Sample records for jordan

  1. [Jordan].

    PubMed

    The capital of Jordan is Amman. As of 1995, Jordan had a population of 5.4 million governed by a parliamentary monarchy regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $5.8 billion and $1390. Per capita income declined by 6.3% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Jordan owed $7.1 billion, then being serviced at $878 million. For the same year, Jordan exported $4.151 billion in goods and services and imported $4.783 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 3.3% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 67.9 years, the infant mortality rate was 36 per 1000 births, 97% had access to health services, and 99% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347065

  2. Jordan.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    Jordan is a country of 91,000 sq km, only 11% of which is arable. The 1980 population was 2.8 million, growing at 3.65% per year. Most of the people are of Arab stock, including between 1 and 1 1/4 million Palestinians. 95% of the people are Sunni Muslims. The national language is Arabic, and literacy is 71%. The infant mortality rate in 1984 was 50/1000, and life expectancy is 64 years. Suffrage is universal. The 1986 gross domestic product was $4.3 billion, per capita $1530; the growth rate was 2.6%. 80% of the people are employed in agriculture and 20% in industry. The major resources are phosphate and potash. The dinar is worth $0.35. Jordan's economy grew during the 1960s and 1970s, and it achieved the 10% growth rate called for in its 1st 5-year plan (1976-80). The 2nd 5-year plan saw a slow-down in the economy, and the 3rd 5-year plan aims at a growth rate of only 5.1% and the creation of 97,000 new jobs. A major weakness of the economy is its dependence on money from abroad -- $0.5 billion from other Arab countries, wages of expatriate Jordanians working in the Gulf states, and $1.7 billion in US aid between 1952 and 1987. 1986 exports amounted to $732 million, imports to $2.4 billion. Jordan was settled by Canaanites around 2000 BC and was ruled successively by Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, and from 1919 to 1946 Britain. The independent Hashemite Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, was founded in 1946. War with Israel ended with the establishment of the present official border in 1949, but Israel has occupied the West Bank of the Jordan since 1967, and the militant pro-Syrian Palestinian fedayeen maintained a guerrilla war within Jordan until 1973. In 1974 King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. However, by reconvening Parliament in 1984 with representatives from the West Bank, the King contradicted his recognition of the claims of the Palestine Liberation Organization to represent all Palestinians. King Hussein has urged the Palestine Liberation Organization to accept UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 and renounce the use of violence. The November 1987 Arab League summit in Amman was a major victory for Hussein's diplomatic efforts. PMID:12177997

  3. Jordan centroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin McCrimmon

    1999-01-01

    Central simple triples are important for the classification of prime Jordan triples of Clifford type in arbitrary characterstics. For triples and pairs (or even for unital Jordan algebras of characteristic 2), there is no workable notion of center, and the concept of “central simple” system must be understood as “centroid-simple”. The centroid of a Jordan system (algebra, triple, or pair)

  4. Dendrochronology in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramzi Touchan; Malcolm K. Hughes

    1999-01-01

    Dendrochronology is a valuable tool for the study of past climate and increases our knowledge of climate variability beyond the short period covered by instrumental data. Two annual tree-ring width chronologies were developed for northern Jordan (Pinus halepensis and Quercus aegilops), one chronology for Carmel Mountain, Israel (Pinus halepensis), and one chronology for southern Jordan (Juniperus phoenicia). The results of

  5. Jordan Triple Disystems

    E-print Network

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2011-01-01

    We take an algorithmic and computational approach to a basic problem in abstract algebra: determining the correct generalization to dialgebras of a given variety of nonassociative algebras. We give a simplified statement of the KP algorithm introduced by Kolesnikov and Pozhidaev for extending polynomial identities for algebras to corresponding identities for dialgebras. We apply the KP algorithm to the defining identities for Jordan triple systems to obtain a new variety of nonassociative triple systems, called Jordan triple disystems. We give a generalized statement of the BSO algorithm introduced by Bremner and Sanchez-Ortega for extending multilinear operations in an associative algebra to corresponding operations in an associative dialgebra. We apply the BSO algorithm to the Jordan triple product and use computer algebra to verify that the polynomial identities satisfied by the resulting operations coincide with the results of the KP algorithm; this provides a large class of examples of Jordan triple disy...

  6. JORDAN SUPERALGEBRAS DEFINED BY BRACKETS

    E-print Network

    .Martinez, I.Shestakov, E.Zelmanov In [KMZ] it was shown that all Jordan superalgebras that correspond [KMZ], [MZ]. In particular, we show that the Jordan superalgebras of the Cheng-Kac series are special

  7. Modular Annihilator Jordan Pairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Benslimane; H. Marhnine; C. Zarhouti

    2001-01-01

    Barnes proved, in [2] and [3], that a complex semiprimitive associative Banach algebra A is modular annihilator if and only if 0 is the only possible accumulation point of the spectrum of x for each x 2 A. A complex Jordan Banach algebra J which satisfies the above spectral property is called inessen-tial. Fern'andez proved in [9] that inessential complex

  8. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Bat Diversity and Conservation in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuhair Sami AMR; Mohammad Adnan; ABU BAKER; Mazin Botros QUMSIYEH

    The diversity and conservation of bats in Jordan were reviewed based on field work and specimen collections. The bat fauna of Jordan consist of 24 species. Zoogeographical affinities of the bats of Jordan are reviewed. Threats to and human impact on current populations are discussed. Recommendations for implementing conservation measures and future bat research avenues in Jordan are highlighted. Although

  10. Establishment of Mechatronics Engineering Professional Groups in Jordan

    E-print Network

    Establishment of Mechatronics Engineering Professional Groups in Jordan Dr. Nathir Rawashdeh - Jordan "Establishment of Mechatronics Engineering Professional Groups in Jordan", Nathir Rawashdeh #12 Mechatronics Engineers Society (JMES) Under umbrella of Jordan Engineers Association Traditional Society

  11. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Scott; Hazim El-Naser; Ross E. Hagan; Amal Hijazi

    2003-01-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 167 m per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the levels of aquifers and the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial, and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on

  12. Jordan: Communities and Community Genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanan Hamamy; Sana Al-Hait; Aladin Alwan; Kamel Ajlouni

    2007-01-01

    The population in Jordan mounted from half a million in 1952 to 5.3 millions in 2004 and is composed of a variety of ethnic groups, the majority being Arabs. Couples nowadays tend to have fewer children, with the total fertility rate falling from 7.4 in 1976 to 3.7 in 2004. Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favored, with the preferred marriage partner

  13. Water shortage in Jordan — Sustainable solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidal Hadadin; Maher Qaqish; Emad Akawwi; Ahmed Bdour

    2010-01-01

    The large environmental challenge that Jordan faces today is the scarcity of water. Definitely, water is the significant feature in the population\\/resource equation where water resources in Jordan are limited and the country's population has continued to rise. A high rate of natural population growth, combined with massive influxes of refugees, has transformed into an imbalance condition between population and

  14. Jordan Receives 2005 Inge Lehmann Medal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Silver; Thomas H. Jordan

    2006-01-01

    Thomas H. Jordan was awarded the Inge Lehmann Medal at the 2005 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The medal honors outstanding contributions to the understanding of the structure, composition, and dynamics of the Earth's mantle and core. Tom Jordan entered geophysics when the plate tectonic revolution was already in full

  15. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  16. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  17. Basic Space Sciences in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naimy, H. M. K.; Konsul, Khalil

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the activities and research projects of Basic Space Sciences (Astronomy and Space Sciences (AASS)) in the following Jordanian organizations and Institutions: 1. Jordanian Astronomical Society (JAS). 2. Universities {Mainly Al al-Bayt University}. Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (IAASS). Maragha Astronomical Observatory (MAO). 3. Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences (AUASS). 4. ICOP Activities: Islamic Crescent Observational Program. The paper summarizes also other activities in some Jordanian organizations and the future expectation, for AASS in Jordan.

  18. Assault by burning in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, W

    2012-12-31

    Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  19. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outbreak largely involved adolescents and young adults. PMID:3260143

  20. Jordan structures in mathematics and physics

    E-print Network

    Iordanescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an overview of the most important applications of Jordan structures inside mathematics and also to physics, up-dated references being included. For a more detailed treatment of this topic see - especially - the recent book Iordanescu [364w], where sugestions for further developments are given through many open problems, comments and remarks pointed out throughout the text. Nowadays, mathematics becomes more and more nonassociative and my prediction is that in few years nonassociativity will govern mathematics and applied sciences. Keywords: Jordan algebra, Jordan triple system, Jordan pair, JB-, JB*-, JBW-, JBW*-, JH*-algebra, Ricatti equation, Riemann space, symmetric space, R-space, octonion plane, projective plane, Barbilian space, Tzitzeica equation, quantum group, B\\"acklund-Darboux transformation, Hopf algebra, Yang-Baxter equation, KP equation, Sato Grassmann manifold, genetic algebra, random quadratic form.

  1. Jordan structures in mathematics and physics

    E-print Network

    Radu Iordanescu

    2011-06-22

    The aim of this paper is to offer an overview of the most important applications of Jordan structures inside mathematics and also to physics, up-dated references being included. For a more detailed treatment of this topic see - especially - the recent book Iordanescu [364w], where sugestions for further developments are given through many open problems, comments and remarks pointed out throughout the text. Nowadays, mathematics becomes more and more nonassociative and my prediction is that in few years nonassociativity will govern mathematics and applied sciences. Keywords: Jordan algebra, Jordan triple system, Jordan pair, JB-, JB*-, JBW-, JBW*-, JH*-algebra, Ricatti equation, Riemann space, symmetric space, R-space, octonion plane, projective plane, Barbilian space, Tzitzeica equation, quantum group, B\\"acklund-Darboux transformation, Hopf algebra, Yang-Baxter equation, KP equation, Sato Grassmann manifold, genetic algebra, random quadratic form.

  2. Analysis of energy consumption in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tamimi

    1995-01-01

    Energy consumption in Jordan was analysed and correlated over the last seven years for the period 1985–1992. The results were presented fairly by second or third degree polynominals with less than ±5% error.

  3. Jordan ships oil shale to China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Jordan and China have signed an agreement to develop oil shale processing technology that could lead to a 200 ton/day oil shale plant in Jordan. China will process 1200 tons of Jordanian oil shale at its Fu Shun refinery. If tests are successful, China could build the demonstration plant in Jordan's Lajjun region, where the oil shale resource is estimated at 1.3 billion tons. China plans to send a team to Jordan to conduct a plant design study. A Lajjun oil shale complex could produce as much as 50,000 b/d of shale oil. An earlier 500 ton shipment of shale is said to have yielded promising results.

  4. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  5. Report on Israel and Jordan Visit April 29, 2013

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Report on Israel and Jordan Visit April 29, 2013 Dear University of Maryland community: I have just returned from a week in Israel and Jordan, University of Haifa, Technion (Israel Institute of Science and Technology), Hebrew

  6. The Thermal Waters of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and ?18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within ?18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea. Thermal waters of Wadi Araba province show the lowest mineralisation due to their origin of mostly sandstones. The main ion's proportion and ?18O-ratio indicate a mixture of fossil and vadose groundwater.

  7. Electric Energy Access in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Karaki; Farid Chaaban; Riad Chedid; Toufic Mezher; Ali Hamzeh; Ahmad Harb; Fayez Abdulla

    This paper presents an overall energy profile and access in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The urbanization of the population has similar levels in Jordan and Lebanon at 80 and 90%, respectively, whereas Syria still has a 48 % rural population. All three economies rely on services in varying amounts the largest being in Jordan at 73% and the smallest is

  8. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. Multialternating Jordan polynomials and codimension growth of matrix algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Giambruno; Mikhail Zaicev

    2007-01-01

    Let R be the Jordan algebra of k×k matrices over a field of characteristic zero. We exhibit a noncommutative Jordan polynomial f multialternating on disjoint sets of variables of order k2 and we prove that f is not a polynomial identity of R. We then study the growth of the polynomial identities of the Jordan algebra R through an analysis

  10. Jordan Receives 2005 Inge Lehmann Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Paul G.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    2006-03-01

    Thomas H. Jordan was awarded the Inge Lehmann Medal at the 2005 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The medal honors outstanding contributions to the understanding of the structure, composition, and dynamics of the Earth's mantle and core. Tom Jordan entered geophysics when the plate tectonic revolution was already in full swing. The basic tenets had been worked out, but there remained two basic questions: How do continents fit into this essentially oceanic theory, and what is the style of mantle convection that accompanies the motions of the plates?

  11. Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

  12. Seismic hazard maps for Jordan and vicinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Semih Yücemen

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic methods are used to quantify the seismic hazard in Jordan and neighbouring regions. The hazard model incorporates the uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters and the attenuation equation. Seven seismic sources are identified in the region and the seismicity parameters of these sources are estimated by making use of all the available information. Seismic hazard computations and the selection

  13. CV (K. Jordan) 1 CURRICULM VITAE

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Delinquency/Juvenile Justice Criminological Theory Offender Treatment Corrections Diversity). Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Gabbidon, S. L., Jordan, K. L-of-home Placement: A propensity score matching and multilevel modeling approach. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 2

  14. CV (K. Jordan) 1 CURRICULM VITAE

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Juvenile Delinquency/Juvenile Justice Criminological Theory Offender Treatment Corrections Diversity and multilevel modeling approach. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 2(1), 41-53. Jordan, K. L. (2012). Juvenile on the decision to petition a case in the juvenile court. Race & Justice: An International Journal, 1(2), 185

  15. The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Marzouk, Akmal M.; Ahmad, Fayez

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in Jordan is marked by a major depositional hiatus that differs in magnitude from place to place due to variable structural movements of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt that resulted in irregularity of Jordan/Levant depositional basin after the deposition of Maastrichtian succession. To elucidate the nature of this hiatus, fieldwork was carried out at a number of locations including lithofacies and stratigraphic analysis, and a multi-proxy study of microplanktonic biostratigraphy (calcareous nannofossilis and planktonic formaminifera). However, the duration of this hiatus extended over latest Maastrichtian and early Danian stages. This is based on the absence of the planktonic foraminifera; Pseudoguembelina hariaensis (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebra (CF2), Plummerita hantkeninoides (CF1), Guembelitria cretacea (P0), Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P&) zones and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides (P1a) subzones and the coeval calcareous nannofossils Nephrolithus frequens and Markalius inversus zones. We estimate that in the paleo-lows areas an unexpected 3.96 Ma hiatus is present. Conversely, in swell areas, the duration of the hiatus represents the entire Danian-Selandian interval and revealed an unexpected 10.33 Ma hiatus, especially in the central part of Jordan. Subsequently, a marked transgression took place over the whole of Jordan which resulted in the prevalence of deep water conditions (Zones P4 or equivalent NP7/8); this caused the deposition of a retrogradational parasequence set of middle shelf pelagic marl and chalk during a rapid relative rise of sea-level. A correlative hiatus and time gap have also been reported in different parts of the Arabian and African plates, indicating that Jordan was influenced by regional tectonics that combined with the latest Maastrichtian sea-level fall resulted in a long-term sub-marine hiatus and/or non-deposition of sediments. A combination of sea level changes and tectonic uplift are the likely cause for such a long gap in the sediment record in the region.

  16. 75 FR 67122 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ...irrigation in Northern and Middle Jordan Valley as a percent...irrigation in Northern and Middle Jordan Valley...15.9 treated wastewater. Middle and Northern Jordan Valley...quasi-experimental techniques comparing the beneficiary...

  17. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  18. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  19. Exploring sales advertising in the housing market in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majd Al-Homoud; Salem Al-Oun; Ayat Smadi; Al-Mutasem Al-Hindawi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – In the housing sector in Jordan, sales advertisings are rarely used, though they, potentially, increase profits and sales and expand development geographically. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of sales advertising in the emerging housing market in the city of Irbid, Jordan. The aim is to reveal the effect of the use of advertising

  20. Impact of Syrian Refugees on Jordan's Water Management Research Questions

    E-print Network

    Impact of Syrian Refugees on Jordan's Water Management Research Questions: What impact has the influx of 590,000 refugees had on water resources? How can Jordan improve refugee and water management planning? Research Design: 1. Literature Review 2. Water Budget Analysis 3. Interviews 1. Literature Review

  1. Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

  2. Language and Cultural Maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A.; Al-Ali, Mohammed N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the language situation among the Gypsies of Jordan within the framework of previous theories on language maintenance and shift as proposed by Le Page, Fishman, Dorian and Kelman. The study investigates language and cultural maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan to permit comparison of the relative influences of various…

  3. Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Jordan: A Single-Centre Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdalla Awidi; Ahmad Magableh; Ziad Taimeh; Hashim Ayyad; Nazzal Bsoul; Musleh Tarawneh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Study of the disease patterns and clinical evaluation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Subjects and Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out on 85 patients, with MDS who were followed up over a period of 23 years at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Cases were analyzed according to the French, American and British Classification. Results: Of the 85 patients, 42

  4. Water strategies and potential of desalination in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousa S. Mohsen

    2007-01-01

    Jordan is considered one of the countries in the world with the scarcest of water resources. This has led to deterioration of the groundwater quality and an increase in the salinity levels. The dominant environmental challenge facing Jordan is the scarcity of the Kingdom's water resources in an arid land with unpredictable rainfall and an expanding population. Rainfall is confined

  5. An expansion formula for the norm of a Jordan algebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erhard Neher

    1997-01-01

    Matrices of a given size with entries from a field form an associative algebra, and can therefore be considered as a Jordan algebra. From that point of view, the determinant of a matrix is nothing but the reduced generic norm of the Jordan algebra. The basic expansion formulas of matrix determinants along a row or column do not make sense

  6. Place-based heritage regeneration in Madaba, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rama Al Rabady

    2010-01-01

    While image-based heritage regeneration, emphasizing the preservation of the immediately visible environment, has dominated efforts in most Islamic and developing countries, this article uses a case study of Madaba, Jordan to highlight the advantages of place-based regeneration approaches that focus on the preservation local users and uses built environments and spaces. As Jordan continues to face economic challenges, officials have

  7. Combating a Religious Radical Ideology v. Suppressing Islamic Opposition: Jordan’s Approach to Counterterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abeer Ghazi Jarrar

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of 9\\/11, criminal law reform in Jordan was part of the worldwide expansion of criminal laws facilitated by UNSC Resolution 1373 that was enacted under mandatory Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The introduced criminal law amendments were largely offered as a symbolic response to 9\\/11; it was built on the assumption of inadequacy of criminal law

  8. Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

  9. Algebras of quotients of nonsingular Jordan algebras Fernando Montaner1

    E-print Network

    ". Zelmanov's and Martinez's results have been extended to quadratic Jor- dan algebras in [FGM] and [B version of it. There is already a definition of nonsingularity for Jordan alge- bras given in [FGM

  10. Jordan: A Refugee Haven ---Country Profile Graldine Chatelard

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in several waves since the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, forming a very large and integral part Middle Eastern states, Jordan is a recent creation, having been established in 1921 within borders drawn

  11. Exact Vacuum Solutions of Jordan, Brans-Dicke Field Equations

    E-print Network

    Sergey Kozyrev

    2005-12-04

    We present the static spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the Jordan, Brans-Dicke field equations. The new solutions are obtained by considering a polar Gaussian, isothermal and radial hyperbolic metrics.

  12. A Jordan GNS Construction for the Holonomy-Flux *-algebra

    E-print Network

    Michael Rios

    2005-05-09

    The holonomy-flux *-algebra was recently proposed as an algebra of basic kinematical observables for loop quantum gravity. We show the conventional GNS construction breaks down when the the holonomy-flux *-algebra is allowed to be a Jordan algebra of observables. To remedy this, we give a Jordan GNS construction for the holonomy-flux *-algebra that is based on trace. This is accomplished by assuming the holonomy-flux *-algebra is an algebra of observables that is also a Banach algebra, hence a JB algebra. We show the Jordan GNS construction produces a state that is invariant under all inner derivations of the holonomy-flux *-algebra. Implications for the corresponding Jordan-Schrodinger equation are also discussed.

  13. Larry M. Jordan, Ph.D Director, NRP

    E-print Network

    Manitoba, University of

    Larry M. Jordan, Ph.D Director, NRP Co-Director, SCRC Professor & Head, Department of Physiology D locomotor movements. Continue basic research designed to isolate other brain and spinal cord cells involved

  14. Consanguinity and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The North of Jordan Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil R. Obeidat; Yousef S. Khader; Zouhair O. Amarin; Mohammad Kassawneh; Mousa Al Omari

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the association between consanguineous marriages and adverse pregnancy\\u000a outcome in the north of Jordan. Women delivered in four major hospitals in the north of Jordan between April 2007 and May\\u000a 2007 were included in the study. Non-Jordanian women and women with multiple pregnancies were excluded. Mothers answered a\\u000a pilot-tested structured questionnaire administered

  15. Domestic Violence against Women in Jordan: Evidence from Health Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohannad Al-Nsour; Marwan Khawaja; Ghadah Al-Kayyali

    2009-01-01

    To explore women’s attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) and their determinants, as well as to document the prevalence\\u000a of various types of violence among women attending public health centers in the Balka region, Jordan. A cross-sectional study\\u000a among ever-married women aged 18–49 who visited the public health clinics in the governorate of Balka, Jordan, was carried\\u000a out in August

  16. Born-Jordan Quantization and the Uncertainty Principle

    E-print Network

    Maurice A. de Gosson

    2013-03-11

    The Weyl correspondence and the related Wigner formalism lie at the core of traditional quantum mechanics. We discuss here an alternative quantization scheme, whose idea goes back to Born and Jordan, and which has recently been revived in another context, namely time-frequency analysis. We show that in particular the uncertainty principle does not enjoy full symplectic covariance properties in the Born and Jordan scheme, as opposed to what happens in the Weyl quantization.

  17. ACTIVITIES OF WOMEN SOCIETIES IN AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN JORDAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Al-Naber; M. Shatanawi

    The total land area of Jordan is about 89,342 square kilometers (km) with a population of about 5.329 million (2002), and growth rate of about 2.8 % (1997-2002). It is a semi arid country with limited water resources. According to the water stress index (WSI) Jordan is classified in the category of Absolute Water Scarcity. The available renewable water resources

  18. Groundwater Depletion in the Jordan Highlands: Can Pricing Policies Regulate Irrigation Water Use?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Venot; François Molle

    2008-01-01

    Jordan is one of the countries with the scarcest water resources in the world. The aquifers of the Lower Jordan River Basin,\\u000a a region of prime importance for the country, are exploited well beyond their sustainable rate. In 1997, Jordan’s officials\\u000a designed a new water strategy, with emphasis on demand-management instruments. Water pricing policies, and notably the bylaw\\u000a no. 85

  19. Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2010-01-01

    This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

  20. 78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...113-6), the United States of America...by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (the...2013, between the United States of America and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (the...to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantee...Agriculture and Trade, United States Agency...

  1. Prospects of Trade Relations Between Jordan, Palestine and Israel After Peace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Amerah

    1994-01-01

    Currently, Jordan and Palestine are negotiating separately peace with Israel in accordance with the Declaration of Principles that was signed by the PLO and Israel on September 13, 1993 and the agenda of issues that was signed by Jordan and Israel on September 14, 1993. Economic cooperation among Jordan, Palestine and Israel is a major issue being negotiated. This study

  2. 10 Evolutionary Genomics of Gene Expression I. King Jordan and Leonardo Mari~no-Ramirez

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    . Here, some of the basic techniques and issues related to sequence #12;DRAFT 224 Jordan and MariDRAFT 10 Evolutionary Genomics of Gene Expression I. King Jordan and Leonardo Mari MD 20894, USA jordan@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov The study of evolution at the molecular level has focused

  3. General and Special Education Systems in Jordan: Present and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Jabery, Mohammad; Zumberg, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Educating a student with special needs became an interest in Jordan at the end of the 1960s. This article provides an overview of the general and special education systems in Jordan. Historical and demographical information is included for the purpose of placing the education of children in Jordan within the context of its land and the population…

  4. Some New Results for Linear Transformations on Euclidean Jordan Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jiyuan

    2009-09-01

    Generalizing the w-P property of a matrix, Tao [Some w-P properties for linear transformations on Euclidean Jordan algebras, to appear in Pacific J. Optimization] recently introduced and studied the w-P and the w-uniqueness properties for linear transformations defined on Euclidean Jordan algebras. In this paper, we study further to these properties. In particular, we specialize them to the space Sn of all n×n real symmetric matrices and the space Hn of all n n complex Hermitian matrices for Lyapunov and Stein transformations. We also present a sufficient condition for the w-uniqueness property on Sn. In addition, we give a characterization of the w-P and the column sufficiency properties for a matrix-induced transformation on Euclidean Jordan algebras.

  5. Education reform and the quality of kindergartens in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan—the implementation of public kindergartens—and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of kindergartens was selected to represent these new public kindergartens (n = 84) and previously existing private kindergartens (n = 23). Independent observers rated the quality of kindergarten environments in seven domains. Overall, 13% of public kindergarten environments were observed to be inadequate, 43% were of minimal quality, 43% were good, and 1% were excellent. In four of the seven domains, the quality of public kindergartens was significantly higher than the quality of private kindergartens; there were no significant differences in the other domains. Findings suggest the importance of continuing to implement high quality kindergartens in Jordan and of incorporating evaluations into education reform. PMID:21170163

  6. The Cofounder of Quantum Field Theory: Pascual Jordan

    E-print Network

    Walter Dittrich

    2015-01-29

    A comparative study is undertaken that brings to light the two different methods of how to treat the many-body problem in quantum field theory. The two main researchers who published the first versions of how to quantize a many-body assembly were P. Jordan and P.A.M. Dirac. What they understood by the so-called "second quantization" will be the subject of the paper. We will argue that it is Jordan's field operator approach that until now constitutes the basis of any work in quantum field theory.

  7. The Cofounder of Quantum Field Theory: Pascual Jordan

    E-print Network

    Dittrich, Walter

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study is undertaken that brings to light the two different methods of how to treat the many-body problem in quantum field theory. The two main researchers who published the first versions of how to quantize a many-body assembly were P. Jordan and P.A.M. Dirac. What they understood by the so-called "second quantization" will be the subject of the paper. We will argue that it is Jordan's field operator approach that until now constitutes the basis of any work in quantum field theory.

  8. Jordan cells in logarithmic limits of conformal field theory

    E-print Network

    Jorgen Rasmussen

    2006-11-25

    It is discussed how a limiting procedure of conformal field theories may result in logarithmic conformal field theories with Jordan cells of arbitrary rank. This extends our work on rank-two Jordan cells. We also consider the limits of certain three-point functions and find that they are compatible with known results. The general construction is illustrated by logarithmic limits of (unitary) minimal models in conformal field theory. Characters of quasi-rational representations are found to emerge as the limits of the associated irreducible Virasoro characters.

  9. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  10. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  11. Mechatronics curriculum development at Philadelphia University in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek A. Tutunji; Mazin Jumah; Yehia Hosamel-deen; Saber Abd Rabbo

    2007-01-01

    Mechatronics system engineering has gained global interest in the past decade from the educational and industrial sectors. Several universities in the middle east have introduced mechatronics engineering for undergraduate studies. One of those pioneers is Philadelphia University (PU) in Jordan. This paper presents the mechatronics curriculum developed at Philadelphia University with emphasis on regional needs. The paper also includes comparisons

  12. Teachers' and Mothers' Satisfaction with Resource Room Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khateeb, Jamal M.; Hadidi, Muna S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of satisfaction of 135 resource room teachers and 190 mothers of children served in resource room programs in Jordan. Information from teachers was gathered using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and classroom visits. Information from parents was gathered using a brief questionnaire.…

  13. Teacher Education Programs in Jordan: A Reform Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naba'h, Abdallah Abu; Al-Omari, Hamza; Ihmeideh, Fathi; Al-Wa'ily, Suad

    2009-01-01

    The study presents a historical background of teacher education in Jordan and outlines the components of the present teacher education program at Hashemite University. This includes admission policy, academic study plans, practicum programs, selection of cooperative schools, selection of cooperative teachers, stages of training, and assessment of…

  14. Characterization of cell phone use while driving in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhannad Ismeik

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that the use of cell phones while driving can impair driving performance thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. The conducted studies have indicated that with an increase in general cell phone use, phoning while driving has also grown. For around 80% of Jordan's population that own cell phones, phoning while driving has

  15. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  16. Wind as an alternative source of energy in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M Habali; Mohammad Amr; Isaac Saleh; Rizeq Ta’ani

    2001-01-01

    The interest and motivation for harnessing wind power have grown tremendously during the nineteen-eighties in many developed countries as a result of frequent energy crises on the one hand and persisting issues of environmental pollution on the other. These activities have stimulated at the same time, the scientific and research community in Jordan to launch a serious series of investigations

  17. Area Handbook for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyrop, Richard F.; And Others

    This volume on Jordan is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University for use by military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The present volume is the first…

  18. Euclidean Jordan Algebras, Hidden Actions, and $J$-Kepler Problems

    E-print Network

    Guowu Meng

    2011-05-11

    For a {\\em simple Euclidean Jordan algebra}, let $\\mathfrak{co}$ be its conformal algebra, $\\mathscr P$ be the manifold consisting of its semi-positive rank-one elements, $C^\\infty(\\mathscr P)$ be the space of complex-valued smooth functions on $\\mathscr P$. An explicit action of $\\mathfrak{co}$ on $C^\\infty(\\mathscr P)$, referred to as the {\\em hidden action} of $\\mathfrak{co}$ on $\\mathscr P$, is exhibited. This hidden action turns out to be mathematically responsible for the existence of the Kepler problem and its recently-discovered vast generalizations, referred to as $J$-Kepler problems. The $J$-Kepler problems are then reconstructed and re-examined in terms of the unified language of Euclidean Jordan algebras. As a result, for a simple Euclidean Jordan algebra, the minimal representation of its conformal group can be realized either as the Hilbert space of bound states for its $J$-Kepler problem or as $L^2({\\mathscr P}, {1\\over r}\\mathrm{vol})$, where $\\mathrm{vol}$ is the volume form on $\\mathscr P$ and $r$ is the inner product of $x\\in \\mathscr P$ with the identity element of the Jordan algebra.

  19. Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

  20. Jordan-Schwinger Representations and Factorised Yang-Baxter Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanyan, David; Kirschner, Roland

    2010-04-01

    The construction elements of the factorised form of the Yang-Baxter R operator acting on generic representations of q-deformed sl(n+1) are studied. We rely on the iterative construction of such representations by the restricted class of Jordan-Schwinger representations. The latter are formulated explicitly. On this basis the parameter exchange and intertwining operators are derived.

  1. Potentials of wind energy development for water pumping in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousa S. Mohsen; Bilal A. Akash

    1998-01-01

    The potential of the development of water pumping using wind energy in Jordan was studied. Underground water can be pumped using wind power. Based on available wind data eleven wind sites were considered. The results show that these sites can be divided, in terms of the annual amount of pumped water, into three categories. One is considered “favorable”, which includes

  2. Composite spherically symmetric configurations in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    S. Kozyrev

    2010-09-23

    In this article, a study of the scalar field shells in relativistic spherically symmetric configurations has been performed. We construct the composite solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equation by matching the conformal Brans solutions at each junction surfaces. This approach allows us to associate rigorously with all solutions as a single glued "space", which is a unique differentiable manifold M^4.

  3. Composite wormholes in vacuum Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    S. M. Kozyrev; S. V. Sushkov

    2008-12-30

    New classes composite vacuum wormhole solutions of Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravitation is presented and analysed. It is shown that such solution holds for both, a bridge between separated Schwarzschild and Brans Universes and for a bridge connecting two Schwarzschild asymptotically flat regions joined by Brans throat. We have also noticed that there are some new possible candidates for wormhole spacetimes.

  4. The Constitution of Christian Communal Boundaries and Spheres in Jordan

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 The Constitution of Christian Communal Boundaries and Spheres in Jordan Géraldine Chatelard Muslim-majority country at 230,000 persons out of which a little less than 10 percent were Christians.1 According to Ottoman statistics for the year 1914, Christians were present in the northern and central

  5. Potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyad S. Hrayshat; Mohammed S. Al-Soud

    2004-01-01

    The potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jordan was studied. For this purpose, 10 sites were selected based on the available solar radiation data. According to the annual amount of water output, the selected sites can be divided into three different categories: the first one, which includes Taffieleh, Queira, H-4, and H-5, is considered to be “adequate”

  6. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  7. Children and Nationalism in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Describes engagement of children in a Palestinian refugee camp in Jordan with projects of nationalism. Outlines different visions for the children's future and ways these visions inform actions of their proponents. Focuses on how children draw upon different discourses of national community in the process of developing identities that are strongly…

  8. Children and Nationalism in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASON HART

    2002-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in a Palestinian refugee camp in Jordan, this article describes the engagement of children with projects of nationalism. In their position of marginality to both the Jordanian nation-state and the emerging Palestinian national entity, the children of Hussein Camp are the objects of different visions for their own collective future. The article offers a description of these

  9. Food Habits of the Yellowstone Whitefish Prosopium Williamsoni Cismontanus (Jordan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Laakso

    1951-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the food habits of 385 whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni cismontanus (Jordan)) and 52 trout from the Yellowstone and Gallatin Rivers was made. Collections were taken over a period of 1 year beginning in September, 1947, on the Yellowstone and on the Gallatin Rivers. Fingerling whitefish used the same food organisms as did adults but consumed smaller numbers

  10. JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

  11. Detection and Analysis of Galaxy Clusters in SDSS Jordan Levy

    E-print Network

    Leka, K. D .

    Detection and Analysis of Galaxy Clusters in SDSS Jordan Levy Dept. of Physics & Astronomy distribution of galaxies throughout the universe, showing that galaxies often form systems of clusters whose of galaxies, we detect galaxy clusters using a custom implementation of the HOP algorithm. Mass functions

  12. Sustaining Successful School Reform: An Interview With Jordan Horowitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Inside High School Reform: Making Changes that Matter (WestEd) shares the critical lessons and compelling successes of 28 California Academic Partnership Program school reform efforts. In this interview, lead author Jordan Horowitz, WestEd's senior project director in evaluation research, recently shared some of the book's findings, and answered…

  13. 7-1 Chapter 7--Memory System Design Computer Systems Design and Architecture by V. Heuring and H. Jordan 1997 V. Heuring and H. Jordan

    E-print Network

    .3 The Memory Hierarchy, Cost, and Performance CPU Cache MainMemory DiskMemory Tape Memory Some Typical ValuesPage 1 7-1 Chapter 7--Memory System Design Computer Systems Design and Architecture by V. Heuring and H. Jordan © 1997 V. Heuring and H. Jordan Chapter 7: Memory System Design Topics 7.1 Introduction

  14. 7-1 Chapter 7--Memory System Design Computer Systems Design and Architecture by V. Heuring and H. Jordan 1997 V. Heuring and H. Jordan

    E-print Network

    7.3 The Memory Hierarchy, Cost, and Performance CPU Cache MainMemory DiskMemory Tape Memory SomePage 1 7-1 Chapter 7--Memory System Design Computer Systems Design and Architecture by V. Heuring and H. Jordan © 1997 V. Heuring and H. Jordan Chapter 7: Memory System Design Topics 7.1 Introduction

  15. Distribution of Upper Pliocene brines in the northern Jordan Rift Valley, Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Guttman, Joseph; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    In the triangle of Lake Tiberias (LT), Yarmouk Gorge and Lower Jordan Valley (Fig. 1), fresh groundwaters are frequently deteriorated by variable admixture of ascending subsurface Upper-Pliocene brines. Element ratios and water isotopes reveal, that common source brine is present and is modified by water rock interaction and dilution with freshwater. This common source brine is inferred from the composition of the known Ha'on well brine being characterized by molar ratios of Na/Cl=0.53, 1000Br/Cl=5.5 and Ca/Mg=0.39 (Möller et al., 2011). The low Ca/Mg, a ratio also found for Newe Ur, is unique in an environment in which ratios >1 dominate because of omnipresent dolomitization of abundant limestones. Interaction with abundant intrusive basaltic bodies would add sodium and hence increase the low Na/Cl ratio to >1. Uptake of halite increases Na/Cl but decreases Br/Cl ratios. These ratios resemble seawater after 37-fold enrichment in Li molality by evaporation (McCaffrey et al. 1987). Although being diluted by freshwater the Ha'on well brine proves the presence of an evaporated seawater mother brine residing at unknown depth. The derivatives of inferred Ha'on mother brine are present around Lake Tiberias, in the lower Yarmouk Valley and in the northern Rift Valley at least as far southwards as Newe Ur. Areas of structural weakness, where the major fault systems occur, are the main distribution areas for these brines. The study provides an example whereby hydrochemical analyses are applied as key tool to better understand deep fluid transport processes at basin-scale, which are supported by numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Möller P., Siebert C., Geyer S., Inbar N., Rosenthal E., Flexer A., Zilberbrand M. (2011): Relationship of brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley. Geofluids 12(2): 166-181. McCaffrey M.A., Lazar B., Holland H.D. (1987): The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite. J. Sediment. Petrol. 57: 928-937.

  16. Sedimentology and palaeogeography of the regressive-transgressive Kurnub Group (Early Cretaceous) of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belal S. Amireh

    1997-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Kurnub Group of Jordan consists of three regressive-transgressive (fluvial-marine) depositional sequences in northern Jordan, recorded here for the first time, whereas continental clastics dominated central and southern Jordan.Deposition of the Kurnub Group started in the late Neocomian above a regional angular unconformity by basal conglomerate and sandstone facies association of an alluvial braidplain origin. During this time

  17. Exceptional Lie algebras, SU(3) and Jordan pairs: part 2. Zorn-type representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrani, Alessio; Truini, Piero

    2014-07-01

    A representation of the exceptional Lie algebras reflecting a simple unifying view, based on realizations in terms of Zorn-type matrices, is presented. The role of the underlying Jordan pair and Jordan algebra content is crucial in the development of the structure. Each algebra contains three Jordan pairs sharing the same Lie algebra of automorphisms and the same external su(3) symmetry. The applications in physics are outlined.

  18. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. PMID:19910269

  19. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  20. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...that the following hydroelectric application has been...Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership...Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16...

  1. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...that the following hydroelectric application has been...Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership...Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f. Location...Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16...

