Note: This page contains sample records for the topic jordan from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Jordan.  

PubMed

Jordan is a country of 91,000 sq km, only 11% of which is arable. The 1980 population was 2.8 million, growing at 3.65% per year. Most of the people are of Arab stock, including between 1 and 1 1/4 million Palestinians. 95% of the people are Sunni Muslims. The national language is Arabic, and literacy is 71%. The infant mortality rate in 1984 was 50/1000, and life expectancy is 64 years. Suffrage is universal. The 1986 gross domestic product was $4.3 billion, per capita $1530; the growth rate was 2.6%. 80% of the people are employed in agriculture and 20% in industry. The major resources are phosphate and potash. The dinar is worth $0.35. Jordan's economy grew during the 1960s and 1970s, and it achieved the 10% growth rate called for in its 1st 5-year plan (1976-80). The 2nd 5-year plan saw a slow-down in the economy, and the 3rd 5-year plan aims at a growth rate of only 5.1% and the creation of 97,000 new jobs. A major weakness of the economy is its dependence on money from abroad -- $0.5 billion from other Arab countries, wages of expatriate Jordanians working in the Gulf states, and $1.7 billion in US aid between 1952 and 1987. 1986 exports amounted to $732 million, imports to $2.4 billion. Jordan was settled by Canaanites around 2000 BC and was ruled successively by Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, and from 1919 to 1946 Britain. The independent Hashemite Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, was founded in 1946. War with Israel ended with the establishment of the present official border in 1949, but Israel has occupied the West Bank of the Jordan since 1967, and the militant pro-Syrian Palestinian fedayeen maintained a guerrilla war within Jordan until 1973. In 1974 King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. However, by reconvening Parliament in 1984 with representatives from the West Bank, the King contradicted his recognition of the claims of the Palestine Liberation Organization to represent all Palestinians. King Hussein has urged the Palestine Liberation Organization to accept UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 and renounce the use of violence. The November 1987 Arab League summit in Amman was a major victory for Hussein's diplomatic efforts. PMID:12177997

1988-06-01

2

Fertilizer Industry in Jordan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the industrial recovery of the dead sea minerals, the production of potash, the infrastructure required for it, marketing, and future projects there. It goes on to discuss Jordan's geology and ore reserves, mining, ore processing, and ...

H. Deranieh I. Jallad H. Sha'sha'a

1984-01-01

3

Relapsing fever in Jordan  

PubMed Central

The author reports on a survey carried out by him in 1954 on relapsing fever in Jordan. In that country the disease is largely tick-borne, the main vector being Ornithodoros tholozani. Some of the frequent cases in the town of Nablus and the village of Marda in West Jordan may, however, be caused by O. coniceps. The centres of infection are some of the numerous caves scattered throughout the hilly areas and certain houses in which chickens are kept. It is believed that the vector ticks could be successfully exterminated by the use of insecticides and by the adoption of certain procedures outlined by the author. Arsenobenzol compounds and penicillin have been shown not to be very effective for the treatment of relapsing fever, but good results have been obtained with Aureomycin and Terramycin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4

Babudieri, B.

1957-01-01

4

Analysis of renewable energy situation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, like most developing countries, has problems, constraints, and difficulties that mandate increasing renewable energy (RE) technology utilization. The most effective argument, in favor of the adoption of RE technologies in Jordan, is that Jordan's lack of conventional energy sources is complemented by abundant RE resources. Because RE technologies are not complex, require less operating and maintenance costs, and are

Eyad S. Hrayshat

2007-01-01

5

A conversation with Jordan Cohen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan Cohen calls himself 'sort of an engineer and sort of a linguist.' This diverse background has been the foundation for his long history working with speech technology, including almost 30 years with government agencies, with a little time out in the middle to work in IBM's speech recognition group. Until recently he was the chief technology officer of VoiceSignal,

Charlene O'hanlon

2006-01-01

6

The Jordan Basin: Evolution of the Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jordan River basin extends from the slopes of Mount Hermon to the Dead Sea. Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinians,\\u000a and Syria are riparian to the Jordan River or its tributaries. Most plans for the basin waters were based on treating the\\u000a basin as an integral whole, although no basin-wide agreement has been reached. The determination of political borders sometimes

Robbie Sabel

7

Analysis of Renewable Energy Situation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, like most developing countries, has problems, constraints, and difficulties that mandate increasing renewable energy (RE) technology utilization. The most effective argument in favor of the adoption of RE technologies in Jordan is that its lack of conventional energy sources is complemented by abundant RE resources. Because RE technologies are not complex, require less operating and maintenance costs and are

Eyad S. Hrayshat

2007-01-01

8

PROFILE: Protected Area Management in Jordan.  

PubMed

/ Protected area management is increasingly important throughout the world, particularly in less developed countries and arid regions. The Middle East, includingJordan, has important and unique resources due to its varied topography and climate. In Jordan, the protected areas are privately, rather than publicly, managed, and this provides for a unique and somewhat challenging management effort. The purpose of this paper is to review the establishment and administration of Jordan's protected areas with particular emphasis on the challenges of multiple administrative and legislative layers, departmental working relationships, and a paucity of funding. Interviews with government and nongovernmental experts in Jordan, coupled with a review of pertinent academic and planning literature, served as the information base for this study. Despite new legislative and administrative initiatives, results reveal important and continuing challenges for Jordan. Recommendations include completion of protected area inventories, government wide institutional strengthening, partnering with organizations and the public, as well as legislative reexamination. PMID:10629307

Schneider; Burnett

2000-03-01

9

1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

10

2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

11

Shared Water Resources in the Jordan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to chronicle the history of river basin development plans of the Jordan River basin riparians (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, and Syria) and to analyze the agreements among the Jordan River basin riparians in light of international law principles. The relationship among the Jordan River basin riparians is complicated by the fact that

Karen Hudes

12

Assault by burning in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

Haddadin, W.

2012-01-01

13

Assault by burning in Jordan.  

PubMed

Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

Haddadin, W

2012-12-31

14

Jordan ships oil shale to China  

SciTech Connect

Jordan and China have signed an agreement to develop oil shale processing technology that could lead to a 200 ton/day oil shale plant in Jordan. China will process 1200 tons of Jordanian oil shale at its Fu Shun refinery. If tests are successful, China could build the demonstration plant in Jordan's Lajjun region, where the oil shale resource is estimated at 1.3 billion tons. China plans to send a team to Jordan to conduct a plant design study. A Lajjun oil shale complex could produce as much as 50,000 b/d of shale oil. An earlier 500 ton shipment of shale is said to have yielded promising results.

Not Available

1986-12-01

15

3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

16

Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty

Hashem R Al-Masaeid; Adel A Al-Mashakbeh; Abdalla M Qudah

1999-01-01

17

Education and Social Hierarchies in Rural Jordan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A field study conducted in the east Jordan Valley (September 1981-August 1983) explored the role of formal education in the maintenance of sex-gender hierarchy and other social heirarchies. Two rural secondary schools were studied, one for boys and one for girls, both attended by members of several different social/ethnic groups who consider…

Layne, Linda L.

18

September 1970 in Jordan: A Civil War?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of September 1970 in Jordan have enjoyed a variety of definitions, titles and nicknames, the most common being ‘Black September’ and a ‘civil war’. This article endeavours to juxtapose those events with criteria set by the scholarly literature that defines civil wars. It has been found that the events of September 1970 have indeed met the aforementioned criteria

Joseph Nevo

2008-01-01

19

Energy and environmental issues for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan possesses only relatively small reserves of crude oil and natural gas. Consequently the amount of hard currency spent on imported oil and petroleum products (i.e. ?500 US$ million in the year 1995) is equivalent to almost half of that earned from exported domestic commodities. Given that the national rates of energy and electricity consumption will most probably double within

J. O. Jaber; S. D. Probert; O. Badr

1997-01-01

20

English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

Al-Saidat, Emad M.

2009-01-01

21

77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline...take comments on Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction...for the Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific...27-30, 2012 in Coos Bay, Roseburg,...

2012-09-27

22

ISLAMIST POLITICAL ACTIVISM IN JORDAN: MODERATION, MILITANCY, AND DEMOCRACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Islamist movement in Jordan has a history and heritage as old as that of the Hashemite regime itself. While Jordan's main Islamist political party--the Islamic Action Front (Jabha al-Amal al-Islami or IAF)--was not legalized until the early 1990s, Jordan's Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun) maintained a functional relationship with the Hashemite monarchy especially throughout the reign of King Hussein (1953-1999),

Curtis R. Ryan

23

Reduction of Lie-Jordan Banach algebras and quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it is shown that the concept of dynamical correspondence for Jordan Banach algebras is equivalent to a Lie structure compatible with the Jordan one. Then a theory of reduction of Lie-Jordan Banach algebras in the presence of quantum constraints is presented and compared to the standard reduction of C*-algebras of observables of a quantum system. The space of states of the reduced Lie-Jordan Banach algebra is characterized in terms of Dirac states on the physical algebra of observables and its GNS representations described in terms of states on the unreduced algebra.

Falceto, F.; Ferro, L.; Ibort, A.; Marmo, G.

2013-01-01

24

Self-Medication Patterns in Amman, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The classification of medicine as Prescription-Only-Medicine (POM) and Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs in Jordan is present but\\u000a not yet enforced on community pharmacies, the fact that allows access of the public to a wider range of medications that otherwise\\u000a are provided only on prescription. This, of course, has its implications on safety and effectiveness of the pharmacotherapy\\u000a in question. This research

Al-Motassem M. Yousef; Amal G. Al-Bakri; Yasser Bustanji; Mayyada Wazaify

2008-01-01

25

Introducing more contraceptive methods in Jordan.  

PubMed

With the average woman in Jordan bearing 4-5 children during her reproductive lifetime, Jordan's population is growing rapidly. Many contraceptive methods are available through Jordan's well-developed health care system, but the public is aware of only a few, and misinformation is common. The government of Jordan launched a study, sponsored by AVSC and Family Health International (FHI), to determine the feasibility of introducing Norplant implants and Depo-Provera, in an effort to increase the choice, knowledge, availability, and use of contraceptive methods. More than 300 clients who received Norplant implant or Depo-Provera services at three health care facilities in Amman were followed. Many of the women chose either of these two methods because of their desire to delay pregnancy for a long time, often 5 years or more. Most cited length of protection, ease of use, dissatisfaction with previously used methods, and fewer perceived side effects than other methods as reasons for choosing either Norplant or Depo-Provera. The quality of counseling varied among the three facilities. At the end of 6 months follow-up, about 80% of the Norplant users and one-third of the Depo-Provera users reported being very satisfied with the method and planned to continue using it. However, although most clients experienced at least one side effect during the first 6 months of use, such effects were cited as the main reason for method discontinuation. Discontinuation of Depo-Provera was also influenced by popular attitudes and outside decision-makers such as health care providers, counselors, husbands, and other family members. Study results were presented at a workshop held in Amman in fall 1997. PMID:12321883

Gallagher, M

1998-01-01

26

The prospects for sustainable biodiesel production in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the feasibility of commercial biodiesel production in Jordan as an alternative fuel source. The study suggests that the most effective method of producing biodiesel in a country like Jordan could be based on large-scale microalgae cultivation. Since many strains of microalgae exist, it would first be necessary to identify the species most appropriate for growth in the

Julie Hamdi; Fahmi Abu Al-Rub; Naser Hamdi

2010-01-01

27

Solar energy in Jordan: current state and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the share of solar energy in the energy mix in Jordan for the years 2002 and 2007 is estimated by calculating the energy equivalent of solar energy systems whether utilized or to be utilized. The share of solar energy in the energy mix in Jordan in the year 2002 is estimated to be around 1.7–1.8%. The expected

Eyad S. Hrayshat; Mohammed S. Al-Soud

2004-01-01

28

Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2010-01-01

29

Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

2008-01-01

30

Further Records of Bats From Jordan and a Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent records along with a synopsis of the known bats of Jordan are given. Twenty-four species of bats are reported from Jordan, including two additional records, Rhinolophus mehelyi and Asellia tridens. Five other bat species are suspected to occur.

Mazin Botros QUMSIYEH; Zuhair Sami AMR; Ratib Musa AL-ORAN

31

Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

Erickson, Paul W.

2009-01-01

32

Effect of climate change on agriculture sustainability in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is a vulnerable country in terms of climate change impact. In the latest assessment report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Jordan will suffer from reduced agricultural productivity due to more erratic rainfall patterns, reduced freshwater resources and increased temperatures. The Initial National Communication (INC) to the United Nations Framework Convention to Climate Change (UNFCCC) foresees that

S. Khresat

2009-01-01

33

Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

2012-01-01

34

Language and Cultural Maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we examine the language situation among the Gypsies of Jordan within the framework of previous theories on language maintenance and shift as proposed by Le Page, Fishman, Dorian and Kelman. The study investigates language and cultural maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan to permit comparison of the relative influences of various…

Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A.; Al-Ali, Mohammed N.

2005-01-01

35

Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Engineering Education in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights…

Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

2010-01-01

36

Income Tax Fairness and the Taxpayers' Compliance in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to know how income taxpayers perceive the Jordanian income tax fairness and to determine the degree of income taxpayers' compliance in Jordan. Moreover, the study aims to investigate the effect of income tax fairness on taxpayers' compliance degree in Jordan. An empirical survey using self-administered questionnaire has been carried out to achieve the objectives

Mohammed Ibrahim; Mohamed Abdullah

2008-01-01

37

Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2010-01-01

38

Jordan Rift Valley Development Symposium: Final Report. Held in Amman, Jordan on April 24-26, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study, conducted by CORE International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was prepared for the Jordan Rift Valley Development Symposium held in Amman, Jordan. The report shows the technical areas covered during the sympos...

V. K. Shrivastava L. Shrivastava L. Varrick

1995-01-01

39

Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

40

Sources and Transformations of Nitrogen Compounds along the Lower Jordan River  

Microsoft Academic Search

tions from small springs and rare flood events. Cur- rently, the only two water sources at the starting point The Lower Jordan River is located in the semiarid area of the of the Lower Jordan River are the effluent of the Bitania Jordan Valley, along the border between Israel and Jordan. The implementation of the water sections of the peace

Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer; Uri Shavit; Avner Vengosh; Ittai Gavrieli; Efrat Farber; Ran Holtzman; Bernhard Mayer; Avi Shaviv

2004-01-01

41

Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  

PubMed

An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R

2012-02-15

42

F-BF Kimi and Jordan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Kimi and Jordan are each working during the summer to earn money in addition to their weekly allowance. Kimi earns \\$9 per hour at her job, and her all...

43

Concept of biosimilar products in Jordan.  

PubMed

After the expiration of patents on originator biological products, Jordanian local manufacturers and the agents of international pharmaceutical companies in Jordan started to submit registration dossiers for biosimilar products. The Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) is the national regulatory authority responsible for the registration of biosimilar products. Biosimilars are registered under the same regulations used for drugs until specific guidelines for registration of biological and biosimilar products are released. Those regulations are called Criteria of Registration of Drugs, Vaccines, Sera and Biological Products, the Renewal of its Registration and the Cancellation of Any of them which was published in the official gazette in 2004 under the Provisional Law Number 80 of the year 2001, Drug and Pharmacy Law and its amendments of the year 2003. Also, the JFDA follows the EMA guidelines on similar biological medicinal products for specific active biological substances for non-clinical and clinical studies requirements and the EMA guideline on similar biological medicinal products containing biotechnology-derived proteins as active substance: quality issues. A post marketing surveillance study is requested after a biosimilar product is authorized. The JFDA keeps pace with all advances in the regulatory issues related to biosimilars in order to be capable of authorizing biosimilar products with a safe, effective and good quality profile. PMID:21873079

Haddadin, Rania Dakhlallah

2011-08-27

44

The 1925 Born and Jordan paper ``On quantum mechanics''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1925 paper ``On quantum mechanics'' by M. Born and P. Jordan, and the sequel ``On quantum mechanics II'' by M. Born, W. Heisenberg, and P. Jordan, developed Heisenberg's pioneering theory into the first complete formulation of quantum mechanics. The Born and Jordan paper is the subject of the present article. This paper introduced matrices to physicists. We discuss the original postulates of quantum mechanics, present the two-part discovery of the law of commutation, and clarify the origin of Heisenberg's equation. We show how the 1925 proof of energy conservation and Bohr's frequency condition served as the gold standard with which to measure the validity of the new quantum mechanics.

Fedak, William A.; Prentis, Jeffrey J.

2009-02-01

45

Urinary schistosomiasis contracted from an irrigation pool in Ramah, the southern Jordan Valley, Jordan.  

PubMed

Autochthonous cases of urinary schistosomiasis are reported for the second time in Jordan. Eight Jordanian juveniles (seven males and one female) ranging in age from 10 to 15 years were diagnosed in 1995 as having the disease. Urine examination using the membrane filtration technique showed varying intensities of infection. The patients were treated with praziquantel and a follow-up showed the passage of dead eggs in the urine of five patients one month after treatment. All had egg-negative urine three months post-treatment. Epidemiologic investigation showed that the patients did not leave Jordan and that the seven males swam frequently in 1994 in an irrigation pool present in a farm at Ramah, in the southern Jordan Valley. The female patient had frequent contact with the pool water since she often went to the farm to obtain water for domestic animals. Bulinus truncatus snails were found in the pool and in pools on other farms in the area. Two hundred snails collected from the site did not shed cercariae after six months of observation. Several foreign workers in the area were found infected with Schistosoma haematobium, suggesting they were the source of infection. PMID:9288808

Saliba, E K; Tawfiq, M R; Kharabsheh, S; Rahamneh, J

1997-08-01

46

Jordan Water Conservation Education Project Final Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water scarcity is an increasingly serious problem in the desert country of Jordan. Currently, all known sources of water have been tapped. Management of existing water sources and promotion of water rationing programs are vital to ensuring adequate water ...

D. Evans M. Grieser O. Hernandez R. Ledsky S. Middlestadt B. Rawlins J. Sanchack

1996-01-01

47

Syrians flee violence and disrupted health services to Jordan.  

PubMed

Half a million Syrian refugees are sheltering in Jordan. Dale Gavlak reports on how United Nations agencies are helping the government respond to their needs, especially those of mothers and young children. PMID:24052674

2013-06-01

48

Comment on the Jordan-Brands-Dicke universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the recently obtained Jordan-Brans-Dicke solutions by Chauvet and Guzmán (1986) are either inconsistent, or only special power-law solutions derived previously by Lorenz-Petzold in various papers.

Lorenz-Petzold, D.

1987-06-01

49

Family planning in Jordan: 1983 survey data.  

PubMed

Data from the 1983 fertility survey in Jordan indicate that 26 percent of married women were using contraceptives, reflecting a very small relative increase in use in the seven years before the survey. Only 5 percent of nonusers stated that they desired to use a method. Other data from the same survey suggest a potential demand for contraception, for spacing as well as limiting births, among those not using. For example, many recent pregnancies were reported to be unplanned. Also, among nonusers who did not desire to use a method, many stated they did not desire to become pregnant, yet were exposed to the risk of pregnancy. A pool of potential users exists who can be considered in need of contraception (i.e., fecund, not pregnant or desiring pregnancy, and not using contraceptives)--20 percent of all currently married, childbearing-age women--who may become contraceptive users as attitudes toward contraception change. PMID:3750361

Abdel-Aziz, A; Anderson, J E; Morris, L; Wingo, P; Shrydeh, B

50

Domestic Violence against Women in Jordan: Evidence from Health Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore women’s attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) and their determinants, as well as to document the prevalence\\u000a of various types of violence among women attending public health centers in the Balka region, Jordan. A cross-sectional study\\u000a among ever-married women aged 18–49 who visited the public health clinics in the governorate of Balka, Jordan, was carried\\u000a out in August

Mohannad Al-Nsour; Marwan Khawaja; Ghadah Al-Kayyali

2009-01-01

51

Early-Holocene environments in the Wadi Faynan, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for early-Holocene environments in the Wadi Faynan in the rift-margin in souther Jordan is described. The early Holocene of Jordan is not well known and palynology, plant macrofossils and molluscs from Wadi Faynan provide evidence for a much more humid-forest-steppe and steppe-environment than the present stony desert and highly degraded steppe. The early-Holocene fluvial sediments in the Faynan catchment

C. O. Hunt; H. A. Elrishi; D. D. Gilbertson; J. Grattan; S. Mclaren; F. B. Pyatt; G. Rushworth; G. W. Barker

2004-01-01

52

77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. PF12-17-000] Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific...Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector...and comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's...

