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1

Larval mosquitoes collected from northern Jordan and the Jordan Valley.  

PubMed

Nineteen species of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are reported from larval collections made in northern Jordan and the Jordan Valley. Culex judaicus, Culiseta annulata, and Uranotaenia unguiculata are reported as new records for Jordan. The impact of agricultural development and man-made changes on the mosquito fauna of Jordan is discussed. PMID:9474565

Amr, Z S; al-Khalili, Y; Arbaji, A

1997-12-01

2

Jordan: Self Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Self-Study Guide: Jordan is intended to provide U.S. Government personnel in the foreign affairs community with an overview of important issues related to Jordanian history, geography, politics, economics, culture, religion, media, and international r...

2002-01-01

3

Phosphate Mines, Jordan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

4

Horseflies of Jordan.  

PubMed

The horsefly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Jordan consists of 21 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds 17 new records to this little-known group of haematophagous insects. Most of the new records were collected from several localities within the Jordan Valley. These new records are Chrysops flavipes Meigen, Atylotus farinosus (Szilády), Dasyrhamphis umbrinus (Meigen), Haematopota coronata Austen, Hybomitra decora (Loew), Hybomitra mendica (Villeneuve), Tabanus accensus Austen, T. albifacies Loew, T. bifarius Loew, T. darimonti Leclercq, T. laetetinctus Becker, T. leleani Austen, T. pallidipes Austen, T. regularis Jaennicke, T. rupinae Austen, T. sufis Jaennicke and Therioplectes tunicatus (Szilády). Tabanus albifacies and T. sufis were the most common species collected by hand nets (19.85% and 17.73%, respectively) and D. umbrinus, Haematopota minuscula Austen, and Haematopota coronata were the least common species (0.12% for each). Zoogeographical analysis of the recorded species showed that 12 species are of Mediterranean origin, four are of Afrotropical origin, two of European origin and at least three species can be considered as endemic to the Middle East. PMID:15189248

Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

2004-06-01

5

Geophysical investigations in Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

Kovach, R. L.; Andreasen, G. E.; Gettings, M. E.; El-Kaysi, K.

1990-01-01

6

Circassian Language Maintenance in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data…

Rannut, Ulle

2009-01-01

7

Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 167 m per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the levels of aquifers and the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial, and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on

Christopher A. Scott; Hazim El-Naser; Ross E. Hagan; Amal Hijazi

2003-01-01

8

Jordan-type inequalities for differentiable functions and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we extend Jordan’s inequality to obtain a new type of inequality involving functions and their higher-order derivatives. The result is then used to obtain some higher accurate inequalities of Jordan type.

Shanhe Wu; Lokenath Debnath

2008-01-01

9

Contributions to the flora of Jordan: new and interesting plants from Dana Nature Reserve, SW Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danin, A.: Contributions to the flora of Jordan: new and interesting plants from Dana Nature Reserve, SW Jordan. ? Willdenowia 27: 161?175. 1997. ? ISSN 0511?9618. Rubia danaensis, Micromeria danaensis, and Silene danaensis from sandstone and limestone outcrops of the Dana Reserve, SW Jordan, are described as species new to science, illustrated, and compared with their closest relatives. The heterogeneous

AVINOAM DANIN

10

Treatability assessment of Jordan Lake  

SciTech Connect

At the time the study was initiated, Jordan Lake was being considered as a source of municipal drinking water by several communities in the central Piedmont of N.C. This research project evaluated three treatment scenarios for Jordan Lake water. The first consisted of conventional coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration, followed by chlorination. The other two involved advanced treatment schemes, one incorporating adsorption using granular activated carbon to remove disinfection by-product precursors and any synthetic organic chemicals in the raw water, and the other employing ozonation and chlorination as an alternative disinfection program to free chlorine. The results show that the treatment train involving granular activated carbon adsorption produced a water with the lowest total organic carbon concentration and the lowest formation of trihalomethanes and total organic halides.

Singer, P.C.; Ball, L.M.; DiGiano, F.A.; Miller, K.L.; Taylor, H.C.

1994-01-01

11

8.EE Kimi and Jordan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Kimi and Jordan are each working during the summer to earn money in addition to their weekly allowance, and they are saving all their money. Kimi earns...

12

Jordan-Brans-Dicke Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is primarily an historical survey of the origins and evolution of only one of a variety of many scalar-tensor (ST) alternatives to the standard Einstein equations of General Relativity. This review will only address itself to what has become known as the Brans-Dicke, or more properly Jordan-Brans-Dicke, theory based on the 1961 publications of Brans and Dicke. These papers substantially duplicate much of the work of Jordan and his group. However, for several reasons, including the stature of Dicke, this theoretical work from the 1960's was seminal in triggering an explosion of interest, both theoretical and experimental, into Einstein's theory and its alternatives. Until that time the early corroboration of Einstein's equations seemed to preclude interest in investigation of alternatives. From the 1960's on however, ST theories provided a remarkable impetus for renewed exploration into gravitational physics. Perhaps this has been their most significant contribution to the field of space-time physics, now especially in cosmology.

Brans, Carl H.

2014-03-01

13

Assault by burning in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

Haddadin, W.

2012-01-01

14

Jordan ships oil shale to China  

SciTech Connect

Jordan and China have signed an agreement to develop oil shale processing technology that could lead to a 200 ton/day oil shale plant in Jordan. China will process 1200 tons of Jordanian oil shale at its Fu Shun refinery. If tests are successful, China could build the demonstration plant in Jordan's Lajjun region, where the oil shale resource is estimated at 1.3 billion tons. China plans to send a team to Jordan to conduct a plant design study. A Lajjun oil shale complex could produce as much as 50,000 b/d of shale oil. An earlier 500 ton shipment of shale is said to have yielded promising results.

Not Available

1986-12-01

15

Jordan algebras and orthogonal polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We illustrate how Jordan algebras can provide a framework for the interpretation of certain classes of orthogonal polynomials. The big -1 Jacobi polynomials are eigenfunctions of a first order operator of Dunkl type. We consider an algebra that has this operator (up to constants) as one of its three generators and whose defining relations are given in terms of anticommutators. It is a special case of the Askey-Wilson algebra AW(3). We show how the structure and recurrence relations of the big -1 Jacobi polynomials are obtained from the representations of this algebra. We also present ladder operators for these polynomials and point out that the big -1 Jacobi polynomials satisfy the Hahn property with respect to a generalized Dunkl operator.

Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

2011-10-01

16

Jordan form of the difference of projectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jordan canonical form of the difference of projectors P — Q for the eigenvalues ? ? -1, 0, 1 is proved to be made up of pairs of Jordan blocks; i.e., if there are several blocks J k (?), then there are exactly the same number of blocks J k (-?). For a block J k (±1) with k > 1, there is necessarily a pair block J l (?1), where | k — l| < 1.

Vetoshkin, A. M.

2014-03-01

17

Energy conditions in the Jordan frame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The null energy condition, in its usual form, can appear to be violated by transformations in the conformal frame of the metric. We propose a generalization of the form of the null energy condition to the Jordan frame, in which matter is non-minimally coupled, which reduces to the familiar form in the Einstein frame. Using our version of the null energy condition, we provide a direct proof of the second law of black hole thermodynamics in the Jordan frame.

Chatterjee, Saugata; Easson, Damien A.; Parikh, Maulik

2013-12-01

18

Socio-Spatial Planning Problems within Jordan Valley, Jordan: Obstacles to Sustainable Tourism Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan Valley represents a distinctive variety of natural and cultural resources. It is considered a major destination for seasonal tourism in Jordan. However, the valley suffers from a serious shortage in urban infrastructure necessary for sustainable tourism development. A field survey is carried out to identify the type and range of such problems in relation to the existing infrastructure system.

Sharaf Al-Kheder; Naif Haddad; Mahmood Abo Jaber; Yahya Al-Shawabkeh; Leen Fakhoury

2010-01-01

19

Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

2004-01-01

20

Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of recording. In addition, Hittiyah is being calibrated for coda magnitude estimation and is placed favorably to estimate mechanism and magnitude for earthquakes along the Dead Sea Rift and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

1999-07-23

21

Noncommutative jordan algebras with commutators satisfying an alternativity condition.  

PubMed

The theorems of this paper show that the main results in the structure and representation theory of Jordan algebras and of alternative algebras are valid for a larger class of algebras defined by simple identities which obviously hold in the Jordan and alternative cass. A new unification of the Jordan and associative theories is also achieved. PMID:16591813

Block, R E

1970-01-01

22

Noncommutative Jordan Algebras with Commutators Satisfying an Alternativity Condition*  

PubMed Central

The theorems of this paper show that the main results in the structure and representation theory of Jordan algebras and of alternative algebras are valid for a larger class of algebras defined by simple identities which obviously hold in the Jordan and alternative cass. A new unification of the Jordan and associative theories is also achieved.

Block, Richard E.

1970-01-01

23

English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

Al-Saidat, Emad M.

2009-01-01

24

Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

2011-01-01

25

Additive (?, ?) -Jordan derivations on CSL algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let L be an CSL algebra. Where ?, ? are surjective homomorphisms on L. We say that an additive (linear) mapping ? of L into self is called an additive (linear)(?, ?) -derivation if ?(AB)= ?(A)?(B)+?(A)?(B) for any A, B?L. In this paper we show that an additive (?, ?) -Jordan derivation on a CSL-algebra is an additive (?, ?)-derivation.

Majeed, Asia

2010-11-01

26

Hahn-Jordan decomposition for Gleason measures  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of the Hahn-Jordan decomposition for n-finite signed measured, where n is a cardinal, defined on a quantum logic of all closed subspaces of a Hilbert space whose dimension is a nonmeasurable cardinal not equal to 2, is investigated.

Dvurecenskij, A.

1987-06-01

27

75 FR 41898 - Slash Support, Inc. Gamehouse Products Support Workers South Jordan, UT; Notice of Revised...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gamehouse Products Support Workers South Jordan, UT; Notice of Revised Determination...Gamehouse Products Support Workers, South Jordan, Utah. The negative determination was...GameHouse Products Support Workers, South Jordan, Utah, who were engaged in...

2010-07-19

28

Department of Statistics: Kingdom of Jordan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1949, the Kingdom of Jordan's official Department of Statistics has created this website to provide broad access to important information about the country to audiences around the world. In the "About Us" area, visitors can learn about their census techniques and also take in a bit of additional information about their organization and the services they offer. The tabs on the left-hand side of the homepage give users access to economic reports, agriculture surveys, environmental statistics, and e-government. One particularly compelling report included in this area addresses the subject of the Iraqi population in Jordan, and it is a document which will interest political scientists and others. The site also contains a "What's New" section and statistical reports and the like in Arabic.

29

Volvulus of the sigmoid colon in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses 27 patients with sigmoid volvulus treated at Jordan University Hospital (JUH) during a 15-year period. These patients represented 4.7 percent of adult patients treated for intestinal obstruction in the same period. The average age was 54.5 years, and none of the patients was institutionalized. Twenty-five patients presented with acute symptoms, and two had chronic symptoms. Sigmoidoscopic detorsion

Ahmad S. Sroujieh; Ghassan R. Farah; Samir K. Jabaiti; Husam H. El-Muhtaseb; Mohammad S. Qudah; Mahmoud M. Abu-Khalaf

1992-01-01

30

Multiple sclerosis in Arabs in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 2-year hospital-based study (1992 and 1993), there were 131 multiple sclerosis patients attending 2 large referral hospitals in Jordan. Based on MSALS case ratios an overall rate of 32.1 (95% CI 19.7–55.2) was estimated. There were 126 Arabs of whom 84 were Palestinians and 36 indigenous Jordanians. Comparison of these subgroups, which had a similar age distribution revealed

A. S. Najim Al-Din; M. El-Khateeb; A. Kurdi; A. Mubaidin; A. Wriekat; Ahmed Al-Shehab; Raida W. Khalil

1995-01-01

31

Robust Jordan network for nonlinear time series prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a robust initialization of Jordan network with recurrent constrained learning (RIJNRCL) algorithm for multilayered recurrent neural networks (RNNs). This novel algorithm is based on the constrained learning concept of Jordan network with recurrent sensitivity and weight convergence anal- ysis to obtain a tradeoff between training and testing errors. In addition to use classical techniques of the adaptive learning

Qing Song

2011-01-01

32

Systematics and distribution of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna of Jordan consists of 24 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds two new records; Tabanus unifasciatus and Tabanus lunatus. Keys and illustrations for the horse flies of Jordan are presented based on examined materials. Distribution and geographic ranges for each species is also given. PMID:16007956

Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

2005-06-01

33

Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

2012-01-01

34

Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2010-01-01

35

Cop Rock: Protest, Identity, and Dancing Riot Police in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1997, a diverse group of Jordanians gathered outside of Amman to demonstrate against the opening of the first Israeli trade fair to be held in Jordan. The fair, intended to strengthen economic ties between Israel and Jordan, was organized as a provision of the 1994 peace treaty signed between the two countries. The Jordanian government anticipated a large

Jillian Schwedler

2005-01-01

36

Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

Erickson, Paul W.

2009-01-01

37

Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Engineering Education in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the…

Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

2010-01-01

38

The prospects for sustainable biodiesel production in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the feasibility of commercial biodiesel production in Jordan as an alternative fuel source. The study suggests that the most effective method of producing biodiesel in a country like Jordan could be based on large-scale microalgae cultivation. Since many strains of microalgae exist, it would first be necessary to identify the species most appropriate for growth in the

Julie Hamdi; Fahmi Abu Al-Rub; Naser Hamdi

2010-01-01

39

Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonfarm income has a greater impact on poverty and inequality in Egypt than in Jordan. In rural Egypt the poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from nonfarm sources, while in rural Jordan they receive less than 20 percent. The reason for this difference is land: in rural Egypt, agricultural land is very productive, but access is quite limited,

Richard H. Adams

2001-01-01

40

F-BF Kimi and Jordan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Kimi and Jordan are each working during the summer to earn money in addition to their weekly allowance. Kimi earns \\$9 per hour at her job, and her all...

41

A new generalized and sharp version of Jordan's inequality and its applications to the improvement of the Yang Le inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generalized and sharp version of Jordan’s inequality is proved and it is applied in the improvement of the Yang Le inequality. Moreover, a mistake in the proof of sharpening Jordan’s inequality due to Zhu [S.H. Wu, On generalizations and refinements of Jordan type inequality, Octogon Math. Mag. 12(1) (2004) 267–272] is corrected.

Shanhe Wu; Lokenath Debnath

2006-01-01

42

False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

1989-01-01

43

Jordan Spectrum Monitoring and Management Project Report and Tender Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the development of a modern Spectrum Monitoring and Management program for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Provided in this report is the description of a recommended organization and plans for the implementation of Monitoring and Dir...

1998-01-01

44

Comment on the Jordan-Brands-Dicke universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the recently obtained Jordan-Brans-Dicke solutions by Chauvet and Guzmán (1986) are either inconsistent, or only special power-law solutions derived previously by Lorenz-Petzold in various papers.

Lorenz-Petzold, D.

1987-06-01

45

Jordan Water Conservation Education Project Final Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water scarcity is an increasingly serious problem in the desert country of Jordan. Currently, all known sources of water have been tapped. Management of existing water sources and promotion of water rationing programs are vital to ensuring adequate water ...

D. Evans, M. Grieser, O. Hernandez, R. Ledsky, S. Middlestadt, B. Rawlins, J. Sanchack

1996-01-01

46

Radiometric Dating of the Ubeidiya Formation, Jordan Valley, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Ubeidiya Formation1 is known from three localities (Fig. 1) within the Jordan Valley, where it is steeply tilted, faulted and folded2,3. It is rich in prehistoric remains, representing the Developed Oldowan and Early Acheulean4. The Ubeidiya Formation is important in the Pleistocene history of the Jordan Valley for two reasons: it is the youngest sedimentary sequence to be severely

A. Horowitz; G. SIEDNER; O. BAR YOSEF

1973-01-01

47

Born-Jordan quantization and the uncertainty principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weyl correspondence and the related Wigner formalism lie at the core of traditional quantum mechanics. We discuss here an alternative quantization scheme, the idea of which goes back to Born and Jordan, and which has recently been revived in another context, namely time-frequency analysis. We show in particular that the uncertainty principle does not enjoy full symplectic covariance properties in the Born and Jordan scheme, as opposed to what happens in the Weyl quantization.

de Gosson, Maurice A.

2013-11-01

48

75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 12740-003] Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application...2010. Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the...July 13, 2009 d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of...

2010-02-09

49

76 FR 76703 - Jordan Whittaker; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14259-000] Jordan Whittaker; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...and supplemented November 17 and 21, 2011. d. Applicant: Jordan Whittaker. e. Name of Project: Eightmile Hydroelectric...

2011-12-08

50

Jordan: A Study of the Educational System of Jordan and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Jordan in Educational Institutions of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational system of Jordan is described, and placement recommendations concerning students who want to study in the United States are presented. After describing the setting and structure of Jordanian education, attention is directed to curricula and enrollments, undergraduate student admissions, higher education, and graduate education and…

Parker, Garland G.

51

Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty class costs, unit property damage cost, as well as police activities and insurance administration costs to accidents of various severity levels was suggested. The loss-of-output, the loss quality of life, the community and family losses, the temporary and permanent losses, and hospitalization and medical treatment costs were estimated in computing the unit cost for fatalities or injuries of different casualty classes. The vehicle repair cost, detention period cost, and public and private costs were accounted for in estimating the unit cost of property damages. The results indicate that the 1996 traffic accidents cost the country about JD 103 million ($US 146.3 million). PMID:10384228

al-Masaeid, H R; al-Mashakbeh, A A; Qudah, A M

1999-07-01

52

Volvulus of the sigmoid colon in Jordan.  

PubMed

This report discusses 27 patients with sigmoid volvulus treated at Jordan University Hospital (JUH) during a 15-year period. These patients represented 4.7 percent of adult patients treated for intestinal obstruction in the same period. The average age was 54.5 years, and none of the patients was institutionalized. Twenty-five patients presented with acute symptoms, and two had chronic symptoms. Sigmoidoscopic detorsion was achieved in 15 patients. Emergency resection was required in two of these patients: for the development of gangrene a few hours after detorsion in one patient and for recurrence within 24 hours in the other despite the presence of a rectal tube. Early recurrence occurred in two other patients and was managed endoscopically. Emergency surgery was performed in 10 other patients: for a failed endoscopic detorsion in three patients, for ulcerated and bleeding mucosa forecasting gangrene in another, and as a primary treatment in six patients who were either misdiagnosed or suspected to have gangrenous bowel. Elective resection was performed in 13 patients. The mortality rate was 15 percent (4/27) for the whole series and 33.3 percent (1/3) for those with gangrenous bowel. PMID:1733686

Sroujieh, A S; Farah, G R; Jabaiti, S K; el-Muhtaseb, H H; Qudah, M S; Abu-Khalaf, M M

1992-01-01

53

Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.  

PubMed

Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern. PMID:17838033

Henry, D O

1994-07-15

54

The performance of water utilities in Jordan.  

PubMed

This paper aims to measure the relative performance of Jordan's water utilities for water sector (WS) and wastewater sector (WWS), and to investigate the major factors behind their inefficiencies. DEA (non-parametric method) and Tobit model (parametric method) were used at two stages. At the first stage DEA was used to evaluate the utilities' efficiency and to investigate the utilities' scale effect on efficiency. At the second stage Tobit model (regression) is applied to determine the impact of the non-controllable factors on utilities' inefficiencies where the efficiency score is the dependent variable in the regression. The results of DEA showed that there is a potential to reduce inputs level: water supply and operational expense (OPEX) for WS, and treated wastewater and OPEX for WWS, by around 15-20 and 23-27%, respectively. Aqaba and Jarash utilities are the most efficient utilities in the WS, while it is Amman utility in the WWS. The utility size has relatively moderate effect on the relative performance. It is concluded that the medium utility size for WS and large utility size for WWS is the most appropriate. Tobit model results indicate that commercialization activities have a clear positive impact on efficiency improvement for both sectors. PMID:20729581

Al-Assa'd, Tamer; Sauer, Johannes

2010-01-01

55

78 FR 34089 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket Nos. CP13-483-000; PF12-7-000] Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2013, Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P. (Jordan Cove), 125 Central Avenue, Suite 380,...

2013-06-06

56

General and Special Education Systems in Jordan: Present and Future Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating a student with special needs became an interest in Jordan at the end of the 1960s. This article provides an overview of the general and special education systems in Jordan. Historical and demographical information is included for the purpose of placing the education of children in Jordan within the context of its land and the population…

Al Jabery, Mohammad; Zumberg, Marshall

2008-01-01

57

Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

2010-01-01

58

Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-08-24

59

77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PF12-7-000; Docket No. PF12-17-000] Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector...Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector...public scoping meetings to take comments on Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan...

2012-09-27

60

Black hole stability in Jordan and Einstein frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the classical stability of Schwarzschild black hole in Jordan and Einstein frames that are related by the conformal transformations. For this purpose, we introduce two models of the Brans-Dicke theory and Brans-Dicke-Weyl gravity in the Jordan frame and two corresponding models in the Einstein frame. The former model is suitable for studying the massless spin-2 graviton propagating around the Schwarzschild black hole, while the latter is designed for the massive spin-2 graviton propagating around the black hole. It turns out that the black hole (in)stability is independent of the frame which shows that the two frames are equivalent to each other.

Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

2014-05-01

61

Two-dimensional streamflow simulations of the Jordan River, Midvale and West Jordan, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jordan River in Midvale and West Jordan, Utah, flows adjacent to two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites: Midvale Slag and Sharon Steel. At both sites, geotechnical caps extend to the east bank of the river. The final remediation tasks for these sites included the replacement of a historic sheet-pile dam and the stabilization of the river banks adjacent to the Superfund sites. To assist with these tasks, two hydraulic modeling codes contained in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS), System for Transport and River Modeling (SToRM) and Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), were used to provide predicted water-surface elevations, velocities, and boundary shear-stress values throughout the study reach of the Jordan River. A SToRM model of a 0.7 mile subreach containing the sheet-pile dam was used to compare water-surface elevations and velocities associated with the sheet-pile dam and a proposed replacement structure. Maps showing water-surface elevation and velocity differences computed from simulations of the historic sheet-pile dam and the proposed replacement structure topographies for streamflows of 500 and 1,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were created. These difference maps indicated that the velocities associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were less than or equal to those associated with the historic sheet-pile dam. Similarly, water-surface elevations associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were all either greater than or equal to water-surface elevations associated with the sheet-pile dam. A FaSTMECH model was developed for the 2.5-mile study reach to aid engineers in bank stabilization designs. Predicted water-surface elevations, velocities and shear-stress values were mapped on an aerial photograph of the study reach to place these parameters in a spatial context. Profile plots of predicted cross-stream average water-surface elevations and cross-stream maximum and average velocities showed how these parameters change along the study reach for two simulated discharges of 1,040 ft3/s and 2,790 ft3/s. The profile plots for the simulated streamflow of 1,040 ft3/s show that the highest velocities are associated with the constructed sheet-pile replacement structure. Results for the simulated streamflow of 2,790 ft3/s indicate that the geometry of the 7800 South Bridge causes more backwater and higher velocities than the constructed sheet-pile replacement structure.

Kenney, Terry A.; Freeman, Michael L.

2011-01-01

62

Euclidean Jordan algebras, hidden actions, and J-Kepler problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a simple euclidean Jordan algebra, let co be its conformal algebra, be the manifold consisting of its semi-positive rank-one elements, C?() be the space of complex-valued smooth functions on . An explicit action of co on C?(), referred to as the hidden action of co on , is exhibited. This hidden action turns out to be mathematically responsible for the existence of the Kepler problem and its recently discovered vast generalizations, referred to as J-Kepler problems. The J-Kepler problems are then reconstructed and re-examined in terms of the unified language of euclidean Jordan algebras. As a result, for a simple euclidean Jordan algebra, the minimal representation of its conformal group can be realized either as the Hilbert space of bound states for its J-Kepler problem or as L2(,1rvol), where vol is the volume form on and r is the inner product of x? with the identity element of the Jordan algebra.

Meng, Guowu

2011-11-01

63

Children and Nationalism in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in Jordan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes engagement of children in a Palestinian refugee camp in Jordan with projects of nationalism. Outlines different visions for the children's future and ways these visions inform actions of their proponents. Focuses on how children draw upon different discourses of national community in the process of developing identities that are strongly…

Hart, Jason

2002-01-01

64

Children and Nationalism in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on fieldwork in a Palestinian refugee camp in Jordan, this article describes the engagement of children with projects of nationalism. In their position of marginality to both the Jordanian nation-state and the emerging Palestinian national entity, the children of Hussein Camp are the objects of different visions for their own collective future. The article offers a description of these

JASON HART

2002-01-01

65

Promoting Kindergarten Children's Creativity in the Classroom Environment in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at investigating teachers' classroom practices, which either stimulate or inhibit the development of the creative environment of classrooms in Jordan, and determining the differences between practices according to educational level, experience level and type of teaching. The sample of the study consisted of 215 kindergarten…

Dababneh, Kholoud; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman A.

2010-01-01

66

Jordan University Students' Performance on the Verbs Make and Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempted to study Jordan University students' performance on MAKE and DO at the two linguistic levels of production and recognition. The main objectives were to see if the students were aware of the differences in use between these high-frequency verbs; to identify the difficulties that students encountered in using or recognizing…

Eisouh, Zuhair

2012-01-01

67

Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

2013-01-01

68

Prospects of Hydropower Utilization for Electricity Generation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospects of hydropower utilization as a renewable energy source for electricity generation in Jordan are assessed. A hydroelectric power system is proposed for generating electricity by exploiting the resulted hydropower (due to the 400 m difference in elevation) from linking the Red Sea with the Dead Sea. A simulation model is suggested for the evaluation of electricity produced by the

E. S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

69

Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

70

Geology and petroleum prospects of Upper Triassic sediments, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface Upper Triassic sediments of northern Jordan represent part of a regressive evaporitic-clastic succession that marks the shrinkage phase of the Late Triassic basin in the northern parts of the Arabian Plate. Sabkhas developed along the basin margin, whereas, oolitic shoals formed on the deeper parts of the carbonate platform. The basin reached a drewdown stage in the Risha, Palmyra

F. N Sadooni; A Dalqamouni

1998-01-01

71

Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

2013-01-01

72

Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

1986-01-01

73

JORDAN CREEK STUDY, OWYHEE COUNTY, ID IN 1975-1976  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of 3 intensive surveys was completed on Jordan Creek in Owyhee County, ID (17050108) during August and October 1975 and June 1976. Studies were conducted to determine the water quality condition of the stream and to assess the impact of pollution sources. The study includ...

74

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations (March 6, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives ...

J. M. Sharp

2008-01-01

75

Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives ...

A. B. Prados J. M. Sharp

2006-01-01

76

Negation Errors in English by University of Jordan Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study attempted to determine whether the English negation errors made by the University of Jordan's students were similar to the English negation errors proposed by Klima and Bellugi (1966), or influenced by the Arabic syntactic structures of negative sentences. Data of negative structures were gathered, and error counts were…

Eisouh, Zuhair S.

2011-01-01

77

Teacher Education Programs in Jordan: A Reform Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study presents a historical background of teacher education in Jordan and outlines the components of the present teacher education program at Hashemite University. This includes admission policy, academic study plans, practicum programs, selection of cooperative schools, selection of cooperative teachers, stages of training, and assessment of…

Naba'h, Abdallah Abu; Al-Omari, Hamza; Ihmeideh, Fathi; Al-Wa'ily, Suad

2009-01-01

78

Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives ...

J. M. Sharp

2007-01-01

79

International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

2012-01-01

80

Cosmological models in conformal representations of Jordan theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the investigation of conformally-related variants of the modified tensor-scalar Jordan theory on the example of determination of the comparative characteristics of the model Universe in "Einstein" and "proper" frames. Within the framework of this model, we consider the possibility for the accelerated expansion of the Universe at the recent epoch.

Avakyan, R. M.; Chubaryan, E. V.; Harutyunyan, G. H.; Hovsepyan, A. V.; Kotanjyan, A. S.

2014-03-01

81

Paving a Path for the Future: Comparing Israel and Jordan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this paper could be used to enrich the secondary classroom curriculum in Middle Eastern studies or in world affairs. The paper provides four essay questions to use as a starting point in composing a research paper on the general topic, "Israel and Jordan: Paving the Way to Peace." It outlines the common history and political…

Frank, Ivan; Fitzhugh, William P.

82

Infection Control Procedures in Commercial Dental Laboratories in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of cross-infection in dental clinics and laboratories has attracted the attention of practitioners for the past few years, yet several medical centers have discarded compliance with infection control guidelines, resulting in a non-safe environ- ment for research and medical care. In Jordan, there is lack of known standard infection control programs that are conducted by the Jordanian Dental

Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi

83

Teachers' and Mothers' Satisfaction with Resource Room Programs in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of an investigation of satisfaction of 135 resource room teachers and 190 mothers of children served in resource room programs in Jordan. Information from teachers was gathered using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and classroom visits. Information from parents was gathered using a brief questionnaire.…

Al Khateeb, Jamal M.; Hadidi, Muna S.

2009-01-01

84

Gendered Utilization Differences of Mental Health Services in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural

Alean Al-Krenawi; John R. Graham; Jamil Kandah

2000-01-01

85

Wind as an alternative source of energy in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest and motivation for harnessing wind power have grown tremendously during the nineteen-eighties in many developed countries as a result of frequent energy crises on the one hand and persisting issues of environmental pollution on the other. These activities have stimulated at the same time, the scientific and research community in Jordan to launch a serious series of investigations

S. M Habali; Mohammad Amr; Isaac Saleh; Rizeq Ta’ani

2001-01-01

86

Jordan Commons: A pilot program for sustainable community building  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the Jordan Commons project of Habitat for Humanity in Dade County, Florida. The project incorporates social and environmental sustainability and energy efficiency into an affordable community for low income residents. Topics include urban design for families and communities; green building; environmental design for sustainability; prospects for replication.

Adair, D.

1995-03-01

87

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2005: Jordan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy ruled by King Abdullah II bin Hussein, with a population of approximately 5.8 million. The constitution concentrates executive and legislative authority in the king. At his discretion the king m...

2006-01-01

88

Demographic Transition and Economic Opportunity: The Case of Jordan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To take economic advantage of the extensive demographic transition expected to take place in Jordan over the coming 40 years, that country's decision makers need to create policies that appropriately deal with demographic change. To do so, they need to be...

D. E. Bloom D. Canning A. K. Nandakumar J. Sevilla K. Huzarski D. Levy M. Bhawalkar

2001-01-01

89

Distribution of Upper Pliocene brines in the northern Jordan Rift Valley, Israel and Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the triangle of Lake Tiberias (LT), Yarmouk Gorge and Lower Jordan Valley (Fig. 1), fresh groundwaters are frequently deteriorated by variable admixture of ascending subsurface Upper-Pliocene brines. Element ratios and water isotopes reveal, that common source brine is present and is modified by water rock interaction and dilution with freshwater. This common source brine is inferred from the composition of the known Ha'on well brine being characterized by molar ratios of Na/Cl=0.53, 1000Br/Cl=5.5 and Ca/Mg=0.39 (Möller et al., 2011). The low Ca/Mg, a ratio also found for Newe Ur, is unique in an environment in which ratios >1 dominate because of omnipresent dolomitization of abundant limestones. Interaction with abundant intrusive basaltic bodies would add sodium and hence increase the low Na/Cl ratio to >1. Uptake of halite increases Na/Cl but decreases Br/Cl ratios. These ratios resemble seawater after 37-fold enrichment in Li molality by evaporation (McCaffrey et al. 1987). Although being diluted by freshwater the Ha'on well brine proves the presence of an evaporated seawater mother brine residing at unknown depth. The derivatives of inferred Ha'on mother brine are present around Lake Tiberias, in the lower Yarmouk Valley and in the northern Rift Valley at least as far southwards as Newe Ur. Areas of structural weakness, where the major fault systems occur, are the main distribution areas for these brines. The study provides an example whereby hydrochemical analyses are applied as key tool to better understand deep fluid transport processes at basin-scale, which are supported by numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Möller P., Siebert C., Geyer S., Inbar N., Rosenthal E., Flexer A., Zilberbrand M. (2011): Relationship of brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley. Geofluids 12(2): 166-181. McCaffrey M.A., Lazar B., Holland H.D. (1987): The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite. J. Sediment. Petrol. 57: 928-937.

Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Guttman, Joseph; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien

2014-05-01

90

Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

Robins, Nathan

91

Press, Regime and Society in Jordan Since 1989  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally published in 1998 in the Occasional Paper series of the Inter-University Consortium for Arab Studies, Montreal, this paper by doctoral candidate Adam Jones offers a rare scholarly glimpse into recent press-regime relations in Jordan. Winner of the University of British Columbia Political Science Association Essay Prize (Ph.D. division), this paper seeks to place post-1989 events in Jordan in their historical, regional, and cultural context. "Based in part on interviews with key figures in the Jordanian press and government, it considers the complex interaction among press, regime, and society during the 1990s. A postscript appraises the situation in light of the regime's crackdown of September 1997."

Jones, Adam (Adam Jason), 1963-.

1998-01-01

92

Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.  

PubMed

Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan. PMID:22576137

Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

2012-01-01

93

76 FR 70437 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Project No. 12737-002] Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the...

2011-11-14

94

76 FR 71967 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12740-003-VA] Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the...

2011-11-21

95

The Quality of Potable Water Types in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different potable water types: tap water, desalinated water in private plants, homes filtrated and sealed bottled water\\u000a were collected from four provinces in Jordan and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters and trace metals content.\\u000a The results showed that quality of potable water varied depending on many factors such as: water quality at source, types\\u000a of purification system, and the

Mufeed I. Batarseh

2006-01-01

96

ON THE VON NEUMANN-JORDAN CONSTANT FOR BANACH SPACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let CNJ(E) be the von Neumann-Jordan constant for a Banach space E. It is known that 1 CNJ(E) 2 for any Banach space E ;a nd Eis a Hilbert space if and only if CNJ(E) = 1. We show that: (i) If E is uniformly convex, CNJ(E) is less than two; and conversely the condition CNJ(E) < 2 implies that

MIKIO KATO; YASUJI TAKAHASHI

97

ALGAL INDICATION OF POLLUTION IN THE LOWER JORDAN RIVER, ISRAEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jordan River is one of the most polluted in Israel. We used algal bio-indicators to monitor pollution levels in the dry and rainy seasons in order to assess a self-purification capacity of the aquatic ecosystem. We used 135 species of algae and cyanobacteria as indicators of pH, salinity, and organic pollution. The indices of saprobity (S and EPI),

S. BARINOVA

98

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations.

Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

99

Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Northern Jordan  

PubMed Central

Food insecurity—not having sufficient quantities of good-quality foods—is inversely related to physical and mental health and directly related to poor dietary intake. The objectives of this research were to (a) measure the prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan, (b) study the socioeconomic factors associated with an increased risk of food insecurity, and (c) investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and women's reported body-weight. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based questionnaire. In total, 500 women were interviewed in the waiting rooms of the outpatient clinics of two major public hospitals in northern Jordan. Food insecurity was assessed using the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. The prevalence of food insecurity was 32.4%. Income below the poverty-line, illiteracy, unemployment, rented housing, and woman heading the household were among the socioeconomic factors that increased the probability of food insecurity. No evidence was found to support the relationship between obesity and food insecurity. Except grains, food-insecure women with hunger had lower intake of all food-groups. This study demonstrated that the problem of food insecurity is present in Jordan. Food-insecure women with hunger are at a risk of malnutrition. Interventions that target reduction of the factors associated with food insecurity are necessary.

