in Jordan were reviewed using a data collection instrument developed by Gélinas et al. (2004) Pain-related indicators were classified into non-observable (patient’s self-reports of pain) and observable (physiological and behavioral) categories. Results Only 105 (35%) of a total 301 reviewed medical records contained pain assessment data. From these medical records, 15 pain episodes were collected altogether. Observable indicators documented 98% of the 115 pain episodes. Patients’ self-reports of pain were documented only 1.7% of the time. In 78% and 46% of the 115 pain episodes, pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain management were documented, respectively. Only 37% of the pain episodes were reassessed with self- report (1%) and observable indicators (36%) to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion Pain documentation for assessment, management, and reassessment was lacking and needs improvement. PMID:25505864

  2. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-06-22

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  3. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  4. Tectono sedimentary evolution of the Umm Ghaddah Formation (late Ediacaran-early Cambrian) in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amireh, Belal S.; Amaireh, Mazen N.; Abed, Abdulkader M.

    2008-07-01

    The terrestrial Umm Ghaddah Formation of late Ediacaran-early Cambrian age was deposited in NE-SW elongated intracontinental rift system basins and sub-basins bounded by active listric half-graben faults. Basin fill consists of conglomerate facies association A, deposited in a fault-controlled transverse alluvial fan system that drained northwestward and graded laterally into sandstone facies association B, deposited by a braided river system flowing northeastward axial to the rift basin. The alluvial fan facies association was deposited by rock falls and non-cohesive debris flows of sediment gravity flow origin, and by sheetflood processes. The Umm Ghaddah Formation is dominated by a large-scale fining upward succession interpreted to reflect a gradual cessation of the Pan African Orogeny. Within this large-scale trend there are also minor fining and coarsening upward cycles that are attributed to repeated minor tectonic pulses and autocyclic shifting of the system. The distribution pattern of the Umm Ghaddah Formation and the underlying Ediacaran Sarmuj Conglomerates, Hiyala Volcaniclastics and Aheimir Volcanics in Jordan and adjacent countries in isolated extensional half-grabens and grabens formed during the extensional collapse phase of Arabia associated with the Najd Fault System seems to be unrelated to the present day Wadi Araba-Dead Sea transform fault system.

  5. Geophysical images of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan reveal an impermeable barrier for fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DESERT Research Group,; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weckmann, U.; Hoffmann-Rothe, A.; Abueladas, A.; Garfunkel, Z.

    2003-07-01

    High-resolutionseismictomography and magneto-telluric (MT) soundings of the shallow crust show strong changes in material properties across the Dead Sea Transform Fault (DST) in the Arava valley in Jordan. 2D inversion results of the MT data indicate that the DST is associated with a strong lateral conductivity contrast of a highly conductive layer at a depth of approximately 1.5 km cut-off at a position coinciding with the surface trace of the DST. At the same location, we observe a sharp increase of P wave velocities from <4 km/s west of the fault to >5 km/s to the east. The high velocities in the east probably reflect Precambrian rocks while the high electrical conductivity west of the DST is attributed to saline fluids within the sedimentary filling. In this sense, the DST appears to act as an impermeable barrier between two different rock formations. Such a localized fluid barrier is consistent with models of fault zone evolution but has so far not been imaged by geophysical methods. The situation at the DST is remarkably different from active segments of the San Andreas Fault which typically show a conductive fault core acting as a fluid conduit.

  6. Perceived Sources of Stress Among First-Year Nursing Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shudifat, Ra'ed M; Al-Husban, Raya Yousef

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the most prevalent sources of stress among first-year nursing students at a military college in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a convenience sample of 138 students (females between ages 18 and 22). The Student Stress Survey was used to identify stressors and assess their relative importance. The instrument consists of 40 items divided into four categories of potential sources of stress: (a) intrapersonal, (b) interpersonal, (c) academic, and (d) environmental. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The top five sources of stress reported were: increased class workload (89%), change in living environment (83%), change in social activities (78%), change in eating habits (77.5 %), and change in sleeping habits (76%), with academic sources of stress being the most frequently reported. The results provide valuable information for educators and administrators in nursing colleges to identify types of stress among first-year nursing students and establish strategies to reduce stress among such students, particularly from academic and environmental sources. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(6), 37-43.]. PMID:26091549

  7. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  8. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    BAWADI, Hiba A.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.; TAYYEM, Reema F.; MEKARY, Rania; TUURI, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients’ weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). Results Significant correlations (P < 0.001) were found between macronutrient content obtained from proximate analysis and those obtained from ESHA. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.92 for carbohydrate, 0.86 for protein, and 0.86 for fat. Strong correlations were also detected between proximate analysis FCT for carbohydrate (r=0.91, P<0.001) and protein (r=0.81; P<0.001) contents. However, this significant correlation was not found as strong, yet significant for fat (r=0. 62, P<0.001). Conclusion A valid exchange system for traditional desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World. PMID:21841913

  9. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J.; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Mari?evi?, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and “domestic” settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with “special purpose” buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities. PMID:21536900

  10. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M.; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-01-01

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term “honey” commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Reov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th–early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Reov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  11. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  12. Mathematics achievement based on gender among eight grade school students in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in gender base on numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among Jordanian 8th grade school students. The respondent of this study were 337 students from eight public secondary schools in Alkoura district and selected by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Finding from independent sample t-test shows that female student score higher than male students in numbers, algebra, mathematics achievement and spatial visualization. There is no significant difference in geometry base for gender. This study also indicates that numbers, algebra and mathematics achievement favorable to female and bias to male students. The main recommendations from this study are for teachers and other educational professionals to focus on the numbers and algebra for male students to improve the learning of mathematics, and feeding program through benefiting from tutorial classes to avoid of weakness in different aspects of mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics in secondary school students in Jordan continue to exist and these differences may influence future educational and occupational pathways.

  13. Wet and dry deposition fluxes of inorganic chemical species at a rural site in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, Idrees F

    2008-11-01

    Wet and dry deposition samples were collected in a rural region in northern Jordan during the period of December 1998 to April 2000. Concentrations of 20 chemical species (Na, K, Ca, H(+), Mg, NH(4)(+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Al, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, and V) were determined in collected samples. Most of the Al, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sb, and V were not soluble, whereas major ions (Na, K, Ca, H(+), Mg, NH(4)(+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and SO(4)(2-) ) and some trace elements (Cd, Cu, and Zn) were wet deposited mostly in the soluble form. Concentration of the soil-related elements and/or highly soluble species were washed out at the early stages of a precipitation event, and their concentrations were mostly controlled by dilution, whereas concentrations of anthropogenic species were controlled by other factors. Annual fluxes of the soil-related elements and ions were significantly higher than the primarily anthropogenic elements. This was attributed to the arid nature of the region and to the frequent input of the Saharan dust pulses. PMID:18351413

  14. Scalar-tensor cosmologies: Fixed points of the Jordan frame scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Tartu Observatory, Toravere 61602 (Estonia)

    2008-10-15

    We study the evolution of homogeneous and isotropic, flat cosmological models within the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with arbitrary coupling function and potential. After introducing the limit of general relativity we describe the details of the phase space geometry. Using the methods of dynamical systems for the decoupled equation of the Jordan frame scalar field we find the fixed points of flows in two cases: potential domination and matter domination. We present the conditions on the mathematical form of the coupling function and potential which determine the nature of the fixed points (attractor or other). There are two types of fixed points, both are characterized by cosmological evolution mimicking general relativity, but only one of the types is compatible with the Solar System parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) constraints. The phase space structure should also carry over to the Einstein frame as long as the transformation between the frames is regular which however is not the case for the latter (PPN compatible) fixed point.

  15. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, Malik Sy; Gammoh, Sana I; Robinson, Richard K

    2008-02-01

    The principal chemical components of milk from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) were monitored in Jordan over one year. The analyses included total solids, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and organic acids. Large seasonal variations in total solids and fat were apparent, with maxima in mid-winter of 139 and 39.0 g/l, respectively, and minima in August of 102 and 25.0 g/l. These differences may be sufficient to alter the sensory properties of the milk, and the fat: casein ratio may need standardisation for cheesemaking. The mean values of trace elements like zinc (5.8 mg/l), iron (4.4 mg/l) and manganese (0.05 mg/l) in Jordanian camel milk could provide valuable additions to the diet of urban populations, as could the mean concentration of vitamin C (33 mg/l). The levels of organic acids were generally higher than in bovine milk and, as with all the constituents of the milk, there were discernible patterns linking concentration and season of the year. PMID:17971263

  16. D\\'ecomposition effective de Jordan-Chevalley et ses retomb\\'ees en enseignement

    E-print Network

    Couty, Danielle; Zarouf, Rachid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to point the effectiveness of the Jordan-Chevalley decomposition, i.e. the decomposition of a square matrix $U$ with coefficients in a field $k$ containing the eigenvalues of $U$ as a sum $U=D+N,$ where $D$ is a diagonalizable matrix and $N$ a nilpotent matrix which commutes with $D.$ The most general version of this decomposition shows that every separable element $u$ of a $k$-algebra $A$ can be written in a unique way as a sum $u=d+n,$ where $d \\in A$ is absolutely semi-simple and where $n\\in A$ is nilpotent and commutes with $d.$ In fact an algorithm, due to C. Chevalley, allows to compute this decomposition: this algorithm is an adaptation to this context of the Newton method, which gives here the exact value of the absolutely semi-simple part $d$ of $u$ after a finite number of iterations. We illustrate the effectiveness of this method by computing the decomposition of a $15 \\times 15$ matrix having eigenvalues of multiplicity 3 which are not computable exactly. We also discu...

  17. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’. PMID:22413173

  18. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis ser. jordanica (serotype H71), a novel serovariety isolated in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Khyami-Horani, Hala; Hajaij, Myriam; Charles, Jean-François

    2003-07-01

    The novel strain of Bacillus thuringiensis J112 isolated from a soil sample in Jordan was classified and characterized in terms of toxicity against dipteran and nematode larvae, crystal protein pattern, plasmid profile, and cry gene content. A new name, Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety jordanica (H serotype 71), is proposed for the reference strain J112. The parasporal crystal proteins were toxic to 3(rd) instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster and to 2(nd) stage juveniles of root knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita, but showed poor mosquitocidal activity towards Culex pipiens molestus and Culiseta longiareolata larvae. Solubilized and trypsin-digested crystal proteins possessed moderate hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that crystals are composed of several polypeptides ranging from 24 to 170 kDa, of which the 20-, 42-, 140-, and 170-kDa proteins were the major components. Analysis of the plasmid pattern of J112 revealed the presence of two large plasmidic bands of about 160 and 205 kbp. PCR with total DNA from strain J112 and specific primers for cry1, cry2, cry3, cry4, and cyt2A genes revealed that cry1, cry3A, cry4, cry5 and cyt2a genes are present. PMID:12783189

  19. Molecular survey of avian respiratory pathogens in commercial broiler chicken flocks with respiratory diseases in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Roussan, D A; Haddad, R; Khawaldeh, G

    2008-03-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry. In this study, trachea swabs from 115 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV subtype H9N2, IBV, NDV, and APV by using reverse transcription PCR and for MG by using PCR. The PCR and reverse transcription PCR results showed that 13 and 14.8% of these flocks were infected with NDV and IBV, respectively, whereas 5.2, 6.0, 9.6, 10.4, 11.3, and 15.7% of these flocks were infected with both NDV and MG; MG and APV; IBV and NDV; IBV and MG; NDV and AIV; and IBV and AIV, respectively. Furthermore, 2.6% of these flocks were infected with IBV, NDV, and APV at the same time. On the other hand, 11.3% of these flocks were negative for the above-mentioned respiratory diseases. Our data showed that the above-mentioned respiratory pathogens were the most important causes of respiratory disease in broiler chickens in Jordan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs and importance of these pathogens. PMID:18281569

  20. Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers greatly influence flow patterns in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Water generally flows toward these streams from surrounding water-level highs. Heavy pumping has caused only localized cones of depression. In contrast, pumping in Minneapolis and St. Paul has greatly influenced ground-water flow in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer, resulting in a large cone of depression. Between 1971 and 1980 average water levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer changed less than 5 feet in most of the study area, while average water levels in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer rose as much as 60 feet in the center of the cone of depression. Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation of annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from 1971 to 1980 from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer caused rising water levels in that aquifer, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage for the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years. (USGS)

  1. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units. PMID:18957751

  2. External Mill Monitoring of Wheat Flour Fortification Programs: An Approach for Program Managers Using Experiences from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Nichols, Erin; Mas’d, Hanan; Barham, Rawhieh; Johnson, Quentin W.; Serdula, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of wheat flour with micronutrients is a common strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. While wheat flour mills are often inspected by agencies affiliated with national ministries to ensure compliance with national fortification standards, few countries use data derived from these inspections to construct an external monitoring system for use in program management and evaluation. The primary objective of this paper is to assess the performance of the external monitoring system utilized in Jordan according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. A secondary objective is to present mill monitoring results from 2009 to 2010 in order to demonstrate the data generated by the system. The review concludes that the data required for the system is representative, simple to collect, and can be collected in a flexible manner. The external monitoring system is acceptable to participating agencies and millers and is stable due to mandatory fortification legislation which provides the legal framework for external monitoring. Data on production of fortified flour and utilization of premix can be provided in a timely manner, but on-site mill monitoring and flour sample collection are more challenging due to resource constraints. The frequent collection of a small number of indicators can provide fortification program managers with timely information with which to base decisions. Jordan’s external monitoring system successfully documented the performance of each mill and the entire flour fortification program, and can serve as a model for other national fortification programs considering external monitoring approaches. PMID:24284616

  3. Flock-level seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, Neospora caninum among sheep and goats in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Abu-Halaweh, Marwan M

    2010-01-01

    During the period January 2002 to December 2003, serum samples were collected from 104 small ruminant flocks consisting of 18 sheep flocks, 27 goat flocks and 59 mixed flocks containing both sheep and goats in northern Jordan. Only female animals were sampled. At least 5 females aged over 2 years per flock per species were sampled and examined for anti-Neospora caninum antibodies using ELISA. To increase the chances of detecting positive flocks, sick or older ewes were sampled. Also, N. caninum DNA was investigated in 7 sheep brains using PCR technique and 1 was found positive. The flock-level true seroprevalence in small ruminants was 53% (95% CI: 43,63). The true flock-level seroprevalence was higher in sheep (92%) than goats (12%) (OR=55; 95% CI: 17,197). Similarly, the individual-level seroprevalence in sheep and goat was 63% and 2% respectively (OR=25; 95% CI: 16,39). Out of 32 production and health management variables, the presence of dogs with the flock (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2,10) enhanced seropositivity. Cold temperate climate (OR=0.1, 95% CI: 0.03,0.4), veterinary supervision (OR=0.2, 95% CI: 0.06,0.6) and buying healthy animals to replace those culled (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1,0.97) reduced the risk of seropositivity. Both sheep and goats in Jordan are exposed to N. caninum infection with higher seroprevalence in sheep than goats. The contribution of N. caninum to abortion in small ruminant flock needs to be evaluated. Educating the farmers with regard to the role of dogs in transmitting N. caninum infection is expected to enhance small ruminant health in Jordan. PMID:19923025

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine utilization by a sample of infertile couples in Jordan for infertility treatment: clinics-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is little information available to quantify the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), growing evidence suggests that CAM prevalence among patients seeking infertility treatment is increasing worldwide. There are many products available on the market and many infertile patients demand information about CAM from their health care providers. This paper investigates the prevalence of CAM use among infertile couples in Jordan. Additionally, trends and factors contributing to CAM use for infertility treatment among these couples have been evaluated. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information, use of CAM for medical conditions, in general, and types of CAM used for infertility treatment, in specific, was completed by one thousand twenty one infertile patients attending at two types of facilities; in vitro Fertilization (IVF) centers at both public and private hospitals and infertility private clinics. Both types of facilities were distributed in different areas of Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between May and August 2012. Results Our results show that CAM therapies for infertility treatment were encountered in 44.7% of the study sample. The vast majority of CAM users were females. The most commonly used CAM therapies were herbs and spiritual healing. A clear correlation between the use of CAM for infertility versus the use of CAM for other chronic medical conditions has been found. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use for infertility treatment in Jordan is relatively high, particularly among young females, well educated and with a low income, in consistence with the studies reported elsewhere. Herbs and spiritual healing are widely used among patients in adjunct to conventional medical interventions. As CAM use is prevalent among patients, there is a clear need for health providers to become more aware of this phenomenon and for further research in this field. PMID:23414246

  5. The influence of patients' knowledge on adherence to their chronic medications: a cross-sectional study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Awwad, Oriana; Akour, Amal; Al-Muhaissen, Suha; Morisky, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Background Non-adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses is considered the major reason why patients fail to reach their clinical goals, resulting in suboptimal health outcomes, death, and extra costs on the health care systems. Knowledge about the disease and prescription medications, an understanding of the reason the medication is needed, and good expectations or attitudes toward treatment, all contribute to a better medication-taking behavior and are associated with higher rates of adherence. Objective This study examines the relationship between knowledge and adherence of patients receiving long-term therapy for one or more chronic illnesses in Jordan. Settings The study was conducted in the out-patient clinics of two Jordanian hospitals (The University of Jordan Hospital and Jordan Hospital). Methods This was a cross-sectional study that included 902 patients. The correlation between patients' knowledge about their chronic medications and adherence was assessed. Effects of several sociodemographic characteristics were investigated in regard to knowledge and adherence. Main outcome measures Knowledge was assessed by a modified version of the McPherson index, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to assess medication adherence. Results A significant correlation was found between patients' knowledge and their adherence to medications (r = 0.357, p < 0.001). Most of the participants had low adherence. Younger age, higher education levels, high income, fewer medications and diseases were significant predictors of higher knowledge levels. Knowledgeable patients were found to be twice as likely to have moderate-to-high adherence as their unknowledgeable counterparts. Similarly, high income and higher education were associated with higher adherence scores. Conclusion Forgetfulness and aversion toward medications were the most common barriers to medication adherence. This implicates that clinicians and health care policy makers should direct their effort toward two main strategies to improve adherence increasing awareness and education of effective ways to remind patients about their medications. PMID:25708124