2012-09-04

53

Deliberalization in Jordan: the Roles of Islamists and U.S.-EU Assistance in Stalled Democratization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite some political openings in Jordan during the 1980s, the democratization process is presently stalled. What explains the lack of continuous democratization in Jordan while democratic transitions in many other countries around the world have taken p...

R. Hammerstein

2010-01-01

54

Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

2010-01-01

55

The Jordan River Basin: 2. Potential Future Allocations to the Co-riparians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jordan River drains parts of four States and one territory (Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Jordan and Palestine), and is an important regional source of water. A previous paper in this series discussed the flow allocations from the Jordan River to the co-riparians which were proposed in the Johnston Plan of 1955, noting that recently declassified documents shed new light on

Davd J. H. Phllps; Shaddad Attl; Stephen McCaffrey; John S. Murray

2007-01-01

56

Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in jordan.  

PubMed

To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in our hemodialysis population, we carried out a survey of 273 adult hemodialysis patients in three hemodialysis units in Jordan using a second generation rapid enzyme immunoassay. Sixty seven patients were seropositive with a prevalence of 24.5%. All patients were transfusion dependent except two. More than 85% of the patients have been on hemodialysis for more than two years. Co-infection with hepatitis B virus was observed in six patients. Abnormal liver functions were seen in five patients, but liver biopsies were not done. The prevalence of hepatitis C antibody in healthy blood donors in Jordan is 1.7%. We conclude that HCV infection prevalence in hemodialysis patients in Jordan is 24.5%, a percentage similar to what has been reported around the world and in the neighboring countries. PMID:18583853

Said, R A; Hamzeh, Y Y; Mehyar, N S; Rababah, M S

57

Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-08-24

58

Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

2012-04-01

59

Islamism and Family Law Reform in Morocco and Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article questions why Islamists approved family law reform in Morocco and not in Jordan. The answer entails three inter-related factors: the different relationships Islamists had with their respective monarchs; the strength of leftist parties and their ties to civil society; and how the respective reforms were presented by the two monarchs. This article contributes to a body of literature

Janine A. Clark; Amy E. Young

2008-01-01

60

Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives ...

A. B. Prados J. M. Sharp

2006-01-01

61

Characterization of cell phone use while driving in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of research has shown that the use of cell phones while driving can impair driving performance thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. The conducted studies have indicated that with an increase in general cell phone use, phoning while driving has also grown. For around 80% of Jordan's population that own cell phones, phoning while driving has

Muhannad Ismeik

2010-01-01

62

Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

63

Effect of Chronic Heat Stress on Broiler Performance in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted in the poultry farm of the faculty of agriculture in the campus of Jordan University to evaluate the effect of heat stress on the performance and some physiological parameters of 4-8 week old Isa Vedette broilers. Environmental temperatures in controlled environmental rooms were constant 25 (control), 30 and 35±2 C, in addition to a

2007-01-01

64

Jordan: Between the Arab Spring and the Gulf Cooperation Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arab Spring has fundamentally shifted the strategic balance in the Middle East. As all sides rush to ensure that their interests will be secured, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has emerged as a key battleground between those who would like to see a more democratic region, and those who would like to maintain economic stability. On one side of

Samuel Helfont; Tally Helfont

65

Energy demand, poverty and the urban environment in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some insights into the prime problems of energy and related environmental issues as well as urbanisation in Jordan. The country has very limited natural resources: water is scarce; arable land is limited; and fossil-fuel sources are few. Moreover, the population is increasing rapidly. Hence, problems are arising. During the last 30 years, the country has experienced vast

J. O. Jaber; S. D. Probert

2001-01-01

66

Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

1986-01-01

67

Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

ALBashtawy, Mohammed

2012-01-01

68

Gendered Utilization Differences of Mental Health Services in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural

Alean Al-Krenawi; John R. Graham; Jamil Kandah

2000-01-01

69

Sustaining Successful School Reform: An Interview With Jordan Horowitz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inside High School Reform: Making Changes that Matter (WestEd) shares the critical lessons and compelling successes of 28 California Academic Partnership Program school reform efforts. In this interview, lead author Jordan Horowitz, WestEd's senior project director in evaluation research, recently shared some of the book's findings, and answered…

Curriculum Review, 2006

2006-01-01

70

Cultural Meanings of ChildbirthMuslim Women Living in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive, ethnographic study focuses on the experience of childbirth for Muslim women living in Jordan. Thirty-two childbearing women were interviewed in the early postpartum weeks. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed and translated. Themes were identified from the rich, narrative data. Motivations for having children, as well as what constitutes the motherhood feeling, were described. Themes also included the importance

Inaam Khalaf; Lynn Clark Callister

1997-01-01

71

Promoting Kindergarten Children's Creativity in the Classroom Environment in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at investigating teachers' classroom practices, which either stimulate or inhibit the development of the creative environment of classrooms in Jordan, and determining the differences between practices according to educational level, experience level and type of teaching. The sample of the study consisted of 215 kindergarten…

Dababneh, Kholoud; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman A.

2010-01-01

72

Distribution and Transport of Mercury into Jordan Lake, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan Lake, located in central North Carolina, is currently under consideration as a source of drinking water for communities in the surrounding area. A number of streams that discharge into the lake receive considerable industrial and municipal wastewater effluent, of which the toxic metal mercury is of particular concern. Stream samples, coinciding with low and high flow events, were collected

Kevin G. Robinson; Mark S. Shuman

1988-01-01

73

Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10–16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test,

Tamara Y. Mousa; Rima H. Mashal; Hayder A. Al-Domi; Musa A. Jibril

2010-01-01

74

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations (March 6, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives ...

J. M. Sharp

2008-01-01

75

International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

2012-01-01

76

Assessing and measuring sales culture within commercial banks in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to assess and measure the sales culture within the commercial banks in Jordan, and to provide top management of these banks with the database which may be required for improving the banks' selling effectiveness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study has been conducted on a convenience sample of 1,000 employees selected from those of all the commercial

Naji Deeb Mualla

2011-01-01

77

Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

78

Intermediate inflation in the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an intermediate inflationary stage in a Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. In this scenario we analyze the quantum fluctuations corresponding to adiabatic and isocurvature modes. The model is compared to that described by using the intermediate model in Einstein general relativity theory. We assess the status of this model in light of the WMAP7 data.

Cid, Antonella; del Campo, Sérgio

2012-10-01

79

The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the

A. Förster; H.-J. Förster; R. Masarweh; A. Masri; K. Tarawneh

2007-01-01

80

Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

2013-01-01

81

Alternate energy installations on the Jordan College campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since planning its first solar installation in 1974, Jordan College has constructed eight alternate energy demonstration units, some of which contributed greatly to reducing energy expenses. Active and passive systems using either air or water are utilized for the heating of space and domestic hot water, both separately and jointly. A wind energy conversion system is providing electricity for the

Coxon

1981-01-01

82

Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder

Bassam Mrayyan

2004-01-01

83

Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

ALBashtawy, Mohammed

2012-01-01

84

Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in the BPP; the control group did not. Before and

Jennifer E. Lansford

2011-01-01

85

Children and Nationalism in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on fieldwork in a Palestinian refugee camp in Jordan, this article describes the engagement of children with projects of nationalism. In their position of marginality to both the Jordanian nation-state and the emerging Palestinian national entity, the children of Hussein Camp are the objects of different visions for their own collective future. The article offers a description of these

JASON HART

2002-01-01

86

Why Do the Quantum Observables Form a Jordan Operator Algebra?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jordan algebra structure of the bounded real quantum observables was recognized already in the early days of quantum mechanics. While there are plausible reasons for most parts of this structure, the existence of the distributive nonassociative multiplication operation is hard to justify from a physical or statistical point of view. Considering the non-Boolean extension of classical probabilities, presented in

Gerd Niestegge

2004-01-01

87

The Jordan River Basin and the Mountain Aquifer: The Transboundary Freshwater Disputes between Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and the Palestinians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses the settlement of water disputes in the Middle East and focuses on two disputes in particular relating to the Jordan River basin and the Mountain Aquifer in the West Bank. There is a genuine need for an all-inclusive approach by the parties utilizing these international transboundary waters. The first dispute relates to the sharing of the surface

Rose M. Mukhar

2010-01-01

88

A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan  

PubMed Central

The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities.

2009-01-01

89

Press, Regime and Society in Jordan Since 1989  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally published in 1998 in the Occasional Paper series of the Inter-University Consortium for Arab Studies, Montreal, this paper by doctoral candidate Adam Jones offers a rare scholarly glimpse into recent press-regime relations in Jordan. Winner of the University of British Columbia Political Science Association Essay Prize (Ph.D. division), this paper seeks to place post-1989 events in Jordan in their historical, regional, and cultural context. "Based in part on interviews with key figures in the Jordanian press and government, it considers the complex interaction among press, regime, and society during the 1990s. A postscript appraises the situation in light of the regime's crackdown of September 1997."

Jones, Adam (Adam Jason), 1963-.

1998-01-01

90

Cultural meanings of childbirth: Muslim women living in Jordan.  

PubMed

This descriptive, ethnographic study focuses on the experience of childbirth for Muslim women living in Jordan. Thirty-two childbearing women were interviewed in the early postpartum weeks. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed and translated. Themes were identified from the rich, narrative data. Motivations for having children, as well as what constitutes the motherhood feeling, were described. Themes also included the importance of relying on God or Allah for support in childbearing and child rearing. A strong sense of the spiritual dimensions of giving birth within women's traditional, religious, and cultural context was identified. Findings from this study provide insight into the meanings of childbirth for Muslim women living in Jordan. These meanings assist nurses in providing culturally competent care. PMID:9397746

Khalaf, I; Callister, L C

1997-12-01

91

Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.  

PubMed

The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. PMID:19910269

Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

2009-11-12

92

Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near

Brian R. Turner; Issa M. Makhlouf; Howard A. Armstrong

2005-01-01

93

Modular analogues of Jordan's theorem for finite linear groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1878, Jordan showed that a finite subgroup of GL(n,C) contains an abelian\\u000anormal subgroup whose index is bounded by a function of n alone. Previously,\\u000athe author has given precise bounds. Here, we consider analogues for finite\\u000alinear groups over algebraically closed fields of positive characteristic l. A\\u000alarger normal subgroup must be taken, to eliminate unipotent subgroups and

Michael J. Collins

2008-01-01

94

Toxic Element Levels in the Phosphate Deposits of Central Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphate deposits are used mainly as raw materials in the fertilizer industry. However, toxic elements content in both phosphate ores and final mining products has received little attention. The present study used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine levels of toxic elements in phosphate deposits in Al-Hisa and Al-Abyad mines, Jordan. Concentrations of elements were converted into

Mufeed Batarseh; Tayel El-Hasan

2009-01-01

95

Bridging the Rift -- Scientific Cooperation between Israel and Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridging the Rift is a project designed to develop scientific collaborations between scholars from Jordan and Israel. Over the past three years scholars from five Jordanian universities and all the Israeli universities have participated in research together. The fields of emphasis are Microbiology and Ecology. Joint field trips, research planning meetings, and laboratory studies have already been carried out. A physical institution spanning the Israeli-Jordanian border is planned as the home of this long-term collaboration.

Feldman, Marcus

2007-03-01

96

Oil Shale—An Alternative Energy Source for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil shale presents the only available fossil fuel in Jordan besides limited reserves of natural gas. Jordanian oil shale—with a proven amount of about 5 × 10 tons—is of quite good quality. It has relatively low ash and moisture content, gross calorific value of 7.5 MJ\\/kg, and oil yield of 8–12%. The reserves should be sufficient to satisfy the county's

E. S. Hrayshat

2008-01-01

97

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations.

Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

98

Prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan.  

PubMed

Food insecurity--not having sufficient quantities of good-quality foods--is inversely related to physical and mental health and directly related to poor dietary intake. The objectives of this research were to (a) measure the prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan, (b) study the socioeconomic factors associated with an increased risk of food insecurity, and (c) investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and women's reported body-weight. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based questionnaire. In total, 500 women were interviewed in the waiting rooms of the outpatient clinics of two major public hospitals in northern Jordan. Food insecurity was assessed using the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. The prevalence of food insecurity was 32.4%. Income below the poverty-line, illiteracy, unemployment, rented housing, and woman heading the household were among the socioeconomic factors that increased the probability of food insecurity. No evidence was found to support the relationship between obesity and food insecurity. Except grains, food-insecure women with hunger had lower intake of all food-groups. This study demonstrated that the problem of food insecurity is present in Jordan. Food-insecure women with hunger are at a risk of malnutrition. Interventions that target reduction of the factors associated with food insecurity are necessary. PMID:22524119

Bawadi, Hiba A; Tayyem, Reema F; Dwairy, Amal N; Al-Akour, Nemeh

2012-03-01

99

Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes

Piro

1992-01-01

100

Women's Perspectives on Retention in Higher Education in Jordan: Commute and Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic and advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. However, some reports claim that Jordan maintains the widest gender gap in higher education completion in the region while others report that the percentage of females…

Allaf, Carine

2013-01-01

101

Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and to describe the habits, attitudes, and practices related to smoking among students of Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan.Students (n=650) were recruited in randomly selected, cluster samples drawn from the medical and engineering colleges of JUST. They were made familiar with a modified Arabic

Linda G Haddad; Malakeh Z Malak

2002-01-01

102

RISK FACTORS FOR LAMB AND KID MORTALITY IN SHEEP AND GOAT FARMS IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to identify the risk factors that are associated with neonatal mortality in lambs and kids in Jordan. The bacterial causes of mortality in lambs and kids were investigated. One hundred sheep and goat flocks were selected randomly from different areas of North Jordan at the beginning of the lambing season. The flocks were visited every other

L. SHARIF; J. OBEIDAT; F. AL-ANI

2005-01-01

103

Jane Austen and celebrity culture: Shakespeare, Dorothy Jordan and Elizabeth Bennet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jane Austen imitated Shakespeare throughout her entire career, from Sense and Sensibility to Sanditon. To make up her characters, she mapped material from Shakespeare and other authors on to family members and celebrities. For Elizabeth Bennet, I argue that she remembered Dorothy Jordan, the most famous comic actress of her day. Jordan was particularly renowned for her roles in Much

Jocelyn Margaret Harris

2010-01-01

104

An Exploration of Higher Education Graduation Rates: A Case Study of Women in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. Despite Jordan's reputation as one of the most 'advanced' countries in the region, there have been conflicted reports on higher education completion rates of women. Some…

Allaf, Carine

2010-01-01

105

Diversity and ecology of algae from the Lower Jordan River, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jordan River stretches from the outlet of Lake Kinneret till the Dead Sea and is one of the most polluted rivers in Israel. In order to estimate the aquatic ecosystem of the northern part of the Lower Jordan River we used algal communities as biological indicators in the rainy and dry seasons of 2005 and 2007. We found

S. Barinova; M. Tavassi; H. Glassman

2009-01-01

106

Effects of Collateral Pledges in Reducing Credit Risks - Confronting Banks in Jordan, as Lending Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research aims at investigating the effects of Collaterals pledges in reducing credit Risks .To achieve research goals data were collected from all commercial banks operating in Jordan. Research concluded that banks in Jordan use collaterals effectively and in a wide range, and collaterals size have a direct impact on credit risk. Credit risk differs with collaterals. This study aims

Ahmad Zakaria Siam

2007-01-01

107

Effect of irrigation water on agricultural soil in Jordan valley: An example from arid area conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Jordan, water rather than land is the determining factor for increasing the size and the productivity of the irrigated areas. Traditional surface irrigation is the general practice and the farmers themselves have been managing their water in terms of distribution and scheduling. The major developments in irrigation started in the 1950s, aiming at integrated rural development of the Jordan

Y. Al-Zu’bi

2007-01-01

108

Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the

Y. Abu Rukah

2009-01-01

109

Work, family socioeconomic status, and growth among working boys in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo describe the work, family socioeconomic characteristics, and growth of a representative sample of working children in Jordan.METHODSIn a cross sectional survey of growth and health, 135 working children (aged 10–16 years) were studied in the areas of Irbid, Jarash, and North Jordan Valley. The children and their parents were interviewed and data collected on length of working week, income

H Hawamdeh; N Spencer

2001-01-01

110

Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to…

Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

2009-01-01

111

Child, Family and Community Characteristics Associated with School Readiness in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated demographic differences in school readiness within Jordan, a particularly interesting context because of widespread national reform currently sweeping the education system in Jordan. Teacher reports and researcher direct assessments of the school readiness of a national sample of 4681 Jordanian first grade children…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2009-01-01

112

The Tectonic Geomorphology and the Archeoseismicity of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea transform (DST) extends 1000 km from the Sinai triple junction in the south to the Tauros- Zagros collision zone in Turkey in the north. In Jordan, the DST consists of three morphotectonic elements; the Wadi Araba in the south, the Dead Sea basin in the middle and the Jordan Valley in the north. The Dead Sea is

M. M. Al-Taj; A. Abed; N. Abou Karaki; M. Atallah; M. Ferry; M. Meghraoui

2007-01-01

113

An Exploration of Higher Education Graduation Rates: A Case Study of Women in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. Despite Jordan's reputation as one of the most 'advanced' countries in the region, there have been conflicted reports on higher education completion rates of women. Some…

Allaf, Carine

2010-01-01

114

Nutrient Contents per Serving of Twelve Varieties of Cooked Rice Marketed in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan imports rice from different countries without any quality preferences. Twelve varieties of cooked rice marketed in Jordan were analyzed. The content per serving of these varieties were computed for energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and phosphorous. The protein content per serving found to range from 0.49 g for La Cigala rice to 6.2

Jafar M. El-Qudah; Basem F. Dababneh; A. Al-Bakheit; Maisa M. Al-Qudah

2008-01-01

115

The Water Rights of the Co-riparians to the Jordan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to sufficient volumes of water of appropriate quality is a vital human need, and the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has recently recognized the human right to water. The co-riparians of the Jordan River basin (Lebanon, Syria, Israel, the occupied Palestinian territories and Jordan) suffer differing degrees of water stress, as measured by international benchmarks.

David J. H. Phillips; Shaddad Attili; Stephen McCaffrey; John S. Murray; Mark Zeitoun

116

Did Bryant Arroyo kill baby Jordan Anthony Shenk, as alleged by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvaia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bryant Arroyo was arrested in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania on September 26, 1994 in connection with baby Jordan Anthony Shenk's death. On May 10, 1995, he was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment without parole. The medical examiner testified at Arroyo's preliminary hearing and trial that Jordan was killed by blunt trauma to the chest and abdomen, and

Mohammed Ali Al-Bayati

2005-01-01

117

Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

Glaister, P.

2009-01-01

118

Sanjad Sakati syndrome: a case series from Jordan.  