Tayyem, Reema F.; Dwairy, Amal N.; Al-Akour, Nemeh

2012-01-01

100

Prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan.  

PubMed

Food insecurity--not having sufficient quantities of good-quality foods--is inversely related to physical and mental health and directly related to poor dietary intake. The objectives of this research were to (a) measure the prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan, (b) study the socioeconomic factors associated with an increased risk of food insecurity, and (c) investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and women's reported body-weight. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based questionnaire. In total, 500 women were interviewed in the waiting rooms of the outpatient clinics of two major public hospitals in northern Jordan. Food insecurity was assessed using the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. The prevalence of food insecurity was 32.4%. Income below the poverty-line, illiteracy, unemployment, rented housing, and woman heading the household were among the socioeconomic factors that increased the probability of food insecurity. No evidence was found to support the relationship between obesity and food insecurity. Except grains, food-insecure women with hunger had lower intake of all food-groups. This study demonstrated that the problem of food insecurity is present in Jordan. Food-insecure women with hunger are at a risk of malnutrition. Interventions that target reduction of the factors associated with food insecurity are necessary. PMID:22524119

Bawadi, Hiba A; Tayyem, Reema F; Dwairy, Amal N; Al-Akour, Nemeh

2012-03-01

101

Jordan frame supergravity and inflation in the NMSSM  

SciTech Connect

We present a complete explicit N=1, d=4 supergravity action in an arbitrary Jordan frame with nonminimal scalar-curvature coupling of the form {Phi}(z,z)R. The action is derived by suitably gauge fixing the superconformal action. The theory has a modified Kaehler geometry, and it exhibits a significant dependence on the frame function {Phi}(z,z) and its derivatives over scalars, in the bosonic as well as in the fermionic part of the action. Under certain simple conditions, the scalar kinetic terms in the Jordan frame have a canonical form. We consider an embedding of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) gauge theory into supergravity, clarifying the Higgs inflation model recently proposed by Einhorn and Jones. We find that the conditions for canonical kinetic terms are satisfied for the NMSSM scalars in the Jordan frame, which leads to a simple action. However, we find that the gauge singlet field experiences a strong tachyonic instability during inflation in this model. Thus, a modification of the model is required to support the Higgs-type inflation.

Ferrara, Sergio [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Marrani, Alessio; Van Proeyen, Antoine [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2010-08-15

102

Depositional and diagenetic processes of Qa Khanna playa, North Jordan basaltic plateau, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study explored mineral occurrences and sediment characteristics of playas from northern Jordan and explained depositional and diagenetic processes as reflected from bulk chemistry and sedimentary structures. Mudcracks of different sizes and shape patterns, laminations, intersediment vesicles, and bioturbation pipes are the main sedimentary structures. Plagioclase, olivine, orthopyroxene, nepheline and other opaque minerals are all of detrital origin, and are derived from the basaltic bedrocks surrounding the studied playa. Evaporites are very rare; they are represented only by trace amounts of gypsum. The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of the studied sediments, arranged according to their decreasing abundances are palygorskite, illite, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. The elemental abundances were tied to clay, CaCO 3 and nearby igneous rocks. The type of clay minerals, the high pH values of the studied sediments, and the considerable incorporation of Mg and K in palygorskite and illite respectively, may strongly reflect a high evaporative and alkaline environment under arid to semi-arid conditions in an ephemeral lake of the Qa Khanna. Concentrations and distributions of both major and trace elements are essentially controlled by the clay mineralogy and the calcium carbonate content; Ca is mainly incorporated in the CaCO 3, which is either generated authigenically or by aeolian deposition. Fe and K are incorporated and fixed by illite under an evaporative and alkaline environment. Mg is incorporated in palygorskite while Mn is adsorbed on various clay minerals. Sr substitutes for Ca in the aeolian CaCO 3 and its presence in the studied sediments is independent of the prevailing conditions during the playa evolution. Rb substitutes for K in illite under the prevailing chemical conditions in the studied playa.

Howari, F. M.; Banat, K. M.; Abu-Salha, Y. A.

2010-09-01

103

(Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte and the Fritz-Haber-Institut in Berlin.

Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

2013-03-01

104

Environmental Factors Influencing Summer Angler Effort on the Jordan Dam Tailwater, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coosa River below Jordan Dam, Alabama, supports a multispecies, warmwater, tailwater fishery. A principal concern has focused on maintaining sufficient flow to protect this fishery while simultaneously allowing substantial portions of water to be diverted from Jordan Lake through a new hydroelectric facility, from which the water is returned via a canal to the Coosa River 21 km below

Donald C. Jackson; William D. Davies

1988-01-01

105

Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country.Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These

Bassam Mrayyan; Moshrik R.. Hamdi

2006-01-01

106

SHORT-TERM RESPONSE OF JORDAN'S SALAMANDER TO A SHELTERWOOD TIMBER HARVEST IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shelterwood cutting on the abundance of Jordan's salamander (Plethodon Jordan!) in western North Carolina were examined during 1997 and 1998. Terrestrial salamander assemblages were sampled before, immediately after, and one year after timber harvest on control and treatment plots to estimate abundance. We also sur- veyed salamanders immediately after the harvest along transects radiating out from cut

Chad E. Bartman; Kathleen C. Parker; Joshua Laerm; Timothy S. McCay

2001-01-01

107

Assessing the potential boron toxicity of soils irrigated with reclaimed water in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron (B) is a potentially plant toxic ion and is present in domestic treated wastewater (reclaimed water) in Jordan in concentrations of around 1 mg L-1. As reclaimed water is used for irrigation in Jordan the concentration of B gives potential for detrimental effects on crop productivity. Such effects are dependent on the crop type and importantly, the concentration of

Gemma Carr; Stephen Nortcliff

2010-01-01

108

A Decision Tool for Allocating the Waters of the Jordan River Basin between all Riparian Parties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared water resources are strong sources of conflict in the Jordan River basin shared by Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Syria and Lebanon. The control and allocation of water has been explicitly made a part of the ongoing peace negotiations. This article calls for the application of international water law in the resolution of water disputes in the negotiating process. The challenging

Ziad A. Mimi; Bassam I. Sawalhi

2003-01-01

109

Content Analysis of Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning TIMSS Items in Mathematics in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to analyze items that exhibit gender-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in Mathematics in Jordan. Data was taken from the TIMSS 1999 of Jordan, which includes responses of 5, 299 eighth grade students. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) DIF procedure was applied to 124 multiple-choice items. The results showed that 37 items…

Innabi, Hanan; Dodeen, Hamzeh

2006-01-01

110

Women's Perspectives on Retention in Higher Education in Jordan: Commute and Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic and advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. However, some reports claim that Jordan maintains the widest gender gap in higher education completion in the region while others report that the percentage of females…

Allaf, Carine

2013-01-01

111

Child, Family and Community Characteristics Associated with School Readiness in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated demographic differences in school readiness within Jordan, a particularly interesting context because of widespread national reform currently sweeping the education system in Jordan. Teacher reports and researcher direct assessments of the school readiness of a national sample of 4681 Jordanian first grade children…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2009-01-01

112

An Exploration of Higher Education Graduation Rates: A Case Study of Women in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. Despite Jordan's reputation as one of the most 'advanced' countries in the region, there have been conflicted reports on higher education completion rates of women. Some…

Allaf, Carine

2010-01-01

113

Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

2012-01-01

114

Feasibility study of a municipality solid waste incineration plant in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in Jordan’s population coupled with an increasing standard of life, has resulted in a large increase of household and commercial waste. Environmental and health concerns as well as the high cost of establishing and maintaining adequate new landfills, has prompted serious thoughts of alternative methods for dealing with the increasing amount of waste. This paper focuses on

M Mousa; R Al-Dwairi; M Al-Kumoos; S Al-Tarazi

1998-01-01

115

Ticks(Ixodoidea) of East Jordan and the West Bank. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little information is available concerning the tack fauna of East Jordan and the West bank. Hoogstraal and Kaiser reported six species collected by Dr. b. Babudieri during investigations on the epidemiology of tick-borne relapsing fever in Jordan during 1...

E. K. Saliba Z. S. Amr H. Y. Wassef H. Hoogstraal A. J. Main

1990-01-01

116

Hermitian generalized Jordan triple systems and certain applications to field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define Hermitian generalized Jordan triple systems and prove a structure theorem. We also give some examples of the systems and study mathematical properties. We apply a Hermitian generalized Jordan triple system to a field theory and obtain a Chern-Simons gauge theory.

Kamiya, Noriaki; Sato, Matsuo

2014-05-01

117

Particle size and X-ray analysis of Feldspar, Calvert, Ball, and Jordan soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pipette analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize the particle size distribution and clay mineral content of the feldspar, calvert, ball, and jordan soils. In general, the ball, calvert, and jordan soils were primarily clay size particles composed of kaolinite and illite whereas the feldspar soil was primarily silt-size particles composed of quartz and feldspar minerals.

Chapman, R. S.

1977-01-01

118

Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

Glaister, P.

2009-01-01

119

Diversity and ecology of algae from the Lower Jordan River, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jordan River stretches from the outlet of Lake Kinneret till the Dead Sea and is one of the most polluted rivers in Israel. In order to estimate the aquatic ecosystem of the northern part of the Lower Jordan River we used algal communities as biological indicators in the rainy and dry seasons of 2005 and 2007. We found

S. Barinova; M. Tavassi; H. Glassman

2009-01-01

120

Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected and taken account for. The study showed that common fingerprint elements and practices would have led to misinterpretations in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment and calls for a sound knowledge on catchment characteristics before the implementation of such a method.

Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

2014-05-01

121

Depositional Environments of the Jordan Formation, Winona, MN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project involves a field trip to the Jordan Formation in Winona, MN. Student teams are assigned a section of the outcrop from which they are to determine a stratigraphic column. The class then performs a lateral analysis and builds a composite stratigraphic column for the formation. As a final product, the students write up the class's observations about the formation. Project Webpages Project Summary and Write-up Outline (Acrobat (PDF) 115kB Jul7 05) Instructor Notes for Project (Acrobat (PDF) 91kB Jul7 05) Outlines and Notes (Acrobat (PDF) 1.1MB Jul7 05) for each class session for this project

Hickson, Tom

122

Clinical research law in Jordan: an ethical analysis.  

PubMed

An ethical analysis of Jordan's Clinical Research Law, which became effective in 2001, was performed. Accordingly, this paper discusses the major components, key strengths and weaknesses of this law. As an initial effort, the Law addresses important aspects of research ethics and, hence, should serve as an example for other Arab Countries in the Middle East. Unique aspects of the Law include the requirement that those conducting any study have insurance that can compensate for research injuries and a system of fines and punishments for noncompliance with the Law. There are, however, some key items missing in the Jordanian Law. For example, the Law does not mention the requirement of a favourable assessment of risks and benefits, the fair selection of subjects, or articles regarding the protection of the rights and welfare of children and other vulnerable subjects participating in research. The paper concludes with the suggestion that new amendments should be considered for future revisions of the Clinical Research Law in Jordan. PMID:18302540

Ramahi, Ibrahim; Silverman, Henry

2009-04-01

123

The Prevalence of Aflatoxinogenic Aspergillus parasiticus in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and produced by almost all Aspergillus parasiticus isolates and about 35% of Aspergillus flavus isolates. Chemical methods are used for detection of aflatoxins in food and feed. These methods cannot detect aflatoxinogenic fungi in samples, which contain undetectable amounts of aflatoxins. The objective of this research work was to ascertain the importance of molecular and microbiological methods in detection of aflatoxinogenic fungus A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan. Specific media for the detection of aflatoxins showed the prevalence of A. parasiticus (6–22%) in contaminated food and feed samples. HPLC method confirmed the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in food sample contaminated with A. parasiticus. Primer set OmtBII-F and OmtBII-R amplified DNA fragment of 611 base pairs from genomic DNA of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus isolated from food and feed samples but could not amplify DNA fragment of nonaflatoxinogenic A. flavus. The results of this study showed the prevalence of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan and give further evidence of suitability of microbiological and molecular methods in detection of aflatoxins, which are reliable low-cost approach to determine food and feed biosafety.

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.; Al-Rousan, Hiyam; Alseyah, Abbas

2012-01-01

124

76 FR 46793 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 12740-003-VA] Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability...the 3.0-megawatt (MW) Flannagan Hydroelectric Project located on the Pound River...20426. Please affix ``Flannagan Hydroelectric Project No. 12740-003'' to...

2011-08-03

125

76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 12737-002] Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental...the 3.7-megawatt (MW) Gathright Hydroelectric Project located on the Jackson River...20426. Please affix ``Gathright Hydroelectric Project No. 12737-002'' to...

2011-03-04

126

Jordan Structures in Harmonic Functions and Fourier Algebras on Homogeneous Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Jordan structures and geometry of bounded matrix-valued harmonic functions on a homogeneous space and their analogue, the harmonic functionals, in the setting of Fourier algebras of homogeneous spaces.

Cho-Ho Chu; Anthony To-Ming Lau

2006-01-01

127

Low-Temperature Geothermal Assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniq...

R. H. Klauk

1984-01-01

128

Osteoporosis knowledge among female school students in Jordan.  

PubMed

Although osteoporosis is a preventable disease affecting millions of people, public awareness remains low. This study used a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design to explore osteoporosis knowledge among adolescent female students in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered to 148 students recruited from a secondary school in the city of Irbid before and after a series of health education sessions based on the health belief model. A significant increase in overall scores for osteoporosis knowledge was seen (mean score pretest = 24.1 and posttest = 29.8, P < 0.001). Further research geared toward the follow-up of attained knowledge and behavioural change over time is greatly needed. PMID:20187542

Abushaikha, L; Omran, S; Barrouq, L

2009-01-01

129

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

130

Local Tomography and the Jordan Structure of Quantum Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a result of H. Hanche-Olsen, we show that (subject to fairly natural constraints on what constitutes a system, and on what constitutes a composite system), orthodox finite-dimensional complex quantum mechanics with superselection rules is the only non-signaling probabilistic theory in which (i) individual systems are Jordan algebras (equivalently, their cones of unnormalized states are homogeneous and self-dual), (ii) composites are locally tomographic (meaning that states are determined by the joint probabilities they assign to measurement outcomes on the component systems) and (iii) at least one system has the structure of a qubit. Using this result, we also characterize finite dimensional quantum theory among probabilistic theories having the structure of a dagger-monoidal category.

Barnum, Howard; Wilce, Alexander

2014-02-01

131

Investigation of desert subsoil nitrate in Northeastern Badia of Jordan.  

PubMed

High levels of naturally occurring nitrate were observed under desert pavement surfaces in NE Badia of Jordan. The subsoil nitrate inventory varies from about 24,351 to 28,853 kg NO(3)(-)/ha to a depth of 60 cm which is more than two times greater than nitrate in nonpavement soils, although both soils occurred within similar landscape and microclimate conditions. The results indicated that pavement particle size and cover percent are the primary factors contributing to the observed variations in nitrate accumulation. Desert pavement soils fully covered with fine clasts showed higher nitrate concentrations compared to soils moderately covered with coarse-grained pavements. The results also showed that high levels of nitrate were generally reached between 20 and 30 cm depth before the concentrations decreased. Chloride showed distribution profiles similar to those of nitrate. No observable difference was observed in nitrate level under desert pavement with abundant lichens compared to non-lichen pavement surface. PMID:23178770

Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Al-Qudah, Khaldoun A

2013-01-01

132

Database compilation: hydrology of Lake Tiberias (Jordan Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term series of water balance data over the last 50 years is compiled to gain insights into the hydrology of the Lake Tiberias (LT) and surrounding aquifers. This database is used within the framework of a German-Israeli-Jordanian project (DFG Ma4450-2) in which numerical modeling is applied to study the mechanisms of deep fluid transport processes affecting the Tiberias basin. The LT is the largest natural freshwater lake in Israel. It is located in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift. The behavior of the lake level is a result of the regional water balance caused mainly by interaction of two factors: (i) fluctuations of water inflow to the Lake, (ii) water exploitation in the adjacent aquifers and consumptions from the lake (pumping, diversion, etc). The replenishment of the lake occurs through drainage from surrounding mountains (Galilee, Golan Heights), entering the lake through the Jordan River and secondary streams (85%), direct precipitation (11%), fresh-saline springs discharging along the shoreline, divertion from Yarmouk river and internal springs and seeps. The major losses occur through the National Water Carrier (ca. 44%), evaporation (38%), local consumption and compensation to Jordan (in sum 12%). In spite of the increasing role of water exploitation, the natural inflow to the Lake remains the dominant factor of hydrological regime of the Tiberias Lake. Additionally, series of natural yield to the LT are reconstructed with precipitation data measured in the Tiberias basin (1922-2012). The earlier period (1877-1921) is evaluated considering long rainfall records at Beirut and Nazareth stations (Middle East Region). This data enables to use the LT yield as a complex indicator of the regional climate change. Though the data applies to the LT, this example shows the importance of large database. Their compilation defines the correct set-up of joint methodologies such as numerical modeling and hydrochemical analyses aimed to understand large-scale hydrological processes.

Shentsis, Izabela; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Magri, Fabien

2014-05-01

133

On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

Tsao, Nai-Kuan

1989-01-01

134

Photoacoustic measurements of black carbon light absorption coefficients in Irbid city, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to recognize air pollution levels by particles, especially in developing countries such as Jordan where data\\u000a are scarce due to the absence of routine monitoring of ambient air quality. This study aims at studying the air quality in\\u000a different locations at Irbid, Jordan through the measurement and analysis of the time series of black carbon light

Khadeejeh M. Hamasha; W. Patrick Arnott

2010-01-01

135

Major factors contributing to environmental awareness among people in a third world country\\/Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the major factors contributing to environmental awareness among people in a\\u000a third world country such as Jordan. Two thousand individuals from different locations in the southern part of Jordan participated\\u000a in the survey and completed the questionnaire in the fall of 2004. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions grouped into\\u000a the following

Anf H. Ziadat

2010-01-01

136

Viability of solar photovoltaics as an electricity generation source for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability of solar photovoltaics as an electricity generation source for Jordan was assessed utilizing a proposed 5MW grid-connected solar photovoltaic power plant. Long-term (1994–2003) monthly average daily global solar radiation and sunshine duration data for 24 locations – distributed all over the country – were studied and analyzed to assess the distribution of radiation and sunshine duration over Jordan, and

Eyad S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

137

Jordan pairs, E6 and U-duality in five dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By exploiting the Jordan pair structure of U-duality Lie algebras in D = 3 and the relation to the super-Ehlers symmetry in D = 5, we elucidate the massless multiplet structure of the spectrum of a broad class of D = 5 supergravity theories. Both simple and semi-simple, Euclidean rank-3 Jordan algebras are considered. Theories sharing the same bosonic sector but with different supersymmetrizations are also analyzed.

Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno

2013-02-01

138

The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones (Black, 2011). Furthermore, a low pressure over this region is often accompanied by a high pressure in the Western Mediterranean (WM). This pattern has been referred to as the Mediterranean Oscillation and given rise to the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), which can be expressed as pressure differences between Algiers in the WM and Cairo in the EM (Palutikof et al., 1996). In this study, the relationship between the MOI and precipitation in the Jordan River region, located in the EM is addressed. First of all, 30 precipitation series were tested for homogeneity and serial correlation. Thereafter, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses were applied to the homogenous series and the years 1960-1993. The results showed that the EOF-1 explained 60-71% of the precipitation variance and received a significant correlation with the MOI in December-February whereas no correlation was obtained for the EOF-2. In order to obtain the large scale pressure anomalies associated with winter precipitation in the study region, the EOF-1 coefficient time series was correlated with Sea Level Pressure (SLP) obtained for ca. 23° W to 70° E and 5° N to 67° N. This resulted in a correlation coefficient between -0.5 and 0.5; where negative values correspond to below normal SLP, and positive values to above normal SLP by the time of rainfall in the study region. The spatial pattern showed above normal SLP over central Europe and the WM and below normal SLP in the EM. Hence, it was reminiscent of the Mediterranean Oscillation and consistence with the results from the previous correlation analysis. The probability of precipitation during negative and positive MOI phases was thereafter derived by fitting gamma distributions to monthly precipitation. The result showed that negative MOI phases are associated with low- and below normal winter precipitation whereas positive MOI phases are associated with high- and above normal winter precipitation. As an example; during negative MOI phases the probability of below average precipitation is 78%. During positive MOI phases the probability is 41%. These findings can be considered valuable for the purpose of forecasting drought within the Jordan River region. References: Black, E. (2011). The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and European circulation regimes on the daily to interannual variability of winter precipitation in Israel. International Journal of Climatology, 1-11. doi:10.1002/joc.2383 Palutikof, J. P., Conte, M., Casimiro Mendes, J., Goodess, C. M., & Espirito Santo, F. (1996). Climate and climate change. In C. J. Brandt & J. B. Thornes (Eds.), Mediterranean desertification and land use. London, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

2014-05-01

139

Determination of actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of broad bean (Vicia Faba L.) grown under field conditions in the jordan valley, jordan: Bestimmung der aktuellen evapotranspiration und pflanzenbestandskoeffizienten von bohnen (Vicia Faba L.) unter feldbedingungen im jordantal, jordanien  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients at different growth stages of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) grown in an open field in the Jordan Valley, Jordan using a precise and accurate approach. The study involved 30-min fluxes measurements of energy budget components over broad bean crop using a complete setup of an Eddy Correlation (EC)

Jumah Amayreh; Nassim Al-Abed

2003-01-01

140

Prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered animals from North Jordan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hydatid disease was investigated in 704 sheep, 391 goats, 280 cattle and 68 camels slaughtered at two abattoirs in North Jordan. The infection rates for these animals were 4.0, 3.6, 11.4 and 8.8%, respectively. In general, older animals had higher infection rates than younger ones. The percentage of infected animals that had fertile cysts was 66.7% in camels, 34.3% in cattle, 28.6% in goats and 7.1% in sheep. Out of 143 single cysts recovered from cattle, 52.4% were fertile; 29.2% of cysts in goats, 14.7% of cysts in camels and 8.0% of those in sheep were fertile. However, infected sheep had more fertile multiple cysts than other animals. The lung was the predominant location for hydatid cysts in camels. In cattle and goats more hydatid cysts were found in the lung than in the liver, while in sheep the reverse was true. PMID:4083959

Al-Yaman, F M; Assaf, L; Hailat, N; Abdel-Hafez, S K

1985-10-01

141

Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan.  

PubMed

This study investigated the medical waste management practices used by hospitals in northern Jordan. A comprehensive inspection survey was conducted for all 21 hospitals located in the study area. Field visits were conducted to provide information on the different medical waste management aspects. The results reported here focus on the level of medical waste segregation, treatment and disposal options practiced in the study area hospitals. The total number of beds in the hospitals was 2296, and the anticipated quantity of medical waste generated by these hospitals was about 1400 kg/day. The most frequently used treatment practice for solid medical waste was incineration. Of these hospitals, only 48% had incinerators, and none of these incinerators met the Ministry of Health (MoH) regulations. As for the liquid medical waste, the survey results indicated that 57% of surveyed hospitals were discharging it into the municipal sewer system, while the remaining hospitals were collecting their liquid waste in septic tanks. The results indicated that the medical waste generation rate ranges from approximately 0.5 to 2.2 kg/bed day, which is comprised of 90% of infectious waste and 10% sharps. The results also showed that segregation of various medical waste types in the hospitals has not been conducted properly. The study revealed the need for training and capacity building programs of all employees involved in the medical waste management. PMID:17507209

Abdulla, Fayez; Abu Qdais, Hani; Rabi, Atallah

2008-01-01

142

Cystic fibrosis in Arabs: a prototype from Jordan.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis is believed to be rare in Arabs. We report 202 cases (114 boys and 88 girls) diagnosed in Jordan over a period of 9 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 2.9 years. Classical presentation with growth failure, malabsorption and respiratory symptoms occurred in 75.4% of cases. Eighteen (10.8%) presented with hepatomegaly, 12 (7.2%) with meconium ileus and 11 (6.6%) had Pseudo-Bartter syndrome. Thirty-eight (23%) children died, most below the age of 1 year which may reflect a more severe disease in our population. Consanguineous marriage was present in 69% of cases. Genetic screening of 84 children and 66 parents revealed 24 different CFTR mutations with a DF508 mutation accounting for only 7.4%. Among the mutations detected, six were alleles identified for the first time. The fact that boys outnumber girls might reflect more deaths in girls due to the observed gender gap in CF mortality. It is possible that the low incidence of the DF508 mutation is due to a confounding effect and the high mortality in those carrying this mutation. The large number of different mutations reflects the ethnic diversity of the Jordanian population and the complex history of the country. PMID:11219165

Rawashdeh, M; Manal, H

2000-12-01

143

Epidemiology of ovine brucellosis in Awassi sheep in Northern Jordan.  

PubMed

We used a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal design to estimate seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in Awassi sheep and the incidence of abortion due to brucellosis during one lambing season, and to test risk factors. The Brucella organisms isolated from aborted fetuses and vaginal swabs were characterized as Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Seventy Awassi sheep flocks were selected randomly from Northern Jordan. Sixty two of the 70 flocks were used in the cross-sectional study and 8 flocks were monitored for three consecutive months to estimate the incidence of abortion. Questionnaire data and 602 serum samples were collected and analyzed. Thirty five flocks (56%) were brucellosis-seropositive by the Rose Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBT) and 28 (45%) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The crude seroprevalence of brucellosis at the individual-animal level was 14.3% by RBT, 7.2% by ELISA and 2.2% using both tests in series. The flock-specific, animal-level abortion risk ranged between 2.5 and 50% (median=22.6%). The flock brucellosis-status was used as the outcome variable in a multivariable logistic regression. Grazing at communal pasture increased odds, but usage of disinfectants, previous vaccination for brucellosis, and tap water were protective. The animal-level incidence of abortion was 20% and the specific incidence risk of abortion due to brucellosis was 13%. PMID:12941554

Al-Talafhah, Abeer H; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Al-Tarazi, Yasser

2003-09-12

144

Self-similar chameleon Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the chameleon Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) cosmological models under the hypothesis of self-similarity. Since there are several ways to define the matter Lagrangian for a perfect fluid: L m =- ? and L m = ??, we show that they bring us to obtain two completely different cosmological models. In the first approach, L m =- ?, there is ordinary matter conservation, while in the second approach, L m = ??, we get matter creation processes. We deduce for each approach the behaviour of each physical quantity, under the self-similar hypothesis, by employing the Lie group method. The results are quite general and valid for any homogeneous geometry (FRW, Bianchi types, etc.). As example, we calculate exact solutions for each approach by considering the case of a Bianchi II geometry. In this way we can determine the exact behaviour of each physical quantity and in particular of G eff and U (the potential that mimics the cosmological constant).We compare the solutions with the obtained ones in the framework of the usual JBD models.

Belinchón, J. A.

2013-12-01

145

A survey of camel (Camelus dromedarius) diseases in Jordan.  

PubMed

Information on incidences of camel (Camelus dromedarius) diseases in Jordan is scarce. In this survey, 369 live and 156 slaughtered camels were examined in four Jordanian geographic regions and the proportion of diseased camels was calculated. Intestinal parasite ova were detected in 98% of camels; one or more species of external parasites were found on the skin of all camels; 33% had nasal myiasis; and hydatid cysts were identified in 44% of the slaughtered animals. Sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli) and trypanasomiasis, two diseases of economic importance, were also diagnosed in 83% and 33% of the 32 and 257 examined camels, respectively. Rabies virus was detected in eight camels by use of fluorescent antibody examination of brain tissues. Foreign-body accumulation within the first and second stomach compartments was the predominant gastrointestinal disease of slaughtered adult camels (22%). Ten percent of slaughtered camels had bacterial pneumonia, with Pasteurella hemolytica most often isolated (56% of pneumonic lungs). Further investigation into the relationship between parasite burden and health in camels is required to assess the significance of the high prevalence of parasites. PMID:11237140

Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K; Sharrif, L A; Al-Qudah, K M; Al-Hami, Y; Frank, N

2000-09-01

146

Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Jordan  

PubMed Central

We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle in Jordan. The sera from 671 cows were randomly collected from 62 herds. The antibodies against Brucella were detected using a Rose Bengal plate test and indirect ELISA. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the cattle herds' health and management. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to identify the risk factors for Brucella seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against Brucella in individual cows and cattle herds was 6.5% and 23%, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in cows older than 4 years of age was significantly higher than that in the younger cows. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in cows located in the Mafraq, Zarqa and Ma'an governorates was significantly higher than that of the other studied governorates. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that a larger herd size (odd ratio = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6) and mixed farming (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.7) were risk factors for cattle seropositivity to Brucella antigens. On the other hand, the use of disinfectants (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and the presence of adequate veterinary services (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.2) were identified as protective factors.

Talafha, Abdelsalam Q.; Ababneh, Mustafa M.; Ababneh, Mohammed M.

2009-01-01

147

Depositionally and diagenetically controlled reservoir heterogeneity at Jordan field  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the San Andres reservoir in the University Lands Jordan field which has produced 68 MMSTB (11 {times} 10{sup 6} stock-tank m{sup 3}) of the 182 MMSTB (29 {times} 10{sup 6} stock-tank m{sup 3}) of original oil place (OOIP); an estimated 44 MMSTB (7 {times} 10{sup 6} stock-tank m{sup 3}) of mobile oil remains in this reservoir. The reservoir is divided into four flow units on the basis of depositional textures and subsequent digenetic overprint. The locus of highest production corresponds to a trend of high reservoir storage capacity in Zone C, which has been affected by a permeability-increasing, carbonate-leaching digenetic alteration. This locus crosscuts structure. An area of low production corresponds to an area of highest reservoir storage capacity in Zone B, which has not been affected by this digenetic alteration. This low-production area is in an up-dip position but has been inefficiently swept by the waterflood.

Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Bureau of Economic Geology)

1990-10-01

148

Evaluation of traffic noise pollution in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The City of Amman, Jordan, has been subjected to persistent increase in road traffic due to overall increase in prosperity, fast development and expansion of economy, travel and tourism. This study investigates traffic noise pollution in Amman. Road traffic noise index L10(1 h) was measured at 28 locations that cover most of the City of Amman. Noise measurements were carried out at these 28 locations two times a day for a period of one hour during the early morning and early evening rush hours, in the presence and absence of a barrier. The Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) prediction model was employed to predict noise levels at the locations chosen for the study. Data required for the model include traffic volume, speed, percentage of heavy vehicles, road surface, gradient, obstructions, distance, noise path, intervening ground, effect of shielding, and angle of view. The results of the investigation showed that the minimum and the maximum noise levels are 46 dB(A) and 81 dB(A) during day-time and 58 dB(A) and 71 dB(A) during night-time. The measured noise level exceeded the 62 dB(A) acceptable limit at most of the locations. The CTRN prediction model was successful in predicting noise levels at most of the locations chosen for this investigation, with more accurate predictions for night-time measurements. PMID:16741795

Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Omari, Abbas; Sharabi, Reem

2006-09-01

149

Prevalence and susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates in Jordan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of vaginal yeast species has been studied in 140 women (41 pregnant, 66 infertile and 33 healthy controls) attending a gynaecological private clinic in Amman, Jordan. Yeast species were isolated from pregnant (68.2%), infertile (51.5%) and healthy control (48.4%) women. Patients manifesting one, two or three symptoms of vulvovaginitis were 22.1%, 26.8% or 24.2% respectively. Asymptomatic cases and cases with more than three symptoms were 22.4% and 4.5% respectively. Candida albicans was the dominant species (in 51.3% of the patients) followed by C. glabrata (17.9%). The percentage occurrence as well as the pattern of Candida species differed among the different groups of patients. Candida kefyr was found to be significantly higher in the infertile women. In vitro sensitivity tests using amphotericin B, nystatin, miconazole nitrate and chlorhexidine were carried out; amphotericin B was the most effective and miconazole nitrate the least. PMID:9476485

Abu-Elteen, K H; Abdul Malek, A M; Abdul Wahid, N A

1997-10-01

150

The position of AIDS in Pakistan, UAE and Jordan.  

PubMed

AIDS is a term used for Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome. It is, by definition, the end-stage disease manifestation of an infection with a virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus infects mainly two system of the body i.e. the immune system and central nervous system (CNS) and the occurrence of disease is due to the damage of these two systems. The statistics on AIDS are alarming, especially for Sub-Saharan Africa India. Some scientific studies indicated that upto one-third of all sexually active adults living in this region are already infected, up to 40% of all women and one in 10 to one in 5 children born in this part are actively infected with HIV and will be dead before having reached their fifth birthday. The information on HIV infected young adults were collected both from official and non-official sources of the following countries, Jordan, UAE, Pakistan. A big difference in number of patients was found between official and non-official data. Anyhow, both data (official & non-official) are alarming due to the increase in number of HIV cases. 21st century is especially dangerous to the next generation of Pakistan and Arab World because of increase in percentage of HIV cases during the last 5 years. PMID:16414795

Ahmad, M; Abu-Hijleh, L A

1997-01-01

151

Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed.

Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

1993-01-01

152

Gender Equality in Secondary Education: A Study of Girls' Educational Access and Participation in Jordan between 2000 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the changes of male and female enrollment in urban and rural areas in Jordan and the school-related factors, as well as government policies that contributed to its change. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and rural areas in Jordan. A selective sample of twelve people…

Belal, Fatima Omar

2010-01-01

153

Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. METHODS: A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working

Wael M Al-Omari

2004-01-01

154

Experiences of intimate-partner violence and contraception use among ever-married women in Jordan.  

PubMed

This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and current contraception use among ever-married women in Jordan. Analysing a sample (n = 3434) from the 2007 Jordan demographic and health survey, women who reported ever experiencing severe physical violence from their husband were significantly less likely to use contraception than women who did not report severe physical violence (OR = 0.34). Conversely, women who reported ever experiencing sexual IPV were significantly more likely to use contraception (OR = 1.50). Emotional and less severe physical IPV were not significantly related to contraception use. Education, wealth, age, number of children, and fertility preferences were positively associated with contraception use, while residence in the Badia area and consanguineous marriages were negatively associated with contraception use. The findings have implications for the provision of IPV screening and contraception services in Jordan, as well as the specification of services for women most vulnerable to IPV. PMID:24313152

O'Hara, K; Tsai, L C; Carlson, C E; Haidar, Y M

2013-10-01

155

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

156

The Characteristics of the Role of Early Childhood Education Mentors in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore empirically how far the roles adopted by the mentors of early childhood education students teaching in Jordan coincide with a model of roles suggested in the literature of teacher training. This study is an attempt to draw from the literature as many views about the role of the mentor as possible and then to attempt to…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Basheer, Akram A.; Qablan, Ahmad M.

2008-01-01

157

Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of special education teachers in the city of Amman, Jordan, toward the inclusion of students with autism in public schools and what the teachers believed to be the most important prerequisite skills for successful inclusion. Ninety two special education teachers were selected to complete the survey. The…

Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

2013-01-01

158

Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of parents in Jordan towards the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public schools and what the parents believed to be the most important prerequisite of child-based skills for successful inclusion. A total of 148 parents were selected to complete the survey. The researchers explored…

Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

2014-01-01

159

What Are the Major Aspects of Jordan's Economy? (A Learning Activity Package).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that learning activity packages (LAPs) should be implemented in the Arab world schools, the author discusses why LAPs are important, examines their components, and, in the bulk of the document, provides an example of a learning package dealing with the economy of Jordan. LAPs are important because they provide options for student learning…

Sa'adeh, Jawdat A.