  6. Teaching Science in Engineering Freshman Class in Private University in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarey, M. M.; Malkawi, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    A United Nations initiative for the Arab region that established and calculated National Intellectual Capital Index has shown that Jordan is the wealthiest Arab country in its National Human Capital Index (i.e. metrics: literacy rate, number of tertiary schools per capita, percentage of primary teachers with required qualifications, number of tertiary students per capita, cumulative tertiary graduates per capita, percentage of male grade 1 net intake, percentage of female grade 1 net intake) and National Market Capital Index (i.e. metrics: high-technology exports as a percentage of GDP, number of patents granted by USPTO per capita, number of meetings hosted per capita) despite its low ranking when it comes to National Financial Capital (i.e. metric: GDP per capita). The societal fabric in Jordan fully justifies this: the attention paid to education is extreme and sometimes is considered fanatic (e.g. marriage of a lot of couples needs to wait until both graduate from the university). Also, the low financial capital has forced a lot of people to become resourceful in order to provide decent living standard to their beloved ones. This reality is partially manifested in the sharp increase in the number of universities (i.e. 10 public and 20 private ones) relative to a population of around 6.5 million. Once in an engineering freshman classroom, it is totally up to the lecturers teaching science in private Jordanian universities to excel in their performance and find a way to inject the needed scientific concepts into the students' brains. For that, clips from movies that are relevant to the topics and truthful in their scientific essence have been tested (e.g. to explain the pressure on humans due to rapidly increasing "g" force, a clip from the movie "Armageddon" proved very helpful to Physics 101 students, and entertaining at the same time), plastic toys have also been tested to illustrate simple physical concepts to the same students (e.g. a set called The Junior Engineer covers vast concepts relevant to Newton's Laws and Work-Energy Theorem, while originally aimed at 3-year old kids), and YouTube has become so rich in it scientific content that it has not been hard to find any experiment or simulation there so that the students connect the dry blackboard and chalk to real life. As freshmen are still immature and sensing their way through, wondering if they will be able to get the title of Engineer or not, the usage of such familiar mediums and tools such as movies, toys, videos and simulations to illustrate basics to them has proved efficient and is regarded as an ideal ice-breaker towards a challenging journey of engineering classes. As long as the scientific content is not compromised, we believe that more mediums should be tested. This paper will highlight these affairs.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of nasal isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Amin A; Alzoubi, Hamed M; Vickers, Anna; Pichon, Bruno; Kearns, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can predispose the host to a wide range of infections. To inform public health strategies, this study sought to determine the prevalence and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA from nasal swabs of health care workers (HCWs) and other healthy individuals in Jordan. Overall, 716 nasal swabs were collected from 297 HCWs, 141 adults and 278 children in the community. MRSA was recovered from 56 (7.8%) nasal swabs, which represented carriage rates of 10.1%, 4.3% and 7.2% among HCWs, adults and children, respectively. The MRSA isolates were resistant to oxacillin (100%), erythromycin (42.8%), tetracycline (37.5%), clindamycin (5.3%), fucidin (5.3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.5%). A total of 17 different spa types belonging to eight different clonal complexes (CCs) were identified. All isolates were mecA positive, and mecC-MRSA was not detected. Analysis of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements revealed that the majority (54; 96.4%) of the samples harbored the smaller type IV and V elements (the most common were SCCmec IVa or IVc, and there were two each of the IVg and V elements), and two were nontypable. The genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (luk-PV) were detected in 5.4% of the study isolates. A tst-positive, CC22-MRSA-SCCmecIVa clone (spa type t223) was identified as the dominant MRSA lineage among the nasal carriage isolates from both HCWs and other individuals (adults and children) in the community. These findings provide important information for public health personnel for the formulation of effective infection prevention and control strategies. Studies to further our understanding of the distribution, pathogenicity, transmissibility and fitness of this lineage would be prudent. PMID:25002017

  8. Trend analysis in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, north of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Temporal status and trends in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, Jordan, from 2006 to 2012 indicate that the dam is subject to a combination of impacts from rainstorm and agricultural runoffs. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall events, evaporation, and water-level fluctuation are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Al-Wehda Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO?, and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of carbonate weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed a cyclic pattern with highest values observed in the spring seasons. Total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca, Mg, and HCO? are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the rainy winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH?-N contents showed decreased values in winter. Peaks in NO?-N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Fluctuations in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP). Seasonal variations in organic matter content were also apparent, with peaks that generally occurred in spring through early fall corresponding with high algal growth. On an annual basis, the vast majority of water quality data have generally declined, particularly, in 2011. However, it is not clear whether these decreases are related to change in management practices within the Yarmouk basin, or protective measures have been implemented. Comparison of in-lake and post-dam water quality from 2009 to 2011 showed variation in concentrations, where Ca, HCO?, NO?-N, Mg, and TDS showed relatively greater post-dam values than in-lake water, whereas pH, Na, Cl, K, COD, BOD?, and chlorophyll-a were consistently lower in post-dam water. This comparison emphasizes the importance of self-purification capacity of Al-Wehda Dam in reducing some contaminants. PMID:25027776

  9. Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in surface sediments of Ziqlab Reservoir, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Batayneh, Awni T; El-Radaideh, Nazem; Ghrefat, Habes; Zumlot, Taisser; Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M; Al-Momani, Talal; Taani, Aymen

    2015-02-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from Ziqlab dam in northwestern Jordan to investigate the spatial distribution of selected trace metals and assess their pollution levels. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn exceeded the environmental background values. Cd, Ni, and Cr contents were higher than the threshold effect level (TEL) in 63, 83, and 60 % of the reservoir sediments, respectively; whereas Pb, Zn, and Cu were less than the TEL limit. The concentrations of trace metals in reservoir sediment varied spatially, but their variations showed similar trends. Elevated levels of metals observed in the western part (adjacent to the dam wall) were coincided with higher contents of clay-silt fraction and total organic matters. Multivariate analysis indicated that Pb, Co, and Mn may be related to the lithologic component and/or the application of agrochemicals in the upstream agricultural farms. However, Cd and Zn concentrations were probably elevated due to inputs from agricultural sources, including fertilizers. Evaluation of contamination levels by the Sediment Quality Guidelines of the US-EPA, revealed that sediments were non-polluted to moderately polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr, but non-polluted to moderately to heavily polluted with Ni and non-polluted with Mn. The geoaccumulation index showed that Ziqlab sediments were unpolluted with Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, and Mn, but unpolluted to moderately polluted with Cd. The high enrichment values for Cd and Pb (>2) indicate their anthropogenic sources, whereas the remaining elements were of natural origins consistent with their low enrichment levels. PMID:25632906

  10. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the 595 Ma shoshonitic Qunai monzogabbro, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.

    2013-12-01

    The last stage in the formation of the Arabian Nubian Shield in Jordan was dominated by post-orogenic igneous activity of the ˜610-542 Ma Araba Suite, including a monzogabbroic stock intruding the Saramuj Conglomerate, near the southeastern corner of the Dead Sea. The geological setting, petrography, geochemistry and geothermometry of the monzogabbro and other cogenetic varieties are used to shed light on the petrogenesis of this stock and reveal its magma source. The monzogabbro, megaporphyry dikes, and scattered syenite pockets are co-magmatic and alkaline, potassic and shoshonitic in nature. REE and trace elements patterns indicate that these magmas were produced from a mantle that had been modified by subduction-related metasomatism. The parental mafic magma could have been derived by 10% partial melting of LILE-enriched phlogopite-bearing spinel lherzolite, probably lithospheric mantle, in association with post-collisional extension. Fractional crystallization of this parental magma by olivine and pyroxene gave rise to the monzogabbroic magma. The megaporphyry dikes with their giant labradorite plagioclase megacrysts represent feeders of a voluminous volcanic activity that could have lasted for about 105 years. Thermodynamic modeling applying the MELTS software indicates crystallization of this suite in the temperature range of 1184-760 °C at a pressure of 2 kbars, agreeing with olivine-pyroxene, pyroxene, and two-feldspar thermometry. The modeled mineralogy and sequence of crystallization of constituent minerals using MELTS is in remarkable agreement with the observed modal mineralogy of the monzogabbro. Furthermore, a great degree of congruity exists between the modeled and observed chemistry of the major minerals with only minor discrepancies between modeled composition of biotite and olivine.

  11. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic Losses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al Zoubi, I G; Al Sheyab, O M; Al Zoubi, M G; Alekish, M O; Al Gharabat, R J

    2013-10-21

    The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Jordan and associated clinical signs, complications and preliminary economic losses. In mid-April, 2013, two adult dairy cattle developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD and were confirmed as positive by PCR. The two cases were in Bani Kenanah district, Irbid governorate, on the Jordanian border of Israel and Syria. The disease spread rapidly to all the districts of Irbid governorate. During the month following the emergence of the disease, data were collected related to the epidemiology of the disease and the numbers of affected cattle on the premises. Forty-one dairy cattle holdings were surveyed. The morbidity rate ranged from 3% to 100%, (Mean = 35.1%, SD ±28.5%). The mortality rate ranged from 0% to 20%, (Mean = 1.3%, SD ±4.4%). The case fatality rate ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 6.2%, SD ±22%). The overall morbidity rate was 26%, mortality rate 1.9% and case fatality rate 7.5%. Skin nodules, anorexia, decreased milk production and decreased body weight were common clinical signs, while mastitis and myiasis were seen as complications in a few affected animals. Decreased body weight ranged from 0% to 80%, (Mean = 23.1%, SD ±15.7%). Decreased milk production ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 51.5%, SD ±22.2%). Affected cattle were treated mainly with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The cost of treatment ranged from 0 to 84.3 British Pound/animal, (Mean = 27.9 GBP, SD ±22.5 GBP). LSD continues to spread through the Middle East region and poses a serious threat to the rest of Asia and Europe. International collaboration and communication is warranted to prevent the further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:24148185

  12. Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Schaetti, Christian; Liswi, Mohammad; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO). Methods Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support. Results Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes “sex with prostitutes” and “sex with animals.” Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants. Conclusions Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma. PMID:24695243

  13. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  14. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    E-print Network

    R. D. Mota; M. A. Xicotencatl; V. D. Granados

    2008-01-30

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown {\\it a priori}. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman SU(3) symmetry group matrices. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that generalized Stokes Operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization density matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometric properties of the polarization ellipse

  15. Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaga, Yoshie

    2007-01-01

    Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

  16. Clay Templeton, Kenneth R. Fleischmann, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Simulating Audiences: Automating Analysis of Values, Attitudes, and Sentiment. IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, 2011.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Clay Templeton, Kenneth R. Fleischmann, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Simulating Audiences: Automating. @inproceedings{Templeton:Fleischmann:Boyd-Graber-2011, Author = {Clay Templeton and Kenneth R. Fleischmann, and Sentiment}, } 1 #12;Simulating Audiences Automating Analysis of Values, Attitudes, and Sentiment Thomas Clay

  17. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of active faults along the Dead Sea Transform and implications for seismic hazards within the city of Aqaba, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Slater; Tina M. Niemi

    2003-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used in an effort to locate a major active fault that traverses Aqaba City, Jordan. Measurements over an exposed (trenched) cross fault outside of the city identify a radar signature consisting of linear events and horizontal offset\\/flexured reflectors both showing a geometric correlation with two known faults at a control site. The asymmetric linear events are

  18. Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy M. Haynes; Tina M. Niemi; Mohammad Atallah

    2006-01-01

    The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault.

  19. A test of the validity of morphometric analysis in determining tectonic activity from ASTER derived DEMs in the Jordan-Dead Sea Transform zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husam Abbas Ata

    2008-01-01

    The Jordan-Dead Sea Transform (JDTZ) is an active tectonic zone which is located between the Dead Sea in the north and the Gulf of Aqaba in the south and extends approximately 245 km. The JDTZ has a complicated geomorphological setting and varied geology and it contains a number of active faults that were associated with several significant destructive earthquakes in

  20. The Economic Impact of IMF and World Bank Programs in the Middle East and North Africa: A Case Study of Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983 - 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane R. Harrigan; Hamed El-Said

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether the economic reforms attached to IMF and World Bank policy-based lending in the Middle East and North Africa have stimulated sustained economic growth. In order to investigate this, we chose four countries to study in depth: Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. These were chosen as they have been put forward by both the IMF and the

  1. Monitoring Education-for-All Goals: Focussing on Learning Achievement. Progress Report on the Project's First Five Countries: China, Jordan, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    The joint UNESCO-UNICEF Monitoring Education-for-All Goals Project was launched in September 1992. The first phase of the project was implemented in five pilot countries (China, Jordan, Mali, Mauritius, and Morocco) with the express aim of providing national decision makers with practical tools for monitoring basic education in their countries and…

  2. The Streptomyces flora of Badia region of Jordan and its potential as a source of antibiotics active against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Saadoun; Raad Gharaibeh

    2003-01-01

    A total of 60 different Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 12 soil samples collected from the Badia region north-eastern of Jordan. These were then characterized by conventional methods and assessed for their antagonistic activity against three pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Results indicated that grey and white colour series were the most abundant with 30% of all isolates active against, at

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Adrian Lee, Christan Hajen, Fangqing Chen, Jonathan Wong, Jordan Miller, Linus Yau

    E-print Network

    Hajen, Fangqing Chen, Jonathan Wong, Jordan Miller, Linus Yau Re-envisioning the UBC Botanical Garden-envisioning the UBC Botanical Garden, as part of the CIVL 445 course deliverables. The purpose of this report is to present a conceptual design for redeveloping the UBC Botanical Garden with a justification and in

  4. VECTOR RESTORATION FOR VIDEO CODING J. S. McVeigh*, S.-W. Wu**, M. W. Siegel* and A. G. Jordan*

    E-print Network

    Siegel, Mel

    VECTOR RESTORATION FOR VIDEO CODING J. S. McVeigh*, S.-W. Wu**, M. W. Siegel* and A. G. Jordan We present a novel concept, vector restoration, for motion compensated predictive coding of video, the predicted images are operated upon directly with the goal of restoring the original images at the decoder

  5. Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey L Moe; Gregory Pappas; Andrew Murray

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership

  6. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  7. Evolutionary Bioinformatics 2006: 2 295300 295 Correspondence: I. King Jordan, School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 310 Ferst Drive, Atlanta,

    E-print Network

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, U.S.A. 3 School of Biology Genes Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez1 , Olivier Bodenreider2 , Natalie Kantz1 and I. King Jordan3 1 National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, U.S.A. 2

  8. A Free Energy Model for Thinfilm Shape Memory Alloys Jordan E. Massad *1 , Ralph C. Smith 1 and Greg P. Carman 2

    E-print Network

    A Free Energy Model for Thin­film Shape Memory Alloys Jordan E. Massad *1 , Ralph C. Smith 1 Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Dept., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 ABSTRACT Thin­film shape memory alloys comparison with thin­film NiTi superelastic hysteresis data. Keywords: Shape memory alloy model; thin film

  9. Advances in Persistent Object Systems, Morrison, Jordan, and Atkinson (Eds.). Morgan Kaufmann, 1999. Optimizing the read and write barriers for orthogonal persistence

    E-print Network

    Hosking, Antony

    Advances in Persistent Object Systems, Morrison, Jordan, and Atkinson (Eds.). Morgan Kaufmann, 1999 elimination 1 Introduction A persistent system [Atkinson and Morrison 1995] treats permanent storage of transparency and orthogonality have been repeatedly articulated [Atkinson and Morrison 1995; Moss and Hosking

  10. Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

    2012-03-01

    In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly interbeds to accelerate sliding during mass wasting. The most vulnerable areas prone to slope instabilities are those with compressional tectonics followed by extensional movements, with fault bound springs and smectite-bearing marly layers interbedded with pure massive limestones. The semi-arid to arid climate with periodic rainfalls combined with subsurface water circulation along the joints and faults can trigger mass wasting.