PubMed

Sanjad Sakati syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that has been described in Arabs. We report 8 patients from 7 Jordanian families, 6 of whom underwent genetic testing and were found to have a 12 bp (155-166 del) deletion within the tubulin-specific chaperone E (TBCE gene) in exon 3 at 1q42-43. All patients had severe growth retardation, distinct phenotypic features and hypoparathyroidism. Parental consanguinity was recorded in all families. This is the first genetically proven case series of Sanjad Sakati syndrome in Jordan. PMID:22764442

Albaramki, J; Akl, K; Al-Muhtaseb, A; Al-Shboul, M; Mahmoud, T; El-Khateeb, M; Hamamy, H

2012-05-01

119

Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E W and NW SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment liquefaction and deformation typical of earthquake generated seismites. Deformation, confined to an area of not more than 4 km wide adjacent to the major fault zone, implies earthquake magnitudes of at least 6 (Mo). The high authigenic chlorite content of deformed Tubeiliyat sandstones compared to undeformed ones is attributed to a post-seismic hydrothermal system driven by compactional dewatering and hydrofracturing of the bedrock which acted as a groundwater recharge area, supplied by subglacial meltwater from beneath the ice sheet. Fluid movement along glacial seismotectonically reactivated faults infiltrated the adjacent Tubeiliyat sandstones under pressure and elevated geothermal gradient, where chlorite was precipitated from solution.

Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.

2005-11-01

120

Structure formation constraints on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory  

SciTech Connect

We use cosmic microwave background data from WMAP, ACBAR, VSA and CBI, and galaxy power spectrum data from 2dF, to constrain flat cosmologies based on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Using a parametrization based on {xi}=1/4{omega}, and performing an exploration in the range ln{xi} set-membership sign [-9,3], we obtain a 95% marginalized probability bound of ln{xi}<-6.2, corresponding to a 95% marginalized probability lower bound on the Brans-Dicke parameter {omega}>120.

Acquaviva, Viviana [SISSA/ISAS, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca [SISSA/ISAS, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Leach, Samuel M. [SISSA/ISAS, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Liddle, Andrew R. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2005-05-15

121

Structure formation constraints on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use cosmic microwave background data from WMAP, ACBAR, VSA and CBI, and galaxy power spectrum data from 2dF, to constrain flat cosmologies based on the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Using a parametrization based on ?=1/4?, and performing an exploration in the range ln(??[-9,3], we obtain a 95% marginalized probability bound of ln(?<-6.2, corresponding to a 95% marginalized probability lower bound on the Brans-Dicke parameter ?>120.

Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Leach, Samuel M.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Perrotta, Francesca

2005-05-01

122

Depositional Environments of the Jordan Formation, Winona, MN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project involves a field trip to the Jordan Formation in Winona, MN. Student teams are assigned a section of the outcrop from which they are to determine a stratigraphic column. The class then performs a lateral analysis and builds a composite stratigraphic column for the formation. As a final product, the students write up the class's observations about the formation. Project Webpages Project Summary and Write-up Outline (Acrobat (PDF) 115kB Jul7 05) Instructor Notes for Project (Acrobat (PDF) 91kB Jul7 05) Outlines and Notes (Acrobat (PDF) 1.1MB Jul7 05) for each class session for this project

Hickson, Tom

123

A study of wound fatalities in the north of Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to analyze the epidemiological and demographic features of sharp wound fatalities. A retrospective study was carried out of 58 fatalities from injuries induced by the use of sharp objects which were sent to the Forensic Medicine Teaching Centre of North Jordan--affiliated to Jordan University of Science and Technology--for the period January 1989 to December 2000. Results showed that the majority of cases (46-79.31%) were young people, below 30 years of age. Forty-six cases were male (79.31%) and 12 (20.69%) were female. The 58 cases sustained 182 injuries. The trunk sustained the maximum number of injuries 145 (79.63%). Sharp wound fatalities showed a slight variation over the 12-year study period and rose twice, in 1991 and 2000. Forty four cases (75.86%) were urban residents. Thirty-seven (63.79%) cases occurred during the warmer months of the year. Most cases were murder 47 (81.03%) and 51 (88%) victims died from acute haemorrhagic shock. Forty-three (74.14%) cases died before receiving any treatment. None of the 58 victims had used alcohol or drugs. One victim was a Syrian labourer. Cases of sharp wound fatality were more or less stable with two peaks in 1991 and 2000. As in other parts of the world, most victims were young males living in urban areas under stressful conditions. Socio-cultural factors have reduced the frequency of fatalities. PMID:17725238

Shotar, Ali M; Jaradat, Sa'eed

2007-07-01

124

Psychological stress among dental students at the University of Jordan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of psychological stress as well as the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan. The top perceived stressors were compared with those of a previous study that examined the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan in the year 2000. Psychological stress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Perceived sources of stress were evaluated using the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. In the study, 520 students completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 74 percent. These students showed a high level of psychological stress, with 70 percent at the cutoff point of a score of more than 3 for the GHQ-12. Women had a higher level of stress than men: 73 percent scored more than 3 on the GHQ-12 vs. 63 percent for men, which was statistically significant at p=0.05. The top perceived sources of stress from the year 2000 were mostly unaltered in our study, despite a substantial increase in the number of students as well as changes in the curriculum. Further research is needed into methods to minimize stress on dental students. PMID:21828305

Abu-Ghazaleh, Suha B; Rajab, Lamis D; Sonbol, Hawazen N

2011-08-01

125

Sources and transformations of nitrogen compounds along the Lower Jordan River.  

PubMed

The Lower Jordan River is located in the semiarid area of the Jordan Valley, along the border between Israel and Jordan. The implementation of the water sections of the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan and the countries' commitment to improve the ecological sustainability of the river system require a better understanding of the riverine environment. This paper investigates the sources and transformations of nitrogen compounds in the Lower Jordan River by applying a combination of physical, chemical, isotopic, and mathematical techniques. The source waters of the Lower Jordan River contain sewage, which contributes high ammonium loads to the river. Ammonium concentrations decrease from 20 to 0-5 mg N L(-1) along the first 20 km of the Lower Jordan River, while nitrate concentrations increase from nearly zero to 10-15 mg N L(-1), and delta(15)N (NO(3)) values increase from less than 5 per thousand to 15-20 per thousand. Our data analysis indicates that intensive nitrification occurs along the river, between 5 and 12 km from the Sea of Galilee, while further downstream nitrate concentration increases mostly due to an external subsurface water source that enters the river. PMID:15254127

Segal-Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shavit, Uri; Vengosh, Avner; Gavrieli, Ittai; Farber, Efrat; Holtzman, Ran; Mayer, Bernhard; Shaviv, Avi

126

Euclidean Jordan algebras, MacLaurin series and inequalities on strongly regular graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let X be a strongly regular graph, whose adjacency matrix A has three distinct eigenvalues, and let V be the Euclidean Jordan algebra of real symmetric matrices, with the vector product and the inner product being the Jordan product and the usual trace of matrices, respectively. We consider the Euclidean Jordan subalgebra A of V spanned by the identity matrix and the natural powers of A. In this paper we work with the MacLaurin series of the sin function of some idempotents of A to obtain some inequalities over the parameters of X.

de Almeida Vieira, Luís António; Mano, Vasco Moço

2013-10-01

127

76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 12737-002] Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental...the 3.7-megawatt (MW) Gathright Hydroelectric Project located on the Jackson River...20426. Please affix ``Gathright Hydroelectric Project No. 12737-002'' to...

2011-03-04

128

Health knowledge of nursery school teachers in northern jordan.  

PubMed

This study investigates the level of health knowledge of nursery school teachers in Northern Jordan. The Health Awareness Test (HAT) was administered to a sample of sixty teachers (66.7% of the population). The data analysis revealed that health knowledge among these teachers, in general, was much lower than the acceptable level determined by the HAT. Neither the teaching experience, academic degree, or marital status seemed to have influence on health knowledge on any of the dimensions covered by the HAT. In addition to the above results, the study revealed that the major sources of health knowledge among these teachers, ranked by order, were: self-education, mass media, education programs of the Ministry of Health, family, inservice training programs, and academic preparation. The implications of the above results are discussed. PMID:20841201

El-Qaderi, S S; Khalili, K Y

1988-01-01

129

Characterization And Provenance Of Marble Chancel Screens, ?orthern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research characterizes marble chancel screens and their supporting columns, confiscated from treasure thieves, probably from northern Jordan in order to manage the most fruitful conservation and restoration interventions for them. It provides new archaeometric data and determines the probable source of the marbles. The results of mineropetrographic, X-ray diffraction and carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses show that the marbles most probably are Proconnesian-1. The results agree with the historical records supported by archaeometric analyses that Proconnesos marble was widely used during the Roman and Byzantine periods for architectural purposes. The results suggest that color style of Proconnesian marble astonished the Byzantine stonemasons and architects thus have been widely used.

Al-Naddaf, M.; Al-Bashaireh, K.; Al-Waked, F.

130

The Jordan Report 2000: Accelerated Development of Vaccines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 2, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) released its latest report on the state of vaccine research and development. This edition of the Jordan Report "highlights the triumphs of vaccinology during the 20th century and the ways in which new technologies promise better vaccines against both old and new disease-causing organisms." Prepared by 24 scientists from NIAID with contributions from outside researchers, the 173-page report offers a comprehensive overview of vaccine development against nearly 60 diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Users can read the full text of the report (in .pdf format), the press release, and a White House statement on a new vaccine initiative. The site also offers links to a number of related NIAID publications, fact sheets, and sites.

131

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

132

Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national economy in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the economy in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an economy in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the economy. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many small developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the economy is quite substantial.

Piro, T.J.

1992-01-01

133

Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.  

PubMed

The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. PMID:21168249

Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

2010-11-18

134

Design, sizing & simulation of solar powered desalination unit for brackish water in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of a regional scientific cooperation project between USA, Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority, Jordan (represented by the National Energy Research Center (NERC) has received two desalination units. The first unit is a US-military RO-desalination unit (ROWPU), producing 21.3 m\\/d of fresh water and operated with diesel generator. The second unit designed for brackish water also produces

Ahmed H. Muhaidat

2010-01-01

135

Overweight and Obesity Among School Children in Jordan: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine their associated factors among school children aged 6–12 years\\u000a in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children in the north of Jordan in the period between March 2006 and May\\u000a 2006. A total of 2,131 children (1,052 boys and 1,079 girls) were selected at

Yousef Khader; Omama Irshaidat; Mohammad Khasawneh; Zouhair Amarin; Mousa Alomari; Anwar Batieha

2009-01-01

136

Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other groundwater basins in Jordan. This participatory management approach would also be useful in other parts of the world that are experiencing similar groundwater over-exploitation problems. La surexploitation des eaux souterraines prend de l'importance en Jordanie. Les demandes en concurrence ont augmenté face à des déficits permanents d'eau, situation qui a été exacerbée par la sécheresse de la dernière décennie. Cet article rend compte de l'aboutissement d'un projet dans lequel des options de gestion portant sur la surexploitation ont été développées pour l'un des principaux systèmes aquifères de Jordanie, le bassin d'Amman Zarqa. Des options pour aborder cette situation ont été développées grâce à une approche participative qui implique des fonctionnaires du gouvernement et des groupes d'intérêts variés des secteurs public et privé. Des efforts particuliers ont été faits pour impliquer les irrigants utilisant des puits, qui sont probablement ceux qui ont le plus fort impact sur les changements attendus permettant de remettre le système en équilibre. À partir des informations obtenues de campagnes rapides d'évaluation, telles que des réunions de communautés et des entrevues avec des experts techniques du gouvernement, un large jeu d'options a été identifié pour l'évaluation. Basées sur une analyse hydrogéologique, sociale et économique, cinq options complémentaires de gestion ont été recommandées pour la réalisation. Ce sont la création d'un Service Consultatif d'Irrigation, achetant les puits agricoles, fixant des limites fermes aux prélèvements des puits et aux zones irriguées, échangeant les eaux usées traitées avec des eaux souterraines, et la mise en place de mesures pour accroître l'efficacité des usages collectifs et industriels. Des combinaisons et des niveaux variés de ces options ont été regroupés en scénarios, présentant les stratégies possibles de mise en œuvre. Les scénarios ont été mis au point pour assister les décideurs, les propriétaires de puits et les autres acteurs pour atteindr

Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

137

Prevalence of Taenia multiceps in sheep in northern Jordan.  

PubMed

From March 1996 to February 1997, slaughtered-sheeps' heads were examined for the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. Out of 451 sheep heads, only 12 (3%) were infested. All cysts but one were in the age group 0.5-2.5 years old, with prevalence of 10% (11 of 108). Eleven of 12 infested heads were found during the spring and autumn seasons. Out of 95 flocks involved in questionnaire survey unrelated to the abattoir survey, all the farmers reported the existence of the clinical signs known for coenurosis and described it in locally known names and diseases. Twenty-five of them had recent cases that were diagnosed by the veterinarian as coenurosis cases. Each flock reported one or two cases at the time of survey. A variety of clinical signs were reported from these cases (n = 42). These included circling (86%), head pressing (52%), blindness (29%) and paresis (40%). Coenurosis is a sheep-health problem and an important cause of sheep culling in Jordan. PMID:12383656

Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Jebreen, Eyad; Arab, Baker; Mukbel, Rami; Torgerson, Paul R

2002-10-15

138

Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

2013-06-06

139

Self-similar chameleon Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the chameleon Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) cosmological models under the hypothesis of self-similarity. Since there are several ways to define the matter Lagrangian for a perfect fluid: L m =-? and L m =??, we show that they bring us to obtain two completely different cosmological models. In the first approach, L m =-?, there is ordinary matter conservation, while in the second approach, L m =??, we get matter creation processes. We deduce for each approach the behaviour of each physical quantity, under the self-similar hypothesis, by employing the Lie group method. The results are quite general and valid for any homogeneous geometry (FRW, Bianchi types, etc.). As example, we calculate exact solutions for each approach by considering the case of a Bianchi II geometry. In this way we can determine the exact behaviour of each physical quantity and in particular of G eff and U (the potential that mimics the cosmological constant).We compare the solutions with the obtained ones in the framework of the usual JBD models.

Belinchón, J. A.

2013-08-01

140

Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia viruses from Jordan.  

PubMed

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is distributed worldwide. BLV has many effects on the health status and productivity of infected animals and is a potential risk for humans. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of and genotype bovine leukemia viruses on Jordanian dairy farms. Nested PCR coupled with RFLP and direct sequencing of a partial fragment of the env gene were carried out. Two BLV genotypes were found, genotypes 1 and 6. These genotypes were identified by nested PCR-RFLP of 444 bp of the env gene by restriction digestion with HaeIII, Bcl I and Pvu II. However, BLV-Jordan-10 seems to represent an entirely new genotype in our phylogenetic analysis. The nucleotide sequence identity between these two Jordanian BLV genotypes (1 and 6) was 96.2 %. The nucleotide sequence identity between Jordanian BLV genotype 1 and other reference BLV genotype 1 strains ranged from 99 % to 99.5 %. The nucleotide sequence similarity of the Jordanian BLV genotype 6 to other BLV genotypes ranged from 90 % to 96.7 %. A neutralizing motif and CD8(+) T-cell epitope were found in the env protein of both Jordanian isolates. In this study, we documented the presence of two BLV genotypes (1 and 6) on Jordanian dairy farms. PMID:22914962

Ababneh, Mustafa M; Al-Rukibat, Raida K; Hananeh, Wael M; Nasar, Abdelrahman T; Al-Zghoul, Mohammad B

2012-08-23

141

Oral health patterns among schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan.  

PubMed

Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version 16. The chi-square was used, odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence limits (Cl) for gum bleeding were estimated. The results showed that nearly one fourth of the children indicating that they brush their teeth twice or more daily (regular pattern). Furthermore, 17% of the schoolchildren never brush their teeth at all. There is a higher proportion, 22.1%, of rural children that never brush their teeth compared to 14.6% of the urban students. Dental flossing among primary schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate is very rare: 97.2% of the children stated that they had never used dental floss in their life. Furthermore, one fourth of the schoolchildren did not have a tooth brush. While 15.0% of them have a shared toothbrush with their families. The findings of this study indicate that oral health habits in Mafraq Governorate are poor and need to be improved. Based upon these finding, community-oriented oral health programs should be established. PMID:22074765

ALBashtawy, Mohammed

2011-11-10

142

Diameters of State Spaces of Jordan Banach Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of diameter D of the state space of a Jordan Banach algebra (JBW-algebra A) is introduced. The diameters of the state spaces for JBW-factors of type \\mathrm{I}_n ( n<+\\infty), \\mathrm{I}_\\infty, \\mathrm{II}_1, \\mathrm{II}_\\infty, \\mathrm{III}_\\lambda, ( 0<\\lambda<1) are computed. It is proved that if A is not a factor, or is a factor of type \\mathrm{I}_\\infty or \\mathrm{II}_1, then D(A)=2. If A is a JBW-factor of type \\mathrm{I}_n ( n<+\\infty), then D(A)=2(1-1/n), and if A is a JBW-factor of type \\mathrm{III}_\\lambda, ( 0<\\lambda<1), then D(A)=2(1-\\sqrt\\lambda)(1+\\sqrt\\lambda) or D(A)=2(1-\\root4\\of\\lambda)(1+\\root4\\of\\lambda). Bibliography: 15 titles.

Ayupov, Sh A.; Usmanov, Sh M.

1990-04-01

143

Potential Impacts on Surface Water Quality from the Utilization of Oil Shale at Lajjoun Area\\/Southern Jordan Using Geographic Information Systems and Leachability Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water is one of the major water resources for drinking and agricultural purposes in Jordan. It is the largest contributor to the irrigation sector and it is the second largest source for domestic consumption. Jordan also has a huge amount of oil shale that exists in the Southern and Eastern parts of the country. It is estimated that Jordan

A. Al-Harahsheh; R. Al-Adamat; M. Al-Farajat

2010-01-01

144

Analysis and assessment of the Jordan National Test for Controlling the Quality of Science Instruction (NTCQSI): a Rasch measurement perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze and assess the Jordan National Test for Controlling the Quality of Science Instruction (NTCQSI) from the perspective provided by Rasch measurement. The test was administered on a stratified random sample that consisted of 41,556 tenth graders from all over Jordan. The test results were saved in a data bank. A random sample

Hind Hammouri; Saed A. Sabah

2010-01-01

145

A comparison of the learning styles of the students with faculty teaching style profiles at the Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of match between the learning styles of students and the teaching styles of the faculty at the Jordan Evangelical Theological Seminary (JETS) in Amman, Jordan. Bernice McCarthy's 4MAT learning style instrument, the Learning Type Measure® (LTM) was used to profile 112 students. The results showed two significant differences in style

David Martin

2005-01-01

146

Influence of different water quantities and qualities on lemon trees and soil salt distribution at the Jordan Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of water quantity and quality on young lemon trees (Eureka) were studied at the University of Jordan Research Station at the Jordan Valley for 5 years (1996–2000). Five water levels and three water qualities were imposed via trickle irrigation system on clay loam soil. The primary effect of excess salinity is that it renders less water available to

A. M. Abu-Awwad

2001-01-01

147

Gender Equality in Secondary Education: A Study of Girls' Educational Access and Participation in Jordan between 2000 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the changes of male and female enrollment in urban and rural areas in Jordan and the school-related factors, as well as government policies that contributed to its change. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and rural areas in Jordan. A selective sample of twelve people…

Belal, Fatima Omar

2010-01-01

148

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST80-IV clone in children from Jordan.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of infections that are becoming increasingly difficult to combat because of emerging resistance. In this study, 103 S. aureus, 41 MRSA and 62 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates, were collected from children in Jordan. Genotyping based on spa and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed 48 different spa types and identified distinct allelic profiles or STs, with the majority belonging to ST80. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 15 different spa types revealed 8 different PFGE types, while SCCmec showed the predominance (53%) of subtype IV. Clustering SCCmec along with MLST revealed that ST80-MRSA-IV was the dominant type. Results obtained suggest that a significant amount of clonal spread is occurring in Jordan. The mechanism of spread of the ST80-IV clone is not known, and control measures are needed to reduce further spread of this or of other clones among children in Jordan. PMID:22520226

Khalil, Wissam; Hashwa, Fuad; Shihabi, Asem; Tokajian, Sima

2012-04-18

149

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-03-04

150

Keratoconus patients at Jordan University Hospital: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study a sample of keratoconus patients, who were referred to Jordan University Hospital for possible penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and provide basic epidemiological analysis. Method A descriptive study; we reviewed the medical records of 308 keratoconus patients referred for possible PKP. The following parameters were collected and analyzed: sex predilection, age at presentation, best corrected visual acuity, severity, bilaterality of the disease, and its association with vernal catarrh. Results Males constituted 61.6% while females constituted 38.4% of the study group. The mean age at presentation for males and females was 19.1 and 19.9 years, respectively. The best corrected visual acuity on evaluation was ?6/60 in 60.4% of males’ eyes and 57.9% of females’ eyes; >6/60 and <6/12 in 30% of males’ eyes and 28.5% of females’ eyes; and ?6/12 in 9.6% of males’ eyes and 13.6% of females’ eyes. Regarding the severity, 72.3% of males’ eyes and 71.8% of females’ eyes had severe keratoconus; 17.3% of males’ and 28.2% of females’ eyes had moderate keratoconus; and 10.4% of males’ eyes had mild keratoconus, which was not recorded in females. 90.5% of male patients and 93.2% of female patients had bilateral disease and vernal catarrh was recorded in 33.7% of males and 35.6% of females. Conclusion Keratoconus was found to be more prevalent in Jordanian males referred for PKP than females, keeping in mind that this doesn’t reflect the real sex predilection in the general population. Males also presented at a younger age. We didn’t find any association between gender and bilaterality, nor association with vernal catarrh.