160

The Potential for Developing Community-based Tourism among the Bedouins in the Badia of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population displacement through desertification has affected the socioeconomic and cultural development of Jordan's Badia desert. To counterbalance this change, it is important to preserve and revitalise cultural heritage as a source of tourism development in the desert. One possible way of revitalising the Badia regions is to highlight their cultural resources for tourism. The goal of the study is to

Salem Al-Oun; Majd Al-Homoud

2008-01-01

161

Jordan's Badia School Location Effects on the Perception of Child Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools are vital points of trip origin and destination. Their location affects children's safety on their daily rounds. Because of the lack of effective planning, most of Jordan's Northeast Badia schools are located in dispersed areas away from residential communities, which force most children to walk for more than 5 minutes on dangerous traffic spines. This paper presents findings of

Majd Al-Homoud; Salem Al-Oun

2009-01-01

162

Wind-solar hybrid electrical power production to support national grid: Case study - Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the next generation of power energy systems using solar- and wind-energy systems for the country of Jordan. Presently with the oil prices are on the rise, the cost of electrical power production is very high. The opportunity of a large wind and solar hybrid power production is being explored. Sights are chosen to produce electricity using the

Ghassan Halasa; Johnson A. Asumadu

2009-01-01

163

The Effectiveness of Web-Based Curricula on Seventh Grade Mathematics Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using web-based curricula on seventh grade students' achievement in mathematics in King Abdullah School in Irbid, Jordan. The researcher followed the equivalent pre/post T-test two group designs. To achieve the aim of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students'…

Muhanna, Wafa

2012-01-01

164

Rheumatoid arthritis in Jordan: a cross sectional study of disease severity and associated comorbidities  

PubMed Central

Treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to target is advocated using disease activity measures. The impact of RA on the general health status of affected patients in Jordan is not well described. This study reported the severity of RA in Jordan and its association with consequent disabilities and comorbidities. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at King Abdullah University Hospital in the north of Jordan. All patients who were diagnosed with RA were included. Patients’ demographics, comorbidities, disease activity score (DAS 28), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) were collected. Both DAS 28 and CDAI were utilized to categorize RA disease activity. A total of 465 patients with RA were included: 82% were females; mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 47.62±14.6 years; and mean disease duration ± SD was 6±4.45 years. The mean ± SD for the DAS 28 and CDAI was 5.1±1.5 and 23±14.2, respectively. According to the DAS 28, 51% of the patients were in the high disease activity category and only 5% were in remission. On the other hand, according to the CDAI, 44% were in the high disease activity category and only 1% were in remission. In Jordan, patients with RA have a high severe disease rate and a low remission rate. The disease is often progressive and associated with comorbidities that need to be managed.

Alawneh, Khaldoon M; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Ayesh, Mahmoud H; Smadi, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

165

Influence of urbanization on water quality at Wadi Kufranja basin (Jordan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of urbanization on spring water quality was investigated at Wadi Kufranja basin, Jordan. Twenty-five springs originate from three Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems (Naur, Hummar and Wadi Es-Sir). The discharge from the springs represents the main water source for domestic water supply in the basin. The water quality of nine representative springs in the basin was monitored. Generally, the

Atef A. Al-Kharabsheh

1999-01-01

166

Predicting change in bank efficiency in Jordan: a data envelopment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate the relative efficiency pattern of Jordanian banks during the period between 1998 and 2004. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The deterministic data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a quantitative approach was used to obtain the efficiency of individual commercial banks in Jordan. Findings – The results of the DEA Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes model show an increase

Jamal I. Bdour; Abeer F. Al-khoury

2008-01-01

167

The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

2010-01-01

168

Subversive Feminism: The Politics of Correctness in Mary Augusta Jordan's "Correct Writing and Speaking" (1904).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Mary Augusta Jordan's "Correct Writing and Speaking," a rhetoric text authored for women who studied writing and speaking outside of the formal academy. Suggests that the text's attention to the history of the English language and the evolution of arbitrary standards imposed by cultural forces makes it subversively feminist. (RS)

Kates, Susan

1997-01-01

169

Red Light Violations at Rural and Suburban Signalized Intersections in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study investigated red light violations at rural and suburban signalized intersections in Jordan. Field observations were conducted at 15 signalized intersections located in different Jordanian regions: Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. The results showed that, out of a total of 1,190 drivers who had a chance for violation, 153 (12.9%) drivers ran red lights. It was found that older

Bashar H. Al-Omari; Hashem R. Al-Masaeid

2003-01-01

170

Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

Stephens, D. W.

1984-01-01

171

Sedimentary facies from the modern coral reefs, Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-three sediment samples collected from the modern fringing reefs off the Jordan coast (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea) have been analysed in order to determine variations of composition and texture by using correspondence factor analysis. From the shore seawards, the following physiographic zones are recognized: beach; shallower backreef zone; reef flat zone; forereef zone including sandy or coral-built slopes. Eight

C. Gabrié; L. Montaggioni

1982-01-01

172

Techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste management in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. This is obvious in many developing countries around the world. Currently, several countries have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, these countries, including Jordan, which forms the case study presented here, have

H. A. Abu Qdais

2007-01-01

173

Political Economy of Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: The Case of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes patterns of expenditure on higher education in Jordan, explores the current system's adequacy, efficiency, and equity, and identifies its strengths and weaknesses in light of current constraints and future challenges. Among the constraints are the relatively low public expenditure on higher education, leaving households to…

Kanaan, Taher H.; Al-Salamat, Mamdouh N.; Hanania, May D.

2011-01-01

174

Needs of Parents Caring for Children with Physical Disabilities: A Case Study in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at identifying the needs of families of children with physical disabilities in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of 96 parents of children with physical disabilities whose ages ranged from 6 to 16 years old. A survey of Needs of Caring Parents was developed to achieve the purposes of this study. Results revealed that the…

Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.; Fayez, Merfat; Bataineh, Osama

2012-01-01

175

GIS MODELLING OF LAND DEGRADATION IN NORTHERN-JORDAN USING LANDSAT IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical model based on high resolution spatial and temporal remotely sensed data offers the ability to assess the degradation impacts of changes in land cover in a spatial context. In an attempt to assess the impacts of changing land cover on soil, a GIS-based erosion model has been developed to predict annual soil loss by water in northern Jordan.

S. Essaa

176

Usability of the Academic Websites of Jordan's Universities An Evaluation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research study was to evaluate the websites of Jordan's universities from the usability perspective. Two online automated tools, namely: html toolbox and web page analyze were used along with a questionnaire directed towards users of these websites. Tools were used to measure the websites internal attributes which can not be perceived by users, such as html

Suleiman H. Mustafa; Loai F. Al-Zoua

177

Assessing the High School Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Karak District of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of the current study was to assess the level of the emotional intelligence (EI) of high school teachers in Karak district of Jordan. A sample of 222 teachers was randomly selected and filtered on the basis of an inconsistency index. A scale of 55 items measuring empathy, emotions regulation, interpersonal management, self management,…

Alnabhan, Mousa

2008-01-01

178

Climate Change impacts on the Jordan River, Israel: Downscaling application from a Regional Climate Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of future climate change on streamflow and water resources in the Jordan River watershed. Such changes are expected to play an important role in water availability, planning and policy as well as in the ability to comply with international treaty obligations. Currently, Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are the

R. Samuels; A. Rimmer; S. Krichak; P. Alpert

2009-01-01

179

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations. Updated April 21, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objective...

J. M. Sharp

2011-01-01

180

Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

2012-01-01

181

I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

Marar, Marianne Maurice

2011-01-01

182

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations. Updated June 9, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objective...

J. M. Sharp

2009-01-01

183

Potential Use of Course Management Systems in Higher Education Institutions in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the increased adoption of the CMS (course management systems) as an instructional tool, it is important to address the potential use of this technology in Jordanian higher education institutions. This study investigates the potential to use CMS tools in instruction in the academic institutions in Jordan. This study does not seek to evaluate…

Al-Shboul, Muhannad

2011-01-01

184

An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

2011-01-01

185

On the Myth of the Crisis of Representation: A Response to Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author observes that, in "Applied Utility and the Auto-Ethnographic Short Story: Persuasions for, and Illustrations of, Writing Critical Social Science," Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan present claims about why we might choose to represent auto-ethnographic data in a literary form such as short story and for the "potential" or…

Gard, Michael

2014-01-01

186

Learning Organization Disciplines in Higher Education Institutions: An Approach to Human Resource Development in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of higher education faculty members concerning the application of the learning organization disciplines, as proposed by Senge (1990), in the university environment. The study surveyed 202 faculty members at the Hashemite University, one of the leading state universities in Jordan. Results…

Khasawneh, Samer

2011-01-01

187

Supplying Democracy. U.S. Security Assistance to Jordan, 1989-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Democracy promotion has been a principal foreign policy goal of the United States in the post-Cold War world. Democratic expansion is seen as an essential element of enhanced security and stability throughout the world, Jordan, having begun its own democr...

N. G. Forbes

2003-01-01

188

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations. Updated April 9, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objective...

J. M. Sharp

2010-01-01

189

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations. Updated October 14, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objective...

J. M. Sharp

2010-01-01

190

Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

2013-01-01

191

The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

Abu-Hamour, Bashir

2013-01-01

192

Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

2010-01-01

193

An Integrated Learning Management System for Islamic Studies: An Innovation from Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of ICT in the Middle East is expanding at a fast rate; hence managers and decision makers must decide on the best learning solution for their organizations. This article describes how a small team of individuals in Jordan developed an effective learning solution to a social problem. This may provide some useful lessons for other…

Rumzan, Ismael; Chowdhury, Imran; Mirza, Saudah; Idil, Raidah Shah

2010-01-01

194

Explicit Orbit Classification of Reducible Jordan Algebras and Freudenthal Triple Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine explicit orbit representatives of reducible Jordan algebras and their corresponding Freudenthal triple systems. This work has direct application to the classification of extremal black hole solutions of , 4 locally supersymmetric theories of gravity coupled to an arbitrary number of Abelian vector multiplets in D = 4, 5 space-time dimensions.

Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.; Ferrara, S.; Marrani, A.; Rubens, W.

2014-01-01

195

Accreditation in Higher Business Education in the Private Sector: The Case of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the development of a quantitative research designed to examine the accreditation system of undergraduate Business Administration program in private universities in Jordan, in comparison with the standards of the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) in the United Kingdom. The research has set out a description of Jordanian…

Sabri, Hala Ahmad; El-Refae, Ghaleb Awad

2006-01-01

196

Educating Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Regular Schools in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a description of current practices in educating students with mild intellectual disabilities in regular schools in Jordan. The data were obtained using several methods, including interviews with special education staff at the Ministry of Education, summaries of documents and published research related to resource rooms and…

Al Khatib, Jamal M.; Al Khatib, Fareed

2008-01-01

197

AN OUTBREAK OF LEPTOSPIROSIS AMONG ISRAELI TROOPS NEAR THE JORDAN RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of leptospirosis that involved 7 of a team of 27 Israeli troops occurred following a military exercise in northern Israel near the Jordan River. The organism implicated in the outbreak was Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo. The clinical course was uncomplicated and all patients fully recovered. There were no cases of asymp- tomatic infection. Military personnel should be recognized

E. HADAD; A. PIROGOVSKY; C. BARTAL; J. GILAD; A. BARNEA; S. YITZHAKI; I. GROTTO; R. D. BALICER; E. SCHWARTZ

198

Effect of extreme rainfall events on the water resources of the Jordan River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAs a response to climate change, shifting rainfall trends including increased multi-year droughts and an escalation in extreme rainfall events are expected in the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of these shifting trends on stream flow in the Jordan River and its tributaries. We use a non-homogeneous hidden Markov model to generate artificial daily rainfall simulations which capture independently shifting trends of increased droughts and escalated extreme. These simulations are then used as input into a hydrological model calibrated for the upper catchments of the Jordan River to compare the impact on stream flow and water resources between the different rainfall scenarios. We compare the predicted baseflow and surface flow components of the tested watersheds, and find that while an increase in extreme rainfall events increases the intensity and frequency of surface flow, the over all flow to the Jordan River, and the characteristics of the baseflow in the Jordan River system is not largely impacted. In addition, though it has been suggested that in the case of a multi-year drought the karstic nature of the aquifer might lead to more intense, non-linear reductions in stream flow, here we quantify and show the conditions when annual stream flow reduce linearly with rainfall, and when these relations will become non-linear.

Samuels, Rana; Rimmer, Alon; Alpert, Pinhas

2009-09-01

199

Obstacles of Teaching Mathematics Faced by the Class Teachers in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to investigate the obstacles of teaching mathematics faced by the class teachers in Jordan. To achieve this purpose a study sample of 192 male and female class teachers was selected randomly from government schools. The instrument of the study was a questionnaire used to investigate the obstacles of mathematics…

Nejem, Khamis Mousa; Muhanna, Waffa

2013-01-01

200

Traversable Lorentzian wormholes in the vacuum low energy effective string theory in Einstein and Jordan frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new classes (II-IV) of solutions of the vacuum low energy effective string theory in four dimensions are derived. Wormhole solutions are investigated in those solutions including the class I case both in the Einstein and in the Jordan (string) frame. It turns out that, of the eight classes of solutions investigated (four in the Einstein frame and four in

K. K. Nandi; Yuan-Zhong Zhang

2004-01-01

201

Compliance with Infection Control Programs in Private Dental Clinics in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the private sector in North Jordan with infection control measures. A pilot-tested questionnaire about infection control measures was distributed in March 2004 to 120 private practices. The response rate was 91.66 percent. About 77 percent of dentists usually ask their patients about medical history,

Mohammad Ahmad Al-Omari; Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi

202

Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan Rivers are at center stage in the continued existence of the peoples in their basins where water scarcity serves as a source of conflict between the region's riparian nations, within national borders, and as an underlying c...

D. R. Still

2006-01-01

203

Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

Khasawneh, Samer

2010-01-01

204

Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Arabs in Jordan: a comparative study between Jordanians and Palestinians  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 2-year hospital-based study in Jordan 131 Arab multiple sclerosis patients were identified including 84 Palestinians and 36 Jordanians. Based on MSALS case ratio, multiple sclerosis was found to be twice as common among Palestinians than Jordanians. Other than the less marked female preponderance among Jordanian patients, the disease had the same clinical and paraclinical characteristics in both groups.

Amir S. Najim Al-Din; Ashraf Kurdi; Ammar Mubaidin; Mohammed El-Khateeb; Raida W. Khalil; Abdel-Latif Wriekat

1996-01-01

205

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.

Hamhalter, Jan

2012-12-01

206

Assessment of medical wastes management practice: A case study of the northern part of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study includes a survey of the procedures available, techniques, and methods of handling and disposing of medical waste at medium (between 100 and 200 beds) to large (over 200 beds) size healthcare facilities located in Irbid city (a major city in the northern part of Jordan). A total of 14 healthcare facilities, including four hospitals and 10 clinical laboratories,

A. Bdour; B. Altrabsheh; N. Hadadin; M. Al-Shareif

2007-01-01

207

Subsidence and Sinkhole Hazard Assessment in the Southern Dead Sea Area, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea area is increasingly facing serious subsidence and sinkhole hazards. On March 22, 2000, the dyke of a two-month old major salt evaporation pond, located along the shore of the Lisan Peninsula (Jordan), collapsed over almost two kilometers. The pond was set up over unstable new lands that have been progressively emerging during the last three decades. In

Damien Closson; Najib Abou Karaki; Yann Klinger; Musa Jad Hussein

2005-01-01

208

Karst system developed in salt layers of the Lisan Peninsula, Dead Sea, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lisan Peninsula, Jordan, is a massive salt layer accumulated in the inner part of the Dead Sea's precursory lakes. This tongue-shaped, emergent land results in a salt diapir uplifted in the Dead Sea strike-slip regional stress field and modified by the water level fluctuations of the last lake during the Holocene. These two elements, associated with dissolution caused by

Damien Closson; Philip E. Lamoreaux; Najib Abou Karaki; Hassan Al-Fugha

2007-01-01

209

WATER SCARCITY IN RELATION TO FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Jordan is classified as a dry land country, which suffers from water scarcity similar to other counties in the region. Due to water scarcity the only fresh water ecosystem Azraq Wetland Oasis was destroyed. The destruction was a result of water over pumping from the greater basaltic Azraq basin, resulting in lowering water table to unprecedented levels. Hundreds

D. M. H. Al-Eisawi

210

West Virginia State College, Drain-Jordan Library, Circulation Department Manual of Circulation Desk Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to prepare and aid the staff for expected duties working at the circulation desk at Drain-Jordan Library at West Virginia State College. The manual is divided into sections to help with a quick review of procedures and policies. Topics discussed include an overview of the circulation department; patron registration;…

Brooks, Monica A.

211

Geoelectrical Soundings and their Relationship to Channel Seepage Areas at the Kaffrein Dam, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geoelectrical survey utilizing a Schlumberger array has been made at the Kaffrein dam site, northeast of the Dead Sea, Jordan, in order to investigate the subsurface channel seepage areas and to evaluate the hydrological conditions of the dam. Ten vertical electrical soundings (VES) were conducted in October 2002 utilizing the Campus GeoPulse Resistivity Meter. The VES were taken with

Awni T. Batayneh; Abdallah S. Al-Zoubi; Mohammad M. Abu-Ajamieh

2004-01-01

212

Growing School Networks for Instructional Improvement in Jordan, 2009-2010. CPRE Research Report, # RR-70  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure,…

Robinson, Marian A.

2011-01-01

213

Food safety knowledge and practices among college female students in north of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults have inadequate knowledge about measures needed to prevent foodborne illnesses. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of food safety knowledge and to investigate the association between the level of food safety knowledge and the socio-demographic and academic variables among college female students staying at dorms in north of Jordan. Information concerning socio-demographic and academic

Tareq M. Osaili; Bayan A. Obeidat; Dima O. Abu Jamous; Hiba A. Bawadi

2011-01-01

214

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15

215

Recording and Preserving Cultural Heritage in the Middle East. Aerial Archaeology in Jordan, 1997-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerial archaeology plays a crucial role in Western Europe in finding, recording, monitoring and presenting cultural heritage. In the Middle East, however, although it was pioneered almost a century ago, it has subsequently played a slight role in cultural heritage management. Since 1997 there has again been aerial reconnaissance for archaeology in Jordan and now that project has begun to be funded on a scale that will permit it to undertake a far more systematic role. This is of crucial importance anywhere in the Middle East where population rises have been especially high and impacted on landscapes and archaeology. Jordan has probably the highest rate of increase anywhere in the region - c. 1800% since 1943 - so that there, more than anywhere else, a cost-effective tool like Aerial Archaeology is of vital importance. There have been over 160 hours of flying undertaken since 1997 with some 20,000 photographs of hundreds of sites. Jordan remains the only country in the Middle East with such a programme but recent Workshops in Aerial Archaeology in Jordan were opened to archaeologists from neighbouring countries and played a role in raising awareness of the potential of the technique.

Kennedy, D.

2009-04-01

216

Jordan 1990: results from the demographic and health survey.  

PubMed

Summary results from the 1990 Jordan Demographic and Health Survey are reported in a series of 27 charts and tables. The sample survey represented regions and the nation. A household questionnaire was collected from 16,296 households; 6461 ever married women 15-49 years completed an individual questionnaire. Information is provided on the general population characteristics and the educational status and urban/rural residence of ever married women. Population was reported as 3.86 million and a growth rate of 3.17%. Fertility is represented as the total fertility rate in 5-year groups since 1955, fertility differentials by residence and educational level, and age specific fertility. Fertility preferences are expressed by age and preferences by number of living children. The desire to stop childbearing is reported by the number of living children among currently married women. The planning status by the number of living children is also reported. Contraceptive prevalence is shown by residence and educational level in one chart and by age and by number of living children in another chart. Current contraceptive usage is revealed by source of supply and method used. Knowledge and use patterns among currently married women is indicated by whether respondent ever used or was currently using. Currently married nonusers were asked to indicate their intention to use in the future, which was tabulated by the number of living children women had. The reason for nonuse by age is provided. Marital and contraceptive status is in terms of marital status by age group, differences in age at first birth, and contraceptive status by marital status. The median duration of postpartum interval is indicated by status: breast feeding, nonsusceptible, amenorrhea, and abstinence. Differences in breast feeding and amenorrhea are shown by residence and educational level. Infant mortality trends and differences by education and residence are given as well as the number of children ever born and surviving by age of mother. Vaccination coverage, diarrhea incidence, and type of childbirth delivery personnel are given in addition to anthropometric measures. PMID:1293864

1992-01-01

217

Special Education Practicum at The University of Jordan: Preliminary Indicators of Students' Satisfaction and Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

teachers are needed. The Special Education program at the University of Jordan places student teachers for their practicum in different educational settings. The purpose of this study was to report preliminary information about students' satisfaction and concerns…

AL Jabery, Mohammad A.; AL Khamra, Hatem A.

2013-01-01

218

76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2011-02-16

219

A general integral of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equations for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid distributions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equations [1] contain the four-dimensional field equations of the five-dimensional projective unified theory. As it should be, Einstein's theory is incorporated as a limiting case. In this paper we present a method to determine explicitly for every static spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's theory with perfect fluid an analogous solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. As a particular example a “generalized interior Schwarzschild solution” is given.

Herlt, Eduard

1983-12-01

220

The origin and mechanisms of salinization of the lower Jordan river 1 1 Associate editor: K. K. Falkner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and isotopic (87Sr\\/86Sr, ?11B, ?34Ssulfate, ?18Owater, ?15Nnitrate) compositions of water from the Lower Jordan River and its major tributaries between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea were determined in order to reveal the origin of the salinity of the Jordan River. We identified three separate hydrological zones along the flow of the river: (1)A northern section

Efrat Farber; Avner Vengosh; Ittai Gavrieli; Amer Marie; Thomas D. Bullen; Bernhard Mayer; Ran Holtzman; Michal Segal; Uri Shavit

2004-01-01

221

Comparison between Jordan and Einstein frames of Brans-Dicke gravity a la loop quantum cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the Jordan and Einstein frames are equivalent to each other in classical Brans-Dicke theory, provided that one and the same metric is employed for the physical space-time. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that by cosmological models the loop quantization in the two different frames leads to inequivalent effective theories. Analytical solutions are found in both frames for the effective loop quantum Brans-Dicke cosmology without potential in (i) the vacuum case and (ii) the additional massless scalar field case. In the Einstein frame, the analytical solution for the Brans-Dicke potential ??2 is found. In all of those solutions, the bouncing evolution of the scale factor is obtained around the Planck regime. The differences between the loop quantization of the two frames are reflected by (i) the evolution of the scale factor around the bounce and (ii) the scale of the bounce in the physical Jordan frame.

Artymowski, Micha?; Ma, Yongge; Zhang, Xiangdong

2013-11-01

222

Complete density perturbations in the Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of scalar-tensor theories we study the evolution of the density contrast for Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke theories in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. Calculations are performed in the Einstein frame with the cosmological background described as ?-cold dark matter (?CDM) and supplemented by a Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke field. By using a completely general procedure valid for all scalar-tensor theories, we obtain the exact fourth-order differential equation for the density contrast evolution in modes of arbitrary size. In the case of sub-Hubble modes, the expression reduces to a simpler but still fourth-order equation that is then compared with the standard (quasistatic) approximation. Differences with respect to the evolution as predicted by the standard concordance ?CDM model are observed depending on the value of the coupling.

Cembranos, J. A. R.; de la Cruz Dombriz, A.; Olano García, L.

2013-12-01

223

The origin and mechanisms of salinization of the Lower Jordan River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, ??11B, ??34Ssulfate, ??18Owater, ??15Nnitrate) compositions of water from the Lower Jordan River and its major tributaries between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea were determined in order to reveal the origin of the salinity of the Jordan River. We identified three separate hydrological zones along the flow of the river: (1) A northern section (20 km downstream of its source) where the base flow composed of diverted saline and wastewaters is modified due to discharge of shallow sulfate-rich groundwater, characterized by low 87Sr/86Sr (0.7072), ??34Ssulfate (-2???), high ??11B (???36???), ??15Nnitrate (???15???) and high ??18Owater (-2 to-3???) values. The shallow groundwater is derived from agricultural drainage water mixed with natural saline groundwater and discharges to both the Jordan and Yarmouk rivers. The contribution of the groundwater component in the Jordan River flow, deduced from mixing relationships of solutes and strontium isotopes, varies from 20 to 50% of the total flow. (2) A central zone (20-50 km downstream from its source) where salt variations are minimal and the rise of 87Sr/86Sr and SO4/Cl ratios reflects predominance of eastern surface water flows. (3) A southern section (50-100 km downstream of its source) where the total dissolved solids of the Jordan River increase, particularly during the spring (70-80 km) and summer (80-100 km) to values as high as 11.1 g/L. Variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of river water along the southern section suggest that the Zarqa River (87Sr/86Sr???0.70865; ??11B???25???) has a negligible affect on the Jordan River. Instead, the river quality is influenced primarily by groundwater discharge composed of sulfate-rich saline groundwater (Cl-=31-180 mM; SO4/Cl???0.2-0.5; Br/Cl???2-3??10-3; 87Sr/86Sr???0.70805; ??11B???30???; ??15Nnitrate ???17???, ??34Ssulfate=4-10???), and Ca-chloride Rift valley brines (Cl-=846-1500 mM; Br/Cl???6-8??10-3; 87Sr/86Sr???0.7080; ??11B???40???; ??34Ssulfate=4-10???). Mixing calculations indicate that the groundwater discharged to the river is composed of varying proportions of brines and sulfate-rich saline groundwater. Solute mass balance calculations point to a ???10% contribution of saline groundwater (Cl-=282 to 564 mM) to the river. A high nitrate level (up to 2.5 mM) in the groundwater suggests that drainage of wastewater derived irrigation water is an important source for the groundwater. This irrigation water appears to leach Pleistocene sediments of the Jordan Valley resulting in elevated sulfate contents and altered strontium and boron isotopic compositions of the groundwater that in turn impacts the water quality of the lower Jordan River. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T. D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

2004-01-01

224

Attitudes of Men and Women Towards Wife Beating: Findings From Palestinian Refugee Camps in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the acceptance of wife beating among currently married\\u000a men and women living in disadvantaged Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey\\u000a of 3,100 households from 12 refugee camps, conducted in 1999, with a sub-sample of 395 married women and men selected for

Marwan Khawaja; Natalia Linos; Zeina El-Roueiheb

2008-01-01

225

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies from Jordan 1996–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of Jordanian patients with idiopathic inflammatory\\u000a myopathies (IIM), a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with IIM at Jordan University Hospital between 1996\\u000a and 2009 was carried out. Thirty patients with IIM were identified. Female to male ratio was 1.7:1, with mean age at diagnosis\\u000a 34.3?±?9.2 (10–72) years with bimodal presentation

Khader N. Mustafa; Said S. Dahbour

2010-01-01

226

An algorithm for computing Jordan chains and inverting analytic matrix functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient algorithm for obtaining a canonical system of Jordan chains for an n×n regular analytic matrix function A(?) that is singular at the origin. For any analytic vector function b(?), we show that each term in the Laurent expansion of A(?)?1b(?) may be obtained from the previous terms by solving an (n+d)×(n+d) linear system, where d is

Jon Wilkening

2007-01-01

227

Assessment of the spring water quality in The Shoubak area, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of spring water samples in Shoubak area\\u000a in the southern Jordan. The samples were collected from May 2004 to May 2005. All samples were analyzed for temperature, conductivity,\\u000a dissolved oxygen, pH, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), major anions (Cl?, NO3?, HCO3?, SO42?, PO43?, F?), and trace metals (Fe2+, Al3+,

Omar Ali Al-Khashman

2008-01-01

228

Constructing an Adaptive Regional Vision of Water Development in the Jordan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the Middle Eastern regional water crisis and a World Bank Study underway to evaluate the feasibility of building\\u000a a Red Sea— Dead Sea water conveyance, the AVOW (Adaptive Visions of Water in the Middle East) initiative has outlined components\\u000a of an adaptive regional vision of water development for the Jordan Basin. The authors, leading members of AVOW,

Eric Abitbol; Stuart Schoenfeld

229

Protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms found in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the protein quality of four types ofedible mushrooms, Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terreum and Agaricus macrosporus that are common inJordan. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization methods(NPU) were used. The four mushroom types failed to support growth asreflected by negative values for PER; –1.76 for T. claveryi; –0.23 for P. ostreatus;

Ibrahim R. Dabbour; Hamed R. Takruri

2002-01-01

230

A Unique Human-Fox Burial from a Pre-Natufian Cemetery in the Levant (Jordan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000–11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the

Lisa A. Maher; Jay T. Stock; Sarah Finney; James J. N. Heywood; Preston T. Miracle; Edward B. Banning; Michael Petraglia

2011-01-01

231

Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

Curran, Janet H.

2007-01-01

232

Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Kuwait, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 3,501 male subjects from six Arab countries living in Kuwait were investigated for quantitative and phenotypic distribution of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The ethnic origins of those investigated were Kuwait, Egypt, Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. The distribution of G6PD deficiency among the different ethnic groups varied widely, ranging from 1.00% for Egyptians to 11.55% for

Esien A. Usanga; Reem Ameen

2000-01-01

233

Karst system developed in salt layers of the Lisan Peninsula, Dead Sea, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lisan Peninsula, Jordan, is a massive salt layer accumulated in the inner part of the Dead Sea’s precursory lakes. This\\u000a tongue-shaped, emergent land results in a salt diapir uplifted in the Dead Sea strike-slip regional stress field and modified\\u000a by the water level fluctuations of the last lake during the Holocene. These two elements, associated with dissolution caused\\u000a by

Damien Closson; Philip E. LaMoreaux; Najib Abou Karaki; Hassan al-Fugha

2007-01-01

234

Retrospective surgical incidence and case distribution of cystic echinococcosis in Jordan between 1994 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective follow-up study on the surgical incidence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was carried out in major governmental, military and private hospitals throughout Jordan between 1994 and 2000. A total of 472 cases were recorded over the 7-year period and an overall mean annual surgical incidence (MASI) of 2.3 per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated. The highest number of surgical cases

Khaled M. Al-Qaoud; Philip S. Craig; Sami K. Abdel-Hafez

2003-01-01

235

Von Neumann–Jordan Constant of Absolute Normalized Norms on C 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine and estimate the von Neumann–Jordan constant of absolute normalized norms on C2 by means of their corresponding continuous convex functions on [0,1]. This provides many new interesting examples including those of non-?p-type as well as some previous ones. It is also shown that all such norms are uniformly non-square except ?1- and ??-norms.

Kichi-Suke Saito; Mikio Kato; Yasuji Takahashi

2000-01-01

236

Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.  

PubMed Central

In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere.

Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

2001-01-01

237

Public support and consent preference for biomedical research and biobanking in Jordan  

PubMed Central

The success of any biobank depends on a number of factors including public's view of research and the extent to which it is willing to participate in research. As a prototype of surrounding countries, public interest in research and biobanking in addition to the influence and type of informed consent for biobanking were investigated in Jordan. Data were collected as part of a national survey of 3196 individuals representing the Jordanian population. The majority of respondents (88.6%) had a positive perception of the level of research in Jordan and they overwhelmingly (98.2%) agreed to the concept of investing as a country in research. When respondents were asked if the presence of an informed consent would influence their decision to participate in biobanking, more individuals (19.8%) considered having an informed consent mechanism as a positive factor than those who considered it to have negative connotations (13.1%). However, a substantial portion (65%) did not feel it affected their decision. The majority of survey participants (64%) expressed willingness to participate in biobanking and over 90% of them preferred an opt-in consent form whether general (75.2%) or specific for disease or treatment (16.9%). These results indicate a promising ground for research and biobanking in Jordan. Educational programs or mass awareness campaigns to promote participation in biobanking and increase awareness about informed consent and individual rights in research will benefit both the scientific community as well as the public.

Ahram, Mamoun; Othman, Areej; Shahrouri, Manal

2013-01-01

238

Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Southeast Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer is part of a sequence of sedimentary bedrock units in southeast Minnesota. The Jordan Sandstone is a white to yellow, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone. The Prairie du Chien Group comprises two dolomitic formations, which are vuggy and fractured and interbedded with thin layers of shale. The aquifer was deposited from Paleozoic seas that occupied the Hollandale embayment. The surface of the aquifer dips toward the interior of the embayment where it is as deep as 750 feet below land surface and as thick as 500 feet. Permeability is secondary in the Prairie du Chien Group because of solution cavities and fractures and is intergranular in the Jordan Sandstone. Water in the aquifer is confined and generally flows to the north and east into the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers. A ground-water divide separates part of the flow southward into Iowa. This aquifer supplies more water than any other in the State. Quality of water is generally good throughout the aquifer. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate type water is most common. The potential for contamination from surface sources is low except near the Mississippi River valley, where the overlying drift is thin. The most serious water-quality problem is contamination by chemical wastes in St. Louis Park. (USGS)

Ruhl, J. F.; Wolf, R. J.; Adolphson, D. G.

1983-01-01

239

The Tectonic Geomorphology and the Archeoseismicity of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea transform (DST) extends 1000 km from the Sinai triple junction in the south to the Tauros- Zagros collision zone in Turkey in the north. In Jordan, the DST consists of three morphotectonic elements; the Wadi Araba in the south, the Dead Sea basin in the middle and the Jordan Valley in the north. The Dead Sea is a pull- apart basin that formed due to the overlap of the Wadi Araba fault (WAF) and the Jordan Valley fault (JVF). The movement along the transform is active as indicated from both the geomorphological features and from the seismic activity. The DST is a major left lateral strike slip fault that accommodates the relative motion of the Arabian plate to the east and the Sinai plate to the west, where 107 km of cumulative left lateral offset has occurred over the last 18 million years. Based on this offset, the accumulated slip rate is estimated to be 5-10 mm/yr. Based on aerial photographic analysis of the DST and earthquake catalogue information, it is suggested that the present day slip rate has been slower (1.5-3.5 mm/yr) when compared with the Pleistocene rates. Recent work on offset alluvial fan surfaces and drainage along the northern Wadi Araba fault indicates a slip rate of 4.7 mm/yr (Niemi et al., 2000) and 4 mm/yr (Klinger, 2000). In the Jordan Valley fault a slip rate of 7 mm/yr in the last 13000 years was estimated based on aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation (Al-Taj, 2000). Active strike slip faults display distinct morphological features along its trace. The DST in Jordan Valley has a series of morphotectonic features, such as pressure ridges and sag ponds. These features are formed in the place of fault steps or bends (Keller and Pinter, 1996). Fault scarps are formed along most of the trace indicating a dip slip component of displacement. Historical, archeological and paleoseismic data are combined from two trench sites to build a unique composite catalogue of large past earthquakes. On that basis, evidence for surface rupture during the AD 749 and AD 1033 earthquakes was shown. Overall, 8 surface-rupturing events for the last 14 kyr were identified. A temporal analysis displays clusters of seismicity as well as quiescence periods as well as a 600- to 1000-yr-long recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the last 14 kyr.

Al-Taj, M. M.; Abed, A.; Abou Karaki, N.; Atallah, M.; Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.