  2. Oil Shale—An Alternative Energy Source for Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Hrayshat

    2008-01-01

    Oil shale presents the only available fossil fuel in Jordan besides limited reserves of natural gas. Jordanian oil shale—with a proven amount of about 5 × 10 tons—is of quite good quality. It has relatively low ash and moisture content, gross calorific value of 7.5 MJ\\/kg, and oil yield of 8–12%. The reserves should be sufficient to satisfy the county's

  3. Prevalence of hydatidosis among donkeys in northern Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M Mukbel; P. R Torgerson; M. N Abo-Shehada

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and thirty donkeys (Equus asinus), aged between 5 months and 14 years of age, from the Irbid Governorate in northern Jordan were necropsied between November 1997–May 1999. Of these animals, 16.9% had hydatid cysts in either their lungs and\\/or livers. No donkeys of 3 years of age or less were infected, where as 33.3% (22 of 66) aged

  4. Redescription of Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae: Neotyphloceratini).

    PubMed

    López Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Sanchez, Juliana; Díaz, M Monica; Barquez, Rubén M; Lareschi, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan is redescribed from male and female specimens collected at the type locality (Otro Cerro, Catamarca Province, Argentina) and nearby localities. New diagnostic morphological characters for both sexes are provided, which include the shape of the upper lobe of the fixed process of clasper, the crochet of the aedeagus and the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternum IX for males, and the contour of the distal margin of sternum VII for females. PMID:25415623

  5. Soil erosion and land degradation in the Highlands of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2013-04-01

    The Highlands of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the Highlands area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern Highlands, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation, terracing, management of crop residues, and stonewalls construction helped in reducing erosion.

  6. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Laibinis, Victoria; Wooten, Ruth; Stabler, Lisa; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2011-06-01

    Two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates (n = 24) from Jordan were analyzed by molecular methods and compared with other Middle Eastern isolates, related international isolates, and reference strains. The first group (n = 19) was isolated from July 2004 to January 2005 (isolation period A), and the newer group (n = 5) from June 2007 to April 2008 (isolation period B). The groups of isolates are from chicken flocks from northern Jordan, but are not from the same farms. None of the flocks were vaccinated for MG. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, targeted sequencing of the partial MG cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), and the MG 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGSR) divided the Jordanian isolates into two groups. All of the 19 isolates from time period A, in addition to two isolates from time period B, were indistinguishable from the F strain. Three of five isolates from time period B were characterized as wild types and were indistinguishable from each other. The wild-type field strain was readily distinguished from the F strain. It was 91% and 96.4% similar to the F strain based on Clustal-W alignments of sequences of mgc2 and IGSR, respectively. Sequence similarity of mgc2 gene of the Jordan wild-type strain to isolates from Israel and Egypt ranged from 96.5% to 100%, whereas for IGSR it was 99.4%-100%. We theorize that the F-strain live MG vaccine, commonly used in Jordan prior to 2007, was transmitted to nonvaccinated poultry in the region and was a predominant genotype during time period A. PMID:21793435

  7. Structure formation constraints on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    Viviana Acquaviva; Carlo Baccigalupi; Samuel M. Leach; Andrew R. Liddle; Francesca Perrotta

    2005-05-09

    We use cosmic microwave background data from WMAP, ACBAR, VSA and CBI, and galaxy power spectrum data from 2dF, to constrain flat cosmologies based on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Using a parametrization based on \\xi=1/4\\omega, and performing an exploration in the range \\ln\\xi \\in [-9,3], we obtain a 95% marginalized probability bound of \\ln\\xi Dicke parameter \\omega>120.

  8. Towards establishing a multiple sclerosis biobank in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Zaza, Rand; Ibayyan, Leena; Dahbour, Said; Bahou, Yacoub; El-Omar, Ammar; Samhouri, Bilal; El-Khateeb, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a promising approach in unraveling genetic associations to multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex, multifactorial disease. Biobanks are repositories of patient biospecimens and information that can promote GWAS research. However, the success of GWAS and biobanking is dependent on the level of participation of MS patients in genetic research. In order to initiate MS-based biobanking and GWAS research in Jordan, the willingness of MS patients to participate in long-term, genetic research in Jordan and their preferred type of a consent form were investigated. MS patients (289) were recruited for genetic studies. Personal and clinical information were collected from those who enrolled in the study. Approximately 96% of MS patients agreed to participate in genetic studies. The female:male ratio among patients was 2:1 with most patients being diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (88%). The mean age of onset was 28.3 years, the mean duration of illness was 6 years, and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.8. Relatedness of parents was significantly associated with having secondary-progressive MS. Approximately 85% of the patients preferred open consent with 37% of them preferring to renew their consent. All the patients approved to be recontacted and update their information via accessing their medical files or physicians. These observations support the establishment of a specialized MS biobank in Jordan and pave the way to participate in international large-scale genetic initiatives. PMID:24456262

  9. Depositional and diagenetic processes of Qa Khanna playa, North Jordan basaltic plateau, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, F. M.; Banat, K. M.; Abu-Salha, Y. A.

    2010-09-01

    The present study explored mineral occurrences and sediment characteristics of playas from northern Jordan and explained depositional and diagenetic processes as reflected from bulk chemistry and sedimentary structures. Mudcracks of different sizes and shape patterns, laminations, intersediment vesicles, and bioturbation pipes are the main sedimentary structures. Plagioclase, olivine, orthopyroxene, nepheline and other opaque minerals are all of detrital origin, and are derived from the basaltic bedrocks surrounding the studied playa. Evaporites are very rare; they are represented only by trace amounts of gypsum. The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of the studied sediments, arranged according to their decreasing abundances are palygorskite, illite, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. The elemental abundances were tied to clay, CaCO 3 and nearby igneous rocks. The type of clay minerals, the high pH values of the studied sediments, and the considerable incorporation of Mg and K in palygorskite and illite respectively, may strongly reflect a high evaporative and alkaline environment under arid to semi-arid conditions in an ephemeral lake of the Qa Khanna. Concentrations and distributions of both major and trace elements are essentially controlled by the clay mineralogy and the calcium carbonate content; Ca is mainly incorporated in the CaCO 3, which is either generated authigenically or by aeolian deposition. Fe and K are incorporated and fixed by illite under an evaporative and alkaline environment. Mg is incorporated in palygorskite while Mn is adsorbed on various clay minerals. Sr substitutes for Ca in the aeolian CaCO 3 and its presence in the studied sediments is independent of the prevailing conditions during the playa evolution. Rb substitutes for K in illite under the prevailing chemical conditions in the studied playa.

  10. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...Technical Cooperation ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2013 U.S.-Jordan Environmental...Cooperation; (3) Article 5 (Environment) of the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on the...

  11. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte and the Fritz-Haber-Institut in Berlin.

  12. PRIME (-1,1) AND JORDAN MONSTERS AND SUPERALGEBRAS OF VECTOR TYPE

    E-print Network

    PRIME (-1,1) AND JORDAN MONSTERS AND SUPERALGEBRAS OF VECTOR TYPE SERGEY V. PCHELINTSEV AND IVAN P,1)-monster) generates the same variety of algebras as the Grassman (-1,1)-algebra. Moreover, the same va. Similar results are obtained for Jordan algebras. Thus, the Jor- dan monster (the prime degenerate algebra

  13. Jordanian Director of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University, Jordan, Dr. Ghazu's Visit to Liaocheng University, China

    E-print Network

    Jordanian Director of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University, Jordan, Dr. Ghazu's Visit of Chinese tests has amounted to 500,000. The Confucius Institute of Philadelphia University of Jordan the development of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University and potentials of further bilateral cooperation

  14. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  15. Symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents with seizures in Irbid, Northern Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafie H. Alwash; Mohammed J. Hussein; Faris F. Matloub

    2000-01-01

    In Jordan, individuals with epilepsy commonly attend neuropsychiatric clinics. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial outcome of epilepsy among adolescents. The study included 101 epileptic adolescents who attended the neurology clinic at the Princess Basma Teaching Hospital in Northern Jordan and 101 non-epileptic controls. Sociodemographic characteristics and all relevant clinical data were collected through interviewing the

  16. An Exploration of Higher Education Graduation Rates: A Case Study of Women in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaf, Carine

    2010-01-01

    Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. Despite Jordan's reputation as one of the most 'advanced' countries in the region, there have been conflicted reports on higher education completion rates of women. Some…

  17. Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The study examined students with disabilities perspectives toward their experiences in a public University in Jordan using a survey approach. The aim of this study was to take a closer look at the experiences of students with disabilities in Jordan and, in light of new legislation, to identify obstacles in the higher education system. It found…

  18. Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Abu Rukah

    2009-01-01

    The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the

  19. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  20. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  1. Child, Family and Community Characteristics Associated with School Readiness in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated demographic differences in school readiness within Jordan, a particularly interesting context because of widespread national reform currently sweeping the education system in Jordan. Teacher reports and researcher direct assessments of the school readiness of a national sample of 4681 Jordanian first grade children…

  2. Documentation and Library Service of the Ministry of Information: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Mohammed M.

    This report describes current documentation and library services provided by the Kingdom of Jordan's Ministry of Information and makes a series of recommendations for the improvement of these services. A summary of the recommendations is followed by descriptions of contemporary Jordan, its government, educational resources, and culture;…

  3. Factors affecting medical students in formulating their specialty preferences in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef Khader; Dema Al-Zoubi; Zouhair Amarin; Ahmad Alkafagei; Mohammad Khasawneh; Samar Burgan; Khalid El Salem; Mousa Omari

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in medicine as it may affect student learning and academic performance. However, no such studies have been undertaken in medical schools in Jordan. Therefore, we carried out this study to investigate the career preferences of medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology

  4. Jane Austen and celebrity culture: Shakespeare, Dorothy Jordan and Elizabeth Bennet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Margaret Harris

    2010-01-01

    Jane Austen imitated Shakespeare throughout her entire career, from Sense and Sensibility to Sanditon. To make up her characters, she mapped material from Shakespeare and other authors on to family members and celebrities. For Elizabeth Bennet, I argue that she remembered Dorothy Jordan, the most famous comic actress of her day. Jordan was particularly renowned for her roles in Much

  5. The Effect of an Education Program for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalaf, Amany; Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    There are few support services for parents of children with a disability in Jordan. The present exploratory study investigated whether the provision of an education program in Jordan for mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder increased mothers' understanding of their child's behaviour, improved the mothers' coping skills,…

  6. Did Bryant Arroyo kill baby Jordan Anthony Shenk, as alleged by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvaia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Ali Al-Bayati

    2005-01-01

    Bryant Arroyo was arrested in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania on September 26, 1994 in connection with baby Jordan Anthony Shenk's death. On May 10, 1995, he was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment without parole. The medical examiner testified at Arroyo's preliminary hearing and trial that Jordan was killed by blunt trauma to the chest and abdomen, and

  7. Potential for use of Kochia prostrata and perennial grasses for rehabilitation in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although rangelands in Jordan are often degraded, they provide valued and traditional lifestyles through livestock production. A series of studies were conducted to evaluate practical approaches to restore degraded arid rangelands in Jordan. Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Sh...

  8. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the Foundations of Quantum Theory

    E-print Network

    Anthony Duncan; Michel Janssen

    2012-08-31

    In two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begr\\"undung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan (1927b,g) presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. As an alternative that avoids the mathematical difficulties facing the approach of Jordan and Paul A. M. Dirac (1927), John von Neumann (1927a) developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identication of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identication of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan (1927b) was the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann (1927a) rephrased them and, in a subsequent paper (von Neumann, 1927b), sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim (1928). We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics.

  9. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  10. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 ?m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 ?m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. PMID:20623320

  11. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected and taken account for. The study showed that common fingerprint elements and practices would have led to misinterpretations in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment and calls for a sound knowledge on catchment characteristics before the implementation of such a method.

  12. Early Bronze Age Dolmens in Jordan and their orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, A.; Polcaro, F.

    This work presents the results of a survey of dolmen fields of the Early Bronze I in Jordan, in the Wadi Zarqa Valley, started in October 2004 and still in progress. Our data show, with a very high statistical significance, that in many sites of the Early Bronze IA a large majority of dolmens were built oriented along the N-S direction. A first interpretative hypothesis of these results, based on the astronomical contents of the mythology of the nearby civilizations culturally connected to the Palestinian area, is suggested.

  13. Depositional Environments of the Jordan Formation, Winona, MN

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tom Hickson

    This project involves a field trip to the Jordan Formation in Winona, MN. Student teams are assigned a section of the outcrop from which they are to determine a stratigraphic column. The class then performs a lateral analysis and builds a composite stratigraphic column for the formation. As a final product, the students write up the class's observations about the formation. Project Webpages Project Summary and Write-up Outline (Acrobat (PDF) 115kB Jul7 05) Instructor Notes for Project (Acrobat (PDF) 91kB Jul7 05) Outlines and Notes (Acrobat (PDF) 1.1MB Jul7 05) for each class session for this project

  14. Linear approximation in the nonsymmetric Jordan-Thiry theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Kalinowski; R. B. Mann

    1986-01-01

    Summary  This paper is devoted to a linear approximation of the nonsymmetric Jordan-Thiry theory. We deal basically with the Langrangian\\u000a for the scalar field ? connected to the «gravitational constant». We compute this Lagrangian up to the second order of approximation\\u000a inh\\u000a \\u000a ??\\u000a =g\\u000a \\u000a ??\\u000a -?\\u000a \\u000a ??\\u000a . We prove that, in the zeroth and first orders of approximation in the

  15. Brans-Dicke theory: Jordan vs Einstein Frame

    E-print Network

    A. Bhadra; K. Sarkar; D. P. Datta; K. K. Nandi

    2006-05-19

    It is well known that, in contrast to general relativity, there are two conformally related frames, the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame, in which the Brans-Dicke theory, a prototype of generic scalar-tensor theory, can be formulated. There is a long standing debate on the physical equivalence of the formulations in these two different frames. It is shown here that gravitational deflection of light to second order accuracy may observationally distinguish the two versions of the Brans-Dicke theory.

  16. Evaluating patients’ perceptions regarding generic medicines in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian patients’ perceptions toward generic medicines and to evaluate their opinions regarding generic substitution. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study involving Jordanian patients was undertaken, using a self-administrated anonymous questionnaire. The response rate was 80% (n=400/500). Results The study showed that cost of medicines is high according to 83% of the patients. Most patients (92%) preferred to be prescribed the cheapest medicine. Majority of patients (79%) believed that cost should be considered before a drug is prescribed. Most patients (78%) accepted generic substitution and believed that it can provide significant saving. Surveyed patients (78%) agreed that they should have the option of choosing between generic and originator and 74% believed that physicians should give them that choice. These results showed a significant statistical correlation with the monthly income of the patient, percentage cost they pay and number of medicines prescribed (P<0.05). Conclusion The high cost of medicines in Jordan is believed to be the main driver for choosing generic medicines Furthermore; patients have positive attitudes towards generic medicines. The involvement of patients in the treatment decision would result in more adherence and improvement in health. The insights gained from patients in this study will be useful to health organisations and policy makers to design a robust generic policy to use medicines cost-effectively in Jordan. PMID:24764538

  17. Psychiatric morbidity in Northern Jordan: a ten-year review

    PubMed Central

    Zaidan, Z; Alwash, R; Al-Hussaini, A; Al-Jarrah, M

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the psychiatric morbidity in the northern part of Jordan and to determine the frequency distribution of various psychiatric disorders, for planning services. Method All records of 2,335 psychiatric patients attending the only psychiatric clinic in Northern part of Jordan during a ten-year period from 1984 to 1993 were extensively reviewed and subjected to computerized analysis. Diagnosis was made as per ICD-9. Results Out of the 2335 patients who attended the clinic, 55% were males and 45% were females. Those in the age group 25–44 recorded the maximum attendance. Among the male attendees of the clinic, schizophrenia was the commonest diagnosis(19.9%), while among females, affective disorders were the commonest(15.9%). Conclusion Schizophrenia was found to be the commonest diagnosis in general among attendance of the clinic for the ten-year research period, while anxiety disorders were the commonest diagnosis among attendance of the clinic for the year 1993. PMID:24019705

  18. Robust initialization of a Jordan network with recurrent constrained learning.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust initialization of a Jordan network with a recurrent constrained learning (RIJNRCL) algorithm for multilayered recurrent neural networks (RNNs). This novel algorithm is based on the constrained learning concept of the Jordan network with a recurrent sensitivity and weight convergence analysis, which is used to obtain a tradeoff between the training and testing errors. In addition to using classical techniques for the adaptive learning rate and the adaptive dead zone, RIJNRCL employs a recurrent constrained parameter matrix to switch off excessive contributions from the hidden layer neurons based on weight convergence and stability conditions of the multilayered RNNs. It is well known that a good response from the hidden layer neurons and proper initialization play a dominant role in avoiding local minima in multilayered RNNs. The new RIJNRCL algorithm solves the twin problems of weight initialization and selection of the hidden layer neurons via a novel recurrent sensitivity ratio analysis. We provide the detailed steps for using RIJNRCL in a few benchmark time-series prediction problems and show that the proposed algorithm achieves superior generalization performance. PMID:21965202

  19. Water and society in Jordan and Israel today: an introductory overview.

    PubMed

    Black, Emily

    2010-11-28

    Increasing population levels and demand for water have led to a global water shortage, with more than one billion people unable to access safe drinking water. The Middle East is particularly vulnerable to water stress because of its dense population, variable climate and vulnerable groundwater resources. In Jordan, for example, if current trends in population continue, the water per capita will halve-putting the country in the category of having an absolute water shortage. This opening paper summarizes the climate and hydrology of Jordan and Israel, describes how water is managed at a national level in Jordan and reflects briefly on the broader international context. PMID:20956363

  20. On a Jordan-algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics Hilbert space construction

    E-print Network

    Bischoff, W

    1993-01-01

    In this note I discuss some aspects of a formulation of quantum mechanics based entirely on the Jordan algebra of observables. After reviewing some facts of the formulation in the \\CS -approach I present a Jordan-algebraic Hilbert space construction (inspired by the usual GNS-construction), thereby obtaining a real Hilbert space and a (Jordan-) representation of the algebra of observables on this space. Taking the usual case as a guideline I subsequently derive a Schr\\"odinger equation on this Hilbert space.

  1. On a Jordan-algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics: Hilbert space construction

    E-print Network

    Wolfgang Bischoff

    1993-04-26

    In this note I discuss some aspects of a formulation of quantum mechanics based entirely on the Jordan algebra of observables. After reviewing some facts of the formulation in the \\CS -approach I present a Jordan-algebraic Hilbert space construction (inspired by the usual GNS-construction), thereby obtaining a real Hilbert space and a (Jordan-) representation of the algebra of observables on this space. Taking the usual case as a guideline I subsequently derive a Schr\\"odinger equation on this Hilbert space.

  2. Towards improved partnerships in the water sector in the Middle East : A case study of Jordan

    E-print Network

    Odeh, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the use of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the water sector in Jordan, a Middle East pioneer with respect to experimenting with different approaches to delivering water services in both ...

  3. Philadelphia University P.O. Box (1) Philadelphia University 19392 Jordan

    E-print Network

    Nationality : Jordanian Marital Status : Married Number of Children : Two Education 1992 Philosophy Doctorate on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, held in Amman, Jordan, December 18-21, 1995. Awards and Prizes The George

  4. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

  5. General analysis of inflation in the Jordan frame supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: kazunori@post.kek.jp, E-mail: fuminobu.takahashi@ipmu.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We study various inflation models in the Jordan frame supergravity with a logarithmic Kähler potential. We find that, in a class of inflation models containing an additional singlet in the superpotential, three types of chaotic inflation can be realized: the Higgs-type inflation, power-law inflation, and inflation with/without a running kinetic term. The former two are possible if the holomorphic function dominates over the non-holomorphic one in the frame function, while the inflation with/without a running kinetic term occurs when both are comparable. Interestingly, the fractional-power potential can be realized by the running kinetic term. We also discuss the implication for the Higgs inflation in supergravity.

  6. Violence against nurses in emergency departments in jordan: nurses' perspective.

    PubMed

    Darawad, Muhammad W; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Ali M; Mustafa, Waddah Mohammad; Odeh, Haifa

    2015-01-01

    Violence against nurses in emergency departments (EDs) has become a widespread phenomenon affecting nurses' job satisfaction and work performance. Literature is scarce regarding prevalence rates and causes of violence directed toward nurses in Jordan. The present study investigated violence experienced by Jordanian nurses in EDs and causes of violence from their perspectives. This descriptive study collected data from 174 Jordanian ED nurses. The majority of the participants (91.4%) reported experiencing violence (verbal 95.3% vs. physical 23.3%). According to participants, the most common causes of violence in the ED were crowding and workload (75.9%), and the least was care of patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease (35.6%). Violence is common in Jordanian EDs, giving rise to many heath and behavioral consequences. Health care administrators are obligated to protect nurses from violent incidents by providing adequate safety measures, beneficial administrative procedures, and sincere efforts to overcome the causes of this phenomenon. PMID:25791406

  7. Complex Symmetry, Jordan Blocks and Microscopic Self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brändas, Erkki J.

    The basis and motivation for extending quantum mechanics beyond its traditional domain are recognized and examined. The mathematical details are briefly discussed and a convenient compact complex symmetric representation derived. An original formula is proved and demonstrated to incorporate general Jordan block configurations characterized by Segrè characteristics larger than one. It is verified that these triangular forms can portray realistic evolutions via maps established both within fundamental quantum mechanics as well as within a generalized thermodynamic formulation displaying features that are reminiscent of self-organization on a microscopic level. Various applications of these so-called coherent dissipative structures in physics and chemistry are pointed out, and discussed with possible inferences also made to the biological domain.

  8. A class of generalised Jordan-Schwinger maps

    E-print Network

    N M Oliveira-Neto; E M F Curado; M A Rego-Monteiro

    2007-07-25

    In this article we introduce a class of generalisations of the Jordan-Schwinger (JS) map which realises the recent proposed generalised sl(2) (G-sl(2)) algebra via two independent Generalised Heisenberg Algebras (GHA). Although the GHA and the G-sl(2) algebra exhibit more general algebraic structures than the Heisenberg and sl(2) algebras, the generalised JS map presents a compact and simple structure wich includes the standard JS map as a particular case. Finally, since in the GHA there is a physical interpretation in terms of composite particles, we will carry out this assertion in a manner that the generalised sl(2) algebra could be related to composite particles with angular momentum.

  9. Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national economy in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the economy in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an economy in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the economy. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many small developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the economy is quite substantial.

  10. Waste Water Reuse for Agriculture Pilot Project at the Jordan University of Science and Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad Al-Ghazawi; Jumah Amayreh; Laith Rousan; Amal Hijazi

    Because of water scarcity in Jordan, marginal water (treated wastewater in particular) use in agriculture is highly required.\\u000a However, this needs to be done with precautions to avoid harming the valuable agricultural soils and to prevent any consumer\\u000a health risk.\\u000a \\u000a The Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) has a large campus (11 km2) and has reused water from the

  11. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. PMID:21168249

  12. The nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) theory in the electromagnetic case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Kalinowski

    1992-01-01

    We present the nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein and Jordan-Thiry theories as interesting propositions of physics in higher dimensions. We consider the five-dimensional (electromagnetic) case. The work is devoted to a five-dimensional unification of the NGT (nonsymmetric theory of gravitation), electromagnetism, and scalar forces in a Jordan-Thiry manner. We find ``interference effects'' between gravitational and electromagnetic fields which appear to be due to

  13. Clinical and inheritance profiles of Kallmann syndrome in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    AbuJbara, Mousa A; Hamamy, Hanan A; Jarrah, Nadim S; Shegem, Nadima S; Ajlouni, Kamel M

    2004-01-01

    Background Proper management of patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) allows them to attain a normal reproductive health. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presentation modalities, phenotypes and the modes of inheritance among 32 patients with Kallmann syndrome in Jordan. Recognition of the syndrome allows for prompt proper management and provision of genetic counselling. Subjects Over a period of five years (1999–2004), the clinical and inheritance profiles of 26 male and 6 female patients with Kallmann syndrome from 12 families were evaluated at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics in Jordan. Results The patients belonged to twelve Jordanian and Palestinian families and their age at presentation ranged from 4 – 46 years. Nine boys aged 4–14 years presented with cryptorchidism and microphallus, all other males presented with delayed puberty, hypogonadism and/or infertility. The main presentation among six female patients was primary amenorrhea. Intrafamilial variability in clinical phenotype was specifically evident for renal abnormalities and sensorineural hearing impairment. Familial KS was diagnosed in 27 patients belonging to five families with the X-linked mode of inheritance and two families with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Conclusions (1) the majority of cases in this study represented the X-linked form of KS, which might point to a high prevalence of Kal 1 gene in the population. (2) Genetic counselling helps these families to reach a diagnosis at an early age and to decide about their reproductive options. (3) Children presenting with cryptorchidism and microphallus in our population should be investigated for KS. PMID:15500697

  14. Database compilation: hydrology of Lake Tiberias (Jordan Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shentsis, Izabela; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    A long-term series of water balance data over the last 50 years is compiled to gain insights into the hydrology of the Lake Tiberias (LT) and surrounding aquifers. This database is used within the framework of a German-Israeli-Jordanian project (DFG Ma4450-2) in which numerical modeling is applied to study the mechanisms of deep fluid transport processes affecting the Tiberias basin. The LT is the largest natural freshwater lake in Israel. It is located in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift. The behavior of the lake level is a result of the regional water balance caused mainly by interaction of two factors: (i) fluctuations of water inflow to the Lake, (ii) water exploitation in the adjacent aquifers and consumptions from the lake (pumping, diversion, etc). The replenishment of the lake occurs through drainage from surrounding mountains (Galilee, Golan Heights), entering the lake through the Jordan River and secondary streams (85%), direct precipitation (11%), fresh-saline springs discharging along the shoreline, divertion from Yarmouk river and internal springs and seeps. The major losses occur through the National Water Carrier (ca. 44%), evaporation (38%), local consumption and compensation to Jordan (in sum 12%). In spite of the increasing role of water exploitation, the natural inflow to the Lake remains the dominant factor of hydrological regime of the Tiberias Lake. Additionally, series of natural yield to the LT are reconstructed with precipitation data measured in the Tiberias basin (1922-2012). The earlier period (1877-1921) is evaluated considering long rainfall records at Beirut and Nazareth stations (Middle East Region). This data enables to use the LT yield as a complex indicator of the regional climate change. Though the data applies to the LT, this example shows the importance of large database. Their compilation defines the correct set-up of joint methodologies such as numerical modeling and hydrochemical analyses aimed to understand large-scale hydrological processes.

  15. Pascual Jordan's legacy and the ongoing research in quantum field theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, B.

    2010-04-01

    Pascual Jordan's path-breaking role as the protagonist of quantum field theory (QFT) is recalled and his friendly dispute with Dirac's particle-based relativistic quantum theory is presented as the start of the field-particle conundrum which, though in modified form, persists up to this date. Jordan had an intuitive understanding that the existence of a causal propagation with finite propagation speed in a quantum theory led to radically different physical phenomena than those of QM. The conceptional-mathematical understanding for such an approach began to emerge only 30 years later. The strongest link between Jordan's view of QFT and modern "local quantum physics" is the central role of causal locality as the defining principle of QFT as opposed to the Born localization in QM. The issue of causal localization is also the arena where misunderstandings led to a serious derailment of large part of particle theory e.g. the misinterpretation of an infinite component pointlike field resulting from the quantization of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian as a spacetime quantum string. The new concept of modular localization, which replaces Jordan's causal locality, is especially important to overcome the imperfections of gauge theories for which Jordan was the first to note nonlocal aspects of physical (not Lagrangian) charged fields. Two interesting subjects in which Jordan was far ahead of his contemporaries will be presented in two separate sections. Dedicated to my teacher and role model: Rudolf Haag.

  16. Pascual Jordan's legacy and the ongoing research in quantum field theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, B.

    2011-04-01

    Pascual Jordan's path-breaking role as the protagonist of quantum field theory (QFT) is recalled and his friendly dispute with Dirac's particle-based relativistic quantum theory is presented as the start of the field-particle conundrum which, though in modified form, persists up to this date. Jordan had an intuitive understanding that the existence of a causal propagation with finite propagation speed in a quantum theory led to radically different physical phenomena than those of QM. The conceptional-mathematical understanding for such an approach began to emerge only 30 years later. The strongest link between Jordan's view of QFT and modern "local quantum physics" is the central role of causal locality as the defining principle of QFT as opposed to the Born localization in QM. The issue of causal localization is also the arena where misunderstandings led to a serious derailment of large part of particle theory e.g. the misinterpretation of an infinite component pointlike field resulting from the quantization of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian as a spacetime quantum string. The new concept of modular localization, which replaces Jordan's causal locality, is especially important to overcome the imperfections of gauge theories for which Jordan was the first to note nonlocal aspects of physical(not Lagrangian) charged fields. Two interesting subjects in which Jordan was far ahead of his contemporaries will be presented in two separate sections.

  17. Israel & Jordan: Paving a Path for the Future through Understanding the Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ilene

    This curriculum project on the cultures of the Middle Eastern countries of Israel and Jordan stresses the language arts and focuses on objectives for elementary-age students to attain. The project states that children will: locate, list, identify, label, demonstrate, research, organize, compose, conference, rewrite, proofread, rewrite again,…

  18. One Region: Two Cultures. Comparing Israel and Jordan: A Unit for Elementary Students. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This social studies unit for elementary school students concentrates on comparing the different cultures of the neighboring countries of Israel and Jordan. The unit describes the educational objectives and explains that a variety of strategies are used to reach those objectives. It lists materials needed and procedures for evaluation, provides…

  19. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    Most of the precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones (Black, 2011). Furthermore, a low pressure over this region is often accompanied by a high pressure in the Western Mediterranean (WM). This pattern has been referred to as the Mediterranean Oscillation and given rise to the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), which can be expressed as pressure differences between Algiers in the WM and Cairo in the EM (Palutikof et al., 1996). In this study, the relationship between the MOI and precipitation in the Jordan River region, located in the EM is addressed. First of all, 30 precipitation series were tested for homogeneity and serial correlation. Thereafter, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses were applied to the homogenous series and the years 1960-1993. The results showed that the EOF-1 explained 60-71% of the precipitation variance and received a significant correlation with the MOI in December-February whereas no correlation was obtained for the EOF-2. In order to obtain the large scale pressure anomalies associated with winter precipitation in the study region, the EOF-1 coefficient time series was correlated with Sea Level Pressure (SLP) obtained for ca. 23° W to 70° E and 5° N to 67° N. This resulted in a correlation coefficient between -0.5 and 0.5; where negative values correspond to below normal SLP, and positive values to above normal SLP by the time of rainfall in the study region. The spatial pattern showed above normal SLP over central Europe and the WM and below normal SLP in the EM. Hence, it was reminiscent of the Mediterranean Oscillation and consistence with the results from the previous correlation analysis. The probability of precipitation during negative and positive MOI phases was thereafter derived by fitting gamma distributions to monthly precipitation. The result showed that negative MOI phases are associated with low- and below normal winter precipitation whereas positive MOI phases are associated with high- and above normal winter precipitation. As an example; during negative MOI phases the probability of below average precipitation is 78%. During positive MOI phases the probability is 41%. These findings can be considered valuable for the purpose of forecasting drought within the Jordan River region. References: Black, E. (2011). The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and European circulation regimes on the daily to interannual variability of winter precipitation in Israel. International Journal of Climatology, 1-11. doi:10.1002/joc.2383 Palutikof, J. P., Conte, M., Casimiro Mendes, J., Goodess, C. M., & Espirito Santo, F. (1996). Climate and climate change. In C. J. Brandt & J. B. Thornes (Eds.), Mediterranean desertification and land use. London, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

  20. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Atallah; Khader, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Aqoulah, Ashraf Abu

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. PMID:18180541

  1. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Atallah; Khade, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Aqoulah, Ashraf Abu

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. PMID:19139533

  2. Geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics of marl deposits in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqour, Fathi M.; Jarrar, Ghaleb; Hencher, Steve; Kuisi, Mostafa

    2008-10-01

    Marls and marly limestone deposits cover most of Northern Jordan, where Amman City and its suburbs are located. These deposits serve as foundations for most buildings and roads as well as fill material for structural back filling, especially road bases and sub-bases. The present study aims at investigating the geotechnical characteristics and mineral composition of the marl units of these deposits through field investigations and laboratory testing. Using X-ray diffraction technique along with chemical analysis, representative samples of marl horizons were tested for mineral composition, and for a set of index and geotechnical properties including: specific gravity, grain size, Atterberg limits, Proctor compaction and shear strength properties. The test results show a positive linear relationship as expected between the clay content and both liquid and plastic limits. The tests results also show an inverse linear relationship between the clay content and the maximum dry density in both standard and modified compaction. This is attributed to the adsorption of water by the clay minerals. The relationship is more prominent in the case of modified compaction test. The results also indicate a similar relationship for the angle of internal friction. No clear correlation between cohesion and clay content was apparent.

  3. The Jordan structure of two-dimensional loop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2011-04-01

    We show how to use the link representation of the transfer matrix DN of loop models on the lattice to calculate partition functions, at criticality, of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn model with various boundary conditions and parameter \\beta=2 \\cos (\\pi (1-a/b)), a,b\\in {N} and, more specifically, partition functions of the corresponding Q-Potts spin models, with Q = ?2. The braid limit of DN is shown to be a central element FN(?) of the Temperley-Lieb algebra TLN(?), its eigenvalues are determined and, for generic ?, a basis of its eigenvectors is constructed using the Wenzl-Jones projector. With any element of this basis is associated a number of defects d, 0 <= d <= N, and the basis vectors with the same d span a sector. Because components of these eigenvectors are singular when b \\in {Z}^* and a \\in 2 {Z}+1 , the link representations of FN and DN are shown to have Jordan blocks between sectors d and d' when d - d' < 2b and (d+d')/2 \\equiv b-1 ~ {mod}\\, 2b (d > d'). When a and b do not satisfy the previous constraint, DN is diagonalizable.

  4. Jordan recurrent neural network versus IHACRES in modelling daily streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcano, Elena Carla; Bartolini, Paolo; Muselli, Marco; Piroddi, Luigi

    2008-12-01

    SummaryA study of possible scenarios for modelling streamflow data from daily time series, using artificial neural networks (ANNs), is presented. Particular emphasis is devoted to the reconstruction of drought periods where water resource management and control are most critical. This paper considers two connectionist models: a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) and a Jordan recurrent neural network (JNN), comparing network performance on real world data from two small catchments (192 and 69 km 2 in size) with irregular and torrential regimes. Several network configurations are tested to ensure a good combination of input features (rainfall and previous streamflow data) that capture the variability of the physical processes at work. Tapped delayed line (TDL) and memory effect techniques are introduced to recognize and reproduce temporal dependence. Results show a poor agreement when using TDL only, but a remarkable improvement can be obtained with JNN and its memory effect procedures, which are able to reproduce the system memory over a catchment in a more effective way. Furthermore, the IHACRES conceptual model, which relies on both rainfall and temperature input data, is introduced for comparative study. The results suggest that when good input data is unavailable, metric models perform better than conceptual ones and, in general, it is difficult to justify substantial conceptualization of complex processes.

  5. Question of quantum equivalence between Jordan frame and Einstein frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Steinwachs, Christian F.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of a general scalar-tensor theory, we investigate the equivalence between two different parametrizations of fields that are commonly used in cosmology—the so-called Jordan frame and Einstein frame. While it is clear that both parametrizations are mathematically equivalent at the level of the classical action, the question about their mathematical equivalence at the quantum level as well as their physical equivalence is still a matter of debate in cosmology. We analyze whether the mathematical equivalence still holds when the first quantum corrections are taken into account. We explicitly calculate the one-loop divergences in both parametrizations by using the generalized Schwinger-DeWitt algorithm and compare both results. We find that the quantum corrections do not coincide off shell and hence induce an off-shell dependence on the parametrization. According to the equivalence theorem, the one-loop divergences should however coincide on shell. For a cosmological background, we show explicitly that the on-shell equivalence is indeed realized by a nontrivial cancellation.

  6. Molecular identification of chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Huthaifa Salah; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Hananeh, Wael Mahmoud; Alsheyab, Fawzi Mohammad; Jawasreh, Khaleel Ibraheem; Al-Gharaibeh, Moath Ahmad; Ababneh, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydophila abortus (Ch. abortus) is the etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and one of the most common infectious agents of abortion in small ruminants worldwide. RFLP-PCR analysis of the outer membrane protein gene (OMP2 gene) was used for diagnosis and characterization of chlamydial causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. Sixty-six placental tissues and 15 vaginal swabs were collected from aborted ewes and does to identify cause of abortion in Jordan. Thirty-eight placental samples (58 %) and 13 vaginal swabs (87 %) were positive for chlamydial DNA. Shedding of bacteria in vaginal swabs was detected within 7 days after abortion. The results of this study showed that chlamydiosis is one of the important causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. In addition, vaginal swab is an excellent sample for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis. DNA sequencing and RFLP analysis of the OMP2 reveal that all chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan are due to Ch. abortus. While, Ch. pecorum was not detected in any sample. OMP2 gene of the isolated Jordanian strain was identical (100 %) to Ch. abortus FAS strain. In conclusion, Ch. abortus is an important cause of abortion in Jordan; vaginal swab within 7 days of abortion can be used for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis in small ruminants. PMID:25109376

  7. The Unveiling Ceremony of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University, The Unveiling Ceremony of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University, Jordan

    E-print Network

    1 The Unveiling Ceremony of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University, Jordan The Unveiling Ceremony of Confucius Institute at Philadelphia University, Jordan was held on September the 16th , 2012 of Philadelphia University etc. at the site of the unveiling ceremony #12;2 Madame Xu Lin, Chief executive

  8. Influence of different water quantities and qualities on lemon trees and soil salt distribution at the Jordan Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Abu-Awwad

    2001-01-01

    The influences of water quantity and quality on young lemon trees (Eureka) were studied at the University of Jordan Research Station at the Jordan Valley for 5 years (1996–2000). Five water levels and three water qualities were imposed via trickle irrigation system on clay loam soil. The primary effect of excess salinity is that it renders less water available to

  9. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid A.; Holton, Elwood F., III.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees employed by public and private sector organizations operating in Jordan. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was used to uncover the underlying structure…

  10. A comparison of the learning styles of the students with faculty teaching style profiles at the Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Martin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of match between the learning styles of students and the teaching styles of the faculty at the Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary (JETS) in Amman, Jordan. Bernice McCarthy's 4MAT learning style instrument, the Learning Type Measure® (LTM) was used to profile 112 students. The results showed two significant differences in style

  11. Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 6, 2003 BOUNDS FOR THE DISTANCE BETWEEN NEARBY JORDAN AND KRONECKER

    E-print Network

    Kågström, Bo

    JORDAN AND KRONECKER STRUCTURES IN A CLOSURE HIERARCHY E. Elmroth, P. Johansson, and B. K°agstr¨om UDC and upper bounds for the distance between Jordan and Kronecker structures in a closure hierarchy of an orbit of the tangent space of the orbit of a matrix or a matrix pencil. Computational results illustrate the use

  12. The paleoclimate of the eastern desert of Jordan during marine isotope stage 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, Abdulkader M.; Yasin, Suha; Sadaqa, Rushdi; Al-Hawari, Zayed

    2008-05-01

    Two Cardium horizons from the topmost Azraq Formation in the eastern desert of Jordan were investigated and dated by U/Th at 330 ka; MIS 9. Fossil diversity and abundance, especially for Charophytes and gastropods with the absence of palygorskite, dolomite and evaporites, suggest the presence of a fresh water lake changing to a brackish environment at certain time intervals. A lake or possibly several smaller and shallower lakes occupied an area of about 50 km wide within the Azraq Basin. The present-day arid climate cannot support the presence of lakes in the eastern desert of Jordan, and thus MIS 9 in Jordan must have been much wetter. The source of humidity was most probably more intense Mediterranean cyclones associated with warmer than present MIS 9. However, the possibility of summer monsoon rain from the south cannot be fully excluded.