Abu Ameerh, Mohammed A; Al Refai, Rola M; Al Bdour, Muawya D

2012-01-01

151

The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

2010-01-01

152

Ineffective Contraceptive Use and Its Causes in a Natural Fertility Population in Southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our interview survey of 574 randomly selected married women from a rural population in the South Ghor district, Jordan, where traditional Arab customs have been persistently maintained, in this paper we analyze the age-specific marital fertility rates (ASMFRs) and contraceptive practices, especially the prevalence and duration of contraceptive use. The ASMFRs fitted the natural fertility pattern proposed by

Shuju Sueyoshi; Ryutaro Ohtsuka

2011-01-01

153

Agency's technical co-operation programme with Jordan 1983-1993 country programme summaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Jordan carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evalu...

1993-01-01

154

Characterization of the aeolian terrain facies in Wadi Araba Desert, southwestern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sand dunes in Wadi Araba Desert, southwestern Jordan, conform to the influence of two main wind systems: (1) the Shamal “ north wind”, the main determinant of dune patterns, and (2) the southerly winds caused by the Red Sea Trough and Khamasin winds. Wadi Araba is a narrow elongated morphotectonic depression bordered by the high eastern and western mountain

Walid Saqqa; Mohammad Atallah

2004-01-01

155

Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computati...

J. H. Curran

2006-01-01

156

Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

2012-01-01

157

The Domestication of Vertical Space: The Case of Steep-Slope LPPNB Architecture in Southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the LPPNB of southern Jordan, intra- site social and spatial pressure forced the use of vertical space. As domestic space became more and more restricted through progressive community or fam- ily growth, two storey domestic struc- tures developed in steeply sloped sites. In settlements like Ba'ja, natural bound- aries gave birth to use of vertical space. Developments in the

Hans Georg; K. Gebel

158

Surface water management tool for arid lands of Jordan using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Jordan as well as most of the developing countries located in the and regions, water is a priority issue at national and individual levels. Several programs and management practices are in place to conserve the water resources and implement new water supplies to meet the demand of various sectors of the water users. With very high demand on the

Saad Mohammed Alayyash

2002-01-01

159

Pediatric Pain Prevalence and Parents' Attitudes at a Cancer Hospital in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little research on implementation of pediatric pain programs. These studies are part of a project to develop such a program for the King Hussein Cancer Centre in Jordan. Study 1 captured information on pain prevalence in 35 children using chart reviews and parent\\/child interviews to establish baseline pain burden. Forty-seven percent of children had pain at the

Paula A. Forgeron; G. Allen Finley; Maha Arnaout

2006-01-01

160

Susceptibility of nine apple cultivars to woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 4-year study examined the susceptibility of nine cultivars of apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen to attack by woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum in Jordan. The cultivars under investigation were: Prima Rouge, Delberd Steval, Early Gold, Starking Delicious, Harmony, Golden Smoothee, Fuji, Melrose, and Golden Delicious. Estimation of susceptibility was based upon a numeric scale of 0–4 for both root

Mazen A. Ateyyat; Tawfiq M. Al-Antary

2009-01-01

161

Localising Social Work: Lessons Learnt from a Community Based Intervention amongst the Bedouin in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an example of local social work practice in Jordan in the health field. It draws on a research study on Bedouin health in the North Eastern Badia. The project developed, implemented and evaluated a training intervention developed in partnership with a range of providers for improving local social work practice. Evaluation methods used included a pre and

Sahar Al-Makhamreh; Fadia Hasna; Gillian Lewando Hundt; Mohammad Al-Smairan; Salah Alzaroo

2011-01-01

162

An Integrated Learning Management System for Islamic Studies: An Innovation from Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of ICT in the Middle East is expanding at a fast rate; hence managers and decision makers must decide on the best learning solution for their organizations. This article describes how a small team of individuals in Jordan developed an effective learning solution to a social problem. This may provide some useful lessons for other…

Rumzan, Ismael; Chowdhury, Imran; Mirza, Saudah; Idil, Raidah Shah

2010-01-01

163

Potential of Kochia prostrata and perennial grasses for rangeland restoration in Jordan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Shad.], three native shrubs, two introduced Atriplex shrub species native to cold deserts in the western United States and drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties w...

164

Potential for Use of Kochia Prostrata and Perennial Grasses for Use in Rangeland Rehabilitation in Jordan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Shad.], three native shrubs, two introduced Atriplex shrub species native to cold deserts in the western United States and drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties ...

165

Comparison of Frames:. Jordan Versus Einstein Frame for a Non-Minimal Dark Energy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a dark energy model where a scalar field non-minimally coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark component. We compare cosmological consequences of this non-minimal coupling of the scalar field and gravity in the spirit of the dark energy paradigm in Jordan and Einstein frames. Some important issues such as phantom divide line crossing, existence of the

Kourosh Nozari; S. Davood Sadatian

2009-01-01

166

What Are the Major Aspects of Jordan's Economy? (A Learning Activity Package).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arguing that learning activity packages (LAPs) should be implemented in the Arab world schools, the author discusses why LAPs are important, examines their components, and, in the bulk of the document, provides an example of a learning package dealing with the economy of Jordan. LAPs are important because they provide options for student learning…

Sa'adeh, Jawdat A.

167

A Report to the 36th Session of the International Conference on Education in Geneve. Jordan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational system of Jordan follows principles set down by law in 1964. Education is compulsory for nine years, free to all students, and available equally to both sexes and all religious groups. Central administrative functions are carried out by the Ministry of Education which administers examinations, recruits teachers, and sets general…

Ministry of Education, Amman (Jordan).

168

Study in industrial applications of solar energy and the range of its utilization in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to encourage the utilization of industrial solar energy in the Arab world and especially in Jordan, which has a sunny weather for most of the year. From his experiments on the Rankine cycle utilizing solar energy for the period between 1871 and 1884, the scientist John Ericson suggested that international relationships in the future

O. O Badran

2001-01-01

169

Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

Stephens, D. W.

1984-01-01

170

Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Activities, and Anthocyanins of Different Grape Seed Cultivars Grown in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolics, antioxidant activities, anthocyanins, vitamine E, and tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) of different cultivars of grape seed extracts (GSE) grown in Jordan were evaluated. In addition, antioxidant activities of GSE were investigated using olive oil substrate by oxidative stability instrument (OSI). Results of chemical composition showed that Baladi black and Asbani black had the highest amount of fat content 14.52

Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Khalid Ismaeal; Al-Gutha Hidar; W. Yang

2008-01-01

171

Distribution of fecal coliforms in the Jordan river mouth originating from anthropogenic activities in the watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main inflow to Lake Kinneret is the Jordan River. A spit and a bar characterize the area where it enters the lake. The main processes occurring at the entrance are mixing, sedimentation and dispersion of the sediments. In the present study an interdisciplinary biological, physical and chemical approach was applied in order to follow the distribution of bacteria and

O. Hadas; B. Shteinman; R. Pinkas

172

Choice, Loyalty, and the Melting Pot: Citizenship and National Identity in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates over the relationship between citizenship and national identity are political battles that define regimes and their citizens. Transjordanian nationalists, the dominant voices in this debate in Jordan, assert that national identity trumps legal citizenship. In contrast, Jordanian pluralists define the political community through shared citizenship in the state, regardless of national origin. Both nationalists and pluralists use the concepts

Stefanie Nanes

2008-01-01

173

POECILOPSETTA MEGALEPIS FOWLER 1934, UN SYNONYME JUNIOR DE POECILOPSETTA PLINTHUS (JORDAN & STARKS, 1904) (PLEURONECTIFORMES : POECILOPSETTIDAE) par  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poecilopsetta megalepis Fowler, 1934, a junior synonym of P. plinthus (Jordan & Starks, 1904) (Pleuronectiformes: Poecilopsettidae). Poecilopsettids are dextral flatfishes with large eyes, a pronounced curve in their lateral line over the pectoral fin, and the lack of lateral line on the blind side. Three genera are found in this family, Nematops, Marleyella and Poecilopsetta. The genus Poecilopsetta is represented

Annie-Chantal GUIBORD; François CHAPLEAU

174

Growing School Networks for Instructional Improvement in Jordan, 2009-2010. CPRE Research Report, # RR-70  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure,…

Robinson, Marian A.

2011-01-01

175

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING METHODS IN TAFILA-JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess women's knowledge, practice, and attitude towards family planning methods, and the factors that could affect their use. Methods: A total of 600 married women (44-60 years.) from Tafila city in the south of Jordan were interviewed and they filled a semi structured interview form consisting of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of different

Najla Nour Thalji

176

Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

2012-01-01

177

Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) phosphorites in Jordan: implications for the formation of a south Tethyan phosphorite giant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A record of sedimentary, authigenic, and biological processes are preserved within the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Alhisa Phosphorite Formation (AP) in central and northern Jordan. The AP formed near the eastern extremity of the south Tethyan Phosphorite Province (STPP), a carbonate-dominated Upper Cretaceous to Eocene “phosphorite giant” that extends from Colombia, North Africa to the Middle East. Multidisciplinary research of the

Peir K. Pufahl; Kurt A. Grimmsupas; Abdulkader M. Abed; Rushdi M. y. Sadaqah

2003-01-01

178

An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

1990-11-01

179

Clients' satisfaction about non-governmental organizations (NGOS) services in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has tried to clarify the clients' satisfaction about NGOS services at Jordan in terms of gender, kind if organization and source of support of these organizations.The study sample size was 233 subjects were females and 140 were males. The comparison of means results could order the satisfaction aspects as a follow: Reception and treatment, NGO Impact on Clients,

Fayez A. Simadi; Fawwaz Almomani

2008-01-01

180

Ineffective Contraceptive Use and Its Causes in a Natural Fertility Population in Southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our interview survey of 574 randomly selected mar- ried women from a rural population in the South Ghor district, Jordan, where traditional Arab customs have been persistently maintained, in this paper we analyze the age-speciÞc marital fertility rates (ASMFRs) and contraceptive practices, especially the prevalence and duration of contraceptive use. The ASMFRs Þtted the natural fertility pattern proposed

Shuji Sueyoshi; Ryutaro Ohtsuka

2004-01-01

181

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations. Updated April 21, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objective...

J. M. Sharp

2011-01-01

182

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations. Updated October 14, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objective...

J. M. Sharp

2010-01-01

183

Accreditation in Higher Business Education in the Private Sector: The Case of Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the development of a quantitative research designed to examine the accreditation system of undergraduate Business Administration program in private universities in Jordan, in comparison with the standards of the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) in the United Kingdom. The research has set out a description of Jordanian…

Sabri, Hala Ahmad; El-Refae, Ghaleb Awad

2006-01-01

184

The Characteristics of the Role of Early Childhood Education Mentors in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to explore empirically how far the roles adopted by the mentors of early childhood education students teaching in Jordan coincide with a model of roles suggested in the literature of teacher training. This study is an attempt to draw from the literature as many views about the role of the mentor as possible and then to attempt to…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Basheer, Akram A.; Qablan, Ahmad M.

2008-01-01

185

The case of income tax evasion in Jordan: symptoms and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine income tax evasion in Jordan and set forth various cures for this problem. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper investigates the phenomenon of income tax evasion. In doing so, the paper reviews reports from academics and statistics from the Income Tax Department. The paper begins with an overview of the Income Tax

Bashar H. Malkawi; Haitham A. Haloush

2008-01-01

186

Methane emissions from domestic waste management facilities in Jordan--applicability of IPCC methodology.  

PubMed

In this paper, methane emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Jordan for 1994 have been estimated using the methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For this purpose, the 14 domestic wastewater treatment plants in the country were surveyed. Generation rates and characterization of MSW components as well as dumping and landfilling practices were surveyed in order to estimate 1994 CH4 emissions from these sites. Locally available waste statistics were used in cases where those of the IPCC guidelines were not representative of Jordan's statistics. Methane emissions from domestic wastewater in Jordan were estimated at 4.66 gigagrams (Gg). Total 1994 CH4 emissions from MSW management facilities in Jordan are estimated at 371.76 Gg--351.12 Gg (94.45%) from sanitary landfills, 19.83 Gg (5.33%) from MSW open dumps, and 0.81 Gg (0.22%) from raw sewage-water dumping ponds. Uncertainties associated with these estimations are presented. PMID:10680353

Abdulla, F A; al-Ghazzawi, Z D

2000-02-01

187

1 Violations, Opportunities and Power along the Jordan River: Security Studies Theory Applied to Water Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the applicability of recent developments in the field of security studies to water conflict issues in the Jordan River basin. Neumann's contribution to the Copenhagen School of security studies, particularly the concept of the 'violization' of pol- itics, is discussed alongside Warner's contribution of the concept of 'opportunitization'. Both concepts incorporation of the insight garnered through consideration

Mark Zeitoun

188

Compliance with Infection Control Programs in Private Dental Clinics in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the private sector in North Jordan with infection control measures. A pilot-tested questionnaire about infection control measures was distributed in March 2004 to 120 private practices. The response rate was 91.66 percent. About 77 percent of dentists usually ask their patients about medical history,

Mohammad Ahmad Al-Omari; Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi

189

Scenarios for Public-Private Partnerships in Water Management: A Case Study from Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to document the experience of public-private partnership (PPP) in the management of the domestic water sector in Amman city, Jordan. It also intends to reflect on the transformations in water management after the introduction of PPP using metaphors from ecology. Scenarios for water management are developed and assessed based on financial viability and political

Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi

2003-01-01

190

The Effectiveness of Web-Based Curricula on Seventh Grade Mathematics Students in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using web-based curricula on seventh grade students' achievement in mathematics in King Abdullah School in Irbid, Jordan. The researcher followed the equivalent pre/post T-test two group designs. To achieve the aim of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students'…

Muhanna, Wafa

2012-01-01

191

Geologic problems related to dam sites in Jordan and their solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geologic structures associated with several selected dam sites in Jordan and the tectonic effects on dam foundations and reservoir margins are reviewed. Rock defects, especially discontinuities represented by faults and closely spaced, open joints are investigated. Related problems, such as loss of water from the reservoir by seepage and leakage within the dam foundation are evaluated. The regional seismicity

Azm S. Al-Homoud; Salah A. Taqieddin; Fadhil H. Ahmad

1995-01-01

192

WATER SCARCITY IN RELATION TO FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Jordan is classified as a dry land country, which suffers from water scarcity similar to other counties in the region. Due to water scarcity the only fresh water ecosystem Azraq Wetland Oasis was destroyed. The destruction was a result of water over pumping from the greater basaltic Azraq basin, resulting in lowering water table to unprecedented levels. Hundreds

D. M. H. Al-Eisawi

193

The paleoclimate of the eastern desert of Jordan during marine isotope stage 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Cardium horizons from the topmost Azraq Formation in the eastern desert of Jordan were investigated and dated by U\\/Th at 330 ka; MIS 9. Fossil diversity and abundance, especially for Charophytes and gastropods with the absence of palygorskite, dolomite and evaporites, suggest the presence of a fresh water lake changing to a brackish environment at certain time intervals. A lake

Abdulkader M. Abed; Suha Yasin; Rushdi Sadaqa; Zayed Al-Hawari

2008-01-01

194

STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES: A STUDY OF MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a phenomenological research approach, two groups of eighth and 11 th -grade students were interviewed in the Zarqa Province of Jordan regarding their perceptions of social stud- ies. A total of 48 students were selected to participate in this qualitative study. The research revealed that the students in both middle school and high school valued social studies, while at

Khaled Alazzi; John J. Chiodo

2004-01-01

195

Promoting kindergarten children’s creativity in the classroom environment in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating teachers’ classroom practices, which either stimulate or inhibit the development of the creative environment of classrooms in Jordan, and determining the differences between practices according to educational level, experience level and type of teaching. The sample of the study consisted of 215 kindergarten teachers. A five?dimensional questionnaire consisting of 50 items was developed to achieve

Kholoud Dababneh; Fathi M. Ihmeideh

2010-01-01

196

New sites of Bulinus truncatus and indigenous cases of urinary schistosomiasis in Jordan.  

PubMed

Thirty-two autochthonous cases of Schistosoma haematobium are reported from Ghore As-Safi, Karak Lowlands, Jordan. All infected persons were males (9-46 years-old). New unusual breeding sites for Bulinus truncatus are discovered. The past and current distribution of the snail intermediate host is given. PMID:9879562

Arbaji, A; Amr, Z S; Abbas, A A; al-Oran, R; al-Kharabsheh, S; al-Melhim, W N

1998-12-01

197

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15

198

I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

Marar, Marianne Maurice

2011-01-01

199

Heavy metals in urban soils of central Jordan: Should we worry about their environmental risks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty soil samples collected from central Jordan were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Hg. The samples were also investigated for mineralogy using X-ray, electron, and optical microscopes. Sequential extraction procedures were used to predict the percentages of the Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr present in each of the soil geochemical phases. The clay mineral

K. M. Banat; F. M. Howari; A. A. Al-Hamad

2005-01-01

200

Current trends in drug abuse associated fatalities – Jordan, 2000–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first study that addresses drug abuse associated fatalities in Jordan. It is aimed to give a close picture to the demography, toxicological data, manner, cause of death and other associated findings in such cases. Postmortem forensic pathology reports for all autopsies examined in the National Institute of Forensic Medicine were reviewed over a 5-year period and

Mu’men S. Hadidi; Mudhaffar I. Ibrahim; Imad M. Abdallat; Kamal A. Hadidi

2009-01-01

201

Techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste management in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. This is obvious in many developing countries around the world. Currently, several countries have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, these countries, including Jordan, which forms the case study presented here, have

H. A. Abu Qdais

2007-01-01

202

On the Union of Jordan Regions and Collision-Free Translational Motion Amidst Polygonal Obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ?1,..., ?m bem simple Jordan curves in the plane, and letK1,...,Km be their respective interior regions. It is shown that if each pair of curves ?i, ?j,i ?j, intersect one another in at most two points, then the boundary ofK=?