2007-12-01

240

Proliferation of Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria and Concomitant Antibiotic Production as the Basis for the Antibiotic Activity of Jordan's Red Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotes, both historical and recent, recount the curing of skin infections, including diaper rash, by using red soils from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Following inoculation of red soils isolated from geograph- ically separate areas of Jordan, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were rapidly killed. Over the 3-week incubation period, the number of specific types of antibiotic-producing bacteria increased, and

Joseph O. Falkinham; Thomas E. Wall; Justin R. Tanner; Khaled Tawaha; Feras Q. Alali; Chen Li; Nicholas H. Oberlies

2009-01-01

241

Application of Multicriteria Decision Aid to Rank the Jordan-Yarmouk Basin Co-riparians According to the Helsinki and ILC Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jordan River system, shared by Jordan, Israel, the Palestinians in the occupied territories, Syria, and Lebanon, is a major issue in Middle East politics. This paper identifies the water resources of the system, outlines historical development plans, and presents the relevant legal riparian issues and practices related to the basin. The descriptive analysis concludes that the application of the

B. Al-Kloub; M. F. Abu-Taleb

1998-01-01

242

Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees and pigeon dropping samples from four major cities in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To our best knowledge, any study related to the ecological distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan does not exist in the medical literature. In order to determine the environmental occurrence of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan, pigeon droppings and material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees were collected from four major cities of this country. For the isolation

Akram Mohammad Saad Hamasha; Sinasi Taner Yildiran; Ahmet Gonlum; Mehmet Ali Saracli; Levent Doganci

2004-01-01

243

Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

2011-01-01

244

Features of Computerized Educational Games in Sciences of the Elementary Phase in Jordan from the Point of View of Specialists in Teaching Science and Computer Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims at introducing the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary school in Jordan according to the specialists in teaching science and computer subjects, through answering some questions such as: What are the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary schools in Jordan

Al Sarhan, Khaled Ali; AlZboon, Saleem Odeh; Olimat, Khalaf Mufleh; Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem

2013-01-01

245

Ground-water quality deterioration in arid areas: a case study of the Zerqa river basin as influenced by Khirbet Es-Samra waste water (Jordan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the Khirbet Es-Samra Waste Water Treatment Plant (KS) on the deterioration of ground-water quality at Seil Zerqa basin were investigated in this study. The plant is located in an arid area in the eastern part of Jordan. It was built in 1985 to treat the waste water of about 60% of the Jordan population. It is composed

Atef Al-Kharabsheh

1999-01-01

246

A new generalized and sharp version of Jordan's inequality and its applications to the improvement of the Yang Le inequality, II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new generalized and sharp version of Jordan’s inequality which is a unified generalization of some known results. An application of our results to the improvement of the Yang Le inequality is provided in this paper.

Shanhe Wu; Lokenath Debnath

2007-01-01

247

DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

1996-10-01

248

Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

2013-01-01

249

Nutritional status of women and child refugees from syria - jordan, april-may 2014.  

PubMed

As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

2014-07-25

250

Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

2014-07-01

251

Errors and misquotations in the study of shisha, blood pressure and heart rate in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  This comment is based on a critical review of a study on blood pressure and heart rate in shisha (narghile, hookah) smokers\\u000a in Jordan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  The study was analysed against the most recent literature on this issue, in general, and against peer-reviewed biomedical\\u000a publications from the Middle East, in particular.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Several errors and misquotations were found in the study

Kamal Chaouachi

2009-01-01

252

Spherically Symmetric Jordan-Brans-Dicke Quantum Gravity with de Broglie Bohm Pilot Wave Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain two dimensional analogue of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity action described in four dimensional spherically symmetric curved space time metric. There will be two scalar fields, namely, the Brans Dicke (BD) ? and scale factor of 2-sphere part of the space time ?. We obtained suitable duality transformations between (?, ?) and (?, S) where ? and S is respectively amplitude and phase part of the corresponding de Broglie pilot wave function ? (? ,S)=?{? }e^{iS}. Covariant conservation of mass-energy current density of particles ensemble J a = ?? a S, is established by applying a particular dynamical conformal frame described by (?, S).

Ghaffarnejad, Hossein

2014-03-01

253

Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of copper and iron in the region, and the use of charcoal from slags for the C-14 dating of periods of archaeometallurgical activity. Less directly, interpretations based on the distribution in time and space of the archaeometallurgical activities of the region might add to the knowledge of early climatic conditions and vegetative cover of the area.

Overstreet, W. C.; Grimes, D. J.; Seitz, J. F.

1982-01-01

254

Determination of hypericin content in Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra (Hypericaceae) growing wild in Jordan.  

PubMed

Hypericin content of methanolic extracts of dried flowers, leaves, stems, and roots of Hypericum triquetrifolium (Turra) were determined by HPLC. Conversion of protohypericin to hypericin was achieved by exposing samples to light for 30 min immediately before HPLC analysis. External standard calibration was used to quantify hypericin. Leaves showed the highest hypericin content of 0.36% w/w. Total aerial parts contained 0.43% w/w of hypericin. The relatively high hypericin content of the H. triquetrifolium in this study encourages the introduction, cultivation, and biological evaluation of hypericum specie in Jordan. PMID:14984088

Alali, Feras; Tawaha, Khaled; Al-Eleimat, Tamam

2004-04-01

255

Isolation of endospore-forming bacilli toxic to Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae) in Jordan.  

PubMed

Ten of 80 endospore-forming bacilli, isolated from various habitats of Jordan, were found to be highly toxic to the 4th instar larvae of Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). The bacilli were identified into the following species and strains: Bacillus sphaericus (H6), B. sphaericus (H9a, 9b), B. cereus Frankland and Frankland, B. brevis Migula and B. megaterium Bary. Bacillus cereus comprised 50% of the isolates. The toxic concentrations of these isolates against C. longiareolata ranged between 1.2 x 10(7) and 1.1 x 10(9) viable spores ml-1. PMID:10030033

Khyami-Horani, H; Katbeh-Bader, A; Mohsen, Z H

1999-01-01

256

Von Neumann-Jordan Constants of Absolute Normalized Norms on ? n  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, we give some estimations of the Von Neumann-Jordan constant C\\u000a \\u000a N J\\u000a (????) of Banach space (?\\u000a n\\u000a , ????), where ???? is the absolute normalized norm on ?\\u000a n\\u000a given by function ?. In the case where ? and ? are comparable, n=2 and C\\u000a \\u000a N J\\u000a (????)=1, we obtain a formula of computing C\\u000a \\u000a N

Huai Xin Cao

2003-01-01

257

Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27?166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31?747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18?432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases.

Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

2012-01-01

258

HEREDITARY BLINDNESS: A GENEALOGICAL STUDY AMONG AL-GHARAHIR, A JORDAN VALLEY TRIBE  

PubMed Central

Background: Hereditary diseases form an omnibus problem in Arab societies in general and in rural Arab societies in particular. Aim: Study of hereditary blindness and its relation to endogamous marriage among the Gharaghir tribe in the Jordan valley. Methodology: The researchers carried out a fieldwork among the Gharaghir tribe in Al-Sawalha (the northern valley region, Deir Alla, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) using participant observation, and intensive focussed interviews, in addition to the genealogical method. We gathered data on endogamous marriages, blindness, genealogy and the degrees of kinship between the spouses. Results and Discussion: The results show that blindness among the Gharaghir was found to be associated with endogamous marriage. Marriage among the established ancestors of the clans used to be exogamous and kinship was unilineal-patrilineal. Through the shift to endogamy (marriage between close kin) there was a shift from uniliny (patriliny) to bilineal descent. This may have increased the probability of a recessive gene transmission from both parental sides. This is evidenced by the high inbreeding coefficient of 0.0687, one of the highest recorded.

Haddad, Mohanna Y.; El-Najjar, Mahmoud Y.

1998-01-01

259

A mathematical model for the dynamic optimization of the energy supply in Jordan  

SciTech Connect

A least-cost energy-supply mixture that would satisfy the total basic energy and electric power requirements for all sectors of the economy in Jordan during each year of the planning period 1990-2000 is presented. Two submodels and a main model were designed. The first submodel simulated the interaction among variables that affect the energy and electricity demand of the household sector. It utilized a system dynamic approach and the simulation language DYNAMO. The second submodel applied the techniques of econometric analysis and multilinear regression to forecast the demand of the other energy demand sectors. The main model used dynamic linear programming to compute the least-cost energy-supply mixture for every year of the planning period. A nonlinear software GINO was utilized to implement the main model. The study applied a managerial problem solving approach to the energy problem in Jordan. Study results were used to develop guidelines for a national energy strategy directed at more efficient energy production and consumption.

El-Kablan, M.M.

1991-01-01

260

New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan  

SciTech Connect

Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. (Natural Resource Authority, Amman (Jordan))

1996-01-01

261

Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art  

SciTech Connect

The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

Miller, Naomi J.

2011-09-01

262

Archaeological evidences of the tectonic activity of Shueib Structure (NW Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeological damage in buried ruins often offers an excellent record of recent tectonic activity. The lower Jordan valley has experienced a continuous occupation in the last 5000 year, being frequent archaeological remains of human settlements along the valley. In this work we studied the Early Neolithic-to-Middle Islamic Periods archaeological site of Tall al-Hammam (Arabic name, ¨Hill of Baths¨). This ruin is located 27 km southwest of Amman city and it constitutes the largest Bronze Age archaeological site in Jordan. It consists of two main parts; the Upper Tall and the Lower Tall. This ruin lies within the southwestern termination of the Shueib structure (SHS); a Cretaceous fold-bend fault structure thought inactive through the entire Cenozoic. The relics, in the lower Tall, show clear fault-related damage in some walls. Two Middle Bronze Age (MBA) walls are displaced 26 and 20 cm respectively, according with a NNE-SSW fault plane. Apart of wall displacements, hundreds of joints and cracks in boulders of the walls are present. They strike generally NW-SE and NE-SW. Both archaeological evidences, boulder fractures and walls distortion, are coherent with the present-day tectonic setting of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in the region, and suggest a Quaternary reactivation of the SHS.

Al-Awabdeh, Mohammad; Azañón, J. Miguel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Booth-Rea, Gillermo

2014-05-01

263

Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in jordan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia. PMID:24932934

Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

2014-01-01

264

Mound measurements — quantifying medium-term soil erosion under olive trees in Northern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades many quantitative erosion studies have revealed that olive orchard expansion and increased mechanization in southern European countries have led to increased soil erosion under olive trees. Consequently, these studies have suggested different methods of mitigation. In light of the 2014 European trading zone expansion to countries east and south of the Mediterranean, a further intensification of olive plantations is postulated to meet market demands. To attain first medium-term estimates of erosion in Northern Jordan and its driving factors, a new method measuring olive mounds was implemented. Seven fields with clearly erosive structures were chosen throughout the Wadi Al-Arab catchment in Northern Jordan. Topographic measurements were used to reconstruct the historical and recent surface level and calculate the volume eroded since the planting of the trees. A total of 81 bulk density measurements and 14 tree cores allowed the estimation of the soil loss in tons per hectare. The combination of modified land use map and slope information helped to identify similar olive fields with high erosive potential.

Kraushaar, S.; Herrmann, N.; Ollesch, G.; Vogel, H.-J.; Siebert, C.

2014-05-01

265

Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from brined white cheese in Jordan.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from different dairy food products. Several foodborne outbreaks of listeriosis have been associated with consumption of cheese. The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in brined white cheese (BWC) sold in Jordan, and to determine the susceptibility of isolated L. monocytogenes to antimicrobials. Three hundred and fifty samples of 5 different types of BWC (akkawi, boiled, halloumi, pasteurized, and shellal) were collected from a local market in Jordan. The ISO (11290-1) procedure was followed for isolation and identification of Listeria spp. from cheese samples and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for confirmation of L. monocytogenes isolates. The VITEK2 automated system was used for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. in cheese sample was 27.1%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 39 (11.1%) samples. Other isolated species were L. grayi (6.9%), L. innocua (2%), L. ivanovii (4%), L. seeligeri (2%), and L. welshimeri (0.3%). The pH values and salt concentrations of L. monocytogenes positive cheese samples ranged from 5.10 to 6.32 and 5.64 to 13.16, respectively. L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to imipenem, gentamicin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to fosfomycin, oxacillin, and clindamycin. PMID:22897495

Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Taha, Mohammad H; Al-Holy, Murad A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Rousan, Walid M; Shaker, Reyad R

2012-09-01

266

Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

Lucke, Bernhard

2014-05-01

267

Medical waste management in Jordan: A study at the King Hussein Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

As in many other developing countries, the generation of regulated medical waste (RMW) in Jordan has increased significantly over the last few decades. Despite the serious impacts of RMW on humans and the environment, only minor attention has been directed to its proper handling and disposal. This study was conducted in the form of a case study at one of Jordan's leading medical centers, namely, the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC). Its purpose was to report on the current status of medical waste management at KHMC and propose possible measures to improve it. In general, it was found that the center's administration was reasonably aware of the importance of medical waste management and practiced some of the measures to adequately handle waste generated at the center. However, it was also found that significant voids were present that need to be addressed in the future including efficient segregation, the use of coded and colored bags, better handling and transfer means, and better monitoring and tracking techniques, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel.

Oweis, Rami [Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo; Al-Widyan, Mohamad [Biosystems Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: widyan@just.edu.jo; Al-Limoon, Ohood [Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo

2005-07-01

268

Technical and economical assessment of the utilization of photovoltaic systems in residential buildings: The case of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the feasibility of utilizing photovoltaic systems in a standard residential apartment in Amman city in Jordan. Data on solar radiation, sunshine duration and the ambient temperature has been recorded in Amman city. An apartment in Amman was chosen as a case study to conduct energy and economic calculations. The electrical power needs and cost were calculated for

A. Al-Salaymeh; Z. Al-Hamamre; F. Sharaf; M. R. Abdelkader

2010-01-01

269

Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

270

Does service quality implementation mediate the relationship between technical service quality and performance: an empirical examination of banks in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the mediation effect of service quality implementation on the relationship between technical service quality and banks performance. Drawing on relevant literature, the author empirically tested a model of technical service quality, service quality implementation and performance on a sample of 346 managers of banks in Jordan. The study findings have indicated significant implications for banks managers in

Mamoun N. Akroush

2009-01-01

271

The Regional Resources and Tourism Development in Developing Countries a Case Study of Salt and Karak, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the initial field surveys to understand the conditions of tourism development and its perspectives of contribution towards regional development in developing countries. The case studies of Salt and Karak cities in Jordan are focused, where some international aid projects are under implementation. It is believed some clues for sustainable tourism development for the regional development, which may

Nami Tanaka; Kazunari Tanaka; Yamaguchi Keiko; Tamagawa Eri

2006-01-01

272

"Taking It to the Mic": Pedagogy of June Jordan's Poetry for the People and Partnership with an Urban High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

June Jordan, a prolific and most-published African American essayist and poet and a professor in the African American Studies department at the University of California, Berkeley, ventured to challenge the institutionalized Ivory Tower traditions and subsequently established a university program called Poetry for the People (P4P) in 1991. Such…

Jocson, Korina M.

2005-01-01

273

Chemical Composition and Manufacturing Technology of a Collection of Various Types of Islamic Glazes Excavated from Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of Islamic glazed pottery shards that were excavated from the archaeological site of Dohaleh\\/Northern Jordan were chemically analysed. The glazes belong to three different decorative styles. The chemical analysis of the glazes was carried out using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The chemical analysis results enable the classification of the glazes into the three distinct compositional groups with reference

Ziad Al-Saad

2002-01-01

274

Effects of geologic heterogeneity on waterflood efficiency at Jordan field, University lands, Ector and Crane Counties, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan field produces oil from the Permian (Guadalupian) San Andres Formation at a depth of approximately 3500 ft on the east flank of a low, broad anticline located on the eastern side of the Central Basin platform in the Permian basin of west Texas. Since discovery in 1937, the portion of the field on university lands has produced 68 million

R. P. Major; M. H. Holtz

1989-01-01

275

In vitro culture of the strobilar stage of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep and donkey origin from Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoscolices ofEchinococcus granulosus isolated from hydatid cysts of sheep and donkeys in Jordan were cultured in vitro using a modified diphasic culture system. Protoscolices from these two sources manifested differences in the mode of development, evagination and growth rates. Protoscolices isolated from sheep cysts grew in vitro in the polyzoic direction up to the three- to four-segmented mature worms, reaching

N. S. Hijjawi; S. K. Abdel-Hafez; F. M. Al-Yaman

1992-01-01

276

Educational Attainment and Attitudes towards War in Muslim Countries Contemplating War: The Cases of Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the little understood relationship between educational attainment and public attitudes towards war in four predominantly Muslim countries contemplating war: Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. The multivariate analysis using public opinion data suggests that the educational attainment of respondents has no statistically…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Ross, Karen

2009-01-01

277

Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy, and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 167 m3 per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the levels of aquifers and the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particu- larly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial, and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure

Christopher A. Scott; Hazim El-Naser; Ross E. Hagan; Amal Hijazi

278

The Use of Molecular Techniques in Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from Commercial Chickens in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial chickens in Jordan suffer from respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. This study was designed to document the involvement of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in this respiratory disease. Seventy six different chicken flocks with respiratory symptoms (48 broiler flocks, 21 layer flocks and 7 broiler-breeder flocks) were examined serologically by commercial MG ELISA kit and bacterial isolation for Mycoplasma. Twenty four

Saad Gharaibeh; Dirgham Al Roussan

2008-01-01

279

Internet political discussions in the Arab world: A look at online forums from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis examines postings on four Internet political discussion forums based in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Egypt. The study of Arabic-language sites concludes that the discussions cover a variety of topics and offer vibrant and complex conversations on political issues in the Arab world. Unlike in the US and European countries, the study found that social issues were

Eisa Al Nashmi; Johanna Cleary; Juan-Carlos Molleda; Melinda McAdams

2010-01-01

280

Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources

C. A. Scott; H. El-Naser; R. E. Hagan; A. Hijazi

2001-01-01

281

The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

2010-04-01

282

The Change in Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Critical Thinking after 15 Years of Educational Reform in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. This study investigates how mathematics secondary schools' teachers in \\\\hbox{Jordan} perceive critical thinking and compares teachers' perceptions before and after educational reform. Data were collected from 12 schools twice: in 1988 and in 2004 by interviewing 47 Mathematics teachers. The interview included questions related to teachers' understanding of critical thinking, its role and importance in learning Mathematics, and instructional

Hanan Innabi; Omar El Sheikh

2007-01-01

283

Hydraulic properties of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, southeastern Minnesota, 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An aquifer test of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was conducted in the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community located southwest of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A well open to the Jordan Sandstone was pumped at 600 gallons per minute for 57 hours. Drawdown was monitored in three observation wells located near the pumped well. These wells were open to: (1) the Jordan Sandstone, the principal unit of the aquifer; (2) the Prairie du Chien Group, a secondary, carbonate-rock unit of the aquifer; and (3) a confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer. Test results indicate that the Jordan Sandstone had a transmissivity of 6,267 ft2/d, a storativity of 1.193 x 10-4, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 31 ft/d based on a saturated thickness of 204 ft, and a ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 5.29 x 10-4. The pumped well was hydraulically connected to the Prairie du Chien Group observation well. No drawdown was observed in the observation well completed in the confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer; thus, a hydraulic connection of this observation well to the pumped well was not indicated.

Ruhl, James F.

1999-01-01

284

75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...strawberries from Jordan. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review...that, based on the findings of a pest- risk analysis, can be safely imported subject...national plant protection organization of the exporting country, and have been found free of...specific quarantine pests identified by the risk assessment as likely to follow the......

2010-10-12

285

Essential Oil Content and Heavy Metals Composition of Thymus vulgaris Cultivated in Various Climatic Regions of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to estimate the concentration of essential oil and some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Zn & Cu) in thyme plant (Thymus vulgaris) cultivated in the southern (Maan, Al-Shouback & Al-Tafeileh), middle (Amman) and northern (Jeresh, Ajlune & Irbid) regions of Jordan. The results showed a wide variation of essential oil values yielded from thyme

Mohammad S. Abu-darwish; Ziad H. m. Abu-dieyeh

286

Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with concerned stakeholders to assure future water supplies.

Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

2001-05-01

287

Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers, farm owners, and farm workers - to support the inclusion of sustainable land management while sustaining ecosystem services and livelihoods. Also, we demonstrated and focused on practical understanding of how to identify and address land degradation and on using sustainable land use practices - including soil and water conservation measures, conservation agriculture, and rangeland management- through combination of expert and participatory research and participatory planning.

Khresat, Saeb

2014-05-01

288

Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB-MgNaCl) represent the saline end members. Existing water types are mixtures of the 3 end members. There is a consistency in results and analysis of geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geophysical data. There are three probable sources of increase in groundwater salinity: mixing with saline end members (RVB/DSB); dissolution of minerals of the Lisan Formation (calcite, dolomite, gypsum and halite); and to some extent, agricultural effluent pollution.

Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

2013-06-01

289

Near-infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra  

SciTech Connect

Near-infrared reflectance analysis is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

Honigs, D.E.; Freelin, J.M.; Hieftje, G.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1983-11-01

290

Reflections on sex research among young Bedouin in Jordan: risks and limitations.  

PubMed

Research about sexuality is characterised by silences and invisibilities. This is particularly evident in some Islamic Arab societies where discussion of sexuality in general is not encouraged and practices such as homosexuality or pre-marital sex are not acknowledged. This creates a barrier to carrying out sex research and also means that much of the research-based knowledge and methodologies developed in a Western setting may have limited applicability. This paper uses research recently carried out among Bedouin young women in Jordan to examine these limitations and the extent to which research approaches and findings from relatively liberal Western cultures are appropriate and relevant. Following a description of the cultural context in which the study took place, the paper identifies potential risks of conducting sex research in this setting and the research limitations related to this risk. Finally, it addresses the question of whether doing sex research has any value given these restrictions. PMID:22085369

Al-Shdayfat, Noha M; Green, Gill

2012-01-01

291

Red light violations at rural and suburban signalized intersections in Jordan.  

PubMed

This case study investigated red light violations at rural and suburban signalized intersections in Jordan. Field observations were conducted at 15 signalized intersections located in different Jordanian regions: Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. The results showed that, out of a total of 1,190 drivers who had a chance for violation, 153 (12.9%) drivers ran red lights. It was found that older drivers have less tendency for running red lights. Based on vehicle type, the analysis showed that truck drivers had the highest violation rate followed by small vehicles and then buses. The Y-shaped intersection had a higher percentage of violations as compared to the T- and cruciform-shaped intersections. The percentage of red light violations was found to be directly proportional to the subjects approach speed and inversely proportional to the conflicting traffic volumes. PMID:16210202

Al-Omari, Bashar H; Al-Masaeid, Hashem R

2003-06-01

292

Atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Aqaba city, Jordan, using Phoenix dactylifera L. leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leaves of date palms ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) were evaluated as biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in the city of Aqaba, Jordan. The concentrations of iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples of unwashed leaves for testing were collected from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, suburban, industrial, highway, and rural sites). Separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial areas were found to have high contents of all metals except for nickel, copper, and lead, which were found at high concentrations in the samples collected from highway sites. Significant correlations between the heavy metal concentrations in date palm trees in unwashed leave samples were obtained. The principle component analysis (PCA) along with correlation analysis provide significant information about the origin of heavy metals in palm tree samples.

Al-Khlaifat, Abdelaziz L.; Al-Khashman, Omar A.

293

Comparative performance of Awassi lambs and Black goat kids on different crude protein levels in Jordan.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different crude protein (CP) levels on the growth performance of Awassi lambs and Black goat kids. Forty lambs and 40 kids were randomly selected and allocated to separate pens of equal size for 75 days. Each group was fed one of four rations containing 12, 14, 16, or 18% CP. Final weights and gains for lambs were higher (P<0.001) than those for kids for all rations fed. No differences were obtained between lambs fed with 16 and 18% CP ration. However, both groups had higher (P<0.001) body weight and gain than lambs in other groups. Kids had higher (P<0.001) body weights and gain when fed with 16% ration. There were no significant differences among kids of other groups. Black goat kids have good potential to support red meat production in Jordan with less efficiency than Awassi lambs. PMID:10818313

Titi; Tabbaa; Amasheh1; Barakeh; Daqamseh

2000-07-01

294

Stability of the Einstein static universe in the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent theory assumes that the universe originates from an Einstein static (ES) state rather than the big bang singularity, and, thus, provides a possible way to resolve the singularity problem. The stability against all kinds of perturbations that ensures the past eternity of the ES state is crucial for a successful realization of the emergent scenario. Recently, it has been found that in the context of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory there exists a stable ES solution under homogenous and anisotropic perturbations. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the stability against tensor and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations. We find that, different from general relativity and f(R) theory, a stable ES solution is allowed in the JBD theory when different kinds of perturbations are considered, although the stability conditions are tighter for tensor and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations than those for homogenous and anisotropic ones.

Huang, He; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

2014-05-01

295

Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

296

Effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice among Muslim women in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

Based on the authors' interview survey for 275 Muslim women of an ethnically divergent community in Amman, Jordan, this study examined the psychosocial effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice, using the normative interpretations of legal provisions in Islam (hukm). The categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) reduced the eight items regarding family planning and contraception use to two factors, i.e. the pressures of childbearing and acceptability of contraception use, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Even though the majority of the female subjects were conservative rather than innovative in terms of reproduction norms and significant interrelations were observed between their reproduction norms and contraception practice, approximately 70% of the female subjects who were closely in consonance with the normative interpretations of their religious leader had used contraception. It is thus indicated that religious leaders may play significant roles in increase of contraception practice among Muslim women. PMID:16854689

Sueyoshi, S; Al-Khozahe, H O; Ohtsuka, R

2006-06-01

297

Karst system developed in salt layers of the Lisan Peninsula, Dead Sea, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lisan Peninsula, Jordan, is a massive salt layer accumulated in the inner part of the Dead Sea’s precursory lakes. This tongue-shaped, emergent land results in a salt diapir uplifted in the Dead Sea strike-slip regional stress field and modified by the water level fluctuations of the last lake during the Holocene. These two elements, associated with dissolution caused by rainfall and groundwater circulation, resulted in an authentic karst system. Since the 1960s, the Dead Sea lowering of 80 cm to 1 m per year caused costly damages to the industrial plant set up on the peninsula. The Lisan karst system is described in this article and the components of the present dynamic setting clarified.

Closson, Damien; Lamoreaux, Philip E.; Abou Karaki, Najib; Al-Fugha, Hassan

2007-03-01

298

Order reduction of z-transfer functions via multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The order reduction problem of z-transfer functions is solved by using the multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion (MJCFE) technique. An efficient algorithm that does not require the use of complex algebra is presented for obtaining an MJCFE from a stable z-transfer function with expansion points selected from the unit circle and/or the positive real axis of the z-plane. The reduced-order models are exactly the multipoint Pade approximants of the original system and, therefore, they match the (weighted) time-moments of the impulse response and preserve the frequency responses of the system at some characteristic frequencies, such as gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency, bandwidth, etc.

Lee, Ying-Chin; Hwang, Chyi; Shieh, Leang S.

1992-01-01

299

Prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of intestinal parasitic infections in the Nablus area, West Bank of Jordan.  

PubMed

A total of 22,970 stool specimens collected from patients attending the Central Medical Laboratory in the city of Nablus in the period of 1981-1986 were examined for intestinal parasites. Of these 7412 (32.3%) were positive. Entamoeba histolytica (22.9%), Giardia lamblia (7.3%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.7%) were the most prevalent intestinal parasites found. Other intestinal parasites present included Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia saginata, Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Seasonal occurrence of intestinal parasites in the West Bank of Jordan was also studied in the period January 1981-August 1987. Lower prevalence rates of intestinal parasites generally occurred during winter and early spring. Peak incidence occurred during summer and early autumn. The reasons for these seasonal variations are discussed. PMID:2596904

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Hamdan, A H; Shaheen, S F; Abu-Zeid, I; Faidy, Y R

1989-02-01

300

Anti-TNF therapy in Jordan: a focus on severe infections and tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background A high rate of infection has been reported in patients receiving treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF). This study describes the rate of and risk factors for serious infections in patients receiving anti-TNF agents in Jordan. Methods This retrospective observational study was conducted at a large tertiary referral center in the north of Jordan. Between January 2006 and January 2012, 199 patients who received an anti-TNF agent (infliximab, adalimumab, or etanercept) were included. Patients received the anti-TNF treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or other conditions. A serious infection was defined as any bacterial, viral, or fungal infection that required hospitalization, administration of appropriate intravenous antimicrobial therapy, and temporary withholding of anti-TNF treatment. Results The mean duration of anti-TNF treatment was 26.2 months. Steroids were used in 29.1% of patients, while 54.8% were given additional immunosuppressant therapy (methotrexate or azathioprine). Only one anti-TNF agent was given in 70.4% of patients, while 29.6% received different anti-TNF agents for the duration of treatment. Serious infections were documented in 39 patients (19.6%), including respiratory tract infections (41%), urinary tract infections (30.8%), and skin infections (20.5%), and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in three patients (7.7%). Exposure to more than one anti-TNF agent was the only factor associated with a significant increase in the rate of infection (relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.06–4.0, P=0.03). Conclusion Serious infections, including tuberculosis, were a common problem in patients receiving anti-TNF agents, and exposure to more than one anti-TNF agent increased the risk of serious infection.

Alawneh, Khaldoon M; Ayesh, Mahmoud H; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Saadeh, Salwa Shihadeh; Smadi, Mahmoud; Bashaireh, Khaldoun

2014-01-01

301

Investigations on the combustion metamorphism halo of bituminous micrites (Maqarin site, northern Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion metamorphism halo in a bituminous micrite sampled in an adit from the Maqarin site, in northern Jordan (Khoury et al., 1992) was studied by combining different methods (magnetic, thermal, chemical and mineralogical analysis). The magnetic investigations confirmed the existence of a significant magnetic anomaly between the cement bodies and the unaltered sediment. This finding is consistent with previous studies on combustion metamorphism (Cisowski and Fuller, 1987 ; Ron and Kolodny, 1992). The magnetic anomaly observed in Maqarin is found to be double, exhibiting two distinct maxima (for both susceptibility and remanent magnetisation). Combined mineralogical and magnetic characterisations show that the first anomaly is due to magnetite type iron oxides whereas the second anomaly originates from maghemite type oxides and that these ferromagnetic minerals are inherited from sulphide minerals (pyrite). The thermal analysis of the bituminous marl displays two major exothermic events (centered at ~320°C and at ~440°C) and one major endothermic event (centered at ~790°C). These events are correlated with important mass losses. By using the evolved gases analysis (EGA), the two important exothermic events are interpreted as linked to the oxidation of two types of organic matter. The major endothermic event is well known and corresponds to decarbonatation. Using available information and new data acquired during this study, an attempt was done to reconstruct the temperature profile along Maqarin adit at the moment when combustion stopped between unaltered sediments (30 +/- 10 °) and the combusted zone (1100 +/- 50 °C) Cisowski S. M. and Fuller M. Geol. Soc. of America Bulletin, 99, 21-29, 1987. Khoury H. N., Salameh E., Clark I. D., Fritz P., Bajjali W., Milodowski A. E., Cave M. R., Alexander W. R., J. Geochem. Explor., 46, 117-132, 1992. Ron H. and Kolodny Y., J. Geophys. Res., 97, NO. B5, 6927-6939, 1992. This investigation is part of the Maqarin Phase IV project supported by ANDRA, CEA, NAGRA, NIREX, SKB and Jordan University.

Vandamme, D.; Fontanini, L.; Trotignon, L.; Raynal, J.; Khoury, H.; Milodowski, A.; Rassineux, F.; Mäder, U.; Bienvenu, P.

2003-04-01

302

Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.  

PubMed

The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:21399920

Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

2011-08-01

303

Late ordovician—early silurian glaciofluvial deposits preserved in palaeovalleys in South Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periglacial, fluvial strata of Late Ordovician age, infilling incised palaeovalleys in the lower part of the shallow-marine, siliciclastic Khreim Group (Late Ordovician to Silurian) are described from outcrops in south Jordan. The palaeovalley fill predominantly comprises poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained, sub-arkose with subordinate beds of pebble- to cobble-size diamictite. Clasts include subangular rip-up sandstone and sparse shelly fossils derived from the local bedrock, together with exotic, rounded pebbles and cobbles derived from the Cambro-Ordovician sandstones and granitoid Precambrian rocks in the palaeohinterland, situated to the south. The palaeovalley fill is locally characterised by synsedimentary slump folds, micro-faulting and contorted bedding. These are attributed either to gravitational slumping at palaeovalley margins, or collapse due to melting of stagnant supporting ice. At some localities, the sandstones are typically trough cross-bedded, and exhibit upward-fining trends terminating in current ripples, suggesting episodic infill of the palaeovalleys. The few palaeocurrent measurements available from these sedimentary structures indicate a general palaeoflow to the north, coincident with the general orientation of the exposed palaeovalleys. The palaeovalleys may have been formed by glacial and/or fluvial processes; their predominantly sandstone fill is interpreted as fluvial and/or glaciofluvial in origin, and was probably deposited as proximal proglacial outwash at some distance from the ice-sheet which lay to the south, in present-day Saudi Arabia. The Batra Mudstone, which overlies coeval, non-channelised, glaciofluvial sandstones yields an Early Llandovery fauna, thus constraining the upper age of the palaeovalley infilling. By analogy with similar strata in Saudi Arabia, erosion of the palaeovalleys and infilling is likely to have taken place during Ashgill to Early Llandovery times. Erosion of the palaeovalleys and their subsequent infilling is associated with the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian glaciation of Gondwanaland, widely reported from central Saudi Arabia and, in the subsurface, from Jordan.

Powell, John H.; Moh'd, Basim Khalil; Masri, Ahmed

1994-03-01

304

Climatic change impacts on water balance of the Upper Jordan River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Mediterranean and Near East (EM/NE) is an extremely water scarce environment. It is expected that problems will increase due to climate change and population growth. The impact of climate change on water availability in EM/NE and in particular the Jordan River catchment is investigated in this study. Focus is set on the Upper Jordan River catchment (UJC) as it provides 1/3rd of freshwater resources in Israel and Palestine. It is a hydro-geologically extremely complex region with karstic groundwater flow and an orography with steep gradients. The methods used are high resolution coupled regional climate - hydrology simulations. Two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) of the global climate model ECHAM4 have been dynamically downscaled using the non-hydrostatic meteorological model MM5 in two nesting steps with resolutions of 54x54 km2 and 18x18 km2 for the period 1961-2099, whereby the time slice 1961-1989 represents the current climate. The meteorological fields are used to drive the physically based hydrological model WaSiM applied to the UJC. The hydrological model computes in detail the surface and subsurface water flow and water balance in a horizontal resolution of 450 x 450 m2 and dynamically couples to a 2-dim numerical groundwater model. Parameters like surface runoff, groundwater recharge, soil moisture and evapotranspiration can be extracted. Results show in both scenarios increasing yearly mean temperatures up to 4-5 K until 2099 and decreasing yearly precipitation amounts up to 25% (scenario A2). The effect on the water balance of the UJC are reduced discharge and groundwater recharge, increased evaporation and reduction of snow cover in the mountains which usually serves as an important freshwater reservoir for the summer discharge.

Heckl, A.; Kunstmann, H.

2009-04-01

305

A retrospective study on imported Malaria in Jordan. 1. Malaria among Jordanian UN peacekeeping forces.  

PubMed

Malaria is considered as one of the most threatening diseases affecting peacekeeping forces serving in malaria endemic countries. The Jordanian Armed Forces participated in many of the United Nations peacekeeping missions in over 20 countries across the world. Thin and thick blood smears were collected from military personnel returning to Jordan, and relevant data including occupation, age, sex, residence address and the country they served in were recorded. Mefloquine 250 mg/week was prescribed for prophylaxis during the period of stay for three contingents of Jordanian military forces deployed to East Timor. Members of two contingents were given post exposure prophylactic treatment of Doxycycline 100 mg coupled with Primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days soon after returning to Jordan. Blood smears were taken from all soldiers suspected to be affected by malaria, and were monitored over a period of 15 weeks. A total of 811 malaria cases were reported during 1992-2011 among Jordanian military personnel whom served in over 20 countries. Most cases were reported among troops returning from Eretria (54.74%), East Timor (18.86%), Ivory Coast (9.12%) and Sierra Leone (5.1%). Troops aged between 20-40 years constituted 96.3% of the total reported cases. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium vivax (83.5%), followed by Plasmodium falciparum (13.6%). The attack rates (AR) of malaria/100 soldiers among the three contingents were 10.8% for Timor 1, with no post-exposure prophylaxis, and 2.8% for Timor 2 and 3 with post-exposure prophylaxis. There was an evident reduction of malaria attack rate and relapse rate between the two groups Timor 1 (without post-exposure prophylaxis) and Timor 2 and 3 (given post exposure prophylaxis). PMID:24639137

Kanani, K; Amr, Z-S; Shadfan, B; Al-Rashadan, M; Bani Hani, R

2014-05-01

306

The role of the extended family in women's risk of intimate partner violence in Jordan.  