  13. Sedimentology and palaeogeography of the regressive-transgressive Kurnub Group (Early Cretaceous) of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amireh, Belal S.

    1997-08-01

    The Early Cretaceous Kurnub Group of Jordan consists of three regressive-transgressive (fluvial-marine) depositional sequences in northern Jordan, recorded here for the first time, whereas continental clastics dominated central and southern Jordan. Deposition of the Kurnub Group started in the late Neocomian above a regional angular unconformity by basal conglomerate and sandstone facies association of an alluvial braidplain origin. During this time the Tethys Seaway was located to the north and northwest of Jordan which afterwards, during the Barremian, advanced in a south- and southeastward direction flooding north Jordan and giving rise to a tidal flat-coastal swamp sequence. Following a subsequent regression of the sea, unconfined braidplain deposits covered the area. The most extensive transgression of the Tethys inundated the region during the late Aptian and early Albian where a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sequence with interbedded inner shelf carbonates and tidal marsh—coastal swamp black shales and lignites was deposited. The next and last regression took place in the middle Albian where a thin meandering river clastic sequence was deposited. Finally, shallow-marine sedimentation resumed over the region during the remaining time of the Kurnub Group which at the same time prepared for the subsequent regional Cenomanian transgression. Upon comparison with global eustatic curves, these three incursions of the Tethys sea in Jordan are to a great extent in accordance with the global sea-level fluctuations. The various formations of the Kurnub Group and their informal units that are established here for the first time can readily be correlated with equivalent deposits in adjacent countries. The distribution of the shorelines of the Barremian, Aptian and Albian on both sides of the Dead Sea Transform offers new evidence for 100 km northward displacement of the Arabian plate against the Sinai-Palestine plate.

  14. An algorithm for calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1973-01-01

    Jordan canonical forms are used extensively in the literature on control systems. However, very few methods are available to compute them numerically. Most numerical methods compute a set of basis vectors in terms of which the given matrix is diagonalized when such a change of basis is possible. Here, a simple and efficient method is suggested for computing the Jordan canonical form and the corresponding transformation matrix. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector, and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques.

  15. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste. PMID:18215446

  16. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  17. Subversive Feminism: The Politics of Correctness in Mary Augusta Jordan's "Correct Writing and Speaking" (1904).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Mary Augusta Jordan's "Correct Writing and Speaking," a rhetoric text authored for women who studied writing and speaking outside of the formal academy. Suggests that the text's attention to the history of the English language and the evolution of arbitrary standards imposed by cultural forces makes it subversively feminist. (RS)

  18. Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parents in Jordan towards the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public schools and what the parents believed to be the most important prerequisite of child-based skills for successful inclusion. A total of 148 parents were selected to complete the survey. The researchers explored…

  19. Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of special education teachers in the city of Amman, Jordan, toward the inclusion of students with autism in public schools and what the teachers believed to be the most important prerequisite skills for successful inclusion. Ninety two special education teachers were selected to complete the survey. The…

  20. Faculty for Factory: A University-Industry Link Program in Jordan

    E-print Network

    of Industry, Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, and the Industrial Development Bank. · It later evolvedFaculty for Factory: A University- Industry Link Program in Jordan Yousef Al Abdallat and Tarek A Paris, France #12;Overview Faculty for Factory (FFF) program is a national Jordanian program

  1. Spencer Liberto, Dilan Ustek, Jordan Yuan How Does a C Program Talk to a Scribbler Robot?

    E-print Network

    Walker, Henry MacKay

    Spencer Liberto, Dilan Ustek, Jordan Yuan How Does a C Program Talk to a Scribbler Robot? MyroC/Scribbler Language The MyroC library and your Scribbler robot have an agreed upon low-level language or byte code Bluetooth. CSC 499 MAP Adviser Henry Walker The robot gives out a signal to the workstation every 5

  2. National Grid, Diesel, and Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems in Jordan: An Engineering and Economical Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Abdullah; I. M. Muslih; W. Abu Husain

    2010-01-01

    The energy sector in Jordan depends heavily on imported oil and gas products and as a result, this energy policy put the country in tough economic situations and slowed down industrial growth in the last 15 years. This situation is worsened by the dramatic increase in crude oil prices worldwide and the increased demand on energy consumption. Therefore, it became

  3. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  4. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom. PMID:24522127

  5. Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

  6. Water management with water conservation, infrastructure expansions, and source variability in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Rosenberg; Richard E. Howitt; Jay R. Lund

    2008-01-01

    A regional hydroeconomic model is developed to include demand shifts from nonprice water conservation programs as input parameters and decision variables. Stochastic nonlinear programming then jointly identifies the benefit-maximizing portfolio of conservation and leak reduction programs, infrastructure expansions, and operational allocations under variable water availability. We present a detailed application for 12 governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It

  7. Workshop on Jordan structures in analysis and geometry A one day trip to Kenting National Park

    E-print Network

    Wong, Ngai-Ching

    . 12:20-13:00 Lunch at Kenting ( ) 13:20-15:00 Kenting National Forest Park The beautiful landscape boasted by Kenting National Park is divided into two parts by the long and narrow Hengchun 2006 Workshop on Jordan structures in analysis and geometry A one day trip to Kenting National

  8. The Contested Energy Future of Amman, Jordan: Between Promises of Alternative Energies and a Nuclear Venture

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Contested Energy Future of Amman, Jordan: Between Promises of Alternative Energies and nuclear energy. Alternative eco-friendly energy resources represent only a small part of the potential authorities and local business elites are often seen as major players in the energy transition in the city

  9. Promoting kindergarten children’s creativity in the classroom environment in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kholoud Dababneh; Fathi M. Ihmeideh

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating teachers’ classroom practices, which either stimulate or inhibit the development of the creative environment of classrooms in Jordan, and determining the differences between practices according to educational level, experience level and type of teaching. The sample of the study consisted of 215 kindergarten teachers. A five?dimensional questionnaire consisting of 50 items was developed to achieve

  10. Symbiotic Composition and Evolvability Richard A. Watson, and Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Symbiotic Composition and Evolvability Richard A. Watson, and Jordan B. Pollack Dynamical. In this paper we present a very abstract model of `symbiotic composition' to explore its possible impact on evolvability. A particular adaptive landscape is used to exemplify a class where symbiotic composition has

  11. The Quality of Drinking Water at Source of West Amman, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwar Jiries; Anf Ziadat; Jutta Lintelmann

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2002, a detailed survey of water samples collected from King Abdullah Canal (KAC), which is the major source of drinking water in Amman, Jordan, was analyzed for its major ionic composition, five heavy metals, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and chlorinated pesticides residues in order to evaluate its suitability for drinking purposes. The results showed that

  12. Isolation of plasmids present in thermophilic strains from hot springs in Jordan Amjad B. Khalil1,

    E-print Network

    Khalil, Amjad

    Isolation of plasmids present in thermophilic strains from hot springs in Jordan Amjad B. Khalil1 bacteria Summary The plasmid profile of two thermophilic bacterial strains isolated from recreation thermal, which have been isolated from Zerka ­ Maeen and Himma hot springs respectively. Supercoiled and circular

  13. Compositional Similarities between Hot Mineral Springs in the Jordan and Suez Rift Valleys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Mazor

    1968-01-01

    THE chemical composition of the Hammam Farun hot spring (72° C) in the Suez Rift Valley has been found to be almost identical to that of the Tiberias Hot Springs (60° C) in the Jordan Rift Valley (Figs. 1 and 2 and Table 1). This finding is of vital importance in the evaluation and sorting out of various hypotheses that

  14. Organisational change and accounting information systems: a case study of the privatisation of Jordan Telecom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Shanikat

    2008-01-01

    This thesis provides an attempt to better understand organisational change and its impact on accounting information systems in privatised enterprises using the particular case study of Jordan Telecom (JT), which became subject to the liberalisation of the telecommunication industry. JT would not survive in its public sector form and the privatisation of JT remains very controversial. This study aims to

  15. Political Economy of Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: The Case of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaan, Taher H.; Al-Salamat, Mamdouh N.; Hanania, May D.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes patterns of expenditure on higher education in Jordan, explores the current system's adequacy, efficiency, and equity, and identifies its strengths and weaknesses in light of current constraints and future challenges. Among the constraints are the relatively low public expenditure on higher education, leaving households to…

  16. An Integrated Learning Management System for Islamic Studies: An Innovation from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumzan, Ismael; Chowdhury, Imran; Mirza, Saudah; Idil, Raidah Shah

    2010-01-01

    The use of ICT in the Middle East is expanding at a fast rate; hence managers and decision makers must decide on the best learning solution for their organizations. This article describes how a small team of individuals in Jordan developed an effective learning solution to a social problem. This may provide some useful lessons for other…

  17. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  18. Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahrazad Abu Ghazleh; Stephan Kempe

    2009-01-01

    Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in

  19. Environmental impact assessment using rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) for Russeifa landfill, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali El-Naqa

    2005-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment (EIA) study for the solid waste landfill was prepared for the Russeifa area, northeast Jordan. As landfill was not subjected to sophisticated EIA, serious environmental problems are still occurring, such as groundwater contamination and air pollution. Three alternatives were proposed to rehabilitate the landfill: upgrading the existing landfill, construction of a biogas plant and its relocation.

  20. Recommendation title: APP Store Concept OOC TEAM: David Carmichael, Logan Jordan, Tim Korb, David Shaw

    E-print Network

    Page | 1 Recommendation title: APP Store Concept OOC TEAM: David Carmichael, Logan Jordan, Tim Korb of internal "App Store" such that the colleges and administrative departments could more broadly utilize by utilizing the created apps; and second order efficiencies from having visibility on available existing

  1. Growing School Networks for Instructional Improvement in Jordan, 2009-2010. CPRE Research Report, # RR-70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marian A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure,…

  2. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    E-print Network

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan Thomas E for review June 11, 2008) Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries

  3. Refugee Warriors or War Refugees? Iraqi Refugees' Predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinoud Leenders

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving ‘refugee warriors’. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. The research's findings show a serious divergence between theorizing on refugee warriors and

  4. Searching for Approximate Equilibria in Empirical Games Patrick R. Jordan, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik, and Michael P. Wellman

    E-print Network

    Vorobeychik, Eugene

    , and Michael P. Wellman University of Michigan Computer Science & Engineering Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2121 USA Games, Patrick R. Jordan, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik, and Michael P. Wellman, Proc. of 7th Int. Conf, the outcome of a joint strategy, or profile, is estimated by repeatedly sampling the game. These sam- ples can

  5. Coevolving Communicative Behavior in a Linear PursuerEvader Game Sevan G. Ficici, Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Coevolving Communicative Behavior in a Linear Pursuer­Evader Game Sevan G. Ficici, Jordan B­ portant domain in which to study the coevolution of robust adaptive behavior and protean behavior (Miller, for the lack of a rigorous metric of agent behavior. This in­ ability to characterize behavior, in turn

  6. Coevolving Communicative Behavior in a Linear Pursuer-Evader Game Sevan G. Ficici, Jordan B. Pollack

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Coevolving Communicative Behavior in a Linear Pursuer-Evader Game Sevan G. Ficici, Jordan B- portant domain in which to study the coevolution of robust adaptive behavior and protean behavior (Miller, for the lack of a rigorous metric of agent behavior. This in- ability to characterize behavior, in turn

  7. Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

  8. The Mixed Effects of Schooling for High School Girls in Jordan: The Case of Tel Yahya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adely, Fida

    2004-01-01

    Access to schooling for adolescent girls in Jordan is still relatively new. It has been only in the past generation that girls have gone on to high school in significant numbers, and outside of urban areas this phenomenon is even more recent. Given a near universal rate of high school entry today, it is important to investigate the effect of this…

  9. Human Capital Planning in Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Human Resource Development Initiative in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…

  10. On the Myth of the Crisis of Representation: A Response to Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The author observes that, in "Applied Utility and the Auto-Ethnographic Short Story: Persuasions for, and Illustrations of, Writing Critical Social Science," Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan present claims about why we might choose to represent auto-ethnographic data in a literary form such as short story and for the "potential" or…

  11. Groundwater Recharge Modeling in Azraq Basin (Jordan) Considering the Unsaturated Flow Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al Sharif; T. Al Jazzar

    2009-01-01

    Water resources in Azraq basin at the northeastern part of Jordan are at critical juncture, due to the continual and excessive abstraction of groundwater accompanied with small amounts of groundwater recharge by precipitation, and high rates of evaporation losses over the entire basin. Groundwater recharge from precipitation over the basin was estimated using soil water balance. It was found that

  12. Artificial Ontogenies for Real World Design and Assembly John Rieffel1, Jordan Pollack1

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Artificial Ontogenies for Real World Design and Assembly John Rieffel1, Jordan Pollack1 1 DEMO Lab representations provided by Artifi- cial Ontogenies to fully automate both design and assembly. We demonstrate the ability of Artificial Ontogenies to cross one hurdle of real-world assembly, namely reliably building

  13. Measuring the Overhead of Intel C++ CnC over TBB for Gauss-Jordan Elimination

    E-print Network

    Tang, Peiyi

    Measuring the Overhead of Intel C++ CnC over TBB for Gauss-Jordan Elimination Peiyi Tang Department only by the data dependencies be- tween the tasks. Both Intel C++ Concurrent Col- lections (CnC algorithm and implemented it in TBB. We compare the performances of TBB and CnC, which is built on top

  14. Jordan Cove Energy Project Fort Chicago Energy Partners L.P.

    E-print Network

    Jordan Cove Energy Project Fort Chicago Energy Partners L.P. 1.0 Bcfd Coos Bay, Oregon Oregon LNG Funding Partners 1.0-1.5 Bcfd Astoria, Oregon Portwestward LNG Facility Portwestward LNG, LLC 0.7-1.25 Bcfd Clatskanie, Oregon Kitimat LNG Facility Apache Corp 0.64 -1.0 Bcfd Kitimat, British Columbia

  15. Pascual Jordan, his contributions to quantum mechanics and his legacy in contemporary local quantum physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Schroer; Xavier Sigaud

    2003-01-01

    After recalling episodes from Pascual Jordan's biography including his pivotal role in the shaping of quantum field theory and his much criticized conduct during the NS regime, I draw attention to his presentation of the first phase of development of quantum field theory in a talk presented at the 1929 Kharkov conference. He starts by giving a comprehensive account of

  16. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  17. NSP mentoring policy Written by C.L. Jordan; approved by Faculty Advisory Committee, June, 2011

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    NSP mentoring policy Written by C.L. Jordan; approved by Faculty Advisory Committee, June, 2011 1 majority of NSP faculty are in departments and not in the NSP and therefore faculty mentoring, a formal mentoring policy for junior faculty will be instituted. In accordance with University Mentoring

  18. ftp://psyche.mit.edu/pub/jordan/uai.ps Why the logistic function? A tutorial discussion

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michael I.

    ftp://psyche.mit.edu/pub/jordan/uai.ps Why the logistic function? A tutorial discussion to the logistic function as a statistical object. Beyond the discussion of the whys and wherefores of the logistic of the issues in­ volved, I discuss the simplest nonlinear neural network---a logistic function of a linear

  19. The Impact of Marketing Actions on Relationship Quality in the Higher Education Sector in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Alak, Basheer A. M.

    2006-01-01

    This field/analytical study examined the marketing actions (antecedents) and performance (consequences) of relationship quality in a higher education setting. To analyze data collected from a random sample of 271 undergraduate students at AL-Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan, the linear structural relationship (LISREL) model was used to…

  20. Needs of Parents Caring for Children with Physical Disabilities: A Case Study in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.; Fayez, Merfat; Bataineh, Osama

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the needs of families of children with physical disabilities in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of 96 parents of children with physical disabilities whose ages ranged from 6 to 16 years old. A survey of Needs of Caring Parents was developed to achieve the purposes of this study. Results revealed that the…

  1. I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

  2. On the Stability of Spherically Symmetric Configurations in Newtonian Limit of Jordan, Brans-Dicke Theory

    E-print Network

    S. Kozyrev

    2003-04-08

    We discuss stability of spherically symmetric static solutions in Newtonian limit of Jordan, Brans-Dicke field equations. The behavior of the stable equilibrium solutions for the spherically symmetric configurations considered here, it emerges that the more compact a model is, the more stable it is. Moreover, linear stability analysis shows the existence of stable configurations for any polytropic index.

  3. Tutorial at AICCSA'07 (May 13-16, 2007, Amman, Jordan)

    E-print Network

    Tutorial at AICCSA'07 (May 13-16, 2007, Amman, Jordan) Title: Introduction to Accurate Stochastic Discrete-Event Simulation Duration: a half day tutorial Instructor: Krzysztof (Krys) Pawlikowski Professor of credibility of the results they yield. In this tutorial, we will discuss main problems and solutions

  4. I know there is no justice: Palestinian perceptions of higher education in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Maurice Marar

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic identity, and a homogeneous national identity. The more immediate need for academic access and social

  5. Fuzzy sets programming to perform evaluation of solar systems in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rustom Mamlook; Bilal A Akash; Salem Nijmeh

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses fuzzy set methodology to perform the comparison between different solar systems for various applications. The aim of the paper is to determine the order in which solar systems should be given higher priority to be used in Jordan. The systems considered are solar distillation, solar water heating, solar space heating and ventilation, solar water pumping, photovoltaics and

  6. A class of Hermitian generalized Jordan triple systems and Chern-Simons gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Noriaki; Sato, Matsuo

    2014-09-01

    We find a class of Hermitian generalized Jordan triple systems (HGJTSs) and Hermitian (?, ?)-Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems (HFKTSs). We apply one of the most simple HGJTSs which we find to a field theory and obtain a typical u(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory with a fundamental matter.

  7. Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

  8. Pascual Jordan's resolution of the conundrum of the wave-particle duality of light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Duncan; Michel Janssen

    2007-01-01

    In 1909, Einstein derived a formula for the mean square energy fluctuation in black-body radiation. This formula is the sum of a wave term and a particle term. In a key contribution to the 1925 Dreimaennerarbeit with Born and Heisenberg, Jordan showed that one recovers both terms in a simple model of quantized waves. So the two terms do not

  9. A hierarchy of symmetry breaking in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Kalinowski

    2003-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the hierarchy problem of a symmetry breaking in the\\u000aNonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory. The basic idea consists in a\\u000adeformation of a vacuum states manifold to the cartesian product of vacuum\\u000astates manifolds of every stage of a symmetry breaking.

  10. Adaptive Pose Priors for Pictorial Structures! Ben Sapp Chris Jordan Ben Taskar!

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Adaptive Pose Priors for Pictorial Structures! Ben Sapp Chris Jordan Ben Taskar! x! y! ! Li = [Lix! Ltorso! PS model" µij xy" pairwise model parameters: µij,ij! ij" (lix,liy)! li! Overview" Basic Pictorial Structures (PS)" generic pose prior" appearance model" Basic PS" Adaptive PS" appearance model" adaptive

  11. A hierarchy of symmetry breaking in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Kalinowski

    2003-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the hierarchy problem of a symmetry breaking in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory. The basic idea consists in a deformation of a vacuum states manifold to the cartesian product of vacuum states manifolds of every stage of a symmetry breaking.

  12. Pascual Jordan's resolution of the conundrum of the wave-particle duality of light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Duncan; Michel Janssen

    2008-01-01

    In 1909, Einstein derived a formula for the mean square energy fluctuation in black-body radiation. This formula is the sum of a wave term and a particle term. In a key contribution to the 1926 Dreimännerarbeit with Born and Heisenberg, Jordan showed that one recovers both terms in a simple model of quantized waves. So the two terms do not

  13. Title: Working Together in Shale Gas Policy Hosts: Todd Cowen, Teresa Jordan and Christine Shoemaker

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Title: Working Together in Shale Gas Policy Hosts: Todd Cowen, Teresa Jordan and Christine and environmental groups. The Shale Gas Roundtable of the Institute of Politics at the University of Pittsburgh produced a report with several recommendations dealing especially with shale gas research, water use

  14. Multi-criteria analysis of non-conventional energy technologies for water desalination in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilal A. Akash; Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi; Mousa S. Mohsen

    1997-01-01

    The gap between water supply and demand is widening in Jordan. Sound measures to overcome this gap are essential for sustainable water development. In this paper non-conventional energy technologies for water desalination are discussed. These include hydropower, solar, wind, and nuclear technologies. Using multi-criteria analysis, options were evaluated for best water uses considering water productivity and environmental sustainability criteria. It

  15. A D-dimensional Heckmann-like solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    E-print Network

    S. M. Kozyrev

    2007-12-18

    In this short letter we present a some rigorous vacuum solutions of the D-dimensional Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equations. In contrast with the well known Brans-Dicke solutions, to the search of static and spherically symmetric space-time we choose the widespread Hilbert coordinates.

  16. Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) phosphorites in Jordan: implications for the formation of a south Tethyan phosphorite giant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peir K. Pufahl; Kurt A. Grimmsupas; Abdulkader M. Abed; Rushdi M. y. Sadaqah

    2003-01-01

    A record of sedimentary, authigenic, and biological processes are preserved within the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Alhisa Phosphorite Formation (AP) in central and northern Jordan. The AP formed near the eastern extremity of the south Tethyan Phosphorite Province (STPP), a carbonate-dominated Upper Cretaceous to Eocene “phosphorite giant” that extends from Colombia, North Africa to the Middle East. Multidisciplinary research of the

  17. Medical Problems in a Sample of Children with Intellectual Impairments in Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Medical problems of 262 children attending special schools for persons having intellectual impairments in Jordan were examined. The most common problems were neurological problems (affecting 38.55%), followed by dental disease, orthopedic problems, vision and eye problems, hearing/ear problems, urinary diseases, and heart problems. (JDD)

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis in Jordan: a cross sectional study of disease severity and associated comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, Khaldoon M; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Ayesh, Mahmoud H; Smadi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to target is advocated using disease activity measures. The impact of RA on the general health status of affected patients in Jordan is not well described. This study reported the severity of RA in Jordan and its association with consequent disabilities and comorbidities. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at King Abdullah University Hospital in the north of Jordan. All patients who were diagnosed with RA were included. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, disease activity score (DAS 28), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) were collected. Both DAS 28 and CDAI were utilized to categorize RA disease activity. A total of 465 patients with RA were included: 82% were females; mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 47.62±14.6 years; and mean disease duration ± SD was 6±4.45 years. The mean ± SD for the DAS 28 and CDAI was 5.1±1.5 and 23±14.2, respectively. According to the DAS 28, 51% of the patients were in the high disease activity category and only 5% were in remission. On the other hand, according to the CDAI, 44% were in the high disease activity category and only 1% were in remission. In Jordan, patients with RA have a high severe disease rate and a low remission rate. The disease is often progressive and associated with comorbidities that need to be managed. PMID:24876781

  19. Facebook Use in Education: Experiences of University Science Education Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of Facebook use in education in one public university located in the middle part of Jordan. A sample of 189 undergraduate students enrolled in the science education courses participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire composed of 15 items. The results of the study indicated that…

  20. Scent marking within and between groups of wild banded N. R. Jordan1

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    Scent marking within and between groups of wild banded mongooses N. R. Jordan1 , F. Mwanguhya1, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 2 Banded Mongoose Research Project, QENP, Kasese, Uganda 3 Institute shapes scent-marking behaviour is difficult. Banded mongooses Mungos mungo provide a rare clear

  1. Arid soils of the Badia region of northeastern Jordan: Potential use for sustainable agriculture

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Arid soils of the Badia region of northeastern Jordan: Potential use for sustainable agriculture contribute to the economy in a sustainable way without damaging the fragile desert environments. This can will lead to the protection of the resources and to their sustainable usage for the long-term benefit

  2. Road Dust Resuspension in the Vicinity of Limestone Quarries in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Abu-Allaban; Safeia Hamasha; Alan Gertler

    2006-01-01

    Many areas in Jordan suffer from elevated levels of coarse particulate matter (PM10). One potentially significant source of the observed PM is the resuspension of road dust in the vicinity of limestone quarries. To obtain data to assess the impact from this source, PM10 road dust resus-pension factors near Abusiiah, a town to the north east of Amman surrounded by

  3. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Assessment and demonstration of ecologically-based medusahead and cheatgrass management in Jordan Valley, Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead was first noted in Jordan Valley, OR approximately 25-30 years ago. It has significantly expanded within the last 10-20 years. As part of the USDA-ARS Area-wide project for invasive annual grasses, landscape scale demonstration plots were established with five cooperating ranches in 200...

  5. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asiaq Chandra Giri a,*, Jordan Long b

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asiaq Chandra Giri a,*, Jordan Long b Keywords: Mangrove forests Mangrove forest cover change South Asia Landsat Remote sensing Image processing a b s t r a c t Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India

  6. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  7. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  8. Three Generations of Automatically Designed Jordan B. Pollack, Hod Lipson, Gregory Hornby, and Pablo Funes

    E-print Network

    Meeden, Lisa A.

    [28]. Robots in industry are only applied to simple and highly repetitive manufacturing tasks. EvenThree Generations of Automatically Designed Robots Jordan B. Pollack, Hod Lipson, Gregory Hornby with designing, building and controlling robots have led their development to a stasis: applications are limited

  9. Photopigment spectral absorbance of Lake Malaw^ i R. JORDAN*, K. KELLOGG, D. HOWE, F. JUANES*,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    of Biomedical Sciences, T7-020 Veterinary Research Tower, Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A. (Received 29 April 2005 speciation related to feeding mode and sexual selection through female choice (Danley & Kocher, 2001). Given, 1997; Couldridge, 2002; Jordan et al., 2003, 2004), a comparative understanding of visual physiology

  10. Assessing the High School Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Karak District of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to assess the level of the emotional intelligence (EI) of high school teachers in Karak district of Jordan. A sample of 222 teachers was randomly selected and filtered on the basis of an inconsistency index. A scale of 55 items measuring empathy, emotions regulation, interpersonal management, self management,…

  11. A Framework for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Information Systems at Jordan Banks: An Empirical Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Mashhour

    Banks and other financial institutions in Jordan are one of the largest investors in the fields of information systems (IS), and there are many indications that these trends to continue in the future. However, there is a concern among CEOs and top managers that the IS investments are not yielding the anticipated outcomes. This paper investigates the investment of information

  12. Techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste management in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Abu Qdais

    2007-01-01

    Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. This is obvious in many developing countries around the world. Currently, several countries have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, these countries, including Jordan, which forms the case study presented here, have

  13. Study of galactic gamma ray sources with Milagro Jordan A. Goodman for the Milagro Collaboration

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    used for gamma-ray astronomy. Milagro consists of a 24 million liter water reservoir instrumentedStudy of galactic gamma ray sources with Milagro Jordan A. Goodman for the Milagro Collaboration. The diffuse gamma radiation arising from the interaction of cosmic ray particles with matter and radiation

  14. Localising Social Work: Lessons Learnt from a Community Based Intervention amongst the Bedouin in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahar Al-Makhamreh; Fadia Hasna; Gillian Lewando Hundt; Mohammad Al-Smairan; Salah Alzaroo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an example of local social work practice in Jordan in the health field. It draws on a research study on Bedouin health in the North Eastern Badia. The project developed, implemented and evaluated a training intervention developed in partnership with a range of providers for improving local social work practice. Evaluation methods used included a pre and

  15. Depositional environments of the Kurnub group (Early Cretaceous) in northern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amireh, Belal S.; Abed, Abdulkadr M.

    1999-10-01

    Seven facies associations comprise the Early Cretaceous Kurnub Group (KG) in northern Jordan. They are assigned to the following five depositional environments: proximal to distal alluvial braidplain; tidal flat; tidal marsh-coastal swamp; inner shelf; and meandering river. According to the evolution of these depositional facies associations, the KG can be split into three regressive-transgressive depositional sequences. This development of the depositional environment of the KG through the Early Cretaceous Epoch is portrayed as a six-block depositional model. The depositional history of the KG began with the first regression, when a conglomerate and sandstone facies association of a proximal to distal alluvial braidplain system was deposited above a regional angular unconformity, truncating Triassic and Jurassic strata. Afterwards, the Tethys Seaway inundated northern Jordan, giving rise to the first transgressive sequence, consisting of a tidal flat-mixed carbonate-siliciclastic and coastal swamp-carbonaceous shalelignite facies association. Due to the second regression of the sea, a medial to distal unconfined braided river system resumed in northern Jordan. The second transgression of the Tethys covered most of the region during the middle interval of the KG, and deposited a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequence with interbedded inner shelf carbonates, subtidal oolitic ironstones and tidal marsh-coastal swamp black shales and lignites. During the next interval of the KG, the Tethys regressed from the area and was replaced by a moderate sinuosity meandering river system that deposited the third regressive fluvial sequence. The third transgression of the sea developed a marginal to shallow marine depositional system, which affected northernmost Jordan, giving rise to a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic tidal flat and an inner shelf carbonate sequence. The climate in Jordan during the Early Cretaceous Epoch was generally humid and temperate.

  16. Antone Tarazi: the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan: a neurosurgeon of two countries.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ahmed J; Jane, John A

    2014-12-01

    Antone (Tony) Tarazi (1927-1999) was the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan. In 1952, Tarazi received his medical degree from the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. After completing neurosurgery training at the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1960, he returned to Palestine to practice neurosurgery in both Palestine and Jordan. For almost 10 years, he alone carried the load of neurosurgery for a population of >3 million people. His skills and knowledge enabled him to achieve admirable results with limited available resources. Tarazi was the president of the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society, a member of Jordan medical societies, and a member of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. His continuous efforts to improve medical services extended beyond neurosurgery to many other fields. This article recounts Antone Tarazi's achievements and contributions to neurosurgery in Palestine and Jordan. PMID:25263256

  17. DIRASAT n. 1 volume n. 36, Jordan University, 2009 Conservation of Palestinian Urban Heritage: The Danger of Destruction and

    E-print Network

    DIRASAT n. 1 volume n. 36, Jordan University, 2009 Conservation of Palestinian Urban Heritage to prepare basic fundamentals of documentation process from the administrative and technical point of view

  18. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  19. Production of ritual material culture in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period in Jordan : some methods for analytical investigation

    E-print Network

    Bennallack, Kathleen Celia

    2012-01-01

    Bronze Age metallurgy: a newly discovered copper manufactoryWere of Copper: 10,000 Years of Mining and Metallurgy inCopper Production and Society in the Faynan Region, Jordan. In Eastern Mediterranean Metallurgy and

  20. Building community in low-income areas : designing a new architectural language for community centers in Jordan

    E-print Network

    Ali, Dalia Osama

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a vocabulary of principles to be used in the design of future community centers in Jordan. Community centers provide the stage for bringing members of the community together to meet and ...

  1. I3.-LIST OF THE FISHES INHABITING CLEAR LAKE, CAUFORNIA. By DAVID S. JORDAN AND CHARLES H, GILBERT.

    E-print Network

    . Parrish; not seen by us. Takes the hook. 6. PtychocheiluB oregonensis (Richardson). Chappaul. or Shappau in another. 7. Ptychocheilus harfordi Jordan & Gilbert. Not seen by us. Occasionally taken, according to MI

  2. Robust stationary distributed discord in Jordan-Wigner fermion system under perturbations of initial state

    E-print Network

    E. B. Fel'dman; A. I. Zenchuk

    2014-09-05

    We investigate the Jordan-Wigner fermion clusters with the stationary distributed pairwise quantum discord. Such clusters appear after the Jordan-Wigner transformation of a spin chain governed by the nearest-neighbor XY-Hamiltonian with the particular initial state having one polarized node. We show that the quantum discord stationarity in such systems is not destroyed by the "parasitic" polarization of at least two types. First type appears because the initial state with a single polarized node is hardly realizable experimentally, so that the low polarization of neighboring nodes must be taken into account. Second, the additional noise-polarization of all nodes is unavoidable. Although the stationarity may not be destroyed by perturbations of the above two types, the parasitic polarizations deform the distribution of the pairwise discord and may destroy the clusters of correlated fermions with equal pairwise discords. Such deformations are studied in this paper.

  3. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system. PMID:25876820

  4. Wide spread zeolitization of the Neogene - Quaternary volcanic tuff in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Ibrahim, Khalil M.; Al Dwairi, Reyad A.; Torrente, Domingo G.

    2015-01-01

    Representative samples were collected from well exposed Neogene - Quarternary scoria cones of north east Jordan. The results of this study have led to the discovery of eleven new localities of zeolite associated with the volcanic tuff. The zeolitization process of the volcanic tuff in Jordan is widespread and of regional distribution. The identified zeolites are phillipsite and chabazite with subordinate associations of faujasite and analcime. The zeolitization process resulted from the transformation of sideromelane into palagonite by the reaction of the scoria with the circulating meteoric water. The variation in the Na/K, Na/Ca and Si/Al ratios of the circulating water was responsible for the variation in the mineralogy and chemistry of the zeolites and the associated authigenic minerals.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Q. Talafha; S. M. Hirche; M. M. Ababneh; A. M. Al-Majali

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with bovine\\u000a viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 non-vaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007.\\u000a Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against BVDV were\\u000a detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square

  6. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  7. The spatial distribution of enteric bacteria in the Jordan River-Lake Kinneret contact zone.

    PubMed

    Wynne, David; Shteinman, Boris; Hochman, Ayala; Ben-Dan, Talya

    Lake Kinneret, in the north of Israel, is the only freshwater body in the country. It supports many activities, including recreation, tourism, and a commercial fishing industry, but its prime function is to supply water to other parts of the country. Consequently, maintaining a high water quality of the lake is of prime importance. The major part (some 90%) of the annual runoff of water enters Lake Kinneret from the north via the Jordan River during the autumn-winter floods. During this period, the river carries sediments, toxic agricultural chemicals, and allochthonous organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, into the lake. The Jordan River-Lake Kinneret contact zone is characterized by a rapid transformation from a riverine to a lacustrine water mass within 700 m from the river mouth, with very high spatial gradients of practically all hydrodynamic, hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and microbiological parameters. Previous measurements have shown that the distribution of enteric bacteria in the river-lake contact zone is related to the attenuation of river current flows. The aim of this study was to determine whether the change in the number of enteric bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp.) in the water of the River Jordan-Lake Kinneret contact zone was due to sedimentation or to dilution. The data were then utilized to build a conceptual model explaining the distribution of biological pollutants (bacteria) in the river-lake contact zone of a shallow tropical lake, using the microbial communities of the River Jordan-Lake Kinneret contact zone, as an example. PMID:15371210

  8. Characterization of kaolinite of the Baten El-Ghoul region/south Jordan by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qtaitat, Mohammad A.; Al-Trawneh, Ibrahim Naji

    2005-05-01

    The infrared spectra (3700-500 cm -1) have been recorded for kaolinite obtained from the Baten El-Ghoul region/south Jordan. The spectra were recorded for raw and dried samples, using KBr disk and nujol methods. The vibrational assignments of the basic fundamental modes were proposed, which were supported by the spectra obtained from the two methods used. The results obtained were compared with other related studies.

  9. On a new geometric constant related to the von Neumann-Jordan constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changsen; Wang, Fenghui

    2006-12-01

    The von Neumann-Jordan constant CNJ(X) is computed for X being l2-l1 and l[infinity]-l1 space by introducing a new geometric constant [gamma]X(t). These partly give an answer to an open question posed by Kato et al. Some basic properties of this new coefficient are investigated. Moreover, we obtain a new class of Banach spaces with uniform normal structure.

  10. Attitudes of Men and Women Towards Wife Beating: Findings From Palestinian Refugee Camps in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marwan Khawaja; Natalia Linos; Zeina El-Roueiheb

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the acceptance of wife beating among currently married\\u000a men and women living in disadvantaged Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey\\u000a of 3,100 households from 12 refugee camps, conducted in 1999, with a sub-sample of 395 married women and men selected for

  11. Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere. PMID:11545334

  12. A Wide-Angle Seismic Profile Across the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift (Transform)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Ayyash, K.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Mechie, J.; Weber, M.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the DESERT 2000 project a seismic wide-angle reflection / refraction (WRR) experiment was completed for the first time across the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift (Transform). The NW-SE trending 260 km long profile, which passed through Palestine, Israel and Jordan, crossed the rift in the Arava valley about 70 km south of the southern end of the Dead Sea. During the experiment 13 shots, including two quarry blasts, were recorded by 99 three-component instruments spaced 1-4.5 km apart along the whole length of the profile and 125 vertical component geophone groups with 100 m spacing along a 12.5 km long section of the profile in the Arava valley. Both the P- and S-wavefields were successfully recorded. First results will be presented. The results will provide a picture of the P- and S-velocity structures across the rift and together with older mainly N-S trending seismic wide-angle profiles in the region will constrain models of the formation of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift (Transform).

  13. Copyright 2012 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. Johnson, K. A., G. Dana, N. R. Jordan, K. J. Draeger, A. Kapuscinski, L. K. Schmitt Olabisi and P. B.