  11. Characterisation and modelling of conduit restricted karst aquifers - Example of the Auja spring, Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Geyer, Tobias; Guttman, Joseph; Marei, Amer; Ries, Fabian; Sauter, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The conduit system of mature karstified carbonate aquifers is typically characterised by a high hydraulic conductivity and does not impose a major flow constriction on catchment discharge. As a result, discharge at karst springs is usually flashy and displays pronounced peaks following recharge events. In contrast, some karst springs reported in literature display a discharge maximum, attributed to reaching the finite discharge capacity of the conduit system (flow threshold). This phenomenon also often leads to a non-standard recession behaviour, a so called “convex recession”, i.e. an increase in the recession coefficient during flow recession, which in turn might be used as an indicator for conduit restricted aquifers. The main objective of the study is the characterisation and modelling of those hydrogeologically challenging aquifers. The applied approach consists of a combination of hydrometric monitoring, a spring hydrograph recession and event analysis, as well as the setup and calibration of a non-linear reservoir model. It is demonstrated for the Auja spring, the largest freshwater spring in the Lower Jordan Valley. The semi-arid environment with its short but intensive precipitation events and an extended dry season leads to sharp input signals and undisturbed recession periods. The spring displays complex recession behaviour, exhibiting exponential (coefficient ?) and linear (coefficient ?) recession periods. Numerous different recession coefficients ? were observed: ?0.2 to 0.8 d-1 (presumably main conduit system), 0.004 d-1 (fractured matrix), 0.0009 d-1 (plateau caused by flow threshold being exceeded), plus many intermediate values. The reasons for this observed behaviour are the outflow threshold at 0.47 m3 s-1 and a variable conduit-matrix cross-flow in the aquifer. Despite system complexity, and hence the necessity of incorporating features such as a flow threshold, conduit-matrix cross-flow, and a spatially variable soil/epikarst field capacity, the developed reservoir model is regarded as relatively simplistic. As a number of required parameters were calculated from the hydrogeological analysis of the system, it requires only six calibration parameters and performs well for the highly variable flow conditions observed. Calculated groundwater recharge in this semi-arid environment displays high interannual variability. For example, during the 45-year simulation period, only five wet winter seasons account for 33% of the total cumulative groundwater recharge.

  12. Chemical characteristics of rainwater collected at a western site of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out from October 2006 to May 2007 in Ghore El-Safi area western side of Jordan nearby the Dead Sea. Rainwater samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, NH 4+, HCO 3-, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd). The highest concentration of elements is observed at the beginning of the rainfall season when large amounts of dust accumulated in the atmosphere scavenged by rain. The majority of rainwater had a neutral or alkaline character as a result of neutralization caused by the alkaline local dusts which contain large amount of CaCO 3. The pH ranged from 4.8 to 8.2 with a mean value of 6.9 ± 0.65 which was in alkaline range considering 5.6 as the neutral pH of cloud water with atmospheric CO 2 equilibrium. In the total 35 rain events, only three events were observed in acidic range (< 5.6) which occurred after continuous rains. The equivalent concentration of components followed the order: Ca 2+ > HCO 3- > Cl - > Mg 2+ > NO 3- > SO 42- > NH 4+ > Na + > K +. Rainwater chemistry was analyzed using Factor Component Analysis to find the possible sources of the measured species. Three components that accounted for 84% of the total variance were extracted sea salts spray (Na+, Cl - and Mg 2+), and soil particles (natural origin), (Mg 2+, Ca 2+ and HCO 3-) and biomass burning (NH 4+). The results obtained in this study are compared with those other studies conducted at different sites in the world. In general, the results of this study suggested that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local anthropogenic sources (potash factory and agricultural activities in Ghore El-Safi area) rather than natural and marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from long distance transport, local industry and traffic sources.

  13. Home visits to improve breast health knowledge and screening practices in a less privileged area in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer afflicting women in Jordan. This study aimed to assess the effects of an educational intervention through home visits, including offering free mammography screening vouchers, on changing women’s breast health knowledge and screening practices for early detection of breast cancer in a less privileged area in Jordan. Methods Two thousand four hundred breast health awareness home visits were conducted and 2363 women aged 20-79 years (median: 41) answered a pre-test interview-administrated questionnaire to assess their breast health knowledge and practices at the baseline. After a home-based educational session, 625 women aged 40 years or older were referred to free mammography screening. Five hundred and ninety six homes were revisited six months later and out of these 593 women participated in a post-test. The women’s retained breast health knowledge, the changes in their reported breast health practices and their usage of the free mammography voucher, were assessed. Results The mean knowledge score increased significantly (p?Jordan. PMID:24885063

  14. Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered 3D tissues Jordan S. Miller, Kelly R. Stevens, Michael T. Yang, Brendon M. Baker, Duc-Huy T. Nguyen,

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered 3D tissues Jordan S. Miller with isoflorane and the portal vein was cannulated. The liver was perfused and digested 1 Rapid casting

  15. Generalization of the Jordan-Wigner transformation in three dimensions and its application to the Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, B.; Azzouz, M.

    2001-08-01

    We extend the definition of the Jordan-Wigner transformation to three dimensions using the generalization of ideas that were introduced in the two-dimensional case by one of the present authors. Under this transformation, the three-dimensional XY spin Hamiltonian is mapped onto a system of spin-less fermions coupled to a gauge field with only two nonzero components. This gauge field is calculated explicitly. Then we apply this transformation to the investigation of the Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet. The interesting quantum disordered state realized in this material for strong interlayer couplings is studied in detail. We define the physical parameter that governs this state, and calculate analytically several quantities, such as the ground-state energy and the energy gap as a function of the interlayer coupling. Very good agreement with existing results and with the infinite interlayer coupling limit is recovered.

  16. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being seropositive was the introduction of new animals (OR=11.7, 95% CI: 2.8-49.4); while separation of newly introduced animals (OR=0.09, 95% CI: 0.03-0.29), herd disinfection (OR=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.15) and having calving pens (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.43) significantly reduced the odds of infection. Brucellosis is endemic at high levels across Jordan, and the current vaccination programme, which is limited to small ruminants, has very low coverage. A revised brucellosis control programme is required in Jordan. Given the high baseline prevalence, it should be based on vaccination accompanied by measures to promote hygiene and husbandry practices that minimize the risk of introduction and maintenance of Brucella spp., and thereby the risk of human infection. PMID:25619944

  17. Smoking behaviour, knowledge and perceived susceptibility to lung cancer among secondary-school students in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shadid, H M; Hossain, S Z

    2015-03-01

    Smoking in Jordan is a serious problem as it affects almost all segments of society including children. This study aimed to evaluate the smoking behaviour of Jordanian secondary-school students (aged 16-18 years), their awareness of the dangers of smoking and their perceived susceptibility to lung cancer. Of the stratified random sample of students from Amman schools (n = 648), 43% were ever smokers (had smoked for 1 year) and 27.6% were current smokers, while 81% reported having a smoker in the family. Students in western Amman (higher socioeconomic status) and those who started smoking at a younger age demonstrated better knowledge about smoking-related consequences. Perceived susceptibility to lung cancer was significantly associated with sex, perceived seriousness of lung cancer and school location. Students' sex, socioeconomic status and the family environment were important factors that influenced students' smoking behaviour and risk perceptions and these findings have significant policy implications. PMID:26074218

  18. 'We are nurses, they are doctors': barriers to nurses' roles in pain management following surgery in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shoqirat, Noordeen

    2015-04-01

    This study explored barriers to nurses' roles in pain management following surgery in Jordan. A qualitative approach using four focus group discussions (n?=?4) was used. The total convenience sample of surgical wards nurses included 25 nurses. The analysis revealed two categories explaining the context and perceived barriers affecting nurses' roles in pain management. First were barriers within bedside nursing, comprising attention-seeking patients, 'buzzer obsession' and family interferences. Second were barriers within nursing, comprising lack of staff and 'nurses need pain relief before patients', and the perception of 'we are nurses, they are doctors.' Nurses' roles in managing patients' pain following surgery is hindered by contextually complex barriers identified by this research. Multidisciplinary actions are therefore urgently needed to address barriers to pain management at the nursing professional, ward culture and policy levels. Failure to do so might lead to more pain sufferers following surgery, and thus poor recovery. PMID:25307454

  19. A 300m-width sinkhole threatens the stability of the embankment of a saltpan in Jordan, Dead Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1980s, the Dead Sea coastal zone is affected by sinkholes. The dynamic of the salt karst system is attested by a drastic increase of collapse events. The energy available for sub-surface erosion (or cavities genesis) is related to the head difference between the water table and the lake level which drop down at an accelerating rate of more than 1 m/yr. In the region of Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, the size of the craters increased significantly during the last decade. Up to now, the greatest compound structure observed (association of metric subsidence, decametric sinkholes, and landslides) was about 150-200 m in diameter. End of December 2012, a single circular structure having 250-300 m in diameter was identified within a 10 km x 1.5 km saltpan of the Arab Potash Company. This finding raises questions regarding the origin of the underlying cavity and the capability of prediction of all models developed up to now in Israel and Jordan regarding the Dead Sea sinkholes. The analysis of satellite images of the past shows that the appearance of this unique depression is very recent (probably less than 5 years). Cosmo-SkyMed radar images have been processed to map the associated deformation field. Ground motions attest that the overall diameter could be around 600 m. Currently, this sinkhole is threatening the stability of more than one kilometer of a 12 km long dike holding 90 million m3 of Dead Sea brine. This case study underlines the great fragility of the Dead Sea salt karst and demonstrates the need for the setting up of an early warning system.

  20. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (?10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease. PMID:25092972

  1. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (? 10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease. PMID:25092972

  2. Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy M. Haynes; Tina M. Niemi; Mohammad Atallah

    2006-01-01

    The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine–Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault. Using

  3. The effect of the educational system on teacher non-parental and educational perceptions in Jordan: a comparison study between pre-service and in-service teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iman Amy Betawi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the educational system on teacher perceptions of their non-parental and educational beliefs. A 25-item questionnaire was developed by the researcher. The questionnaire was assessed by 50 pre-service teachers attending two different universities and 78 in-service teachers teaching in eight different private preschools in the governorate of Amman\\/Jordan. The results revealed significant differences between the

  4. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophene and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.

  5. Structural control on the evolution of groundwater quality for B2A7 aquifer in the area extending from Ajlun to Yarmouk river in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Muller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow in the Northwestern highlands of Jordan is controlled y the Ajlun Heights were groundwater flows towards north and west along the Yarmouk river and the Jordan Valley. Due to water rock interactions, groundwater that discharges in the Jordan Valley and along the Yarmuk River is thermal, radioactive and mineralized. Its total dissolved solids especially in the confined parts of the aquifer. Electrical conductivity of groundwater in the unconfined aquifer of B2A7 ranges between 500 to 700 µs/cm and increases up to 1600 µs/cm towards the confined part of the aquifer with a notable increase in Na and Cl towards the discharge areas. According to the chloride content in the groundwater the evaporation in the recharge areas is considered to be high representing 82% of the total rainfall. Groundwaters are classified as calcium bicarbonate types with Mg/Ca ratios varying from 0.11 to1.21 and Na/Cl ratio in the range of 0.49 to 1.85. The chemical evolution of groundwater from Ajlun Heights toward Jordan Valley and Yarmouk River is marked by a progressive decrease in calcium and bicarbonate with increase of sodium, and chloride due to halite dissolution and upward percolation of deep saline groundwater. The 3D modeling for the aquifer system indicated the rule of geologic structure in the groundwater digenesis through upward and downward leakage enhanced along high permeability lineaments. According to the modeled water budget, the inflow to the upper B2A7 Aquifer 54 *106 m3/yr replenishing the B2A7 system as underground flow in the karstic limestone of the vadose zone. The underground discharge to the Yarmouk River and Jordan valley modeled to be 23.2 *106 m3/yr as underflow to the springs. The leakage from B2A7 aquifer into the lower aquifer is about 9.7 *106 m3/yr. Within the north western lowered elevations the hydraulic different between upper and deep aquifers is at minimum an upward leakage and seems to take place through the main faults trending EW which was estimated to be 19 *106 m3/yr reflected by the groundwater elevated temperature and anomalies in the analyzed trace element such as Sr. Key words: Yarmouk river, B2A7 Aquifer, groundwater interaction, leakage

  6. Comparative analysis of virulence and resistance profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from poultry meat and foodborne outbreaks in northern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Abedel Hafiz, Leena; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Ababneh, Qotaibah O; Al Mousa, Waseem; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Osaili, Tareq M; Holley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry samples and compare their virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles to S. Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks in northern Jordan. Two hundred presumptive isolates were obtained from 302 raw poultry samples and were subjected to further analysis and confirmation. A phylogenic tree based on 16S rRNA sequencing was constructed and selected isolates representing each cluster were further studied for their virulence in normal adult Swiss white mice. The most virulent strains were isolated from poultry samples and had an LD50 of 1.55 × 105 CFU, while some of the outbreak isolates were avirulent in mice. Antibiotic resistance profiling revealed that the isolates were resistant to seven of eight antibiotics screened with each isolate resistant to multiple antibiotics (from two to six). Of the poultry isolates, 100%, 88.9%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 50% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoperazone, respectively. Two outbreak isolates were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 71.4% were resistant to cefoperazone and only 28.6% showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Salmonella outbreak isolates were genetically related to poultry isolates as inferred from the 16S rRNA sequencing, yet were phenotypically different. Although outbreak strains were similar to poultry isolates, when tested in the mouse model, some of the outbreak isolates were highly virulent while others were avirulent. This might be due to a variation in susceptibility of the mouse to different S. Enteritidis isolates. PMID:24780883

  7. Molecular and isotopic insights into particulate organic carbon sources and dynamics in Jordan Basin, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2013-10-01

    The carbon isotope and lipid biomarker composition of suspended particles and surface sediment was measured to examine the impact of sediment supply, redistribution and post-depositional alteration processes on organic matter cycling in the Gulf of Maine, a semi-enclosed shelf sea in the northwest Atlantic. A beam attenuation profile revealed a >50 m-thick benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) in the Jordan Basin at the time of sampling (April 2006). The relatively low radiocarbon content of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in the BNL indicates that up to 82% of the POC in this layer was supplied from resuspension of sediment. The concentration of alkenones normalized to POC increased with increasing depth in the water column and was highest in the surface sediment. In contrast to these markers of surface ocean photoautotrophy, the vertical profiles for the concentration and composition of short-chain (C14-C18) n-alkanoic acids provided evidence for enhanced heterotrophic processes near the top of the BNL. Suspended POC samples from two depths within the BNL exhibited marked differences in radiocarbon content and fatty acid composition, suggesting that biological activity and associated processes within the BNL are vertically heterogeneous.

  8. Pioneer 10 and 11 Spacecraft Anomalous Acceleration in the light of the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory

    E-print Network

    M. W. Kalinowski

    2015-02-27

    The Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory leads to a model of a modified acceleration that can fit an anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The future positions of those spacecrafts are predicted using distorted hyperbolic orbit. A mysterious connection between an anomalous acceleration and a Hubble constant is solved in the theory. In the paper we consider an exact solution of a point mass motion in the Solar System under an influence of an anomalous acceleration. We find two types of orbits: periodic and chaotic. Both orbits are bounded. This means there is no possibility to escape from the Solar System. Some possibilities to avoid this conclusion are considered. We resolve also some mysterious coincidence between an anomalous acceleration and the cosmological constant using a paradigm of modern cosmology. Relativistic effects and a cosmological drifting of a gravitational constant are considered.The model of an anomalous acceleration does not cause any contradiction with Solar System observations. We give a full statistical analysis of the model.

  9. Syndromal complexity, paradigm shifts, and the future of validation research: comments on Nichols and Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan.

    PubMed

    Weed, Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    In this comment, I address a number of the points raised in the reviews of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC; Tellegen et al., 2003) Scales by Nichols (2006/this issue) and Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan (2006/this issue), and I advocate for changes in assessment validation research. There is little evidence that the "syndromal complexity" Nichols ascribes to the original MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) Clinical Scales is worth preserving. Although their construction does not constitute the paradigm shift claimed by Rogers et al., the RC Scales are promising, psychometrically defensible measures of core features of the original MMPI-2 Clinical Scales. However, validation of inferences from multiscale inventories such as the MMPI-2 is limited at present by a disconnection between the integrative manner in which MMPI-2 profiles are interpreted and the scale-by-scale nature of most MMPI-2 validation studies. Q-sort procedures show promise for operationalizing integrated MMPI-2 interpretations, with both research and teaching applications. PMID:16972826

  10. Salt karst and tectonics: sinkholes development along tension cracks between parallel strike-slip faults, Dead Sea, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Dr; Eng Abou Karaki, Dr

    2009-04-01

    This work deals with the tectonic interpretation of an alignment of more than 300 sinkholes stretching along the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea, Ghor Al Haditha area. Its dimensions are six kilometers long and six hundred meters width. Sinkholes appeared during the last decades as a consequence of the very rapid lake level lowering. The linear shape was inferred from ground collapses inventories carried out between 1991 and 2008. The lineament is replaced and analyzed in its structural setting at regional and local scales. Its direction (N 24 E) is sub-parallel to the ones displayed by many focal mechanisms, especially the one associated to the 23rd April 1979 earthquake (Mb = 5.1; N 20 E +- 5 deg), which is representative of all focal mechanisms calculated on a fault plane compatible with the direction of the Jordan - Dead Sea Transform fault system for the east coast of the Dead Sea. The alignment of sinkholes is constituted by thirteen minor linear segments separated by so many empty spaces. Their geometric organization suggests the existence of a rotational effect caused by stress between two parallel strike-slip faults. Four minor linear units present an en-echelon arrangement from which one can deduce the presence of a local extensional stress field. In this context, sinkholes locations provide information of subsurface discontinuities interpreted as hidden fractures. In a close future, such results could support the work of engineers in the development of new tourist resorts.

  11. A 3D resistivity model derived from the transient electromagnetic data observed on the Araba fault, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödder, A.; Tezkan, B.

    2013-01-01

    72 inloop transient electromagnetic soundings were carried out on two 2 km long profiles perpendicular and two 1 km and two 500 m long profiles parallel to the strike direction of the Araba fault in Jordan which is the southern part of the Dead Sea transform fault indicating the boundary between the African and Arabian continental plates. The distance between the stations was on average 50 m. The late time apparent resistivities derived from the induced voltages show clear differences between the stations located at the eastern and at the western part of the Araba fault. The fault appears as a boundary between the resistive western (ca. 100 ?m) and the conductive eastern part (ca. 10 ?m) of the survey area. On profiles parallel to the strike late time apparent resistivities were almost constant as well in the time dependence as in lateral extension at different stations, indicating a 2D resistivity structure of the investigated area. After having been processed, the data were interpreted by conventional 1D Occam and Marquardt inversion. The study using 2D synthetic model data showed, however, that 1D inversions of stations close to the fault resulted in fictitious layers in the subsurface thus producing large interpretation errors. Therefore, the data were interpreted by a 2D forward resistivity modeling which was then extended to a 3D resistivity model. This 3D model explains satisfactorily the time dependences of the observed transients at nearly all stations.