PubMed

The extended family as a potential cause of and protection against intimate partner violence (IPV) remains relatively unstudied. This mixed-methods study used focus group discussions (FGDs) and a clinic-based survey to investigate several family-based risk and protective factors associated with women's risk of IPV in Jordan. Seventeen FGDs (total number of participants = 105) were conducted with women in Amman. Each transcript was coded for categories using open coding methodology and mapping. Relevant categories and subcategories were family support, family interference, family abuse, exposure to violence in childhood, and place of residence. For the survey, systematic probability proportionate to size methodology was used to select a sample of 517 literate, ever married, women from seven reproductive health clinics located throughout the country (response rate = < or = 70%); due to missing data, the analytic sample was restricted to 418 women. Measures assessed the categories mentioned above. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between IPV and the main predictors of interest (residence, family interference, family violence, exposure to violence as a child, and family support). The combined results of the FGDs and the survey demonstrated that the respondent's husband's exposure to violence in childhood and violence perpetrated by other family members were risk factors for IPV. Family interference was also significantly related to IPV but only when the respondent identified the interference as harmful to her relationship. Residence with the respondent's in-laws demonstrated mixed effects. A supportive family was protective against IPV, although the FGDs revealed that families were not always an effective source of assistance. Findings demonstrate the continued role of the wife's and husband's kin in women's risk of IPV in Jordan, highlighting the importance of a broader view of the context of IPV. PMID:19837499

Clark, Cari Jo; Silverman, Jay G; Shahrouri, Manal; Everson-Rose, Susan; Groce, Nora

2010-01-01

307

Surgical Treatment of Otosclerosis: Eight years' Experience at the Jordan University Hospital  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To report the experience of the Jordan University Hospital with respect to the surgical treatment of otosclerosis and to compare results and complications with published studies. Materials and Methods: The medical records of all patients who underwent stapes surgery for otosclerosis at the Jordan University Hospital during the period January 2003 to December 2010 were reviewed. Results: Out of 130 patients who underwent stapes surgery, 104 (80%) fulfilled the criteria and were enrolled in this study. There were 68 (65.4%) females and 36 (34.6%) males (female-to-male ratio, 1.9: 1). The disease was bilateral in 86 (82.7%) patients. Family history for otosclerosis was positive in 37(35.6%) patients. Tinnitus was observed at presentation in 82 (78.8%) patients and spontaneously resolved or improved in 51(62.2%) patients after surgery. Air bone gap after surgery was ? 10 dB in 79 (76.0%) patients, between 10 and 20 dB in 10 (9.6%) patients, and between 20 and 30 dB in four (3.8%) patients. Complications occurred in 17(16.3%) patients, which included: one (1.0%) deaf ear, two (2.0%) sensorineural hearing loss, two (2.0%) facial nerve palsy, six (5.8%) vertigo lasting more than 7 days, three (2.9%) chorda tympani damage, one (1.0%) floating of footplate, and two (2.0%) perforation of the tympanic membrane. Conclusion: The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature by surgeons with the same level of experience, but below than those with large series experience. Therefore, we believe that an experienced general ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon can perform stapes surgery safely and successfully in the absence of an otologist.

Mahafza, Tareq; AL-Layla, Abdelmonem; Tawalbeh, Mohammed; Abu-yagoub, Yagoub; Atwan Sulaiman, Ahmad

2013-01-01

308

Current trends in drug abuse associated fatalities - Jordan, 2000-2004.  

PubMed

This study is the first study that addresses drug abuse associated fatalities in Jordan. It is aimed to give a close picture to the demography, toxicological data, manner, cause of death and other associated findings in such cases. Postmortem forensic pathology reports for all autopsies examined in the National Institute of Forensic Medicine were reviewed over a 5-year period and drug abuse associated deaths were selected. The study revealed that 44 cases (0.76%) out of the 5789 total autopsies were attributed to drug abuse associated deaths. The age range was from 20 to 60 years (mean+/-S.D.=32.7+/-7.2). More than 80% of cases were Jordanian males. The reported abuse substances as single drug or in combination were alcohol in 56.8%, morphine 36.4%, heroin 15.9%, benzodiazepines in 11.4% and cocaine in one body packer case. Surprisingly, neither a case with amphetamine or amphetamine analogue, nor with marijuana or methadone was recorded. In 75% of cases the death was accidental and only one case was reported to be suicidal, while in 18.2% and 4.5% death was due to sudden death and road traffic accidents, respectively. Regarding the cause of death, it was related to drug overdose in 50% of cases and in 34.1%, 11.4% and 4.5% of cases it was attributed to drug related medical complications, non-drug related complications, and trauma, respectively. Alcohol was mainly associated with accidental death; morphine and heroin were associated with drug overdose and abused through intravenous route. Injection marks were reported in 56.8% of cases and in 52.3% death occurred at home. This study confirmed the variation in the incidence and type of abused substances in Jordan compared with different countries. PMID:19217732

Hadidi, Mu'men S; Ibrahim, Mudhaffar I; Abdallat, Imad M; Hadidi, Kamal A

2009-04-15

309

Factors influencing dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in Lebanon and Jordan: results of the Dyslipidemia International Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, as part of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS), we have analyzed the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and risk factors for dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in Lebanon and Jordan. Methods This cross-sectional, multicenter study enrolled 617 patients at 13 hospitals in Lebanon and Jordan. Patients were at least 45 years old and had been treated with statins for at least 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine patient characteristics contributing to dyslipidemia during statin therapy. Results Our findings indicated that 55.9% of statin-treated patients (mean age 60.3 years, 47% female) in Lebanon and Jordan did not achieve goal levels for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol which were dependent on Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk, and 70% of patients (76% men and 63.3% of women) were at very high cardiovascular risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals were not achieved in 67.2% of those with very high cardiovascular risk. The most commonly prescribed statin was atorvastatin (44.6%), followed by simvastatin (27.7%), rosuvastatin (21.2%), fluvastatin (3.3%), pravastatin (3%), and lovastatin (0.2%). Approximately half of the population was treated with a statin dose potency of 4, equaling 40 mg of simvastatin. In Lebanon and Jordan, the strongest independent associations with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol not at goal were current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1.96; 95% confidence [CI] 1.25–3.08), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.53; 95% CI 1.70–3.77), and ischemic heart disease (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.45–3.53), while alcohol consumption was associated with reduced risk (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.03–0.57). Conclusion We observed that many patients in Lebanon and Jordan experienced persistent dyslipidemia during statin treatment, supporting the notion that novel lipid-lowering strategies need to be developed. Also, social programs aimed at combating the extremely high rates of tobacco use and obesity in Lebanon and Jordan are critical for combating cardiovascular disease in these countries.

Azar, Sami T; Hantash, Hadi Abu; Jambart, Selim; El-Zaheri, Mohamed M; Rachoin, Rachoin; Chalfoun, Amal; Lahoud, Layla; Okkeh, Osama; Bramlage, Peter; Brudi, Philippe; Ambegaonkar, Baishali M

2014-01-01

310

Reference crop evapotranspiration derived from geo-stationary satellite imagery - a case study for the Fogera flood plain, NW-Ethiopia and the Jordan Valley, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results are shown of a project aiming to estimate daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 from geo-stationary satellite imagery. In particular, for Woreta, a site in the Ethiopian highland at an elevation of about 1800 m, we tested a radiation-temperature based approximate formula proposed by Makkink (MAK) adopting ET0 evaluated with the version of the Penman-Monteith equation described in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage paper 56 as the most accurate estimate. More precisely we used the latter with measured daily solar radiation as input (denoted by PMFAO-Rs). Our data set for Woreta concerns a period where the surface was fully covered with short green non-stressed vegetation. Our project was carried out in the context of the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LANDSAF) facility. Among others, the scope of LANDSAF is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT Satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this study we applied daily values of downward solar radiation at the surface obtained from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) radiometer. In addition, air temperature at 2 m was obtained from 3-hourly forecasts provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Both MAK and PMFAO-Rs contain the psychrometric "constant", which is proportional to air pressure, which, in turn, decreases with elevation. In order to test elevation effects we tested MAK and its LANDSAF input data for 2 sites in the Jordan Valley located about 250 m b.s.l. Except for a small underestimation of air temperature at the Ethiopian site at 1800 m, the first results of our LANDSAF-ET0 project are promising. If our approach to derive ET0 proves successfully, then the LANDSAF will be able to initiate nearly real time free distribution of ET0 for the full MSG disk.

de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Jitan, M. A.; Temesgen Enku, N.; van der Tol, C.; Gieske, A. S. M.

2010-07-01

311

Reference crop evapotranspiration derived from geo-stationary satellite imagery: a case study for the Fogera flood plain, NW-Ethiopia and the Jordan Valley, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results are shown of a project aiming to estimate daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 from geo-stationary satellite imagery. In particular, for Woreta, a site in the Ethiopian highland at an elevation of about 1800 m, we tested a radiation-temperature based approximate formula proposed by Makkink (MAK), adopting ET0 evaluated with the version of the Penman-Monteith equation described in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage paper 56 as the most accurate estimate. More precisely we used the latter with measured daily solar radiation as input (denoted by PMFAO-Rs). Our data set for Woreta concerns a period where the surface was fully covered with short green non-stressed vegetation. Our project was carried out in the context of the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LANDSAF) facility. Among others, the scope of LANDSAF is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT Satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this study we applied daily values of downward solar radiation at the surface obtained from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) radiometer. In addition, air temperature at 2 m was obtained from 3-hourly forecasts provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Both MAK and PMFAO-Rs contain the psychrometric "constant", which is proportional to air pressure, which, in turn, decreases with elevation. In order to test elevation effects we tested MAK and its LANDSAF input data for 2 sites in the Jordan Valley located about 250 m b.s.l. Except for a small underestimation of air temperature at the Ethiopian site at 1800 m, the first results of our LANDSAF-ET0 project are promising. If our approach to derive ET0 proves successfully, then the LANDSAF will be able to initiate nearly real time free distribution of ET0 for the full MSG disk.

de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Jitan, M. A.; Temesgen Enku, N.; van der Tol, C.; Gieske, A. S. M.

2010-11-01

312

Sources and processes affecting the spatio-temporal distribution of pharmaceuticals and X-ray contrast media in the water resources of the Lower Jordan Valley, Jordan.  

PubMed

The closed basin of the Lower Jordan Valley with the Dead Sea as final sink features high evapotranspiration rates and almost complete reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation farming. This study focuses on the water transfer schemes and the presence, spreading, and potential accumulation of pharmaceutical residues in the local water resources based on findings of a five-year monitoring program. Overall 16 pharmaceuticals and 9 iodinated X-ray contrast media were monitored in groundwater, surface water, and treated wastewater. A total of 95 samples were taken to cover all geographical settings and flow paths from origin (wastewater) to target (groundwater). Nine substances were detected in groundwater, with concentrations ranging between 11ng/L and 33,000ng/L. Sometimes, detection rates were higher than in comparable studies: Diatrizoic acid 75%, iopamidol 42%, iopromide 19%, iomeprol 11%, carbamazepine and iohexol 8%, ibuprofen 6%, and fenofibrate and iothalamic acid 3%. Concentrations in groundwater generally increase from north to south depending on the application of treated wastewater for irrigation. Almost all substances occurred most frequently and with highest concentrations in treated wastewater, followed by surface water and groundwater. As exception, diatrizoic acid was found more frequently in groundwater than in treated wastewater, with concentrations being similar. This indicates the persistence of diatrizoic acid with long residence times in local groundwater systems, but may also reflect changing prescription patterns, which would be in accordance with increasing iopamidol findings and surveys at local hospitals. Trend analyses confirm this finding and indicate a high probability of increasing iopamidol concentrations, while other substances did not reveal any trends. However, no proof of evaporative enrichment could be found. The high spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations measured calls for further systematic studies to assess the long-term evolution of organic trace substances in this reuse setting. PMID:24821436

Zemann, Moritz; Wolf, Leif; Pöschko, Antje; Schmidt, Natalie; Sawarieh, Ali; Seder, Nayef; Tiehm, Andreas; Hötzl, Heinz; Goldscheider, Nico

2014-08-01

313

Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60??C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mixing models and evaluation of SiO2 contents of warm-water manifestations in the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley indicate that these waters are fed by aquifers with estimated temperatures of up to 68??C. These calculations and Na/K ratios, concentrations of Na, K and Ca, concentrations of atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe; and concentrations of the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes all indicate below-boiling temperatures. No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67??C), Gofra (68??C), the Russian Garden (40??C), and the Yesha well (53-65??C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation. ?? 1980.

Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A. H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

1980-01-01

314

New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is, after Israel, the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project "The Ecology and Zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East," we regularly collected blood-feeding flies, resulting in 11 additional species of Tabanidae for Jordan. The new records are: Atylotus quadrifarius (Loew, 1874), Chrysops caecutiens (Linnaeus, 1758), Dasyrhamphis nigritus (Fabricius, 1794), Haematopota pallens Loew, 1871, Nemorius irritans (Ricardo, 1901), Philipomyia graeca (Fabricius, 1794), Tabanus cordiger Meigen, 1820, Tabanus taeniola Palisot de Beauvois, 1806, Tabanus quatuornotatus Meigen, 1820, Tabanus separatus Effllatoun, 1930, and Tabanus spectabilis Loew, 1858. Most of the new records (10/11) are of Palearctic origin; of these, six are of a Mediterranean and one each of West Palearctic, Euroasiatic, Irano-Turanian, and Eremic providence. Only one species, T. taeniola, is an Afrotropical-Eremic element. PMID:22129417

Müller, Günter C; Hogsette, Jerome A; Revay, Edita E; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Leshvanov, Andrey; Schlein, Yosef

2011-12-01

315

Syrian refugees, between rocky crisis in Syria and hard inaccessibility to healthcare services in Lebanon and Jordan  

PubMed Central

Around 3% of the world’s population (n?=?214 million people) has crossed international borders for various reasons. Since March 2011, Syria has been going through state of political crisis and instability resulting in an exodus of Syrians to neighbouring countries. More than 1 million Syrian refugees are residents of Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. The international community must step up efforts to support Syrian refugees and their host governments.

2013-01-01

316

Economic evaluation of a small RO unit powered by PV installed in the village of Hartha, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PV-powered desalination system has been successfully designed, installed and tested at the Hartha Charitable Society in northern Jordan as part of Autonomous Desalination In Rural Areas (ADIRA) with renewable energies—Potentials, technologies, field experience, socio-technical and socioeconomic impact) project installations, partially supported by the European Commission. The system is composed of photovoltaic (PV) panels (433 Wp), a commercially available small

Fawzi Banat; Hazim Qiblaweya; Qais Al-Nasser

2009-01-01

317

The major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry of glauconites from the early Cretaceous Kurnub Group of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major, trace and REE geochemistry of glauconites (as members of the trioctahedral micas) from the early Cretaceous Kurnub Group of Jordan are discussed. The investigated glauconites, with 7.1 to 9.2% K2O, are ranked as evolved to highly evolved as defined by Odin and Matter (1981). Al 2O3 contents show a significant inverse relationship with K 2O and Fe2O3. The

GHALEB JARRAR; BELAL AMIREH; DIETER ZACHMANN

318

The effects upon children in Jordan of the imprisonment of their fathersA social work perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThis study examined the effects upon children in Jordan of fathers being imprisoned. Interviews were conducted with 26 mothers of children and NUDIST was used for qualitative data analysis. As elsewhere, the study confirmed that children are adversely affected and stigmatized: problems related to emotional development, behaviour and schooling were evident.FrenchCette étude examine les effets sur les enfants de Jordanie

Fakir Al Gharaibeh

2008-01-01

319

Conceptual Design of Wind-Diesel Hybrid System for Heating Old and New Buildings in Amman-Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design of a windmill-boiler hybrid system that heats a 1200m 2 residential building in Amman-Jordan is investigated. The hybrid system wind energy part consists of a 50kW vertical axis windmill. The wind mill installation site is chosen to be on the building roof. The windmill electrical output is connected to the utility bus for 2-way power flow. A

Ghassan H Halasa; Nasri J Rabadi

320

Study of water quality of springs in Petra region, Jordan: A three-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petra region area was located in south part of Jordan has grown and urbanized rapidly. This area depends on the groundwater\\u000a as a water resources. This study was undertaken to assess the physical, chemical quality of spring water of Petra region during\\u000a a 36-months survey (September 2002 to September 2005). The samples were analyzed for temperature, conductivity, dissolved\\u000a oxygen, pH,

Omar Ali Al-Khashman

2007-01-01

321

Trace elements in atmospheric precipitation at Northern Jordan measured by ICP-MS: acidity and possible sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainwater samples were collected in a rural region in Northern Jordan using 24-h sampling periods from December 1998 to April 2000. All samples were analyzed for major ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, H+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl?, NO3? and SO42?) and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Al, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb and V). The majority of the rain samples collected

I. F. Al-Momani

2003-01-01

322

Multi-response calibration of a conceptual hydrological model in the semiarid catchment of Wadi al Arab, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nested multi-response calibration approach for a hydrological model.The task is decreasing of model uncertainties in a data scarcity region.The approach base on single observations in a semiarid area of Jordan.Results are compared with outcomes of a-priori parameter models.The proposed approach help to predict water resources in spite of data scarcity.

Rödiger, T.; Geyer, S.; Mallast, U.; Merz, R.; Krause, P.; Fischer, C.; Siebert, C.

2014-02-01

323

Groundwater vulnerability assessment and evaluation of human activity impact (HAI) within the Dead Sea groundwater basin, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater vulnerability to contamination was determined within the Dead Sea groundwater basin, Jordan, using the DRASTIC\\u000a model and evaluation of human activity impact (HAI). DRASTIC is an index model composed of several hydrogeological parameters\\u000a and, in this study, the recharge parameter component was calculated as a function of rainfall, soil permeability, slope percentage,\\u000a fault system, and the intersection locations between

Ahmad Al-Hanbali; Akihiko Kondoh

2008-01-01

324

Identity in old clothes: the socio-cultural dynamics of second-hand clothing in Irbid, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the socio-cultural dynamics underlying the consumption of second-hand clothing (al-Balih) in Irbid city, northern Jordan. It primarily examines the various images and meanings that consumers attach to used clothes imported primarily from the West. Al-Balih is conceived of as a social space where multiple imaginations and images meet and interact. Put another way, it tends to blur

M. M. Naamneh; A. K. Al Husban

2012-01-01

325

Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel Valley toward the Jordan Valley, and then into Northern Jordan. Results confirmed the previous modeling results, suggesting that peak O3 values are observed at later hours as a function of distance from the Mediterranean coast and that maximum O 3 levels are found over northern Jordan. Based on the findings of the first phase that showed elevated O 3 and NOx levels over the Gulf of Aqaba, more investigation was required to assess air quality in the city of Aqaba. Accordingly, long term air quality monitoring study conducted by Jordanian scientists was undertaken during the years 2008-2009. The study was conducted using a fixed air quality station located in the city. Results of this study indicated that topography of the city, with mountains surrounding the city from the east, played a major role in the air masses recirculation and hence the transport of primary pollutants, including NOx from the southern industrial area and the transportation emissions into the northern part of the city. However, high O3 episodes were found to be associated with northern wind in the absence of air masses recirculation indicating the role of long range transport in causing these elevated levels. Thus, based on the results of these studies and in order to reduce the potential health impacts of O3 and its precursors in downwind areas, strategies to control these pollutants should be developed. These strategies should be based on better energy, traffic and industrial management since these are the three main pollution sources. The strategies should include more efficient use of raw materials and energy, better combustion and production technologies that utilize less fuel and emit less pollutant. Measures should include controlling precursors' emissions at the sources located along the east Mediterranean coast, mainly power generation facilities, oil refineries, ports activities, and traffic. In addition, local emissions in the region such as emissions in the Gulf of Aqaba should be reduced by adopting strategies that include the use of cleaner fuel (industry, ships, and vehicles), e

Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

326

The Arabic culture of Jordan and its impacts on a wider Jordanian adoption of business continuity management.  

PubMed

Culture is important to individuals and societies, as well as organisations. Failing to address cultural aspects will hinder the wider adoption and development of business continuity management (BCM) and will subsequently increase the vulnerabilities of organisations to crises, disasters and business interruptions. Three main issues are discussed in this paper. The first is the background to culture and the characteristics of the Jordanian culture. Secondly, the influence of the Arab culture on the wider adoption and development of BCM in Jordan is considered. Thirdly, the paper looks at potential factors that underpin the role of culture in the BCM process in Jordan. These issues are significant, as they represent the characteristics and influence of the Arab culture. This paper contributes to the understanding of the significance of culture in the adoption and development of BCM for organisations operating in Jordan and in the Arab world more generally. It also highlights current cultural changes and trends taking place in the Arab world in a time of huge political instability in the Middle East and Arab countries. PMID:22948108

Sawalha, Ihab H; Meaton, Julia

2012-01-01

327

Human and animal brucellosis in Jordan between 1996 and 1998: a study.  

PubMed

Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses. The human blood samples were collected from two groups: first, from 800 apparently healthy people who were reporting to community hospitals for routine health checks and secondly, from 100 people from groups with a high-risk of contracting brucellosis, such as veterinarians, sheep-herders and laboratory technicians. The Brucella antibody titres for the 900 human serum samples were obtained using the microtitre agglutination test. The cumulative percentage of the serum samples showing a titre reading greater than 1:80 was higher in the at-risk group than among the normal population (7% compared to 4.1%). Although these results were not statistically significant, the higher percentage of positive reactors among the high-risk group may indicate an increased risk factor among professional agricultural and veterinary personnel in Jordan. It was concluded that brucellosis is common in sheep and goats in Jordan, subjecting the human population to high risks. Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination has been internationally recognised as the key to successfully controlling the disease. All animals in Jordan were repeatedly vaccinated between 1996 and 1998 on a trial basis, using a reduced dose of 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU). Cumulative data on the annual rate of human cases of brucellosis indicate that fewer people are affected each year. The same is true for the rate of abortions in animals. Such evidence strongly suggests that the vaccination programme has been successful. However, as wild strains of Brucella have also been isolated from vaccinated animals, the authors recommend increasing the amount of vaccine to a full dose of 1 to 2 x 10(9) CFU and vaccinating young female animals between the ages of three and eight months. To avoid brucellosis in humans, people should be educated about the dangers of contact with infected animals and the consumption of raw milk and milk products. PMID:15861878

Al-Ani, F K; El-Qaderi, S; Hailat, N Q; Razziq, R; Al-Darraji, A M

2004-12-01

328

Cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among 6 grade students in Jordan.  

PubMed

Elementary schools in Jordan have included health education material in curricula to promote healthy lifestyles among younger school children. However, the relation between healthy lifestyles and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer has not been an explicit component in school curricula of younger age groups. We sought to explore the level of knowledge among 6th grade students as well as their attitudes with respect to cancer. This comes as part of a pilot project to develop an educational series on cancer prevention that aims to meet knowledge gaps specific to the community of students in this age group in Jordan. Methods: A questionnaire composed of items measuring knowledge about cancer and cancer prevention through healthy practices, attitudes towards cancer, and intentions to engage in healthy behaviors was developed. Questionnaires previously used in similar age groups elsewhere were used as a reference. Our questionnaire was reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Education - School Health & Nutrition Department. Sixth graders in a convenience sample of four schools selected by the Ministry of Education completed the self-administered questionnaire. Results: Ninety-six 6th graders from four schools answered the baseline survey, but 28% of the surveys were excluded from the analysis (data quality problems) leaving 69 student participants. In the original sample of 96 students, 48 (69.6%) were girls. Among the 69 student participants, 67 (97.1%) had heard of cancer, but fewer than 44 (63.8% knew it was not a contagious disease. Regarding fear, 29 (42%) would not play with a cancer patient. Concerning prevention of the most prevalent cancers in Jordan as research has shown that certain risk factors increase the chance that a person will develop cancer. The most common risk factors are smoking, Poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight, 25 (36.2%) knew breast cancer was preventable, and 28 (40.6%) and 24 (34.8%) knew this regarding lung and colorectal cancers, respectively. About 40 (57.8%) students identified healthy dietary behaviors (e.g., low fat, low sugar), but only six could identify the ideal frequency for exercise (60 minutes daily). Fifty-eight (84.1%) agreed that cigarettes harmed the health. However, only 21 (30.4%) found it easy to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. Nine (13%) reported smoking water pipes, but only one reported smoking cigarettes. Forty-eight (69.6%) and 47 (68.1%) agreed that daily physical activity and healthy eating were important, respectively. Fifty-two (75.4%) students found it easy to eat healthy at home, but only 37 (53.6%) found it easy to do so at school. Finally, 63 (91.3%) students wanted to learn more about cancer. Conclusion: Although a significant number of our sample of students has heard about cancer and students exhibit some knowledge regarding healthy practices, our results show that knowledge gaps exist with regard to the nature of cancer as a noncontagious disease, the preventability of specific cancers, and the link between specific risk factors and cancer. PMID:22910516

Shihab, R A; Obeidat, N A; Bader, R K; Shtaiwi, A; Ayub, A; Hawari, F I

2012-01-01

329

Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing new water resources continues to be a challenge in water scarce regions and water reuse offers a sustainable means by which water availability can be maximised. In Jordan, treated domestic wastewater (reclaimed water) already provides a valuable contribution to the annual water budget. This resource is used for irrigation either directly around wastewater treatment plants, or indirectly after reclaimed water released from treatment plants has been transferred though natural waterways and blended with surface runoff. Direct reuse is employed for the irrigation of fodder crops such as barley or alfalfa, while indirect reuse is employed for the irrigation of high-value fruit and vegetable crops grown in the Jordan Valley, a major commercial agricultural area. In order to ensure water reuse is conducted successfully, it is essential that the benefits of reclaimed water (water availability, high nutrient content) are maximised while the potential risks (to human health, soil sustainability and agricultural yields) are minimised. Stakeholder participation in water reuse management decisions could raise the capacity of the water user (such as the farmer) to manage the risks without compromising the benefits of this resource. To investigate the extent to which stakeholders are participating in water reuse management, semi-structured interviews with farmers and institutional representatives were conducted in Jordan. A particular aim of the interviews was to explore the variation in participation between those stakeholders using reclaimed water directly and indirectly. The data collected during 56 interviews with Jordanian farmers showed that the farmers' perception and management of reclaimed water varied considerably between the indirect and direct users. The direct users had a greater level of satisfaction with the water (55 per cent of those asked described the water as "good water") and recognised that they were able to produce larger yields and raise their incomes through this resource. Direct users also felt that communication with the managers of the wastewater treatment plant was more effective and this enabled them to influence the final quality of the water they received (for example, through requesting a reduction in the chlorine concentration in the wastewater effluent due to the negative effect that chlorine has on crop quality). The indirect reuse farmers had a lower level of satisfaction with the reclaimed water (69 per cent of those asked described the water quality as bad). The interviews revealed that few farmers felt included in water resource management decisions and felt unable to discuss water quality concerns with government officials responsible for water distribution. The indirect reuse farmers seemed to be more concerned with water quality management at the individual farm level, through the installation of water filters to reduce the organic load of the water rather than through processes of lobbying or participatory involvement in decision-making to raise the quality of the water through top-down measures such as the enforcement of water quality legislation. The interviews with 29 organisational representatives drew attention to the sensitivity surrounding indirect water reuse which seems to inhibit open discussion of the topic. This is likely to be due to the nature of agriculture at the sites of indirect reuse. Institutional representatives appeared to be concerned with the risk of consumer rejection of produce grown with reclaimed water and the associated negative effects of rejection on agricultural income and employment. A strategy of reduced discussion seemed to be adopted in the attempt to minimise the potential for consumer rejection. The present research proposes that this strategy (adopted with the aim of protecting agriculture) could have the reverse effect though inhibiting the participation of farmers in water reuse planning and management (they are unable to take part in a process in which they are not recognised as being involved). Open discussion of reuse is necessa

Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

2010-05-01

330

Anthropogenic Influence On Groundwater Quality In Jericho and And Adjoining Wadis (Lower Jordan Valley, Palestine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Jordan Valley is part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift. The graben is filled by sedmiments of limnological and marine origin. Towards the Dead Sea, the occurance of gipseous and salty sediments on the valley floor increase. The southern part of the Lower Jordan Valley, where the city of Jericho is situated, is an arid area (<150 mm precipitation/year), with less amount of exploitable fresh groundwater or surface water. Jericho was founded on an alluvial fan, closely to the western mountain range in front of mouth of Wadi Qilt. The fan serves as reservoir for infiltrating water from wadi runoff and groundwater from the crataceous aquifers of the western shoulder. The fan is surrounded by unsuitable aquifers of the graben, which are filled with saline water. The aim of this study, which takes place inside the multilateral SMART-project, is to understand the vulnerability of the Jericho groundwater aquifers in connection with lowering the groundwater table by overexploitation and the intensively use of pesticides Jericho and its vicinity are of most importance for the Palestinians. However, beside the about 25,000 residents, the tourism industry and the vital agriculture depend on sufficient and expoitable fresh water resources. Because the demand of water is increasing, overexpoitaion takes place. Due to over extraction of groundwater a huge depression cone is evolving during the dry season which is filled up again according to the groundwater recharge in the rainy season. Concomitantly, depression cone in the fresh water aquifers leads to an infiltration of the surrounding saltwater. The amount of saltwater which infiltrates into the freshwater resource was calculated by different stable isotope methods (d2H, d18O) and hydrochemical analyses of wellwater. The agriculture is main consumer of groundwater - over 60% of the pumped water is used for inefficient irrigation. Additionally, an intensive use of pesticides in concentrated liquid and gaseous forms for vegetable gardening hold the danger to pollute the groundwater via irrigation return flow. This return flow most probably endangers the quality of the water resource, because shallow wells nearby extract it directly from the underground. However, one result of the first screening campaign concerning pesticide remnants in the groundwater wells of Jericho, just traces have been detected. Thus, the higher amount of chemicals is retained by the soil during infiltration of irrigated water. The detected low concentrations in groundwater of the fan may be the result of outleaching from agricultural areas from the mountain range. The flood water of Wadi Qilt infiltrates partly in the fluviatil sediments. The ongoing investigations in the Wadi Qilt-Jericho area include an approach of combined hydrochemical and hydraulic studies to simulate the complex groundwater system at the edge of the graben and to prepare a sustainable groundwater management strategy for the area of Jericho.

Geyer, S.; Khayat, S.; Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.

2008-12-01

331

Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ?111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ?1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ?385 ?35 ?48.25 ?1435 69.25 0.18 ?2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ?601.9 ?520.3 282.5 30 32.75 1032 81.6 0.29 974.13 J Wadi el Tarfa 590.5 507.40 277.9 27.9 40.33 1050 75.52 0.27 1029.25 Code Name of Catchment areaER 10 RB 11 CR 12 RR m/km 13 MCL (km) 14 TSL (km) 15 MCS (m/km) 16MCSR 17 A Wadi Arab 0.0499 402.25 0.742 22.88 33.4 157.8 52.78 0.139 B Wadi Zeglab 0.071 201.55 0.751 ?61.53 25.1 15.9 31.87 0.167 C Wadi Jurum ?0.193 27.00 1.078 17.86 15.3 61.6 26.14 ?0.248 D Wadi Yabis 0.070 203.92 0.941 15.87 23.7 122.1 39.38 0.194 E Wadi Kufanga 0.048 431.42 1.055 6.37 24.8 120.9 64.52 0.205 F Wadi Rajib 0.054 344.52 ?1.486 43.53 27.35 118.5 16.09 0.232 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 0.0398 633.15 0.906 44.35 ?43.7 258.1 26.64 0.169 H Wadi el Mallaha 0.024 ?1681. 1.186 41 23.5 ?285.7 ?68.48 0.061 I Wadi Nimrin 0.036 764.69 0.937 34.4 31.5 282.5 25.82 0.111 J Wadi el Tarfa 0.031 807.96 1.38 37.63 26.2 277.9 48.35 0.094. Code Name of Catchment AreaSD km2 18 CCM km2/km 19 MCSP 20 SR 21 RN m/km 22 FOS 23 DF 24 A Wadi Arab 1.411 0.71 4.59 1.53 897.4 57 0.51 B Wadi Zeglab 0.457 ?2.188 4.45 1.27 441.46 25 0.72 C Wadi Jurum 1.793 0.558 2.99 0.72 717.2 23 0.67 D Wadi Yabis 2.139 0.468 3.78 0.58 855.6 21 0.37 E Wadi Kufanga 4.543 0.220 3.09 ?1.55 558.8 20 0.75 F Wadi Rajib 3.778 0.265 6.85 0.43 4850.95 42 1.34 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 3.168 0.316 ?8.47 0.93 4045.53 73 0.896 H Wadi el Mallaha ?5.569 0.179 2.84 1.42 ?7991.51 ?159 2.26 I Wadi Nimrin 3.462 0.289 6.20 0.79 3572.8 60 0.74 J Wadi el Tarfa 3.679 0.271 3.77 1.2 3862.95 72 ?4.64 Continue to Table (1), Legend of Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics Lowest value . ? Highest value. Primary drainage Basin Characteristics TDA Total drainage Area NCDA Non-contributing drainage area BL Basin length BP Basin perimeter BS Average basin slope BR Basin relief MCL Main channel length TSL Total stream length MCS Main channel slope FOS No. of first order stream Calculated Basin Characteristics CDA Contributing drainage area BW Effective basin width SF Slope Factor ER Elongation ratio RB Rotundity of basin CR Compactness ratio RR Relative Relief MCSR Main Channel sinuosity ratio SD Stream

Abu Rukah, Y.

2009-04-01

332

Measurements, Fingerprint, Modeling - Compiling a sediment budget in a data scarce catchment in NW Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regard to the quantitative and qualitative water problems in Jordan the soil layer and its physical integrity is important to slow down runoff, guarantee infiltration, and a sensible parameter in terms of hydrologic modeling. Erosion harms this potential and needs to be better understood and quantified in the region. Therefore, a multiple response approach was implemented to compile a sediment budget for the research area Wadi Al-Arab in the NW of Jordan (263,5km2). The climate is Mediterranean to semi-arid with <300 to 550mm of rain in winter. Mainly marl and limestone of the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleocene make up the catchment's geology. The area is characterized by an agricultural basin in the east and an increase in relief energy to the west and south. Different field measurements were implemented on relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, natural vegetated slopes and exposed rock with patchy vegetation as well as the Wadi Al Arab Dam Lake as the final sink. The focus involved the quantification of the yearly sediment yields and the deposition in the lake, respectively. In a second step a multiple sediment fingerprint was applied including the geochemical differentiation of the sources with inorganic elements and radio nuclides. The relative importance of each source could be calculated on the basis of lake sediment samples. Results of these two approaches cover different spatial scales and only partly integrate the transport way. Hence, they cannot be directly compared but consider the problem from different perspectives and are used in the final step to calibrate and validate the setup of the SedNet model (Wilkinson et al. 2008) for the catchment. The model offers the possibility to incorporate additional raster information, includes additional sources such as gully and bank erosion, and takes account for different areas of deposition according to the measured and regionalized discharge in the region. Its' implementation helped to test the field findings to their limits and provides a more holistic sediment budget for Wadi Al-Arab. Reference: Wilkinson, S., Henderson, A., Chen, Y., Sherman, B. (2008): SedNet User Guide. Client Report, CSIRO Land and Water; Canberra.

Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Wilkinson, Scott; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

333

An artistic and mythological study of a Nabatean female Sphinx from Petra, Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1967 the Group of Sculptures was discovered in Petra during clearance works organized by the Department of Antiquities in Jordan in the Temenos of Qasr el Bint around the Temenos Gate. One of these sculptures was a high relief statue of a female sphinx. Due to the paucity of information about this statue, this paper has been written to answer a number of questions: What was its original site or monument? When was it made? Who was the deity or deities it represented? Could there be another interpretation of its existence? The answers to the above provide enlightenment of Nabataean styles of carvings and an insight into their religious thoughts. Rgarding the interpretation of the Female Sphinx. Three ideas have been suggested. First, it can be the main Nabataean goddess Allat, "the mother of the gods". Second, it is an image of Petra as a goddess. Third, it is carved on the Temenos Gate as a guardian of Petra city in general and its holy monuments like temples and tombs in particular.

Almasri, Eyad R.; Al-Ajlouny, Fardous K.; Alghazawi, Raed Y.

334

Sanitary quality of the Jordan River in Salt Lake County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This investigation of the sanitary quality of the Jordan River was conducted from July 1980 to October 1982 using indicator bacteria rather than specific pathogens. A serious sanitary problem was identified. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in the lower reaches of the river. At times these levels were greatly exceeded. The most conspicuous aspect of the bacteriological data is its extreme variability. Seven waste-water treatment plants, seven major tributaries, numerous storm conduits, irrigation-return flow, and other sources all contribute to the dynamic system that determines the sanitary quality of the river. Because of this variability the sanitary quality of the river cannot be predicted at any one time. In general, concentrations of all three indicator bacteria increased in a downstream direction. Storm runoff from urban areas contributed large concentrations of indicator bacteria to the river. Regression analysis of 9 years of data collected at 1700 South Street showed a significant positive correlation between both fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal concentrations versus time. Concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci have both been increasing since 1974 at 1700 South Street. (USGS)

Thompson, K. R.

1984-01-01

335

Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.  

PubMed

Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

2010-06-22

336

New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.  

PubMed

A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters. PMID:19297533

Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

2009-01-01

337

Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan.  

PubMed

Low water consumption in rural areas in Jordan had resulted in the production of concentrated grey water. Average COD, BOD and TSS values were 2568mg/l, 1056mg/l and 845mg/l, respectively. The average grey water generation was measured to be 14L/c.d. Three different treatment options were selected based on certain criterions, and discussed in this article. The examined treatment systems are septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter; septic tank followed by wetlands; and UASB-hybrid reactor. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are presented. It was concluded that UASB-hybrid reactor would be the most suitable treatment option in terms of compactness and simplicity in operation. The volume of UASB-hybrid reactor was calculated to be 0.268m(3) with a surface area of 0.138m(2) for each house having 10 inhabitants on average. Produced effluent is expected to meet Jordanian standards set for reclaimed water reuse in irrigating fruit trees. PMID:18299193

Halalsheh, M; Dalahmeh, S; Sayed, M; Suleiman, W; Shareef, M; Mansour, M; Safi, M

2008-09-01

338

Age and seasonal variations in the prevalence of Oestrus ovis larvae among sheep in northern Jordan.  

PubMed

During the period March 1996-July 1997, 417 heads of Awassi sheep slaughtered at the Irbid Abattoir (northern Jordan) were examined for the three larval instars (L1, L2 and L3) of Oestrus ovis. Of the 417 heads, 242 (58%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. Larval numbers were highly aggregated. The lowest number of larvae and the lower quartile were both zero, whilst the median was two and the upper quartile was 12. The highest number of larvae recovered from one head was 151. All three larval instars were observed in each month of the year. July and October had the highest proportions of L1, 75 and 78%, respectively, among infected animals (adjusted for age). The number of larvae increased with age. Infestation with live larvae was associated with inflammatory responses in the upper respiratory tract and with catarrhal or purulent discharge. The percentage of infested sheep and the mean monthly total number of larvae/sheep peaked in the warmer part of the year. Most larvae were L1 except during the spring when L2 and L3 predominated. Distribution analysis demonstrates that the numbers of larvae recovered in the sheep population followed a negative-binomial distribution. Furthermore, the negative-binomial constant k for each month correlated with the monthly prevalence. PMID:11058780

Abo-Shehada, M N; Arab, B; Mekbel, R; Williams, D; Torgerson, P R

2000-11-16

339

Relationship Between Vehicle Count and Particulate Air Pollution in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P < .001; PM10, r = 0.719, P < .001). There was a significant positive relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P < .001; PM10, P < .001. Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature. PMID:22899706

Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Md Isa, Zaleha

2012-08-16

340

Subsidence and Sinkhole Hazard Assessment in the Southern Dead Sea Area, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea area is increasingly facing serious subsidence and sinkhole hazards. On March 22, 2000, the dyke of a two-month old major salt evaporation pond, located along the shore of the Lisan Peninsula (Jordan), collapsed over almost two kilometers. The pond was set up over unstable new lands that have been progressively emerging during the last three decades. In one hour, 56 millions m3 of brine poured out into the northern, natural part of the Sea. Here, we present data suggesting that the drop of the water level, in conjunction with the particular tectonic setting of this area, is at least one of the factors that led to the disaster. We focused our study over the northern part of the Lisan Peninsula and Ghor Al Haditha which are two places undergoing the most intense deformations along the Jordanian Dead Sea coast. We used the results of a static high precision gravimetric survey to detect subsurface cavities in Ghor Al Haditha. We analyzed a interferometric digital terrain model of the recent emerged platform of the Lisan peninsula and interpreted radar differential interferograms contemporary with gravity measurements for the peninsula. We discuss the possibilities to detect, assess and monitor areas prone to collapse on the Jordanian side of the southern Dead Sea coast.

Closson, Damien; Karaki, Najib Abou; Klinger, Yann; Hussein, Musa Jad

2005-02-01

341

Hashemite, Ba(Cr,S)O4, a new mineral from Jordan.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hashemite, Ba(Cr,S)O4, the isostructural chromate analogue of baryte, has been found in west-central Jordan. It is associated with chromian ettringite, apatite and calcite in a phosphatic carbonate rock analogous to the Hatrurim formation in Israel. The mineral is orthorhombic, Pnma, with a 9.112(2), b 5.541(1), c 7.343(1) A, Z = 4. Strongest XRD lines are 3.516(100), 3.171(80), 3.669(60), 2.175(60), 2.150(45) A. Hashemite occurs as small, euhedral, dark brown, commonly zoned crystals with an average D 4.59 g/cm3 and H. 31/2. It is biaxial positive; dark varieties have alpha 1.952(2), beta 1.960(2), gamma 1.977(2); light varieties have alpha 1.810(2), beta 1.813(2), gamma 1.824(2), 2Vgamma 35o-57o.-J.A.Z.

Hauff, P. L.; Foord, E. E.; Rosenblum, S.

1983-01-01

342

Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis ser. jordanica (serotype H71), a novel serovariety isolated in Jordan.  

PubMed

The novel strain of Bacillus thuringiensis J112 isolated from a soil sample in Jordan was classified and characterized in terms of toxicity against dipteran and nematode larvae, crystal protein pattern, plasmid profile, and cry gene content. A new name, Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety jordanica (H serotype 71), is proposed for the reference strain J112. The parasporal crystal proteins were toxic to 3(rd) instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster and to 2(nd) stage juveniles of root knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita, but showed poor mosquitocidal activity towards Culex pipiens molestus and Culiseta longiareolata larvae. Solubilized and trypsin-digested crystal proteins possessed moderate hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that crystals are composed of several polypeptides ranging from 24 to 170 kDa, of which the 20-, 42-, 140-, and 170-kDa proteins were the major components. Analysis of the plasmid pattern of J112 revealed the presence of two large plasmidic bands of about 160 and 205 kbp. PCR with total DNA from strain J112 and specific primers for cry1, cry2, cry3, cry4, and cyt2A genes revealed that cry1, cry3A, cry4, cry5 and cyt2a genes are present. PMID:12783189

Khyami-Horani, Hala; Hajaij, Myriam; Charles, Jean-François

2003-07-01

343

Methodological challenges in evaluating performance, impact and ranking of IWRM strategies in the Jordan Valley.  

PubMed

The philosophy of integrated water resource management (IWRM), as formulated in several international summits, yielded numerous interpretations and extensions over the last decade but always focused on the overall objective of maximizing the welfare and livelihood of the people concerned. One of the major constraints of this concept is the gap between the well-defined philosophy and the fuzzy definition of operational and testable indicators for the achievement of its goals. This leads to difficulties in the evaluation of potential contributions from technological and managerial improvements. The experience of the multi-lateral IWRM research initiative SMART in the lower Jordan Valley shows that the evaluation and ranking of alternative IWRM strategies and their elements relies simultaneously on the identification of local goals and their interfaces with the superordinate national water sector policies. The documentation of the, still ongoing, development process of suitable assessment procedures describes their methodological embedding and conclusions drawn for the heterogeneous situation of water-related settings in this transboundary watershed. PMID:22864424

Wolff, H P; Wolf, L; Subah, A; Guttman, J; Tamimi, A; Jarrar, A; Salman, A; Karablieh, E

2012-01-01

344

Higgs gravitational interaction, weak boson scattering, and Higgs inflation in Jordan and Einstein frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ?H†HScript R, with H the Higgs doublet and Script R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ? on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ? coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ?-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at Script O(1?30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.

Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian

2014-06-01

345

Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers greatly influence flow patterns in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Water generally flows toward these streams from surrounding water-level highs. Heavy pumping has caused only localized cones of depression. In contrast, pumping in Minneapolis and St. Paul has greatly influenced ground-water flow in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer, resulting in a large cone of depression. Between 1971 and 1980 average water levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer changed less than 5 feet in most of the study area, while average water levels in the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer rose as much as 60 feet in the center of the cone of depression. Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation of annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from 1971 to 1980 from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer caused rising water levels in that aquifer, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage for the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years. (USGS)

Schoenberg, Michael

1984-01-01

346

Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone: U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A vast sequence of quartz-rich sandstone was deposited over North Africa and Arabia during Early Palaeozoic times, in the aftermath of Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny and the amalgamation of Gondwana. This rock sequence forms a relatively thin sheet (1-3 km thick) that was transported over a very gentle slope and deposited over a huge area. The sense of transport indicates unroofing of Gondwana terranes but the exact provenance of the siliciclastic deposit remains unclear. Detrital zircons from Cambrian arkoses that immediately overlie the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield in Israel and Jordan yielded Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages (900-530 Ma), suggesting derivation from a proximal source such as the Arabian-Nubian Shield. A minor fraction of earliest Neoproterozoic and older age zircons was also detected. Upward in the section, the proportion of old zircons increases and reaches a maximum (40%) in the Ordovician strata of Jordan. The major earliest Neoproterozoic and older age groups detected are 0.95-1.1, 1.8-1.9 and 2.65-2.7 Ga, among which the 0.95-1.1 Ga group is ubiquitous and makes up as much as 27% in the Ordovician of Jordan, indicating it is a prominent component of the detrital zircon age spectra of northeast Gondwana. The pattern of zircon ages obtained in the present work reflects progressive blanketing of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield by Cambrian-Ordovician sediments and an increasing contribution from a more distal source, possibly south of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The significant changes in the zircon age signal reflect many hundreds of kilometres of southward migration of the provenance. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

Kolodner, K.; Avigad, D.; McWilliams, M.; Wooden, J. L.; Weissbrod, T.; Feinstein, S.

2006-01-01

347

Complementary and alternative medicine utilization by a sample of infertile couples in Jordan for infertility treatment: clinics-based survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although there is little information available to quantify the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), growing evidence suggests that CAM prevalence among patients seeking infertility treatment is increasing worldwide. There are many products available on the market and many infertile patients demand information about CAM from their health care providers. This paper investigates the prevalence of CAM use among infertile couples in Jordan. Additionally, trends and factors contributing to CAM use for infertility treatment among these couples have been evaluated. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information, use of CAM for medical conditions, in general, and types of CAM used for infertility treatment, in specific, was completed by one thousand twenty one infertile patients attending at two types of facilities; in vitro Fertilization (IVF) centers at both public and private hospitals and infertility private clinics. Both types of facilities were distributed in different areas of Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between May and August 2012. Results Our results show that CAM therapies for infertility treatment were encountered in 44.7% of the study sample. The vast majority of CAM users were females. The most commonly used CAM therapies were herbs and spiritual healing. A clear correlation between the use of CAM for infertility versus the use of CAM for other chronic medical conditions has been found. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use for infertility treatment in Jordan is relatively high, particularly among young females, well educated and with a low income, in consistence with the studies reported elsewhere. Herbs and spiritual healing are widely used among patients in adjunct to conventional medical interventions. As CAM use is prevalent among patients, there is a clear need for health providers to become more aware of this phenomenon and for further research in this field.

2013-01-01

348

Public awareness of the abuse of herbs and drugs to decrease body weight: a novel national survey in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The aim of this investigation was to measure the degree of public preferences regarding the various weight-loss practices\\u000a and to assess the level of awareness regarding the risks and health hazards associated with the application of unhealthful\\u000a measures to lose weight.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Approximately 30,000 individuals selected from various regions in Jordan filled in a self?reported questionnaire. Participants\\u000a were interviewed by well–trained

Saafan A. Al-Safi; Nehad M. Ayoub; Abeer M. Ayoub; Enaam Al-Momany; Imad Al-Doghim; Mosa’b Al-Balas; Ahmad S. Alkofahi; Faisal H. Aboul-Enein; Basil H. Aboul-Enein

2008-01-01

349

Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. METHODS: A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment. RESULTS: Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam or intra-canal medicaments. PMID:15361258

Al-Omari, Wael M

2004-09-10

350

The effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases: a comparison between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in Jordan.  

PubMed

Foods do certainly play an important role in human health. This cross sectional study investigated the effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases. In specific, it compared these diseases between vegetarians and non- vegetarians in Jordan in 2012. Questionnaires were distributed and the responses of 97 vegetarians and 97 non-vegetarians were analyzed. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. In particular, chronic diseases including Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obesity were more prevalence among non-vegetarians compared to vegetarian respondents. PMID:23283037

Alrabadi, Nizar Issa

2013-01-01

351

Rainfall estimation over the Wadi Dhuliel arid catchment, Jordan from GSMaP_MVK+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GSMaP_MVK+ (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation) dataset was used to evaluate the precipitation rates over the Wadi Dhuliel arid catchment in Northeast Jordan for the period of January 2003 to March 2008. The scarcity of the ground rain gauge network alone did not adequately show the detailed structure of the rainfall distribution, independent form interpolation techniques used. This study combines GSMaP_MVK+ and ground rain gauges to produce accurate, high-resolution datasets. Three meteorological stations and six rain gauges were used to adjust and compare GSMaP_MVK+ estimates. Comparisons between GSMaP_MVK+ measurements and ground rain gauges records showed distinct regions where they correlate, as well as areas where GSMaP_MVK+ systematically over- and underestimated ground rain gauge records. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model was used to derive the relationship between rainfall and GSMaP_MVK+ in conjunction with temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The MLR equations were defined for the three meteorological stations. The "best" fit of MLR model for each station was chosen and used to interpolate a multiscale temporal and spatial distribution. Results show that the rainfall distribution over the Wadi Dhuliel is characterized by clear west-east and north-south gradients. Estimates from the monthly MLR model were more reasonable than estimates obtained using daily data. The adjusted GSMaP_MVK+ performed well in capturing the spatial patterns of the rainfall at monthly and annual time scales while daily estimation showed some weakness in light and moderate storms.

Abushandi, E.; Merkel, B.

2011-02-01

352

Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Introduction To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO). Methods Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support. Results Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes “sex with prostitutes” and “sex with animals.” Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants. Conclusions Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma.

Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Schaetti, Christian; Liswi, Mohammad; Weiss, Mitchell G

2014-01-01

353

Effect of shearing on the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis in Awassi sheep in Jordan.  

PubMed

A total of 876 sheep from five flocks in north Jordan were selected to study the effect of shearing on the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). The animals were divided into two age groups, sheep aged 1-2 years and those aged > or = 3 years. Blood samples were collected from the animals at the time of shearing and again 6 months later. A toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify sheep that had been infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The point prevalences of CLA were 6.59% and 21.06% in the 1-2-year and > or = 3-year age groups, respectively, and were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the > or = 3-year age group. The overall prevalence among all ages was 15.3%. In the shorn sheep, the incidence of CLA was 22.46% and 9.47% in the 1-2-year and > or = 3-year age groups, respectively, and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 1-2-year age group. In the control animals, the incidence was 8% and 5.26% in the 1-2-year and > or = 3-year age groups, respectively, and was different (P < 0.01) between the shorn (22.46%) and control (8%) animals of the 1-2-year age group. An epidemiological survey of 35 sheep farms revealed the prevalence of CLA, shearing wounds and unhygienic conditions during shearing in all farms. In conclusion, the prevalence of CLA increases with age and the incidence increases only in young sheep after shearing. Sheep are sheared under unhygienic conditions, which may be a contributing factor in increasing both the prevalence and the incidence of CLA. PMID:10861197

al-Rawashdeh, O F; al-Qudah, K M

2000-05-01

354

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the 595 Ma shoshonitic Qunai monzogabbro, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last stage in the formation of the Arabian Nubian Shield in Jordan was dominated by post-orogenic igneous activity of the ˜610-542 Ma Araba Suite, including a monzogabbroic stock intruding the Saramuj Conglomerate, near the southeastern corner of the Dead Sea. The geological setting, petrography, geochemistry and geothermometry of the monzogabbro and other cogenetic varieties are used to shed light on the petrogenesis of this stock and reveal its magma source. The monzogabbro, megaporphyry dikes, and scattered syenite pockets are co-magmatic and alkaline, potassic and shoshonitic in nature. REE and trace elements patterns indicate that these magmas were produced from a mantle that had been modified by subduction-related metasomatism. The parental mafic magma could have been derived by 10% partial melting of LILE-enriched phlogopite-bearing spinel lherzolite, probably lithospheric mantle, in association with post-collisional extension. Fractional crystallization of this parental magma by olivine and pyroxene gave rise to the monzogabbroic magma. The megaporphyry dikes with their giant labradorite plagioclase megacrysts represent feeders of a voluminous volcanic activity that could have lasted for about 105 years. Thermodynamic modeling applying the MELTS software indicates crystallization of this suite in the temperature range of 1184-760 °C at a pressure of 2 kbars, agreeing with olivine-pyroxene, pyroxene, and two-feldspar thermometry. The modeled mineralogy and sequence of crystallization of constituent minerals using MELTS is in remarkable agreement with the observed modal mineralogy of the monzogabbro. Furthermore, a great degree of congruity exists between the modeled and observed chemistry of the major minerals with only minor discrepancies between modeled composition of biotite and olivine.

Ghanem, Hind; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.

2013-12-01

355

Heavy metals in urban soils of central Jordan: should we worry about their environmental risks?  

PubMed

Forty soil samples collected from central Jordan were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Hg. The samples were also investigated for mineralogy using X-ray, electron, and optical microscopes. Sequential extraction procedures were used to predict the percentages of the Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr present in each of the soil geochemical phases. The clay mineral assemblage encountered in the analyzed samples is composed of kaolinite, smectite, illite, and illite/smectite mixed-layer. The nonclay minerals of the sand-sized fraction are composed mainly of quartz and calcite as major minerals with pyroxene, biotite, and feldspars as minor minerals. The enrichment factors of the measured heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Hg in the clay fraction (<2 microm) of the collected samples are 3.1, 16.6, 1.5, 0.9, and 4.5, respectively. According to the index of geoaccumulation, the soils of the study area are considered to be moderately contaminated with respect to Cd, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with respect to Pb, Hg, and Zn, and uncontaminated with respect to Cr. The measured metals correlated positively with the determined physicochemical factors such as pH, clay content, organic matter content, and carbonate content. The relatively high concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg in the soils of the study area are related to anthropogenic sources such as cement industry, fertilizers, and vehicle exhausts. It was found that Pb, Zn, and Cr are associated mainly with the residual phases and are relatively immobile. On the other hand Cd is enriched in the carbonate phase of the analyzed soil samples. It is possible to suggest the sequence of mobility for Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr in the analyzed soil samples as the following: Cd>Pb>Cr>Zn. PMID:15589234

Banat, K M; Howari, F M; Al-Hamad, A A

2005-03-01

356

Hepatitis B infection among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis at the Royal Medical Services in Jordan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major clinical problem in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and can lead to many serious consequences. This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and the possible risk factors for acquiring it, in patients on maintenance HD. All patients on regular HD in seven hospitals of the Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan, were studied during the period between July and December 2006. The medical history and records of these patients were reviewed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), and possible risk factors for acquiring this infection. A total of 430 patients on HD with a mean age of 47.3 years were studied. Three patients, who were positive for HBsAg before starting dialysis, were excluded from the study. The remaining 427 patients, who were HBsAg negative before starting dialysis were included. Of these, 25 (5.9%) became HbsAg-positive during the study period. Being on HD for longer than two years and positive history of blood transfusion(s) were more frequently noticed in the HbsAg-positive group (88% and 60% respectively) compared with the HbsAg-negative group (43% and 56% respectively). Of 379/402 (94%) patients who remained Hbs Ag-negative and 1/25 (4%) of those who converted to Hbs Ag-positive were reportedly vaccinated. Our study suggests that the prevalence of HbsAg positivity in our HD patients was 5.9%. Dialysis for more than two years, but not history of blood transfusions, was noted to be a significant risk factor for acquiring this infection. Vaccination against the HBV gives good protection against this virus. PMID:18310881

Al Hijazat, Munther; Ajlouni, Yousef M

2008-03-01

357

Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ca Mg relationship in groundwaters strongly points to the overall dolomitization and local albitization. The Mg/Ca ratios reveal two trends by which saline waters develop: increase of Mg/Ca ratio by evaporation and decreasing Mg/Ca ratios due to dolomitization and albitization. Br/Cl vs. Na/Cl ratios demonstrate that albitization does not play a major role which leaves dolomitization to be the main source for decreasing Mg/Ca ratios in saline waters. In the eastern and southern Region of Lake Kinneret, salinization occurs by mixing with a Ca/Mg molar ratio <1 brine (Ha’On type). Along the western shoreline of the Lake, a Ca/Mg > 1 dominates, which developed by the albitization of plagioclase in abundant mafic volcanics and the dolomitization of limestones. The most saline groundwater of the Tabgha-, Fuliya-, and Tiberias clusters could be regional derivatives of at least two mother brines: in diluted form one is represented by Ha’On water, the other is a Na-rich brine of the Zemah type. Additionally, a deep-seated Ca-dominant brine may ascend along the fractures on the western side of Lake Kinneret, which is absent on the eastern side. Groundwaters of the Lower Jordan Valley are chemically different on both sides of the Jordan River, indicating that the exchange of water is insignificant. All saline waters from the Dead Sea and its surroundings represent a complex mixture of brines, and precipitation and local dissolution of halite and gypsum. Many wells of the Arava/Araba Valley pump groundwater from the Upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer, the origin of the water is actually from the Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group sandstones. Groundwater drawn from the Quaternary alluvial fill either originates from Kurnub Group sandstones (Eilat 108, Yaalon 117) or from altered limestones of the Judea Group. The origin of these waters is from floods flowing through wadis incised into calcareous formations of the Judea Group. On the other hand, as a result of step-faulting, hydraulic contact is locally established between the Kurnub- and the Judea Groups aquifers facilitating the inter-aquifer flow of the confined Kurnub paleowater into the karstic formations of the Judea Group. Two periods of Neogene brine formation are considered: the post-Messinan inland lagoon resulting in drying up of the Sdom Sea and the evaporation of the Pleistocene Samra Lake, which went further through the stage of Lake Lisan to the present Dead Sea. For the first period, major element hydrochemistry suggests that the saline waters and brines in the Jordan-Dead Sea Arava Valley transform evolved from the gradual evaporation of an accumulating mixture of sea-, ground-, and surface water. Due to the precipitation of carbonates, gypsum, and halite, such an evaporating primary water body was strongly enriched in Mg, Br, and B and shows high molar ratios of Br/Cl, B/Cl, and Mg/Ca but low Na/Cl ratios. The development of the Br/Cl ratio is chemically modelled, showing that indeed brine development is explicable that way. Along with the evaporation brine, evaporites formed which are leached by infiltrating fresh water yielding secondary brines with Na/Cl ratios of 1. When primary brines infiltrated the sub-surface, they were subjected to Mg Ca exchange in limestones (dolomitization) and to chloritization and albitization in basic igneous rocks turning them into Ca-Cl brines. These tertiary brines are omnipresent in the Rift. The brines of the late Lisan and Dead Sea were generated by evaporating drainage waters, which leached halite, gypsum, and carbonates from the soil and from the sub-surface. All these brines are still being flushed out by meteoric water, resulting in saline groundwaters. This flushing is regionally enhanced by intensive groundwater exploitation. In variable proportions, the Neogene and late Lisan Lake and Recent Dead Sea brines have to be considered as the most serious sources of salinization of groundwaters in the Rift. Deep-seated pre-Sdom brines cannot strictly be excluded, but if active they play a negligible role only.

Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

2007-06-01

358

Assessment of health awareness and its sources among journalism and mass communication students at yarmouk university, jordan.  

PubMed

This study assesses the overall health awareness level of students of the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at Yarmouk University/Jordan who are supposed to have an important leadership role among mass media professionals in Jordan. A Health Awareness Test (HAT) was administered to a random sample of 139 students of this group (52.85% of the target population). Findings revealed that their overall average performance on the HAT was significantly much lower than the acceptable criterion score determined by the HAT authors. Female students' performance on the HAT was significantly higher than males' performance. The academic level of these students (2nd, 3rd or 4th academic year) did not have significant influence on their scores. Furthermore, the two-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the achievement of the study subjects on the HAT by sex and academic level. The major sources of the health awareness information of these students ranked by order were: mass media, self-education, academic preparation (information included in the curricula), family and peers, and finally cultural events in the form of extra-curricular activities at the University. Recommendations based upon these results are given. PMID:20841296

El-Qaderi, S S

1997-01-01

359

Perceptions of Student Teachers towards the Effectiveness of Co-Operating Teachers, School Principals and University Supervisors Participating in the Teacher Education Program in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of student teachers regarding the effectiveness of university supervisors, school principals and co-operating teachers participating in the teacher education program at the Hashemite University in Jordan. A total of 120 student teachers participated in the study by completing the…

Albasheer, Akram; Khasawneh, Samer; Nabah, Abdallah Abu; Hailat, Salah

2008-01-01

360

Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

Kaga, Yoshie

2007-01-01

361

Mechanisms and Development Strategies for Teaching Thinking to Move the Role of Jordan Universities as the Product of the Think Tank from the Faculty Members Point of View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed at revealing the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking to move the role of Jordan universities as the product of think tank from the faculty members point of view. Also aimed to determine the influence of academic rank in shaping the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking in Jordanian…

Ziadat, Ayed H.; Abu-Nair, Natheer S.; Abu Sameha, Mansour A.

2011-01-01

362

The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens , Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led\\u000a to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32

W. Al-Momani; E. Abu-Basha; R. D. Ayling; R. A. J. Nicholas; S. Janakat

2006-01-01

363

Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2011-01-01

364

Equine babesiosis associated with strenuous exercise: clinical and pathological studies in Jordan.  

PubMed

Clinical, haematological and pathological studies were undertaken in Jordan in a stud of 103 racing horses clinically suffering from babesiosis and apparently healthy animals. Out of 47 horses which participated in strenuous exercise, three mares showed sudden onset of immobility and reluctance to move and two mares died. Clinical examination revealed that these five horses (group 1) had fever, anorexia, weakness and severe icterus and, in two mares, haemoglobinuria. Haematological examination revealed that all five horses were heavily parasitized with Babesia equi. This was also found in four horses (group 2) with no evidence of clinical babesiosis. In group 3 (94 horses), neither clinical signs nor B. equi were observed in the blood. The horses in group 1 and 2 recovered after treatment with imidocarb. When the mean values of white blood cell count, red blood cell count, haemoglobin and packed cell volume in group 1 were compared with those for groups 2 and 3, a significant difference was found (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also found when the mean values were compared before and after treatment. Examination of serum total protein, bilirubin and serum enzymes revealed a significant decrease in the mean value of total serum protein (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the mean values of bilirubin (P < 0.05) in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3. A significant elevation in the mean value of aspartate aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and creatine phosphokinase and a substantial elevation in the mean value of alkaline phosphatase was also observed in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3. Postmortem examination of the dead horses showed that the animals had icterus, hepatomegaly and full urinary bladder with deep-red urine. Histopathological examination of the liver showed massive centrilobular degeneration and necrosis. The bile canaliculi and bile ducts were prominent and plugged with dark-brown to canary-coloured bile pigments. The lungs had congestion, oedema, and thrombosis of pulmonary veins. Our results suggest that the horses suffered from B. equal with clinical manifestation following exercise. The clinical, haematological and pathological findings indicate that the animals suffered from haemolytic anaemia which responded to imidocarb therapy. PMID:9187024

Hailat, N Q; Lafi, S Q; al-Darraji, A M; al-Ani, F K

1997-04-01

365

Application of geoelectrical methods in the DS sinkhole problem, Israel and Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a new approach to use the geoelectric methods for studying the both uppermost part of section and salt layer conditions in the sinkhole development sites. The Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is used here to detect shallow deformations in subsurface sediments. Resistivity prospecting yields information about both lateral and vertical distribution of resistivity through the geological section and can therefore be used in both qualitative and quantitative ways for the identification of structure and features at shallow depths. As it follows from the modified Archie's Law, resistivity of the unsaturated sediments is determined by their porosity. The higher the porosity, the higher is the resistivity. It will also depend on volume of the electrolyte in pores and resistivity of the fluid . Note that after mechanical models available the higher porosity in sinkhole development sites is caused by the void presence at depth. 2D and 3D mapping was carried out in the Mineral Beach area in Israel and in the Ghor Al-Haditha site in Jordan. ERT method shown high resistivity anomaly of some thousands Ohm-m located along the salt edge. The Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) also referred to as the Time Domain Electromagnetic Method (TDEM) is sensitive to the bulk resistivity (conductivity) of the studied medium, especially in the low-resistivity range. Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) method in its FAST modification was used for studying the salt layer conditions (salt porosity, depth of the salt top and thickness of the salt layer) and distribution of bulk resistivity in vicinity of the salt border (to resolve the problem of water salinity). The methodology includes numerous measurements through the sinkhole development areas. Earlier the TEM method was used extensively worldwide for locating the fresh-saline water interface in coastal areas and for estimating groundwater salinity. In our study we have mapped salt layer geometrical parameters (e.g. depth to salt top, salt layer thickness) as well as salt resistivity that is measure of salt porosity. New methodology permits also 2D and 3D presentation of the acquired results in spite methodology itself of the data acquisition is of 1D in its origin. Acknowledgements This study has been supported by the USAID MERC Program M27-050

Levi, E.; Abueladas, A.-R.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Akkawi, E.; Ezersky, M.

2012-04-01

366

Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly interbeds to accelerate sliding during mass wasting. The most vulnerable areas prone to slope instabilities are those with compressional tectonics followed by extensional movements, with fault bound springs and smectite-bearing marly layers interbedded with pure massive limestones. The semi-arid to arid climate with periodic rainfalls combined with subsurface water circulation along the joints and faults can trigger mass wasting.

Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

2012-03-01

367

Immunohistochemical evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast carcinoma in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although breast carcinoma (BC) is the most common malignancy affecting Jordanian females and the affected population in Jordan is younger than that in the West, no information is available on its biological characteristics. Our aims in this study are to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu overexpression in BC in Jordan, and to compare the expression of these with other prognostic parameters for BC such as histological type, histological grade, tumor size, patients' age, and number of lymph node metastases. Method This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at Jordan University of Science and Technology. A confirmed 91 cases of BC diagnosed in the period 1995 to 1998 were reviewed and graded. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of ER, PR, and Her-2. Immunohistochemical findings were correlated with age, tumor size, grade and axillary lymph node status. Results Her-2 was overexpressed in 24% of the cases. The mean age of Her-2 positive cases was 42 years as opposed to 53 years among Her-2 negative cases (p = 0.0001). Her-2 expression was inversely related to ER and PR expression. Her-2 positive tumors tended to be larger than Her-2 negative tumors with 35% overexpression among T3 tumors as opposed to 22% among T2 tumors (p = 0.13). Her-2 positive cases tended to have higher rates of axillary metastases, but this did not reach statistical significance. ER and PR positive cases were seen in older patients with smaller tumor sizes. Conclusion Her-2 overexpression was seen in 24% of BC affecting Jordanian females. Her-2 overexpression was associated with young age at presentation, larger tumor size, and was inversely related to ER and PR expression. One-fifth of the carcinomas were Her-2 positive and ER negative. This group appears to represent an aggressive form of BC presenting at a young age with large primary tumors and a high rate of four or more axillary lymph node metastases.

Almasri, Nidal M; Hamad, Mohammad Al

2005-01-01

368

Home visits to improve breast health knowledge and screening practices in a less privileged area in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer afflicting women in Jordan. This study aimed to assess the effects of an educational intervention through home visits, including offering free mammography screening vouchers, on changing women’s breast health knowledge and screening practices for early detection of breast cancer in a less privileged area in Jordan. Methods Two thousand four hundred breast health awareness home visits were conducted and 2363 women aged 20-79 years (median: 41) answered a pre-test interview-administrated questionnaire to assess their breast health knowledge and practices at the baseline. After a home-based educational session, 625 women aged 40 years or older were referred to free mammography screening. Five hundred and ninety six homes were revisited six months later and out of these 593 women participated in a post-test. The women’s retained breast health knowledge, the changes in their reported breast health practices and their usage of the free mammography voucher, were assessed. Results The mean knowledge score increased significantly (p?Jordan.

2014-01-01

369

Burials from Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, Southern Jordan - Results of a Survey and Salvage Excavations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey and excavation conducted in 2006 on small cemeteries at Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, which are located c. 30 km southeast of the village of al-Hussayniah on the Desert Highway in southern Jordan. In total five graves were excavated. Preservation was excellent including human and other organic materials (hair, leather, textiles). Preliminary scientific dating points to the period between the second and fourth centuries AD. The research questions discussed are: - the date, the relationship between the cemeteries and surrounding sites, the significance of this area, the identity of the groups buried, the burial techniques and practices adopted and what influenced them and the funerary gifts included with the dead.

Salameen, Zeyad al; Falahat, Hani

370

Stationary axially symmetric exterior solutions in the five-dimensional representation of the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse scattering method of Belinsky and Zakharov is used to investigate axially symmetric stationary vacuum soliton solutions in the five-dimensional representation of the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation, where the scalar field of the theory is an element of a five-dimensional metric. The resulting equations for the spacetime metric are similar to those of solitons in general relativity, while the scalar field generated is the product of a simple function of the coordinates and an already known scalar field solution. A family of solutions is considered that reduce, in the absence of rotation, to the five-dimensional form of a well-known Weyl-Levi Civita axially symmetric static vacuum solution. With a suitable choice of parameters, this static limit becomes equivalent to the spherically symmetric solution of the Brans-Dicke theory. An exact metric, in which the Kerr-scalar McIntosh solution is a special case, is given explicitly.