Klara Kedem; Ron Livne; János Pach; Micha Sharir

1986-01-01

203

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.

Hamhalter, Jan

2012-12-01

204

78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This regulation prescribes the procedures and standard terms and conditions applicable to loan guarantees to be issued for the benefit of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan pursuant to the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act of 2012 as applied to fiscal year 2013 funding by the Further Continuing Appropriations Act,...

2013-10-28

205

Supplying Democracy. U.S. Security Assistance to Jordan, 1989-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Democracy promotion has been a principal foreign policy goal of the United States in the post-Cold War world. Democratic expansion is seen as an essential element of enhanced security and stability throughout the world, Jordan, having begun its own democr...

N. G. Forbes

2003-01-01

206

The hunter's perspective: 7th millennium BC rock carvings from eastern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock art is common in the Arabian peninsula and the southern Syrian desert but where related inscriptions are absent, most carvings are difficult to date. Recent excavations at Dhuweila, a Neolithic site in eastern Jordan, have uncovered carved stones incorporated into structures in securely dated levels. The distinctive style of the carvings makes it possible to link them on stylistic

A. V. G. Betts

1987-01-01

207

Analysis of the potential use of major refuse-derived fuels in Jordan as supplementary fuel.  

PubMed

The increasing energy demand in Jordan, compounded with the country's limited natural resources as well as its dependence on importing fuel oil from neighboring countries, makes it indispensible to search for alternative fuels. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) as a supplementary fuel in Jordan, for this purpose. Nine of the major RDFs generated in Jordan were chosen for this study: wastewater sludge, oil refinery sludge, olive oil husk, olive oil residue, chicken farm waste, sheep farm waste, used cooking oil, used oil, and waste tires. The energy content was measured for each one and the results were verified using five different empirical elemental analyses. Results of measuring and calculating the higher heating value (HHV) of the samples showed that used oil had the highest potential as an alternative fuel at 45.36 MJ/kg and the residual olive waste had the lowest heating content at 5.02 MJ/kg. Results also showed that there was a good agreement between the measured and calculated values. The calculating models showed that there was a positive correlation between the HHV and C% and negative correlation between HHV and ash%. Further research is planned to be conducted into the implementation of the concept of waste to energy in the Jordanian industrial sector. Implications: It has been necessary to measure the higher heating value (HHV) of different types of RDFs in Jordan to estimate their potential use as supplementary fuels. The amounts generated per year in Jordan are a crucial factor to make it feasible to use these. Used oil, used cooking oil, and waste tires could be the most promising supplementary fuels. PMID:24010370

Alsheyab, Mohammad A T; Schingnitz, Daniel; Al-Shawabkeh, Ali F; Kusch, Sigrid

2013-08-01

208

High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

209

Mortality and causes of death in Jordan 1995-96: assessment by verbal autopsy.  

PubMed Central

Mortality indicators and causes of death in Jordan were assessed by verbal autopsy. A random sample of 100 clusters of ca. 300 households each were monitored for one year by notification assistants selected from the study area itself. Registered deaths were reported to research assistants who visited the family to complete the verbal autopsy form, which was structured and contained about 100 questions. Causes of death were determined by two physicians according to preset algorithms. A total of 965 deaths were reported among 198,989 persons, giving a crude death rate of 5 per 1000 population per year. The three leading causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system, malignancies and accidents. In the absence of a health information system, verbal autopsy as implemented in Jordan can serve as a reliable substitute.

Khoury, S. A.; Massad, D.; Fardous, T.

1999-01-01

210

Thermoluminescence Dating Of Pottery Objects From Tell Al-Husn, Northern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the excavation works adopted in 2008 by Yarmouk University team, with the support of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities at Tell al-Husn archaeological site located in northern Jordan, a considerable collection of pottery objects and shards were found. Dating these pottery objects was very important to reveal the historical and archaeological aspects of this significant site in northern Jordan. Thermoluminescence (TL) techniques is one of the most accurate and absolute method for dating pottery. An appropriate collection of pottery shards was collected and prepared for measurement using this technique. It shown that pottery objects are dated back around to 3400 to 3700 years BP (Late Bronze Age). This age is consistent with that estimated by archaeological (typology) studies.

Khasswneh, S.; al-Muheisen, Z.; Abd-Allah, R.

211

A Water Management Support System for Amman Zarqa Basin in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Water Management Support System for Amman Zarqa Basin in Jordan has been developed. The water management support system\\u000a employs the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP). The water resources and demands in the basin were modeled as a network\\u000a of supply and demand nodes connected by links. The model was calibrated for the year 2005 data and then validated

Abbas Al-Omari; Saleh Al-Quraan; Adnan Al-Salihi; Fayez Abdulla

2009-01-01

212

Chemical characteristics of rainwater collected at a western site of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out from October 2006 to May 2007 in Ghore El-Safi area western side of Jordan nearby the Dead Sea. Rainwater samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NH4+, HCO3?, Cl?, NO3? and SO42?) and trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd). The highest concentration

Omar Ali. Al-Khashman

2009-01-01

213

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater, Sediments, Sludge and Plants in Karak Province, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis for sixteen types of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)from samples of raw and treated wastewater, sediments, sludge andplants growing along treated wastewater way was performed inOctober 1997. The collection sites represent two wastewatertreatment plants (WWTP) receiving different types of wastewaterand one site from disposal of raw wastewater in the city ofKarak in southern Jordan.Wastewater treatment efficiency showed removal of PAHs

Anwar Jiries; Helmi Hussain; Jutta Lintelmann

2000-01-01

214

Fatal occupational injuries in Jordan during the period 1980 through 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

All fatal occupational injuries compensated by the Social Security Corporation (SSC) in Jordan during the period 1980–1993 were studied. Variables considered in the analysis included gender, age, nationality, occupation, salary, cause of injury, body part injured and cause of death. The overall fatality rate, of the 705 cases reviewed, was 25.5\\/100,000\\/year. The majority (98%) of fatalities were males. The risk

Atallah Z. Rabi; Linda W. Jamous; Burhan A. Abudhaise; Rafi H. Alwash

1998-01-01

215

High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed

Thomas E. Levy; Thomas Higham; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Neil G. Smith; Erez Ben-Yosef; Mark Robinson; Stefan Münger; Kyle Knabb; Jürgen P. Schulze; Mohammad Najjar; Lisa Tauxe

2008-01-01

216

Ehlers-Harrison-type transformations for Jordan's extended theory of gravitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the “hidden” symmetry of the stationary Einstein equations under the groupSL(2,R) can be extended to a symmetry under the groupSL(3,R) in the case of Jordan's five-dimensional, unified theory. More generally one obtains an action of the groupSL(n+2,R) on the set of (n+4)-dimensional Einstein spaces admitting a (n+1)-parameter Abelian group of isometries.

D. Maison

1979-01-01

217

Comprehensive assessment of treatment related problems in hospitalized medicine patients in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of treatment related problems (TRPs) in hospitalized\\u000a internal medicine patients in Jordan as well as to identify diseases and drugs associated with each specific TRP. We have\\u000a also aimed at investigating physicians’ acceptance of recommendations made by clinical pharmacist and to identify the outcomes\\u000a of pharmacist interventions.

Salah M. AbuRuzNailya; Nailya R. Bulatova; Al-Moatasem M. Yousef; Mutasim A. Al-Ghazawi; Izzat A. Alawwa; Akram Al-Saleh

2011-01-01

218

Stationary Axisymmetric Solutions in the Vacuum Jordan-Brans-Dicke Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that any stationary axisymmetric solution to the vacuum field equations of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory may be obtained from a “composition” of any stationary axisymmetric vacuum Einstein spacetime with the Weyl class of metrics. Thus, generating solution techniques can be used to obtain any stationary axisymmetric JBD vacuum solution. In this manner, C. B. G. McIntosh's results concerning this topic are improved upon.

García, Alberto; Bretón, Nora; Hauser, Isidore

1988-05-01

219

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Jordan, sera from 280 pregnant women were tested during the period January 2000-May 2001. Blood samples were taken after the first antenatal visit. Serum was separated and tested for Toxoplasma IgG antibodies using an indirect fluorescent antibody. Seroprevalence gradually increased with age, from 31.7% at 15-24 years

N. F. Jumaian

220

Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache among adults in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we investigated the prevalence of headache among adults in Jordan. The study was conducted from January 2007 to November\\u000a 2008. A sample of 4,836 participants were permitted to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. As much as 82.3%\\u000a of participants complained from headache at least once per year. 36.1% were tension-type headache and 59% of the participants\\u000a had other family

Karem H. Alzoubi; Nizar Mhaidat; Sayer Al azzam; Yousef Khader; Saad Salem; Hanin Issaifan; Rania Haddadin

2009-01-01

221

Clinical and radiological features of Takayasu’s arteritis patients in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) varies greatly among world populations, and little is known about this disease\\u000a in Eastern Mediterranean Arab populations. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with TA from 1996\\u000a to 2008 at a single large referral center in Jordan. Eight patients (seven females, one male) with angiographically diagnosed\\u000a TA were seen at the

Khader N. Mustafa; Azmy Hadidy; Nadera J. Sweiss

2010-01-01

222

Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low water consumption in rural areas in Jordan had resulted in the production of concentrated grey water. Average COD, BOD and TSS values were 2568mg\\/l, 1056mg\\/l and 845mg\\/l, respectively. The average grey water generation was measured to be 14L\\/c.d. Three different treatment options were selected based on certain criterions, and discussed in this article. The examined treatment systems are septic

M. Halalsheh; S. Dalahmeh; M. Sayed; W. Suleiman; M. Shareef; M. Mansour; M. Safi

2008-01-01

223

The nutrition transition in Jordan: the political, economic and food consumption contexts.  

PubMed

This paper describes and analyzes the nutrition transition in Jordan. The nutrition transition is shifting from undernutrition of a population to a diet high in fat, sugar, and refined carbohydrates (overnutrition) and corresponding premature morbidity and mortality from ensuing chronic diseases. The paper reviews and examines secondary data on demographic, epidemiological, economic, social, and dietary changes in the region. Jordan is moving through the nutrition transition at a rapid pace. Demographic, epidemiological, economic, and social changes have been accompanied by changes in diet, food expenditure, and general health. Although mortality rates have dropped significantly, fertility rates still remain high at 3.6 children per woman, especially compared to other countries in the region. Urbanization has increased rapidly from 46% of the population residing in urban areas in 1965 to 75% currently. Declines in real per capita income have created a state in which 27% of families live under the poverty line. Dietary changes in the region, due in part to changes in food availability over the last 40 years, include a general rise in caloric intake (from 2,165 Kcals in 1965 to 3,161 Kcals in 1997) with an increasing percentage of energy supply coming from fats and cereals. Undernutrition and chronic rates of malnutrition are low compared to other developing countries; however, various sources reveal that overweight and obesity are on the rise. Obesity in Jordan tends to be higher among women (16%) than among men (10%), with a much higher prevalence of obesity among uneducated women (50%). In conclusion, overweight and obesity are an emerging problem in Jordan, especially for women. There is a high prevalence of risk factors associated with diet-related non-communicable diseases among both men and women. PMID:18430689

Madanat, Hala N; Troutman, Kelly P; Al-Madi, Bader

2008-01-01

224

Geophysical images of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan reveal an impermeable barrier for fluid flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolutionseismictomography and magneto-telluric (MT) soundings of the shallow crust show strong changes in material properties across the Dead Sea Transform Fault (DST) in the Arava valley in Jordan. 2D inversion results of the MT data indicate that the DST is associated with a strong lateral conductivity contrast of a highly conductive layer at a depth of approximately 1.5 km cut-off

O. Ritter; T. Ryberg; U. Weckmann; A. Hoffmann-Rothe; A. Abueladas; Z. Garfunkel

2003-01-01

225

Age determinations in the Precambrian basement of the Wadi Araba area, southwest Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Precambrian basement of Jordan belongs to the northern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Age determinations by U-Pb isotopic analyses on sized and magnetic zircon fractions, a monazite and an apatite sample and by Rb-Sr isotopic studies on whole-rocks and minerals of metasedimentary rocks, granodiorites, granites and dykes have elucidated the following events: (1)A major regional high-grade metamorphism accompanied by

Ghaleb Jarrar; Albrecht Baumann; Horst Wachendorf

1983-01-01

226

Karst system developed in salt layers of the Lisan Peninsula, Dead Sea, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lisan Peninsula, Jordan, is a massive salt layer accumulated in the inner part of the Dead Sea’s precursory lakes. This\\u000a tongue-shaped, emergent land results in a salt diapir uplifted in the Dead Sea strike-slip regional stress field and modified\\u000a by the water level fluctuations of the last lake during the Holocene. These two elements, associated with dissolution caused\\u000a by

Damien Closson; Philip E. LaMoreaux; Najib Abou Karaki; Hassan al-Fugha

2007-01-01

227

Attitudes of Men and Women Towards Wife Beating: Findings From Palestinian Refugee Camps in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the acceptance of wife beating among currently married\\u000a men and women living in disadvantaged Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey\\u000a of 3,100 households from 12 refugee camps, conducted in 1999, with a sub-sample of 395 married women and men selected for

Marwan Khawaja; Natalia Linos; Zeina El-Roueiheb

2008-01-01

228

Constructing an Adaptive Regional Vision of Water Development in the Jordan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the Middle Eastern regional water crisis and a World Bank Study underway to evaluate the feasibility of building\\u000a a Red Sea— Dead Sea water conveyance, the AVOW (Adaptive Visions of Water in the Middle East) initiative has outlined components\\u000a of an adaptive regional vision of water development for the Jordan Basin. The authors, leading members of AVOW,

Eric Abitbol; Stuart Schoenfeld

229

Obstacles to Women’s Political Empowerment in Jordan: Family, Islam, and Patriarchal Gender Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in women’s legislative rights in Jordan, and rising interest in women’s issues throughout the world, have sparked interest in women’s political participation. The purpose of this study is to investigate why, despite numerous advancements for women in Jordanian society, women have not gained greater representation in political processes. This study is based primarily on interviews with 15 Jordanian

Margaret Pettygrove

2006-01-01

230

Comparison of Frames:. Jordan Versus Einstein Frame for a Non-Minimal Dark Energy Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a dark energy model where a scalar field non-minimally coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark component. We compare cosmological consequences of this non-minimal coupling of the scalar field and gravity in the spirit of the dark energy paradigm in Jordan and Einstein frames. Some important issues such as phantom divide line crossing, existence of the bouncing solutions and the stability of the solutions are compared in these two frames. We show that while a non-minimally coupled scalar field in the Jordan frame is a suitable dark energy component with capability to realize phantom divide line crossing, its conformal transformation in the Einstein frame does not have this capability. The conformal transformation from Jordan frame to Einstein frame transforms the equation of state parameter of the dark energy component to its minimal form with a redefined scalar field and in this case it is impossible to realize a phantom phase with possible crossing of the phantom divide line.

Nozari, Kourosh; Sadatian, S. Davood

231

Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.  

PubMed Central

In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere.

Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

2001-01-01

232

Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Southeast Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer is part of a sequence of sedimentary bedrock units in southeast Minnesota. The Jordan Sandstone is a white to yellow, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone. The Prairie du Chien Group comprises two dolomitic formations, which are vuggy and fractured and interbedded with thin layers of shale. The aquifer was deposited from Paleozoic seas that occupied the Hollandale embayment. The surface of the aquifer dips toward the interior of the embayment where it is as deep as 750 feet below land surface and as thick as 500 feet. Permeability is secondary in the Prairie du Chien Group because of solution cavities and fractures and is intergranular in the Jordan Sandstone. Water in the aquifer is confined and generally flows to the north and east into the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers. A ground-water divide separates part of the flow southward into Iowa. This aquifer supplies more water than any other in the State. Quality of water is generally good throughout the aquifer. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate type water is most common. The potential for contamination from surface sources is low except near the Mississippi River valley, where the overlying drift is thin. The most serious water-quality problem is contamination by chemical wastes in St. Louis Park. (USGS)

Ruhl, J. F.; Wolf, R. J.; Adolphson, D. G.

1983-01-01

233

Public support and consent preference for biomedical research and biobanking in Jordan.  

PubMed

The success of any biobank depends on a number of factors including public's view of research and the extent to which it is willing to participate in research. As a prototype of surrounding countries, public interest in research and biobanking in addition to the influence and type of informed consent for biobanking were investigated in Jordan. Data were collected as part of a national survey of 3196 individuals representing the Jordanian population. The majority of respondents (88.6%) had a positive perception of the level of research in Jordan and they overwhelmingly (98.2%) agreed to the concept of investing as a country in research. When respondents were asked if the presence of an informed consent would influence their decision to participate in biobanking, more individuals (19.8%) considered having an informed consent mechanism as a positive factor than those who considered it to have negative connotations (13.1%). However, a substantial portion (65%) did not feel it affected their decision. The majority of survey participants (64%) expressed willingness to participate in biobanking and over 90% of them preferred an opt-in consent form whether general (75.2%) or specific for disease or treatment (16.9%). These results indicate a promising ground for research and biobanking in Jordan. Educational programs or mass awareness campaigns to promote participation in biobanking and increase awareness about informed consent and individual rights in research will benefit both the scientific community as well as the public. PMID:22968133

Ahram, Mamoun; Othman, Areej; Shahrouri, Manal

2012-09-12

234

THE NEED FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF A WATER FOR PEACE STRATEGY FOR THE JORDAN RIVER BASIN COUNTRIES THROUGH A SHIFT IN CROPPING PATTERNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shift to water thrifty and salt-tolerant crops in regions of water scarcity, as that of the countries of the Jordan River Basin (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel), needs to be a policy and implemented if conflicts over the use of meager water resources in that region is to be overcome. Investigations of the water consumption versus the possible

Said A. Assaf

235

Sustainable energy and environmental impact: role of renewables as clean and secure source of energy for the 21st century in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, present and future energy consumption, electricity demand, potential of renewable energy sources and national energy policy in Jordan are presented. The related environmental impacts are discussed from the sustainable development point of view, including the future role of renewable energy sources. Jordan is a net energy importing country, with almost 96% of its annual needs relying on

J. O. Jaber; O. O. Badran; N. Abu-Shikhah

2004-01-01

236

Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

2011-01-01

237

Are the Conflicts between Israel and Her Neighbors Over the Waters of the Jordan River Basin an Obstacle to Peace? Israel-Syria As A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the conflicts over water resources between Syria, Lebanon and Israel who share the transboundary waters of the Jordan River Basin a major obstacle to the peace process? The Syrians and Lebanese have in the past claimed as their own all of the sources of the Jordan River which arise in their territory. International water law provides a strong legal

H. I. Shuval

2000-01-01

238

Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

2013-01-01

239

Characterization of sum automorphisms and Jordan triple automorphisms of quantum probabilistic maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quantum mechanics, it is often important for the representation of a quantum system to study the structure-preserving bijective maps of the system. Such maps are also called isomorphisms or automorphisms. In this paper, using the Uhlhorn-type of Wigner's theorem, we show that both sum automorphisms and Jordan triple automorphisms of the unit ball of density operators are implemented by either unitary or anti-unitary operators of the underlying Hilbert space. This work was partially supported by NNSF of China (10771175) and YNSF of Fujian (2008F3103).

Bai, Zhaofang; Du, Shuanping

2010-04-01

240

Attitudes of graduating medical doctors toward using sex selection techniques in Jordan in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The aim of this study was to describe the attitude of graduating medical doctors toward the use of sex selection techniques\\u000a in Jordan in 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods (Design)  A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess attitude toward using sex selection. Demographic variables, gender preference\\u000a of future children, and score on attitude toward using technology scale were used as independent variables.

Mohammad Khassawneh; Nemeh Al-Akour; Yousef Khader; Faheem Zayed

2011-01-01

241

Determinants of infant mortality and the use of maternity services in Jordan.  