  12. Hydrogeological perturbations along the Dead Sea coast revealed by submarine sinkholes, Lisan and Ghor al Haditha, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, D.; Abou Karaki, N.; Milisavljevic, N.; Pasquali, P.; Holecz, F.; Bouaraba, A.

    2012-04-01

    For several decades, surface water and groundwater located in the closed Dead Sea basin experience excessive exploitation. In fifty years, the level of the terminal lake has fallen by about 30 meters and its surface shrunk by one third. The coastal zone is the one that best shows the stigma of the general environmental degradation. Among these are the sinkholes, landslides and subsidence. For years, these phenomena are relatively well documented, particularly sinkholes and subsidence. Over the past five years, field observations combined with ground deformations measurements by radar interferometric stacking techniques have shown that the intensity (size, frequency) of the collapses is increasing in the most affected part of the southern Dead Sea area. The zones of the dried up Lynch Strait, the Lisan peninsula and Ghor Al Haditha in Jordan seem the most affected. Very high resolution (0.5 to 2 m) GeoEye satellite images have shown that many sinkholes also formed below the level of the Dead Sea. The water transparency allows observations up to several meters deep. These data contribute to the validation of the models developed in connection with the deformation of the fresh/saline water interface due to an imbalance always more pronounced between the levels of the surrounding groundwaters and of the terminal lake.

  13. Decadal-scale variations in geomagnetic field intensity from ancient slag mounds in Israel, Jordan, and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Tauxe, Lisa; Feinberg, Joshua M.; kassianidou, Vasiliky; Lorentzen, Brita; Levy, Thomas E.

    2015-04-01

    After decades of paleointensity research, it is still not fully understood how fast can field intensity change. Direct measurements of field intensity that go back to the 1830s show relatively small changes with rather smooth behavior over decadal timescales. In contrast, recent archaeomagnetic studies have revealed periods with significant intensity variations termed "archaeomagnetic jerks" (Gallet et al., 2003) and "spikes" (Ben-Yosef et al., 2009). This apparent inconsistency suggests that temporal variations of the geomagnetic field intensity over the past two centuries have been relatively small compared to earlier periods. To address this question we have investigated several ancient slag mounds in Jordan, Israel, and Cyprus. The mounds are multi-layered sequences of slag and charcoal that rapidly accumulated near ancient copper smelting sites as long as copper was produced in the nearby sites. The chronologies of the slag mounds were modeled using radiocarbon dates of short-lived material. Paleointensities were obtained using Thellier-type IZZI experiments with additional anisotropy, cooling rate, and non-linear TRM assessments. The overall data indicate that some periods are characterized with extremely high variation rate, while other periods seem quieter. In this presentation we review different aspects of our working methodology: field sampling, wood identification and radiocarbon analysis, age modeling, magnetic petrology, magnetic microscopy, and finally, paleointensity and data analysis. We present new recently published data from two Cypriot slag mounds, and discuss the overall archaeomagnetic findings in the context of high precision geomagnetic models of the past 170 years.

  14. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  15. Survey of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria sp. contamination in different common ready-to-eat food products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, S S

    2009-12-01

    Incidence and contamination levels of different Listeria monocytogenes serovars and different Listeria sp. in 360 samples of common ready-to-eat food products in Jordan were investigated. The presence of L. monocytogenes was determined using EN ISO protocol and confirmed using PCR technique. Five Listeria sp.: L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovvi, L. welshimeri and L. seeligeri were isolated. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 19 samples (5.3%), from 6 RTE dairy samples; 6 RTE vegetables samples and 4 traditional dishes samples and 3 miscellaneous samples. L. innocua and L. ivanovvi were the most and least frequently isolated species, 24 and 3 samples, respectively. L. welshimeri was isolated from 8 samples and L. seeligeri from 7 samples. The contamination levels of L. monocytogenes were found to be < or = 100 CFU g(-1) in 84.2% (16 samples) of the positive samples. Only 15.8% (3 samples; 1 vegetable, 1 traditional dish and 1 miscellaneous samples) of the positive samples were found with counts >100 CFU g(-1). L. monocytogenes strains isolated fell into 2 serotype, 1 and 4 and to 5 different serovars, 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 4a, 4c. PMID:20180325

  16. Impact of managed aquifer recharge on the chemical and isotopic composition of a karst aquifer, Wala reservoir, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanke, Julian; Goeppert, Nadine; Sawarieh, Ali; Liesch, Tanja; Kinger, Jochen; Ali, Wasim; Hötzl, Heinz; Hadidi, Khair; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-03-01

    Storm-water harvesting and storage via managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a promising approach to combat water scarcity in semi-arid regions, but poses a challenge for karst aquifers and regions with highly variable water availability. The infiltration of low-mineralized surface water and its impact on highly mineralized groundwater of a karst aquifer was investigated at Wala reservoir in Jordan over a period of approximately 10 years. The results show significant groundwater-level rise in a wellfield, in response to the yearly average infiltration of about 6.7 million m3. This corresponds to about 60 % of the yearly average abstraction of about 11.7 million m3, confirmed by mixing calculations with tritium. A decreasing trend in infiltration due to sedimentation is observed. Mean groundwater residence times of several thousand years, derived from carbon-14 dating, indicate a large storage capacity of the aquifer. The heterogeneous distribution of the residence times is caused by strong groundwater withdrawals and artificial recharge along with karst-specific aquifer characteristics. Temporal groundwater salinity fluctuations in the wellfield are observed after the first MAR infiltration. Enhanced groundwater flow along the wadi course was demonstrated, which is an important aspect with regards to future MAR projects in similar wadis of the region.

  17. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  18. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Co-occurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts. PMID:25255940

  19. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, N; Payne, D C; Lu, X; Erdman, D; Wang, L; Faouri, S; Shehabi, A; Johnson, M; Becker, M M; Denison, M R; Williams, J V; Halasa, N B

    2014-07-01

    Hospitalized children < 2 years of age in Amman, Jordan, admitted for fever and/or respiratory symptoms, were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). This was a prospective year-round viral surveillance study in children <2 years of age admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever from March 2010 to September 2012 and enrolled from a government-run hospital, Al-Bashir in Amman, Jordan. Clinical and demographic data, including antibiotic use, were collected. Combined nasal/throat swabs were collected, aliquoted, and frozen at -80°C. Specimen aliquots were shipped to Vanderbilt University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and tested by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the 2433 subjects enrolled from 16 March 2010 to 10 September 2012, 2427 subjects had viral testing and clinical data. Of 1898 specimens prospectively tested for other viruses between 16 March 2010 and 18 March 2012, 474 samples did not have other common respiratory viruses detected. These samples were tested at CDC for MERS-CoV and all were negative by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the remaining 531 samples, collected from 19 March 2012 to 10 September 2012 and tested at Vanderbilt, none were positive for MERS-CoV. Our negative findings from a large sample of young Jordanian children hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms suggest that MERS-CoV was not widely circulating in Amman, Jordan, during the 30-month period of prospective, active surveillance occurring before and after the first documented MERS-CoV outbreak in the Middle East region. PMID:24313317

  20. “Voices of Fear and Safety” Women’s ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: a qualitative study from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among Jordanian women. Breast malignancies are detected at late stages as a result of deferred breast health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women’s views and perceptions about breast cancer and breast health. Methods We performed an explorative qualitative study with purposive sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted consisting of 64 women (aged 20 to 65?years) with no previous history and no symptoms of breast cancer from four governorates in Jordan. The transcribed data was analysed using latent content analysis. Results Three themes were constructed from the group discussions: a) Ambivalence in prioritizing own health; b) Feeling fear of breast cancer; and c) Feeling safe from breast cancer. The first theme was seen in women’s prioritizing children and family needs and in their experiencing family and social support towards seeking breast health care. The second theme was building on women’s perception of breast cancer as an incurable disease associated with suffering and death, their fear of the risk of diminished femininity, husband’s rejection and social stigmatization, adding to their apprehensions about breast health examinations. The third theme emerged from the women’s perceiving themselves as not being in the risk zone for breast cancer and in their accepting breast cancer as a test from God. In contrast, women also experienced comfort in acquiring breast health knowledge that soothed their fears and motivated them to seek early detection examinations. Conclusions Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and feelings of fear and safety could be better addressed by designing breast health interventions that emphasize the good prognosis for breast cancer when detected early, involve breast cancer survivors in breast health awareness campaigns and catalyse family support to encourage women to seek breast health care. PMID:22834874

  1. The occurrence of lithium in the environment of the Jordan Valley and its transfer into the food chain.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Tarek G; Al-Zu'bi, Yasin; Abu-Baker, Samih; Dababneh, Basem; Gnemat, Wafa'; Tahboub, Alaeddin

    2011-10-01

    Lithium is found in trace amounts in all soils. It is also found in plants and in nearly all the organs of the human body. Low Li intake can cause behavioral defects. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the concentration and distribution of water-soluble Li in soils of the Jordan Valley and its concentration in citrus trees and some important food crops in view of the significant implications of Li for human health. The concentration of soluble Li was measured in 180 soil samples collected at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) whereas its content was determined in fully expanded leaves collected from citrus and different vegetable crops. Concentrations of soluble Li in soils vary from 0.95 to 1.04 mg l(-1) in topsoil and from 1.06 to 2.68 mg l(-1) in subsoil, while Li concentration in leaves ranged from 2 to 27 mg kg(-1) DM. Lithium concentrations in leaves of crops of the same family or different families vary with location in the valley; i.e., they decreased from north to south. It is concluded that soluble Li in soils and the plant family did not solely affect Li transfer in the food chain. In addition, soil EC, Ca, Mg, and Cl, which increased from north to south, might adversely affect plant Li uptake. The current study also showed that consuming 250-300 g FW of spinach day(-1) per person is recommended to provide consumers with their daily Li requirement necessary for significant health and societal benefits. PMID:20872235

  2. Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie due Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of stream-flow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Model-based analysis of the environmental impacts of grazing management on Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Schaldach, Rüdiger; Wimmer, Florian; Koch, Jennifer; Volland, Jan; Geissler, Katja; Köchy, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems are prone to desertification when under grazing pressure. Therefore, management of grazing intensity plays a crucial role to avoid or to diminish land degradation and to sustain both livelihoods and ecosystem functioning. The dynamic land-use model LandSHIFT was applied to a case study on the country level for Jordan. The impacts of different stocking densities on the environment were assessed through a set of simulation experiments for various combinations of climate input and assumptions about the development of livestock numbers. Indicators used for the analysis include a set of landscape metrics to account for habitat fragmentation and the "Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production" (HANPP), i.e., the difference between the amount of net primary production (NPP) that would be available in a natural ecosystem and the amount of NPP that remains under human management. Additionally, the potential of the economic valuation of ecosystem services, including landscape and grazing services, as an analysis concept was explored. We found that lower management intensities had a positive effect on HANPP but at the same time resulted in a strong increase of grazing area. This effect was even more pronounced under climate change due to a predominantly negative effect on the biomass productivity of grazing land. Also Landscape metrics tend to indicate decreasing habitat fragmentation as a consequence of lower grazing pressure. The valuation of ecosystem services revealed that low grazing intensity can lead to a comparatively higher economic value on the country level average. The results from our study underline the importance of considering grazing management as an important factor to manage dry-land ecosystems in a sustainable manner. PMID:23270782

  4. Radar Interferometric Mapping and Numerical Simulation of Land Subsidence along the Dead Sea Shores, Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Schattner, U.; Wachs, D.; Sandwell, D.; Wdowinski, S.; Frydman, S.

    2001-12-01

    During the last decade, sinkholes and wide shallow subsidence features have become major problems along the Dead Sea shores in Israel and Jordan. Sinkholes are readily observed in the field, but their locations and timing are unpredictable. Wide shallow subsidence features are often difficult to observe in the field. However, once identified, they delineate zones of instability and increasing hazard. In this study we apply interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements to map and calculate rates of vertical displacement phenomena in the Dead Sea basin. We analyze 27 SAR scenes acquired during the years 1992 to 2001 by the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites. The interferograms span periods of 2 to 103 months. Wide shallow subsidence features include circular and elongate coastal depressions (a few hundred meters to a few kilometers in length), depressions in ancient alluvial fans, and depressions along salt diapir margins. Phase differences measured in our interferograms correspond to subsidence rates generally in the range of 0-20 mm/year, with exceptional high rates that exceed 60 mm/year in two specific regions. During the study period, the level of the Dead Sea and of the associated groundwater has dropped by about 8 meters. This water level drop within an aquifer composed of fine-grained material has caused aquifer system compaction resulting in gradual subsidence. Calculation of the expected compaction and comparison with the InSAR observations suggest that the observed subsidence along the Dead Sea shores occurred where the total thickness of the fine-grained marl layers is between 5 m and 20 m in the upper 30 m below the surface. Our observations also show that in certain locations subsidence appears to be structurally controlled by faults and salt domes. The temporal relationships between wide shallow subsidence features and sinkholes are still not fully resolved, excluding the use of gradual subsidence as a precursor to sinkholes.

  5. Impact of an educational program on nursing students’ caring and self-perception in intensive clinical training in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, Rawda

    2011-01-01

    Background Framing and development of clinical skills in nursing students during their clinical practice is critical because this can shape their future caring skills. Professional caring empowers patients and contributes to their well-being and health. Education may enhance the capacity of nurses to be effective caring practitioners. Their study program encourages caring behavior in nursing students, consequently affecting their professional self-perception. Methods The present study investigated the effect of an educational program on caring behavior and professional self-perception in nursing students using a controlled pre/post test study design. The study sample consisted of 50 nursing students undertaking their final year in 2010–2011. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The study was conducted in two critical care units affiliated to the Ma’an and Queen Rania hospitals in the south of Jordan. The instruments utilized were the Caring Dimensions Inventory, Nursing Students Attitude Observational Checklist, and Professional Self-Concept of Nurses Instrument. Results The study findings favor the effect of the educational program because there was increased knowledge and understanding of caring theory and related concepts, a more holistic approach to care, enhanced caring practices, and improved self-perception in the study group compared with the control group during different periods of assessment. The study group showed significantly better caring perception in psychological, technical, and professional terms than the control group during different periods of assessment. There was a significant positive trend of overall professional self-perception for the study group compared with the control group. Conclusion Nursing curricula should incorporate concepts and principles that guide students in developing caring, safe, competent, and professional behavior. Nursing students must seek educational opportunities to acquire knowledge for role preparation, to participate in knowledge generation, and for personal and professional development. PMID:23745088

  6. Agricultural reuse of reclaimed water and uptake of organic compounds: pilot study at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Nasir, Farah; Batarseh, Mufeed I

    2008-07-01

    The residues of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs) and phenols were investigated for soil, wastewater, groundwater and plants. The uptake concentration of these compounds was comparatively determined using various plant types: Zea mays L., Helianthus annus L., Capsicum annum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L., Solanum melongena L. and Lycopersicon esculentum L. which were grown in a pilot site established at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan. Soil, wastewater, groundwater and various plant parts (roots, leaves and fruits) samples were extracted in duplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analyzed by a multi-residue analytical methods using gas chromatography equipped with either mass selective detector (GC/MS), electron capture detector (GC/ECD), or flame ionization detector (FID). Environmentally relevant concentrations of targeted compounds were detected for wastewater much higher than for groundwater. The overall distribution profiles of PAHs and PCBs appeared similar for groundwater and wastewater indicating common potential pollution sources. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and phenols for different soils ranged from 169.34 to 673.20 microg kg(-1), 0.04 to 73.86 microg kg(-1) and 73.83 to 8724.42 microg kg(-1), respectively. However, much lower concentrations were detected for reference soil. CBs were detected in very low concentrations. Furthermore, it was found that different plants have different uptake and translocation behavior. As a consequence, there are some difficulties in evaluating the translocation of PAHs, CBs, PCBs and phenols from soil-roots-plant system. The uptake concentrations of various compounds from soil, in which plants grown, were dependent on plant variety and plant part, and they showed different uptake concentrations. Among the different plant parts, roots were found to be the most contaminated and fruits the least contaminated. PMID:18471853

  7. Seasonal and spatial trends in the sources of fine particle organic carbon in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Zhou, Jiabin; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Schauer, James J.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2010-09-01

    A study of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) was conducted in the Middle East at sites in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine. The sources and seasonal variation of organic carbon, as well as the contribution to fine aerosol (PM 2.5) mass, were determined. Of the 11 sites studied, Nablus had the highest contribution of organic carbon (OC), 29%, and elemental carbon (EC), 19%, to total PM 2.5 mass. The lowest concentrations of PM 2.5 mass, OC, and EC were measured at southern desert sites, located in Aqaba, Eilat, and Rachma. The OC contribution to PM 2.5 mass at these sites ranged between 9.4% and 16%, with mean annual PM 2.5 mass concentrations ranging from 21 to 25 ug m -3. These sites were also observed to have the highest OC to EC ratios (4.1-5.0), indicative of smaller contributions from primary combustion sources and/or a higher contribution of secondary organic aerosol. Biomass burning and vehicular emissions were found to be important sources of carbonaceous PM in this region at the non-southern desert sites, which together accounted for 30%-55% of the fine particle organic carbon at these sites. The fraction of measured OC unapportioned to primary sources (1.4 ?gC m -3 to 4.9 ?gC m -3; 30%-74%), which has been shown to be largely from secondary organic aerosol, is relatively constant at the sites examined in this study. This suggests that secondary organic aerosol is important in the Middle East during all seasons of the year.