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , K. A., G. Dana, N. R. Jordan, K. J. Draeger, A. Kapuscinski, L. K. Schmitt Olabisi and P. B. Reich , Genya Dana 2 , Nicholas R. Jordan 3 , Kathy J. Draeger 4 , Anne Kapuscinski 5 , Laura K. Schmitt Olabisi

  14. Spatial distribution patterns of molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in potable groundwater in Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Mashal, Kholoud; Abed, Abdulkader M

    2015-03-01

    Two hundred and three groundwater samples were collected during March 2011 to June 2012 from the B2/A7 aquifer water supply wells of northern part of Jordan. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in situ for the major cations, anions, while certain heavy metals were analyzed in the laboratory. Some oilshale rock samples were geochemically analyzed. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer (B2/A7) is used as water supply for most of the communities in the study area. It consists of limestone, marly limestone, bedded chert, and minor phosphorite. Hydrochemical results from the B2/A7 aquifer indicate two main water types: alkaline-earth water (CaHCO3) and alkaline-earth water with high alkaline component (NaHCO3 (-), Na2SO4). Standard column leaching experiments on oilshale rock samples and the R-mode factor analysis suggest that the sources for elevated Mo concentrations in the groundwater of certain parts of northern Jordan are attributed to water-oilshale interaction, mobility of Mo down to the groundwater and the extensive use of fertilizers within these areas. Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in the groundwater water range from 0.07 to 1.44 mg/L with an average value of 98 ?g/L. They are found to exceed the JISM and WHO guidelines in two areas in northern part of Jordan. Spatial distribution of Mo, using ordinary kriging techniques and the resulting map, shows high Mo concentration in the northwestern part near Wadi Al Arab area reaching concentrations of 650 ?g/L and in the southeastern corner of the investigated area, south of Al Ukaydir village, with an average concentration of 468 ?g/L. Both areas are characterized by extensive oilshale exposures with average concentration of 11.7 mg/kg Mo and intensive agricultural activities. These two areas represent approximately 33 % of the groundwater in the northern part of Jordan. Mobility of Mo to the groundwater in northern part of Jordan is attributed to two mechanisms. First, there is reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide, which releases substantial adsorbed Mo concentrations. Secondly, there is oxidation of Mo into dissolved forms in sulfide organic-rich system. PMID:25720968

  15. The Tectonic Geomorphology and the Archeoseismicity of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Taj, M. M.; Abed, A.; Abou Karaki, N.; Atallah, M.; Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) extends 1000 km from the Sinai triple junction in the south to the Tauros- Zagros collision zone in Turkey in the north. In Jordan, the DST consists of three morphotectonic elements; the Wadi Araba in the south, the Dead Sea basin in the middle and the Jordan Valley in the north. The Dead Sea is a pull- apart basin that formed due to the overlap of the Wadi Araba fault (WAF) and the Jordan Valley fault (JVF). The movement along the transform is active as indicated from both the geomorphological features and from the seismic activity. The DST is a major left lateral strike slip fault that accommodates the relative motion of the Arabian plate to the east and the Sinai plate to the west, where 107 km of cumulative left lateral offset has occurred over the last 18 million years. Based on this offset, the accumulated slip rate is estimated to be 5-10 mm/yr. Based on aerial photographic analysis of the DST and earthquake catalogue information, it is suggested that the present day slip rate has been slower (1.5-3.5 mm/yr) when compared with the Pleistocene rates. Recent work on offset alluvial fan surfaces and drainage along the northern Wadi Araba fault indicates a slip rate of 4.7 mm/yr (Niemi et al., 2000) and 4 mm/yr (Klinger, 2000). In the Jordan Valley fault a slip rate of 7 mm/yr in the last 13000 years was estimated based on aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation (Al-Taj, 2000). Active strike slip faults display distinct morphological features along its trace. The DST in Jordan Valley has a series of morphotectonic features, such as pressure ridges and sag ponds. These features are formed in the place of fault steps or bends (Keller and Pinter, 1996). Fault scarps are formed along most of the trace indicating a dip slip component of displacement. Historical, archeological and paleoseismic data are combined from two trench sites to build a unique composite catalogue of large past earthquakes. On that basis, evidence for surface rupture during the AD 749 and AD 1033 earthquakes was shown. Overall, 8 surface-rupturing events for the last 14 kyr were identified. A temporal analysis displays clusters of seismicity as well as quiescence periods as well as a 600- to 1000-yr-long recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the last 14 kyr.

  16. "On 10 Feb, 2004, an earthquake hit the Dead Sea reaching 6.2 on the Richter scale. It was felt in Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, Israel and Syria. Natural disasters know no

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    civil society leaders in Israel, Palestine and Jordan. In 2007, MMEP's Israeli, Palestinian in Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, Israel and Syria. Natural disasters know no boundaries. They don't stop short of Israel or Jordan! This was Nature's early warning call to Governments and Civil Society

  17. Are the Conflicts between Israel and Her Neighbors Over the Waters of the Jordan River Basin an Obstacle to Peace? Israel-Syria As A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Shuval

    2000-01-01

    Are the conflicts over water resources between Syria, Lebanon and Israel who share the transboundary waters of the Jordan River Basin a major obstacle to the peace process? The Syrians and Lebanese have in the past claimed as their own all of the sources of the Jordan River which arise in their territory. International water law provides a strong legal

  18. Features of Computerized Educational Games in Sciences of the Elementary Phase in Jordan from the Point of View of Specialists in Teaching Science and Computer Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Sarhan, Khaled Ali; AlZboon, Saleem Odeh; Olimat, Khalaf Mufleh; Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at introducing the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary school in Jordan according to the specialists in teaching science and computer subjects, through answering some questions such as: What are the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary schools in Jordan

  19. Yuening Hu, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Hal Daume III, and Z. Irene Ying. Binary to Bushy: Bayesian Hierarchical Clustering with the Beta Coalescent. Neural Information Processing Systems, 2013.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Yuening Hu, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Hal Daume III, and Z. Irene Ying. Binary to Bushy: Bayesian Hierarchical Clustering with the Beta Coalescent. Neural Information Processing Systems, 2013. @inproceedings{Hu = {Neural Information Processing Systems}, Author = {Yuening Hu and Jordan Boyd-Graber and Hal Daume III

  20. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  1. Jonathan Chang, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Chong Wang, Sean Gerrish, and David M. Blei. Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models. Neural Information Processing Systems, 2009.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Jonathan Chang, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Chong Wang, Sean Gerrish, and David M. Blei. Reading Tea Leaves{Chang:Boyd-Graber:Wang:Gerrish:Blei-2009, Author = {Jonathan Chang and Jordan Boyd-Graber and Chong Wang and Sean Gerrish and David M. Blei@umiacs.umd.edu Sean Gerrish, Chong Wang, David M. Blei Department of Computer Science Princeton University {sgerrish

  2. Proliferation of Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria and Concomitant Antibiotic Production as the Basis for the Antibiotic Activity of Jordan's Red Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph O. Falkinham; Thomas E. Wall; Justin R. Tanner; Khaled Tawaha; Feras Q. Alali; Chen Li; Nicholas H. Oberlies

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotes, both historical and recent, recount the curing of skin infections, including diaper rash, by using red soils from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Following inoculation of red soils isolated from geograph- ically separate areas of Jordan, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were rapidly killed. Over the 3-week incubation period, the number of specific types of antibiotic-producing bacteria increased, and

  3. Sustainable energy and environmental impact: role of renewables as clean and secure source of energy for the 21st century in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Jaber; O. O. Badran; N. Abu-Shikhah

    2004-01-01

    In this article, present and future energy consumption, electricity demand, potential of renewable energy sources and national energy policy in Jordan are presented. The related environmental impacts are discussed from the sustainable development point of view, including the future role of renewable energy sources. Jordan is a net energy importing country, with almost 96% of its annual needs relying on

  4. The Impact of Tax Planning on Reducing Income Tax Burden in Industrial Companies in Jordan (From Sales & Income Tax Evaluator Point of View)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majed Sharayri; Ghazi F. Momani

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to recognize the reliability extent on the advantages of income and sales tax law and investment promotion law pertaining to minimizing taxation value of Jordan joint stock industrial companies from income and sales tax evaluators' point of view. It also aims to recognize the taxation system in Jordan throughout the following study hypotheses: 1. Industrial companies do

  5. DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

  6. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  7. Climate Change impacts on the Jordan River, Israel: Downscaling application from a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, R.; Rimmer, A.; Krichak, S.; Alpert, P.

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the impact of future climate change on streamflow and water resources in the Jordan River watershed. Such changes are expected to play an important role in water availability, planning and policy as well as in the ability to comply with international treaty obligations. Currently, Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are the leading tools available for assessing long term climatic evolution and for projecting future conditions of transient atmospheric circulation variables that are a response to unseen CO2 levels. However, the scale at which the results are generated, in the 100s or even 10s of kilometers is too coarse to answer questions regarding local precipitation, water management or agriculture decisions. Here we statistically downscale precipitation output from a regional climate model focused on the Middle East, as well as temperature, radiation, relative humidity and wind speed, which were used to asses local changes in potential evaporation (using Penman-Monteith equation). The climate model used is the ICTP RegCM3 model driven from the lateral boundaries by results of ECHAM5/MPI-OM1. Transient climate simulation from 1960 to 2060 (SRES A1B emission scenario after 2001) are used. The results are then used as input into a hydrological model calibrated for the upper catchments of the Jordan River. This allows us to evaluate the impact on streamflow and water resources and to compare the predicted baseflow and surface flow components of the tested watersheds. We compared the average hydrological variables of 3 periods: 1. 1980-2005; 2. 2010-2035; and 3. 2035-2060. No significant differences were observed between period 1 and 2, however significant differences were observed after 2030, i.e. during period 3, where we found 12% reduction in rainfall, 3.7% increase in potential evaporation, 10% reduction in baseflow, 18% reduction in surface flow and 12% reduction in total flow of the Jordan River.

  8. Slope failure on the Jordan River Delta in the Dead Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Almagor, G. (Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-06-01

    The Dead Sea is a longitudinal (80 km {times} 20 km) terminal lake that was formed by the active Syrian-African transform fault. Considerably saline inflow from the Jordan River and a very high evaporation rate have led to the excessive salinity (360 g/L) and water density (1.226-1.232 g/cc) of the lake. The rate of evaporite precipitation is 630-2,000 mg/cm{sup 2}/yr. Clastic sediments from the Jordan River have formed a very moderately sloping (about 2{degree}) delta that covers the northern lake to a distance of 8 km offshore and to a depth of 300 m. Many irregularly shaped mounds of sediment that are acoustically transparent and that contain numerous discontinuous reflectors cover the delta slope. They extend over several hundred square meters each and rise 2-5 m above their surroundings. These sediments indicate active downslope slumping processes. The small-scale sedimentary pattern and the engineering properties of the sediments were examined by testing 6 core samples collected at various depths along the Jordan delta. Lengths range from 0.90 to 3.20 m. Depth of coring was restricted by an extremely hard, impenetrable layer of halite, and the topmost 10-25 cm consists of unconsolidated, recently deposited grainy halite. Euhedral crystals of halite are disseminated throughout the entire length of the core samples, especially in the deep-water cores. The high salinity of the pore water and the presence of large amounts of disseminated halite within the cores required modifications of the standard soil mechanics laboratory testing procedures. The sediments are predominantly dark brown, layered kaolinitic silty clays. They contain numerous conspicuous black organic-matter and sulfide-bearing layers and white aragonite and gypsum layers. Occasionally, slump structures are encountered.

  9. Client-centered counseling improves client satisfaction with family planning visits: evidence from Irbid, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Kamhawi, Sarah; Underwood, Carol; Murad, Huda; Jabre, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: High levels of unmet need for family planning and high contraceptive discontinuation rates persist in Jordan, prompting the Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) to initiate a client-centered family planning service program called “Consult and Choose” (CC), together with community-based activities to encourage women with unmet need to visit health centers. Methods: We held exit interviews with 461 family planning clients between November–December 2011 to assess, from the clients' perspective, whether trained providers followed the CC protocol and used the CC tools, as well as to measure client satisfaction. We also tracked referral card information from community-based activities to health centers and examined service statistics to explore trends in family planning use. Results: On average, clients reported that providers performed 5.6 of the 7 steps outlined in the CC protocol. Nearly 83% of respondents were very satisfied with their clinic visits. Logistic regression analysis found that the odds of being “very satisfied” increases by 20% with each additional counseling protocol step performed and by 70% with each increase in the number of CC materials used. Between June 2011 and August 2012, 14,490 referral cards from community-based activities were collected in health centers, 59% of which were for family planning services. Service statistic trends indicate an increase in the number of new family planning users and in couple-years of protection after starting the CC program. Conclusions: Implementation of the CC program at health centers nationally, in tandem with community-based interventions, could play a key role in attaining Jordan's goal of reducing its total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2030. Although this initiative would likely be replicated most readily in other middle-income countries, lower-resource countries could also adapt the tested CC approach. PMID:25276531

  10. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  11. Spherically Symmetric Jordan-Brans-Dicke Quantum Gravity with de Broglie Bohm Pilot Wave Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarnejad, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    We obtain two dimensional analogue of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity action described in four dimensional spherically symmetric curved space time metric. There will be two scalar fields, namely, the Brans Dicke (BD) ? and scale factor of 2-sphere part of the space time ?. We obtained suitable duality transformations between ( ?, ?) and ( ?, S) where ? and S is respectively amplitude and phase part of the corresponding de Broglie pilot wave function Covariant conservation of mass-energy current density of particles ensemble J a = ?? a S, is established by applying a particular dynamical conformal frame described by ( ?, S).

  12. The microbiology of the Maqarin site, Jordan -- A natural analogue for cementitious radioactive waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.M.; Coombs, P.; Gardner, S.J.; Rochelle, C.A. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom). Fluid Processes Group

    1995-12-31

    The Maqarin site, Jordan is being studied as a natural analogue of a cementitious radioactive waste repository. The microbiology has been studied and diverse microbial populations capable of tolerating alkaline pH were detected at all sampling localities. Dissolved organic carbon was identified as the potentially most important reductant with sulfate identified as the main oxidant, both supply energy for microbial life. Calculations on upper limits of microbial numbers were made with a microbiology code (MGSE) using existing information but the results are overestimates when compared with field observations. This indicates that the model is very conservative and that more information on, for example, carbon sources is required.

  13. Geophysical analysis of the recent sinkhole trend at Ghor-Haditha (Dead Sea, Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlynck, Christian; Bodet, Ludovic; Galibert, Pierre-Yves; Boucher, Marie; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2013-04-01

    For essentially the last 30 year the water level of the Dead Sea has highly dropped. One of the major associated facts is sinkhole occurrences along the shoreline both in Jordan and Israel. As the principal invoked mechanism, many studies have concluded that sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of a previously immersed salt layer, progressively in contact with fresh to brackish water. In Jordan, the triggering of this phenomenon could also be the result of particular tectonic settings, associated with the Jordan-Dead Sea transform fault system. At Ghor Haditha (south-est Jordan), the consequences have been dramatic for farmers with the shrinking of temporary available lands and industry with the closing of at least one factory. The shallow material in this area is heterogeneous and composed of intercalated sand and clay layers of alluvial-colluvial origin, over a salty substratum, whose precise depth and thickness are yet partially hypothesized. Between 2005 and 2008, a multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey was performed, approximately over a 1 km2 area at Ghor Haditha, associating mainly electromagnetic soundings, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS), and seismic profiling, ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. At the same time, this specific area was the location of a dramatic evolution of sinkhole occurences, regularly followed by geodetic measurements. Over the 3 years period, about 120 TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) soundings allow to map precisely the depth of the conductive layers below the resistive overburden. Two conductive layer are then revealed, the latter showing the lowest resistivity below 1 Ohm.m corresponding to the saline substratum. Several MRS (3 in 2005, repeated in 2007 and 12 additional soundings) show an east-west hydraulic gradient towards the Dead. However, the main sinkhole trend coincides with both: - a clear low transmissivity axis determined from MRS measurements; - the western side of a depression into the top of the most conductive layer. This shows so clearly a correlation between the recent sinkhole phenomenon and the current water circulations, but paleo-topography below the Pleistocene deposits mays equally be a clue in the sinkhole hazard.

  14. The lithosphere thermal regime across the Dead Sea transform in Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Stromeyer, D.; Sobolev, S. V.; Oberhänsli, R.

    2003-04-01

    Reevaluation of thermal data (T-logs, thermal conductivity) from the area of the DESERT seismic refraction/reflection profiles in Israel shows that only part of the published heat-flow data correctly portrays the terrestrial heat flow. Taking into account the distortion factors on thermal conditions and discarding shallow (<100 m) boreholes from the database, nine heat-flow values remained yielding an average of 62±7.5 mW/m^2. We suggest that this value more closely approximates the terrestrial heat flow in this part of the African plate than previous values published for Israel, which are considerably lower (52±17.2 mW/m^2 and 40 mW/m^2, resp.). The new average is in good agreement with a surface heat-flow of preliminarily 60 mW/m^2 obtained from a 960-m deep borehole in southeastern Jordan. This well-constrained value is considerably higher than those proposed to represent the overall heat flow in this part of the African plate including Syria and Saudi Arabia (40--45 mW/m^2). Based on (1) newly acquainted data for Jordan on U-Th-K abundances from Pan-African basement rocks and xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basalts, which allow to infer the radiogenic heat production in the Jordanian crust, (2) respective literature values from Israel, and (3) new seismic data from the DESERT project, the structure and composition of the crust are redefined, and general thermal models for the lithosphere subplates separated by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) are calculated. Considering the temperature and pressure dependence of rock thermal conductivity and present-day surface heat flow, the steady-state geotherm for the Jordan lower crust/upper mantle is higher than in Israel, where it is within the envelope of previous geotherms. The modeled heat flow at the crust/mantle boundary is similar on both sides of the DST and amounts to 30 mW/m^2. However, the xenolith-derived P-T estimates for Israel (close to the DST) and Jordan (not only restricted to the DST) do not meet these geotherms. The discrepancy points to a lower crust and mantle of nonsteady-state thermal conditions. Asthenosphere upwelling is one possible scenario that may account for this discrepancy. Further investigations will substantiate the predictions that are made with regard to the timing of mantle heating, which are important to constrain the origin of the DST.

  15. Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overstreet, W.C.; Grimes, D.J.; Seitz, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of copper and iron in the region, and the use of charcoal from slags for the C-14 dating of periods of archaeometallurgical activity. Less directly, interpretations based on the distribution in time and space of the archaeometallurgical activities of the region might add to the knowledge of early climatic conditions and vegetative cover of the area.

  16. The Jordan-Hölder series for nearby cycles on some Shimura varieties and affine flag varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Gortz; Thomas J. Haines

    2007-01-01

    We study the Jordan-Hoelder series for nearby cycles on certain Shimura\\u000avarieties and Rapoport-Zink local models, and on finite-dimensional pieces of\\u000aBeilinson's deformation of the affine Grassmannian to the affine flag variety\\u000a(and their p-adic analogues). We give a formula for the multiplicities of\\u000airreducible constituents in terms of certain cohomology groups, and we also\\u000aprovide an algorithm to compute

  17. Investigation of the active constituents of Portulaca oleraceae L. (Portulacaceae) growing in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asia N; Afifi, Fatma U; Shaedah, Mayadeh; Taha, Mutasem O

    2004-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of the fresh aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), growing in Jordan, using conventional chromatographic procedures resulted in the isolation of Beta-sitosterol, Beta-sitosterol-glucoside, N,N'-dicyclohexylurea, and allantoin. The last three compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. The structure elucidation of these compounds was attained by the use of spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1H-, 13C- and 2D-NMR), X-ray crystallography and by comparison with authentic samples. PMID:16414585

  18. Upper cretaceous foraminiferal biostraigraphy and paleobathymetry of the Al-Baqa area, North of Amman (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rifaiy, I. A.; Cherif, O. H.; El-Bakri, B. A.

    1993-10-01

    The examination of vertical variations of foraminiferal assemblages in the Upper Cretaceous exposures of the Al-Baqa area to the north of Amman in Jordan enables us to evaluate ancient paleobathymetric changes with regard to eustatic changes in sea level. Index foraminiferal species are used for age determinations and paleobathymetry. The sedimentary cycle including Upper Cenomanian sediments (Fuheis, Hummar, Shueib and Wadi Sir Formations) appears to be related to global eustatic changes in sea levels. This is also the case of the Late Campanian sedimentary cycle in the study area (Amman Formation).

  19. A mathematical model for the dynamic optimization of the energy supply in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kablan, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    A least-cost energy-supply mixture that would satisfy the total basic energy and electric power requirements for all sectors of the economy in Jordan during each year of the planning period 1990-2000 is presented. Two submodels and a main model were designed. The first submodel simulated the interaction among variables that affect the energy and electricity demand of the household sector. It utilized a system dynamic approach and the simulation language DYNAMO. The second submodel applied the techniques of econometric analysis and multilinear regression to forecast the demand of the other energy demand sectors. The main model used dynamic linear programming to compute the least-cost energy-supply mixture for every year of the planning period. A nonlinear software GINO was utilized to implement the main model. The study applied a managerial problem solving approach to the energy problem in Jordan. Study results were used to develop guidelines for a national energy strategy directed at more efficient energy production and consumption.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, A Q; Hirche, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al-Majali, A M; Ababneh, M M

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 non-vaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against BVDV were detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for BVDV seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against BVDV in individual cows and cattle herds was 31.6% and 80.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BVDV in medium and large size herds was significantly higher than that in smaller herds. There was no significant difference in BVD seroprevalence between different age groups. Random-effects logistic regression model revealed two major factors associated with seropositivity to BVDV; exchange of visits between adjacent farm workers and not isolating newly purchased animals before addition to the herd. The seroprevalence of BVDV in cows located in the northern Jordanian governorates was significantly higher than that in other studied governorates. Results of this study indicated that BVDV is highly prevalent in Jordan and BVDV infection could be controlled by livestock-trade control, and applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms. PMID:18654834

  1. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  2. Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

  3. Archaeological evidences of the tectonic activity of Shueib Structure (NW Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awabdeh, Mohammad; Azañón, J. Miguel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Booth-Rea, Gillermo

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological damage in buried ruins often offers an excellent record of recent tectonic activity. The lower Jordan valley has experienced a continuous occupation in the last 5000 year, being frequent archaeological remains of human settlements along the valley. In this work we studied the Early Neolithic-to-Middle Islamic Periods archaeological site of Tall al-Hammam (Arabic name, ¨Hill of Baths¨). This ruin is located 27 km southwest of Amman city and it constitutes the largest Bronze Age archaeological site in Jordan. It consists of two main parts; the Upper Tall and the Lower Tall. This ruin lies within the southwestern termination of the Shueib structure (SHS); a Cretaceous fold-bend fault structure thought inactive through the entire Cenozoic. The relics, in the lower Tall, show clear fault-related damage in some walls. Two Middle Bronze Age (MBA) walls are displaced 26 and 20 cm respectively, according with a NNE-SSW fault plane. Apart of wall displacements, hundreds of joints and cracks in boulders of the walls are present. They strike generally NW-SE and NE-SW. Both archaeological evidences, boulder fractures and walls distortion, are coherent with the present-day tectonic setting of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in the region, and suggest a Quaternary reactivation of the SHS.

  4. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    PubMed Central

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27?166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31?747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18?432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  5. Proposed water balance equation for municipal solid waste landfills in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a water balance equation for predicting leachate generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in semi-arid areas, using the Akaider landfill in Jordan as an example. HYDRUS-2D/3D software was used to model the effect of co-disposal of wastewater into the landfill on the leachate production rates and for comparison with the results of the simulation of the proposed water balance equation parameters. A series of simulations was carried out for a 30-year period. The suggested water balance equation predicted that leachate will percolate to a depth of 50 m in the simulated period. The result indicates that the co-disposed wastewater plays a major role in controlling the rate and magnitude of the contaminants that percolate from the MSW leachate. As the initial water content of the waste increases, there is greater mobilisation of salts. The concentration of chloride at a given location increased and the time required for the chloride to reach this location decreased as a consequence. However, eliminating the co-disposed wastewater will significantly minimise leachate generation and decrease possible groundwater contamination. This equation is applicable to areas that have geological and hydrological properties similar to Jordan. PMID:23797298

  6. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  7. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  8. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  9. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by dental students at the Dental Teaching Center in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M Barrieshi-Nusair; M. A Al-Omari; A. S Al-Hiyasat

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate radiographically the technical standard of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the Dental Teaching Center in Jordan.Methods. A random sample of 8500 records of dental patients was examined. A total of 542 endodontically treated teeth with 912 roots were evaluated. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical

  10. Deferred Involvement: Memories and Praxes of Iraqi Intellectuals as Civil-Society Activists between Iraq, Jordan and Syria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    between Iraq, Jordan and Syria Paper prepared for the workshop on Memories of Iraq May 1st -2nd , 2009 limited by the lack of direct access the author had to Iraq in the 1990s. Looking specifically at state intelligentsia started finding its way inside Iraq at a time when the coercive apparatus of the regime loosened

  11. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  12. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  13. Empirical Game-Theoretic Analysis of the TAC Market Michael P. Wellman, Patrick R. Jordan, Christopher Kiekintveld, Jason Miller,

    E-print Network

    Wellman, Michael P.

    Empirical Game-Theoretic Analysis of the TAC Market Games Michael P. Wellman, Patrick R. Jordan challenging market games employed in an annual Trading Agent Competition. These games exemplify relevant repository. Our ongoing analysis of the TAC Travel game illustrates methods for scaling up the strategy

  14. Seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in Northern Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad M. Al-Majali; Nazmi O. Hussain; Nadim M. Amarin; Aggrey A. Majok

    2008-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease that affect sheep and goat industry in Asia and Africa. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of PPR in sheep and goat flocks from five different governorates (Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, Mafraq and Zarka) located in Northern Jordan. Serum samples from 929 and 400 sheep and goats,

  15. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy, and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Scott; Hazim El-Naser; Ross E. Hagan; Amal Hijazi

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 167 m3 per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the levels of aquifers and the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particu- larly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial, and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure

  16. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated...Jordan. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

  17. Does service quality implementation mediate the relationship between technical service quality and performance: an empirical examination of banks in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoun N. Akroush

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the mediation effect of service quality implementation on the relationship between technical service quality and banks performance. Drawing on relevant literature, the author empirically tested a model of technical service quality, service quality implementation and performance on a sample of 346 managers of banks in Jordan. The study findings have indicated significant implications for banks managers in

  18. "Taking It to the Mic": Pedagogy of June Jordan's Poetry for the People and Partnership with an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocson, Korina M.

    2005-01-01

    June Jordan, a prolific and most-published African American essayist and poet and a professor in the African American Studies department at the University of California, Berkeley, ventured to challenge the institutionalized Ivory Tower traditions and subsequently established a university program called Poetry for the People (P4P) in 1991. Such…

  19. A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

    2010-11-28

    This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan. PMID:20956366

  20. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  1. Hydraulic properties of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, southeastern Minnesota, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, James F.

    1999-01-01

    An aquifer test of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was conducted in the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community located southwest of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A well open to the Jordan Sandstone was pumped at 600 gallons per minute for 57 hours. Drawdown was monitored in three observation wells located near the pumped well. These wells were open to: (1) the Jordan Sandstone, the principal unit of the aquifer; (2) the Prairie du Chien Group, a secondary, carbonate-rock unit of the aquifer; and (3) a confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer. Test results indicate that the Jordan Sandstone had a transmissivity of 6,267 ft2/d, a storativity of 1.193 x 10-4, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 31 ft/d based on a saturated thickness of 204 ft, and a ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 5.29 x 10-4. The pumped well was hydraulically connected to the Prairie du Chien Group observation well. No drawdown was observed in the observation well completed in the confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer; thus, a hydraulic connection of this observation well to the pumped well was not indicated.

  2. CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky (This tutorial is a continuation of the Capture CIS Tutorial)

    E-print Network

    Patel, Chintan

    CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky (This tutorial is a continuation of the Capture CIS Tutorial) Allegro PCB Design Allegro PCB Design is a circuit board layout tool that accepts a layout fabrication. This tutorial is the second part of the PCB project tutorial. Before starting with PCB Design

  3. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Plant and Air of Scrapyard of Discarded Vehicles at Zarqa City, Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qasem M. Jaradat; Adnan Masadeh; Mohammed A. Zaitoun; Baheyah M. Maitah

    2005-01-01

    Ninety soil samples, forty plant samples (Anabasis articulata), and twenty air samples were collected from the scrap yard of discarded vehicles near Zarqa city, Jordan. These samples were analyzed for heavy metals: Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Al, and Fe. Longitudinal and vertical profiles of soil samples were studied. Generally, the levels of all heavy metals studied in the scrap

  4. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Ring Expansion of Cyclopropanols and Cyclobutanols Jordan P. Markham, Steven T. Staben, and F. Dean Toste*

    E-print Network

    Toste, Dean

    Gold(I)-Catalyzed Ring Expansion of Cyclopropanols and Cyclobutanols Jordan P. Markham, Steven T of heteroatom4 nucleophiles or -bonds5 to gold(I)-activated alkynes have recently been described. We hy- pothesized that related cationic gold(I) complexes might be capable of catalyzing ring expansion6 reactions

  5. Scent marking in wild banded mongooses: 3. Intrasexual overmarking Neil R. Jordan a,*, Francis Mwanguhya a,b,1

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    Scent marking in wild banded mongooses: 3. Intrasexual overmarking in females Neil R. Jordan a Mongoose Research Project, QENP, Kasese c Institute of Organic Chemistry, Universität Zürich d School November 2010 MS. number: 10-00014R Keywords: banded mongoose communication competition female intrasexual

  6. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  7. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on the findings of a pest risk...Senior Import Specialist, RPM, PHP, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road...regulations contains a performance-based process for approving the importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest...

  8. Possible impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on water resources of the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Givati; Daniel Rosenfeld

    2007-01-01

    Insights are provided to the hitherto unexplained decreasing trends in the available water for consumption from the Sea of Galilee and in the outflow of the main springs of the Jordan River with respect to the nearby rainfall. The loss of available water of about 110 million m3 yr?1 (about 6.5% of the national water consumption in Israel) is shown

  9. Possible impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on water resources of the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Givati; Daniel Rosenfeld

    2007-01-01

    Insights are provided to the hitherto unexplained decreasing trends in the available water for consumption from the Sea of Galilee and in the outflow of the main springs of the Jordan River with respect to the nearby rainfall. The loss of available water of about 110 million m3 yr-1 (about 6.5% of the national water consumption in Israel) is shown

  10. Predators and Prey: Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Henry, III; Stamm, Daniel K.

    This document provides hands-on environmental education activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. The activity packet, designed for grades K-3, meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. It includes on-site…

  11. Slip deficit along the Jordan Valley segment of the Dead Sea Fault from paleoseismology, historical seismology and archeoseismology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Ferry; M. Meghraoui; N. Abou Karaki; M. Al-Taj; M. Barjous; P. Grootes; M. Nadeau

    2006-01-01

    The 110-km-long fault rupture of the Jordan Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault exhibits a significant late Quaternary active deformation. We document repeated earthquake ruptures from geomorphological and paleoseismic investigations at three sites along the fault combined with the historical seismicity catalogue and previous studies in archeology. At Ghor Katar, offset stream gullies display increasing cumulative displacements that may

  12. Developing a documentation system for desert palaces in Jordan using 3D laser scanning and digital photogrammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharaf Al-kheder; Yahya Al-shawabkeh; Norbert Haala

    2009-01-01

    Desert palaces in Jordan are unique pieces of art scattered in the desert as standing symbols of ancient civilizations. Due to their location, these palaces witness different environmental conditions which affect their status and sustainability. This raises the need to have a 3D documentation system reporting all spatial information for each palace, which can be used later for monitoring purposes.

  13. The QuarkNet/Grid Collaborative Learning e-Lab Marjorie Bardeen Eric Gilbert Thomas Jordan Paul Nepywoda

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    e-Lab provides this online, cross-platform and ubiquitous environment. 2. Case study For this case, research scientists and educators can create online collaborative learning environments, e-Labs,The QuarkNet/Grid Collaborative Learning e-Lab Marjorie Bardeen Eric Gilbert Thomas Jordan Paul

  14. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with concerned stakeholders to assure future water supplies.

  15. Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2014-05-01

    Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers, farm owners, and farm workers - to support the inclusion of sustainable land management while sustaining ecosystem services and livelihoods. Also, we demonstrated and focused on practical understanding of how to identify and address land degradation and on using sustainable land use practices - including soil and water conservation measures, conservation agriculture, and rangeland management- through combination of expert and participatory research and participatory planning.

  16. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB-MgNaCl) represent the saline end members. Existing water types are mixtures of the 3 end members. There is a consistency in results and analysis of geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geophysical data. There are three probable sources of increase in groundwater salinity: mixing with saline end members (RVB/DSB); dissolution of minerals of the Lisan Formation (calcite, dolomite, gypsum and halite); and to some extent, agricultural effluent pollution.

  17. Socio-economic differentials in child mortality: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The study described levels and trends in child mortality in Jordan and provided a multivariate model relating child mortality to socioeconomic differentials. The South pattern from the Coale-Demeny model family life tables was chosen for the analysis of the proportions dead among children ever born, which was converted into the probability of dying by age. The probability of dying by the age of 5 years declined from 270/1000 live births around 1950 to 90/1000 by 1975. By age 5 the risks of child mortality have fallen to relatively low levels. Viability of the child was conceptualized as related to nutrition and body growth. Nutrition was considered to be affected by household socioeconomic conditions, culture, community conditions, early childhood factors, and household hygiene and disease prevention. The Mosley and Chen framework was not usable due to lack of data. Socioeconomic factors were included as important determinants of proximate determinants: type of place of residence, parental education, household income, housing conditions, and marriage age. Data were obtained from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey and the 1981 Jordan Demographic Survey, which provided consistent and reliable child mortality estimates. Age heaping at digits of 0 and 5 did occur. The multivariate analysis involved ordinary least squares regressions for estimating the relationship between the child mortality measure and a variety of independent, categorical variables represented as dummy variables. Findings indicated that rural residence was associated with higher child mortality risks in 1976 and 1981. Children of mothers or fathers with fewer than 6 years of education had higher child mortality risks. Maternal education levels of more than 6 years were thought to have a greater impact on rural child mortality. Variables which were unrelated to child mortality included method of lighting, source of water supply from wells and private taps, and duration of marriage. Household water supply from public taps was significantly associated with lower rural child mortality risks in 1976 and 1981. Marriage age of 20 years or higher was only significant in the 1976 data. The results suggested a widening differential associated with socioeconomic differences over time. Little variance was explained by the variables. Programs need to target health services to less educated rural women. PMID:12287528

  18. Use of experimental archaeology to examine and interpret Pre-Pottery Neolithic architecture: a case study of Beidha in southern Jordan 

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Samantha Jo

    2009-11-25

    Many significant cultural transitions, including the beginnings of sedentism, domestication, and farming, are thought to have taken place during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) in southern Jordan. The settlement sites ...

  19. Spherically symmetric Jordan-Brans-Dicke quantum gravity with de Broglie Bohm pilot wave perspective

    E-print Network

    Ghaffarnejad, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    We obtain two dimensional analogue of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity action described in four dimensional spherically symmetric curved space time metric. There will be two scalar fields, namely, the Brans Dicke (BD) $\\phi$ and scale factor of 2-sphere part of the space time $\\psi.$ There is obtained a suitable duality transformation between $(\\psi,\\phi)$ and $(\\rho,S)$ where $\\rho$ and $S$ are respectively amplitude and phase part of the corresponding de Broglie pilot wave function $\\Psi(\\rho,S)=\\sqrt{\\rho}e^{iS}.$ There is established covariant conservation of mass-energy current density of particles ensemble $J_a=\\rho\\partial_aS,$ in a particular dynamical conformal frame described by $(\\rho,S).$

  20. Atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Aqaba city, Jordan, using Phoenix dactylifera L. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khlaifat, Abdelaziz L.; Al-Khashman, Omar A.

    The leaves of date palms ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) were evaluated as biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in the city of Aqaba, Jordan. The concentrations of iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples of unwashed leaves for testing were collected from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, suburban, industrial, highway, and rural sites). Separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial areas were found to have high contents of all metals except for nickel, copper, and lead, which were found at high concentrations in the samples collected from highway sites. Significant correlations between the heavy metal concentrations in date palm trees in unwashed leave samples were obtained. The principle component analysis (PCA) along with correlation analysis provide significant information about the origin of heavy metals in palm tree samples.

  1. A Pan-African alkaline pluton intruding the Saramuj Conglomerate, south-west Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb; Wachendorf, Horst; Zachmann, Dieter

    1993-04-01

    The geological setting, petrography and bulk mineral chemistry of a monzodiorite and a presumably consanguineous megaporphyry with large (up to 25 cm) labradorite megacrysts, both intruding the upper Proterozoic Saramuj Conglomerate in south-west Jordan (south eastern shore of the Dead Sea), were examined. The crystallization temperatures of the monzodiorite and the megaporphyry as determined from pyroxene thermometry and supported by contact metamorphic mineralogy are about 700 and 900°C, respectively. The intrusion depth of the monzodiorite is about 3 4 km. The monzodiorite was emplaced in the Saramuj Conglomerate at about 595 + 2 Ma ago according to Rb/Sr and U/Pb age determinations. The stratigraphic positions of the monzodiorite, megaporphyry and their host rock (the Saramuj Conglomerate) were compared with time-equivalent lithologies in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  2. Order reduction of z-transfer functions via multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ying-Chin; Hwang, Chyi; Shieh, Leang S.

    1992-01-01

    The order reduction problem of z-transfer functions is solved by using the multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion (MJCFE) technique. An efficient algorithm that does not require the use of complex algebra is presented for obtaining an MJCFE from a stable z-transfer function with expansion points selected from the unit circle and/or the positive real axis of the z-plane. The reduced-order models are exactly the multipoint Pade approximants of the original system and, therefore, they match the (weighted) time-moments of the impulse response and preserve the frequency responses of the system at some characteristic frequencies, such as gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency, bandwidth, etc.

  3. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  4. After the doctorate: a qualitative study investigating nursing research career development in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawafleh, Ahmed; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Evans, Catrin

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the development of postdoctoral nursing research careers in non-Western contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Jordanian graduates of UK PhD programs. Interviews were held with 16 graduates who worked in the nursing faculty of seven different universities in Jordan. Participants reported that their doctoral degree had equipped them with confidence and enthusiasm for developing a research career. Mentorship, leadership, and peer support were identified as essential to supporting ongoing research activity. Access to these sources of support was variable and participants also described a range of institutional and organizational structures that directly or indirectly discouraged them from developing research productivity. This research suggests that support for postdoctoral novice researchers is an important area for further attention - for Jordanian universities, for UK PhD supervisors (and their associated academic departments), and for the wider nursing community. PMID:23347142

  5. Stability of the Einstein static universe in the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-05-01

    Emergent theory assumes that the universe originates from an Einstein static (ES) state rather than the big bang singularity, and, thus, provides a possible way to resolve the singularity problem. The stability against all kinds of perturbations that ensures the past eternity of the ES state is crucial for a successful realization of the emergent scenario. Recently, it has been found that in the context of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory there exists a stable ES solution under homogenous and anisotropic perturbations. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the stability against tensor and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations. We find that, different from general relativity and f(R) theory, a stable ES solution is allowed in the JBD theory when different kinds of perturbations are considered, although the stability conditions are tighter for tensor and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations than those for homogenous and anisotropic ones.