PubMed

"The 1990 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) is analyzed by using [a] chi square test to explore some of the determinants of maternity care (antenatal and delivery) and infant death.... The findings presented in this study are compared with the findings of other studies to find out the improvement in the use of maternity services and to explore factors behind the use of such services and factors that affect infant mortality." Results indicate that some determining factors of non-clinic prenatal care and infant mortality are: living in a rural area, the mother's education and age at the birth, high parity, short birth interval, and low birthweight. (EXCERPT) PMID:12348393

Shakhatreh, F M; Abbas, A A; Issa, A A

1996-01-01

242

Correspondence Between Jordan-Einstein Frames and Palatini-Metric Formalisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the conformal symmetry between Jordan and Einstein frames considering their relations with the metric and Palatini formalisms for modified gravity. Appropriate conformal transformations are taken into account leading to the evident connection between the gravitational actions in the two mentioned frames and the Hilbert-Einstein action with a cosmological constant. We show that the apparent differences between Palatini and metric formalisms strictly depend on the representation while the number of degrees of freedom is preserved. This means that the dynamical content of both formalism is identical.

Capozziello, Salvatore; Darabi, Farhad; Vernieri, Daniele

243

Mid-late Holocene palaeoclimate of northern Jordan from speleothem geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Levant region (encompassing the modern countries of Israel and Jordan) is a climatically sensitive area due to the proximity of the Negev and Arabian Deserts to the south and east. Although there is a general pattern of decreasing rainfall to the south and east of the region, local topographic features, most notably the Dead Sea Rift Valley, have a significant effect on detailed rainfall patterns. Our understanding of the Holocene climate of the southern Levant is principally known from records obtained to the west of the Dead Sea Rift, on the borders of the Negev Desert and from the lakes within the rift valley itself. Palaeoclimate records from the more interior regions, such as Jordan, are fewer in number and, generally at lower stratigraphic resolution. A recent archaeological survey has revealed the existence of limestone caves in northern Jordan, many of which were previously unknown to academics working in the region. These caves contain a variety of architectures, including stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones and soda straws. We present geochemical data (oxygen and carbon-isotopes, and uranium-series dates) from a small speleothem that provides the first detailed mid-late Holocene climate record for the area east. The new data are similar in value and contain similar magnitude shifts to previously published data from Israel (Soreq and Nahal Qanah Caves) and Lebanon (Jeita Cave). Through comparison with these other speleothem records we suggest that the oxygen-isotopic composition of the Jordanian speleothem is consistent with rainfall from Mediterranean-sourced weather systems that evolved to lighter isotopic compositions through rainout of 18O as they moved into the interior of the southern Levant. The Ras Muneef GNIP monitoring station provides a limited record of precipitation rates and isotopic compositions of rainwater. Combining this data with the speleothem data, suggests that Holocene temperatures in northern Jordan were broadly similar to present day mean annual temperatures and that the fluctuations in ?18O are likely the result of changes in the amount of precipitation.

Robinson, S. A.; Black, S.; Lovell, J.; Atkinson, T. C.

2009-04-01

244

The chemical composition and manufacturing technology of pottery types at Udhruh, Southern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents laboratory analyses of selected pottery sherds from the ancient site of Udhruh in southern Jordan. The site exhibits pottery sherds from Nabataean times up to the late Islamic period. However, in this study the samples were randomly chosen. The analyses were carried out using a scanning electron microscope equipped with specialist software. The paper establishes the historical context of Udhruh, the methodology employed, and the results of the study. The results reveal differences in the chemical composition of samples, and a variety of manufacturing techniques, only some of which appear to have been of local inspiration.

Shquiarat, M.; Abudanh, F.; Alnawafleh, H.

245

Jordan domain and Fatou set concerning diamond-like hierarchical Potts models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the Potts models on the diamond-like hierarchical lattice, the domains of the complex phases are indeed the Fatou components of a family of rational maps. In this paper, we deal with the relationships between this family of Fatou components and the Jordan domains and describe the topological structures of this family of Fatou components completely. The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No 10625107) and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant No 04-0490).

Jianyong, Qiao; Junyang, Gao

2007-01-01

246

Geophysical analysis of the recent sinkhole trend at Ghor-Haditha (Dead Sea, Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For essentially the last 30 year the water level of the Dead Sea has highly dropped. One of the major associated facts is sinkhole occurrences along the shoreline both in Jordan and Israel. As the principal invoked mechanism, many studies have concluded that sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of a previously immersed salt layer, progressively in contact with fresh to brackish water. In Jordan, the triggering of this phenomenon could also be the result of particular tectonic settings, associated with the Jordan-Dead Sea transform fault system. At Ghor Haditha (south-est Jordan), the consequences have been dramatic for farmers with the shrinking of temporary available lands and industry with the closing of at least one factory. The shallow material in this area is heterogeneous and composed of intercalated sand and clay layers of alluvial-colluvial origin, over a salty substratum, whose precise depth and thickness are yet partially hypothesized. Between 2005 and 2008, a multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey was performed, approximately over a 1 km2 area at Ghor Haditha, associating mainly electromagnetic soundings, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS), and seismic profiling, ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. At the same time, this specific area was the location of a dramatic evolution of sinkhole occurences, regularly followed by geodetic measurements. Over the 3 years period, about 120 TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) soundings allow to map precisely the depth of the conductive layers below the resistive overburden. Two conductive layer are then revealed, the latter showing the lowest resistivity below 1 Ohm.m corresponding to the saline substratum. Several MRS (3 in 2005, repeated in 2007 and 12 additional soundings) show an east-west hydraulic gradient towards the Dead. However, the main sinkhole trend coincides with both: - a clear low transmissivity axis determined from MRS measurements; - the western side of a depression into the top of the most conductive layer. This shows so clearly a correlation between the recent sinkhole phenomenon and the current water circulations, but paleo-topography below the Pleistocene deposits mays equally be a clue in the sinkhole hazard.

Camerlynck, Christian; Bodet, Ludovic; Galibert, Pierre-Yves; Boucher, Marie; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

2013-04-01

247

Road traffic fatalities in Qatar, Jordan and the UAE: estimates using regression analysis and the relationship with economic growth.  

PubMed

Smeed's equation is a widely used model for prediction of traffic fatalities but has been inadequate for use in developing countries. We applied regression analysis to time-series data on vehicles, exponential models for fatality prediction, producing an average absolute error of 20.9% for Qatar, 10.9% for population and traffic fatalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan and Qatar. The data were fitted to Jordan and 5.5% for the UAE. We found a strong linear relationship between gross domestic product and fatality rate. PMID:20795448

Bener, A; Hussain, S J; Al-Malki, M a; Shotar, M M; Al-Said, M F; Jadaan, K S

2010-03-01

248

Ineffectiveness of DDT residual spraying in stopping malaria transmission in the Jordan Valley  

PubMed Central

The malaria-control campaign in the Jordan Valley—undertaken by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East in 1949—has been based solely on DDT residual spraying in the northeastern areas, but in certain southern districts some larvicidal and drainage work has been done. Observations made in the north-east showed that active malaria transmission had occurred in 4 of the 12 villages surveyed in 1951, and in 8 of the 9 villages surveyed in 1952. That the insecticide was effective was demonstrated by the fact that sprayed structures were almost entirely free from anophelines four months after the last spraying, but entomological surveys showed that Anopheles sergenti and A. superpictus (the main malaria vectors) were successfully evading contact with sprayed surfaces by using caves and fissures in hills as daytime resting-places. The author discusses the bearing that the topography of the area and the habits of the population have on the transmission of the disease, and stresses the importance of surveys. He recommends the resumption of antilarval measures in the Jordan Valley.

Farid, M. A.

1954-01-01

249

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options  

SciTech Connect

This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

Qojas, M.

1999-03-01

250

Knowledge of oral cancer among recently graduated medical and dental professionals in amman, jordan.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is a devastating disease, and despite advances in treatment, the survival rate remains low. Early diagnosis can improve survival and outcomes. Delayed referrals are often due to the inadequate knowledge of general health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of oral cancer among recently graduated dental and medical professionals interested in working in a cancer center in Amman, Jordan. The study was conducted using a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of risk factors and the ability to correctly identify the oral lesions most commonly associated with oral cancer. A total of 112 individuals completed the questionnaire. The results revealed an inadequate level of knowledge of oral cancer among the study population, with significant differences between the dental and medical professionals. This study suggests there is a need for improvement of the undergraduate curriculum in oral cancer in both medical and dental schools in Jordan and for the provision of postgraduate and continuing education on this topic. PMID:24098040

Alami, Arwa Yousef; El Sabbagh, Rula F; Hamdan, Abdelhameed

2013-10-01

251

Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art  

SciTech Connect

The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

Miller, Naomi J.

2011-09-01

252

Gravitational wave astronomy: The definitive test for the "Einstein frame versus Jordan frame" controversy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential realization of a gravitational wave (GW) astronomy in next years is a great challenge for the scientific community. By giving a significant amount of new information, GWs will be a cornerstone for a better understanding of the universe and of the gravitational physics.In this paper the author shows that the GW astronomy will permit to solve a captivating issue of gravitation as it will be the definitive test for the famous "Einstein frame versus Jordan frame" controversy.In fact, we show that the motion of the test masses, i.e. the beam splitter and the mirror in the case of an interferometer, which is due to the scalar component of a GW, is different in the two frames. Thus, if a consistent GW astronomy will be realized, an eventual detection of signals of scalar GWs will permit to discriminate among the two frames. In this way, a direct evidence from observations will solve in an ultimate way the famous and long history of the “Einstein frame versus Jordan frame” controversy.

Corda, Christian

2011-01-01

253

Stray dogs of northern Jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens.  

PubMed

Dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several hemopathogens including zoonotic agents and can serve as readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods. Three hemopathogens had been detected for the first time in Jordan. The PCR prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis, and piroplasmid DNA were 39.5%, 28.9%, and 7.9% (n=38) respectively. Sequencing of amplicons of PCR with universal primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasmids shows the highest similarity to equine piroplasmids species Theileria equi from two dogs and Babesia caballi from a single dog. Ticks of two genera Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis, were detected in this study (n=268). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species (95.1%, n=255), followed by Haemaphysalis erinacei (3%, n=8) and Haemaphysalis parva (1.9%, n=5). The two Haemaphysalis species were detected for the first time from dogs in Jordan. Regarding its high prevalence, we expect R. sanguineus being a possible vector of detected pathogens. PMID:22434363

Qablan, Moneeb Ahmad; Kubelová, Michaela; Siroký, Pavel; Modrý, David; Amr, Zuhair Sami

2012-03-22

254

Pediculosis capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan.  

PubMed

Pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) is a worldwide public health concern affecting mostly primary-school children. In a cross-sectional study in 2009/2010, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors for infestation were investigated among 1550 randomly selected primary-school children in Mafraq governorate, Jordan. The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 26.6%. There were significant differences in the prevalence between girls (34.7%) and boys (19.6%), rural (31.2%) and urban (23.5%) residents, and history of infestation in the previous year (57.4%) versus no history (11.5%), as well as between children of different ages, family size and income (P<0.001). Longer hair length, lack of bathing facilities, low frequency of hair-washing and bathing, and sharing of articles (e.g. combs, scarves) were significantly associated with infestation (P<0.001). The prevalence of infestation was higher than reported in previous studies in Jordan (< 14%). Programmes are needed to increase awareness of pediculosis capitis and the importance of good personal hygiene. PMID:22360010

AlBashtawy, M; Hasna, F

2012-01-01

255

Prevalence and risk factors associated with Neospora caninum infection in dairy herds in Jordan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora caninum infection in 62 dairy herds (n = 671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through personal interviews with farmers. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with N. caninum seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against N. caninum in individual cows and cattle herds was 35 and 66.5 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the percentage of seropositive animals between different age groups. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed workers frequently visiting nearby farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to N. caninum, while presence of a calving pen was suggested as a protective factor. Amman, Balqa, and Mafrak governorates had significantly lower seroprevalence to N. caninum compared to other Jordanian governorates. Results of this study indicated that N. caninum infection may be widespread in Jordan. PMID:22869339

Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M

2012-08-07

256

Medical waste management in Jordan: A study at the King Hussein Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

As in many other developing countries, the generation of regulated medical waste (RMW) in Jordan has increased significantly over the last few decades. Despite the serious impacts of RMW on humans and the environment, only minor attention has been directed to its proper handling and disposal. This study was conducted in the form of a case study at one of Jordan's leading medical centers, namely, the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC). Its purpose was to report on the current status of medical waste management at KHMC and propose possible measures to improve it. In general, it was found that the center's administration was reasonably aware of the importance of medical waste management and practiced some of the measures to adequately handle waste generated at the center. However, it was also found that significant voids were present that need to be addressed in the future including efficient segregation, the use of coded and colored bags, better handling and transfer means, and better monitoring and tracking techniques, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel.

Oweis, Rami [Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo; Al-Widyan, Mohamad [Biosystems Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: widyan@just.edu.jo; Al-Limoon, Ohood [Biomedical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo

2005-07-01

257

The Use of Molecular Techniques in Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum from Commercial Chickens in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial chickens in Jordan suffer from respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. This study was designed to document the involvement of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in this respiratory disease. Seventy six different chicken flocks with respiratory symptoms (48 broiler flocks, 21 layer flocks and 7 broiler-breeder flocks) were examined serologically by commercial MG ELISA kit and bacterial isolation for Mycoplasma. Twenty four

Saad Gharaibeh; Dirgham Al Roussan

2008-01-01

258

Generalizations of the Kerr-Newman and charged Tomimatsu-Sato metrics in the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure to construct stationary axisymmetric solutions of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equations with electromagnetic sources is obtained solutions, since they are “compositions” of Weyl static solutions with the given stationary ones, are equipped with several parameters, as many as one wishes.

García, Alberto D.; Mitskiévi?, N. V.

1989-11-01

259

Essential Oil Content and Heavy Metals Composition of Thymus vulgaris Cultivated in Various Climatic Regions of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to estimate the concentration of essential oil and some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Zn & Cu) in thyme plant (Thymus vulgaris) cultivated in the southern (Maan, Al-Shouback & Al-Tafeileh), middle (Amman) and northern (Jeresh, Ajlune & Irbid) regions of Jordan. The results showed a wide variation of essential oil values yielded from thyme

Mohammad S. Abu-darwish; Ziad H. m. Abu-dieyeh

260

Fire blight of pome fruits in Jordan: disease development and response of different fruit cultivars to the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-nine different bacterial isolates obtained from pome fruit (apple Malus domestica, pear Pyrus communis, and quince Cydonia oblonga) and Firethorn (Pyracantha sp.), suspected of being infected with fire blight and collected from different pome fruit growing areas in Jordan during the 1999 growing season, were biochemically, physiologically and pathologically tested for the disease. Results of the tests indicated that the

M. S Al-Dahmashi; H Khlaif

2004-01-01

261

Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

262

A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan. PMID:20956366

Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

2010-11-28

263

Population and Education Prospects in the Western Mediterranean Region (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report studies the demographic and educational futures of Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. These are areas of potential and existing conflicts, where population growth has many political dimensions. The report, however, abstains from discussing these political issues and focuses on future demographic aspects. It is clear that this report could raise some questions on

A. Goujon

1997-01-01

264

Implementation of a new birth record in three hospitals in Jordan: a study of health system improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the introduction of a new integrated clinical record in Jordan where currently no clinical report links antenatal, birth and postnatal care for women. As a result, no continuity of information is provided to clinicians nor are there national statistics on trends, or performance of hospitals around birth. Our study was conducted in the Jordanian Ministry of Health,

Reham Khresheh; Lesley Barclay

2007-01-01

265

Influence of a freshwater riverine marsh for tertiary wastewater treatment in the upper basin of the B Everett Jordan reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetlands that occupy a vast area of basin IV of Jordan Lake, may provide a natural sink for nitrogen and phosphorus. The basis of wastewater treatment in the wetland is to expose the waste effluent to an environment that functionally assimilates and transforms nutrients, and oxidizes excessive organic matter. Emergent plants and inundated vegetation potentially provide a means of

C. L. Jr

1986-01-01

266

Rationales of a Shift towards Knowledge Economy in Jordan from the Viewpoint of Educational Experts and Relationship with Some Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to identify rationales underlying a shift towards knowledge economy in education as perceived by the educational experts in Jordan and relationship with some variables. The random stratum sample (n = 90) consisted of educational experts representing faculty members in the Jordanian universities and top leaders…

Al Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Al Ahmad, Suliman Diab Ali; Al Zboon, Saleem Odeh

2009-01-01

267

The Hamadya bomb-rich agglomerate: a case study of explosive Pliocene volcanism in the Jordan Valley, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pyroclastic deposit rich in basaltic bombs, lapilli and scoria is exposed near Hamadya along the western margin of the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. The deposit is a basaltic agglomerate interlayered with basalt flows of Pliocene age. The agglomerate consists of bombs (some of them 50–70 cm in length), juvenile fragments of lapilli-sized scoriaceous porphyritic basalt and scoria weakly cemented

Shimon Ilani; Sergiu Peltz

1997-01-01

268

A GIS analysis of the impact of modern practices and polices on the urban heritage of Irbid, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the results of a study carried out on the central area of Irbid, Jordan in order to assess the effect of the modern urbanization process on the degradation and loss of the city’s heritage. This type of work comes as a result of the need to study the interaction between modern and heritage landscapes, which are in

Sharaf Al-kheder; Naif Haddad; Leen Fakhoury; Suha Baqaen

2009-01-01

269

The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

2010-04-01

270

Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

271

The Influence of Historical and Political Events on the Development of Social Studies Education in Jordan's Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports the results of a study about the factors that affect social studies development in Jordan's secondary schools. An evaluation of data obtained within the limitations of this study relative to the development of social studies education, in particular, and education, in general, indicates that the principle of the Great Arab…

Alazzi, Khaled

2008-01-01

272

Radar Interferometric Mapping and Numerical Simulation of Land Subsidence along the Dead Sea Shores, Israel and Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, sinkholes and wide shallow subsidence features have become major problems along the Dead Sea shores in Israel and Jordan. Sinkholes are readily observed in the field, but their locations and timing are unpredictable. Wide shallow subsidence features are often difficult to observe in the field. However, once identified, they delineate zones of instability and increasing hazard.

G. Baer; U. Schattner; D. Wachs; D. Sandwell; S. Wdowinski; S. Frydman

2001-01-01

273

Post-classification version of Jordan's theorem on finite linear groups.  

PubMed

Using classification of finite simple groups, I show that a finite subgroup G of GL(n)(C), where C = the complex numbers, contains a commutative normal subgroup M of index at most (n + 1)!n(alogn+b). Moreover, if G is primitive and does not contain normal subgroups that are direct products of large alternating groups, then the factor (n + 1)! can be dropped. I further show that similar statements hold also in characteristics p >/= 2, if one takes M to be an extension of a group of Lie type of characteristic p by a solvable group that has a normal p-subgroup with commutative p'-quotient. These results improve the celebrated theorems of Jordan and of Brauer and Feit. PMID:16593506

Weisfeiler, B

1984-08-01

274

Post-classification version of Jordan's theorem on finite linear groups  

PubMed Central

Using classification of finite simple groups, I show that a finite subgroup G of GLn(C), where C = the complex numbers, contains a commutative normal subgroup M of index at most (n + 1)!nalogn+b. Moreover, if G is primitive and does not contain normal subgroups that are direct products of large alternating groups, then the factor (n + 1)! can be dropped. I further show that similar statements hold also in characteristics p ? 2, if one takes M to be an extension of a group of Lie type of characteristic p by a solvable group that has a normal p-subgroup with commutative p?-quotient. These results improve the celebrated theorems of Jordan and of Brauer and Feit.