  8. Comparison of the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts of nine salvia species grown in Jordan against breast cancer cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma; Kasabri, Violet; Majdalawi, Lara; Naffa, Randa

    2012-01-01

    Background: The antiproliferative activity of Salvia species grown in Jordan has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts from nine Salvia species grown in Jordan against a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in human tumor models of breast cancer; MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, and BT 474 by the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, the extracts were evaluated using a non-transformed cell line (Vero) and normal fibroblast cells in order to demonstrate their selectivity and safety. Results: From the nice ethanol extracts under investigation, those of S. dominica and S. fruticosa showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% of cells (IC50) in concentrations less than 30?g/mL against the four cell lines under investigation. S. syriaca and S. hormium showed an IC50 below 30?g/ml for two out of the four cell lines. S. fruticosa, S. hormium and S. syriaca showed selectivity in their antiproliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive cell lines with minimal toxicity against normal human periodontal fibroblasts. Phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins in all examined extracts. Conclusion: Three of the plant extracts under investigation exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells and were shown to be safe and selective. These could be considered as a potential source for novel anticancer therapy. PMID:24082637

  9. Telecardiology Application in Jordan: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Disease Management, Patients' Quality of Life, and Time- and Cost-Savings

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M.; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A.; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life. PMID:25400661

  10. Employing hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in analyzing groundwater flow mechanism, dynamics in karst aquifer of the Lower Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, Shadha; Sauter, Martin; Marei, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Water is a valuable resource, especially in arid and semi arid areas. In order to do proper management of the water resources, studies on the aquifer system is essential. The study case is located in the lower part of the western Jordan Valley. This karstic area has different systems from which the upper and lower Mountain aquifer systems. Two representative springs were chosen for each aquifer, Sultan spring for the lower aquifer and Auja spring for the upper one. Sultan spring has a continues and constant discharge rate through the year while Auja spring has high oscillation in discharge accompanied by frequent dry-out in summer months and fast response to precipitation events. The two systems have been thought to be separated by an aquiclute, however after frequent intensive sampling of both springs during the raining winter season, This study shows that with the exception of Na+ and Cl- all other concentration of ions are very similar. The average of Sodium for Sultan spring is 33 mg/L, while the average Chloride for the same spring is 54.5 mg/L. As for Auja spring the average Sodium and Chloride are 24 mg/L and 39.4 mg/L respectively, therefore, the water of Sultan spring contains higher content of sodium and chloride than Auja, this could be related to the chemistry of the lower aquifer. The ratio of Na+/Cl- for Sultan and Auja springs are 0.92 and 0.94 respectively, this indicates that Auja is close to the rain ratio of 0.86 while Sultan (although slightly higher) may be closer to the Halite ratio of 1. The isotopic signature of 18O for both springs has shown to be very similar with only a -0.5‰ of difference in most cases, with a range of -5.2‰ to -6.2‰ for Sultan and -5.4‰ to -6.2‰ for Auja spring. These results may indicate the same recharge elevation for both springs in the Mountain area. On the other hand, in some places east to the major fault system, the shallow aquifer's 18O content in Jericho is close to that of Sultan spring, which could indicate that the hydraulic connection between the Mountain and shallow aquifer is present across some windows.

  11. Hydro-mechanical model of a reactivated paleo-salt karst system in the Lisan area, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a pull-apart basin forming a terminal lake (-429 m) located over the Jordan - Dead Sea transform fault. The slope of the fresh/saline interface is ten times shallower than observed near the ocean because salinity is ten times greater than in the average sea water. Underground lateral extension is acting as a high density layer over which groundwater is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Since the 1960s, a slice of brine 0.033 km x 77 km x 16.5 km vanished due to water resources over-exploitation in the catchment area. Monitoring of wells in the Dead Sea zone indicated that the water table does not drop at the same pace as the lake. The head difference is increasing with time. Groundwater moves so rapidly towards the lake to compensate for the imbalance provoking the proliferation of sinkholes, subsidence, and landslides. Since the 1980s, the emerged spaces have been covered by industrial and touristic infrastructures. Such a dynamic system provides a test bed to study an Early Warning System to help minimizing geo-hazards effects. The reactivation of a paleo-channel located below a US 48 M salt evaporation pond of the Arab Potash Company, Lisan peninsula, provides an illustrative case-study. Sinkholes lineaments whose orientations fit with the main structural directions highlight the role of conduit played by faults and fractures. Rapid underground water circulation explains the appearance of tamarisk in unexpected places. Time series analysis of high and very high resolution visible/radar satellite images acquired from the 1970s and on indicated major changes in the landscape. This work underlines the need of very carefully analyzing all available data sources acquired prior to and during the recession of the lake level before the development of human activities along the coast. This work is supported by the Arab Potash Company. Thanks are due to H.E. Eng. Jaman Sarayreh, Chairman of the Arab Potash Company, and to Dr Dureid Mahasneh et Mr. Bisher Mahasneh for their important support.

  12. Seismic cycle, long-term faulting behavior and slip rate variations along the Dead Sea Fault (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Abou Karaki, N.

    2009-12-01

    The recurrence of large and destructive earthquakes along major fault systems is key to understanding the seismic cycle, the driving mechanism and forecast future behavior. We study the ~ 110-km-long Jordan Valley Fault segment (JVF) of the North-South trending Dead Sea Transform Fault and plate boundary by means of two independent approaches: i) the build-up of a paleoseismic catalogue of surface-rupturing events for the last 14 kyr, and ii) the construction of a history of slip rate over the last 48.5 kyr from different generations of left-lateral offset streams of the late Pleistocene and Holocene Lissan lacustrine deposits. Firstly, we combine published historical data, re-appraised archaeological data and paleoseismic trenching to produce and unprecedentedly complete catalogue of large (Mw > 7) earthquakes with at least 13 events in the last 14 kyr. The average ~1000 yrs recurrence interval presents large variations from 300 to more than 1500 yrs, with the various datasets intersecting and completing each other. Secondly, we present a detailed map of the active fault trace that intersects a set of 20 gullies. Stream incisions are classified as a function of their depth and relative age and characterized in terms of cumulative offsets. Absolute ages are obtained from paleoclimatic analysis of lacustrine deposits. Using the numerous isotopic dating of lacustrine deposits, lake-level fluctuations and extreme rainfall episodes, we obtain an average 4.9 mm/yr slip rate with extreme values of 3.5 and 11 mm/yr. Our results indicate slip rate variations and provide evidence for episodic faulting behavior. Both approaches indicate that the JVF encounters periods of increased seismic activity which suggests episodicity or mode-switching. Reduced recurrence intervals and/or larger co-seismic slip (and magnitudes) are required to account for observations as suggested by GPS observations (4.5 mm/yr) and seismic moment summation. The JVF has accumulated 3.5 m to 5 m of slip deficit after the AD 1033 earthquake and may be the site for a large earthquake in the near future.

  13. Multi-response calibration of a conceptual hydrological model in the semiarid catchment of Wadi al Arab, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödiger, T.; Geyer, S.; Mallast, U.; Merz, R.; Krause, P.; Fischer, C.; Siebert, C.

    2014-02-01

    A key factor for sustainable management of groundwater systems is the accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Hydrological models are common tools for such estimations and widely used. As such models need to be calibrated against measured values, the absence of adequate data can be problematic. We present a nested multi-response calibration approach for a semi-distributed hydrological model in the semi-arid catchment of Wadi al Arab in Jordan, with sparsely available runoff data. The basic idea of the calibration approach is to use diverse observations in a nested strategy, in which sub-parts of the model are calibrated to various observation data types in a consecutive manner. First, the available different data sources have to be screened for information content of processes, e.g. if data sources contain information on mean values, spatial or temporal variability etc. for the entire catchment or only sub-catchments. In a second step, the information content has to be mapped to relevant model components, which represent these processes. Then the data source is used to calibrate the respective subset of model parameters, while the remaining model parameters remain unchanged. This mapping is repeated for other available data sources. In that study the gauged spring discharge (GSD) method, flash flood observations and data from the chloride mass balance (CMB) are used to derive plausible parameter ranges for the conceptual hydrological model J2000g. The water table fluctuation (WTF) method is used to validate the model. Results from modelling using a priori parameter values from literature as a benchmark are compared. The estimated recharge rates of the calibrated model deviate less than ±10% from the estimates derived from WTF method. Larger differences are visible in the years with high uncertainties in rainfall input data. The performance of the calibrated model during validation produces better results than applying the model with only a priori parameter values. The model with a priori parameter values from literature tends to overestimate recharge rates with up to 30%, particular in the wet winter of 1991/1992. An overestimation of groundwater recharge and hence available water resources clearly endangers reliable water resource managing in water scarce region. The proposed nested multi-response approach may help to better predict water resources despite data scarcity.

  14. New process model for the Dead Sea sinkholes at Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, derived from shear-wave reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    In October 2013 a shear wave reflection seismic pilot study was carried out at the most destructive sinkhole site in Jordan, close to the village of Ghor Al Haditha at the South-East end of the Dead Sea. The investigation is part of the DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE), a virtual institute of the Helmholtz Association, designed as a cross-disciplinary and cooperative international project of the Helmholtz Centers KIT, GFZ, and UFZ, and their partners. Since nearly 30 years - apparently contemporaneous to the rapid decrease of the Dead Sea level - ongoing unknown sinkhole processes in the subsurface continuously compromise farming areas, housings, industrial sites, and infrastructure at the investigation site, resulting in massive destructions. Similar processes are observed also at the western border of the Dead Sea. Although many geophysical studies have been carried out at the site since more than 20 years, the subsurface structure and the process itself is quite unknown until yet. In recent years, a massive salt layer at 40 m depth or more was proposed below alluvial fan deposits, which was the target of this reflection seismic pilot study. We spent 10 days in the field and acquired four shear-wave reflection seismic profiles of 1.8 km total length to yield a high-resolution structural image of the subsurface. The lines cover in NW-SE and NE-SW direction the sinkhole-affected area as close as possible to recent collapse structures. There is no evidence for the hypothesized shallow salt layer, at least not down to 100 m probably up to 200 m depth. Instead, the detected subsurface structures show a complex interlock of alluvial fan deposits and marine sedimentation layers of the Dead Sea between 0-200 m depth. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis for the sinkhole processes in the region: salt-rich marine clay layers are present in the fresh water contact zones inside the alluvial fan, which are destabilized and mobilized by dissolution of the salt contained. This suggestion is well supported by surface observations at the current border of the Dead Sea. Similar leaching effects are well known from the quick-clay problem in e.g. Scandinavia. Time-lapse profiling at the investigation site in the upcoming years should lead to a better knowledge of the subsurface processes.

  15. Using stable isotopes and multi-spatial variable parameters in characterising the karstic aquifer of the Ajloun area, NW-Jordan - A case study of the Tanour and Rasoun springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Ptak, Thomas; Licha, Tobias; Toll, Mathias; Margane, Armin; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Key words: Karst systems, Groundwater vulnerability, Stable isotopes, Jordan. Water resources are extremely scarce in Jordan, which is considered as one of the poorest countries in the world with respect to water resources availability (UNDP 2014), with more than 90% of the country receiving less than 200 mm/year of rainfall (Al Kharadsheh et al. 2012). The most important aquifer for drinking-water purposes in Jordan is the upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer. The karstic springs of Tanour and Rasoun, located in the Ajloun governorate around 75 kilometres northwest of the capital of Amman, have been selected for this study. These springs are the main source for the local domestic water supply, with an average discharge between the years 2000 and 2012 of 200 m3/h and 60 m3/h, respectively (MWI, 2013). During the past few years, the water supply from these two springs had to be discontinued due to high contamination of the groundwater either by microbiological contaminants or by wastewater from local olive oil presses. This wastewater is locally called 'Zeebar'. Understanding of the karst aquifer system, the pathways and movement within the epikarst, and estimation of the travel and residence time within the aquifer is important for managing and evaluating the pollution risk, which affects the usability of groundwater for drinking purposes. For a better understanding of the karstic system and its behaviour, different methods are applied: 1. Analysis of the stable isotope composition of ?2H and ?18O during the winter season for both (a) Tanour and Rasoun groundwater, and (b) rainfall samples collected from several locations at different elevations within the catchment. 2. Analysis of major ion concentrations in groundwater of the Tanour and Rasoun springs. 3. Long-term measurements of different physico-chemical parameters from the Tanour and Rasoun springs (temperature, conductivity, turbidity, TOC, etc.) using multiparameter probes with telemetric data transfer. 4. Application of a travel time-based groundwater vulnerability method, and other different groundwater vulnerability methods for karst systems. The resulting data will be processed and used as spatially variable parameters for determining the karst aquifer characteristics within the study area. The springs show a rapid response to rainfall events which reflects a fast travel time and short residence time in the karst aquifer. References - Al Kharadsheh E, Akroush S and Mazahreh S (2012) Land Degradation in Jordan - Review of Knowledge Resources, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), OASIS Country Report 1. - MWI - Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2013) Discharge Data for Tanour and Rasoun Springs, Water Information System, National Master Plan Directorate, Amman, Jordan. - UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2014, September) About Jordan, http://www.jo.undp.org/content/jordan/en/home/countryinfo/

  16. Tidal-bundle sequences in the Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian), southeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.: Evidence for tides along inboard shorelines of the Sauk Epicontinental Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, C.H.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents for the first time tidal bundling in a lower Paleozoic sheet sandstone from the cratonic interior of North America, providing insights into the hydrodynamics of ancient epicontinental seas. The Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian) in the Upper Mississippi Valley contains large-scale planar tabular cross-sets with tidal-bundle sequences, which were analyzed in detail at an exceptional exposure. Tidal-bundle sequences (neap-spring-neap cycles) were delineated by foreset thickening-thinning patterns and composite shale drapes, the latter of which represent accumulations of mud during the neap tides of neap-spring-neap tidal cycles. Fourier analysis of the bundle thickness data from the 26 measurable bundle sequences revealed cycles ranging from 15 to 34 bundles per sequence, which suggests a semidiurnal or mixed tidal system along this part of the Late Cambrian shoreline. We extend the tidal interpretation to widespread occurrences of the same facies in outcrops of lesser quality, where the facies is recognizable but too few bundles are exposed for tidal cycles to be measured. By doing so, this study shows that tidally generated deposits have a significant geographic and temporal extent in Upper Cambrian strata of central mid-continent North America. The deposition and preservation of tidal facies was related to the intermittent development of shoreline embayments during transgressions. The tidally dominated deposits filled ravined topographies that were repeatedly developed on the updip parts of the shoreface. Resulting coastal geomorphologies, accompanied perhaps by larger-scale changes in basinal conditions and/or configuration, led to changes in depositional conditions from wave-dominated to tide-dominated. Outcrops of the Jordan Sandstone tidal facies in the Upper Mississippi Valley represent the farthest inboard recorded transmission of ocean-generated tides in the Laurentian epicontinental seas, demonstrating that tidal currents were significant agents in the transport of sand along the far cratonic interior shorelines of Cambrian North America. The results of this study improve the facies-level understanding of the genesis of sheet sandstones. Furthermore, tidalites documented here occur in a specific position within a sequence stratigraphic architecture for the Jordan Sandstone. This provides a framework to compare these ancient deposits and processes to younger (e.g., Carboniferous) epicontinental systems where stratal and sediment dynamics are better documented. ?? 2003, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  17. Assessment of natural recharges of the Plio-Plistocene shallow aquifer system in Al Uja area /Lower Jordan Valley / Occupied Palestinian Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasra, Kayan; Marei, Amer; Sbiah, Mohamed; Uter, Hussam; Abu Thaher, Ayman

    2013-04-01

    Al Uja area locates in the Lower Jordan Valley/West Bank at 250 m below sea level. The availability of ground water, fertile soil, and warm climate during winter months make it remarkable for its agricultural activities where 600 hectares are under irrigation. Al Uja karstic spring that drain water from the Mountain carbonate aquifer system with a discharge rate between 0.5 and 8 MCM/a , and nine groundwater boreholes that tape water from the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system, with an annual abstraction of 3.5 MCM are the water sources. The south-north fault system of the Jordan Rift Valley separates the two aquifer system. The shallow aquifer system locates to the east of the fault, where the Mountain aquifer system locates to the west. The Mountain aquifer consists of high fractured and karstified limestone and dolomite of Upper Cretaceous age, and the shallow aquifer system consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay layers of the Dead Sea group. Groundwater recharge of the Mountain aquifer system takes place in the highland area in the West with an annual precipitation of about 550 mm. Formations of the shallow aquifer system crop out in the Jordan Valley where rainfall does not exceed 250 mm/a . Due to the high evaporation rate, direct recharge is neglected. Only small portion of flooding water about 0.4MCM/a infiltrate through wadi Al Uja drainage system in to the Alluvial deposits to the shallow aquifer system. In the other hand, and since more than 40 years, the nine groundwater boreholes are taping about 3 MCM/a, water table decline of about 5 m. Currently, water table locates between -290 m in the west and decrease to - 311 m in the east. Groundwater flows from the Mountain aquifer in the west to the Shallow aquifer in the east through the major fault system. The permeability of the Mountain carbonate layers is 2.49E-1 m/min and decrease to 1.6 E-2 m/min in the layers of the Shallow aquifer system, this decrease of Kf-value east wards cause a semi-barrier for groundwater flow regime, also water salinity increase from 1500 µS/cm in Mountain aquifer to 3000 few hundred m to the east of the fault and rise to 6000 µS/cm in the eastern part. The groundwater flows east wards through a corridor of 1500 meter length along the fault system.