  6. Feasibility of a peer-led, school-based asthma education programme for adolescents in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, N A; Gallagher, R; Roydhouse, J K; Crisp, J; Shah, S

    2012-05-01

    The Adolescent Asthma Action programme (Triple A) has been used successfully to promote asthma knowledge, awareness and quality of life in adolescents with asthma in Australia. We describe the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of this English-language, peer-led, asthma education programme in a girls' high school in Northern Jordan. The pilot was conducted by bilingual health workers. Feasibility, acceptability and adaptability were measured through participation rates, open-ended questionnaires completed by peer leaders, a focus group for junior students and reflective journal notes. The programme was well-received by staff and students, with high levels of participation. The peer-led approach was viewed positively. Students reported that they enjoyed the interactive learning activities and the opportunity to practise English. The students reported increased asthma knowledge and awareness, with students with asthma reporting receiving more support from peers. A peer-led asthma education programme is feasible and acceptable in the Jordanian school context. PMID:22764433

  7. Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

  8. Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis labaiatae (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul-Wahab O. El-Rjoob; Adnan M. Massadeh; Mohammad N. Omari

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinal plant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinal plant samples and soil samples were collected from three different\\u000a zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma’an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical\\u000a treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy

  9. Public centric e-governance in Jordan : A field study of people's perception of e-governance awareness, corruption, and trust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Belwal; Khalid Al-Zoubi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the efforts made by Jordan in the direction of e-governance and people's perception of corruption, trust, and e-governance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Desk research was conducted using secondary data sources followed by a field survey conducted with 412 sample respondents in three major cities of Jordan. Following the triangulation approach, the responses

  10. The role of the extended family in women's risk of intimate partner violence in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Silverman, Jay G; Shahrouri, Manal; Everson-Rose, Susan; Groce, Nora

    2010-01-01

    The extended family as a potential cause of and protection against intimate partner violence (IPV) remains relatively unstudied. This mixed-methods study used focus group discussions (FGDs) and a clinic-based survey to investigate several family-based risk and protective factors associated with women's risk of IPV in Jordan. Seventeen FGDs (total number of participants = 105) were conducted with women in Amman. Each transcript was coded for categories using open coding methodology and mapping. Relevant categories and subcategories were family support, family interference, family abuse, exposure to violence in childhood, and place of residence. For the survey, systematic probability proportionate to size methodology was used to select a sample of 517 literate, ever married, women from seven reproductive health clinics located throughout the country (response rate = < or = 70%); due to missing data, the analytic sample was restricted to 418 women. Measures assessed the categories mentioned above. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between IPV and the main predictors of interest (residence, family interference, family violence, exposure to violence as a child, and family support). The combined results of the FGDs and the survey demonstrated that the respondent's husband's exposure to violence in childhood and violence perpetrated by other family members were risk factors for IPV. Family interference was also significantly related to IPV but only when the respondent identified the interference as harmful to her relationship. Residence with the respondent's in-laws demonstrated mixed effects. A supportive family was protective against IPV, although the FGDs revealed that families were not always an effective source of assistance. Findings demonstrate the continued role of the wife's and husband's kin in women's risk of IPV in Jordan, highlighting the importance of a broader view of the context of IPV. PMID:19837499

  11. A retrospective study on imported malaria in Jordan. 1. Malaria among Jordanian UN peacekeeping forces.

    PubMed

    Kanani, K; Amr, Z-S; Shadfan, B; Al-Rashadan, M; Bani Hani, R

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is considered as one of the most threatening diseases affecting peacekeeping forces serving in malaria endemic countries. The Jordanian Armed Forces participated in many of the United Nations peacekeeping missions in over 20 countries across the world. Thin and thick blood smears were collected from military personnel returning to Jordan, and relevant data including occupation, age, sex, residence address and the country they served in were recorded. Mefloquine 250 mg/week was prescribed for prophylaxis during the period of stay for three contingents of Jordanian military forces deployed to East Timor. Members of two contingents were given post exposure prophylactic treatment of Doxycycline 100 mg coupled with Primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days soon after returning to Jordan. Blood smears were taken from all soldiers suspected to be affected by malaria, and were monitored over a period of 15 weeks. A total of 811 malaria cases were reported during 1992-2011 among Jordanian military personnel whom served in over 20 countries. Most cases were reported among troops returning from Eretria (54.74%), East Timor (18.86%), Ivory Coast (9.12%) and Sierra Leone (5.1%). Troops aged between 20-40 years constituted 96.3% of the total reported cases. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium vivax (83.5%), followed by Plasmodium falciparum (13.6%). The attack rates (AR) of malaria/100 soldiers among the three contingents were 10.8% for Timor 1, with no post-exposure prophylaxis, and 2.8% for Timor 2 and 3 with post-exposure prophylaxis. There was an evident reduction of malaria attack rate and relapse rate between the two groups Timor 1 (without post-exposure prophylaxis) and Timor 2 and 3 (given post exposure prophylaxis). PMID:24639137

  12. Climatic change impacts on water balance of the Upper Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, A.; Kunstmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Near East (EM/NE) is an extremely water scarce environment. It is expected that problems will increase due to climate change and population growth. The impact of climate change on water availability in EM/NE and in particular the Jordan River catchment is investigated in this study. Focus is set on the Upper Jordan River catchment (UJC) as it provides 1/3rd of freshwater resources in Israel and Palestine. It is a hydro-geologically extremely complex region with karstic groundwater flow and an orography with steep gradients. The methods used are high resolution coupled regional climate - hydrology simulations. Two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) of the global climate model ECHAM4 have been dynamically downscaled using the non-hydrostatic meteorological model MM5 in two nesting steps with resolutions of 54x54 km2 and 18x18 km2 for the period 1961-2099, whereby the time slice 1961-1989 represents the current climate. The meteorological fields are used to drive the physically based hydrological model WaSiM applied to the UJC. The hydrological model computes in detail the surface and subsurface water flow and water balance in a horizontal resolution of 450 x 450 m2 and dynamically couples to a 2-dim numerical groundwater model. Parameters like surface runoff, groundwater recharge, soil moisture and evapotranspiration can be extracted. Results show in both scenarios increasing yearly mean temperatures up to 4-5 K until 2099 and decreasing yearly precipitation amounts up to 25% (scenario A2). The effect on the water balance of the UJC are reduced discharge and groundwater recharge, increased evaporation and reduction of snow cover in the mountains which usually serves as an important freshwater reservoir for the summer discharge.

  13. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:21399920

  14. Metal distribution in urban soil around steel industry beside Queen Alia Airport, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent and severity of metal contamination in urban soil around Queen Alia Airport, Jordan. Thirty-two soil samples were collected around steel manufacturing plants located in the Al-Jiza area, south Jordan, around the Queen Alia Airport. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 and 10-20 cm, and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) levels. The physicochemical factors believed to affect the mobility of metals in the soil of the study area were also examined, including pH, electrical conductivity, total organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) content and cation exchange capacity. The high concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in the soil samples were found to be related to anthropogenic sources, such as the steel manufacturing plants, agriculture and traffic emissions, with the highest concentrations of these metals close to the site of the steel plants; in contrast the concentration of Cr was low in the soil sampled close to the steel plants. The metals were concentrated in the surface soil, and concentrations decreased with increasing depth, reflecting the physical properties of the soil and its alkaline pH. The mineralogical composition of the topsoil, identified by X-ray diffraction, was predominantly quartz, calcite, dolomite and minor minerals, such as gypsum and clay minerals. Metal concentrations were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compute the statistical significance of the mean. The results of the ANOVA showed significant differences between sites for Pb, Cd and Cu, but no significant differences for the remaining metals tested. Factor analysis revealed that polluted soil occurs predominantly at sites around the steel plants and that there is no significant variation in the characteristics of the unpolluted soil, which are uniform in the study area. PMID:19263226

  15. Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth; Stubblebine, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker's motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors) on close to 500 employees in each country. Although Jordan and Georgia have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, the results from these two countries exhibited many similarities among key determinants: self-efficacy, pride, management openness, job properties, and values had significant effects on motivational outcomes in both countries. Where results were divergent, differences between the two countries highlight the importance of local culture on motivational issues, and the need to tailor motivational interventions to the specific issues related to particular professional or other groupings in the workforce. While workers themselves state that financial reward is critical for their work satisfaction, the data suggest a number of non-financial interventions that may be more effective means to improve worker motivation. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more comprehensive approach to increasing motivation, satisfaction and performance, and for interventions at both organizational and policy levels. PMID:14604620

  16. Late ordovician—early silurian glaciofluvial deposits preserved in palaeovalleys in South Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, John H.; Moh'd, Basim Khalil; Masri, Ahmed

    1994-03-01

    Periglacial, fluvial strata of Late Ordovician age, infilling incised palaeovalleys in the lower part of the shallow-marine, siliciclastic Khreim Group (Late Ordovician to Silurian) are described from outcrops in south Jordan. The palaeovalley fill predominantly comprises poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained, sub-arkose with subordinate beds of pebble- to cobble-size diamictite. Clasts include subangular rip-up sandstone and sparse shelly fossils derived from the local bedrock, together with exotic, rounded pebbles and cobbles derived from the Cambro-Ordovician sandstones and granitoid Precambrian rocks in the palaeohinterland, situated to the south. The palaeovalley fill is locally characterised by synsedimentary slump folds, micro-faulting and contorted bedding. These are attributed either to gravitational slumping at palaeovalley margins, or collapse due to melting of stagnant supporting ice. At some localities, the sandstones are typically trough cross-bedded, and exhibit upward-fining trends terminating in current ripples, suggesting episodic infill of the palaeovalleys. The few palaeocurrent measurements available from these sedimentary structures indicate a general palaeoflow to the north, coincident with the general orientation of the exposed palaeovalleys. The palaeovalleys may have been formed by glacial and/or fluvial processes; their predominantly sandstone fill is interpreted as fluvial and/or glaciofluvial in origin, and was probably deposited as proximal proglacial outwash at some distance from the ice-sheet which lay to the south, in present-day Saudi Arabia. The Batra Mudstone, which overlies coeval, non-channelised, glaciofluvial sandstones yields an Early Llandovery fauna, thus constraining the upper age of the palaeovalley infilling. By analogy with similar strata in Saudi Arabia, erosion of the palaeovalleys and infilling is likely to have taken place during Ashgill to Early Llandovery times. Erosion of the palaeovalleys and their subsequent infilling is associated with the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian glaciation of Gondwanaland, widely reported from central Saudi Arabia and, in the subsurface, from Jordan.

  17. Spatial prediction model and its application to chemistry of atmospheric precipitation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali; Tarawneh, Qassem Y.

    2007-06-01

    This study is concerned with the spatial variability of some wet atmospheric precipitation parameters such as; pH, conductivity (EC). The study also depicts the spatial variability of some ions (cations and anions) of atmospheric precipitation in Jordan such as, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na + and K +, HCO 3-, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-. The basis of the work is to establish a relationship through the cumulative semivariogram technique between the distance ratios and the spatial dependence structure of the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation. All semivariogram models are constructed in this study in order to understand the behavior of the spatial distribution. The spatial distributions of rainwater parameters show differences from station to station which is expressed in terms of angle, where the larger the angle the weaker the correlation. The semivariogram (SV) models are constructed to show the variation of the rainfall chemistry in Jordan. The SV models show weak correlation between mountain and leeside mountain stations, i.e. mountain and desert stations. On the other hand, good correlations are observed when transferring from south to north of the country. The larger is the found angle, the weaker is the correlation. For most of the SV model the correlation is found to be very weak between desert and mountainous locality. The Standard Regional Dependence Factor (SRDF) is used for prediction of the distribution of rain fall parameters. It shows the relative error between observed and predicted values of rainwater parameters. The overall regional relative error between the observed and estimated concentrations remains less than 15%.

  18. Physicians’ perception of generic and electronic prescribing: A descriptive study from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate Jordanian physicians’ perception and attitudes toward generic medicines and generic substitution. It also aimed to examine factors that affect physicians’ pattern of prescribing, and to evaluate their opinion regarding future introduction of Electronic Prescribing (EP) in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving Jordanian physicians working in both public and private sectors was undertaken, using a self-administrated anonymous questionnaire. Frequency tables, cross-tabulation and chi square tests were used for data analysis. The response rate was 75.2% (n?=?376/500). Results Cost was claimed to be an important factor in the prescribing decision for 69.1% of the Jordanian physicians. The majority of physicians (77.4%) claimed that they often prescribe generic medicines. Jordanian physicians predominantly welcomed the implementation of an EP and International Nonproprietary Name (INN) prescribing systems with 92%, and 80.1% respectively. More than two thirds of the physicians (69.4%) accepted generic substitution by pharmacists, with a significant association with their employment sector; physicians who work in the private sector tended to oppose generic substitution compared with physicians who work in the public sector. Physicians mostly (72.1%) opposed that generic substitution should only be allowed upon patient request. Conclusions Jordanian physicians have a positive attitude towards generic medications and high willingness and acceptance of strategies that encourage generic utilisation such as EP, INN prescribing and generic substitution. All these strategies would help reduce the high expenditure on medicines in Jordan. These findings would provide baseline data to policy makers to develop a robust generic policy to achieve greater clinical effectiveness and economic efficiency from medicines prescribing.

  19. Sources and processes affecting the spatio-temporal distribution of pharmaceuticals and X-ray contrast media in the water resources of the Lower Jordan Valley, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zemann, Moritz; Wolf, Leif; Pöschko, Antje; Schmidt, Natalie; Sawarieh, Ali; Seder, Nayef; Tiehm, Andreas; Hötzl, Heinz; Goldscheider, Nico

    2014-08-01

    The closed basin of the Lower Jordan Valley with the Dead Sea as final sink features high evapotranspiration rates and almost complete reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation farming. This study focuses on the water transfer schemes and the presence, spreading, and potential accumulation of pharmaceutical residues in the local water resources based on findings of a five-year monitoring program. Overall 16 pharmaceuticals and 9 iodinated X-ray contrast media were monitored in groundwater, surface water, and treated wastewater. A total of 95 samples were taken to cover all geographical settings and flow paths from origin (wastewater) to target (groundwater). Nine substances were detected in groundwater, with concentrations ranging between 11 ng/L and 33,000 ng/L. Sometimes, detection rates were higher than in comparable studies: Diatrizoic acid 75%, iopamidol 42%, iopromide 19%, iomeprol 11%, carbamazepine and iohexol 8%, ibuprofen 6%, and fenofibrate and iothalamic acid 3%. Concentrations in groundwater generally increase from north to south depending on the application of treated wastewater for irrigation. Almost all substances occurred most frequently and with highest concentrations in treated wastewater, followed by surface water and groundwater. As exception, diatrizoic acid was found more frequently in groundwater than in treated wastewater, with concentrations being similar. This indicates the persistence of diatrizoic acid with long residence times in local groundwater systems, but may also reflect changing prescription patterns, which would be in accordance with increasing iopamidol findings and surveys at local hospitals. Trend analyses confirm this finding and indicate a high probability of increasing iopamidol concentrations, while other substances did not reveal any trends. However, no proof of evaporative enrichment could be found. The high spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations measured calls for further systematic studies to assess the long-term evolution of organic trace substances in this reuse setting. PMID:24821436

  20. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60??C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A.H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Mixing models and evaluation of SiO2 contents of warm-water manifestations in the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley indicate that these waters are fed by aquifers with estimated temperatures of up to 68??C. These calculations and Na/K ratios, concentrations of Na, K and Ca, concentrations of atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe; and concentrations of the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes all indicate below-boiling temperatures. No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67??C), Gofra (68??C), the Russian Garden (40??C), and the Yesha well (53-65??C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation. ?? 1980.

  1. Long-term and Short-term Earthquake Behavior Along The Dead Sea Fault (Jordan) From Geomorphology, Paleoseismology And Archeoseismology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Ferry; Mustapha Meghraoui; Najib Abou Karaki; Masdouq Al-Taj

    2010-01-01

    The recurrence of large and destructive earthquakes along major fault systems is key to understanding their driving mechanism and to infer future behaviour. For the Jordan Valley segment (JVF) of the ~1000-km-long Dead Sea Fault, we provide evidence of episodic behaviour. We combine published historical data, re-appraised archaeological data and original geomorphic analyses and paleoseismic excavations to reveal the behaviour

  2. A canonical state-space representation for SISO systems using multipoint Jordan CFE. [Continued-Fraction Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Chyi; Guo, Tong-Yi; Shieh, Leang-San

    1991-01-01

    A canonical state-space realization based on the multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion (CFE) is presented for single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. The similarity transformation matrix which relates the new canonical form to the phase-variable canonical form is also derived. The presented canonical state-space representation is particularly attractive for the application of SISO system theory in which a reduced-dimensional time-domain model is necessary.

  3. Model Investigations on the Groundwater System in Jordan – A Contribution to the Resources Management (National Water Master Plan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Schmidt; Ali Subah; Nidal Khalif

    In Jordan, groundwater is one of the major water resources and depends strongly on the regularity of the seasonal precipitation.\\u000a Although there is a considerable annual precipitation its contribution to the groundwater recharge is limited in time and\\u000a quantity. Precipitation is highly variable and drought periods occur frequently. Therefore, climate changes and the future\\u000a groundwater development are of vital interest

  4. A 48-kyr-long slip rate history for the Jordan Valley segment of the Dead Sea Fault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Ferry; Mustapha Meghraoui; Najib Abou Karaki; Masdouq Al-Taj; Hani Amoush; Salman Al-Dhaisat; Majdi Barjous

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the late Quaternary active deformation along the Jordan Valley segment of the left-lateral Dead Sea Fault and provide new insights on the behaviour of major continental faults. The 110-km-long fault segment shows systematic offsets of drainage systems surveyed at three sites along its southern section. The isotopic dating of six paleoclimatic events yields a precise chronology for the

  5. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel Valley toward the Jordan Valley, and then into Northern Jordan. Results confirmed the previous modeling results, suggesting that peak O3 values are observed at later hours as a function of distance from the Mediterranean coast and that maximum O 3 levels are found over northern Jordan. Based on the findings of the first phase that showed elevated O 3 and NOx levels over the Gulf of Aqaba, more investigation was required to assess air quality in the city of Aqaba. Accordingly, long term air quality monitoring study conducted by Jordanian scientists was undertaken during the years 2008-2009. The study was conducted using a fixed air quality station located in the city. Results of this study indicated that topography of the city, with mountains surrounding the city from the east, played a major role in the air masses recirculation and hence the transport of primary pollutants, including NOx from the southern industrial area and the transportation emissions into the northern part of the city. However, high O3 episodes were found to be associated with northern wind in the absence of air masses recirculation indicating the role of long range transport in causing these elevated levels. Thus, based on the results of these studies and in order to reduce the potential health impacts of O3 and its precursors in downwind areas, strategies to control these pollutants should be developed. These strategies should be based on better energy, traffic and industrial management since these are the three main pollution sources. The strategies should include more efficient use of raw materials and energy, better combustion and production technologies that utilize less fuel and emit less pollutant. Measures should include controlling precursors' emissions at the sources located along the east Mediterranean coast, mainly power generation facilities, oil refineries, ports activities, and traffic. In addition, local emissions in the region such as emissions in the Gulf of Aqaba should be reduced by adopting strategies that include the use of cleaner fuel (industry, ships, and vehicles), e

  6. Case Study:Two-Dimensional Model Simulation of Channel Migration Processes in the West Jordan River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Duan, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    A depth-averaged, two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the migration processes of a meandering reach in the West Jordan River in the state of Utah, USA. The sediment continuity equation was solved to determine the rate of bed degradation and aggradation. The rate of bank erosion is calculated by determining bed degradation, lateral erosion, and bank failure. Because bank material in the West Jordan River is stratified with layers of cohesive and non-cohesive materials, a specific bank erosion model was developed to consider stratified layers in the bank surface. This bank erosion model distinguishes itself from other models by relating bank erosion rate with not only flow but also sediment transport near the bank. Additionally, bank height, slope, and thickness of each layer in the bank surface were considered when calculating the rate of bank erosion. The developed model was applied to simulate the processes of meandering migration in the West Jordan River between 1981 and 1992. Historical real-time hydrographic data, as well as field survey data for channel geometry and bed and bank materials, were used as the input data. Simulated cross-sectional geometries after this 12-year period were compared with field measurements, and qualitative and quantitative agreements were reached.

  7. Mumps: immune status of adults and epidemiology as a necessary background for choice of vaccination strategy in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Batayneh, Naji; Bdour, Salwa

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against mumps in 333 students at Jordan University was assessed using the ELISA technique. Most of the students (93.7%) were seropositive for mumps. About 50% of unvaccinated students and students vaccinated using the optional single-dose MMR vaccine had mumps. The incidence rate of mumps in different age groups and sexes, the geographic distribution and the seasonality of mumps infection prior to the adoption of compulsory MMR vaccination were investigated during the period from 1988 to 2000. Mumps occurred in all age groups in both sexes and the incidence rate was higher in children aged 5-14 years than in adults. There was a higher frequency in winter and spring with epidemic peaks in 1988, 1993 and 2000. Southern Jordan had the highest incidence rate due to low vaccination coverage by the private clinics. The data support the introduction of compulsory MMR vaccination in Jordan for all susceptible individuals. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the compulsory single-dose vaccine and, based on the outcome, a second dose of this vaccine is also recommended in order to achieve and maintain a high level of immunization. PMID:12390410

  8. Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Developing new water resources continues to be a challenge in water scarce regions and water reuse offers a sustainable means by which water availability can be maximised. In Jordan, treated domestic wastewater (reclaimed water) already provides a valuable contribution to the annual water budget. This resource is used for irrigation either directly around wastewater treatment plants, or indirectly after reclaimed water released from treatment plants has been transferred though natural waterways and blended with surface runoff. Direct reuse is employed for the irrigation of fodder crops such as barley or alfalfa, while indirect reuse is employed for the irrigation of high-value fruit and vegetable crops grown in the Jordan Valley, a major commercial agricultural area. In order to ensure water reuse is conducted successfully, it is essential that the benefits of reclaimed water (water availability, high nutrient content) are maximised while the potential risks (to human health, soil sustainability and agricultural yields) are minimised. Stakeholder participation in water reuse management decisions could raise the capacity of the water user (such as the farmer) to manage the risks without compromising the benefits of this resource. To investigate the extent to which stakeholders are participating in water reuse management, semi-structured interviews with farmers and institutional representatives were conducted in Jordan. A particular aim of the interviews was to explore the variation in participation between those stakeholders using reclaimed water directly and indirectly. The data collected during 56 interviews with Jordanian farmers showed that the farmers' perception and management of reclaimed water varied considerably between the indirect and direct users. The direct users had a greater level of satisfaction with the water (55 per cent of those asked described the water as "good water") and recognised that they were able to produce larger yields and raise their incomes through this resource. Direct users also felt that communication with the managers of the wastewater treatment plant was more effective and this enabled them to influence the final quality of the water they received (for example, through requesting a reduction in the chlorine concentration in the wastewater effluent due to the negative effect that chlorine has on crop quality). The indirect reuse farmers had a lower level of satisfaction with the reclaimed water (69 per cent of those asked described the water quality as bad). The interviews revealed that few farmers felt included in water resource management decisions and felt unable to discuss water quality concerns with government officials responsible for water distribution. The indirect reuse farmers seemed to be more concerned with water quality management at the individual farm level, through the installation of water filters to reduce the organic load of the water rather than through processes of lobbying or participatory involvement in decision-making to raise the quality of the water through top-down measures such as the enforcement of water quality legislation. The interviews with 29 organisational representatives drew attention to the sensitivity surrounding indirect water reuse which seems to inhibit open discussion of the topic. This is likely to be due to the nature of agriculture at the sites of indirect reuse. Institutional representatives appeared to be concerned with the risk of consumer rejection of produce grown with reclaimed water and the associated negative effects of rejection on agricultural income and employment. A strategy of reduced discussion seemed to be adopted in the attempt to minimise the potential for consumer rejection. The present research proposes that this strategy (adopted with the aim of protecting agriculture) could have the reverse effect though inhibiting the participation of farmers in water reuse planning and management (they are unable to take part in a process in which they are not recognised as being involved). Open discussion of reuse is necessa

  9. Anthropogenic Influence On Groundwater Quality In Jericho and And Adjoining Wadis (Lower Jordan Valley, Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, S.; Khayat, S.; Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Lower Jordan Valley is part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift. The graben is filled by sedmiments of limnological and marine origin. Towards the Dead Sea, the occurance of gipseous and salty sediments on the valley floor increase. The southern part of the Lower Jordan Valley, where the city of Jericho is situated, is an arid area (<150 mm precipitation/year), with less amount of exploitable fresh groundwater or surface water. Jericho was founded on an alluvial fan, closely to the western mountain range in front of mouth of Wadi Qilt. The fan serves as reservoir for infiltrating water from wadi runoff and groundwater from the crataceous aquifers of the western shoulder. The fan is surrounded by unsuitable aquifers of the graben, which are filled with saline water. The aim of this study, which takes place inside the multilateral SMART-project, is to understand the vulnerability of the Jericho groundwater aquifers in connection with lowering the groundwater table by overexploitation and the intensively use of pesticides Jericho and its vicinity are of most importance for the Palestinians. However, beside the about 25,000 residents, the tourism industry and the vital agriculture depend on sufficient and expoitable fresh water resources. Because the demand of water is increasing, overexpoitaion takes place. Due to over extraction of groundwater a huge depression cone is evolving during the dry season which is filled up again according to the groundwater recharge in the rainy season. Concomitantly, depression cone in the fresh water aquifers leads to an infiltration of the surrounding saltwater. The amount of saltwater which infiltrates into the freshwater resource was calculated by different stable isotope methods (d2H, d18O) and hydrochemical analyses of wellwater. The agriculture is main consumer of groundwater - over 60% of the pumped water is used for inefficient irrigation. Additionally, an intensive use of pesticides in concentrated liquid and gaseous forms for vegetable gardening hold the danger to pollute the groundwater via irrigation return flow. This return flow most probably endangers the quality of the water resource, because shallow wells nearby extract it directly from the underground. However, one result of the first screening campaign concerning pesticide remnants in the groundwater wells of Jericho, just traces have been detected. Thus, the higher amount of chemicals is retained by the soil during infiltration of irrigated water. The detected low concentrations in groundwater of the fan may be the result of outleaching from agricultural areas from the mountain range. The flood water of Wadi Qilt infiltrates partly in the fluviatil sediments. The ongoing investigations in the Wadi Qilt-Jericho area include an approach of combined hydrochemical and hydraulic studies to simulate the complex groundwater system at the edge of the graben and to prepare a sustainable groundwater management strategy for the area of Jericho.

  10. Measurements, Fingerprint, Modeling - Compiling a sediment budget in a data scarce catchment in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Wilkinson, Scott; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    In regard to the quantitative and qualitative water problems in Jordan the soil layer and its physical integrity is important to slow down runoff, guarantee infiltration, and a sensible parameter in terms of hydrologic modeling. Erosion harms this potential and needs to be better understood and quantified in the region. Therefore, a multiple response approach was implemented to compile a sediment budget for the research area Wadi Al-Arab in the NW of Jordan (263,5km2). The climate is Mediterranean to semi-arid with <300 to 550mm of rain in winter. Mainly marl and limestone of the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleocene make up the catchment's geology. The area is characterized by an agricultural basin in the east and an increase in relief energy to the west and south. Different field measurements were implemented on relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, natural vegetated slopes and exposed rock with patchy vegetation as well as the Wadi Al Arab Dam Lake as the final sink. The focus involved the quantification of the yearly sediment yields and the deposition in the lake, respectively. In a second step a multiple sediment fingerprint was applied including the geochemical differentiation of the sources with inorganic elements and radio nuclides. The relative importance of each source could be calculated on the basis of lake sediment samples. Results of these two approaches cover different spatial scales and only partly integrate the transport way. Hence, they cannot be directly compared but consider the problem from different perspectives and are used in the final step to calibrate and validate the setup of the SedNet model (Wilkinson et al. 2008) for the catchment. The model offers the possibility to incorporate additional raster information, includes additional sources such as gully and bank erosion, and takes account for different areas of deposition according to the measured and regionalized discharge in the region. Its' implementation helped to test the field findings to their limits and provides a more holistic sediment budget for Wadi Al-Arab. Reference: Wilkinson, S., Henderson, A., Chen, Y., Sherman, B. (2008): SedNet User Guide. Client Report, CSIRO Land and Water; Canberra.

  11. Adverse Reactions to Field Vaccination Against Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Hananeh, W M; Ramadan, W; Al Sheyab, O M; Alnajjar, A R; Al Zoubi, I G; Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Tuppurainen, E S M

    2014-08-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging disease in the Middle East region and has been recently reported in Jordan. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. Geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. Sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. Of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administration. The duration between vaccine administration and appearance of adverse clinical signs ranged from 1 to 20 days (Mean = 10.3, SD ± 3.9). Clinical signs were similar to those observed with natural cases of lumpy skin disease. These were mainly fever, decreased feed intake, decreased milk production and variable sized cutaneous nodules (a few millimetres to around 2 cm in diameter) that could be seen anywhere on the body (head, neck, trunk, perineum), udder, and/or teats. Nodules were raised and firm initially and then formed dry scabs that could be peeled off the skin. The characteristic deep 'sit fast' appearance was rarely seen and most lesions were superficial. Some cattle had swollen lymph nodes, while a few pregnant animals aborted. The percentage of affected cattle ranged from 0.3 to 25% (Mean = 8, SD ± 5.1). Fever, decreased feed intake, and decreased milk production were seen in 83.9, 85.7, and 94.6% in cattle on the affected farms, respectively. All affected cattle displayed skin nodules over their entire bodies, while 33.9 and 7.1% of the affected farms reported nodular lesions present on the udders and teats, respectively. No mortalities were reported due to vaccine adverse reactions. Duration (course) of clinical signs ranged from 3 to 20 days (Mean = 13.7, SD ± 4.1). Two types of LSD vaccines were used by the farmers in this study. The first one was a sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccine derived from the RM65 isolate [Jovivac(®) , manufactured by Jordan Bioindustries Centre (JOVAC)] and the other an unlabelled one, which was later identified using PCR as a strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Blood and skin samples collected from cattle vaccinated with the LSDV vaccine were positive for LSDV using both general and species-specific PCR primers, whereas those from cattle vaccinated with the Jovivac(®) vaccine were negative. Adverse reactions observed in cattle after administration of the LSDV vaccine were reported to be more severe than those seen after Jovivac(®) vaccine administration and were comparable with clinical signs observed in natural infections. PMID:25098267

  12. Perceived sources of stress among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rajab, L D

    2001-03-01

    This study investigated perceived stress by dental students at the University of Jordan. Two hundred sixty-six students out of 290 completed a modified DES questionnaire. The stressors producing the highest ratings for perceived stress were examinations and grades, fully loaded day, and lack of time for relaxation. For the clinical years, patients' being late or not showing for their appointments and completing clinical requirements were also substantial stressors. Significant differences were found for eleven items across all classes and five items across clinical years. The overall perception of stress by students who had medicine as their first choice for admission was higher than for students who had dentistry as their first choice. Male-female comparison revealed significant differences for five items; between classes, significant differences were accounted for by three items. Comparison with earlier studies on identical questionnaire items revealed that perception of stress by Jordanian dental students was higher than for other students for items relating to educational environment and personal or cultural aspects. PMID:11318088

  13. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’. PMID:22413173

  14. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M.; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-01-01

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term “honey” commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Reov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th–early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Reov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  15. Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer Settlement in Eastern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Richter, Tobias; Macdonald, Danielle; Jones, Matthew D.; Martin, Louise; Stock, Jay T.

    2012-01-01

    Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22–11,600 cal BP) inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian) is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity—precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less well known and generally considered as campsites for small groups of seasonally-mobile hunter-gatherers. Work at the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharaneh IV in eastern Jordan highlights that some of these earlier sites were large aggregation base camps not unlike those of the Natufian and contributes to ongoing debates on their duration of occupation. Here we discuss the excavation of two 20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores) that indicate substantial settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian homeland as currently understood. PMID:22355366

  16. Relationship between vehicle count and particulate air pollution in amman, jordan.

    PubMed

    Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Md Isa, Zaleha

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P < .001; PM10, r = 0.719, P < .001). There was a significant positive relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P < .001; PM10, P < .001. Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature. PMID:22899706

  17. An artistic and mythological study of a Nabatean female Sphinx from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Eyad R.; Al-Ajlouny, Fardous K.; Alghazawi, Raed Y.

    In 1967 the Group of Sculptures was discovered in Petra during clearance works organized by the Department of Antiquities in Jordan in the Temenos of Qasr el Bint around the Temenos Gate. One of these sculptures was a high relief statue of a female sphinx. Due to the paucity of information about this statue, this paper has been written to answer a number of questions: What was its original site or monument? When was it made? Who was the deity or deities it represented? Could there be another interpretation of its existence? The answers to the above provide enlightenment of Nabataean styles of carvings and an insight into their religious thoughts. Rgarding the interpretation of the Female Sphinx. Three ideas have been suggested. First, it can be the main Nabataean goddess Allat, "the mother of the gods". Second, it is an image of Petra as a goddess. Third, it is carved on the Temenos Gate as a guardian of Petra city in general and its holy monuments like temples and tombs in particular.

  18. New terpenes from Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syriaca L. growing wild in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abrouni, Khadeja K; Al-Qudah, Mahmuod A; Abu Zarga, Musa H

    2012-01-01

    The novel seco-ursane-type triterpenoid 3?,11?-dihydroxy-17,22-seco-17(28), 12-ursadien-22-oic acid (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source from two Salvia species growing wild in Jordan, Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syrica L. In addition to compound 1, S. syriaca afforded a new sesquiterpene named syriacine (2). S. palaestina also afforded 15 other known compounds, 6 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant, and these include velutin, hyptadienic acid, cirsilineol, 2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2?,3?-dihydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanan-28-oic acid, and 2?,3?,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. S. syriaca also afforded 16 other known compounds, 7 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant. These are 1?,3?-dihydroxyolean-9(11),12-diene, maslinic acid, 2?,3?,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 11-oxo-oleanolic acid, 11-oxo-ursolic acid, poriferast-5-en-3,7-diol, and pectolinangenin. PMID:22574636

  19. Effects of polygyny and consanguinity on high fertility in the rural Arab population in South Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Shuji; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2003-10-01

    Based on the authors' interview survey for 608 randomly selected women of the rural Arab population in the South Ghor district of Jordan, this paper examined the effects of polygyny and consanguinity on high fertility, which was recognized as natural fertility. The prevalence of polygynous and consanguineous marriages was 28.0% and 58.1%, respectively, largely reflecting the population's traditional marriage customs. The findings highlighted a significantly higher total marital fertility rate (TMFR) in the monogamous wives (10.5) than in the senior polygynous (8.1) and junior polygynous wives (8.6); the TMFR did not significantly differ among the wives of non-consanguineous, first-cousin and second-cousin marriages. The formation of polygynous marriage was decided by the husband, mostly as a result of his senior wife's infecundity or sub-fecundity, and the age of the husband at marriage to his junior polygynous wife was high in many cases, leading to a decline in this wife's fecundity. PMID:14621249

  20. The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  1. Higgs Gravitational Interaction, Weak Boson Scattering, and Higgs Inflation in Jordan and Einstein Frames

    E-print Network

    Jing Ren; Zhong-Zhi Xianyu; Hong-Jian He

    2014-05-16

    We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator $\\xi H^\\dag H R$, with $H$ the Higgs doublet and $R$ the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling $\\xi$ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone boson equivalence theorem with nonzero $\\xi$ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the $\\xi$-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at O(1-30)TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC(14TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.