Weisfeiler, Boris

1984-01-01

275

Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley  

PubMed Central

Food storage is a vital component in the economic and social package that comprises the Neolithic, contributing to plant domestication, increasingly sedentary lifestyles, and new social organizations. Recent excavations at Dhra? near the Dead Sea in Jordan provide strong evidence for sophisticated, purpose-built granaries in a predomestication context ?11,300–11,175 cal B.P., which support recent arguments for the deliberate cultivation of wild cereals at this time. Designed with suspended floors for air circulation and protection from rodents, they are located between residential structures that contain plant-processing instillations. The granaries represent a critical evolutionary shift in the relationship between people and plant foods, which precedes the emergence of domestication and large-scale sedentary communities by at least 1,000 years.

Kuijt, Ian; Finlayson, Bill

2009-01-01

276

Molecular characterization of a recent Newcastle disease virus outbreak in Jordan.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease and is a continuous threat to the poultry industry worldwide. In the early months of 2011, several devastating ND outbreaks occurred in Jordan affecting broilers, layers and breeders. The fusion gene of the isolated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was partially amplified by RT-PCR, then directly sequenced. The NDV isolates were found to have the motif112RRQKRF117. This motif and a mean death time (MDT) of 46 h are indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new NDV strain belongs to the lineage 5d (Aldous et al., 2003) and is closely related to the Chinese strain SG/Liaoning/2009. NDV outbreaks in 2010 and 2011 have been noted in neighboring countries. Based on the high nucleotide similarity between our isolated NDV isolates and the Chinese NDV strain, the origin of these recent NDV isolates might be from China. PMID:22480768

Ababneh, Mustafa M K; Dalab, Abd Elhafeed; Alsaad, Saad R; Al-Zghoul, Mohammad B; Al-Natour, Mohammad Q

2012-04-04

277

Inorganic analysis of dust fall and office dust in an industrial area of Jordan.  

PubMed

This article deals with the determination and comparison of heavy metals and water-soluble anions and cations in indoor dust and outdoor dust fall in the petroleum refinery area in Jordan. Three sampling sites were considered in the Jordanian petroleum refinery complex for the collection of dust fall and office dust samples. These samples were analyzed for water-soluble anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, C2O4(2-), and SO4(2-)) and cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) using auto-suppressed ion chromatography. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Al) were determined using flame or graphite-furnace atomic absorption. No correlations were found between heavy metal concentrations in dust fall and office dust samples, indicating different sources. High enrichment factors for heavy metals were found in dust-fall samples, except for Fe and Cr. Zinc showed the highest and cadmium the lowest flux rates. PMID:15325874

Jaradat, Qasem M; Momani, Kamal A; Jbarah, Abdel-Aziz Q; Massadeh, Adnan

2004-10-01

278

The impact of the Healthcom mass media campaign on timely initiation of breastfeeding in Jordan.  

PubMed

Initiation of breastfeeding within several hours after a child's birth increases the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding and longer duration of breastfeeding. However, common beliefs among mothers and health-care providers and routine hospital practices can constrain timely breastfeeding initiation. This article examines the impact of a mass media breastfeeding campaign in Jordan within the context of other activities occurring during and after the child's birth. The campaign had a positive impact on all mothers' knowledge, and on timely initiation of breastfeeding for home and public hospital deliveries, but not for those in private hospitals. The findings indicate that a communication campaign can bring about change in breastfeeding initiation behavior, but that providing mothers with information should be but one part of an integrated program to ensure that hospital and midwife policies and practices support timely initiation. PMID:8296331

McDivitt, J A; Zimicki, S; Hornik, R; Abulaban, A

279

After the Doctorate: A qualitative study investigating nursing research career development in Jordan.  

PubMed

There is a dearth of research exploring the development of postdoctoral nursing research careers in non-Western contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Jordanian graduates of UK PhD programs. Interviews were held with 16 graduates who worked in the nursing faculty of seven different universities in Jordan. Participants reported that their doctoral degree had equipped them with confidence and enthusiasm for developing a research career. Mentorship, leadership, and peer support were identified as essential to supporting ongoing research activity. Access to these sources of support was variable and participants also described a range of institutional and organizational structures that directly or indirectly discouraged them from developing research productivity. This research suggests that support for postdoctoral novice researchers is an important area for further attention - for Jordanian universities, for UK PhD supervisors (and their associated academic departments), and for the wider nursing community. PMID:23347142

Al-Nawafleh, Ahmed; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Evans, Catrin

2013-01-24

280

Atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Aqaba city, Jordan, using Phoenix dactylifera L. leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leaves of date palms ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) were evaluated as biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in the city of Aqaba, Jordan. The concentrations of iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples of unwashed leaves for testing were collected from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, suburban, industrial, highway, and rural sites). Separate leaves were taken from outside the city to be used as a control sample. Samples collected from industrial areas were found to have high contents of all metals except for nickel, copper, and lead, which were found at high concentrations in the samples collected from highway sites. Significant correlations between the heavy metal concentrations in date palm trees in unwashed leave samples were obtained. The principle component analysis (PCA) along with correlation analysis provide significant information about the origin of heavy metals in palm tree samples.

Al-Khlaifat, Abdelaziz L.; Al-Khashman, Omar A.

281

Adaptation of the school health index to assess the healthy school environment in Jordan.  

PubMed

When the Jordan Ministry of Education planned workshops to raise teachers' awareness of the health environment in schools in underdeveloped governorates, a pre-post intervention study assessed the impact of these workshops in changing teachers' perceptions. A total of 193 teachers completed the self-administered Centers for Disease Control and Prevention school health index (SHI) for elementary schools, adapted for this setting using 6 of the 8 original modules. After the workshops, teachers' mean scores on all modules improved significantly, from 49.5% to 55.9% for health and safety/environment policies; 44.2% to 56.5% for health education; 40.3% to 52.9% for physical education; 51.3% to 59.2% for nutrition services; 62.5% to 73.8% for health services; and 55.2% to 68.3% for family/community involvement. The SHI model is implementable in a developing country PMID:21735804

Khatib, I M; Hijazi, S S

2011-01-01

282

Scalar-tensor cosmology at the general relativity limit: Jordan versus Einstein frame  

SciTech Connect

We consider the correspondence between the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame descriptions of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation. We argue that since the redefinition of the scalar field is not differentiable at the limit of general relativity the correspondence between the two frames is lost at this limit. To clarify the situation we analyze the dynamics of the scalar field in different frames for two distinct scalar-tensor cosmologies with specific coupling functions and demonstrate that the corresponding scalar field phase portraits are not equivalent for regions containing the general relativity limit. Therefore the answer to the question of whether general relativity is an attractor for the theory depends on the choice of the frame.

Jaerv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

2007-11-15

283

Metal distribution in urban soil around steel industry beside Queen Alia Airport, Jordan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the extent and severity of metal contamination in urban soil around Queen Alia Airport, Jordan. Thirty-two soil samples were collected around steel manufacturing plants located in the Al-Jiza area, south Jordan, around the Queen Alia Airport. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 and 10-20 cm, and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) levels. The physicochemical factors believed to affect the mobility of metals in the soil of the study area were also examined, including pH, electrical conductivity, total organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) content and cation exchange capacity. The high concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in the soil samples were found to be related to anthropogenic sources, such as the steel manufacturing plants, agriculture and traffic emissions, with the highest concentrations of these metals close to the site of the steel plants; in contrast the concentration of Cr was low in the soil sampled close to the steel plants. The metals were concentrated in the surface soil, and concentrations decreased with increasing depth, reflecting the physical properties of the soil and its alkaline pH. The mineralogical composition of the topsoil, identified by X-ray diffraction, was predominantly quartz, calcite, dolomite and minor minerals, such as gypsum and clay minerals. Metal concentrations were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compute the statistical significance of the mean. The results of the ANOVA showed significant differences between sites for Pb, Cd and Cu, but no significant differences for the remaining metals tested. Factor analysis revealed that polluted soil occurs predominantly at sites around the steel plants and that there is no significant variation in the characteristics of the unpolluted soil, which are uniform in the study area. PMID:19263226

Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

2009-03-05

284

Compliance with infection control programs in private dental clinics in Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the private sector in North Jordan with infection control measures. A pilot-tested questionnaire about infection control measures was distributed in March 2004 to 120 private practices. The response rate was 91.66 percent. About 77 percent of dentists usually ask their patients about medical history, 36 percent were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 81.8 percent wear and change gloves during treatment and between patients, and 54.5 percent wear and change masks during treatment and between patients. Most dental practitioners (95.4 percent) reported that they changed extraction instruments and burs between patients. All dental practitioners reported that they changed saliva ejectors between patients, but only 41.8 percent changed handpieces between patients. Approximately 63 percent (69/110) used autoclaves for sterilization, 47.3 percent (52/110) used plastic bags to wrap sterilized instruments, and only 18 percent (20/110) disinfected impressions before sending them to dental labs. Fourteen percent used rubber dams in their clinics, and only 31.8 percent had special containers for sharps disposal. Based on these responses, approximately 14 percent of general dentists in this sample were considered to be compliant with an inventory of recommended infection control measures. In Jordan, there is a great need to provide formal and obligatory infection control courses and guidelines for private dentists by the Ministry of Health and the dental association in addition to distribution of standard infection control manuals that incorporate current infection control recommendations. PMID:15947216

Al-Omari, Mohammad Ahmad; Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf

2005-06-01

285

Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia.  

PubMed

Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker's motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors) on close to 500 employees in each country. Although Jordan and Georgia have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, the results from these two countries exhibited many similarities among key determinants: self-efficacy, pride, management openness, job properties, and values had significant effects on motivational outcomes in both countries. Where results were divergent, differences between the two countries highlight the importance of local culture on motivational issues, and the need to tailor motivational interventions to the specific issues related to particular professional or other groupings in the workforce. While workers themselves state that financial reward is critical for their work satisfaction, the data suggest a number of non-financial interventions that may be more effective means to improve worker motivation. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more comprehensive approach to increasing motivation, satisfaction and performance, and for interventions at both organizational and policy levels. PMID:14604620

Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth; Stubblebine, Patrick

2004-01-01

286

Climatic change impacts on water balance of the Upper Jordan River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Mediterranean and Near East (EM/NE) is an extremely water scarce environment. It is expected that problems will increase due to climate change and population growth. The impact of climate change on water availability in EM/NE and in particular the Jordan River catchment is investigated in this study. Focus is set on the Upper Jordan River catchment (UJC) as it provides 1/3rd of freshwater resources in Israel and Palestine. It is a hydro-geologically extremely complex region with karstic groundwater flow and an orography with steep gradients. The methods used are high resolution coupled regional climate - hydrology simulations. Two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) of the global climate model ECHAM4 have been dynamically downscaled using the non-hydrostatic meteorological model MM5 in two nesting steps with resolutions of 54x54 km2 and 18x18 km2 for the period 1961-2099, whereby the time slice 1961-1989 represents the current climate. The meteorological fields are used to drive the physically based hydrological model WaSiM applied to the UJC. The hydrological model computes in detail the surface and subsurface water flow and water balance in a horizontal resolution of 450 x 450 m2 and dynamically couples to a 2-dim numerical groundwater model. Parameters like surface runoff, groundwater recharge, soil moisture and evapotranspiration can be extracted. Results show in both scenarios increasing yearly mean temperatures up to 4-5 K until 2099 and decreasing yearly precipitation amounts up to 25% (scenario A2). The effect on the water balance of the UJC are reduced discharge and groundwater recharge, increased evaporation and reduction of snow cover in the mountains which usually serves as an important freshwater reservoir for the summer discharge.

Heckl, A.; Kunstmann, H.

2009-04-01

287

Investigations on the combustion metamorphism halo of bituminous micrites (Maqarin site, northern Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion metamorphism halo in a bituminous micrite sampled in an adit from the Maqarin site, in northern Jordan (Khoury et al., 1992) was studied by combining different methods (magnetic, thermal, chemical and mineralogical analysis). The magnetic investigations confirmed the existence of a significant magnetic anomaly between the cement bodies and the unaltered sediment. This finding is consistent with previous studies on combustion metamorphism (Cisowski and Fuller, 1987 ; Ron and Kolodny, 1992). The magnetic anomaly observed in Maqarin is found to be double, exhibiting two distinct maxima (for both susceptibility and remanent magnetisation). Combined mineralogical and magnetic characterisations show that the first anomaly is due to magnetite type iron oxides whereas the second anomaly originates from maghemite type oxides and that these ferromagnetic minerals are inherited from sulphide minerals (pyrite). The thermal analysis of the bituminous marl displays two major exothermic events (centered at ~320°C and at ~440°C) and one major endothermic event (centered at ~790°C). These events are correlated with important mass losses. By using the evolved gases analysis (EGA), the two important exothermic events are interpreted as linked to the oxidation of two types of organic matter. The major endothermic event is well known and corresponds to decarbonatation. Using available information and new data acquired during this study, an attempt was done to reconstruct the temperature profile along Maqarin adit at the moment when combustion stopped between unaltered sediments (30 +/- 10 °) and the combusted zone (1100 +/- 50 °C) Cisowski S. M. and Fuller M. Geol. Soc. of America Bulletin, 99, 21-29, 1987. Khoury H. N., Salameh E., Clark I. D., Fritz P., Bajjali W., Milodowski A. E., Cave M. R., Alexander W. R., J. Geochem. Explor., 46, 117-132, 1992. Ron H. and Kolodny Y., J. Geophys. Res., 97, NO. B5, 6927-6939, 1992. This investigation is part of the Maqarin Phase IV project supported by ANDRA, CEA, NAGRA, NIREX, SKB and Jordan University.

Vandamme, D.; Fontanini, L.; Trotignon, L.; Raynal, J.; Khoury, H.; Milodowski, A.; Rassineux, F.; Mäder, U.; Bienvenu, P.

2003-04-01

288

Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis labaiatae (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinal plant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinal plant samples and soil samples were collected from three different\\u000a zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma’an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical\\u000a treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy

Abdul-Wahab O. El-Rjoob; Adnan M. Massadeh; Mohammad N. Omari

2008-01-01

289

Public centric e-governance in Jordan : A field study of people's perception of e-governance awareness, corruption, and trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the efforts made by Jordan in the direction of e-governance and people's perception of corruption, trust, and e-governance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Desk research was conducted using secondary data sources followed by a field survey conducted with 412 sample respondents in three major cities of Jordan. Following the triangulation approach, the responses

Rakesh Belwal; Khalid Al-Zoubi

2008-01-01

290

Identity in old clothes: the socio-cultural dynamics of second-hand clothing in Irbid, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the socio-cultural dynamics underlying the consumption of second-hand clothing (al-Balih) in Irbid city, northern Jordan. It primarily examines the various images and meanings that consumers attach to used clothes imported primarily from the West. Al-Balih is conceived of as a social space where multiple imaginations and images meet and interact. Put another way, it tends to blur

M. M. Naamneh; A. K. Al Husban

2012-01-01

291

Study of water quality of springs in Petra region, Jordan: A three-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petra region area was located in south part of Jordan has grown and urbanized rapidly. This area depends on the groundwater\\u000a as a water resources. This study was undertaken to assess the physical, chemical quality of spring water of Petra region during\\u000a a 36-months survey (September 2002 to September 2005). The samples were analyzed for temperature, conductivity, dissolved\\u000a oxygen, pH,

Omar Ali Al-Khashman

2007-01-01

292

Comment on ‘Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure From Sp Phases’ by Thomas H. Jordan and L. Neil Frazer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan and Frazer [1975] analyzed the experimental data on $p waves generated at the Mohorovi6i6 discontinuity and at interfaces in the upper mantle near recording stations. The records of South American deep earthquakes registered at A 53 o _64 ø distances by seven three-component seismic stations within the Canadian shield area were interpreted in the paper. An evaluation of crustal

Nikolai K. Bulin

1980-01-01

293

Domestic activities and spatial distribution in Ain Ab? Nukhayla (Wadi Rum, Southern Jordan): The use of phytoliths and spherulites studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site of Ayn Ab? Nukhayla (Wadi Rum, Jordan) contains structural installations (loci) composed of inter-connected oval, rock-walled, pithouses. Questions that arose from their study centered on how to identify possible herding and agricultural activities and to assess any differences in how the loci were used. The combined study of phytoliths and spherulites identified from different loci

Marta Portillo; Rosa M. Albert; Donald O. Henry

2009-01-01

294

A GIS Database for Sustainable Management of Shallow Water Resources in the Tulul al Ashaqif Region, NE Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tulul al Ashaqif region is an arid area in northeastern Jordan that contains renewable shallow perched aquifer water.\\u000a The study of these aquifers has led to better understanding of the recharge process as well as other hydrological issues related\\u000a to management of water resources in similar areas. The use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping\\u000a to locate areas

Khaldoon Al-Qudah; Nizar Abu-Jaber

2009-01-01

295

Domestic Violence and Family Dysfunction as Risk Factor for Violent Behavior among University Students in North Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between family dysfunction and domestic violence with violent behavior\\u000a of university students in North Jordan. A stratified random sample included 1560 undergraduate students from three universities.\\u000a The distribution of self- administrated questionnaire was done based on the schedule of registration made by the department\\u000a of the admission and registration at

Abdelhakeem M. Okour; Heba H. Hijazi

2009-01-01

296

Frequent Mental Distress, Chronic Conditions, and Adverse Health Behaviors in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, Jordan, 2007  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent evidence indicates that chronic diseases and mental illness are associated. In the Middle Eastern country of Jordan, chronic diseases and frequent mental distress (FMD) are increasing; however, the capacity for mental health care is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the association between FMD, chronic conditions, and adverse health behaviors in Jordan. Methods The third cycle of the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (2007) served as the data source for this study. The sample consisted of 3,612 noninstitutionalized Jordanian adults aged 18 years or older. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios for the association between chronic conditions, health behaviors, and FMD adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Results In the adjusted models, people with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.7), high cholesterol (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.2), diabetes (AOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4), and asthma (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.1) and smokers (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0) were more likely to have FMD than people without each of these conditions. Adults who reported vigorous physical activity were less likely to have FMD (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9) than their less active counterparts. Conclusions In Jordan, FMD was associated with several chronic conditions. As a result, we suggest additional research to examine the complex relationship between FMD and chronic conditions. More doctors in the primary health care system should be trained in mental health.