  18. Unsafe sexual behaviour in domestic and foreign migrant male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan: occupational-based and behavioural assessment survey

    PubMed Central

    Al Rifai, Rami; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Morita, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge, health and work-related conditions, and correlates of practising unsafe sex among domestic and foreign male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional behavioural assessment survey. Setting Multinational workplaces in Jordan. Participants 230 Jordanian and 480 foreign male workers aged ?18?years who had worked in a Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) for 12?months or more. Outcomes The primary outcome was the prevalence of practising unsafe sex. ‘Unsafe sex’ was defined as sex with a non-regular sexual partner with inconsistent condom usage. Results Overall, 74.3% of workers reported lifetime sexual experience. The proportion of lifetime unsafe sex was similar among domestic (31.8%) and foreign (35.6%) workers. Of those, 59.2% of domestic and 68.1% of foreign workers started practising unsafe sex after joining the QIZ. Rates of lifetime unsafe sex were significantly higher among those who had their sexual debut after joining the QIZ in domestic (aOR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and foreign workers (aOR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.1). Among the domestic workers, being 18–24?years old (aOR, 4.9), unmarried (aOR, 4.8), working in the QIZ for 5–8?years (aOR, 5.0), sometimes/frequently shopped with foreign workers (aOR, 2.1) or were current/ex-alcohol drinkers (aORs, 3.4) were independently significantly associated with higher odds of practising unsafe sex. Conclusions A significant proportion of domestic and foreign male workers had been practising unsafe sex. The findings indicated that not only foreigners but also domestic male workers associating with foreign workers are at high risk of unsafe sex. Tailored interventions to promote safer sex in multinational workplaces in Jordan are needed. PMID:26068511

  19. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  20. STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiwan, A.; Khadra, L.; Shahab, W.; Olgaard, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Students in developing countries interested in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering & math) often choose majors that will improve their job opportunities in their home country when they graduate, e.g. engineering or medicine. Geoscience might be chosen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, but rarely as a primary major unless there are local economic natural resources. The Institute of International Education administers the ExxonMobil Middle East and North Africa region scholars program designed to develop skilled students with a focus on geoscience and to build relationships with academic leaders by offering select faculty the opportunity to participation in the AGU fall meeting. At the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), research in electrical engineering applied to medicine has potential links to geosciences. In geophysics, neural wavelet analysis (NWA) is commonly used to process complex seismic signals, e.g. for interpreting lithology or identifying hydrocarbons. In this study, NWA was used to characterize cardiac arrhythmias. A classification scheme was developed in which a neural network is used to identify three types of arrhythmia by distinct frequency bands. The performance of this scheme was tested using patient records from two electrocardiography (ECG) databases. These records contain normal ECG signals, as well as abnormal signals from atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrhythmias. The continuous wavelet transform is applied over frequencies of 0-50 Hz for times of 0-2s. For a normal ECG, the results show that the strongest signal is in a frequency range of 4-10 Hz. For AF, a low frequency ECG signal in the range of 0-5 Hz extends over the whole time domain. For VT, the low frequency spectrum is in the range of 2-10 Hz, appearing as three distinct bands. For VF, a continuous band in the range of 2-10 Hz extends over the whole time domain. The classification of the three arrhythmias used a Back-propagation neural network whose input is the energy level calculated from the wavelet transform. The network was trained using 13 different patterns (3 for AF, 5 for VT and 5 for VF) and blind tested on 25 records. The classification scheme correctly identified all 9 VF records, 5 of 6 VT records, and 9 of 10 AF records. Manual interpretation of time-frequency seismic data is computationally intensive because large volumes of data are generated during the time-frequency analysis process. The proposed NWA method has the potential to partially automate the interpretation of seismic data. Also, a relatively straight-forward adaptation of the proposed NWA-based classification scheme may help identify hydrocarbon-laden reservoirs, which have been observed to contain enhanced low-frequency content in the time-frequency domain (Castagna, Sun, & Siegfried, 2003).

  1. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer's estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88 kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r (2) = 0.93) and of eDMI (r (2) = 0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16 kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9 kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. PMID:24596499

  2. Multicomponent reactive transport in discrete fractures. II: Infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater at Maqarin, Jordan, a natural analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steefel, C. I.; Lichtner, P. C.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical multicomponent reactive transport model described fully in Steefel and Lichtner (1998)[Steefel, C.I., Lichtner, P.C., 1998. Multicomponent reactive transport in discrete fractures, I. Controls on reaction front geometry. J. Hydrol. (in press)] is used to simulate the infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater along discrete fractures at Maqarin, Jordan, a site considered as a natural analogue to cement-bearing nuclear waste repositories. In the Eastern Springs area at Maqarin, two prominent sets of sub-parallel fractures trending NW-SE are approximately perpendicular to the local water table contours, with the slope of the water table indicating north-westward flow. Extensive mineralogic investigations [Alexander W.R. (Ed.), 1992. A natural analogue study of cement-buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a sedimentary host rock. NAgrA Technical Report (NTB 91-10), Wettingen, Switzerland; Milodowski, A.E., Hyslop, E.K., Pearce, J.M., Wetton, P.D., Kemp, S.J., Longworth, G., Hodginson, E., and Hughes, C.R., 1998. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the western springs area. In: Smellie, J.A.T. (ed.), 1998: Maqarin Natural Analogue Study: Phase III. SKB Technical Report TR98-04, Stockholm, Sweden] indicate that the width of intense rock alteration zone bordering the fractures changes from about 4 mm at one locality (the M1 sampling site) to approximately 1 mm 100 m to the north-west in the flow direction (the M2 site), suggesting a lessening of alteration intensity in that direction. Using this information, the dimensionless parameter ? v/? D' (?=porosity, D'=effective diffusion coefficient in rock matrix, ?=fracture aperture, and v=fluid velocity in the fracture) and measurements of the local hydraulic head gradient and effective diffusion coefficient in the rock matrix, a mean fracture aperture of 0.194 mm is calculated assuming the cubic law applies. This information, in combination with measured groundwater compositions at the Maqarin site, is used as input for numerical simulations of the hyperalkaline groundwater infiltration along fractures. The width of the alteration zones in the rock matrix bordering fractures is also used to constrain mineral dissolution rates in the field. The simulations predict that ettringite [Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O] with lesser amounts of hillebrandite and tobermorite (hydrated calcium silicates or CSH phases) will be the dominant alteration products forming at the expense of the primary silicates in the rock matrix and fracture, in agreement with observations at the Maqarin site. The simulations also come close to matching the pH of water samples collected along fractures at the M1 and M2 sites, with a fracture aperture of 0.22 mm giving the closest match with the pH data (within 13% of the value indicated by the rock matrix alteration widths). The simulations suggest two possible scenarios for the time evolution of the fracture-rock matrix system. Where rate constants for secondary mineral precipitation reactions are the same in both the rock matrix and fracture, the rock matrix tends to become completely cemented before the fracture. This results in a downstream migration of the hyperalkaline plume. In contrast, if rates are as little as one order of magnitude higher in the fracture than in the rock matrix, it is possible to seal the fracture first, thus causing the mineral zones to collapse upstream as a result of the reduction in fracture permeability. Sealing of fractures is observed at Maqarin and the simulations predict a mineral paragenesis in the fracture resulting from this scenario which is broadly compatible with field observations.

  3. Jordan River SAMPLE GATES

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    have visitor parking Campus Pedestrian Safety Use lighted pedestrian routes especially when walking2 Cinema, IU (CN) C2 Classroom Office Building (C2) D1 Cognitive Sciences (C9) C1 Communication Services (T2) C4 Cook Hall (BD) B2 Cravens Hall (Collins Living- Learning Center) (ME) C1

  4. Aspen Jordan Final Paper

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    . An Environmental Studies class chose the first 30 diners at lunch and dinner meals, and weighed the food waste from their plates. The results showed that dining tray-free at lunch can reduce solid food waste by 14.4 percent, while tray-free dining at dinner can reduce solid food waste by 47.1 percent. The class also counted

  5. Minnesota River at Jordan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  6. JORDAN HALL HEDRICK HALL

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    35H Spray Lab/Rain Tower 36 Heating Plant 37 Ent/PP Pole Barn 39 Seed Processing 40 Raw Products 41 Industrial Chemical Building 68 Storage Shed 69 USDA Screenhouse 70 Pom. & Vit. Screenhouse 72 USDA Plastic Plant Pathology Temporary Offices C Water Tower New York State AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 4

  7. Assessment of groundwater dynamics by applying rare earth elements and stable isotopes &ndash; the case of the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rödiger, Tino; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Magri, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    The Tiberias basin, situated in the northern part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Transform Valley, is hydraulically connected to the surrounding aquifers of Cretaceous to Cenozoic age. As a result of the local erosion base, the basin hosts Lake Tiberias, recharged mainly by the Upper Jordan River and by fresh groundwater from the Galilee and Golan Heights. However, variably ascending deep-seated brines enhance the chlorinity of the lake to about 250-280 mg/l. In addition to these hot brines, also hot fresh waters emerge on surface, particularly to both sides of the Yarmouk gorge, SE of the basin. Investigation of rare earth element patterns and stable isotopes of water and sulfur, in combination with major elements reveal, that the gorge acts at least partially as a water divide between north and south with enhanced hydraulic conductivity along its axis. Although there are no geological evidences given, we suppose a swarm of hydraulic active fractures/faults parallel to the Lower Yarmouk gorge axis, which force the upward movement of hot fluids, as also suggested by numerical modeling. Additionally, these faults may channel SW-oriented groundwater flow, which has its origin in the Syrian Hauran Plateau. Although exercised in the Tiberias Basin, the application of trace and major element geochemistry in combination with stable isotopes allows analyzing (supra-) regional groundwater movements. This method is even more relevant in areas with either limited access to recharge areas or boreholes along proposed flow-paths and particularly in areas suffering from data scarcity and poor infrastructure.

  8. Modelling surface runoff and water productivity in small dryland watersheds with water-harvesting interventions, an application from Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Akroush, S.; Mudabber, M.; Ziadat, F.; Oweis, T.

    2009-04-01

    Vast areas of the rangelands (badia) of West Asia and North Africa are severely degraded due to over-grazing, cutting of shrubs and ploughing. Because of the scarce vegetation cover and the often dense soil surface crust, a large part of the limited rainfall runs off to wadis or evaporates back to the atmosphere with little local benefit. To develop and evaluate techniques for rehabilitation of the degraded lands an integrated research project was implemented with two communities in the badia of Jordan. The average annual rainfall in the research area is approximately 150 mm/yr. The project tested different micro-catchment water-harvesting techniques (earthen dikes planted with fodder shrubs) to capture the runoff and improve plant survival and growth in the watersheds. To estimate the long-term benefits of these water-harvesting systems and to assist with watershed-level planning and design a model is needed. However, current models can not capture the spatially variable runoff and water-harvesting processes in these environments. The objective of the research was to develop a model for estimating the runoff and biomass production of small badia watersheds with and without water-harvesting interventions. The basic spatial unit of the model is a square grid cell. Each cell is assigned to a specific land use unit, based on the characteristics of the soil and surface that affect the runoff, infiltration, and biomass production potential of the land. The model computes infiltration and runoff for each cell from daily rainfall with a curvilinear equation, based on data from plot studies. The runoff is routed using a 10-m digital elevation model and can infiltrate in downstream cells. The water infiltrated in each cell is summed for the August-September hydrologic year; and the annual biomass production is computed based on the water productivity potential of the cell. The model was applied to a 119-ha watershed, where 11 ha of micro-catchments were implemented, using a 32-year rainfall record. The slopes in the watershed vary between 0 and 12% with the majority of the land ranging between 2 and 6%. The soils are generally shallow (less than 0.5 m) and on the stony hilltops the bedrock is sometimes exposed. However, deep alluvial soils are found in local depressions and along the main wadi. The majority of the land is ploughed for barley, with alternate fallow years. During fallow years, some natural vegetation grows in the land. Due to the limited and often poorly distributed rain the barley produces none or little grain, and is usually grazed by flocks of sheep and goats in spring. Highly degraded natural rangeland vegetation is found on the stony upper-slopes, but the deep soils along the main wadi turn green after good rainfall. Model simulations, using best parameter estimates, indicated that the water-harvesting interventions reduced the average runoff out of the watershed by 3%. Because the micro-catchments are established in the gently sloping lands, there may be an option to combine these micro-catchment systems with small dams or reservoirs to capture the runoff from more rocky upstream areas. The average biomass production of the water-harvesting intervention area increased from 0.44 ton/ha under the original farmer management to 0.56 ton/ha per year under water-harvesting. Even more importantly, the water harvesting resulted in much more stable biomass production, with a coefficient of variation of 0.42, as compared to 0.89 for the original farmer treatment. Field observations also indicated that the micro-catchments and the year-round cover of shrubs in the water-harvesting area reduced erosion and provided a micro-environment that improved the biodiversity of the site. The model has helped us to better understand the system and to compute the economics of these interventions. Data collection is on-going to improve the parameterization of the model, including the erosion component.

  9. A study of the relationship between variables from the model of human occupation and subjective well-being among university students in jordan.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students. PMID:23941379

  10. A survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synovaie with avian influenza H9 subtype in meat-type chicken in Jordan between 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Roussan, Dergham Ahmad; Khawaldeh, Ghassan; Shaheen, Ibrahim Ali

    2015-07-01

    Commercial chickens in Jordan suffer from respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. This study was designed to document the involvement of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 subtype, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) in this respiratory disease. In this study, trachea swabs from 350 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV H9 subtype by using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and for MG and MS by using PCR. PCR and RT-PCR results showed that 23.7, 8.9, and 6.6% of these flocks were infected with AIV H9 subtype, MS, and MG, respectively, whereas 12.9 and 5.7% of these flocks were infected with both AIV H9 subtype and MS and AIV H9 subtype and MS, respectively. Furthermore, 42.3% of these flocks were negative for the above mentioned respiratory diseases. Further epidemiological studies are recommended to determine risk factors and evaluate the economic consequences of AIV H9 subtype, MG, and MS infections in the region. Furthermore, studies are required to isolate AIV H9 subtype, MG, and MS and develop vaccines against the local field isolates. PMID:25971950

  11. Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Jeremy M.; Niemi, Tina M.; Atallah, Mohammad

    2006-10-01

    The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault. Using paleoseismic and archaeological evidence collected from a trench excavated across the fault zone, we identified evidence for four ground-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating from key stratigraphic horizons and relative dating using potsherds constrains the dates of the four earthquakes from the sixth to the nineteenth centuries. Individual earthquakes were dated to the seventh, ninth and eleventh centuries. The fault strand that slipped during the most recent event (MRE) extends to just below the modern ground surface and juxtaposes alluvial-fan sediments that lack in datable material with the modern ground surface, thus preventing us from dating the MRE except to constrain the event to post-eleventh century. These data suggest that the historical earthquakes of 634 or 659/660, 873, 1068, and 1546 probably ruptured this fault segment.

  12. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Gonçalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

  13. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

  14. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  15. An unholy disease in the Holy Land: the history of anthrax between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea (1909-2012).

    PubMed

    Elad, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The history of recorded cases of anthrax in human beings and animals from 1909 to 2012 in the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea is reviewed. The disease was endemic until the middle of the 20th century, but the incidence decreased thereafter, with only sporadic cases from the 1980s onwards. Human cases have not been diagnosed in the region since 1984 and the number of episodes of animal disease has reduced to less than one per year. This decline is mostly due to the disruption of the infective cycle by improved veterinary control, including vaccination, treatment and outbreak management. A policy of reactive vaccination for 10 years of affected herds and herds grazing in their proximity has been applied. No new outbreaks have been observed in such herds after the cessation of vaccination, despite continued grazing on the same sites, so it is assumed that spore survival in such areas is shorter than 10 years. This is independent of the soil composition, which is calcareous throughout most of the relevant area. However, reemergence of anthrax, even after decades, has occurred following disturbance and heavy rainfall. PMID:24135549

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study to Examine Factors Associated with Primary Health Care Service Utilization among Older Adults in the Irbid Governorate of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alkhawaldeh, Abdullah; Holm, Margo B.; Qaddumi, Jamal; Petro, Wasileh; Jaghbir, Madi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recently, the percentage of older adults in developing countries has increased significantly. Objective. This study examined patterns and factors associated with primary health care services utilization in the past 1, 6, and 12 months. Method. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 190 older adults in the Irbid governorate of Jordan. Results. Primary health care services were used by less than half of the participants in the past 1 month, by 68.4% in the past 6 months, and by 73.8% in the past 12 months. Primary health care (PHC) services use was associated with age, education level, tobacco use, chronic illnesses, perceived general health status today, a physical component summary score, employment, and perceived general health status in the past 6 and 12 months. The primary predictor of PHC services use at 1, 6, and 12 months was chronic illnesses (OR = 13.32), (OR = 19.63), and (OR = 17.91), respectively. Conclusion. Although many factors were associated with PHC service utilization, the strongest predictor of PHC service utilization was chronic illnesses. PMID:25431589

  17. Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnet, S.; Hosseinzadeh, R.; Antunes, M. T.; Balbino, A. C.; Kozlov, V. A.; Cappetta, H.