  2. An isotopic perspective on the transport of Byzantine mining camp laborers into southwestern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Perry, Megan A; Coleman, Drew S; Dettman, David L; al-Shiyab, Abdel Halim

    2009-11-01

    The Byzantine Empire managed a complex administrative network that controlled the mining and processing of natural resources from within its boundaries. Scholars relying upon archeological and textual evidence debate the level of imperial involvement in these ventures, particularly in the provinces. Ancient sources note that many mining camps, for instance, purportedly contained criminal laborers and elite administrators transported from distant locales, indicating significant organization and expenditures by the imperial administration to run the mines. This analysis explores the presence of these nonlocal individuals in a cemetery associated with the third to seventh century A.D. mining camp of Phaeno (Faynan), located in modern Jordan. Strontium isotope analysis of 31 burials indicates that most spent their childhood in a similar geological region as Phaeno, implying that they were locally born. The delta(18)O results mirror the homogeneous (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, confirming a local origin for most of the sample. Isotopic evidence therefore suggests that the Phaeno mining camp was largely a local operation, contrary to the picture presented in textual sources, although the profits surely padded imperial coffers. PMID:19425090

  3. The Psychosocial Experience of Adolescents with Haematological Malignancies in Jordan: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  4. Behaviours and attitudes related to smoking among a Bedouin population in rural Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eggert, J; Al-Delaimy, W K

    2013-06-01

    ABSTRACT There is limited research about tobacco-related behaviours and attitudes among rural populations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The aim of this study was to determine smoking behaviours and attitudes among the nomadic Bedouin in rural southern Jordan. Patients visiting a village clinic over 2 months of 2009 were invited by the attending physician to participate in the survey, which was adapted from the California Tobacco Survey. The smoking prevalence among the 92 participants was 46.7%. Most smokers were men who smoked heavily (> 1 pack/day) (90.7%). There was general low self-efficacy to quit among smokers, yet 81.4% acknowledged that smoking was harming their health. Although 79.1% of smokers and 89.1% of non-smokers believed second-hand smoke was harmful to non-smokers, most of them had no restrictions on smoking for residents and guests (66.3%) and most had children at home (73.9%). These data demonstrate contradictions between attitudes and behaviours about smoking of this rural population. PMID:24975179

  5. Moral distress and its correlates among mental health nurses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2014-02-01

    Moral distress has received much attention in international nursing published work in recent years. However, in the published work, little is known about the moral distress of mental health nurses. The aims of this study were to examine the intensity level of moral distress, to identify the best predictors of moral distress, and to examine relationships of moral distress with burnout, job satisfaction, intention to leave the current job, and both demographic and work-related variables of that group. Employing a descriptive correlational cross-section design and a convenience sampling method, data were collected using the Moral Distress Scale for Psychiatric Nurses, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Job Satisfaction Scale from 130 Jordanian mental health nurses working in the largest psychiatric hospital in Jordan. Results showed that the intensity level of moral distress was found to be moderately high, especially in an 'unethical conduct by caregivers' subscale. Age, income level, nurses' years of experience, and caseloads correlated significantly and negatively with moral distress, while educational level and intention to leave the current job correlated significantly and positively with moral distress. Interestingly, job satisfaction did not significantly correlate with moral distress. Income level, caseloads, burnout level, attending workshops in mental health, and educational level were the best predictors of moral distress. More studies on moral distress and continuing educational interventional programs aimed at minimizing the levels of moral distress and burnout at institutional and individual level are required. PMID:23320816

  6. Molecular survey of avian respiratory pathogens in commercial broiler chicken flocks with respiratory diseases in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Roussan, D A; Haddad, R; Khawaldeh, G

    2008-03-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry. In this study, trachea swabs from 115 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV subtype H9N2, IBV, NDV, and APV by using reverse transcription PCR and for MG by using PCR. The PCR and reverse transcription PCR results showed that 13 and 14.8% of these flocks were infected with NDV and IBV, respectively, whereas 5.2, 6.0, 9.6, 10.4, 11.3, and 15.7% of these flocks were infected with both NDV and MG; MG and APV; IBV and NDV; IBV and MG; NDV and AIV; and IBV and AIV, respectively. Furthermore, 2.6% of these flocks were infected with IBV, NDV, and APV at the same time. On the other hand, 11.3% of these flocks were negative for the above-mentioned respiratory diseases. Our data showed that the above-mentioned respiratory pathogens were the most important causes of respiratory disease in broiler chickens in Jordan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs and importance of these pathogens. PMID:18281569

  7. Jordan-Wigner formalism for arbitrary 2-input 2-output matchgates and their classical simulation

    E-print Network

    Richard Jozsa; Akimasa Miyake; Sergii Strelchuk

    2014-07-13

    In Valiant's matchgate theory, 2-input 2-output matchgates are 4x4 matrices that satisfy ten so-called matchgate identities. We prove that the set of all such matchgates (including non-unitary and non-invertible ones) coincides with the topological closure of the set of all matrices obtained as exponentials of linear combinations of the 2-qubit Jordan-Wigner (JW) operators and their quadratic products, extending a previous result of Knill. In Valiant's theory, outputs of matchgate circuits can be classically computed in poly-time. Via the JW formalism, Terhal & DiVincenzo and Knill established a relation of a unitary class of these circuits to the efficient simulation of non-interacting fermions. We describe how the JW formalism may be used to give an efficient simulation for all cases in Valiant's simulation theorem, which in particular includes the case of non-interacting fermions generalised to allow arbitrary 1-qubit gates on the first line at any stage in the circuit. Finally we give an exposition of how these simulation results can be alternatively understood from some basic Lie algebra theory, in terms of a formalism introduced by Somma et al.

  8. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J.; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Mari?evi?, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and “domestic” settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with “special purpose” buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities. PMID:21536900

  9. A Unique Human-Fox Burial from a Pre-Natufian Cemetery in the Levant (Jordan)

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Stock, Jay T.; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J. N.; Miracle, Preston T.; Banning, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000–11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500–11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of ‘Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian. PMID:21298094

  10. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  11. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine utilization by a sample of infertile couples in Jordan for infertility treatment: clinics-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is little information available to quantify the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), growing evidence suggests that CAM prevalence among patients seeking infertility treatment is increasing worldwide. There are many products available on the market and many infertile patients demand information about CAM from their health care providers. This paper investigates the prevalence of CAM use among infertile couples in Jordan. Additionally, trends and factors contributing to CAM use for infertility treatment among these couples have been evaluated. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information, use of CAM for medical conditions, in general, and types of CAM used for infertility treatment, in specific, was completed by one thousand twenty one infertile patients attending at two types of facilities; in vitro Fertilization (IVF) centers at both public and private hospitals and infertility private clinics. Both types of facilities were distributed in different areas of Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between May and August 2012. Results Our results show that CAM therapies for infertility treatment were encountered in 44.7% of the study sample. The vast majority of CAM users were females. The most commonly used CAM therapies were herbs and spiritual healing. A clear correlation between the use of CAM for infertility versus the use of CAM for other chronic medical conditions has been found. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use for infertility treatment in Jordan is relatively high, particularly among young females, well educated and with a low income, in consistence with the studies reported elsewhere. Herbs and spiritual healing are widely used among patients in adjunct to conventional medical interventions. As CAM use is prevalent among patients, there is a clear need for health providers to become more aware of this phenomenon and for further research in this field. PMID:23414246

  13. Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone: U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolodner, K.; Avigad, D.; McWilliams, M.; Wooden, J.L.; Weissbrod, T.; Feinstein, S.

    2006-01-01

    A vast sequence of quartz-rich sandstone was deposited over North Africa and Arabia during Early Palaeozoic times, in the aftermath of Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny and the amalgamation of Gondwana. This rock sequence forms a relatively thin sheet (1-3 km thick) that was transported over a very gentle slope and deposited over a huge area. The sense of transport indicates unroofing of Gondwana terranes but the exact provenance of the siliciclastic deposit remains unclear. Detrital zircons from Cambrian arkoses that immediately overlie the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield in Israel and Jordan yielded Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages (900-530 Ma), suggesting derivation from a proximal source such as the Arabian-Nubian Shield. A minor fraction of earliest Neoproterozoic and older age zircons was also detected. Upward in the section, the proportion of old zircons increases and reaches a maximum (40%) in the Ordovician strata of Jordan. The major earliest Neoproterozoic and older age groups detected are 0.95-1.1, 1.8-1.9 and 2.65-2.7 Ga, among which the 0.95-1.1 Ga group is ubiquitous and makes up as much as 27% in the Ordovician of Jordan, indicating it is a prominent component of the detrital zircon age spectra of northeast Gondwana. The pattern of zircon ages obtained in the present work reflects progressive blanketing of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield by Cambrian-Ordovician sediments and an increasing contribution from a more distal source, possibly south of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The significant changes in the zircon age signal reflect many hundreds of kilometres of southward migration of the provenance. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  14. External Mill Monitoring of Wheat Flour Fortification Programs: An Approach for Program Managers Using Experiences from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Nichols, Erin; Mas’d, Hanan; Barham, Rawhieh; Johnson, Quentin W.; Serdula, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of wheat flour with micronutrients is a common strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. While wheat flour mills are often inspected by agencies affiliated with national ministries to ensure compliance with national fortification standards, few countries use data derived from these inspections to construct an external monitoring system for use in program management and evaluation. The primary objective of this paper is to assess the performance of the external monitoring system utilized in Jordan according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. A secondary objective is to present mill monitoring results from 2009 to 2010 in order to demonstrate the data generated by the system. The review concludes that the data required for the system is representative, simple to collect, and can be collected in a flexible manner. The external monitoring system is acceptable to participating agencies and millers and is stable due to mandatory fortification legislation which provides the legal framework for external monitoring. Data on production of fortified flour and utilization of premix can be provided in a timely manner, but on-site mill monitoring and flour sample collection are more challenging due to resource constraints. The frequent collection of a small number of indicators can provide fortification program managers with timely information with which to base decisions. Jordan’s external monitoring system successfully documented the performance of each mill and the entire flour fortification program, and can serve as a model for other national fortification programs considering external monitoring approaches. PMID:24284616

  15. Effect of snow accumulation and melt on the stream flow in the Jordan River, East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Alon; Hartmann, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Snow melt on high mountains, at low latitudes (<40 degrees N), can be an important component of the surface water flow during the winter and spring seasons. As opposed to snow cover at high latitudes which are persistent due to below zero temperatures, snow cover in warmer climates is rapidly changing, potentially resulting in several complete melting cycles during one winter season. In the Mt. Hermon region (Israel-Lebanon-Syria border, East Mediterranean, ~33.5 degrees N) previous studies have concluded that snow storage accounts for ~10% of the Jordan River annual yields. Here we apply a modified version of HYdrological Model for Karst Environment (HYMKE) to estimate the effect of snow accumulation and snow melt on the timing of stream flow in the Jordan River. It is a system approach, physically based karst hydrology model, which receives daily precipitation and potential evaporation time series as input. The modeled fast flow stream component is correlated with the physical area of the catchment, while the area of the groundwater aquifer is a parameter which is calibrated against the separated measured baseflow. We have added a snowmelt routine before the main equations in HYMKE creating the following model structure: the snow routine (1), surface layer water balance (2), surface ("fast") flow (3), vadose zone flow (4), and groundwater ("base flow", 5). The new snowmelt routine uses the measured precipitation and temperature data, and analyzes it separately to produce snow and snowmelt at 56 discrete stripes of 50 m' height each, ranging in elevation from 75 m' to 2825 m'. It uses a standard HBV (Hydrological Bureau Waterbalance-section) approach based on a degree-day temperature-index. With current available temperature data the actual temperature gradient was calibrated, and the daily temperature at each elevation stripe was evaluated. However, due to the lack of measured snowmelt, several parameters of the model could not be calibrated, and were adopted from the literature on alpine climates. We show that at higher elevations there is a clear difference between the timing of effective precipitation (precipitation plus snowmelt) compared to precipitation when snowmelt was not taken into account. However, these changes had almost no effect on the final results of the daily stream flow. The proposed explanation is as follows: a. the cumulative area of elevations contributing snowmelt to the stream flow is less than 12% of the entire catchments area. b. Due to the relatively high temperature and high radiation, temperatures often cross the zero threshhold during the winter, resulting in a continuous snowmelt process at almost all elevations, and therefore the delay in snowmelt application compared to the rainfall usually takes only few days. c. Only at extremely high elevations (>2000) is there a significant delay due to snow melt (sometimes till April-May-June) but the contribution to stream flow is minimal because of the small coverage area. d. Since most of the river flow is from groundwater, there are several lagging mechanisms (surface wetness, vadose zone flow and groundwater flow) that effectively balance out the effect of the snow delay on surface precipitation, so that the only real impact on stream flow is dependant upon precipitation amount and not precipitation timing.

  16. Assessing the potential boron toxicity of soils irrigated with reclaimed water in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is a potentially plant toxic ion and is present in domestic treated wastewater (reclaimed water) in Jordan in concentrations of around 1 mg L-1. As reclaimed water is used for irrigation in Jordan the concentration of B gives potential for detrimental effects on crop productivity. Such effects are dependent on the crop type and importantly, the concentration of B in the soil solution and on the readily exchanged component of the soil solid phase. Boron also behaves complexly in soil because it has sorbing tendencies. The sorption of B onto the soil solid phase removes it from solution and effectively reduces its toxicity potential to crops. However, desorption raises its availability in the soil solution and increases the potential for toxicity effects. To investigate B sorption behaviour in Jordanian soils, experimental work was conducted to describe how B sorption and desorption is affected by the concentration of B in the soil solution. Boron isotherms (to show the amount of B sorbed onto the soil surface relative to the amount of B remaining in the soil solution at constant pressure and temperature) were created which showed that the soil had a high affinity to adsorb B and that desorption of B occurs as the concentration of the soil solution is reduced (for example, through the addition of freshwater) to create a new equilibrium between the concentration of B in the soil solution and the amount of B sorbed onto the soil particles. This suggests that freshwater inputs to soil to which B has previously sorbed onto the soil solid phase during irrigation with reclaimed water will lead to the desorption of B, possibly raising the concentration in the soil solution. To test this hypothesis, the B concentration in the soil solution (B in the soil saturation paste extract) of soils irrigated with reclaimed water was determined. This work confirmed that soils to which a greater volume of reclaimed irrigation water had been applied had a higher concentration of B in the soil solution compared to soils to which less water had been applied. The difference was particularly noticeable when the concentration of B was compared to the concentration of non-sorbing chloride in the soil. Boron concentration was also determined by the established method of mannitol calcium chloride abstraction to give both the soluble and specifically and non-specifically sorbed B in the soil. This analysis showed good correlation between the concentration of B in the soil saturation extract and the concentration of B abstracted by mannitol calcium chloride. This correlation effectively describes the proportion of B in the soil which is soluble (determined in the saturation extract) and that which is readily desorbed (the concentration of B abstracted with mannitol calcium chloride minus the concentration in the saturation extract). Further work is needed into this relationship as it could offer a means by which the adsorption capacity of the soil can be rapidly appraised and the leaching requirement (the amount of water needed to desorb and transfer the B through the soil) can be better predicted.

  17. Teaching Science in Engineering Freshman Class in Private University in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarey, M. M.; Malkawi, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    A United Nations initiative for the Arab region that established and calculated National Intellectual Capital Index has shown that Jordan is the wealthiest Arab country in its National Human Capital Index (i.e. metrics: literacy rate, number of tertiary schools per capita, percentage of primary teachers with required qualifications, number of tertiary students per capita, cumulative tertiary graduates per capita, percentage of male grade 1 net intake, percentage of female grade 1 net intake) and National Market Capital Index (i.e. metrics: high-technology exports as a percentage of GDP, number of patents granted by USPTO per capita, number of meetings hosted per capita) despite its low ranking when it comes to National Financial Capital (i.e. metric: GDP per capita). The societal fabric in Jordan fully justifies this: the attention paid to education is extreme and sometimes is considered fanatic (e.g. marriage of a lot of couples needs to wait until both graduate from the university). Also, the low financial capital has forced a lot of people to become resourceful in order to provide decent living standard to their beloved ones. This reality is partially manifested in the sharp increase in the number of universities (i.e. 10 public and 20 private ones) relative to a population of around 6.5 million. Once in an engineering freshman classroom, it is totally up to the lecturers teaching science in private Jordanian universities to excel in their performance and find a way to inject the needed scientific concepts into the students' brains. For that, clips from movies that are relevant to the topics and truthful in their scientific essence have been tested (e.g. to explain the pressure on humans due to rapidly increasing "g" force, a clip from the movie "Armageddon" proved very helpful to Physics 101 students, and entertaining at the same time), plastic toys have also been tested to illustrate simple physical concepts to the same students (e.g. a set called The Junior Engineer covers vast concepts relevant to Newton's Laws and Work-Energy Theorem, while originally aimed at 3-year old kids), and YouTube has become so rich in it scientific content that it has not been hard to find any experiment or simulation there so that the students connect the dry blackboard and chalk to real life. As freshmen are still immature and sensing their way through, wondering if they will be able to get the title of Engineer or not, the usage of such familiar mediums and tools such as movies, toys, videos and simulations to illustrate basics to them has proved efficient and is regarded as an ideal ice-breaker towards a challenging journey of engineering classes. As long as the scientific content is not compromised, we believe that more mediums should be tested. This paper will highlight these affairs.

  18. Public awareness of the abuse of herbs and drugs to decrease body weight: a novel national survey in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saafan A. Al-Safi; Nehad M. Ayoub; Abeer M. Ayoub; Enaam Al-Momany; Imad Al-Doghim; Mosa’b Al-Balas; Ahmad S. Alkofahi; Faisal H. Aboul-Enein; Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  The aim of this investigation was to measure the degree of public preferences regarding the various weight-loss practices\\u000a and to assess the level of awareness regarding the risks and health hazards associated with the application of unhealthful\\u000a measures to lose weight.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Approximately 30,000 individuals selected from various regions in Jordan filled in a self?reported questionnaire. Participants\\u000a were interviewed by well–trained

  19. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Omari, Wael M

    2004-01-01

    Background General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment. Results Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal. Conclusions This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam or intra-canal medicaments. PMID:15361258

  20. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the 595 Ma shoshonitic Qunai monzogabbro, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.

    2013-12-01

    The last stage in the formation of the Arabian Nubian Shield in Jordan was dominated by post-orogenic igneous activity of the ˜610-542 Ma Araba Suite, including a monzogabbroic stock intruding the Saramuj Conglomerate, near the southeastern corner of the Dead Sea. The geological setting, petrography, geochemistry and geothermometry of the monzogabbro and other cogenetic varieties are used to shed light on the petrogenesis of this stock and reveal its magma source. The monzogabbro, megaporphyry dikes, and scattered syenite pockets are co-magmatic and alkaline, potassic and shoshonitic in nature. REE and trace elements patterns indicate that these magmas were produced from a mantle that had been modified by subduction-related metasomatism. The parental mafic magma could have been derived by 10% partial melting of LILE-enriched phlogopite-bearing spinel lherzolite, probably lithospheric mantle, in association with post-collisional extension. Fractional crystallization of this parental magma by olivine and pyroxene gave rise to the monzogabbroic magma. The megaporphyry dikes with their giant labradorite plagioclase megacrysts represent feeders of a voluminous volcanic activity that could have lasted for about 105 years. Thermodynamic modeling applying the MELTS software indicates crystallization of this suite in the temperature range of 1184-760 °C at a pressure of 2 kbars, agreeing with olivine-pyroxene, pyroxene, and two-feldspar thermometry. The modeled mineralogy and sequence of crystallization of constituent minerals using MELTS is in remarkable agreement with the observed modal mineralogy of the monzogabbro. Furthermore, a great degree of congruity exists between the modeled and observed chemistry of the major minerals with only minor discrepancies between modeled composition of biotite and olivine.

  1. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Jordan: A ten year retrospective cytoepidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Y F; Maayta, U M; Abu-Ghosh, Y R

    1995-07-01

    Occurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was studied in 10,659 females attending obstetric and gynecology clinics in Jordan. The frequency rate of intraepithelial neoplasia was 1.1% in 7743 Jordanian females and 2916 non-Jordanian residents of younger age during the period from 1982 to 1991 inclusive. The incidence rate in 2649 Jordanian females, selected because they attended only for routine checkup, was 49 per 100,000. There were 121 CIN cases which were graded into Grade I (21%), II (48%) and III (31%) respectively. Histological grading correlated with cytology in 70% of the cases while in the remaining 30%, cytologic underrating by one grade was noted; evidence against any overdiagnosis of CIN in our series. Study of the human papillomavirus (HPV) was outside the scope of this effort. However, circumcision in male partners and marital status were associated with a lower frequency of CIN. Age at marriage and average duration, parity, breast feeding, the contraceptive pill, socioeconomic status and menstrual disorders showed no relationship to the frequency of CIN in our patients. Any differences in the latter between Jordanian and non-Jordanian females are believed due to cultural factors. Conization in 27 cases proved effective at 30 months' follow-up. Occurrence of CIN in Jordanian females appears substantial although much lower than that seen in high incidence zones, while its incidence in the general female population remains to be determined. This study shows for the first time the value of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in Jordanian females over 20 years of age with special emphasis on those over 35 years of age attending obstetric and gynecology clinics. PMID:17590606

  2. Dating Pliocene lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel — Implications for cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Matmon, A.; Fink, D.; Ron, H.; Niedermann, S.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmogenic burial dating of sediments is usually used at sites with relatively simple or known exposure-burial histories, such as in caves. In an attempt to extend the applicability of the method to other common geological settings (i.e. the dating of late Neogene sedimentary formations), where much less is known about the exposure-burial history, we apply the cosmogenic burial method on Pliocene-early Pleistocene (1.5-4.5 Ma) lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel. 26Al, 10Be, and 21Ne concentrations in quartz were obtained from a 170 m tectonically-tilted section. Assuming fast burial and no post-burial production we obtained burial ages which range between 3.5 and 5.3 Ma. Integrating simple geological reasoning and the cosmogenic nuclide data, post burial production is found to be insignificant. We also found that the samples contain two distinct populations of grains (chert and quartz) from two different sources which experienced different pre-burial exposure histories. The cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the samples are in accordance with those expected for the mixing of two sources, and the burial ages computed for both end members agree. Theoretical calculations of two-source mixing show that initial 26Al/10Be ratios are depressed relative to the expected surface ratios and may result in burial ages overestimated by as much as 500 ka. Using ages derived from cosmogenic nuclides, independent age constraints, and magnetostratigraphy we correlate the bottom of the section to the Cochiti Normal magnetic subchron (4.19-4.30 Ma) within the Reverse Gilbert chron, and the top of the section to the Reverse subchron at the top of the Gilbert chron (3.60-4.19 Ma).

  3. Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Schaetti, Christian; Liswi, Mohammad; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO). Methods Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support. Results Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes “sex with prostitutes” and “sex with animals.” Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants. Conclusions Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma. PMID:24695243

  4. Rainfall estimation over the Wadi Dhuliel arid catchment, Jordan from GSMaP_MVK+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abushandi, E.; Merkel, B.

    2011-02-01

    The GSMaP_MVK+ (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation) dataset was used to evaluate the precipitation rates over the Wadi Dhuliel arid catchment in Northeast Jordan for the period of January 2003 to March 2008. The scarcity of the ground rain gauge network alone did not adequately show the detailed structure of the rainfall distribution, independent form interpolation techniques used. This study combines GSMaP_MVK+ and ground rain gauges to produce accurate, high-resolution datasets. Three meteorological stations and six rain gauges were used to adjust and compare GSMaP_MVK+ estimates. Comparisons between GSMaP_MVK+ measurements and ground rain gauges records showed distinct regions where they correlate, as well as areas where GSMaP_MVK+ systematically over- and underestimated ground rain gauge records. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model was used to derive the relationship between rainfall and GSMaP_MVK+ in conjunction with temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The MLR equations were defined for the three meteorological stations. The "best" fit of MLR model for each station was chosen and used to interpolate a multiscale temporal and spatial distribution. Results show that the rainfall distribution over the Wadi Dhuliel is characterized by clear west-east and north-south gradients. Estimates from the monthly MLR model were more reasonable than estimates obtained using daily data. The adjusted GSMaP_MVK+ performed well in capturing the spatial patterns of the rainfall at monthly and annual time scales while daily estimation showed some weakness in light and moderate storms.

  5. Ophthalmology residency training in Jordan: an evaluation of quality and comparison with international standards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salem, Khalil M.; Al-Sarayra, Fawwaz A.; Abu Al-Dabaat, Mohammad; Shihadeh, Wisam; Al-Salem, Mohammad M.; Al-Salem, Mahmoud K.; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate Jordanian ophthalmology residency programs in achieving competencies outlined by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and residents' satisfaction with available training programs in Jordan, and to highlight weakness points that may be improved and strengthened. METHODS A closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to all ophthalmologists who completed their training in Jordanian institutions between 2006 and 2011, to measure the quality of residency training and satisfaction level with regards to clinical conferences, journal clubs, scientific lectures, wet lab sessions, simulations, outpatient clinics and operating room training. Barriers to a successful board exam were cited. All ophthalmologists had official residency training in Jordanian Hospitals; this includes military, university, governmental and private sector hospitals. RESULTS Sixty-one questionnaires completed out of 69 circulated. Males (75.4%) were more than females. Mean age was 32.5±3.27y. A total 21 (34.4%) responders expressed an overall satisfaction, 38 (62.3%) were dissatisfied and 2 (3.3%) were equivocal. Respondents reported insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation 57 (93.4%), or refraction and glasses prescription 34 (55.7%). Regarding operative experiences, the mean cataract extraction per-resident was 43 cataracts; the number of phacoemulsification surgery was 2.96 per-resident, 46 (75.4%) of responders never did a single phacoemulsification during residency. Nine (14.8%) had training in refractive surgery, and 15 (24.6%) assisted orbital surgery. Forty-four (72.1%) never assisted in vitreoretinal surgery. Among The graduates surveyed, 14 (23.0%) passed Jordanian licensing board exam at the first attempt, and felt that their residency programs adequately prepared them for the examinations. CONCLUSION Around two thirds (62.3%) of ophthalmologists expressed dissatisfaction with residency training at Jordanian programs, further study is required to assess each program separately and evaluate the system of accreditation in Jordanian residency programs. PMID:25349813

  6. Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in surface sediments of Ziqlab Reservoir, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Batayneh, Awni T; El-Radaideh, Nazem; Ghrefat, Habes; Zumlot, Taisser; Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M; Al-Momani, Talal; Taani, Aymen

    2015-02-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from Ziqlab dam in northwestern Jordan to investigate the spatial distribution of selected trace metals and assess their pollution levels. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn exceeded the environmental background values. Cd, Ni, and Cr contents were higher than the threshold effect level (TEL) in 63, 83, and 60 % of the reservoir sediments, respectively; whereas Pb, Zn, and Cu were less than the TEL limit. The concentrations of trace metals in reservoir sediment varied spatially, but their variations showed similar trends. Elevated levels of metals observed in the western part (adjacent to the dam wall) were coincided with higher contents of clay-silt fraction and total organic matters. Multivariate analysis indicated that Pb, Co, and Mn may be related to the lithologic component and/or the application of agrochemicals in the upstream agricultural farms. However, Cd and Zn concentrations were probably elevated due to inputs from agricultural sources, including fertilizers. Evaluation of contamination levels by the Sediment Quality Guidelines of the US-EPA, revealed that sediments were non-polluted to moderately polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr, but non-polluted to moderately to heavily polluted with Ni and non-polluted with Mn. The geoaccumulation index showed that Ziqlab sediments were unpolluted with Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, and Mn, but unpolluted to moderately polluted with Cd. The high enrichment values for Cd and Pb (>2) indicate their anthropogenic sources, whereas the remaining elements were of natural origins consistent with their low enrichment levels. PMID:25632906

  7. Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

    2007-06-01

    The Ca Mg relationship in groundwaters strongly points to the overall dolomitization and local albitization. The Mg/Ca ratios reveal two trends by which saline waters develop: increase of Mg/Ca ratio by evaporation and decreasing Mg/Ca ratios due to dolomitization and albitization. Br/Cl vs. Na/Cl ratios demonstrate that albitization does not play a major role which leaves dolomitization to be the main source for decreasing Mg/Ca ratios in saline waters. In the eastern and southern Region of Lake Kinneret, salinization occurs by mixing with a Ca/Mg molar ratio <1 brine (Ha’On type). Along the western shoreline of the Lake, a Ca/Mg > 1 dominates, which developed by the albitization of plagioclase in abundant mafic volcanics and the dolomitization of limestones. The most saline groundwater of the Tabgha-, Fuliya-, and Tiberias clusters could be regional derivatives of at least two mother brines: in diluted form one is represented by Ha’On water, the other is a Na-rich brine of the Zemah type. Additionally, a deep-seated Ca-dominant brine may ascend along the fractures on the western side of Lake Kinneret, which is absent on the eastern side. Groundwaters of the Lower Jordan Valley are chemically different on both sides of the Jordan River, indicating that the exchange of water is insignificant. All saline waters from the Dead Sea and its surroundings represent a complex mixture of brines, and precipitation and local dissolution of halite and gypsum. Many wells of the Arava/Araba Valley pump groundwater from the Upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer, the origin of the water is actually from the Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group sandstones. Groundwater drawn from the Quaternary alluvial fill either originates from Kurnub Group sandstones (Eilat 108, Yaalon 117) or from altered limestones of the Judea Group. The origin of these waters is from floods flowing through wadis incised into calcareous formations of the Judea Group. On the other hand, as a result of step-faulting, hydraulic contact is locally established between the Kurnub- and the Judea Groups aquifers facilitating the inter-aquifer flow of the confined Kurnub paleowater into the karstic formations of the Judea Group. Two periods of Neogene brine formation are considered: the post-Messinan inland lagoon resulting in drying up of the Sdom Sea and the evaporation of the Pleistocene Samra Lake, which went further through the stage of Lake Lisan to the present Dead Sea. For the first period, major element hydrochemistry suggests that the saline waters and brines in the Jordan-Dead Sea Arava Valley transform evolved from the gradual evaporation of an accumulating mixture of sea-, ground-, and surface water. Due to the precipitation of carbonates, gypsum, and halite, such an evaporating primary water body was strongly enriched in Mg, Br, and B and shows high molar ratios of Br/Cl, B/Cl, and Mg/Ca but low Na/Cl ratios. The development of the Br/Cl ratio is chemically modelled, showing that indeed brine development is explicable that way. Along with the evaporation brine, evaporites formed which are leached by infiltrating fresh water yielding secondary brines with Na/Cl ratios of 1. When primary brines infiltrated the sub-surface, they were subjected to Mg Ca exchange in limestones (dolomitization) and to chloritization and albitization in basic igneous rocks turning them into Ca-Cl brines. These tertiary brines are omnipresent in the Rift. The brines of the late Lisan and Dead Sea were generated by evaporating drainage waters, which leached halite, gypsum, and carbonates from the soil and from the sub-surface. All these brines are still being flushed out by meteoric water, resulting in saline groundwaters. This flushing is regionally enhanced by intensive groundwater exploitation. In variable proportions, the Neogene and late Lisan Lake and Recent Dead Sea brines have to be considered as the most serious sources of salinization of groundwaters in the Rift. Deep-seated pre-Sdom brines cannot strictly be excluded, but if active they play a negligible role only.

  8. Voice restoration following total laryngectomy by tracheoesophageal prosthesis: Effect on patients' quality of life and voice handicap in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Attieh, Abdelrahim Y; Searl, Jeff; Shahaltough, Nada H; Wreikat, Mahmoud M; Lundy, Donna S

    2008-01-01

    Background Little has been reported about the impact of tracheoesophageal (TE) speech on individuals in the Middle East where the procedure has been gaining in popularity. After total laryngectomy, individuals in Europe and North America have rated their quality of life as being lower than non-laryngectomized individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in quality of life and degree of voice handicap reported by laryngectomized speakers from Jordan before and after establishment of TE speech. Methods Twelve male Jordanian laryngectomees completed the University of Michigan Head & Neck Quality of Life instrument and the Voice Handicap Index pre- and post-TE puncture. Results All subjects showed significant improvements in their quality of life following successful prosthetic voice restoration. In addition, voice handicap scores were significantly reduced from pre- to post-TE puncture. Conclusion Tracheoesophageal speech significantly improved the quality of life and limited the voice handicap imposed by total laryngectomy. This method of voice restoration has been used for a number of years in other countries and now appears to be a viable alternative within Jordan. PMID:18373867

  9. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  10. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    E-print Network

    R. D. Mota; M. A. Xicotencatl; V. D. Granados

    2008-01-30

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown {\\it a priori}. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman SU(3) symmetry group matrices. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that generalized Stokes Operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization density matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometric properties of the polarization ellipse

  11. Scent marking in wild banded mongooses: 1. Sex-specific scents and overmarking Neil R. Jordan a,*, Marta B. Manser b,1

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    overmark scent mark sex difference sexual selection Overmarking occurs when one individual places its scentScent marking in wild banded mongooses: 1. Sex-specific scents and overmarking Neil R. Jordan a dimorphic. Both male and female adults were more likely to overmark the scents of same-sex individuals

  12. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  13. IMCL2008 Conference 16-18 April 2008, Amman, Jordan International Conference on Mobile and Computer Aided Learning, IMCL2008, www.imcl-conference.org 1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Conference on Interactive Mobile and Computer Aided Learning, IMCL2008 ­ please check the finalIMCL2008 Conference 16-18 April 2008, Amman, Jordan The 3rd International Conference on Mobile and Computer Aided Learning, IMCL2008, www.imcl-conference.org 1 Pre-print of article published in the 4 th

  14. Affordable Exercise Opportunities Improve the Health and Fitness of Inner-City Residents Jordan McIntire, Mitchel Sermersheim, and Tracie Arnold

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    evaluated for upper-body (UBS), lower-body (LBS) strength and endurance, cardiovascular fitness (CVF), bodyAffordable Exercise Opportunities Improve the Health and Fitness of Inner-City Residents Jordan Mc students who provide health/fitness assessments and exercise leadership for academic credit, PARCS offers

  15. ARAB / ETHS / WGST 349: The Arab World Experience: Jordan A spring semester course with a study abroad component to the Middle East during spring break

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    , Jordan is both an essential hub of diplomacy and is one of the more socially progressive countries sites, the course will bring students to the major religious sites in the Dead Sea region and the Roman ruins of Jerash. The class will also have the chance to spend the night in Bedouin tent cities in Wadi

  16. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF MANAGED AQUIFER RECHARGE TO MITIGATE WATER SCARCITY IN THE LOWER JORDAN RIVER BASIN WITHIN AN IWRM APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Wolf; Heike Werz; Heinz Hoetzl; Marwan Ghanem

    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT The Lower Jordan River Valley is a place of extreme water scarcity and constitutes an overexploited closed river basin. No surface runoff currently leaves the area and the water level of the Dead Sea, as the final sink, has already dropped by more than 20 m over the past fifty years as a result. This demonstrates, that

  17. Correlating Bioaerosol Load with PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations Jordan Peccia1, Ann M. Dillner1,2, Justin Boreson1

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Correlating Bioaerosol Load with PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations Jordan Peccia1, Ann M. Dillner1 exposure of airborne biological agents with commonly monitored (and regulated) PM10 and PM2.5. Specific from windblown dust while particles at 2.5 microns (PM2.5) or less are byproducts of fuel combustion

  18. An experimental study for a combined system of tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake as a potential energy source in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M Kablan; T. M Alkhamis

    1999-01-01

    Jordan is an example of a third world country that is non-oil producing but contains huge reserves of other energy sources such as tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake. Some limited research is available about how to utilize these energy sources in pure form. However, available research does not deal with combinations of these energy sources. This experimental study

  19. The Influence of Consanguineous Marriage on Infant and Child Mortality among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pedersen

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of mortality differences associated with consanguineous marriage among Palestinians in the Middle East. Methods: The data came from five surveys of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, conducted during the period 1995–2000. Infant and child mortality was estimated for the offspring of consanguineous

  20. Fairness and Equity in Transboundary Water Resources: A Comparative Analysis of the TWO Analysis and WAS Models as applied to the Jordan River Basin

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    : the asymmetrical relationship between Israel and Palestine over the shared waters of the Jordan River basin: The Case Study ­ Israel and Palestine 5.1. Introduction of the WAS and TWO models result in a fair and equitable allocation of water for Israel and the Occupied Palestinian

  1. Using the Training Reactions Questionnaire to Analyze the Reactions of University Students Undergoing Career-Related Training in Jordan: A Prospective Human Resource Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Al-Zawahreh, Abdelghafour

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to validate Morgan and Casper's training reactions questionnaire (TRQ) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the reactions of university students to career-related training programs. Another purpose of the study was to determine the impact of certain aspects of training programs on the…

  2. Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching and Learning--A Comparison of Teachers' and Student Teachers' Beliefs from Jordan, Turkey and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amoush, Siham; Markic, Silvija; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses beliefs about teaching and learning chemistry. The sample includes chemistry student teachers and in-service teachers from Jordan, Turkey, and Germany. Two test instruments were used to investigate (student) teachers' beliefs. A qualitative instrument was used to explore Beliefs about Classroom Organization, Beliefs about…

  3. Perceptions of Student Teachers towards the Effectiveness of Co-Operating Teachers, School Principals and University Supervisors Participating in the Teacher Education Program in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albasheer, Akram; Khasawneh, Samer; Nabah, Abdallah Abu; Hailat, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of student teachers regarding the effectiveness of university supervisors, school principals and co-operating teachers participating in the teacher education program at the Hashemite University in Jordan. A total of 120 student teachers participated in the study by completing the…

  4. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  5. Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) phosphorites in Jordan: implications for the formation of a south Tethyan phosphorite giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, Peir K.; Grimm, Kurt A.; Abed, Abdulkader M.; Sadaqah, Rushdi M. Y.

    2003-10-01

    A record of sedimentary, authigenic, and biological processes are preserved within the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Alhisa Phosphorite Formation (AP) in central and northern Jordan. The AP formed near the eastern extremity of the south Tethyan Phosphorite Province (STPP), a carbonate-dominated Upper Cretaceous to Eocene "phosphorite giant" that extends from Colombia, North Africa to the Middle East. Multidisciplinary research of the AP and associated cherts, chalks, and oyster buildups indicate that phosphatic strata formed on a highly productive, storm-dominated, east-west trending epeiric platform along the south Tethyan margin. The onset of phosphogenesis and the accumulation of economic phosphorite coincided with a rise in relative sea level that onlapped peritidal carbonates of the Ajlun Group. Pristine phosphates are associated with well-developed micrite concretionary horizons and contain abundant non-keeled spiral planktic foraminifera and a low diversity benthic assemblage of Buliminacean foraminifera, suggesting that pristine phosphates are a condensed facies and phosphogenesis was stimulated by the effects of a highly productive surface ocean and the suboxic diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The bulk sediment composition and absence of Fe-bearing authigenic phases such as glauconite, pyrite (including pyrite molds), siderite, and goethite within pristine phosphates suggests that deposition and authigenesis occurred under conditions of detrital starvation and that "iron-pumping" played a minimal role in phosphogenesis. Authigenic precipitation of phosphate occurred in a broad array of sedimentary environments—herein termed a "phosphorite nursery"—that spanned the entire platform. This is a non-uniformitarian phenomenon reflecting precipitation of sedimentary apatite across a wide depositional spectrum in a variety of depositional settings, wherever the conditions were suitable for phosphogenesis. Sedimentologic data indicate that pristine phosphates were concentrated into phosphatic grainstones through storm wave winnowing, and storm-generated, shelf-parallel geostrophic currents. Economic phosphorites formed through the amalgamation of storm-induced event beds. Stratigraphic packaging of phosphatic strata indicates that temporal variations in storm frequency were a prerequisite for the formation of economic phosphorite. Syndepositional phosphogenesis, reworking, and amalgamation to form phosphorites contrasts sharply with the principles of "Baturin Cycling". A transgressive systems tract coupled with high surface productivity created detritally starved settings favourable for phosphogenesis; storm reworking of pristine phosphate facies produced granular phosphorite; and amalgamation of storm-generated granular event beds formed economic phosphorite in a single systems tract.