Bruckman, William

1986-11-01

371

Shedding of antibiotic-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in healthy residents of France and Jordan.  

PubMed

We compared the frequency of shedding of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin and ceftazidime in 83 French residents of the Paris urban area and in 101 subjects in Jordan, 64 of whom resided in the urban area of Irbid, 15 in rural areas, and 22 of whom had a nomadic lifestyle. There was no significant difference between these populations regarding (i) the percentages of subjects with strains resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested and (ii) the proportions of total counts of organisms of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to these agents. The simultaneous shedding of strains resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and kanamycin was significantly associated with (i) exposure to antibiotic treatment during the six months preceding the study and (ii) the presence of many children at home. PMID:7652211

Chachaty, E; Youssef, M T; Bourneix, C; Andremont, A

1995-02-01

372

Pathological, immunological and molecular diagnosis of rabies in clinically suspected animals of different species using four detection techniques in Jordan.  

PubMed

A total of 29 brain tissue samples (BTS) were examined for rabies infection by different diagnostic techniques. None of the examined brain tissues were presented as a whole intact brain. Twenty-seven brain tissue samples from various animal species - dog (13 cases), cat (one case), fox (one case), pig (one case), cow (three cases), sheep (two cases), goat (one case), camel (one case), horse (one case) and donkey (three cases) - were provided by the Vaccine and Sera Department/Al-Bashir Central Hospital in Amman/Jordan from July 2009 up to May 2010. All these samples were frozen at -20°C, for a period of time and then fixed in 10% formalin after being tested for rabies virus by fluorescence antibody test (FAT). The results showed that 21 (77.77%) of 27 BTS were positive for rabies by FAT. Seventeen samples (58.62%) of 29 were positive by histopathology, 2 (6.90%) were positive by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and of those which were fixed for 24h only, and 21 (72.42%) were positive using RT-PCR assay. Five of 29 BTS had no pathological lesions, 17 had Negri bodies and the remaining had non-suppurative encephalitis and necrosis. Thirteen BTS that were diagnosed positive by FAT were also positive by RT-PCR and histopathology, but negative by IHC. Four BTS that were positive by FAT were negative by histopathology, IHC and RT-PCR. Also, 3 BTS (cases 19, 22, and 25) that were negative by FAT were positive by RT-PCR and negative by IHC. One of these was negative, while two were positive by histopathology. Therefore, definitive diagnosis of rabies under these conditions in Jordan needs one or more other diagnostic tests in addition to FAT. Also, freezing and prolonged formalin fixation of BTS is not suitable for the detection of rabies virus antigen using IHC. PMID:22390575

Faizee, N; Hailat, N Q; Ababneh, M M K; Hananeh, W M; Muhaidat, A

2012-04-01

373

A 300m-width sinkhole threatens the stability of the embankment of a saltpan in Jordan, Dead Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1980s, the Dead Sea coastal zone is affected by sinkholes. The dynamic of the salt karst system is attested by a drastic increase of collapse events. The energy available for sub-surface erosion (or cavities genesis) is related to the head difference between the water table and the lake level which drop down at an accelerating rate of more than 1 m/yr. In the region of Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, the size of the craters increased significantly during the last decade. Up to now, the greatest compound structure observed (association of metric subsidence, decametric sinkholes, and landslides) was about 150-200 m in diameter. End of December 2012, a single circular structure having 250-300 m in diameter was identified within a 10 km x 1.5 km saltpan of the Arab Potash Company. This finding raises questions regarding the origin of the underlying cavity and the capability of prediction of all models developed up to now in Israel and Jordan regarding the Dead Sea sinkholes. The analysis of satellite images of the past shows that the appearance of this unique depression is very recent (probably less than 5 years). Cosmo-SkyMed radar images have been processed to map the associated deformation field. Ground motions attest that the overall diameter could be around 600 m. Currently, this sinkhole is threatening the stability of more than one kilometer of a 12 km long dike holding 90 million m3 of Dead Sea brine. This case study underlines the great fragility of the Dead Sea salt karst and demonstrates the need for the setting up of an early warning system.

Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo

2013-04-01

374

Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials.  

PubMed

The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U and their progeny results in external exposures of the residents of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for a typical Jordan concrete room are calculated using Monte Carlo method. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling are assumed. Using activity concentrations of natural radionuclides typical for the Jordan houses and assuming them to be in secular equilibrium with their progeny, the maximum annual effective doses are estimated to be 0.16, 0.12 and 0.22 mSv a(-1) for (40)K, (232)Th- and (238)U-series, respectively. In a total, the maximum annual effective indoor dose due to external gamma-radiation is 0.50 mSv a(-1). Additionally, organ dose coefficients are calculated for all organs considered in ICRP Publication 74. Breast, skin and eye lenses have the maximum equivalent dose rate values due to indoor exposures caused by the natural radionuclides, while equivalent dose rates for uterus, colon (LLI) and small intestine are found to be the smallest. More specifically, organ dose rates (nSv a(-1)per Bq kg(-1)) vary from 0.044 to 0.060 for (40)K, from 0.44 to 0.60 for radionuclides from (238)U-series and from 0.60 to 0.81 for radionuclides from (232)Th-series. The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors. PMID:19628312

Al-Jundi, J; Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G

2009-10-01

375

Population dynamics, socioeconomic change and land colonization in northern Jordan, with special reference to the Badia Research and Development Project area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on preliminary observations from northern Jordan aimed at testing the view that people migrate from areas of relatively high potential for cultivation to the marginal semi-arid\\/arid frontier because of social differentiation, political factors or environmental constraints. Cultivated areas have been mapped from multi-date remotely sensed imagery, a typology of fields in the area has been constructed, and

Andrew Millington; Salem al-Hussein; Roderic Dutton

1999-01-01

376

Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation by Means of a Proposed 50 MW Grid-connected Wind Power Plant for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complying with the decision made by the Jordanian government to install a new wind power plant with a capacity ranging between 50–75 MW—to complement the Hofa and Ibrahimiyya wind power plants, whose electricity production presently forms only about 0.035% of the total electricity generated in Jordan mainly by power plants operating on conventional fuels—a 50 MW grid-connected wind power plant

E. S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

377

Full-Genome Sequence of Human Betacoronavirus 2c Jordan-N3/2012 after Serial Passage in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the etiologic agent of a highly lethal pneumonia. Here, we report the full-genome sequence of the Jordan-N3/2012 strain after serial passage in two distinct mammalian cell lines. The genome exhibits noteworthy stability, which may inform the development of vaccines and therapeutics used to treat infection with this virus.

Redden, Cassie L.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Reed; Hensley, Lisa E.; Raviprakash, Kanakatte; Luke, Thomas; Kochel, Tad; Mokashi, Vishwesh P.

2014-01-01

378

Full-genome sequence of human betacoronavirus 2c jordan-n3/2012 after serial passage in Mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the etiologic agent of a highly lethal pneumonia. Here, we report the full-genome sequence of the Jordan-N3/2012 strain after serial passage in two distinct mammalian cell lines. The genome exhibits noteworthy stability, which may inform the development of vaccines and therapeutics used to treat infection with this virus. PMID:24874668

Frey, Kenneth G; Redden, Cassie L; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Johnson, Reed; Hensley, Lisa E; Raviprakash, Kanakatte; Luke, Thomas; Kochel, Tad; Mokashi, Vishwesh P; Defang, Gabriel N

2014-01-01

379

Proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria and concomitant antibiotic production as the basis for the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils.  

PubMed

Anecdotes, both historical and recent, recount the curing of skin infections, including diaper rash, by using red soils from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Following inoculation of red soils isolated from geographically separate areas of Jordan, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were rapidly killed. Over the 3-week incubation period, the number of specific types of antibiotic-producing bacteria increased, and high antimicrobial activity (MIC, approximately 10 microg/ml) was observed in methanol extracts of the inoculated red soils. Antibiotic-producing microorganisms whose numbers increased during incubation included actinomycetes, Lysobacter spp., and Bacillus spp. The actinomycetes produced actinomycin C(2) and actinomycin C(3). No myxobacteria or lytic bacteriophages with activity against either M. luteus or S. aureus were detected in either soil before or after inoculation and incubation. Although protozoa and amoebae were detected in the soils, the numbers were low and did not increase over the incubation period. These results suggest that the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils is due to the proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:19286796

Falkinham, Joseph O; Wall, Thomas E; Tanner, Justin R; Tawaha, Khaled; Alali, Feras Q; Li, Chen; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2009-05-01

380

An assessment study of heavy metal distribution within soil in upper course of Zarqa River basin/Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levels of heavy metals are found in soils and waters of the major tributary valleys of the Jordan Valley. Heavy metal content in soils irrigated by treated waste water were measured for a 40 km reach of Zarqa River. Soil samples from eight different sites along the upper course of this river were analyzed to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals (CO, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn). Silt forms the major component of the soils with an average of 54%. Clay fractions show an increase with depth from 17 to 41%. Trends in particle size distribution and metal contents were compared across sample sites. Samples contained moderate to considerable levels of Pb and Ni. Concentrations of Cu and Cr ranged between 33-59 and 65-90 ppm, respectively. These values represent a slight to moderate class of pollution. The concentration of Cr shows a decrease with depth and distance from the waste water plant. Cu, Zn, and Ni show increasing concentrations with depth but Pb and CO do not. The concentrations of the measured heavy metals increases near the waste water treatment plant but decreases with distance from the plant due to precipitation in the stream bed and dilution with stream water. This decline in metal content with distance from the treatment plant suggests that most metals reaching floodplain soils may derive from the same source. Although current metal concentrations are low to moderate, floodplain surface soils in this area should be regarded as a potential source for future heavy metal pollution downstream.

Abderahman, Nabil; Abu-Rukah, Y. H.

2006-04-01

381

Magnetic properties of the quantum spin-frac{1}{2} XX diamond chain: the Jordan-Wigner approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jordan-Wigner transformation is applied to study magnetic properties of the quantum spin-1/2 XX model on the diamond chain. Generally, the Hamiltonian of this quantum spin system can be represented in terms of spinless fermions in the presence of a gauge field and different gauge-invariant ways of assigning the spin-fermion transformation are considered. Additionally, we analyze general properties of a free-fermion chain, where all gauge terms are neglected and discuss their relevance for the quantum spin system. A consideration of interaction terms in the fermionic Hamiltonian rests upon the Hartree-Fock procedure after fixing the appropriate gauge. Finally, we discuss the magnetic properties of this quantum spin model at zero as well as non-zero temperatures and analyze the validity of the approximation used through a comparison with the results of the exact diagonalization method for finite (up to 36 spins) chains. Besides the m = 1/3 plateau the most prominent feature of the magnetization curve is a jump at intermediate field present for certain values of the frustrating vertical bond.

Verkholyak, T.; Stre?ka, J.; Jaš?ur, M.; Richter, J.

2011-04-01

382

Effectiveness of an electrical barrier in blocking a sea lamprey spawning migration on the Jordan River, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mark-recapture studies indicated that a pulsed-DC electrical barrier set to a 2-ms pulse width and 10 pulses/s completely blocked the spawning migration of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Jordan River, Michigan. Capture efficiency of fyke nets averaged 24% for four groups, about 300 tagged sea lampreys each, released upstream of the barrier; no unmarked sea lampreys and none of the 1,194 sea lampreys tagged and released downstream of the barrier were captured in the fyke nets while the barrier was energized. At a lower pulsator setting (1-ms pulse width; 10 pulses/s), 1 of 900 sea lampreys released below the barrier was recaptured in the nets. Sea lampreys from downstream were captured in the fyke nets after the barrier was de-energized, indicating that the barrier should remain in operation later than mid-July. Both sea lampreys and teleosts exposed to the electrical field were stunned but exhibited no apparent damage at either barrier setting. The pulsed-DC electrical barrier should help reduce the use of chemical lampricides for controlling sea lampreys in some Great Lakes streams and would be particularly suited for streams where even the smallest low-head barrier would create an unacceptably large impoundment.

Swink, William D.

1999-01-01

383

Causes of chronic renal failure in children in a single hospital in jordan: a 10 years retrospective study.  

PubMed

Case records of patients aged 13 years or below with chronic renal failure (CRF), seen during the last 10 years at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan were reviewed. There were 46 patients with CRF, (25 males and 21 females), aged 1/2 to 13 years. Chronic pyelonephritis was the major cause of CRF seen in 23 cases (50%), followed by glomerulonephritis in eight (17.4%), congenital hypodysplasia in six (13%), hereditary nephritis in five (10.9%) and unknown etiology in four (8.7%). Of the study patients, 17.3% were below the age of five years at first presentation. Twenty one patients progressed to end-stage renal disease and among them chronic glomerulonephritis was the most common primary renal disease. The higher incidence of chronic pyelonephritis causing CRF in our series in comparison to 23.9% incidence reported in the developed countries shows that our infants and young children probably are not investigated early enough nor do they receive adequate treatment at the time of their first urinary tract infection. Prevention of renal failure, availability of replacement therapy, and extension of treatment opportunities to more children are the main problems concerning CRF in children in our country. PMID:18583737

El Aun, M; Hazza, I; Qudah, E; Najada, A H; Khairi, Y

1995-01-01

384

Molecular and isotopic insights into particulate organic carbon sources and dynamics in Jordan Basin, Gulf of Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon isotope and lipid biomarker composition of suspended particles and surface sediment was measured to examine the impact of sediment supply, redistribution and post-depositional alteration processes on organic matter cycling in the Gulf of Maine, a semi-enclosed shelf sea in the northwest Atlantic. A beam attenuation profile revealed a >50 m-thick benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) in the Jordan Basin at the time of sampling (April 2006). The relatively low radiocarbon content of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in the BNL indicates that up to 82% of the POC in this layer was supplied from resuspension of sediment. The concentration of alkenones normalized to POC increased with increasing depth in the water column and was highest in the surface sediment. In contrast to these markers of surface ocean photoautotrophy, the vertical profiles for the concentration and composition of short-chain (C14-C18) n-alkanoic acids provided evidence for enhanced heterotrophic processes near the top of the BNL. Suspended POC samples from two depths within the BNL exhibited marked differences in radiocarbon content and fatty acid composition, suggesting that biological activity and associated processes within the BNL are vertically heterogeneous.

Hwang, Jeomshik; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

2013-10-01

385

The influence of HIV/AIDS on the practice of primary care nurses in Jordan: rhetoric and reality.  

PubMed

The role of nurses in raising community awareness about HIV/AIDS is well-reported. However, little is known about the practice of Jordanian nurses and the role they play in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. This interpretive ethnographic study sought to illuminate the role of primary care nurses and examine the influence of HIV/AIDS on their practice. The study was undertaken in Jordan in three rural and three urban primary health-care centres. Data collection included participant observation, key informant interviews and document analysis. These data informed the development of descriptive ethnographic accounts that allowed for the subsequent identification of common and divergent themes reflective of factors recognized as influencing the practice of the nurse participants. The findings indicate that the rhetoric offered by all levels of administration and endorsed in policy is not reflective of the reality of practice. Poor resources and educational preparation, a limited nursing skill mix and access to professional development, lack of nursing leadership and role models, cultural beliefs and geographic isolation are factors that reduced the capacity of the primary care nurses to raise awareness and, therefore, influence the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:16109043

Nawafleh, Hani; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

2005-10-01

386

In vitro culture of the strobilar stage of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep and donkey origin from Jordan.  

PubMed

Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus isolated from hydatid cysts of sheep and donkeys in Jordan were cultured in vitro using a modified diphasic culture system. Protoscolices from these two sources manifested differences in the mode of development, evagination and growth rates. Protoscolices isolated from sheep cysts grew in vitro in the polyzoic direction up to the three- to four-segmented mature worms, reaching a length of 2.9 mm. In contrast, donkey protoscolices failed to develop beyond the early stages, even after 67 days of culturing. On prolonged culturing, few worms of donkey origin reached the banding and segmentation stages, attaining a maximal length of 1.6 mm at periods ranging between 81 and 114 days of culturing. None of these segmented worms showed genital differentiation or analgen. The evagination and growth rates of protoscolices isolated from donkey liver cysts were compared with those obtained from sheep liver or lung cysts. The most significant difference in these rates occurred at the commencement of the segmentation stage. Differences in the development, growth and evagination rates observed between the donkey and sheep forms may reflect the strain variation of E. granulosus in this country. PMID:1438153

Hijjawi, N S; Abdel-Hafez, S K; al-Yaman, F M

1992-01-01

387

Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan  

PubMed Central

A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

Qasem, Jamal R.

2012-01-01

388

Hydrogeological perturbations along the Dead Sea coast revealed by submarine sinkholes, Lisan and Ghor al Haditha, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several decades, surface water and groundwater located in the closed Dead Sea basin experience excessive exploitation. In fifty years, the level of the terminal lake has fallen by about 30 meters and its surface shrunk by one third. The coastal zone is the one that best shows the stigma of the general environmental degradation. Among these are the sinkholes, landslides and subsidence. For years, these phenomena are relatively well documented, particularly sinkholes and subsidence. Over the past five years, field observations combined with ground deformations measurements by radar interferometric stacking techniques have shown that the intensity (size, frequency) of the collapses is increasing in the most affected part of the southern Dead Sea area. The zones of the dried up Lynch Strait, the Lisan peninsula and Ghor Al Haditha in Jordan seem the most affected. Very high resolution (0.5 to 2 m) GeoEye satellite images have shown that many sinkholes also formed below the level of the Dead Sea. The water transparency allows observations up to several meters deep. These data contribute to the validation of the models developed in connection with the deformation of the fresh/saline water interface due to an imbalance always more pronounced between the levels of the surrounding groundwaters and of the terminal lake.

Closson, D.; Abou Karaki, N.; Milisavljevic, N.; Pasquali, P.; Holecz, F.; Bouaraba, A.

2012-04-01

389

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.

Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

2011-01-01

390

A 3D resistivity model derived from the transient electromagnetic data observed on the Araba fault, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

72 inloop transient electromagnetic soundings were carried out on two 2 km long profiles perpendicular and two 1 km and two 500 m long profiles parallel to the strike direction of the Araba fault in Jordan which is the southern part of the Dead Sea transform fault indicating the boundary between the African and Arabian continental plates. The distance between the stations was on average 50 m. The late time apparent resistivities derived from the induced voltages show clear differences between the stations located at the eastern and at the western part of the Araba fault. The fault appears as a boundary between the resistive western (ca. 100 ?m) and the conductive eastern part (ca. 10 ?m) of the survey area. On profiles parallel to the strike late time apparent resistivities were almost constant as well in the time dependence as in lateral extension at different stations, indicating a 2D resistivity structure of the investigated area. After having been processed, the data were interpreted by conventional 1D Occam and Marquardt inversion. The study using 2D synthetic model data showed, however, that 1D inversions of stations close to the fault resulted in fictitious layers in the subsurface thus producing large interpretation errors. Therefore, the data were interpreted by a 2D forward resistivity modeling which was then extended to a 3D resistivity model. This 3D model explains satisfactorily the time dependences of the observed transients at nearly all stations.

Rödder, A.; Tezkan, B.

2013-01-01

391

Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa Basin, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin's total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the basin. The results also showed that an area of about 1761 km2 of bare soils is of low vulnerability, whereas about 28 km2 is moderately vulnerable. For agriculture and the urban sector, approximately 1472 km2 are located within the low vulnerability zone and about 144 km2 are moderately vulnerable, which together account for about 8% of the total agriculture and urban area. These areas are contaminated with human activities, particularly from the agriculture. Management of land use must be considered when changing human or agricultural activity patterns in the study area, to reduce groundwater vulnerability in the basin. The results also showed that the wells with the highest nitrate levels (81-107 mg/l) were located in high vulnerable areas and are attributed to leakage from old sewage water.

Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.; Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.; Al-Taani, Ahmed A.; Al-Khateeb, Fadi L.; Knutsson, Sven

2014-04-01

392

New structural/tectonical model and its implication on hydrological thinking and groundwater management - the Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Tiberias is a fresh water lake located at the Kinneret basin which is approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide. It comprises a link in the chain of pull-apart basins that characterizes the structure of the conspicuous Jordan Rift Valley (JRV). The basin surface is about 200 m below mean sea level (msl) and basin-fill attains a thickness of up to 8 km. Until recently, studies focused mainly on the upper strata of basin fill. Consequently, a complete three dimensional geological model, including clear view of the tectonic framework at the Kinneret Basin was incomplete. This situation imposes great difficulty in understanding the local hydrological system and as consequence enforce constrains on groundwater management of the regional aquifers that flows towards the lake. A recently proposed structural/tectonical model (Inbar, 2012) enables revaluation of several geohydrological aspects at Sea of Galilee and its surroundings and a new hydrological model based on those findings aims to clarify those aspects with relation to groundwater management. The deep-seated stratigraphical units were seismically studied at the Kinnarot Valley (southern part of Kinneret basin) where sufficient information is available (Inbar, 2012). This study shows the subsidence and northwestward tilting of the basin floor (pre-rift formations) and the flow of thick Late Miocene salt accumulation accordingly. Furthermore, shallower seismic data, collected at the lake itself, shows a suspected salt dome close to the western boundary fault of the basin (Resnikov et al., 2004). Salt flow is now suggested to be a substantial factor in the tectonic play. At the lake surroundings there are several springs and boreholes where brine immerges from an estimated depth of about 2-3 kilometers. Significant differences in brine characteristics raised questions regarding the location of brine traps, flow mechanism and the mixture process between the fresh water and the brine. However, the effect of the juxtaposing salt rock to the hydrological system was overlooked. Recent study reported an anomaly in groundwater chemistry at the western shore, indicating a possible contribution of halite dissolution into the ascending brine (Möller et al., 2011). This correlates to the results of the salt tectonic model and the suspected salt diapir above mentioned. Moreover, Arbel-1 borehole (drilled at 2003 at the same area) showed rapid salinity increase during pumping. Today the well is shut off. Based on the above findings, a numerical model is built. The studied profile crosses the rift from the Galilee at the west to the Golan and Ajlun at the east reaching a depth of 6 kilometers. The model indicates the possible brine flow paths across the rift and their interaction with fresh water aquifers and lake springs. References Inbar, N. (2012), The Evaporatic Subsurface Body in Kinnarot Basin: Stratigraphy, Structure, Geohydrology, 131 pp, Tel Aviv University. Möller, P., Siebert, C., Geyer, S., Inbar, N., Rosenthal, E., Flexer, A., and Zilberbrand, M. (2011), Relationships of Brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley, Geofluids (doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00353.x). Reznikov, M., Ben-Avraham, Z., Garfunkel, Z., Gvirtzman, H. and Rotstein, Y., 2004. Structural and stratigraphic framework of Lake Kinneret: Isr. J. Earth Sci., v. 53, p. 131-149.

Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Josef

2014-05-01

393

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) serology in major livestock species in an affected region in Jordan, June to September 2013.  

PubMed

Between June and September 2013, sera from 11 dromedary camels, 150 goats, 126 sheep and 91 cows were collected in Jordan, where the first human Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cluster appeared in 2012. All sera were tested for MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) specific antibodies by protein microarray with confirmation by virus neutralisation. Neutralising antibodies were found in all camel sera while sera from goats and cattle tested negative. Although six sheep sera reacted with MERS-CoV antigen, neutralising antibodies were not detected. PMID:24342516

Reusken, C B; Ababneh, M; Raj, V S; Meyer, B; Eljarah, A; Abutarbush, S; Godeke, G J; Bestebroer, T M; Zutt, I; Muller, M A; Bosch, B J; Rottier, P J; Osterhaus, A D; Drosten, C; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P

2013-01-01

394

The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel  

PubMed Central

The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

2013-01-01

395

Bounds on eigenvalues of the product and the Jordan product of two positive definite operators on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New easy proofs are given of the eigenvalue inequalities obtained by Amir-Moez for a product AB of two positive definite (strictly positive) operators A and B on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. As a simple consequence of these inequalities, new bounds are established on the eigenvalues of AB which are much sharper than the ones recently given by Sha Hu-yun. The results is then used to make an easy deduction of a lower bound to the lowest eigenvalue of the Jordan product of A and B. The bound thus obtained is at least as good as the one obtained by Alikakos and Bates.

Grubb, A.; Sharma, C. S.

1989-01-01

396

Essential oil composition of the aerial parts of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oil of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The essential oils of fresh and air-dried S. palaestina were mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.66% and 65.98%, respectively). The major component detected in the oils of fresh and dry S. palaestina was germacrene D (21.18% and 26.02%, respectively). Air drying resulted in a general increase of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and a great decrease in the percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons. PMID:21861642

Al-Jaber, Hala I; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Barhoumi, Lina M; Abaza, Ismail F; Afifi, Fatma U

2012-01-01

397

Water-quality characteristics of inflow to and outflow from B Everett Jordan Lake, North Carolina, 1982-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

B. Everett Jordan Lake, a 13,900-acre reservoir in the north-central Piedmont of North Carolina, was completed in February 1982. Hydrologic data were collected at four inflow sites and one outflow site to define water-quality characteristics. Data include streamflow data and 56 physical and chemical characteristics of streamwater. Concentrations of some constituents at inflow sites were as much as 83-times greater than background concentrations in streams relatively unaffected by man. At the outflow site, however, some of these constituents were only as much as 6-times greater. The minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration measured at an inflow site was 1.0 mg/L, whereas the minimum concentration measured at the outflow site was 4.9 mg/L. Significant differences in other physical characteristics between inflow and outflow sites include a reduction in maximum concentration of suspended sediment from 2,360 mg/L in an inflow sample to 130 mg/L at the outflow site and a reduction of maximum specific conductance values from more than 1,100 microsiemens/centimeter in an inflow sample to 301 microsiemens/centimeter in outflow. The maximum concentration of total nitrogen at inflow sites was 27.0 mg/L compared with 3.2 mg/L at the outflow site. The maximum total phosphorus concentration at inflow sites was 13.0 mg/L compared with 0.6 mg/L at the outflow site. Average annual loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the outflow were as much as 67% and 40% of inflow loads, respectively. Maximum yields at an inflow site were 5.8 t/sq mi (tons per square mile) for nitrogen and 1.4 t/sq mi for phosphorus. Yields of these constituents at the outflow site were 1.5 and 0.2 t/mi, respectively.

Garrett, R. G.

1990-01-01

398

Pattern of tooth loss in recipients of free dental treatment at the University Hospital of Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to document reasons for tooth loss in disadvantaged Jordanians who seek free dental care at the University Hospital/Dental Clinics. A 4-year (1998-2001) prospective study was undertaken involving 2200 randomly selected patients from this subpopulation. Of their 3069 lost teeth, 46.9% were lost due to caries and its sequel; 18% were lost because of periodontal disease; 8% were lost for a combination of caries and periodontal disease; 19.4% for pre-prosthetic reasons; 4% for orthodontic reasons; 2.8% for eruption problems and 0.7% due to trauma. Logistic regression analysis for reasons of tooth loss in this sector revealed that caries and its sequel was the predominant cause of tooth loss in patients Jordan free dental casualty clinic. Therefore, in order to reduce the rate of dental extractions in this sector of the Jordanian population, efforts should focus on prevention and treatment of caries. Efforts should also be made to change the values and beliefs of this sector towards the importance of natural dentition. PMID:15009595

Sayegh, A; Hilow, H; Bedi, R

2004-02-01

399

Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Awassi sheep flocks in north-east of Jordan: an epidemiological study.  

PubMed

A prospective cohort study was conducted using 32 randomly selected Awassi sheep flocks to identify factors hypothesized to be associated with the occurrence of pregnancy, twinning and fetal loss between August 2005 and May 2006 in the region of Al-Safawi (northeast of Jordan). Vitamins A and E and selenium concentrations were determined on 448 blood samples. Using the forward selection procedure of the logistic regression module, models with statistically significant risk factors (P < 0.05) were constructed for three outcomes; pregnancy, twinning and fetal loss. Serum vitamin A concentration levels were associated with pregnancy (OR = 2.26, 2.48), twinning (OR = 6.49, 17.74) and fetal loss (OR = 0.13, 0.19). Primiparous ewes were 48% less likely to become pregnant than fourth or higher parity ewes. The likelihood of twinning increased significantly in ewes up to the third parity. Ewes that were fed 700-900 g barley, 250-300 g wheat-bran per head per day and grazed on vegetables residues were 4.15 times more likely to have twins than ewes that were fed 600 g barley and 200 g wheat-bran per head per day. Fetal loss in first and second parity ewes was about 3 times more likely than that in third or higher-parity ewes. Ewes pregnant with twins were about 14 times more likely to have fetal loss than ewes carrying single fetus. Pregnant ewes of the stationary flocks were 37% less likely to have fetal loss than ewes of the semi-nomadic flocks. These results demonstrate that stationary Awassi sheep flocks had higher pregnancy and twinning rates and less pregnancy loss. Supplementation of vitamin A, providing sufficient quantity of dry feed and increasing ram: ewe ratio for primiparous ewes of semi-nomadic flocks is essential to improve Awassi sheep reproductive performance. PMID:19459061

Lafi, S Q; Talafha, A Q; Giadinis, N; Kalaitzakis, E; Pourliotis, K; Panousis, N

2009-12-01

400

Earliest evidence for social endogamy in the 9,000-year-old-population of Basta, Jordan.  

PubMed

The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity - such as open access to resources and land - had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1). Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%). Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of exogamous mating partners but a socio-cultural choice. PMID:23776517

Alt, Kurt W; Benz, Marion; Müller, Wolfgang; Berner, Margit E; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Knipper, Corina; Gebel, Hans-Georg K; Nissen, Hans J; Vach, Werner

2013-01-01

401

The Establishment of an ISO Compliant Cancer Biobank for Jordan and its Neighboring Countries Through Knowledge Transfer and Training  

PubMed Central

Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource of high-quality human biospecimens and anonymized clinicopathological data to the cancer research communities world-wide.

Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Muller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth

2014-01-01

402

Seasonal and spatial trends in the sources of fine particle organic carbon in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) was conducted in the Middle East at sites in Israel, Jordan, and Palestine. The sources and seasonal variation of organic carbon, as well as the contribution to fine aerosol (PM 2.5) mass, were determined. Of the 11 sites studied, Nablus had the highest contribution of organic carbon (OC), 29%, and elemental carbon (EC), 19%, to total PM 2.5 mass. The lowest concentrations of PM 2.5 mass, OC, and EC were measured at southern desert sites, located in Aqaba, Eilat, and Rachma. The OC contribution to PM 2.5 mass at these sites ranged between 9.4% and 16%, with mean annual PM 2.5 mass concentrations ranging from 21 to 25 ug m -3. These sites were also observed to have the highest OC to EC ratios (4.1-5.0), indicative of smaller contributions from primary combustion sources and/or a higher contribution of secondary organic aerosol. Biomass burning and vehicular emissions were found to be important sources of carbonaceous PM in this region at the non-southern desert sites, which together accounted for 30%-55% of the fine particle organic carbon at these sites. The fraction of measured OC unapportioned to primary sources (1.4 ?gC m -3 to 4.9 ?gC m -3; 30%-74%), which has been shown to be largely from secondary organic aerosol, is relatively constant at the sites examined in this study. This suggests that secondary organic aerosol is important in the Middle East during all seasons of the year.

von Schneidemesser, Erika; Zhou, Jiabin; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Schauer, James J.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

2010-09-01

403

Five-year monitoring study of chemical characteristics of Wet atmospheric precipitation in the southern region of Jordan.  

PubMed

Wet atmospheric samples were collected from different locations in the southern region of Jordan during a 5-year period (October 2006 to May 2011). All samples were analyzed for pH, EC, major ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), HCO3(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)), and trace metals (Fe(2+), Al(3+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Zn(2+)). The highest ion concentrations were observed during the beginning of the rainfall events because large amounts of dust accumulated in the atmosphere during dry periods and were scavenged by rain. The rainwater in the study area is characterized by low salinity and neutral pH. The major ions found in rainwater followed the order of HCO3? > ?Cl(-)?> ?SO4(2-) and Ca(2+)?>? Na(+) > Mg(2+) > NH4(+) > K(+). Trace metals were identified to be of anthropogenic origin resulting from cement and phosphate mining activities located within the investigated area and from heating activities during the cold period of the year (January to April). The wet precipitation chemistry was analyzed using factor component analysis for possible sources of the measured species. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) was used to assess the relationships between the concentrations of the studied ions and their sources. Factor 1 represents the contribution of ions from local anthropogenic activities, factor 2 represents the contribution of ions from natural sources, and factor 3 suggests biomass burning and anthropogenic source. Overall, the results revealed that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local anthropogenic sources rather than natural and marine sources, which is in a good agreement with the results obtained by other studies conducted in similar sites around the world. PMID:23138417

Al-Khashman, Omar Ali; Jaradat, Aiman Qasem; Salameh, Elias

2013-07-01

404

Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources (such as landfills, feedlots, agricultural chemicals applied to fields, and septic systems) is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, Began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie du Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of streamflow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity. (Lantz-PTT)

Ruhl, J. F.

1989-01-01

405

Impact of an educational program on nursing students' caring and self-perception in intensive clinical training in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Background Framing and development of clinical skills in nursing students during their clinical practice is critical because this can shape their future caring skills. Professional caring empowers patients and contributes to their well-being and health. Education may enhance the capacity of nurses to be effective caring practitioners. Their study program encourages caring behavior in nursing students, consequently affecting their professional self-perception. Methods The present study investigated the effect of an educational program on caring behavior and professional self-perception in nursing students using a controlled pre/post test study design. The study sample consisted of 50 nursing students undertaking their final year in 2010–2011. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The study was conducted in two critical care units affiliated to the Ma’an and Queen Rania hospitals in the south of Jordan. The instruments utilized were the Caring Dimensions Inventory, Nursing Students Attitude Observational Checklist, and Professional Self-Concept of Nurses Instrument. Results The study findings favor the effect of the educational program because there was increased knowledge and understanding of caring theory and related concepts, a more holistic approach to care, enhanced caring practices, and improved self-perception in the study group compared with the control group during different periods of assessment. The study group showed significantly better caring perception in psychological, technical, and professional terms than the control group during different periods of assessment. There was a significant positive trend of overall professional self-perception for the study group compared with the control group. Conclusion Nursing curricula should incorporate concepts and principles that guide students in developing caring, safe, competent, and professional behavior. Nursing students must seek educational opportunities to acquire knowledge for role preparation, to participate in knowledge generation, and for personal and professional development.

Khouri, Rawda

2011-01-01

406

Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees and pigeon dropping samples from four major cities in Jordan.  