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark. Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. ensis Leidy [Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms. Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks. Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: Xiphodolamia serrata nov. sp. This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

  18. Land subsidence, structures and processes at the Dead Sea shoreline as revealed by a near-field photogrammetry survey at Ghor Haditha, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Walter, Thomas; Alrshdan, Hussam; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    Rapid recession of the Dead Sea in the last few decades has led to an increasing rate of sinkhole formation around the lake shore. The development of these sinkholes and other land subsidence phenomena poses a major geological hazard to the local population, agriculture and industry. For a better understanding of the underlying physical processes and for determining current and future areas of sinkhole hazard, we conducted field investigations and a first low altitude ("near-field") aerial photogrammetric survey with a Helikite Balloon at Ghor Haditha, Jordan, in October 2014. From the near-field photogrammetry, we generated a high resolution Digital Elevation Model of the surveyed area. This enables a detailed quantification of sinkhole sizes and distribution as well of morphological parameters such as the sinkhole depth/diameter ratio (D). Values of the latter are generally greater in the mechanically stronger alluvial fan sediments (D = 3.0 - 0.4) than in the weaker muds of the former Dead Sea lakebed (D = 0.3 - 0.1). Importantly, the point of emanation of a very recent and sediment-laden stream at c. 10m below the former floor of the Dead Sea can be structurally and morphologically connected to the main sinkhole area. This provides evidence for channelised subterranean groundwater flows beneath this area. From our observations, two processes were identified as key factors for the development of large land subsidence structures and local sinkhole clusters: (1) Subrosion of weak material due to groundwater following preferred flow paths of ancient and current wadi riverbeds and (2) rapid dissolution of soluble material (salt) in this aragonite-rich mud. The heterogeneous geology and alternation of aquifers (alluvial fan sediments) and aquicludes (mud-flats) lead to the formation of complex subsurface flow channels that represent the secondary porosity of the internal structure of karst aquifers. As a consequence of these subterranean channels, local bending and strong heterogeneity of the saltwater/freshwater interface is expected in the affected area. In conclusion, the observed interplay of these two processes and the relative importance of subrosion compared to salt dissolution provide a new insight into the rapid land subsidence occurring along the Dead Sea shoreline.

  19. 3D features of delayed thermal convection in fault zones: consequences for deep fluid processes in the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Möller, Sebastian; Inbar, Nimrod; Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that thermal convection in faults can also occur for subcritical Rayleigh conditions. This type of convection develops after a certain period and is referred to as "delayed convection" (Murphy, 1979). The delay in the onset is due to the heat exchange between the damage zone and the surrounding units that adds a thermal buffer along the fault walls. Few numerical studies investigated delayed thermal convection in fractured zones, despite it has the potential to transport energy and minerals over large spatial scales (Tournier, 2000). Here 3D numerical simulations of thermally driven flow in faults are presented in order to investigate the impact of delayed convection on deep fluid processes at basin-scale. The Tiberias Basin (TB), in the Jordan Rift Valley, serves as study area. The TB is characterized by upsurge of deep-seated hot waters along the faulted shores of Lake Tiberias and high temperature gradient that can locally reach 46 °C/km, as in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG). 3D simulations show that buoyant flow ascend in permeable faults which hydraulic conductivity is estimated to vary between 30 m/yr and 140 m/yr. Delayed convection starts respectively at 46 and 200 kyrs and generate temperature anomalies in agreement with observations. It turned out that delayed convective cells are transient. Cellular patterns that initially develop in permeable units surrounding the faults can trigger convection also within the fault plane. The combination of these two convective modes lead to helicoidal-like flow patterns. This complex flow can explain the location of springs along different fault traces of the TB. Besides being of importance for understanding the hydrogeological processes of the TB (Magri et al., 2015), the presented simulations provide a scenario illustrating fault-induced 3D cells that could develop in any geothermal system. References Magri, F., Inbar, N., Siebert, C., Rosenthal, E., Guttman, J., Möller, P., 2015. Transient simulations of large-scale hydrogeological processes causing temperature and salinity anomalies in the Tiberias Basin. Journal of Hydrology, 520(0), 342-355. Murphy, H.D., 1979. Convective instabilities in vertical fractures and faults. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 84(B11), 6121-6130. Tournier, C., Genthon, P., Rabinowicz, M., 2000. The onset of natural convection in vertical fault planes: consequences for the thermal regime in crystalline basementsand for heat recovery experiments. Geophysical Journal International, 140(3), 500-508.

  20. The electrical image of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in Jordan in view of other geophysical data and results from the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, O.; Weckmann, U.; Abueladas, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Haak, V.; Desert Research Group

    2003-04-01

    Large shear zones are both in control of and controlled by major dynamic processes on earth. The trans-continental Dead Sea Transform (DST) forms the boundary between the African and Arabian plates in the Middle East. It joins the divergent plate boundaries along the Red Sea rift in the south with the Alpine orogenic belt in Turkey in the north on a length of more than 1000 km, showing a 105 km left-lateral displacement of the Arabian plate relative to the African plate. The aim of the multi-disciplinery DESERT project is to study this plate tectonic setting on all scales and to better understand its relation and interaction with the crust and upper mantle. Magnetotelluric (MT) data were recorded in three experiments in the years 2000 to 2002 at more than 200 sites, focusing on the DST in the Arava valley in Jordan. High-resolution seismic tomography and MT soundings of the shallow crust show strong lateral changes in material properties across the DST. 2D inversion results of the MT data indicate very clearly that the DST is associated with a strong lateral conductivity contrast. The most prominent feature is a conductive half-layer at a depth of approximately 1.5 km to the west of the DST. Its eastward extension coincides with the trace of the DST at the earth's surface. East of the DST, higher P-velocities (5 km/s) reflect the Precambrian basement, however the intermediate resistivities (20 to 80 Ohmm) observed are lower than expected. It is possible that fractured Precambrian magmatic rocks containing interconnected fluid bearing veins may explain both the high seismic velocities and the lower than average resistivities. The MT conductivity model of the DST shows important differences when compared with the corresponding images of the San Andreas Fault (SAF). The results of several short MT profiles across the SAF near Parkfield, a location described as transitional between locked and creeping, indicate a strong correlation of the fault core with zones of high conductivity to a maximum depth of approximately 3 km. This high conductivity at the SAF is attributed to the circulation of saline fluids within the fault zone. The width of the conductive zone (0.5 km) correlates well with the width of a seismic low-velocity zone inferred from fault-zone-guided wave observations while its depth extent (3 km) coincides with the onset of seismicity. In contrast, no significant conductivity anomaly is associated with a locked and seismically quiet segment near Carrizo Plain. The DST, on the other hand, appears to act as an impermeable barrier between two different rock formations. The high electrical conductivity west of the DST is attributed to the sedimentary filling and not to a narrow conductive fault core, which is typical for active segments of the SAF. This is similar to results from the SAF near Hollister which also acts as a barrier for fluid-flow across the fault. The main difference is that in addition, the SAF is a major conduit for fluid-flow along the fault. It is possible though, that the damage zone of the DST is so narrow that it cannot be resolved even with the dense site spacing of the MT experiment. This observation is supported by preliminary results from geological mapping and a seismic study using fault-guided waves that suggest a very narrow low-velocity wave-guide of 3 to 10 m width exists at the DST. The reason for this difference between the DST (very narrow fault zone) and the SAF (wide gouge zone) is not yet clear, but seems to coincide with generally slower slip rates and the relatively low recent seismicity associated with this segment of the DST.

  1. Evaluation of the impact of a psycho-educational intervention on knowledge levels and psychological outcomes for people diagnosed with Schizophrenia and their caregivers in Jordan: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is one of the most serious forms of mental illness among people being treated in psychiatric clinics in developing and developed countries. Providing care for people diagnosed with schizophrenia can be stressful for their caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may improve patients’ and primary caregivers’ knowledge of schizophrenia and impact positively on patients’ physical and psychological outcomes and primary caregivers’ burden of care and quality of life. Studies thus far have shown that these interventions may improve patients’ and caregivers’ outcomes, but the quality of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is poor and it is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the effectiveness of such interventions on patients and primary caregivers’ outcomes, hence the current study. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial in four outpatient mental health clinics in Jordan comparing psycho-educational interventions in the form of six booklets every fortnight, with treatment as usual in people diagnosed with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. The primary outcome for participants is knowledge of Schizophrenia; secondary outcomes for patients are positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and relapse rate, while secondary outcomes for primary caregivers are burden of care and quality of life. All measures are assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at three months follow-up. Discussion This randomized control trial, conducted in Jordan among people living with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers, will assess the effect of psycho-educational interventions on knowledge of Schizophrenia, patients’ positive and negative symptoms and quality of life, and caregivers’ burden of care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78084871 PMID:24450608

  2. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2012-09-01

    The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As long as the basal parts of the pyroclastic units at Tell Rimah were in the reaches of the saline groundwaters, calcite and faujasite developed in the pyroclastic host rocks. (4) Another lake level lowstand within the rift basin caused the pyroclastic host rocks to get emerged and forced zeolite-carbonate mineralization in the tuffs to a complete stillstand. Hypogene and supergene alteration in these phreatomagmatic-strombolian pyroclastic cones of the Pleistocene x were correlated with lake high- and lowstands in the adjacent rift basin along the DSTFS. The results obtained by current tectono-morphological studies of the rift-related alteration of pyroclastic rocks along the DSTFS may also be applied to basin-and-swell-topographies elsewhere in the world. The current studies involved microscopy supplemented by SEM-EDX, X-ray diffraction analysis, mid (MIR) and far (FIR) infrared spectroscopy. Major and trace elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). C- and O isotope analyses were conducted on carbonate minerals, which were also targeted on by radiocarbon dating.

  3. Recursive Distributed Representations Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    stumbling blocks in the application of Connectionism to higher­ level cognitive tasks, such as Natural data­structures trad­ itionally used in AI. The limitation shows in the fact that pure connectionism sentences [1­4], without embedded structures [5]. 1 Indeed, some of the recent attacks on connectionism have

  4. Recursive Distributed Representations Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    stumbling blocks in the application of Connectionism to higher- level cognitive tasks, such as Natural data-structures trad- itionally used in AI. The limitation shows in the fact that pure connectionism sentences [1-4], without embedded structures [5].1 Indeed, some of the recent attacks on connectionism have

  5. The MRSEC-Chile Exchange Jordan Weil

    E-print Network

    Witten, Thomas A.

    ;Brief program outline · Choose a group to work with from the links on Prof. Witten's webpage: · http processes · Surface physics You DO, in fact, like to have fun/cultural experiences. #12;My project: Elastic, and =angular velocity. #12;Stumbling blocks and solutions Self-contact · Rotate the sheet Soliton formation

  6. Book review: A Taste of Jordan Algebras

    E-print Network

    Bertram, Wolfgang - Institut de Mathématiques Élie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    and their existence to physics rather than to mathematics: they are not named after the French mathematician Camille", "The Classical Theory", up to "The Russian Revolution: 1977-1983", whose leader was the later fields the book. In each circle, the author re-starts telling the whole story from the beginning, but each time

  7. Book review: A Taste of Jordan Algebras

    E-print Network

    Bertram, Wolfgang - Institut de Mathématiques Élie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    and their existence to physics rather than to mathematics: they are not named after the French mathematician Camille in the Enlightenment'', ``The Classical Theory'', up to ``The Russian Revolution: 1977­1983'', whose leader indexes (110 pages) complete the book. In each circle, the author re­starts telling the whole story from

  8. Israel and Jordan, 1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burpee, Mark

    This curriculum project focuses on ancient civilizations, especially the various cultures that have inhabited the territory that is now Jerusalem, Israel. The project gives objectives for students to aim for and outlines the following 4-part procedure: (1) Background and Preparation; (2) Archaeology; (3) Group Research Project; and (4) Jerusalem…

  9. To: CCSF Directors From: Terry Jordan and Drew Harvell

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    , even disciplinary or "narrow" topics need additional research: 1) alternative fracking technologies, we need: 1) clear distinction between the genuine uncertainties and risks of the fracking and water

  10. Psychological Loneliness among Arab Students at Irbid National University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kadoumi, Khawla; Sawalha, Abdel Muhdi; Al Momani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of psychological loneliness among Arab students studying at Irbid National University, and to investigate the effect of year of study and gender of students on the level of psychological loneliness. The sample of the study consisted of 149 students, 133 males and 16 females from first, second,…

  11. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Al-Qura’n

    2009-01-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of

  12. Speciality of Lie-Jordan algebras A. N. Grishkov

    E-print Network

    +yx). Thus, we have the functors (.)- and (.)+ from the category Ass_of associative alge- bras left adjoint functors U : Lie_-! Ass_ ______________________________ *Supported by the FAPESP, Proc. 98/2162-6. 1 #12; and S : Jord_- ! Ass_, that is, for any L

  13. Speciality of Lie-Jordan algebras A. N. Grishkov

    E-print Network

    , +, , with the multiplication xy = 1 2 (xy+yx). Thus, we have the functors (.)- and (.)+ from the category Ass of associative that both functors have left adjoint functors U : Lie - Ass Supported by the FAPESP, Proc. 98/2162-6. 1 #12;and S : Jord - Ass, that is, for any L Lie, J Jord, A Ass there are bijections HomLie(L, A- ) - HomAss

  14. Grassmann Numbers and Clifford-Jordan-Wigner Representation of Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Sultan; Choun, Yoon S.; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent

    2013-01-01

    The elementary particles of Physics are classified according to the behavior of the multi-particle states under exchange of identical particles: bosonic states are symmetric while fermionic states are antisymmetric. This manifests itself also in the commutation properties of the respective creation operators: bosonic creation operators commute while fermionic ones anticommute. It is natural therefore to study bosons using commuting entities (e.g. complex variables), whereas to describe fermions, anticommuting variables are more naturally suited. In this paper we introduce these anticommuting- and at first sight unfamiliar- variables (Grassmann numbers) and investigate their properties. In particular, we briefly discuss differential and integral calculus on Grassmann numbers. Work supported in part by DOE contracts No. DE-AC-0276-ER 03074 and 03075; NSF Grant No. DMS-8917754.

  15. Analysis of Dynamical Recognizers Alan D. Blair & Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Blair, Alan

    it implements. To operate the network, we #12;rst feed the initial vector x0 into the input layer. Then, as each a perceptron P producing output z = tanh(P0 + dX j=1 Pjxj n); 2 #12;xt W0 W1 xt+1 6 P 6 z #12; bb b @@@I 66

  16. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. ZielinskiMohammad; Mohammad S. Al-Hwaiti; James R. Budahn; James F. Ranville

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many\\u000a sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated\\u000a concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence\\u000a of radium (Ra) in PG

  17. Performance of cool towers under various climates in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A Badran

    2003-01-01

    The concept of cool towers, which is a modern version of the historical wind catchers was re-visited. In contrast with the expression of cooling towers, which usually refers to equipment used to cool the water in power stations, air conditioning plants etc., cool towers are used to cool the air to provide comfort conditions for occupants. The main driving force

  18. A Statistical Approach to Decision Tree Modeling Michael I. Jordan

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michael I.

    theoretical results from likelihood theory and Bayesian theory in analyzing the performance of the tree of decisions. The resulting model yields a likelihood measure of goodness of fit, allowing ML and MAP; however, because there is uncertainty in the choice of the best splitting point, data points on one side

  19. Problems Faced by Preservice Special Education Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hiary, Ghaleb M.; Almakanin, Hisham A.; Tabbal, Suha A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the success of educating children with special needs is the quality of the special education teacher. While teachers are responsible for a plethora of duties, it is important that teacher preparation programs provide adequate training to ensure teachers are well prepared for the teaching profession. However,…

  20. Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

  1. Jordan F. Clark Ira Leifer Libe Washburn Bruce P. Luyendyk

    E-print Network

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    in natural gas bubble plumes: observations from the Coal Oil Point marine hydrocarbon seep field Received: 22 and oil in coastal waters (e.g., Clark et al. 2000; MacDonald et al. 2000; NCR 2002). Estimates analysis of very limited field measurements of seepage rates (e.g., Hovland et al. 1993; Judd et al. 1997

  2. A Taste of Jordan Algebras Kevin McCrimmon

    E-print Network

    's students) to get to know him as a warm human being. Future histories of mathematics should take and active thing: to see isomorphisms as cloning maps, isotopes as subtle rearrangements of an algebra

  3. A Taste of Jordan Algebras Kevin McCrimmon

    E-print Network

    -Mutter) for helping me (and all Jake's students) to get to know him as a warm human being. Future histories the mathematics as a living and active thing: to see isomorphisms as cloning maps, isotopes as subtle

  4. A Feasibility Study Of The Fair Trade Tourism Jordan Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Karels

    2008-01-01

    The nature of tourism is complex. It reaches across multiple sectors, effects millions of people (for better or for worse) and appears to be an unstoppable force in the modern world. While tourism is widely seen as a sector especially well suited to poverty reduction, the industry is rife with problems. It facilitates the destruction of natural resources, commodifies people

  5. FlexCVG-Feb07 June 2010 JORDAN T. HASTINGS

    E-print Network

    Faulds, James E.

    algorithms, database management, geographic information systems, scientific modeling, cartography databases and software tools for a national library of geological maps; prototyped these systems, manager, and educator, with a diverse background of academic and public-sector experiences in management

  6. Reproductive and production performance of Friesian dairy cattle in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawkat Q. Lafi; Odeh F. Al-Rawashdeh; Nabil Q. Hailat; Mahmoud A. R. Fathalla