  6. Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    Broodstock of Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert) aged 3-4 years old were selected, and reinforced cultivation was conducted to promote maturation under controlled water temperature and photoperiod conditions. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial fertilization, and the development of embryos, larvae and juveniles was observed continuously. The results showed that the fertilized eggs of V. moseri were spherical, with transparent yolk and homogeneous bioplasm, and had no oil globule inside. The average diameter of the eggs was 1.77±0.02 mm. The eggs of V. moseri were buoyant in water with salinity above 35. The cleavage type was typical discoidal. Young pigment cells appeared when olfactory plates began to form. Hatching occurred at 187 h after fertilization at a water temperature of 8.5°C. The newly hatched larvae, floating on the water surface, were transparent with an average total length of 4.69±0.15 mm. During the cultivation period, when the water temperature was raised from 9 to 14.5°C, 4-day old larvae showed more melanophores on the body surface, making the larvae gray in color. The pectoral fins began to develop, which enabled the larvae to swim horizontally and in a lively manner. On days 7-8, the digestive duct formed. The yolk sac was small and black. The yolk sac was absorbed on day 11. Larvae took food actively, and body length and body height clearly increased. The rudiments of dorsal and anal fin pterygiophores were discernible and caudal fin ray elements formed on day 19. On day 24, the larval notochord flexed upwards, and the rays of unpaired fins began to differentiate. Pigment cells converged on the dorsal and anal fin rays, and the mastoid teeth on the mandible appeared. On day 29, the left eyes of juveniles began to move upwards. Depigmentation began in some juveniles and they became sandy brown in color on day 37. Most juveniles began to settle on the bottom of the tank. The left eyes of juveniles migrated completely to the right side on day 50, when the average body length attained 2.5±0.18 cm, and juveniles accomplished metamorphosis to young. The embryonic and larval characters of several flounder species are compared.

  7. Characterisation and modelling of conduit restricted karst aquifers - Example of the Auja spring, Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Geyer, Tobias; Guttman, Joseph; Marei, Amer; Ries, Fabian; Sauter, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The conduit system of mature karstified carbonate aquifers is typically characterised by a high hydraulic conductivity and does not impose a major flow constriction on catchment discharge. As a result, discharge at karst springs is usually flashy and displays pronounced peaks following recharge events. In contrast, some karst springs reported in literature display a discharge maximum, attributed to reaching the finite discharge capacity of the conduit system (flow threshold). This phenomenon also often leads to a non-standard recession behaviour, a so called “convex recession”, i.e. an increase in the recession coefficient during flow recession, which in turn might be used as an indicator for conduit restricted aquifers. The main objective of the study is the characterisation and modelling of those hydrogeologically challenging aquifers. The applied approach consists of a combination of hydrometric monitoring, a spring hydrograph recession and event analysis, as well as the setup and calibration of a non-linear reservoir model. It is demonstrated for the Auja spring, the largest freshwater spring in the Lower Jordan Valley. The semi-arid environment with its short but intensive precipitation events and an extended dry season leads to sharp input signals and undisturbed recession periods. The spring displays complex recession behaviour, exhibiting exponential (coefficient ?) and linear (coefficient ?) recession periods. Numerous different recession coefficients ? were observed: ?0.2 to 0.8 d-1 (presumably main conduit system), 0.004 d-1 (fractured matrix), 0.0009 d-1 (plateau caused by flow threshold being exceeded), plus many intermediate values. The reasons for this observed behaviour are the outflow threshold at 0.47 m3 s-1 and a variable conduit-matrix cross-flow in the aquifer. Despite system complexity, and hence the necessity of incorporating features such as a flow threshold, conduit-matrix cross-flow, and a spatially variable soil/epikarst field capacity, the developed reservoir model is regarded as relatively simplistic. As a number of required parameters were calculated from the hydrogeological analysis of the system, it requires only six calibration parameters and performs well for the highly variable flow conditions observed. Calculated groundwater recharge in this semi-arid environment displays high interannual variability. For example, during the 45-year simulation period, only five wet winter seasons account for 33% of the total cumulative groundwater recharge.

  8. Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

    2012-03-01

    In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly interbeds to accelerate sliding during mass wasting. The most vulnerable areas prone to slope instabilities are those with compressional tectonics followed by extensional movements, with fault bound springs and smectite-bearing marly layers interbedded with pure massive limestones. The semi-arid to arid climate with periodic rainfalls combined with subsurface water circulation along the joints and faults can trigger mass wasting.

  9. Immunohistochemical evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast carcinoma in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Almasri, Nidal M; Hamad, Mohammad Al

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Although breast carcinoma (BC) is the most common malignancy affecting Jordanian females and the affected population in Jordan is younger than that in the West, no information is available on its biological characteristics. Our aims in this study are to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu overexpression in BC in Jordan, and to compare the expression of these with other prognostic parameters for BC such as histological type, histological grade, tumor size, patients' age, and number of lymph node metastases. Method This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at Jordan University of Science and Technology. A confirmed 91 cases of BC diagnosed in the period 1995 to 1998 were reviewed and graded. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of ER, PR, and Her-2. Immunohistochemical findings were correlated with age, tumor size, grade and axillary lymph node status. Results Her-2 was overexpressed in 24% of the cases. The mean age of Her-2 positive cases was 42 years as opposed to 53 years among Her-2 negative cases (p = 0.0001). Her-2 expression was inversely related to ER and PR expression. Her-2 positive tumors tended to be larger than Her-2 negative tumors with 35% overexpression among T3 tumors as opposed to 22% among T2 tumors (p = 0.13). Her-2 positive cases tended to have higher rates of axillary metastases, but this did not reach statistical significance. ER and PR positive cases were seen in older patients with smaller tumor sizes. Conclusion Her-2 overexpression was seen in 24% of BC affecting Jordanian females. Her-2 overexpression was associated with young age at presentation, larger tumor size, and was inversely related to ER and PR expression. One-fifth of the carcinomas were Her-2 positive and ER negative. This group appears to represent an aggressive form of BC presenting at a young age with large primary tumors and a high rate of four or more axillary lymph node metastases. PMID:16168103

  10. Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered 3D tissues Jordan S. Miller, Kelly R. Stevens, Michael T. Yang, Brendon M. Baker, Duc-Huy T. Nguyen,

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered 3D tissues Jordan S. Miller), destabilized EGFP (pCAG-GFPd2) [2, 3], Gaussia luciferase (pGluc-Basic, NanoLight Technol- ogy), EGFP, and IFP

  11. Programmable unknown quantum-state discriminators with multiple copies of program and data: A Jordan-basis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bing; Bergou, János A.

    2007-03-01

    The discrimination of any pair of unknown quantum states is performed by devices processing three parts of inputs: copies of the pair of unknown states we want to discriminate are, respectively, stored in two program systems and copies of data, which is guaranteed to be one of the unknown states, in a third system. We study the efficiency of such programmable devices with the inputs prepared with n and m copies of unknown qubits used as programs and data, respectively. By finding a symmetry in the average inputs, we apply the Jordan-basis method to derive their optimal unambiguous discrimination and minimum-error discrimination schemes. The dependence of the optimal solutions on the a priori probabilities of the mean input states is also demonstrated.

  12. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being seropositive was the introduction of new animals (OR=11.7, 95% CI: 2.8-49.4); while separation of newly introduced animals (OR=0.09, 95% CI: 0.03-0.29), herd disinfection (OR=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.15) and having calving pens (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.43) significantly reduced the odds of infection. Brucellosis is endemic at high levels across Jordan, and the current vaccination programme, which is limited to small ruminants, has very low coverage. A revised brucellosis control programme is required in Jordan. Given the high baseline prevalence, it should be based on vaccination accompanied by measures to promote hygiene and husbandry practices that minimize the risk of introduction and maintenance of Brucella spp., and thereby the risk of human infection. PMID:25619944

  13. Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-07-01

    Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in places where they had not been identified previously. The morphology of the terraces was investigated in six cross-sections using differential GPS altimetry. The levels of the terraces range between - 370 and - 148 m a.s.l. The high stand of Lake Lisan at - 148 m correlates well with the high level of - 150 m reported by Bowman and Gross [Bowman, D., Gross, T., 1992. The highest stand of Lake Lisan: ~ 150 meters below MSL. Israel Journal of Earth-Science 41, 233-237.] along the western coast of Lake Lisan. The lake terraces are horizontal, elongated and tectonically undisturbed, and have a sub-horizontal foreshore (tread) with an average slope of 8.2° and steep backshore cliff (riser) with an average slope of 17.7°. The six cross-sections show a good altitudinal correlation between their terraces. Moreover, the terraces appear in undisturbed continuity on the aerial photos. These morphological characteristics demonstrate that the retreat of the lake was a result of substantial climatic changes, not of tectonic subsidence. In-situ stromatolites were found on most of the terraces, reflecting a shallow water environment and emphasizing that these terraces are recessional. Well-developed desert varnish and Tafoni observed on blocks sitting on the terrace surfaces imply a long period of exposure and a low rate of post lacustrine erosion. The formation of Lisan terraces is constrained mainly by coastal slope, water depth and underlying lithology. The morphological analysis of these terraces allows identification of two kinds of pseudo-terraces, which were formed as a result of tread or riser destruction. U/Th and OSL dating allowed the dating of three events within the lake level curve more precisely. The high level of - 148 m occurred at 30.5 ± 0.22 ka BP, consistent with the Heinrich Event 3 and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial 5, the coldest period in the NGRIP Greenland Ice Core record. The next lower terrace at - 154 m was formed at 22.9 ka BP ± 0.29 and corresponds to the stadial 2C, the final phase of the Last High Glacial. The correlation between the Lisan high stands and climatic stadials suggests that Northern-Hemispheric cold periods led to periods with a more positive water balance in the Near East. At ~ 10 ± 0.8 ka BP Lake Lisan experienced a sharp drop to - 200 m followed by a transgression between 9.5 to 7 ka BP.

  14. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G

    2009-10-01

    The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U and their progeny results in external exposures of the residents of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for a typical Jordan concrete room are calculated using Monte Carlo method. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling are assumed. Using activity concentrations of natural radionuclides typical for the Jordan houses and assuming them to be in secular equilibrium with their progeny, the maximum annual effective doses are estimated to be 0.16, 0.12 and 0.22 mSv a(-1) for (40)K, (232)Th- and (238)U-series, respectively. In a total, the maximum annual effective indoor dose due to external gamma-radiation is 0.50 mSv a(-1). Additionally, organ dose coefficients are calculated for all organs considered in ICRP Publication 74. Breast, skin and eye lenses have the maximum equivalent dose rate values due to indoor exposures caused by the natural radionuclides, while equivalent dose rates for uterus, colon (LLI) and small intestine are found to be the smallest. More specifically, organ dose rates (nSv a(-1)per Bq kg(-1)) vary from 0.044 to 0.060 for (40)K, from 0.44 to 0.60 for radionuclides from (238)U-series and from 0.60 to 0.81 for radionuclides from (232)Th-series. The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors. PMID:19628312

  15. Screening for domestic violence in Jordan: validation of an Arabic version of a domestic violence against women questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda G; Shotar, Ali; Younger, Janet B; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Bouhaidar, Claudia M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Abuse against women causes a great deal of suffering for the victims and is a major public health problem. Measuring lifetime abuse is a complicated task; the various methods that are used to measure abuse can cause wide variations in the reported occurrences of abuse. Furthermore, the estimated prevalence of abuse also depends on how abuse is culturally defined. Researchers currently lack a validated Arabic language instrument that is also culturally tailored to Arab and Middle Eastern populations. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the newly developed NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NORAQ). Design and methods: The five core elements of the NORAQ (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, current suffering of the abuse, and communication of the history of abuse to the general practitioner) were translated into Arabic, translated back into English, and pilot tested to ensure cultural sensitivity and appropriateness for adult women in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Participants were recruited from the Jordanian Ministry of Health-Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in two large cities in Jordan. Results: A self administered NORAQ was completed by 175 women who had attended the centers. The order of factors was almost identical to the original English and Swedish languages questionnaire constructs. The forced 3-factor solution explained 64.25% of the variance in the measure. The alpha reliability coefficients were 0.75 for the total scale and ranged from 0.75 to 0.77 for the subscales. In terms of the prevalence of lifetime abuse, 39% of women reported emotional abuse, 30% physical abuse, and 6% sexual abuse. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the NORAQ has demonstrated initial reliability and validity. It is a cost-effective means for screening incidence and prevalence of lifetime domestic abuse against women in Jordan, and it may be applicable to other Middle East countries. PMID:21445377

  16. A 300m-width sinkhole threatens the stability of the embankment of a saltpan in Jordan, Dead Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1980s, the Dead Sea coastal zone is affected by sinkholes. The dynamic of the salt karst system is attested by a drastic increase of collapse events. The energy available for sub-surface erosion (or cavities genesis) is related to the head difference between the water table and the lake level which drop down at an accelerating rate of more than 1 m/yr. In the region of Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, the size of the craters increased significantly during the last decade. Up to now, the greatest compound structure observed (association of metric subsidence, decametric sinkholes, and landslides) was about 150-200 m in diameter. End of December 2012, a single circular structure having 250-300 m in diameter was identified within a 10 km x 1.5 km saltpan of the Arab Potash Company. This finding raises questions regarding the origin of the underlying cavity and the capability of prediction of all models developed up to now in Israel and Jordan regarding the Dead Sea sinkholes. The analysis of satellite images of the past shows that the appearance of this unique depression is very recent (probably less than 5 years). Cosmo-SkyMed radar images have been processed to map the associated deformation field. Ground motions attest that the overall diameter could be around 600 m. Currently, this sinkhole is threatening the stability of more than one kilometer of a 12 km long dike holding 90 million m3 of Dead Sea brine. This case study underlines the great fragility of the Dead Sea salt karst and demonstrates the need for the setting up of an early warning system.

  17. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (? 10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease. PMID:25092972

  18. The assessment of the effect of landfill leachate on ground-water quality—a case study. El-Akader landfill site—north Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Abu-Rukah; Osama Al-Kofahi

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the leachate from the major landfill in northern Jordan, El-Akader on the ground-water was investigated. Various physical and chemical parameters were estimated, this includes pH, total hardness, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids for the physical parameters. The chemical parameters included are major cations, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, and K+. Major anions, HCO?3, NO?23,

  19. Proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria and concomitant antibiotic production as the basis for the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Wall, Thomas E; Tanner, Justin R; Tawaha, Khaled; Alali, Feras Q; Li, Chen; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2009-05-01

    Anecdotes, both historical and recent, recount the curing of skin infections, including diaper rash, by using red soils from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Following inoculation of red soils isolated from geographically separate areas of Jordan, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were rapidly killed. Over the 3-week incubation period, the number of specific types of antibiotic-producing bacteria increased, and high antimicrobial activity (MIC, approximately 10 microg/ml) was observed in methanol extracts of the inoculated red soils. Antibiotic-producing microorganisms whose numbers increased during incubation included actinomycetes, Lysobacter spp., and Bacillus spp. The actinomycetes produced actinomycin C(2) and actinomycin C(3). No myxobacteria or lytic bacteriophages with activity against either M. luteus or S. aureus were detected in either soil before or after inoculation and incubation. Although protozoa and amoebae were detected in the soils, the numbers were low and did not increase over the incubation period. These results suggest that the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils is due to the proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:19286796

  20. Prevalence of obesity and behaviors associated with the development of metabolic disease among medical practitioners in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alarjan, Jafar F.; Hindawi, Omar S.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Aleyadh, Ziad A.; Bellar, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The health status of medical practitioners can potentially impact their ability to counsel patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and behaviors associated with the development of metabolic disease among medical practitioners in the country of Jordan. Materials and Methods: The participants were 748 (male n = 285, 32.3 years ± 7.3, female n = 463, 29.7 years ± 5.7) randomly selected pharmacists, nurses, physicians, medical lab technicians, and radiation specialists from a variety of medical institutions in Jordan. A short 25-item validated instrument was chosen for this investigation. After the survey was administered and data were tabulated, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson's Chi-square analysis were conducted to examine differences in reported risk behaviors (low physical activity [PA], smoking) and obesity by gender, age and medical specialty. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed that 20.9% of the participants self-reported as smokers of cigarettes, 47.9% were either overweight or obese, and 52.9% reported no days of planned PA on average per week. The results suggested a difference in body mass index (BMI) classification (F = 17.9, P ? 0.001) and smoking (F = 5.33, P = 0.021) by age. Mean age associated with being underweight was 26.4 years for normal weight 29.3 years for overweight 31.6 years and finally for obese was 34.5 years. Chi-square test resulted in differences by gender (?2 > 50, P ? 0.001) for BMI (males: 26.4 ± 3.7; females: 24.6 ± 3.7), PA (males no planned PA 61.1%, females 47.9%) and smoking (males 43.1% smokers, females 7.1%). Researchers discovered that medical specialty was related to differences in reported smoking (?2 = 26.5, P ? 0.001) and days of planned PA (?2 = 24.2, P = 0.019). Conclusions: Within the population of medical practitioners there is still a high incidence of obesity and risk behaviors associated with metabolic diseases. It also appears that these incidence rates are greater among men, with increasing age, and among certain medical specialties. PMID:25861662

  1. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure. PMID:22163203

  3. Molecular and isotopic insights into particulate organic carbon sources and dynamics in Jordan Basin, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2013-10-01

    The carbon isotope and lipid biomarker composition of suspended particles and surface sediment was measured to examine the impact of sediment supply, redistribution and post-depositional alteration processes on organic matter cycling in the Gulf of Maine, a semi-enclosed shelf sea in the northwest Atlantic. A beam attenuation profile revealed a >50 m-thick benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) in the Jordan Basin at the time of sampling (April 2006). The relatively low radiocarbon content of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in the BNL indicates that up to 82% of the POC in this layer was supplied from resuspension of sediment. The concentration of alkenones normalized to POC increased with increasing depth in the water column and was highest in the surface sediment. In contrast to these markers of surface ocean photoautotrophy, the vertical profiles for the concentration and composition of short-chain (C14-C18) n-alkanoic acids provided evidence for enhanced heterotrophic processes near the top of the BNL. Suspended POC samples from two depths within the BNL exhibited marked differences in radiocarbon content and fatty acid composition, suggesting that biological activity and associated processes within the BNL are vertically heterogeneous.

  4. Modelling the effects of land-use and land-cover change on water availability in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, L.; Koch, J.; Onigkeit, J.; Schaldach, R.

    2009-08-01

    Within the GLOWA Jordan River project, a first-time overview of the current and possible future land and water conditions of a major part of the Eastern Mediterranean region (ca. 100 000 km2) is given. First, we applied the hydrological model TRAIN to simulate current water availability (runoff and groundwater recharge) and irrigation water demand on a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution. The results demonstrate the scarcity of water resources in the study region, with extremely low values of water availability in the semi-arid and arid parts. Then, a set of four divergent scenarios on the future of water has been developed using a stakeholder driven approach. Relevant drivers for land-use/land-cover change were fed into the LandSHIFT.R model to produce land-use and land-cover maps for the different scenarios. These maps were used as input to TRAIN in order to generate scenarios of water availability and irrigation water demand for the region. For this study, two intermediate scenarios were selected, with projected developments ranging between optimistic and pessimistic futures (with regard to social and economic conditions in the region). Given that climate conditions remain unchanged, the simulations show both increases and decreases in water availability, depending on the future pattern of natural and agricultural vegetation and the related dominance of hydrological processes.

  5. Effectiveness of an electrical barrier in blocking a sea lamprey spawning migration on the Jordan River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Mark-recapture studies indicated that a pulsed-DC electrical barrier set to a 2-ms pulse width and 10 pulses/s completely blocked the spawning migration of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Jordan River, Michigan. Capture efficiency of fyke nets averaged 24% for four groups, about 300 tagged sea lampreys each, released upstream of the barrier; no unmarked sea lampreys and none of the 1,194 sea lampreys tagged and released downstream of the barrier were captured in the fyke nets while the barrier was energized. At a lower pulsator setting (1-ms pulse width; 10 pulses/s), 1 of 900 sea lampreys released below the barrier was recaptured in the nets. Sea lampreys from downstream were captured in the fyke nets after the barrier was de-energized, indicating that the barrier should remain in operation later than mid-July. Both sea lampreys and teleosts exposed to the electrical field were stunned but exhibited no apparent damage at either barrier setting. The pulsed-DC electrical barrier should help reduce the use of chemical lampricides for controlling sea lampreys in some Great Lakes streams and would be particularly suited for streams where even the smallest low-head barrier would create an unacceptably large impoundment.

  6. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women visiting health care centers in palestine refugee camps in jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Cooccurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts. PMID:25255940

  7. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen detection with necropsy in stray dogs and red foxes from northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    el-Shehabi, F S; Kamhawi, S A; Schantz, P M; Craig, P S; Abdel-Hafez, S K

    2000-06-01

    The sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used as a diagnostic test for Echinococcus granulosus infection by detecting coproantigens in 94 stray dogs Canis familiaris and eight red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Jordan. The results were analyzed in relation to actual helminth infection as revealed by necropsy. The infection rate of dogs with E. granulosus was 13.8% with a worm load ranging between 3-> 10,000 per infected dog. In contrast, eight of 13 E. granulosus infected dogs were coproantigen positive (overall sensitivity 61.5%). The sensitivity increased to 87.5% and 100% in dogs harboring > 20 and > 100 worms/dog, respectively. The specificity of coproantigen-ELISA was 91%. The greatest cross-reactivity was found in dogs infected with Dipylidium caninum. The positive and negative predictive values for the coproantigen-ELISA test were 50% and 94.2%, respectively. Thus, a coproantigen negative dog is most probably truly negative for E. granulosus. In contrast, a coproantigen positive dog may not be truly positive for E. granulosus, except if it has a high worm burden of > 100 worms/animal. PMID:10887653

  8. The radioactivity of seasonal dust storms in the Middle East: the May 2012 case study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamadneh, Hamed S; Ababneh, Zaid Q; Hamasha, Khadeejeh M; Ababneh, Anas M

    2015-02-01

    Dust storms in the Middle East are common during spring. Some of these storms are massive and carry a large amount of dust from faraway regions, which pose health and pollution risks. The huge dust storm event occurred in early May, 2012 was investigated for its radioactive content using gamma ray spectroscopy. Dust samples were collected from Northern Jordan and it was found that the storm carried a large amount of both artificial and natural radioactivity. The average activity concentration of fallout (137)Cs was 17.0 Bq/kg which is larger than that found in soil (2.3 Bq/kg), and this enrichment is attributed to particle size effects. (7)Be which is of atmospheric origin and has a relatively short half-life, was detected in dust with relatively large activity concentrations, as it would be expected, with an average of 2860 Bq/kg, but it was not detected in soil. Despite the large activity concentration of (7)Be, dose assessment showed that it does not contribute significantly to the effective dose through inhalation. The concentrations of the primodial nuclides (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were 547, 30.0 and 49.3 Bq/kg, respectively. With the exception of (40)K, these were comparable to what was found in soil. PMID:25461517

  9. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  10. Reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women aged 15 years and above in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Moghli, F A; Khalaf, I A; Tokiko, S; Atsuko, I; Nabolsi, M M; Al-Sharairi, B A

    2012-05-01

    Failure to address women's health, including their reproductive health needs, increases health care costs and social inequity. This descriptive study assessed the reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women over 15 years old in poverty pockets in the southern region of Jordan. Two villages were selected using purposive sampling and all women in the villages were invited to participate in a "healthy family week": 259 responded to the invitation. Although 49.4% of the surveyed women were overweight or obese, only 8.5% had high blood pressure. Reproductive health concerns included the high proportions of women married at an early age (15-20 years) (76.8%), having 5+ children (43.1%) and with haemoglobin level < 12 g/dL, indicating anaemia (55.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common health problem (29.0%). Health care providers should be sensitized to the health needs of Jordanian women in general and those living in disadvantaged areas in particular. PMID:22764426

  11. Impact of managed aquifer recharge on the chemical and isotopic composition of a karst aquifer, Wala reservoir, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanke, Julian; Goeppert, Nadine; Sawarieh, Ali; Liesch, Tanja; Kinger, Jochen; Ali, Wasim; Hötzl, Heinz; Hadidi, Khair; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-03-01

    Storm-water harvesting and storage via managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a promising approach to combat water scarcity in semi-arid regions, but poses a challenge for karst aquifers and regions with highly variable water availability. The infiltration of low-mineralized surface water and its impact on highly mineralized groundwater of a karst aquifer was investigated at Wala reservoir in Jordan over a period of approximately 10 years. The results show significant groundwater-level rise in a wellfield, in response to the yearly average infiltration of about 6.7 million m3. This corresponds to about 60 % of the yearly average abstraction of about 11.7 million m3, confirmed by mixing calculations with tritium. A decreasing trend in infiltration due to sedimentation is observed. Mean groundwater residence times of several thousand years, derived from carbon-14 dating, indicate a large storage capacity of the aquifer. The heterogeneous distribution of the residence times is caused by strong groundwater withdrawals and artificial recharge along with karst-specific aquifer characteristics. Temporal groundwater salinity fluctuations in the wellfield are observed after the first MAR infiltration. Enhanced groundwater flow along the wadi course was demonstrated, which is an important aspect with regards to future MAR projects in similar wadis of the region.

  12. Jordan Energy Institute of Jordan College

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coxon

    1982-01-01

    A college program is described which offers degrees of Bachelor of Science in Renewable Energy Engineering Technology, Bachelor of Science in Alternate Energy, and Associate of Applied Science in Alternate Energy Technology. The Associate Degree program consists of 4 semesters and the Bachelor Degree programs consist of 8 semesters. Courses are offered in solar, wind, biomass, geothermal energy, and in

  13. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, N; Payne, D C; Lu, X; Erdman, D; Wang, L; Faouri, S; Shehabi, A; Johnson, M; Becker, M M; Denison, M R; Williams, J V; Halasa, N B

    2014-07-01

    Hospitalized children < 2 years of age in Amman, Jordan, admitted for fever and/or respiratory symptoms, were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). This was a prospective year-round viral surveillance study in children <2 years of age admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever from March 2010 to September 2012 and enrolled from a government-run hospital, Al-Bashir in Amman, Jordan. Clinical and demographic data, including antibiotic use, were collected. Combined nasal/throat swabs were collected, aliquoted, and frozen at -80°C. Specimen aliquots were shipped to Vanderbilt University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and tested by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the 2433 subjects enrolled from 16 March 2010 to 10 September 2012, 2427 subjects had viral testing and clinical data. Of 1898 specimens prospectively tested for other viruses between 16 March 2010 and 18 March 2012, 474 samples did not have other common respiratory viruses detected. These samples were tested at CDC for MERS-CoV and all were negative by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the remaining 531 samples, collected from 19 March 2012 to 10 September 2012 and tested at Vanderbilt, none were positive for MERS-CoV. Our negative findings from a large sample of young Jordanian children hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms suggest that MERS-CoV was not widely circulating in Amman, Jordan, during the 30-month period of prospective, active surveillance occurring before and after the first documented MERS-CoV outbreak in the Middle East region. PMID:24313317

  14. New structural/tectonical model and its implication on hydrological thinking and groundwater management - the Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Lake Tiberias is a fresh water lake located at the Kinneret basin which is approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide. It comprises a link in the chain of pull-apart basins that characterizes the structure of the conspicuous Jordan Rift Valley (JRV). The basin surface is about 200 m below mean sea level (msl) and basin-fill attains a thickness of up to 8 km. Until recently, studies focused mainly on the upper strata of basin fill. Consequently, a complete three dimensional geological model, including clear view of the tectonic framework at the Kinneret Basin was incomplete. This situation imposes great difficulty in understanding the local hydrological system and as consequence enforce constrains on groundwater management of the regional aquifers that flows towards the lake. A recently proposed structural/tectonical model (Inbar, 2012) enables revaluation of several geohydrological aspects at Sea of Galilee and its surroundings and a new hydrological model based on those findings aims to clarify those aspects with relation to groundwater management. The deep-seated stratigraphical units were seismically studied at the Kinnarot Valley (southern part of Kinneret basin) where sufficient information is available (Inbar, 2012). This study shows the subsidence and northwestward tilting of the basin floor (pre-rift formations) and the flow of thick Late Miocene salt accumulation accordingly. Furthermore, shallower seismic data, collected at the lake itself, shows a suspected salt dome close to the western boundary fault of the basin (Resnikov et al., 2004). Salt flow is now suggested to be a substantial factor in the tectonic play. At the lake surroundings there are several springs and boreholes where brine immerges from an estimated depth of about 2-3 kilometers. Significant differences in brine characteristics raised questions regarding the location of brine traps, flow mechanism and the mixture process between the fresh water and the brine. However, the effect of the juxtaposing salt rock to the hydrological system was overlooked. Recent study reported an anomaly in groundwater chemistry at the western shore, indicating a possible contribution of halite dissolution into the ascending brine (Möller et al., 2011). This correlates to the results of the salt tectonic model and the suspected salt diapir above mentioned. Moreover, Arbel-1 borehole (drilled at 2003 at the same area) showed rapid salinity increase during pumping. Today the well is shut off. Based on the above findings, a numerical model is built. The studied profile crosses the rift from the Galilee at the west to the Golan and Ajlun at the east reaching a depth of 6 kilometers. The model indicates the possible brine flow paths across the rift and their interaction with fresh water aquifers and lake springs. References Inbar, N. (2012), The Evaporatic Subsurface Body in Kinnarot Basin: Stratigraphy, Structure, Geohydrology, 131 pp, Tel Aviv University. Möller, P., Siebert, C., Geyer, S., Inbar, N., Rosenthal, E., Flexer, A., and Zilberbrand, M. (2011), Relationships of Brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley, Geofluids (doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00353.x). Reznikov, M., Ben-Avraham, Z., Garfunkel, Z., Gvirtzman, H. and Rotstein, Y., 2004. Structural and stratigraphic framework of Lake Kinneret: Isr. J. Earth Sci., v. 53, p. 131-149.

  15. Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Al-Taani, Ahmed; Al-Khateeb, Fadi; Knutsson, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin's total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the basin. The results also showed that an area of about 1761 km2 of bare soils is of low vulnerability, whereas about 28 km2 is moderately vulnerable. For agriculture and the urban sector, approximately 1472 km2 are located within the low vulnerability zone and about 144 km2 are moderately vulnerable, which together account for about 8% of the total agriculture and urban area. These areas are contaminated with human activities, particularly from the agriculture. Management of land use must be considered when changing human or agricultural activity patterns in the study area, to reduce groundwater vulnerability in the basin. The results also showed that the wells with the highest nitrate levels (81-107 mg/l) were located in high vulnerable areas and are attributed to leakage from old sewage water.

  16. Earliest Evidence for Social Endogamy in the 9,000-Year-Old-Population of Basta, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wolfgang; Berner, Margit E.; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H.; Knipper, Corina; Gebel, Hans-Georg K.; Nissen, Hans J.; Vach, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity – such as open access to resources and land – had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1). Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%). Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of exogamous mating partners but a socio-cultural choice. PMID:23776517

  17. “Voices of Fear and Safety” Women’s ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: a qualitative study from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among Jordanian women. Breast malignancies are detected at late stages as a result of deferred breast health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women’s views and perceptions about breast cancer and breast health. Methods We performed an explorative qualitative study with purposive sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted consisting of 64 women (aged 20 to 65?years) with no previous history and no symptoms of breast cancer from four governorates in Jordan. The transcribed data was analysed using latent content analysis. Results Three themes were constructed from the group discussions: a) Ambivalence in prioritizing own health; b) Feeling fear of breast cancer; and c) Feeling safe from breast cancer. The first theme was seen in women’s prioritizing children and family needs and in their experiencing family and social support towards seeking breast health care. The second theme was building on women’s perception of breast cancer as an incurable disease associated with suffering and death, their fear of the risk of diminished femininity, husband’s rejection and social stigmatization, adding to their apprehensions about breast health examinations. The third theme emerged from the women’s perceiving themselves as not being in the risk zone for breast cancer and in their accepting breast cancer as a test from God. In contrast, women also experienced comfort in acquiring breast health knowledge that soothed their fears and motivated them to seek early detection examinations. Conclusions Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and feelings of fear and safety could be better addressed by designing breast health interventions that emphasize the good prognosis for breast cancer when detected early, involve breast cancer survivors in breast health awareness campaigns and catalyse family support to encourage women to seek breast health care. PMID:22834874

  18. Seasonal and spatial trends in the sources of fine particle organic carbon in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Zhou, Jiabin; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Schauer, James J.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2010-09-01

    A study of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) was conducted in the Middle East at sites in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine. The sources and seasonal variation of organic carbon, as well as the contribution to fine aerosol (PM 2.5) mass, were determined. Of the 11 sites studied, Nablus had the highest contribution of organic carbon (OC), 29%, and elemental carbon (EC), 19%, to total PM 2.5 mass. The lowest concentrations of PM 2.5 mass, OC, and EC were measured at southern desert sites, located in Aqaba, Eilat, and Rachma. The OC contribution to PM 2.5 mass at these sites ranged between 9.4% and 16%, with mean annual PM 2.5 mass concentrations ranging from 21 to 25 ug m -3. These sites were also observed to have the highest OC to EC ratios (4.1-5.0), indicative of smaller contributions from primary combustion sources and/or a higher contribution of secondary organic aerosol. Biomass burning and vehicular emissions were found to be important sources of carbonaceous PM in this region at the non-southern desert sites, which together accounted for 30%-55% of the fine particle organic carbon at these sites. The fraction of measured OC unapportioned to primary sources (1.4 ?gC m -3 to 4.9 ?gC m -3; 30%-74%), which has been shown to be largely from secondary organic aerosol, is relatively constant at the sites examined in this study. This suggests that secondary organic aerosol is important in the Middle East during all seasons of the year.

  19. Uplift and denudation history of the eastern Dead Sea rift flank, SW Jordan: Evidence from apatite fission track thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, S.; Eyal, M.; Kohn, B. P.; Steckler, M. S.; Ibrahim, K. M.; Moh'd, B. K.; Tian, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Dead Sea rift (DSR), developed along the Dead Sea transform plate boundary, is characterized by salient flanks and morphotectonic asymmetry. Apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT) along ~1200 m high vertical profiles in Neoproterozoic basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone in southwestern Jordan is used to reconstruct timing, magnitude, and rate of uplift and denudation of the eastern DSR flank and examine its relationship to rift development and its flank landscape. Time-temperature models based on AFT data suggest three major Phanerozoic heating and cooling episodes, Late Paleozoic, Early Cretaceous, and Oligocene. The latest episode, on which this study focuses, indicates uplift of ~3.8±0.3 km under a moderate paleogeothermal gradient. About 40% of the uplift was tectonically driven with the remainder attributed to isostatic rebound in response to denudation and erosion. Models suggest that uplift commenced in the Oligocene with a considerable part occurring prior to development of the DSR, despite being ~200 km from the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift margin. Uplift is probably part of a regional rearrangement along the western Arabian platform margin occurring at the time of Red Sea rift initiation. Transition from primarily sedimentary layer stripping, most likely by scarp retreat, to one of dominantly incision of the underlying crystalline basement occurred in Late Miocene-Pliocene time following enhanced subsidence and development of a low base level in the DSR. Consequently, the magnitude of uplift by isostatic rebound due to incision exceeded lowering by surface truncation and increased summit elevation and riftward flexing of the flank.

  20. Olive Mounds, Roman cisterns, erosion pins - potential to characterize erosion in a Mediterranean catchment in north Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a three years' time period of a PhD thesis it is luck to catch the "right" rain events for good general erosion approximations. Methods that (i) cover longer time periods, (ii) are not confined to constructed boundaries, and finally (iii) include all possible erosion processes are crucial for good average estimates of sediment yields from different landscapes. The aim of the study was to get a first understanding of erosion processes and sediment yields in a Mediterranean to semi-arid catchment in NW Jordan, wherefore different measurement methods were tested in the predominant landscape units: olive orchards (27%), fields (14%) and natural shrubs on steep slopes (~30%). One of the applied methods was the measurement of topographic olive mounds within 7 orchards with an average size of 800 m2 in synergy with tree-coring and age estimation of the orchards. Furthermore the OSL dating of deposited sediments in two roman cisterns adjacent to fields was conducted and the 9 erosion pin fields, each about 200m2 large, were installed on steep slopes with natural vegetation. The methods cover different time scales from 560 years for the fields, an average of 32 years for the olive orchards and up to two rainy seasons for the erosion pin fields. Results show that olive orchards on steep slopes (>10%) have the highest erosion potential in the region with 95±8 t ha-1year-1 followed by natural vegetated slopes with 37±4 t ha-1year-1 of dislocated material and fields with 1.22±0.06 t ha-1year-1 sediment yield. These spatially constrained outcomes are supported by geochemical sediment fingerprint results of lake sediments from the catchment and will be discussed in regard to the basic assumption that underlie the principle of measurement and the limitations of the methods.

  1. The establishment of an ISO compliant cancer biobank for Jordan and its neighboring countries through knowledge transfer and training.

    PubMed

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Sughayer, Maher A

    2014-02-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource of high-quality human biospecimens and anonymized clinicopathological data to the cancer research communities world-wide. PMID:24620764

  2. The Establishment of an ISO Compliant Cancer Biobank for Jordan and its Neighboring Countries Through Knowledge Transfer and Training

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource of high-quality human biospecimens and anonymized clinicopathological data to the cancer research communities world-wide. PMID:24620764

  3. Comparison of the dental health status of 8 to 14-year-old children in France and in Jordan, a country of endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, C; Bilbeissi, W; Benamghar, L; Kerebel, B

    1989-12-01

    In the present paper, data obtained from a survey dealing with dental carie, dental fluorosis and gingival health, involving 2618 Jordanian schoolchildren, aged 8 to 14, were compared with data from another survey dealing with 1058 schoolchildren of the same age groups living in a non-fluoridated area in the west of France. As regards dental carie in temporary teeth, up to the age of 12, the dft and dfs scores were higher in France than in Jordan. Over the age of 12, the difference was no longer significant. As regards dental carie in permanent teeth, the data showing that Jordanian children are less subject to caries than the French were very highly significant. Also, it was shown that caries index in girls was higher than in boys. These data were not significant in the French survey, but highly significant in the Jordanian investigation. A possible explanation is that, due to the custom of the country, boys in Jordan drink much more tea (with high fluoride content) than girls. As regards gingival health, an interesting finding was that, compared to the French children, the percentage of Jordanian children presenting gingivitis is remarkably low. The fluoride content of the dental plaque might play a restricting and preventing role. PMID:2620142

  4. Comparison of the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts of nine salvia species grown in Jordan against breast cancer cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma; Kasabri, Violet; Majdalawi, Lara; Naffa, Randa

    2012-01-01

    Background: The antiproliferative activity of Salvia species grown in Jordan has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts from nine Salvia species grown in Jordan against a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in human tumor models of breast cancer; MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, and BT 474 by the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, the extracts were evaluated using a non-transformed cell line (Vero) and normal fibroblast cells in order to demonstrate their selectivity and safety. Results: From the nice ethanol extracts under investigation, those of S. dominica and S. fruticosa showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% of cells (IC50) in concentrations less than 30?g/mL against the four cell lines under investigation. S. syriaca and S. hormium showed an IC50 below 30?g/ml for two out of the four cell lines. S. fruticosa, S. hormium and S. syriaca showed selectivity in their antiproliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive cell lines with minimal toxicity against normal human periodontal fibroblasts. Phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins in all examined extracts. Conclusion: Three of the plant extracts under investigation exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells and were shown to be safe and selective. These could be considered as a potential source for novel anticancer therapy. PMID:24082637

  5. Head shape and size of adult males as possible indicators of childhood stress in northern Jordan (1900-1978): a study in human biology and political economy.