PubMed

To our best knowledge, any study related to the ecological distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan does not exist in the medical literature. In order to determine the environmental occurrence of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan, pigeon droppings and material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees were collected from four major cities of this country. For the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii from environmental sources, 500 samples of the mixed soil debris, including tree materials, under the eucalyptus trees from cities of Amman, Irbid, Jerash, and Ajlun were collected. Also, 509 samples of pigeon droppings were collected from the same cities for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans. After inoculating the samples onto modified Staib agar medium in Petri dishes, a total of 336 melanoid yeast colonies were picked up during screening process. At the end of serial mycological studies, none of these isolates was identified as Cryptococcus neoformans, but all were Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans. For determining the exact status, more extensive environmental studies need to be done in the future. PMID:15518348

Hamasha, Akram Mohammad Saad; Yildiran, Sinasi Taner; Gonlum, Ahmet; Saracli, Mehmet Ali; Doganci, Levent

2004-08-01

407

Feasibility of Collecting Umbilical Cord Blood in Jordan and the Effect of Maternal and Neonatal Factors on Hematopoietic Stem Cell Content  

PubMed Central

Background Cord blood transplant is an accepted treatment for many malignant and non-malignant diseases. We sought to determine the feasibility of collecting cord blood in Jordan and the effect of maternal and fetal factors on the quality of the cord blood units. Methods A total of 124 cord blood units were collected, and 75 (60%) cord blood units were included in this analysis. Cord blood volume, total nucleated cell (TNC) count, cell viability and CD34+ content were measured, and clonogenic assay was performed. Results The mean volume of the collected units was 68.9 ml (range 40–115) with mean nucleated cell count of 6.5 x 108 (range 1–23.0). Our results showed a positive correlation between the volume of cord blood and TNC count (p=0.008), cell viability (p=0.001), CD34+ content (p=0.034) and the length of the umbilical cord (p=0.011). In addition, our results showed an inverse relation between the Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte Macrophage (CFU-GM) concentration and the gestation duration (p=0.038). Conclusion We conclude that it is feasible to collect cord blood units in Jordan with excellent TNC and CD34+ cell content. The volume of cord blood collected was associated with higher TNC count and CD34+ count. Efforts toward establishing public cord blood banks in our area are warranted.

Hussein, Ayad Ahmed; Bawadi, Randa M.; Tahtamouni, Lubna H.; Frangoul, Haydar; ElKarmi, Ali Z.

2014-01-01

408

Mental Health Status of Women in Jordan: A Comparative Study between Attendees of Governmental and UN Relief and Works Agency's Health Care Centers.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating differences in mental health problems between attendees of governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan. Further, predictors of mental health problems based on women's demographic profile were investigated. A convenience sample of 620 women attending governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan was recruited for this purpose. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify differences in mental health, and multiple linear regression was implemented to identify significant predictors of women's mental health problems. Results indicated an absence of significant differences in mental health problems between attendees of the two types of health care centers. Further, among the demographic indicators that were tested, income, spousal violence, and general health were the predictors of at least three different mental health problems in women. This study highlights opportunities for health professionals to decrease women's propensity for mental health problems by addressing these factors when treating women attending primary care centers in different Jordanian towns, villages, and refugee camps. PMID:24766173

Al-Modallal, Hanan; Hamaideh, Shaher; Mudallal, Rula

2014-05-01

409

Ground-water flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer related to contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St Louis Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was developed to assess the movement of coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. The model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. Sensitivity testing indicated that leakage to the upper model layer and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the basal confining unit of the St. Peter were the most sensitive model hydrologic properties. Model simulations indicated that water introduced into the aquifer through wells open to several aquifers would raise the potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan by as much as 3 ft in the area of the former plant. Other simulations suggested that withdrawal from certain upgradient wells may have altered local hydraulic gradients. These factors contributed to the potential for movement of contaminants from the area of the former plant to wells. Simulations of a proposed gradient-control plan indicate that the actions would be effective in limiting the expansion of the contaminated volume. These simulations also show, however, that control of discharge from all wells in the area will be important to the overall effectiveness of the plan. (USGS)

Stark, J. R.; Hult, M. F.

1985-01-01

410

Childhood Lead Exposure in the Palestinian Authority, Israel, and Jordan: Results from the Middle Eastern Regional Cooperation Project, 1996-2000  

PubMed Central

In the Middle East, the major sources of lead exposure have been leaded gasoline, lead-contaminated flour from traditional stone mills, focal exposures from small battery plants and smelters, and kohl (blue color) in cosmetics. In 1998–2000, we measured blood lead (PbB) levels in children 2–6 years of age in Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority (n = 1478), using a fingerstick method. Mean (peak; percentage > 10 ?g/dL) PbB levels in Israel (n = 317), the West Bank (n = 344), Jordan (n = 382), and Gaza (n = 435) were 3.2 ?g/dL (18.2; 2.2%), 4.2 ?g/dL (25.7; 5.2%), 3.2 ?g/dL (39.3; < 1%), and 8.6 ?g/dL (> 80.0; 17.2%), respectively. High levels in Gaza were all among children living near a battery factory. The findings, taken together with data on time trends in lead emissions and in PbB in children in previous years, indicate the benefits from phasing out of leaded gasoline but state the case for further reductions and investigation of hot spots. The project demonstrated the benefits of regional cooperation in planning and carrying out a jointly designed project.

Safi, Jamal; Fischbein, Alf; Haj, Sameer El; Sansour, Ramzi; Jaghabir, Madi; Hashish, Mohammed Abu; Suleiman, Hassan; Safi, Nimer; Abu-Hamda, Abed; Witt, Joyce K.; Platkov, Efim; Reingold, Steven; Alayyan, Amber; Berman, Tamar; Bercovitch, Matti; Choudhri, Yogesh; Richter, Elihu D.

2006-01-01

411

The local and global dimensions of metalliferous pollution derived from a reconstruction of an eight thousand year record of copper smelting and mining at a desert-mountain frontier in southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes an eight thousand year history of anthropogenic metal pollution at one of the oldest, most important and longest sustained sites of the extraction and smelting of copper ores in the Old World: the Faynan Orefield in Jordan, which is located between the hyper-arid southern desert and the front of the wetter Mountains of Edom. The modern land

J. P. Grattan; D. D. Gilbertson; C. O. Hunt

2007-01-01

412

Tidal-bundle sequences in the Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian), southeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.: Evidence for tides along inboard shorelines of the Sauk Epicontinental Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study documents for the first time tidal bundling in a lower Paleozoic sheet sandstone from the cratonic interior of North America, providing insights into the hydrodynamics of ancient epicontinental seas. The Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian) in the Upper Mississippi Valley contains large-scale planar tabular cross-sets with tidal-bundle sequences, which were analyzed in detail at an exceptional exposure. Tidal-bundle sequences (neap-spring-neap cycles) were delineated by foreset thickening-thinning patterns and composite shale drapes, the latter of which represent accumulations of mud during the neap tides of neap-spring-neap tidal cycles. Fourier analysis of the bundle thickness data from the 26 measurable bundle sequences revealed cycles ranging from 15 to 34 bundles per sequence, which suggests a semidiurnal or mixed tidal system along this part of the Late Cambrian shoreline. We extend the tidal interpretation to widespread occurrences of the same facies in outcrops of lesser quality, where the facies is recognizable but too few bundles are exposed for tidal cycles to be measured. By doing so, this study shows that tidally generated deposits have a significant geographic and temporal extent in Upper Cambrian strata of central mid-continent North America. The deposition and preservation of tidal facies was related to the intermittent development of shoreline embayments during transgressions. The tidally dominated deposits filled ravined topographies that were repeatedly developed on the updip parts of the shoreface. Resulting coastal geomorphologies, accompanied perhaps by larger-scale changes in basinal conditions and/or configuration, led to changes in depositional conditions from wave-dominated to tide-dominated. Outcrops of the Jordan Sandstone tidal facies in the Upper Mississippi Valley represent the farthest inboard recorded transmission of ocean-generated tides in the Laurentian epicontinental seas, demonstrating that tidal currents were significant agents in the transport of sand along the far cratonic interior shorelines of Cambrian North America. The results of this study improve the facies-level understanding of the genesis of sheet sandstones. Furthermore, tidalites documented here occur in a specific position within a sequence stratigraphic architecture for the Jordan Sandstone. This provides a framework to compare these ancient deposits and processes to younger (e.g., Carboniferous) epicontinental systems where stratal and sediment dynamics are better documented. ?? 2003, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Tape, C. H.; Cowan, C. A.; Runkel, A. C.

2003-01-01

413

Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

Irwin, E. R.; Noble, R. L.

2000-01-01

414

Correlation between the silica concentration and the orifice temperature in the warm springs along the jordan-dead sea rift valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of twenty-one thermal springs emerging along the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley in Israel indicates a very good correlation between the concentration of dissolved silica and the temperature of the spring orifice. Dissolution of quartz was identified as the apparent source of the silica in the water. Application of the silica geothermometer for mixed systems suggests that the springs in the Tiberias Lake Basin are supplied with hot water from deep reservoir (or reservoirs) at a temperature of 115??C (239??F). The same temperature was postulated earlier by the application of the Na-K-Ca hydro-geothermometer to a group of thermal springs in the same basin. The temperature of the reservoir supplying hot brines to the springs emerging along the western shore of the Dead Sea is estimated at 90??C (194??F).

Levitte, D.; Eckstein, Y.

1978-01-01

415

Multicomponent reactive transport in discrete fractures. II: Infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater at Maqarin, Jordan, a natural analogue site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical multicomponent reactive transport model described fully in Steefel and Lichtner (1998)[Steefel, C.I., Lichtner, P.C., 1998. Multicomponent reactive transport in discrete fractures, I. Controls on reaction front geometry. J. Hydrol. (in press)] is used to simulate the infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater along discrete fractures at Maqarin, Jordan, a site considered as a natural analogue to cement-bearing nuclear waste repositories. In the Eastern Springs area at Maqarin, two prominent sets of sub-parallel fractures trending NW-SE are approximately perpendicular to the local water table contours, with the slope of the water table indicating north-westward flow. Extensive mineralogic investigations [Alexander W.R. (Ed.), 1992. A natural analogue study of cement-buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a sedimentary host rock. NAgrA Technical Report (NTB 91-10), Wettingen, Switzerland; Milodowski, A.E., Hyslop, E.K., Pearce, J.M., Wetton, P.D., Kemp, S.J., Longworth, G., Hodginson, E., and Hughes, C.R., 1998. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the western springs area. In: Smellie, J.A.T. (ed.), 1998: Maqarin Natural Analogue Study: Phase III. SKB Technical Report TR98-04, Stockholm, Sweden] indicate that the width of intense rock alteration zone bordering the fractures changes from about 4 mm at one locality (the M1 sampling site) to approximately 1 mm 100 m to the north-west in the flow direction (the M2 site), suggesting a lessening of alteration intensity in that direction. Using this information, the dimensionless parameter ? v/? D' (?=porosity, D'=effective diffusion coefficient in rock matrix, ?=fracture aperture, and v=fluid velocity in the fracture) and measurements of the local hydraulic head gradient and effective diffusion coefficient in the rock matrix, a mean fracture aperture of 0.194 mm is calculated assuming the cubic law applies. This information, in combination with measured groundwater compositions at the Maqarin site, is used as input for numerical simulations of the hyperalkaline groundwater infiltration along fractures. The width of the alteration zones in the rock matrix bordering fractures is also used to constrain mineral dissolution rates in the field. The simulations predict that ettringite [Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O] with lesser amounts of hillebrandite and tobermorite (hydrated calcium silicates or CSH phases) will be the dominant alteration products forming at the expense of the primary silicates in the rock matrix and fracture, in agreement with observations at the Maqarin site. The simulations also come close to matching the pH of water samples collected along fractures at the M1 and M2 sites, with a fracture aperture of 0.22 mm giving the closest match with the pH data (within 13% of the value indicated by the rock matrix alteration widths). The simulations suggest two possible scenarios for the time evolution of the fracture-rock matrix system. Where rate constants for secondary mineral precipitation reactions are the same in both the rock matrix and fracture, the rock matrix tends to become completely cemented before the fracture. This results in a downstream migration of the hyperalkaline plume. In contrast, if rates are as little as one order of magnitude higher in the fracture than in the rock matrix, it is possible to seal the fracture first, thus causing the mineral zones to collapse upstream as a result of the reduction in fracture permeability. Sealing of fractures is observed at Maqarin and the simulations predict a mineral paragenesis in the fracture resulting from this scenario which is broadly compatible with field observations.

Steefel, C. I.; Lichtner, P. C.

1998-08-01

416

Configuration of water table and distribution of downward leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The configuration of the water table as plotted at a contour interval of 20 feet (6 metres) on quadrangle maps (scale 1:2,500) of the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area. Control points used for mapping were water levels in wells, lakes and sloughs, and places where topographic contours cross perennial streams. A computer program, using a variation of Darcy's law, was developed to determine distribution of 1) downward leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer under steady-state conditions, using estimated vertical-hydraulic conductivity values for overlying materials; 2) calculated vertical hydraulic conductivity values, assuming uniform leakage to the aquifer; and 3) additional leakage to the aquifer resulting from increased pumpage during the summer. For data determination and data input to the computer program, the area was gridded into units of 1-minute longitude by 1-minute latitude, about 600 acres (243 hectares) per unit. Previous work estimated the increased summer pumpage (1971) of ground water to be 127 million gallons (481x106 litres) per day. Calculations, made Within the limits of governing assumptions, indicate that 10 to 20 percent of increased summer pumpage is derived from increased leakage. Most of the remainder is probably from captured natural discharge and induced recharge from major streams within the influence of summer cones of depression. Based on available data and estimates of vertical hydraulic conductivity for geologic units, major leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer is indicated to occur in formation subcrop areas, especially where these areas are. overlain by the most permeable glacial drift.

Larson-Higdem, Dana C.; Larson, S. P.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

1975-01-01

417

Modelling surface runoff and water productivity in small dryland watersheds with water-harvesting interventions, an application from Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vast areas of the rangelands (badia) of West Asia and North Africa are severely degraded due to over-grazing, cutting of shrubs and ploughing. Because of the scarce vegetation cover and the often dense soil surface crust, a large part of the limited rainfall runs off to wadis or evaporates back to the atmosphere with little local benefit. To develop and evaluate techniques for rehabilitation of the degraded lands an integrated research project was implemented with two communities in the badia of Jordan. The average annual rainfall in the research area is approximately 150 mm/yr. The project tested different micro-catchment water-harvesting techniques (earthen dikes planted with fodder shrubs) to capture the runoff and improve plant survival and growth in the watersheds. To estimate the long-term benefits of these water-harvesting systems and to assist with watershed-level planning and design a model is needed. However, current models can not capture the spatially variable runoff and water-harvesting processes in these environments. The objective of the research was to develop a model for estimating the runoff and biomass production of small badia watersheds with and without water-harvesting interventions. The basic spatial unit of the model is a square grid cell. Each cell is assigned to a specific land use unit, based on the characteristics of the soil and surface that affect the runoff, infiltration, and biomass production potential of the land. The model computes infiltration and runoff for each cell from daily rainfall with a curvilinear equation, based on data from plot studies. The runoff is routed using a 10-m digital elevation model and can infiltrate in downstream cells. The water infiltrated in each cell is summed for the August-September hydrologic year; and the annual biomass production is computed based on the water productivity potential of the cell. The model was applied to a 119-ha watershed, where 11 ha of micro-catchments were implemented, using a 32-year rainfall record. The slopes in the watershed vary between 0 and 12% with the majority of the land ranging between 2 and 6%. The soils are generally shallow (less than 0.5 m) and on the stony hilltops the bedrock is sometimes exposed. However, deep alluvial soils are found in local depressions and along the main wadi. The majority of the land is ploughed for barley, with alternate fallow years. During fallow years, some natural vegetation grows in the land. Due to the limited and often poorly distributed rain the barley produces none or little grain, and is usually grazed by flocks of sheep and goats in spring. Highly degraded natural rangeland vegetation is found on the stony upper-slopes, but the deep soils along the main wadi turn green after good rainfall. Model simulations, using best parameter estimates, indicated that the water-harvesting interventions reduced the average runoff out of the watershed by 3%. Because the micro-catchments are established in the gently sloping lands, there may be an option to combine these micro-catchment systems with small dams or reservoirs to capture the runoff from more rocky upstream areas. The average biomass production of the water-harvesting intervention area increased from 0.44 ton/ha under the original farmer management to 0.56 ton/ha per year under water-harvesting. Even more importantly, the water harvesting resulted in much more stable biomass production, with a coefficient of variation of 0.42, as compared to 0.89 for the original farmer treatment. Field observations also indicated that the micro-catchments and the year-round cover of shrubs in the water-harvesting area reduced erosion and provided a micro-environment that improved the biodiversity of the site. The model has helped us to better understand the system and to compute the economics of these interventions. Data collection is on-going to improve the parameterization of the model, including the erosion component.

Bruggeman, A.; Akroush, S.; Mudabber, M.; Ziadat, F.; Oweis, T.

2009-04-01

418

Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2008-2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation in cooperation with the Triangle J Council of Governments Cape Fear River Flow Study Committee and the North Carolina Division of Water Resources to collect hydrologic data in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington in central North Carolina to help determine if suspected flow losses occur in the reach. Flow loss analyses were completed by summing the daily flow releases at Jordan Lake Dam with the daily discharges at Deep River at Moncure and Buckhorn Creek near Corinth, then subtracting these values from the daily discharges at Cape Fear River at Lillington. Examination of long-term records revealed that during 10,227 days of the 1983-2010 water years, 408 days (4.0 percent) had flow loss when conditions were relatively steady with respect to the previous day's records. The flow loss that occurred on these 40 days ranged from 0.49 to 2,150 cubic feet per second with a median flow loss of 37.2 cubic feet per second. The months with the highest number of days with flow losses were June (16. percent), September (16.9 percent), and October (19.4 percent). A series of synoptic discharge measurements made on six separate days in 2009 provided "snapshots" of overall flow conditions along the study reach. The largest water diversion is just downstream from the confluence of the Haw and Deep Rivers, and discharges substantially decrease in the main stem downstream from the intake point. Downstream from Buckhorn Dam, minimal gain or loss between the dam and Raven Rock State Park was noted. Analyses of discharge measurements and ratings for two streamgages-one at Deep River at Moncure and the other at Cape Fear River at Lillington-were completed to address the accuracy of the relation between stage and discharge at these sites. The ratings analyses did not indicate a particular time during the 1982-2011 water years in which a consistent bias occurred in the computations of discharge records that would indicate false flow losses. A total of 34 measured discharges at a streamgage on the Haw River below B. Everett Jordan Lake near Moncure were compared with the reported hourly flow releases from Jordan Lake Dam. Because 28 of 34 measurements were within plus or minus 10 percent of the hourly flow releases reported by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, use of the current discharge computation tables for reporting Jordan Lake Dam flow releases is generally supported. A stage gage was operated on the Cape Fear River at Buckhorn Dam near Corinth to collect continuous stage-only records. Throughout the study period, flow over the dam was observed along its length, and flow loss within the study reach is not attributed to river-level fluctuations at the dam. Water-use information and (or) data were obtained for five industrial facilities, a regional power utility, two municipalities, one small hydropower facility on the Deep River, and one quarry operation also adjacent to the Deep River. The largest water users are the regional power producer, a small hydropower operation, and the two municipalities. The total water-use diversions for these facilities range from almost 25.5 to 38.5 cubic feet per second (39.5 to 59.5 million gallons per day) during the winter and summer periods, respectively. This range is equivalent to 69 to 104 percent of the 37 cubic feet per second median flow loss. The Lockville hydropower station is on the Deep River about 1 mile downstream from the streamgage near Moncure. Run-of-river operations at the facility do not appear to affect flow losses in the study reach. The largest water user in the study area is a regional power producer at a coal-fired power-generation plant located immediately adjacent to the Cape Fear River just downstream from the confluence of the Haw an Deep Rivers. Comparisons of daily water withdrawals, sup-plied by the regional power producer, and discharge records at a streamgage on the diversion canal indicated many days when consumption exceeded the producer's estimates for the cooli

Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

2013-01-01

419

Further evidence on the validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: addressing questions raised by Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan and Nichols.  

PubMed

The reviews by Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan (2006/this issue), and by Nichols (2006/this issue) offer markedly contrasting appraisals of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales introduced by Tellegen et al. (2003). The one common feature is that both reviews draw on the same atypical MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) data set for their empirical analyses, with results warranting critical scrutiny. Rogers et al.'s critique provides an evaluation of the RC Scales from the perspective of Jackson's (1970) method of test development. One significant issue in Rogers et al.'s review concerns social desirability, prompting us to clarify our own views on this topic. We also highlight and discuss problems associated with Rogers et al.'s use of the unrepresentative data set. Nichols's polemical critique neglects empirical and theoretical support for demoralization as a central construct and misconstrues as "construct drift" the purposeful process of developing the RC scales. Nichols's criticisms and proposals overlook requirements for assessing syndromes and for construct validation and even rudiments of scale development. Our reply incorporates evidence, including new findings, refuting his criticisms and confirming that demoralization is a pervasive MMPI dimension, that the RC Scales capture the major distinctive features of the original Clinical Scales, and that they generate correspondingly meaningful validity patterns. PMID:16972818

Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; Arbisi, Paul A; McNulty, John L; Graham, John R

2006-10-01

420

The Waqf as Suwwan crater, Eastern Desert of Jordan: aspects of the deep structure of an oblique impact from reflection seismic and gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deeply eroded Waqf as Suwwan ring structure was recently discovered to be a large impact, the first identified in the near east. Large-scale reflection seismic structure shows the impact situated high on the northeastern flank of the Jordan Uplift sloping into Wadi Sirhan Basin. If exhumation is linked to the Arabia-Eurasia collision, a likely time window for the impact event may be latest Eocene to Late Oligocene. Impact into a shallow sea seems an optional scenario. Old reflection seismic lines offer limited insight into the deep structure of the rim and part of the central uplift of the complex crater. An important structural clue is provided by a well-resolved seismic horizon of a yet tentative correlation with a Paleozoic black shale. The central gravity high is compatible with a mass surplus by the uplift of denser Paleozoic basement below the central uplift. The gravity model further indicates a ring of dense Paleozoic sediments rising from below into the ring syncline. Seismics show presumably radial synclines in the central uplift which are interpreted by centripetal constrictional flow during crater collapse. Beneath the final crater's outer boundary, a shallow-dip normal fault zone, subtle seismic structure in uncollapsed footwall segments reveal an asymmetry of strain. The asymmetry is attributed to the cratering flow by an oblique impact directed toward NE. The finding provides independent support to an earlier suggestion of impact obliquity based on vergency of folds exposed on the central uplift.

Heinrichs, Till; Salameh, Elias; Khouri, Hani

2014-01-01

421

An unholy disease in the Holy Land: the history of anthrax between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea (1909-2012).  

PubMed

The history of recorded cases of anthrax in human beings and animals from 1909 to 2012 in the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea is reviewed. The disease was endemic until the middle of the 20th century, but the incidence decreased thereafter, with only sporadic cases from the 1980s onwards. Human cases have not been diagnosed in the region since 1984 and the number of episodes of animal disease has reduced to less than one per year. This decline is mostly due to the disruption of the infective cycle by improved veterinary control, including vaccination, treatment and outbreak management. A policy of reactive vaccination for 10 years of affected herds and herds grazing in their proximity has been applied. No new outbreaks have been observed in such herds after the cessation of vaccination, despite continued grazing on the same sites, so it is assumed that spore survival in such areas is shorter than 10 years. This is independent of the soil composition, which is calcareous throughout most of the relevant area. However, reemergence of anthrax, even after decades, has occurred following disturbance and heavy rainfall. PMID:24135549

Elad, Daniel

2014-03-01

422

Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential  

PubMed Central

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.

Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Goncalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

2013-01-01

423

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

424

Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. during different growth stages in the south of Jordan.  

PubMed

The effect of plant space and time of harvesting on yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated in Jordan. Thyme was cultivated in rows of 50?cm apart with inter-row spacing of 15, 30 or 45?cm and was grown at various development stages. Plants were harvested during different growth stages including vegetation, beginning of blooming, full blooming and fruit maturation. Results indicated that oil yields of thyme were affected by growth stage and inter-row spacing. The maximum oil yields was obtained by harvesting at the early growth stage, which was found superior to oil yield corresponding to the later stages of collection. With 45?cm inter-row spacing, the maximum oil yield was recorded when the samples were collected at growth stage. Indicated results showed that the chemical composition during various growth stages was characterised by high percentage of carvacrol and its corresponding monoterpenic hydrocarbon precursors ?-cymene and ?-terpinene, and ether 1,4-cineol. PMID:21707257

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S; Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Al-Tawaha, Abdel Rahman; Ereifej, Khalil; Almajwal, Ali; Odat, Nidal; Al Khateeb, Wesam

2012-01-01

425

Structural control of groundwater flow regimes and groundwater chemistry along the lower reaches of the Zerka River, West Jordan, using remote sensing, GIS, and field methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrogeological study was completed within a sub-catchment of the Zerka River drainage basin, in western Jordan. The system is characterized by anticlinal bending with an axis trending SSW-NNE and plunging a few degrees in the SSW direction. The anticlinal structure diverts groundwater flow towards the SSW while the strike-slipe faults cause the groundwater to diverge where the fault is perpendicular to the groundwater flow lines, and to converge where the fault is parallel to the groundwater flow lines. A direct relationship was found between the location of springs and the type of groundwater flow with regard to the amount of discharge wherein large spring discharges are located in zones of converging groundwater flow lines. In areas where faults are not abundant, the groundwater retention time in the aquifers is long and a zonation of the electrical conductivity was detected due to mineral dissolution. By controlling groundwater flow, the anticlinal setting produces three genetic groups of groundwater flow systems: (1) alkaline-earth alkaline water which is predominately a bicarbonate-type composition, (2) alkaline-earth alkaline water which is predominately bicarbonate-sulfate, and (3) alkaline-earth alkaline water with a high alkaline component.

Odeh, Taleb; Salameh, Elias; Schirmer, Mario; Strauch, Gerhard

2009-10-01

426

Using multi-component hydrochemical pattern for water balance calculations of intricate water resources in semi-arid regions - a case study in Wadi Al Arab, Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater harvesting in the semi-arid Wadi al Arab, located in the NW most corner of the Kingdom of Jordan, is supposed to be sustainable. However, since implementation of intense well fields, which take water from the Cretaceous A7/B2 aquifer, springs along the wadi course dried out and groundwater table dropped locally tremendous. To overcome the uncertainties in qualitatively and quantitatively characterising that water resource, a multi-component hydrochemical study was carried out within the SMART-project, which was also used to provide reliable boundary conditions to build up a transient numerical flow model. Wadi Al Arab represents a multi-aquifer system, with unknown interactions between the Cenozoic and Cretaceous aquifers. The exact identification and qualitatively characterization of the different groundwater bodies, the definition of their flow regimes and the recharge rate is a necessary step to calculate a reliable water balance and a rational policy of water management. Inter-aquifer flow prevents the benchmark treatment of the groundwater bodies and its detection by classical methods is an almost impossible task. In order to overcome these difficulties, the main known components of the multi-aquifer system were analysed for REY (REE+ Yttrium) abundance, major elements and for stable isotopes of water (?18O and ?D). The different waters in the area were than classified considering these parameters. This enabled identifying their respective replenishment areas and to elucidate the mixing processes controlled by structural features. This study shows that REY patterns are a powerful tool to decipher the lithology of the catchment area and the intricate patterns of flow paths of the aquifer systems. These information allow the correct definition of boundary conditions for a successful hydraulic modelling.

Siebert, Christian; Rödiger, Tino; Geyer, Stefan; Subah, Ali; Guttman, Yossi

2013-04-01

427

Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark. Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. ensis Leidy [Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms. Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks. Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: Xiphodolamia serrata nov. sp. This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

Adnet, S.; Hosseinzadeh, R.; Antunes, M. T.; Balbino, A. C.; Kozlov, V. A.; Cappetta, H.

2009-10-01

428

Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 ?g/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M

2013-04-01

429

Copper-bearing encrustations: a tool for age dating and constraining the physical-chemical regime during the late Quaternary in the Wadi Araba, southern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alluvial-fluvial drainage system in the Wadi Araba, southern Jordan, incised into Cambrian clastic sedimentary and felsic igneous rocks giving rise to a disseminated Cu-(Mn) mineralization of diagenetic and epigenetic origin along the southern branch of the Dead Sea Transform Fault (=DSTF). During the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, the primary Cu sulfides were replaced by secondary minerals giving rise to hypogene to supergene encrustations, bearing Cu silicates, Cu carbonates, Cu oxychlorides and cupriferous vanadates. They occur in fissures, coat walls and developed even-rim/meniscus and blocky cements in the arenites near the surface. The first generation cement has been interpreted in terms of freshwater vadose hydraulic conditions, while the second-generation blocky cement of chrysocolla and malachite evolved as late cement. The Cu-Si-C fluid system within the Wadi Araba drainage system is the on-shore or subaerial facies of a regressive lacustrine regime called the "Lake Lisan Stage", a precursor of the present-day Dead Sea. Radiocarbon dating (younger than 27,740 ± 1,570 years), oxygen-isotope-based temperature determination (hot brine-related mineralization at 60-80 °C, climate-driven mineralization at 25-30 °C) and thermodynamical calculations let to the subdivision of this secondary Cu mineralization into four stages, whose chemical and mineralogical composition was controlled by the variation of the anion complexes of silica and carbonate and the chlorine contents. The acidity of the pore water positively correlates with the degree of oxidation. The highest aridity and most intensive evaporation deduced from the thermodynamical calculations were achieved during stage 3, which is coeval with late Lake Lisan. Geogene processes causing Cu-enriched encrustations overlap with man-made manganiferous slags. The smelter feed has been derived mainly from Cu ore which developed during Late Pleistocene in the region.

Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.

2013-07-01

430

Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

431

Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center  

PubMed Central

Background Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005). Methods An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes. Results The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative. Conclusion The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC suggests culture is broader than organizational or societal culture to include an informal global network of medical professionals and Western technologies which facilitate global interaction. Additionally, political competencies among leaders may be particularly relevant in globalizing health care services where the goal is achieving international standards of care. Western communication technologies facilitate cross-border interaction, but social and political capital possessed by the leaders may be necessary for transactions across national borders to occur thus gaining access to specialized information and global thought leaders in a medical sub-specialty such as oncology.

Moe, Jeffrey L; Pappas, Gregory; Murray, Andrew

2007-01-01

432

Strategic School Planning in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to…

Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Hasan, Manal Subhi

2012-01-01

433

Evaluation of the impact of a psycho-educational intervention on knowledge levels and psychological outcomes for people diagnosed with Schizophrenia and their caregivers in Jordan: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is one of the most serious forms of mental illness among people being treated in psychiatric clinics in developing and developed countries. Providing care for people diagnosed with schizophrenia can be stressful for their caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may improve patients’ and primary caregivers’ knowledge of schizophrenia and impact positively on patients’ physical and psychological outcomes and primary caregivers’ burden of care and quality of life. Studies thus far have shown that these interventions may improve patients’ and caregivers’ outcomes, but the quality of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is poor and it is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the effectiveness of such interventions on patients and primary caregivers’ outcomes, hence the current study. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial in four outpatient mental health clinics in Jordan comparing psycho-educational interventions in the form of six booklets every fortnight, with treatment as usual in people diagnosed with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. The primary outcome for participants is knowledge of Schizophrenia; secondary outcomes for patients are positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and relapse rate, while secondary outcomes for primary caregivers are burden of care and quality of life. All measures are assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at three months follow-up. Discussion This randomized control trial, conducted in Jordan among people living with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers, will assess the effect of psycho-educational interventions on knowledge of Schizophrenia, patients’ positive and negative symptoms and quality of life, and caregivers’ burden of care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78084871

2014-01-01

434

Rainfall harvesting using sand ditches in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall harvesting in rain-fed agricultural areas increases water availability for plants during the growing season, thus increasing crop production. Rainfall can be stored directly in the soil for crop production using terraces, rippers, contour ridges, and other types of water collection methods. However, the efficiency of these methods is limited by the infiltration characteristics of soil and climatic conditions. In

Majed Abu-Zreig; Mousa Attom; Nisreen Hamasha

2000-01-01

435

Jordan Lake, Ionia and Barry Counties, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Annual total phosphorus and total nitrogen loadings to the lake were estimated and subdivided according to either point or non-point source origin. An assessment of the lake's trophic condition and limiting nutrient is also provided. All data collected by...

1975-01-01

436

Geochemistry of highly basic calcium hydroxide groundwater in Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly-alkaline (pH > 12.5) meteoric waters of a Ca2+OH--type issue from naturally calcined bituminous marl. The cold (16.5 ??? T(??C) ??? 19.1) waters are super-saturated with minerals thought to be of high-temperature origin. ?? 1982.

Barnes, I.; Presser, T. S.; Saines, M.; Dickson, P.; Van Groos, A. F. K.

1982-01-01

437

Competition and Conflict: Water Management in the Jordan River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the end of the Cold War, and the predictability of bi-polar power arrangements, the shape of global security will be required to change to face the emerging threats of the future. Changes to the global environment, through pollution, unrestrained pop...

M. P. Hill

1995-01-01

438

Area Handbook for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is one of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and...

R. F. Nyrop B. L. Benderly W. W. Cover M. J. Cutter N. B. Parker

1974-01-01

439

Reverse Engineering Course at Philadelphia University in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of testing and analysing a system or a device in order to identify, understand and document its functionality. RE is an efficient tool in industrial benchmarking where competitors' products are dissected and evaluated for performance and costs. RE can play an important role in the re-configuration and…

Younis, M. Bani; Tutunji, T.

2012-01-01

440

Restoration as Responsibility: An Interview with Bill Jordan III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in ecological restoration is increasing. A pioneer in the field discusses the value of restoration projects; deciding what state of the landscape to restore; how to educate people about the importance of reintroducing species, especially large predators; why people are so willing to volunteer and sacrifice for restoration projects; and…

Jordan, Bill, III

2002-01-01

441

Chemical weed control in garlic ( Allium sativum L.) in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were made in 1992 and 1993 in different locations to study the effect of certain herbicides on weed control in garlic. Post-emergence application of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon at 3–4 leaf stage resulted in garlic yield comparable to the weed-free crop. Pre-plant application of both herbicides was also effective in weed control and increased garlic yield over the other

J. R. Qasem

1996-01-01

442

Women's help seeking for intimate partner violence in Jordan.  

PubMed

Little is known about Jordanian women's help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV), despite local and international investment in victim services. Using a clinic based survey (n = 517; response rate 70%) and focus group discussions (FGDs, n = 17) we explored Jordanian women's nonfamily help seeking for physical or sexual IPV. We evaluated survey data using bivariate and multivariate regression and examined FGD transcripts using open coding methodology. Nonfamily help seeking was uncommon, an option only in serious circumstances after familial help was ineffective, and correlated with violence severity and relative violence. Nonfamily resources are underutilized but critical for vulnerable Jordanian women. PMID:23998703

Spencer, Rachael A; Shahrouri, Manal; Halasa, Louma; Khalaf, Inaam; Clark, Cari Jo

2014-01-01

443

Gender Based Violence in Jordan: Domestic Violence and Honor Crimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the social, psychological, religious, and legal interactions of gender-based violence that manifest themselves within the Jordanian society in various ways. Honor crimes are the ultimate manifestation of this phenomenon in this culture, and as such cannot be separated from the society, gender-relations, or violence against women. Interviews with specialist within the field allow for a more in

Danielle M. Becknell

2005-01-01

444

Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

2006-01-01

445

MS 685 The Church Abroad: - Egypt\\/Jordan\\/Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robert Tuttle, Jr. The Story of Evangelism, chapters 1-9, Abingdon Press, 2006. _______________, ÒThe Cave,Ó an unpublished novel. This will be placed in the Course Center as an attachment. The Bible, ÒGenesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Matthew, Luke and Acts.Ó Collateral texts: Nahim Ateek, Justice and Only Justice. Both this and the follow book are excellent resources. ____________, Faith

Robert G. Tuttle

2009-01-01

446

UNIVERSAL STATE SPACE EMBEDDABILITY OF JORDAN{BANACH ALGEBRAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study extensions of states between projection structures of JB algebras and generalized orthomodular posets. It is shown that projection orthoposet of a JB algebra A admits the universal extension property if and only if the Gleason theorem is valid for A. As a consequence we get that any positive Stone algebra{valued measure on projection lattice of a quotient of

JAN HAMHALTER