    1995-01-01

    Nineteen Jordanian dairy farms selected by stratified random sample were monitored between February 1991 and September 1993 in order (1) to compare milk yield and reproductive performance of imported Friesian dairy cows with the Jordanian Friesian dairy cows and (2) to assess the effect of herd size on the reproductive and productive performance of the type of Friesian on milk

  7. Proposal Writing at Atherton Jordan, Inc.: An Ethnographic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIsaac, Claudia MonPere; Aschauer, Mary Ann

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the proposal-writing environment, the characteristics of proposals, and the practices of seven engineers at a Silicon Valley engineering firm that does government defense work. Finds that engineers write proposals collaboratively and have a highly structured composing process. Describes how the firm's Proposal Writing Center dramatically…

  8. Oil Prices, External Income, and Growth: Lessons from Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamiar Mohaddes; Mehdi Raissi

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends the long-run growth model of Esfahani et al. (2009) to a labor exporting country that receives large inflows of external income—the sum of remittances, FDI and general government transfers—from major oil-exporting economies. The theoretical model predicts real oil prices to be one of the main long-run drivers of real output. Using quarterly data between 1979 and 2009

  9. The Structure of Quadratic Jordan Systems of Clifford Type

    E-print Network

    D'Amour, Alain

    the Schweizerische Nationalfonds for its financial sup- port, and acknowledges his deep appreciation for the warm- mitian" heritage, the so-called Zel'manov polynomials ; the construction of one such creature is carried

  10. Participatory Networking Andrew Ferguson, Arjun Guha, Jordan Place,

    E-print Network

    Fonseca, Rodrigo

    system to manage network resources in order to provide a simple abstraction of near zero-cost background- vanced Research Program, and Tivoli. Dahlin was also supported by an NSF CAREER award (CCR-9733842 a virtually unlimited col- lection of objects that have non-zero probability of ac- cess [8, 10

  11. Corporate governance and institutional ownership: evidence from Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil Al-Najjar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to be one of the first papers to investigate the relationship between ownership structure and corporate governance, namely the factors that determine institutional investors' investment decisions in emerging markets using Jordanian data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A panel data analysis is applied to the dataset that includes non-financial Jordanian firms. Findings – The results show that the

  12. Audit tenure and the equity risk premium: evidence from Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rana Ahmad Baker; Ali Al-Thuneibat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between audit firm tenure and the perceived audit quality measured by the client-specific equity risk premium. The study population consists of all the manufacturing and service firms traded in Amman Bourse during the period 2002-2005. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Boone et al. model – with some modifications – was

  13. Trypanorhyncha cestodes of hygienic-sanitary importance infecting flounders Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan, 1889 and Xystreurys rasile (Jordan, 1891) of the Neotropical region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves; de São Clemente, Sergio Carmona; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo

    2012-08-01

    From February 2007 to July 2010, 27 specimens of Paralichthys patagonicus, and from September to December 2010, 30 specimens of Xystreurys rasile were purchased from fish markets in the municipalities of Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fishes were measured, necropsied, filleted, and further had their organs investigated. In P. patagonicus, 19 (70, 3 %) were parasitized with metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha species: Nybelinia erythraea, N. lingualis, Heteronybelinia nipponica, Pterobothrium crassicolle, Grillotia carvajalregorum, and Callitetrahynchus gracilis. In X. rasile, 17 (56, 6 %) were parasitized with metacestodes: N. erythraea, N. lingualis, H. nipponica, and G. carvajalregorum. The parasitological indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, range of infection, and infection sites of each parasite species are presented. This is the first report of Trypanorhyncha cestodes parasitizing specimens of P. patagonicus and X. rasile. These cestodes were studied due to their importance during fish sanitary inspection, if one considers the harm that the repulsive aspect of infected meat causes to consumers. PMID:22488201

  14. Evaluating Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as Modifying Factor in Designing Public School Buildings in Jordan 

    E-print Network

    Ali, H. H.; Al-Momani, H.

    2004-01-01

    in away to minimize and control the source of pollution. Around 29% of Jordanians occupy school buildings each day. A specific prototype building design was applied in the different locations of the country. This prototype could be appropriate for one...

  15. Modeling BuildingBlock Interdependency Richard A. Watson Gregory S. Hornby Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    to the notion of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from sub­solutions. Accordingly, there have breaking down a problem into sub­problems -- is a central tenet behind the Building­Block Hypothesis and manipulate sub­solutions or building­blocks appropriately ((Forrest & Mitchell, 1993b), (Goldberg and Horn

  16. Modeling Building-Block Interdependency Richard A. Watson Gregory S. Hornby Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from sub-solutions. Accordingly, there have been many down a problem into sub-problems ­ is a central tenet behind the Building-Block Hypothesis ((Holland and manipulate sub-solutions or building-blocks appropriately ((Forrest & Mitchell, 1993b), (Goldberg and Horn

  17. Evaluating Learning Factors Analysis Michael Lipschultz, Diane Litman, Pamela Jordan, and Sandra Katz

    E-print Network

    Litman, Diane J.

    ,litman}@cs.pitt.edu, {pjordan,katz}@pitt.com Abstract. Learning Factors Analysis (LFA), a form of student mod- eling, is used to predict whether a student can correctly answer a tu- tor question. Existing evaluations of LFA rely on metrics like the cross- validated root mean squared error (RMSE). However, the LFA output can be a binary

  18. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-print Network

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    that the production of multi-layer refractories was a localthat the production of multi-layer refractories was a localrefractory materials (manufacturing process); Metal composition; Reconstruction of technological installations Temperatures; redox conditions; Viscosity, different steps in metal production;

  19. Larval stages of digenetic trematodes of Theodoxus jordani (Sowerby 1836) snails from Yarmouk River, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami K. Abdel-Hafez; Naim S. Ismail

    1983-01-01

    Two types of cercariae are described from the freshwater prosobranchTheodoxus jordani (Sowerby 1836) collected from the Yarmouk River during 1982: a tail-less cercaria belonging to themutabile group and a microcercous cercaria belonging to theCercaria brachyura group. These two cercariae were given the namesCercaria theodoxi I andC. theodoxi II, respectively. Details are presented on the morphology and behaviour of the cercariae

  20. Evaluation of calcium content of drinking water supplies and its effect on calcium deficit in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majdi Al-Mahasneh; Hasan Mousa; Heba Jalamneh; Isra Bani Hani; Meryam Zawahreh

    2010-01-01

    In this study, calcium intake by Jordanians from diet and different sources of water was evaluated. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 300 persons in three major cities namely: Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. The questionnaire included the type of diet which people eat daily and the type of water they drink. The amount of calcium intake

  1. Groundwater mixing pattern and origin of salinization in the Azraq Oasis, Jordan, revealed by noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaudse, Tillmann; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Tuffaha, Randa; Bani-Khalaf, Refaat

    2014-05-01

    Azraq Oasis, located in the eastern Jordanian desert, is an important freshwater resource of the country. Shallow groundwater reserves are heavily exploited since the 1980s and in consequence the groundwater table dropped by about 25 m and important wetlands dried out. Furthermore, some wells of the major well field show an increasing mineralization over the past 20 years. The fact that only a few wells show this behavior is surprising since the wells are situated quite close together and are mostly drilled to the same depth. A previous study using conventional tracers did not yield a satisfactory explanation [1]. Application of dissolved noble gases reveals the complex mixing pattern leading to the very localized salinization within the well field. It is found that the wells affected by salinization 1) contain distinctly more radiogenic 4He than the other wells, indicating higher groundwater age, and 2) exhibit a significantly enhanced 3He/4He ratio, implying an influence of deep mantle fluids. Since the hydrogeologic system in the Azraq Oasis comprises of three aquifer systems, separated by poorly permeable layers and traversed by several deep fault systems, mantle influence is expected to be found in the deeper aquifers. The data, therefore, indicate upward leakage into the shallow aquifer. However, the saline middle aquifer is virtually free of mantle helium. To our knowledge, this is the first time a groundwater system is described where mantle helium is found in an aquifer lying on top of one which is free of mantle impact. This behavior can be explained by an upstream from an even deeper (and saline) source through a nearby conductive fault, while the groundwater flow direction in the middle aquifer is towards the fault and reversed in the shallow aquifer, towards the well field. This scheme explains how the mantle fluids (and also most probably the increased salinity) infiltrates into the shallow aquifer, but not why only few wells are affected. The shallow aquifer consists of chalky limestone and a far more permeable basalt shield on top. Because the boreholes of the well field have no casing, water is potentially abstracted from all depths. Initially, however, by far most water was abstracted from the basalt aquifer due to the different permeabilities. As the groundwater table dropped, the basalt layer fell progressively dry and subsequently more water from the deeper part of the shallow aquifer was incorporated into the well's discharge - which according to the presented scheme is affected by salt and mantle fluids. The local depletion depends strongly on the individual cone of depression around a borehole and, therefore, can explain the local occurrence of the salinization phenomenon. The admixing of deep groundwater is further supported by warmer discharge temperatures and other parameters. [1] Al-Momani et al. (2006), IAEA TecDoc 1507, 177-211

  2. Spaceborne radar interferometric mapping of precursory deformations of a dyke collapse, Dead Sea area, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Closson; N. A. Karaki; H. Hansen; D. Derauw; C. Barbier; A. Ozer

    2003-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry provides a technique to monitor a zone involving active salt tectonic phenomena. We detected movements in the Dead Sea area between 1993 and 1999. These preceded the catastrophic collapse (22 March 2000) of a newly built 12 km dyke belonging to the industrial salt evaporation ponds of the Arab Potash Company. Eighteen other dykes are present and

  3. Occupational permanent disabilities reported to the Social Security Corporation in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atallah Z. Rabi; Waleed K. Al-Homran; Burhan A. AbuDhaise; Rafi' H. Alwash

    1996-01-01

    All Jordanian permanent disability (PD) cases compensated by the Social Security Corporation (SSC) during 1992 were analyzed. Factors considered in the analysis included gender, degree of disability, age, occupation, part of body injured, and causes of injuries leading to PD. Out of 898 PD cases, 95% were males. The following levels of PD: 75%, were prevalent among 60%, 36%, and

  4. Prospective active marker motion correction improves statistical power in BOLD fMRI Jordan Muraskin a,

    E-print Network

    Sajda, Paul

    dependent (BOLD) signal, is among the most widely used tools in cognitive neuroscience and neurobiology, and during sleep (Andrade et al., 2011; Dang-Vu et al., 2008; Stern et al., 2011). The BOLD signal in f

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in live and dressed chicken in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Akhras, Rani R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 140 broiler flocks presented for slaughtering at Amman slaughterhouse were tested for Campylobacter spp. via collection of cloacal swabs from live birds, feathered skin samples at prescalding, and skin samples at postscalding (62°C or 57°C scalding temperature), postevisceration, and postchilling. The results indicated that 40% of the flocks tested by cloacal swabs, 34% at prescalding, 32% at post 57°C scalding, and 32% postevisceration were harboring Campylobacter jejuni. None of the skin samples collected from dressed birds at postscalding (62°C) or postwashing-chilling steps (regardless of scalding temperature) revealed the presence of C. jejuni. Thirty eight isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution method. Almost 50% of the isolates were multidrug resistant to 9 or 10 out of the ten tested antimicrobials. The other half of tested isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycyclin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enorfloxacin, gentamycin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim. PMID:21988398

  6. Breastfeeding Education, Support, and Barriers among Iraqi Refugee Women in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Farrell, Heather; Merrill, Ray; Cox, Erin

    2007-01-01

    UNICEF data indicates that Iraqi women have lower rates of breastfeeding than other Middle East countries and that breastfeeding rates are usually even lower among refugee women. This low rate of breastfeeding may be a result of refugee women's lack of public and social support and access to health professionals. This study identifies Iraqi…

  7. On the coevolutionary construction of learnable gradients Shivakumar Viswanathan and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    . Pollack DEMO lab, Dept of Computer Science, Brandeis University Waltham, MA-02139 {shiva,pollack/Trainer respectively (Epstein 1994; Pollack & Blair 1998; Juill´e 1999; Ficici 2004; Bucci & Pollack 2003; De Jong & Pollack 2004). Here, the teacher poses differ- ent problems for the learner (i.e. creates gradient

  8. Towards Metrics and Visualizations Sensitive to Coevolutionary Failures Ari Bader-Natal and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    B. Pollack DEMO Lab, Computer Science Department Brandeis University, MS018 Waltham, Massachusetts 02454­9110 {ari, pollack}@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract The task of monitoring success and failure in coevolu, intro- duced in (Watson & Pollack 2001). This is particularly rele- vant, as that work focused

  9. On the coevolutionary construction of learnable gradients Shivakumar Viswanathan and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    . Pollack DEMO lab, Dept of Computer Science, Brandeis University Waltham, MA­02139 {shiva,pollack/Trainer respectively (Epstein 1994; Pollack & Blair 1998; Juillâ?? e 1999; Ficici 2004; Bucci & Pollack 2003; De Jong & Pollack 2004). Here, the teacher poses differ­ ent problems for the learner (i.e. creates gradient

  10. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  11. Finding Acceptable Solutions Faster Using Inadmissible Information Jordan Thayer and Wheeler Ruml

    E-print Network

    Ruml, Wheeler

    puzzle, the traveling salesman problem, the pan- cake puzzle, and grid navigation problems. Table 1 shows of potentially inadmissible informa- tion to determine search order and using admissible informa- tion within the bound, we return fmin, potentially raising our lower bound, allowing us to consider bestd

  12. Bayesian parameter estimation via variational methods Tommi S. Jaakkola Michael I. Jordan

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Abstract We consider a logistic regression model with a Gaussian prior distribution over the parameters. We the posterior distribution in logistic regression to be represented and updated eÆciently. We also 1 #12; show to the posterior distribution of the parameters thereby yielding an approximate posterior predictive model

  13. A retrospective study on imported malaria in Jordan. 2. Malaria among non-military Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Kanani, K A; Amr, Z S; Alkhatib, R; Shadfan, B; Al-Rashadan, M; Hani, R B

    2015-03-01

    Cases of imported malaria among civilian Jordanians returning from Asian and African countries from 1991-2011 are documented. A total of 511 cases of imported malaria were diagnosed among civilian Jordanians travelling abroad. Majority of cases were reported among adults over 21 year old accounting for or 87,67% of the total number of cases. Eighteen different categories of occupation were identified, where as students studying abroad showed the highest infection rate (33.2%), especially those returning from India (n=70). Infection among males was as high as 91.78%, compared to 8.22% in females. Females were mostly housewives accompanying their spouses. Cases were reported from 34 Asian and African countries.Most cases were reported among Jordanians returning from Pakistan (23.68%), Yemen (18.6%), India (18.4%) and Sudan (5.1%). The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium vivax (n=370, 72.4%), followed by Plasmodium falciparum (n=138, 27%). Only one case of Plasmodium malariae was observed. Few cases (n=3, 0.65%) of mixed infection with P. vivax and P. falciparum were reported. Sudan was the main source of P. falciparum (25.4%) followed by Yemen (20.3%), while Pakistan was the main source of P. vivax (28.9%) followed by India (22.7%). Most mixed infection cases were acquired in Sudan (66.7%). PMID:25925812

  14. Logical Computation on a Fractal Neural Substrate Simon D. Levy and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    (connectionism) is suited to a particular real-world task (logic). They are therefore not of much use in arguing for or against the merits of connectionism as a model of any particular domain of interest, any more than knowing

  15. Infinite RAAM: A Principled Connectionist Substrate for Cognitive Modeling Simon Levy and Jordan Pollack

    E-print Network

    Levy, Simon D.

    - strate for unification in a variety of cognitive modeling do- mains. Language and Connectionism: Three computa- tional paradigm (connectionism) is suited to a particular real- world task (language). They are therefore not of much use in arguing for or against the merits of connectionism as a model of any particular

  16. Infinite RAAM: A Principled Connectionist Substrate for Cognitive Modeling Simon Levy and Jordan Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    ­ strate for unification in a variety of cognitive modeling do­ mains. Language and Connectionism: Three computa­ tional paradigm (connectionism) is suited to a particular real­ world task (language). They are therefore not of much use in arguing for or against the merits of connectionism as a model of any particular

  17. Discourse Processing for Explanatory Essays in Tutorial Applications Pamela W. Jordan and Kurt VanLehn

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Pamela W.

    are running in a straight line at constant speed. You throw a pumpkin straight up. Where will it land? Explain. Explanation: Once the pumpkin leaves my hand, the horizontal force that I am exerting on it no longer exists vertically downward) will cause the pumpkin to fall. Since no horizontal force acted on the pumpkin from

  18. Inference and Learning in Networks of Queues Charles Sutton Michael I. Jordan

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michael I.

    a benchmark Web application. 1 Introduction Modern Web services, such as Google, eBay, and Face- book, run. These are classical models that have a 50-year history of application to systems. They have two key advan- tages as an important case study for machine learn- ing. Performance modeling is essentially a regression problem

  19. Inference and Learning in Networks of Queues Charles Sutton Michael I. Jordan

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    application. 1 Introduction Modern Web services, such as Google, eBay, and Face- book, run on clusters. These are classical models that have a 50-year history of application to systems. They have two key advan- tages as an important case study for machine learn- ing. Performance modeling is essentially a regression problem

  20. Comparative Genomics I King Jordan, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    of the biosphere into primary domains: bacteria, archaea and eukarya. The theoretical foundation of molecular of George Cuvier and Richard Owen. Owen coined the term `homology' to describe similar, albeit modified of a completely phylogenetically distinct form of life, the archaea, precipitated the reorganization