    PubMed

    Abu Dalou, Ahmad Y; Al-Shiyab, Abdel-Halim; Benfer, Robert A

    2008-08-01

    Stature, sitting height, stature by weight, and head circumference change with varying economic conditions during early childhood. Our hypothesis is that adult head shape, as well as head size, is influenced by changes in childhood nutrition. When economic conditions are bad, nutrition and health suffer, and the result is dolichocephaly. To test this hypothesis, we measured the head length, width, and circumference of 398 adult males in Jordan. Fifty-six percent are ethnic Jordanians, and 44% are ethnic Palestinians. We divided the modern history of Jordan and the West Bank into four periods developed from historical economic data. The results of the study show that the cephalic index (CI) among Jordanians increased significantly with economic improvement but decreased slightly during the best economic period, whereas CI remained stable across all periods among Palestinians. The pattern among Jordanians can be explained in terms of maternal environment and early childhood nutrition. The lack of pattern in Palestinians may be due to changing nursing practices, bottle feeding, or sleeping position. When economic conditions were bad, Jordanian mothers and infants suffered from malnutrition and deficits in health care services during pre- and postnatal periods. Infants were born with very low birth weight and longer heads. However, the highest mean value of head size, circumference, among Jordanians and Palestinians is obtained from individuals who were children during the bad economic period, an unexpected result. No significant linear or quadratic trend was found for either Palestinians' or Jordanians' head circumference over time. PMID:19317596

  6. Telecardiology Application in Jordan: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Disease Management, Patients' Quality of Life, and Time- and Cost-Savings

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M.; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A.; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life. PMID:25400661

  7. Ground-water flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer related to contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St Louis Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was developed to assess the movement of coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. The model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. Sensitivity testing indicated that leakage to the upper model layer and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the basal confining unit of the St. Peter were the most sensitive model hydrologic properties. Model simulations indicated that water introduced into the aquifer through wells open to several aquifers would raise the potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan by as much as 3 ft in the area of the former plant. Other simulations suggested that withdrawal from certain upgradient wells may have altered local hydraulic gradients. These factors contributed to the potential for movement of contaminants from the area of the former plant to wells. Simulations of a proposed gradient-control plan indicate that the actions would be effective in limiting the expansion of the contaminated volume. These simulations also show, however, that control of discharge from all wells in the area will be important to the overall effectiveness of the plan. (USGS)

  8. Mental health status of women in Jordan: a comparative study between attendees of governmental and UN relief and works agency's health care centers.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Hamaideh, Shaher; Mudallal, Rula

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in mental health problems between attendees of governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan. Further, predictors of mental health problems based on women's demographic profile were investigated. A convenience sample of 620 women attending governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan was recruited for this purpose. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify differences in mental health, and multiple linear regression was implemented to identify significant predictors of women's mental health problems. Results indicated an absence of significant differences in mental health problems between attendees of the two types of health care centers. Further, among the demographic indicators that were tested, income, spousal violence, and general health were the predictors of at least three different mental health problems in women. This study highlights opportunities for health professionals to decrease women's propensity for mental health problems by addressing these factors when treating women attending primary care centers in different Jordanian towns, villages, and refugee camps. PMID:24766173

  9. Naho Orita, Rebecca McKeown, Naomi H. Feldman, Jeffrey Lidz, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Discovering Pronoun Categories using Discourse Information. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 2013.

    E-print Network

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Naho Orita, Rebecca McKeown, Naomi H. Feldman, Jeffrey Lidz, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Discovering. @inproceedings{Orita:McKeown:Feldman:Lidz:Boyd-Graber-2013, Author = {Naho Orita and Rebecca McKeown and Naomi H@umd.edu) Rebecca McKeown (rmckeown@umd.edu) Naomi H. Feldman (nhf@umd.edu) Jeffrey Lidz (jlidz@umd.edu) Department

  10. Multi-response calibration of a conceptual hydrological model in the semiarid catchment of Wadi al Arab, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödiger, T.; Geyer, S.; Mallast, U.; Merz, R.; Krause, P.; Fischer, C.; Siebert, C.

    2014-02-01

    A key factor for sustainable management of groundwater systems is the accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Hydrological models are common tools for such estimations and widely used. As such models need to be calibrated against measured values, the absence of adequate data can be problematic. We present a nested multi-response calibration approach for a semi-distributed hydrological model in the semi-arid catchment of Wadi al Arab in Jordan, with sparsely available runoff data. The basic idea of the calibration approach is to use diverse observations in a nested strategy, in which sub-parts of the model are calibrated to various observation data types in a consecutive manner. First, the available different data sources have to be screened for information content of processes, e.g. if data sources contain information on mean values, spatial or temporal variability etc. for the entire catchment or only sub-catchments. In a second step, the information content has to be mapped to relevant model components, which represent these processes. Then the data source is used to calibrate the respective subset of model parameters, while the remaining model parameters remain unchanged. This mapping is repeated for other available data sources. In that study the gauged spring discharge (GSD) method, flash flood observations and data from the chloride mass balance (CMB) are used to derive plausible parameter ranges for the conceptual hydrological model J2000g. The water table fluctuation (WTF) method is used to validate the model. Results from modelling using a priori parameter values from literature as a benchmark are compared. The estimated recharge rates of the calibrated model deviate less than ±10% from the estimates derived from WTF method. Larger differences are visible in the years with high uncertainties in rainfall input data. The performance of the calibrated model during validation produces better results than applying the model with only a priori parameter values. The model with a priori parameter values from literature tends to overestimate recharge rates with up to 30%, particular in the wet winter of 1991/1992. An overestimation of groundwater recharge and hence available water resources clearly endangers reliable water resource managing in water scarce region. The proposed nested multi-response approach may help to better predict water resources despite data scarcity.

  11. Strontium isotopes in Melanopsis sp. as indicators of variation in hydrology and climate in the Upper Jordan Valley during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, and wider implications.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Shoshana; Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Aquifers dominated by Pleistocene basalts and Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous rocks feed the Hula basin which is drained by the Jordan River into Lake Kinneret. The sedimentary sequence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene Benot Ya'akov Formation (BYF) exposed by excavations of the 0.78 Ma lake-side site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) consists of six cycles representing ca. 100 ka history of the Hula basin. This study characterizes the types of water sources in the catchment, tests the use of the Strontium (Sr) isotopes in the common extant snail Melanopsis sp. as a tracer for water in its habitat, and uses this tracer in the fossil specimens from GBY to investigate the palaeohydrology of the Hula paleolake during the corresponding period. The Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of extant Melanopsis shells in the Hula catchment range widely (0.7046-0.7079). These analyses define distinct groups of water sources and aquifers, while the Jordan River at the GBY site has values around 0.70685. The values for fossil Melanopsis from GBY vary along stratigraphy; they are highest around 0.70710 in Cycles 1 and 2, decrease to around 0.70685 in Cycle 3, and exhibit upward trending fluctuations in the subsequent cycles to 0.70703 in Cycle 6. This trend reveals the dominance of the Hermon Jurassic aquifer during the earlier, colder periods before the Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary (MBB) and enhanced influence of the Golan basaltic aquifers, in subsequent warmer periods, indicating that the MBB coincides with climate warming as supported by other indicators. Hence, this global geochronological indicator of 0.78 Ma is also potentially a global palaeoclimatic marker. The similarity between the Sr isotope composition of the Jordan River waters and Melanopsis and those from Cycle 3 suggests that the current climate corresponds to that of the warmest period within the record of GBY, clarifying the comparative interpretation of this 100 k.yr. climate record. PMID:21036385

  12. Assessment of natural recharges of the Plio-Plistocene shallow aquifer system in Al Uja area /Lower Jordan Valley / Occupied Palestinian Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasra, Kayan; Marei, Amer; Sbiah, Mohamed; Uter, Hussam; Abu Thaher, Ayman

    2013-04-01

    Al Uja area locates in the Lower Jordan Valley/West Bank at 250 m below sea level. The availability of ground water, fertile soil, and warm climate during winter months make it remarkable for its agricultural activities where 600 hectares are under irrigation. Al Uja karstic spring that drain water from the Mountain carbonate aquifer system with a discharge rate between 0.5 and 8 MCM/a , and nine groundwater boreholes that tape water from the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system, with an annual abstraction of 3.5 MCM are the water sources. The south-north fault system of the Jordan Rift Valley separates the two aquifer system. The shallow aquifer system locates to the east of the fault, where the Mountain aquifer system locates to the west. The Mountain aquifer consists of high fractured and karstified limestone and dolomite of Upper Cretaceous age, and the shallow aquifer system consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay layers of the Dead Sea group. Groundwater recharge of the Mountain aquifer system takes place in the highland area in the West with an annual precipitation of about 550 mm. Formations of the shallow aquifer system crop out in the Jordan Valley where rainfall does not exceed 250 mm/a . Due to the high evaporation rate, direct recharge is neglected. Only small portion of flooding water about 0.4MCM/a infiltrate through wadi Al Uja drainage system in to the Alluvial deposits to the shallow aquifer system. In the other hand, and since more than 40 years, the nine groundwater boreholes are taping about 3 MCM/a, water table decline of about 5 m. Currently, water table locates between -290 m in the west and decrease to - 311 m in the east. Groundwater flows from the Mountain aquifer in the west to the Shallow aquifer in the east through the major fault system. The permeability of the Mountain carbonate layers is 2.49E-1 m/min and decrease to 1.6 E-2 m/min in the layers of the Shallow aquifer system, this decrease of Kf-value east wards cause a semi-barrier for groundwater flow regime, also water salinity increase from 1500 µS/cm in Mountain aquifer to 3000 few hundred m to the east of the fault and rise to 6000 µS/cm in the eastern part. The groundwater flows east wards through a corridor of 1500 meter length along the fault system.

  13. Tidal-bundle sequences in the Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian), southeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.: Evidence for tides along inboard shorelines of the Sauk Epicontinental Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, C.H.; Cowan, C.A.; Runkel, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents for the first time tidal bundling in a lower Paleozoic sheet sandstone from the cratonic interior of North America, providing insights into the hydrodynamics of ancient epicontinental seas. The Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian) in the Upper Mississippi Valley contains large-scale planar tabular cross-sets with tidal-bundle sequences, which were analyzed in detail at an exceptional exposure. Tidal-bundle sequences (neap-spring-neap cycles) were delineated by foreset thickening-thinning patterns and composite shale drapes, the latter of which represent accumulations of mud during the neap tides of neap-spring-neap tidal cycles. Fourier analysis of the bundle thickness data from the 26 measurable bundle sequences revealed cycles ranging from 15 to 34 bundles per sequence, which suggests a semidiurnal or mixed tidal system along this part of the Late Cambrian shoreline. We extend the tidal interpretation to widespread occurrences of the same facies in outcrops of lesser quality, where the facies is recognizable but too few bundles are exposed for tidal cycles to be measured. By doing so, this study shows that tidally generated deposits have a significant geographic and temporal extent in Upper Cambrian strata of central mid-continent North America. The deposition and preservation of tidal facies was related to the intermittent development of shoreline embayments during transgressions. The tidally dominated deposits filled ravined topographies that were repeatedly developed on the updip parts of the shoreface. Resulting coastal geomorphologies, accompanied perhaps by larger-scale changes in basinal conditions and/or configuration, led to changes in depositional conditions from wave-dominated to tide-dominated. Outcrops of the Jordan Sandstone tidal facies in the Upper Mississippi Valley represent the farthest inboard recorded transmission of ocean-generated tides in the Laurentian epicontinental seas, demonstrating that tidal currents were significant agents in the transport of sand along the far cratonic interior shorelines of Cambrian North America. The results of this study improve the facies-level understanding of the genesis of sheet sandstones. Furthermore, tidalites documented here occur in a specific position within a sequence stratigraphic architecture for the Jordan Sandstone. This provides a framework to compare these ancient deposits and processes to younger (e.g., Carboniferous) epicontinental systems where stratal and sediment dynamics are better documented. ?? 2003, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  14. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  15. Factor Structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Cross-Cultural Comparisons Between Jordanian Arab and Malaysian Muslim University Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Musa, Ahmad S

    2014-05-27

    This study reported the differences in factor structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) among Jordanian Arab and Malaysian Muslim participants and further examined its validity and reliability. A convenience sample of 553 Jordanian Arab and 183 Malaysian Malay Muslim university students was recruited from governmental universities in northern Jordan. The findings of this study revealed that this scale consists of two factors for the Jordanian Arab group, representing the "Religious Well-Being" and the "Existential Well-Being" subscales, and consists of three factors for the Malaysian group, representing the "Affiliation/Meaning and Purpose," "Positive Existential Well-Being/God Caring and Love," and "Alienation/Despair" subscales. In conclusion, the factor structure of the SWBS for both groups in this study was psychometrically sound with evidence of acceptable to good validity and reliability. Furthermore, this study supported the multidimensional nature of the SWBS and the earlier notion that ethnicity shapes responses to this scale. PMID:24867886

  16. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

  17. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88 kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r2 = 0.93) and of eDMI (r2 = 0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16 kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9 kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. PMID:24596499

  18. STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiwan, A.; Khadra, L.; Shahab, W.; Olgaard, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Students in developing countries interested in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering & math) often choose majors that will improve their job opportunities in their home country when they graduate, e.g. engineering or medicine. Geoscience might be chosen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, but rarely as a primary major unless there are local economic natural resources. The Institute of International Education administers the ExxonMobil Middle East and North Africa region scholars program designed to develop skilled students with a focus on geoscience and to build relationships with academic leaders by offering select faculty the opportunity to participation in the AGU fall meeting. At the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), research in electrical engineering applied to medicine has potential links to geosciences. In geophysics, neural wavelet analysis (NWA) is commonly used to process complex seismic signals, e.g. for interpreting lithology or identifying hydrocarbons. In this study, NWA was used to characterize cardiac arrhythmias. A classification scheme was developed in which a neural network is used to identify three types of arrhythmia by distinct frequency bands. The performance of this scheme was tested using patient records from two electrocardiography (ECG) databases. These records contain normal ECG signals, as well as abnormal signals from atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrhythmias. The continuous wavelet transform is applied over frequencies of 0-50 Hz for times of 0-2s. For a normal ECG, the results show that the strongest signal is in a frequency range of 4-10 Hz. For AF, a low frequency ECG signal in the range of 0-5 Hz extends over the whole time domain. For VT, the low frequency spectrum is in the range of 2-10 Hz, appearing as three distinct bands. For VF, a continuous band in the range of 2-10 Hz extends over the whole time domain. The classification of the three arrhythmias used a Back-propagation neural network whose input is the energy level calculated from the wavelet transform. The network was trained using 13 different patterns (3 for AF, 5 for VT and 5 for VF) and blind tested on 25 records. The classification scheme correctly identified all 9 VF records, 5 of 6 VT records, and 9 of 10 AF records. Manual interpretation of time-frequency seismic data is computationally intensive because large volumes of data are generated during the time-frequency analysis process. The proposed NWA method has the potential to partially automate the interpretation of seismic data. Also, a relatively straight-forward adaptation of the proposed NWA-based classification scheme may help identify hydrocarbon-laden reservoirs, which have been observed to contain enhanced low-frequency content in the time-frequency domain (Castagna, Sun, & Siegfried, 2003).

  19. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer's estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88 kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r (2) = 0.93) and of eDMI (r (2) = 0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16 kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9 kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. PMID:24596499

  20. Configuration of water table and distribution of downward leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson-Higdem, Dana C.; Larson, S.P.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

    1975-01-01

    The configuration of the water table as plotted at a contour interval of 20 feet (6 metres) on quadrangle maps (scale 1:2,500) of the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area. Control points used for mapping were water levels in wells, lakes and sloughs, and places where topographic contours cross perennial streams. A computer program, using a variation of Darcy's law, was developed to determine distribution of 1) downward leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer under steady-state conditions, using estimated vertical-hydraulic conductivity values for overlying materials; 2) calculated vertical hydraulic conductivity values, assuming uniform leakage to the aquifer; and 3) additional leakage to the aquifer resulting from increased pumpage during the summer. For data determination and data input to the computer program, the area was gridded into units of 1-minute longitude by 1-minute latitude, about 600 acres (243 hectares) per unit. Previous work estimated the increased summer pumpage (1971) of ground water to be 127 million gallons (481x106 litres) per day. Calculations, made Within the limits of governing assumptions, indicate that 10 to 20 percent of increased summer pumpage is derived from increased leakage. Most of the remainder is probably from captured natural discharge and induced recharge from major streams within the influence of summer cones of depression. Based on available data and estimates of vertical hydraulic conductivity for geologic units, major leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer is indicated to occur in formation subcrop areas, especially where these areas are. overlain by the most permeable glacial drift.

  1. Minnesota River at Jordan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  2. Jordan Triple Disystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray R. Bremner; Raul Felipe; Juana Sanchez-Ortega

    2011-01-01

    We take an algorithmic and computational approach to a basic problem in abstract algebra: determining the correct generalization to dialgebras of a given variety of nonassociative algebras. We give a simplified statement of the KP algorithm introduced by Kolesnikov and Pozhidaev for extending polynomial identities for algebras to corresponding identities for dialgebras. We apply the KP algorithm to the defining

  3. Aspen Jordan Final Paper

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    ) Introduction In a day and age where "Green" is the new buzzword, many organizations are searching for ways experienced food-cost reductions at Driscoll dining hall, which has been tray-free for a year. Williams to explore the financial and environmental benefits of tray-free dining as they have been proven both at peer

  4. Modelling surface runoff and water productivity in small dryland watersheds with water-harvesting interventions, an application from Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Akroush, S.; Mudabber, M.; Ziadat, F.; Oweis, T.

    2009-04-01

    Vast areas of the rangelands (badia) of West Asia and North Africa are severely degraded due to over-grazing, cutting of shrubs and ploughing. Because of the scarce vegetation cover and the often dense soil surface crust, a large part of the limited rainfall runs off to wadis or evaporates back to the atmosphere with little local benefit. To develop and evaluate techniques for rehabilitation of the degraded lands an integrated research project was implemented with two communities in the badia of Jordan. The average annual rainfall in the research area is approximately 150 mm/yr. The project tested different micro-catchment water-harvesting techniques (earthen dikes planted with fodder shrubs) to capture the runoff and improve plant survival and growth in the watersheds. To estimate the long-term benefits of these water-harvesting systems and to assist with watershed-level planning and design a model is needed. However, current models can not capture the spatially variable runoff and water-harvesting processes in these environments. The objective of the research was to develop a model for estimating the runoff and biomass production of small badia watersheds with and without water-harvesting interventions. The basic spatial unit of the model is a square grid cell. Each cell is assigned to a specific land use unit, based on the characteristics of the soil and surface that affect the runoff, infiltration, and biomass production potential of the land. The model computes infiltration and runoff for each cell from daily rainfall with a curvilinear equation, based on data from plot studies. The runoff is routed using a 10-m digital elevation model and can infiltrate in downstream cells. The water infiltrated in each cell is summed for the August-September hydrologic year; and the annual biomass production is computed based on the water productivity potential of the cell. The model was applied to a 119-ha watershed, where 11 ha of micro-catchments were implemented, using a 32-year rainfall record. The slopes in the watershed vary between 0 and 12% with the majority of the land ranging between 2 and 6%. The soils are generally shallow (less than 0.5 m) and on the stony hilltops the bedrock is sometimes exposed. However, deep alluvial soils are found in local depressions and along the main wadi. The majority of the land is ploughed for barley, with alternate fallow years. During fallow years, some natural vegetation grows in the land. Due to the limited and often poorly distributed rain the barley produces none or little grain, and is usually grazed by flocks of sheep and goats in spring. Highly degraded natural rangeland vegetation is found on the stony upper-slopes, but the deep soils along the main wadi turn green after good rainfall. Model simulations, using best parameter estimates, indicated that the water-harvesting interventions reduced the average runoff out of the watershed by 3%. Because the micro-catchments are established in the gently sloping lands, there may be an option to combine these micro-catchment systems with small dams or reservoirs to capture the runoff from more rocky upstream areas. The average biomass production of the water-harvesting intervention area increased from 0.44 ton/ha under the original farmer management to 0.56 ton/ha per year under water-harvesting. Even more importantly, the water harvesting resulted in much more stable biomass production, with a coefficient of variation of 0.42, as compared to 0.89 for the original farmer treatment. Field observations also indicated that the micro-catchments and the year-round cover of shrubs in the water-harvesting area reduced erosion and provided a micro-environment that improved the biodiversity of the site. The model has helped us to better understand the system and to compute the economics of these interventions. Data collection is on-going to improve the parameterization of the model, including the erosion component.

  5. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    During 2008-2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation in cooperation with the Triangle J Council of Governments Cape Fear River Flow Study Committee and the North Carolina Division of Water Resources to collect hydrologic data in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington in central North Carolina to help determine if suspected flow losses occur in the reach. Flow loss analyses were completed by summing the daily flow releases at Jordan Lake Dam with the daily discharges at Deep River at Moncure and Buckhorn Creek near Corinth, then subtracting these values from the daily discharges at Cape Fear River at Lillington. Examination of long-term records revealed that during 10,227 days of the 1983-2010 water years, 408 days (4.0 percent) had flow loss when conditions were relatively steady with respect to the previous day's records. The flow loss that occurred on these 40 days ranged from 0.49 to 2,150 cubic feet per second with a median flow loss of 37.2 cubic feet per second. The months with the highest number of days with flow losses were June (16. percent), September (16.9 percent), and October (19.4 percent). A series of synoptic discharge measurements made on six separate days in 2009 provided "snapshots" of overall flow conditions along the study reach. The largest water diversion is just downstream from the confluence of the Haw and Deep Rivers, and discharges substantially decrease in the main stem downstream from the intake point. Downstream from Buckhorn Dam, minimal gain or loss between the dam and Raven Rock State Park was noted. Analyses of discharge measurements and ratings for two streamgages-one at Deep River at Moncure and the other at Cape Fear River at Lillington-were completed to address the accuracy of the relation between stage and discharge at these sites. The ratings analyses did not indicate a particular time during the 1982-2011 water years in which a consistent bias occurred in the computations of discharge records that would indicate false flow losses. A total of 34 measured discharges at a streamgage on the Haw River below B. Everett Jordan Lake near Moncure were compared with the reported hourly flow releases from Jordan Lake Dam. Because 28 of 34 measurements were within plus or minus 10 percent of the hourly flow releases reported by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, use of the current discharge computation tables for reporting Jordan Lake Dam flow releases is generally supported. A stage gage was operated on the Cape Fear River at Buckhorn Dam near Corinth to collect continuous stage-only records. Throughout the study period, flow over the dam was observed along its length, and flow loss within the study reach is not attributed to river-level fluctuations at the dam. Water-use information and (or) data were obtained for five industrial facilities, a regional power utility, two municipalities, one small hydropower facility on the Deep River, and one quarry operation also adjacent to the Deep River. The largest water users are the regional power producer, a small hydropower operation, and the two municipalities. The total water-use diversions for these facilities range from almost 25.5 to 38.5 cubic feet per second (39.5 to 59.5 million gallons per day) during the winter and summer periods, respectively. This range is equivalent to 69 to 104 percent of the 37 cubic feet per second median flow loss. The Lockville hydropower station is on the Deep River about 1 mile downstream from the streamgage near Moncure. Run-of-river operations at the facility do not appear to affect flow losses in the study reach. The largest water user in the study area is a regional power producer at a coal-fired power-generation plant located immediately adjacent to the Cape Fear River just downstream from the confluence of the Haw an Deep Rivers. Comparisons of daily water withdrawals, sup-plied by the regional power producer, and discharge records at a streamgage on the diversion canal indicated many days when consumption exceeded the producer's estimates for the cooli

  6. Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for reproductive health, a standard of care in humanitarian emergencies, is a coordinated set of priority activities developed to prevent excess morbidity and mortality, particularly among women and girls, which should be implemented at the onset of an emergency. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the status of MISP implementation for Syrian refugees in Jordan as part of a global evaluation of reproductive health in crises. Methods In March 2013, applying a formative evaluation approach 11 key informant interviews, 13 health facility assessments, and focus group discussions (14 groups; 159 participants) were conducted in two Syrian refugee sites in Jordan, Zaatri Camp, and Irbid City, respectively. Information was coded, themes were identified, and relationships between data explored. Results Lead health agencies addressed the MISP by securing funding and supplies and establishing reproductive health focal points, services and coordination mechanisms. However, Irbid City was less likely to be included in coordination activities and health facilities reported challenges in human resource capacity. Access to clinical management of rape survivors was limited, and both women and service provider’s knowledge about availability of these services was low. Activities to reduce the transmission of HIV and to prevent excess maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality were available, although some interventions needed strengthening. Some planning for comprehensive reproductive health services, including health indicator collection, was delayed. Contraceptives were available to meet demand. Syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections and antiretrovirals for continuing users were not available. In general refugee women and adolescent girls perceived clinical services negatively and complained about the lack of basic necessities. Conclusions MISP services and key elements to support implementation were largely in place. Pre-existing Jordanian health infrastructure, prior MISP trainings, dedicated leadership and available funding and supplies facilitated MISP implementation. The lack of a national protocol on clinical management of rape survivors hindered provision of these services, while communities’ lack of information about the health benefits of the services as well as perceived cultural repercussions likely contributed to no recent service uptake from survivors. This information can inform MISP programming in this setting. PMID:25798190

  7. Late Holocene activity of the Dead Sea Transform revealed in 3D palaeoseismic trenches on the Jordan Gorge segment [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Shmuel; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Heimann, Ariel; Frieslander, Uri; Agnon, Amotz

    2005-05-01

    Three-dimensional excavations of buried stream channels that have been displaced by the Jordan Fault, the primary strand of the Dead Sea fault zone in northern Israel, demonstrate that late Holocene slip has been primarily strike-slip at a minimum rate of 3 mm/yr. The palaeoseismic study was carried out in the Bet-Zayda Valley, the delta of the Jordan River at the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. The site was chosen where a north-striking scarp with up to 1-m vertical expression crosses the flat valley. One group of trench excavations was located where a small stream crosses the scarp. The active stream, which is incised into the scarp, is not offset by the fault. However we found two palaeo channels about 2 m below the surface offset sinistrally 2.7±0.2 m by the fault and two younger nested channels offset 0.5±0.05 m. Based on radiocarbon dates we attribute the last 0.5 m rupture to the earthquake of October 30, 1759. The older offset of 2.2 m most probably occurred in the earthquakes of May 20, 1202. These two events correlate with the findings at Ateret, about 12 km north of Bet-Zayda, where the 1202 earthquake produced 1.6 m of lateral displacement in E-W-striking defence walls of a Crusader castle, and an Ottoman mosque was offset 0.5 m in the earthquake of 1759. In the second group of trenches some 60 m farther south we found another offset channel. Its northern margin is displaced 15 m sinistrally whereas the southern margin shows only 9 m of sinistral offset. The dip slip component is 1.2 m, west side down. The different amounts of margin offset can be explained by erosion of the southern margin during the first 6 m of displacement. Additional slip of 9 m accrued after the stream had been abandoned and buried by a 2-m-thick lacustrine clay layers. Radiocarbon dates on organic residue provide the age control which indicates that the 15 m of slip has accrued over the past 5 kyr, yielding a short-term slip rate of 3 mm/yr for the late Holocene. It is possible that our study covers only part of the fault zone, hence we regard this mean slip rate to be a minimum for the DST. Based on other palaeoseismic studies the best estimate for Quaternary slip rate is 4±1 mm/yr.

  8. An unholy disease in the Holy Land: the history of anthrax between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea (1909-2012).

    PubMed

    Elad, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The history of recorded cases of anthrax in human beings and animals from 1909 to 2012 in the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea is reviewed. The disease was endemic until the middle of the 20th century, but the incidence decreased thereafter, with only sporadic cases from the 1980s onwards. Human cases have not been diagnosed in the region since 1984 and the number of episodes of animal disease has reduced to less than one per year. This decline is mostly due to the disruption of the infective cycle by improved veterinary control, including vaccination, treatment and outbreak management. A policy of reactive vaccination for 10 years of affected herds and herds grazing in their proximity has been applied. No new outbreaks have been observed in such herds after the cessation of vaccination, despite continued grazing on the same sites, so it is assumed that spore survival in such areas is shorter than 10 years. This is independent of the soil composition, which is calcareous throughout most of the relevant area. However, reemergence of anthrax, even after decades, has occurred following disturbance and heavy rainfall. PMID:24135549

  9. Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. during different growth stages in the south of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S; Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Al-Tawaha, Abdel Rahman; Ereifej, Khalil; Almajwal, Ali; Odat, Nidal; Al Khateeb, Wesam

    2012-01-01

    The effect of plant space and time of harvesting on yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated in Jordan. Thyme was cultivated in rows of 50?cm apart with inter-row spacing of 15, 30 or 45?cm and was grown at various development stages. Plants were harvested during different growth stages including vegetation, beginning of blooming, full blooming and fruit maturation. Results indicated that oil yields of thyme were affected by growth stage and inter-row spacing. The maximum oil yields was obtained by harvesting at the early growth stage, which was found superior to oil yield corresponding to the later stages of collection. With 45?cm inter-row spacing, the maximum oil yield was recorded when the samples were collected at growth stage. Indicated results showed that the chemical composition during various growth stages was characterised by high percentage of carvacrol and its corresponding monoterpenic hydrocarbon precursors ?-cymene and ?-terpinene, and ether 1,4-cineol. PMID:21707257

  10. The relationship between social support and adherence to healthy lifestyle among patients with coronary artery disease in the north of jordan.

    PubMed

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Al-Azzam, Manar; AlBashtawy, Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that social support improves health behaviors in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adherence to a healthy lifestyle, and social support and selected sociodemographics among patients with CAD. Cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A convenient sample of 153 patients with CAD was recruited from the cardiac clinic in an educational hospital in the north of Jordan. One hundred and thirty-three patients completed the interview. Social support was the most significant predictor-t(124) = 9.51, p < .001-which explained 60% of variance in adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Providing patients with adequate social support improves adherence to a healthy lifestyle. More attention should be given to the elderly and patients with low income to enhance adherence to a healthy lifestyle. The applications of this study in practice provide a guide for nursing clinical assessment of social support for patients facing CAD. PMID:24021210

  11. Essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: assessment of safety in mammalian cells and its antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Ferreira, I V; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Al-bdour, T H; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5-50.3%) and camphor (8.8-25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

  12. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  13. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

  14. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

  15. The Jordanian Mid Jordan Valley is a classic focus of Leishmania major as revealed by RFLP of 56 isolates and 173 ITS-1-PCR-positive clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Ibrahim M; Shönian, Gabriele; Geith, Eid; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Natsheh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The identity of the causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the endemic Jordanian Mid Jordan Valley (JMidJV) was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) followed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The geographical distribution of CL and the usefulness of ITS1 PCR in diagnosis of suspected CL in the study area were also addressed. Over the period from 2004 to 2009, 56 clinical isolates of Leishmania promastigotes and 185 lesion scrapings spotted on filter papers were obtained from suspected CL patients living in the JMidJV, which is divided into northern and southern districts. The majority (67.1%) of patients occurred in the populated eastern part of the southern district. Of the 185 suspected CL patients, 173 (93.5%) were confirmed positive using PCR. Leishmanial DNA was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 patients having clinically atypical lesions of CL and in 60 (92%) of 65 smear- and culture-negative cases having typical lesions of CL. The parasites in all of the 56 isolates and the 173 PCR-positive scrapings were classified as Leishmania major. In conclusion, PCR is useful in diagnosis of CL especially when smear and culture are negative. It is also recommended as a differential diagnostic tool of atypical lesions when CL is endemic. The identification of L.?major as the causative species in such a considerable number of CL cases, representative of all mini foci of CL in the study area, shows that the JMidJV is a classic focus of L.?major. PMID:25450773

  16. Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnet, S.; Hosseinzadeh, R.; Antunes, M. T.; Balbino, A. C.; Kozlov, V. A.; Cappetta, H.

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark. Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. ensis Leidy [Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms. Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks. Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: Xiphodolamia serrata nov. sp. This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

  17. A hybrid composite dike suite from the northern Arabian Nubian Shield, southwest Jordan: Implications for magma mixing and partial melting of granite by mafic magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Yaseen, Najel; Theye, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The Arabian Nubian Shield is an exemplary juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age (1000-542 Ma). The post-collisional rift-related stage (~ 610 to 542 Ma) of its formation is characterized among others by the intrusion of several generations of simple and composite dikes. This study documents a suite of hybrid composite dikes and a natural example of partial melting of granite by a mafic magma from the northernmost extremity of Arabian Nubian Shield in southwest Jordan. The petrogenesis of this suite is discussed on the basis of field, petrographic, geochemical, and Rb/Sr isotopic data. These dikes give spectacular examples of the interaction between basaltic magma and the granitic basement. This interaction ranges from brecciation, partial melting of the host alkali feldspar granite to complete assimilation of the granitic material. Field structures range from intrusive breccia (angular partially melted granitic fragments in a mafic groundmass) to the formation of hybrid composite dikes that are up to 14 m in thickness. The rims of these dikes are trachyandesite (latite) with alkali feldspar ovoids (up to 1 cm in diameter); while the central cores are trachydacite to dacite and again with alkali feldspar ovoids and xenoliths from the dike rims. The granitic xenoliths in the intrusive breccia have been subjected to at least 33% partial melting. A seven-point Rb/Sr isochron from one of these composite dikes yields an age of 561 ± 33 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70326 ± 0.0003 (2?) and MSWD of 0.62. Geochemical modeling using major, trace, rare earth elements and isotopes suggests the generation of the hybrid composite dike suite through the assimilation of 30% to 60% granitic crustal material by a basaltic magma, while the latter was undergoing fractional crystallization at different levels in the continental crust.

  18. Water quality and geochemistry evaluation of groundwater upstream and downstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant/Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjali, William; Al-Hadidi, Kheir; Ismail, Ma'mmon

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the northeastern Amman-Zarqa basin is an important source of water for irrigation. The quality and quantity of water has deteriorated due to mismanagement and misunderstanding of the hydrogeological system. Overexploitation of groundwater resources upstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant (KSWTP) has lowered the water table 43 m since the beginning of groundwater development in 1968. Heavy pumping of groundwater downstream of KSWTP has not dropped the water level due to constant recharge from the Zarqa river bed. The water level of groundwater is rising continuously at a rate of 20 cm per year since building the KSWTP in 1985. Groundwater salinity has also shifted the quality of the aquifer from fresh to brackish. Continual irrigation from the groundwater upstream of KSWTP dissolves accumulated salt from the soil formed by evaporation, and the contaminated water infiltrates back to the aquifer, thereby increasing both salt and nitrate concentrations. The intense irrigation from the reclaimed water downstream of KSWTP and leakage of treated wastewater from the Zarqa River to the shallow groundwater is a secondary source of salt and nitrates. The isotopic composition of groundwater varies over a wide range and is associated with the meteoric water line affected by Mediterranean Sea air moisture. The isotopic composition of groundwater is represented by evaporation line (EL) with a low slope of 3.6. The enrichment of groundwater in ?18O and ?D is attributed mainly to the two processes of evaporation before infiltration of return flow and mixing of different types of water in KSWTP originating from different aquifers. The EL starts from a location more depleted than the weighted mean value of the Amman rainfall station on the Eastern Meteoric Water Line indicating that the recharge took place under the climate regime prevailing today in Jordan and the recharge of the groundwater originates from a greater elevation than that of the Amman station. Elevated high tritium levels observed in wells in close proximity to a regional fault system signify local recharge and short residence time. The Khaldyia dam is a local source for groundwater recharge.

  19. Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Jeffrey L; Pappas, Gregory; Murray, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005). Methods An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes. Results The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative. Conclusion The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC suggests culture is broader than organizational or societal culture to include an informal global network of medical professionals and Western technologies which facilitate global interaction. Additionally, political competencies among leaders may be particularly relevant in globalizing health care services where the goal is achieving international standards of care. Western communication technologies facilitate cross-border interaction, but social and political capital possessed by the leaders may be necessary for transactions across national borders to occur thus gaining access to specialized information and global thought leaders in a medical sub-specialty such as oncology. PMID:18021412

  20. Field and Dual Magnetic Susceptibility Proxies Implication for Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in the Urban Soil of Al-Karak City, South Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hasan, T.; Lataifeh, M.

    2012-04-01

    A total of 115 urban soil samples collected on grid bases from Al-Karak City, south Jordan, were investigated for their magnetic properties using Bartington portable magnetic susceptibility system with (MS2B and MS2D) probes. The magnetic proxies that were used in this study are the field & dual magnetic susceptibilities (?). In addition the heavy metal contents in soil were determined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS). The dual frequency magnetic susceptibility meter (MS2B) measurements showed that upper soils have higher values of (?lf) than lower soils. Moreover, the large grain size particles have more magnetic materials than smaller grain size particles. This might be attributed to the lack or low degree of pedogensis due to prevailing arid climate. The field magnetic susceptibility measurements (?field) were positively correlated with low frequency dual magnetic susceptibility (?lf). Few selected samples that have anomalous magnetic susceptibility values were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The results showed a positively significant correlation between total heavy metal content and ?, this was evident from the higher degree of fitness between the distribution maps of ? and each heavy metal in the study area. These results indicate the applicability of these proxies as pollution indicator, and showed that higher ? is associated with traffic areas more than industrial and residential areas. The Frequency Dependent Susceptibility (?fd% ) was found to be medium value and ranges between (2-10%), which indicate the presence of admixture of fine Super magnetic Particles (SP) or coarse non-SP grains or SP grains < 0.005 micron. A mildly significant correlation existed between ?fd% and ?lf, which implies that the soils contain anthropogenic multi-domain and stable single domain grains. Moreover, the hysteresis loop patterns, SEM investigations, thermo magnetic heating curves and XRD charts reveal the presence of magnetite as the main magnetic mineral phase. This confirms the anthropogenic source of pollution mainly from the vehicles emissions beside frame and brakes corroded materials. The positive correlation between heavy metal and magnetic parameters was additionally evidenced by using the index of pollution (IP) method, where the samples of high IP for (?lf) are almost the same samples that have high IP of THM content.