Zindah, Meyasser; Belbeisi, Adel; Rolle, Italia V.; Walke, Henry; Strine, Tara; Perry, Geraldine S.; Jarrar, Bassam; Mokdad, Ali

2013-01-01

297

Techno-economic analysis of combined concentrating solar power and desalination plant configurations in Israel and Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined concentrating solar power (CSP) and desalination plants represent a realistic future option for the production of electricity and fresh water for countries of the world’s sunbelt. In this paper, parabolic trough power plants for electricity production have been analysed in combination with multi-effect distillation (MED) and ultrafiltration\\/reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants for two sites in Israel (Ashdod) and Jordan

Ralf Olwig; Tobias Hirsch; Christian Sattler; Heike Glade; Louisa Schmeken; Stefan Will; Andrea Ghermandi; Rami Messalem

2012-01-01

298

Tortula mucronifera (Pottiaeeae, Musei), a new xerophytic species of the Arabian Peninsula and Jordan Studies in Arabian bryophytes 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new xerophytic pottiaceous species, Tortula mueronijera is described from the Arabían Pen­ insula and Jordan. Because of its mucronate leaves, the ventrally thickened costa by a row of 3-4 elon­ gated, swollen, papillose cells, 2-3(-4) guide cells and the dorsal stereid band, 3-4 cells thick, it belongs to the section Crassinerves of the genus Tortula. In habit it resembles

Wolfgang Frey; Harald Kiirschner; Juan Guerra; María Jesús Cano

299

Groundwater vulnerability assessment and evaluation of human activity impact (HAI) within the Dead Sea groundwater basin, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater vulnerability to contamination was determined within the Dead Sea groundwater basin, Jordan, using the DRASTIC\\u000a model and evaluation of human activity impact (HAI). DRASTIC is an index model composed of several hydrogeological parameters\\u000a and, in this study, the recharge parameter component was calculated as a function of rainfall, soil permeability, slope percentage,\\u000a fault system, and the intersection locations between

Ahmad Al-Hanbali; Akihiko Kondoh

2008-01-01

300

Trace elements in atmospheric precipitation at Northern Jordan measured by ICP-MS: acidity and possible sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainwater samples were collected in a rural region in Northern Jordan using 24-h sampling periods from December 1998 to April 2000. All samples were analyzed for major ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, H+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl?, NO3? and SO42?) and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Al, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb and V). The majority of the rain samples collected

I. F. Al-Momani

2003-01-01

301

A Domestic Pas de Deux: The Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamist-Regime Relations in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first three decades of the Jordanian kingdom’s existence, the Muslim Brotherhood was a relatively apolitical charity organization that held a handful of seats in Parliament. From the mid-1970s onward, however, the Brotherhood grew substantially in size and influence, so much so that it is now the largest and most broad-based political party in Jordan. Looking at domestic, regional,

Simon Shogry

2008-01-01

302

The effects upon children in Jordan of the imprisonment of their fathersA social work perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThis study examined the effects upon children in Jordan of fathers being imprisoned. Interviews were conducted with 26 mothers of children and NUDIST was used for qualitative data analysis. As elsewhere, the study confirmed that children are adversely affected and stigmatized: problems related to emotional development, behaviour and schooling were evident.FrenchCette étude examine les effets sur les enfants de Jordanie

Fakir Al Gharaibeh

2008-01-01

303

Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel Valley toward the Jordan Valley, and then into Northern Jordan. Results confirmed the previous modeling results, suggesting that peak O3 values are observed at later hours as a function of distance from the Mediterranean coast and that maximum O 3 levels are found over northern Jordan. Based on the findings of the first phase that showed elevated O 3 and NOx levels over the Gulf of Aqaba, more investigation was required to assess air quality in the city of Aqaba. Accordingly, long term air quality monitoring study conducted by Jordanian scientists was undertaken during the years 2008-2009. The study was conducted using a fixed air quality station located in the city. Results of this study indicated that topography of the city, with mountains surrounding the city from the east, played a major role in the air masses recirculation and hence the transport of primary pollutants, including NOx from the southern industrial area and the transportation emissions into the northern part of the city. However, high O3 episodes were found to be associated with northern wind in the absence of air masses recirculation indicating the role of long range transport in causing these elevated levels. Thus, based on the results of these studies and in order to reduce the potential health impacts of O3 and its precursors in downwind areas, strategies to control these pollutants should be developed. These strategies should be based on better energy, traffic and industrial management since these are the three main pollution sources. The strategies should include more efficient use of raw materials and energy, better combustion and production technologies that utilize less fuel and emit less pollutant. Measures should include controlling precursors' emissions at the sources located along the east Mediterranean coast, mainly power generation facilities, oil refineries, ports activities, and traffic. In addition, local emissions in the region such as emissions in the Gulf of Aqaba should be reduced by adopting strategies that include the use of cleaner fuel (industry, ships, and vehicles), e

Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

304

Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing new water resources continues to be a challenge in water scarce regions and water reuse offers a sustainable means by which water availability can be maximised. In Jordan, treated domestic wastewater (reclaimed water) already provides a valuable contribution to the annual water budget. This resource is used for irrigation either directly around wastewater treatment plants, or indirectly after reclaimed water released from treatment plants has been transferred though natural waterways and blended with surface runoff. Direct reuse is employed for the irrigation of fodder crops such as barley or alfalfa, while indirect reuse is employed for the irrigation of high-value fruit and vegetable crops grown in the Jordan Valley, a major commercial agricultural area. In order to ensure water reuse is conducted successfully, it is essential that the benefits of reclaimed water (water availability, high nutrient content) are maximised while the potential risks (to human health, soil sustainability and agricultural yields) are minimised. Stakeholder participation in water reuse management decisions could raise the capacity of the water user (such as the farmer) to manage the risks without compromising the benefits of this resource. To investigate the extent to which stakeholders are participating in water reuse management, semi-structured interviews with farmers and institutional representatives were conducted in Jordan. A particular aim of the interviews was to explore the variation in participation between those stakeholders using reclaimed water directly and indirectly. The data collected during 56 interviews with Jordanian farmers showed that the farmers' perception and management of reclaimed water varied considerably between the indirect and direct users. The direct users had a greater level of satisfaction with the water (55 per cent of those asked described the water as "good water") and recognised that they were able to produce larger yields and raise their incomes through this resource. Direct users also felt that communication with the managers of the wastewater treatment plant was more effective and this enabled them to influence the final quality of the water they received (for example, through requesting a reduction in the chlorine concentration in the wastewater effluent due to the negative effect that chlorine has on crop quality). The indirect reuse farmers had a lower level of satisfaction with the reclaimed water (69 per cent of those asked described the water quality as bad). The interviews revealed that few farmers felt included in water resource management decisions and felt unable to discuss water quality concerns with government officials responsible for water distribution. The indirect reuse farmers seemed to be more concerned with water quality management at the individual farm level, through the installation of water filters to reduce the organic load of the water rather than through processes of lobbying or participatory involvement in decision-making to raise the quality of the water through top-down measures such as the enforcement of water quality legislation. The interviews with 29 organisational representatives drew attention to the sensitivity surrounding indirect water reuse which seems to inhibit open discussion of the topic. This is likely to be due to the nature of agriculture at the sites of indirect reuse. Institutional representatives appeared to be concerned with the risk of consumer rejection of produce grown with reclaimed water and the associated negative effects of rejection on agricultural income and employment. A strategy of reduced discussion seemed to be adopted in the attempt to minimise the potential for consumer rejection. The present research proposes that this strategy (adopted with the aim of protecting agriculture) could have the reverse effect though inhibiting the participation of farmers in water reuse planning and management (they are unable to take part in a process in which they are not recognised as being involved). Open discussion of reuse is necessa

Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

2010-05-01

305

Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ?111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ?1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ?385 ?35 ?48.25 ?1435 69.25 0.18 ?2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ?601.9 ?520.3 282.5 30 32.75 1032 81.6 0.29 974.13 J Wadi el Tarfa 590.5 507.40 277.9 27.9 40.33 1050 75.52 0.27 1029.25 Code Name of Catchment areaER 10 RB 11 CR 12 RR m/km 13 MCL (km) 14 TSL (km) 15 MCS (m/km) 16MCSR 17 A Wadi Arab 0.0499 402.25 0.742 22.88 33.4 157.8 52.78 0.139 B Wadi Zeglab 0.071 201.55 0.751 ?61.53 25.1 15.9 31.87 0.167 C Wadi Jurum ?0.193 27.00 1.078 17.86 15.3 61.6 26.14 ?0.248 D Wadi Yabis 0.070 203.92 0.941 15.87 23.7 122.1 39.38 0.194 E Wadi Kufanga 0.048 431.42 1.055 6.37 24.8 120.9 64.52 0.205 F Wadi Rajib 0.054 344.52 ?1.486 43.53 27.35 118.5 16.09 0.232 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 0.0398 633.15 0.906 44.35 ?43.7 258.1 26.64 0.169 H Wadi el Mallaha 0.024 ?1681. 1.186 41 23.5 ?285.7 ?68.48 0.061 I Wadi Nimrin 0.036 764.69 0.937 34.4 31.5 282.5 25.82 0.111 J Wadi el Tarfa 0.031 807.96 1.38 37.63 26.2 277.9 48.35 0.094. Code Name of Catchment AreaSD km2 18 CCM km2/km 19 MCSP 20 SR 21 RN m/km 22 FOS 23 DF 24 A Wadi Arab 1.411 0.71 4.59 1.53 897.4 57 0.51 B Wadi Zeglab 0.457 ?2.188 4.45 1.27 441.46 25 0.72 C Wadi Jurum 1.793 0.558 2.99 0.72 717.2 23 0.67 D Wadi Yabis 2.139 0.468 3.78 0.58 855.6 21 0.37 E Wadi Kufanga 4.543 0.220 3.09 ?1.55 558.8 20 0.75 F Wadi Rajib 3.778 0.265 6.85 0.43 4850.95 42 1.34 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 3.168 0.316 ?8.47 0.93 4045.53 73 0.896 H Wadi el Mallaha ?5.569 0.179 2.84 1.42 ?7991.51 ?159 2.26 I Wadi Nimrin 3.462 0.289 6.20 0.79 3572.8 60 0.74 J Wadi el Tarfa 3.679 0.271 3.77 1.2 3862.95 72 ?4.64 Continue to Table (1), Legend of Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics Lowest value . ? Highest value. Primary drainage Basin Characteristics TDA Total drainage Area NCDA Non-contributing drainage area BL Basin length BP Basin perimeter BS Average basin slope BR Basin relief MCL Main channel length TSL Total stream length MCS Main channel slope FOS No. of first order stream Calculated Basin Characteristics CDA Contributing drainage area BW Effective basin width SF Slope Factor ER Elongation ratio RB Rotundity of basin CR Compactness ratio RR Relative Relief MCSR Main Channel sinuosity ratio SD Stream

Abu Rukah, Y.

2009-04-01

306

Surface water management tool for arid lands of Jordan using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Jordan as well as most of the developing countries located in the and regions, water is a priority issue at national and individual levels. Several programs and management practices are in place to conserve the water resources and implement new water supplies to meet the demand of various sectors of the water users. With very high demand on the ground water resources, the limited surface water becomes a promising option as a new and innovative water source. The limited rainfall amounts that fall over wide areas of the and lands of Jordan (called the Badia) are of significant quantity and due to lack of proper management, the water is lost due to high evaporation rate. Wadi Salma catchment is 95.63 km2 located in the northeast part of the study area was selected to establish rainfall-runoff records. Also field experiments were performed at various parts of the study area to define the hydrologic response. Rainfall-runoff records showed a runoff coefficient of 14--24% for Wadi Salma Catchment. Rainfall simulations tests were used to estimate Curve Numbers (CN); high values (93.4--95.5) were estimated for different land surfaces. Also infiltration tests showed higher initial infiltration rate (fo) of 2.5 mm/min--3.7 mm/min for the channel beds and nearly the same final infiltration rate ( fc) of 0.2 mm/min--0.6 mm/min for all parts. A GIS based simulation tool was developed to simulate the runoff for the study area and two storms were used to test the model. Using initial abstraction (Ia) as 42% of the potential soil storage (S') was found to be the best estimation for rainfall losses calculation. Using the Muskingum routing method, a traveling parameter (K) equal to the traveling time and weighting parameter (x) of 0.18 were estimated for the study area. The simulation tool calculated the peak discharge and runoff volume with acceptable accuracy for the whole catchment; the difference in peak discharge estimation was 4% --6% and in runoff volume is 7% for the first storm and 10% for the second storm.

Alayyash, Saad Mohammed

307

Measurements, Fingerprint, Modeling - Compiling a sediment budget in a data scarce catchment in NW Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regard to the quantitative and qualitative water problems in Jordan the soil layer and its physical integrity is important to slow down runoff, guarantee infiltration, and a sensible parameter in terms of hydrologic modeling. Erosion harms this potential and needs to be better understood and quantified in the region. Therefore, a multiple response approach was implemented to compile a sediment budget for the research area Wadi Al-Arab in the NW of Jordan (263,5km2). The climate is Mediterranean to semi-arid with <300 to 550mm of rain in winter. Mainly marl and limestone of the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleocene make up the catchment's geology. The area is characterized by an agricultural basin in the east and an increase in relief energy to the west and south. Different field measurements were implemented on relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, natural vegetated slopes and exposed rock with patchy vegetation as well as the Wadi Al Arab Dam Lake as the final sink. The focus involved the quantification of the yearly sediment yields and the deposition in the lake, respectively. In a second step a multiple sediment fingerprint was applied including the geochemical differentiation of the sources with inorganic elements and radio nuclides. The relative importance of each source could be calculated on the basis of lake sediment samples. Results of these two approaches cover different spatial scales and only partly integrate the transport way. Hence, they cannot be directly compared but consider the problem from different perspectives and are used in the final step to calibrate and validate the setup of the SedNet model (Wilkinson et al. 2008) for the catchment. The model offers the possibility to incorporate additional raster information, includes additional sources such as gully and bank erosion, and takes account for different areas of deposition according to the measured and regionalized discharge in the region. Its' implementation helped to test the field findings to their limits and provides a more holistic sediment budget for Wadi Al-Arab. Reference: Wilkinson, S., Henderson, A., Chen, Y., Sherman, B. (2008): SedNet User Guide. Client Report, CSIRO Land and Water; Canberra.

Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Wilkinson, Scott; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

308

Twenty thousand-year-old huts at a hunter-gatherer settlement in eastern Jordan.  

PubMed

Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22-11,600 cal BP) inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian) is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity--precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less well known and generally considered as campsites for small groups of seasonally-mobile hunter-gatherers. Work at the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharaneh IV in eastern Jordan highlights that some of these earlier sites were large aggregation base camps not unlike those of the Natufian and contributes to ongoing debates on their duration of occupation. Here we discuss the excavation of two 20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores) that indicate substantial settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian homeland as currently understood. PMID:22355366

Maher, Lisa A; Richter, Tobias; Macdonald, Danielle; Jones, Matthew D; Martin, Louise; Stock, Jay T

2012-02-15

309

Metals distribution in soils around the cement factory in southern Jordan.  

PubMed

Thirty one soil samples were collected from south Jordan around the cement factory in Qadissiya area. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometery for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu and Cr. Physicochemical factors believed to affect their mobility of metals in soil of the study area were examined such as; pH, TOM, CaCO3, CEC and conductivity. The relatively high concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium in the soil samples of the investigated area were related to anthropogenic sources such as cement industry, agriculture activities and traffic emissions. It was found that the lead, zinc and cadmium have the highest level in area close to the cement factory, while the concentration of chromium was low. This study indicate that all of the metals are concentrated on the surface soil, and decreased in the lower part of the soil, this due to reflects their mobility and physical properties of soil and its alkaline pH values. The use of factor analysis showed that anthropogenic activities seem to be the responsible source of pollution for metals in urban soils. PMID:16361028

Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

2005-12-19

310

Molecular survey of avian respiratory pathogens in commercial broiler chicken flocks with respiratory diseases in Jordan.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry. In this study, trachea swabs from 115 commercial broiler chicken flocks that suffered from respiratory disease were tested for AIV subtype H9N2, IBV, NDV, and APV by using reverse transcription PCR and for MG by using PCR. The PCR and reverse transcription PCR results showed that 13 and 14.8% of these flocks were infected with NDV and IBV, respectively, whereas 5.2, 6.0, 9.6, 10.4, 11.3, and 15.7% of these flocks were infected with both NDV and MG; MG and APV; IBV and NDV; IBV and MG; NDV and AIV; and IBV and AIV, respectively. Furthermore, 2.6% of these flocks were infected with IBV, NDV, and APV at the same time. On the other hand, 11.3% of these flocks were negative for the above-mentioned respiratory diseases. Our data showed that the above-mentioned respiratory pathogens were the most important causes of respiratory disease in broiler chickens in Jordan. Further studies are necessary to assess circulating strains, economic losses caused by infections and coinfections of these pathogens, and the costs and benefits of countermeasures. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs and importance of these pathogens. PMID:18281569

Roussan, D A; Haddad, R; Khawaldeh, G

2008-03-01

311

An artistic and mythological study of a Nabatean female Sphinx from Petra, Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1967 the Group of Sculptures was discovered in Petra during clearance works organized by the Department of Antiquities in Jordan in the Temenos of Qasr el Bint around the Temenos Gate. One of these sculptures was a high relief statue of a female sphinx. Due to the paucity of information about this statue, this paper has been written to answer a number of questions: What was its original site or monument? When was it made? Who was the deity or deities it represented? Could there be another interpretation of its existence? The answers to the above provide enlightenment of Nabataean styles of carvings and an insight into their religious thoughts. Rgarding the interpretation of the Female Sphinx. Three ideas have been suggested. First, it can be the main Nabataean goddess Allat, "the mother of the gods". Second, it is an image of Petra as a goddess. Third, it is carved on the Temenos Gate as a guardian of Petra city in general and its holy monuments like temples and tombs in particular.

Almasri, Eyad R.; Al-Ajlouny, Fardous K.; Alghazawi, Raed Y.

312

Age and seasonal variations in the prevalence of Oestrus ovis larvae among sheep in northern Jordan.  

PubMed

During the period March 1996-July 1997, 417 heads of Awassi sheep slaughtered at the Irbid Abattoir (northern Jordan) were examined for the three larval instars (L1, L2 and L3) of Oestrus ovis. Of the 417 heads, 242 (58%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. Larval numbers were highly aggregated. The lowest number of larvae and the lower quartile were both zero, whilst the median was two and the upper quartile was 12. The highest number of larvae recovered from one head was 151. All three larval instars were observed in each month of the year. July and October had the highest proportions of L1, 75 and 78%, respectively, among infected animals (adjusted for age). The number of larvae increased with age. Infestation with live larvae was associated with inflammatory responses in the upper respiratory tract and with catarrhal or purulent discharge. The percentage of infested sheep and the mean monthly total number of larvae/sheep peaked in the warmer part of the year. Most larvae were L1 except during the spring when L2 and L3 predominated. Distribution analysis demonstrates that the numbers of larvae recovered in the sheep population followed a negative-binomial distribution. Furthermore, the negative-binomial constant k for each month correlated with the monthly prevalence. PMID:11058780

Abo-Shehada, M N; Arab, B; Mekbel, R; Williams, D; Torgerson, P R

2000-11-16

313

Methodological challenges in evaluating performance, impact and ranking of IWRM strategies in the Jordan Valley.  

PubMed

The philosophy of integrated water resource management (IWRM), as formulated in several international summits, yielded numerous interpretations and extensions over the last decade but always focused on the overall objective of maximizing the welfare and livelihood of the people concerned. One of the major constraints of this concept is the gap between the well-defined philosophy and the fuzzy definition of operational and testable indicators for the achievement of its goals. This leads to difficulties in the evaluation of potential contributions from technological and managerial improvements. The experience of the multi-lateral IWRM research initiative SMART in the lower Jordan Valley shows that the evaluation and ranking of alternative IWRM strategies and their elements relies simultaneously on the identification of local goals and their interfaces with the superordinate national water sector policies. The documentation of the, still ongoing, development process of suitable assessment procedures describes their methodological embedding and conclusions drawn for the heterogeneous situation of water-related settings in this transboundary watershed. PMID:22864424

Wolff, H P; Wolf, L; Subah, A; Guttman, J; Tamimi, A; Jarrar, A; Salman, A; Karablieh, E

2012-01-01

314

Scalar-tensor cosmologies: Fixed points of the Jordan frame scalar field  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of homogeneous and isotropic, flat cosmological models within the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with arbitrary coupling function and potential. After introducing the limit of general relativity we describe the details of the phase space geometry. Using the methods of dynamical systems for the decoupled equation of the Jordan frame scalar field we find the fixed points of flows in two cases: potential domination and matter domination. We present the conditions on the mathematical form of the coupling function and potential which determine the nature of the fixed points (attractor or other). There are two types of fixed points, both are characterized by cosmological evolution mimicking general relativity, but only one of the types is compatible with the Solar System parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) constraints. The phase space structure should also carry over to the Einstein frame as long as the transformation between the frames is regular which however is not the case for the latter (PPN compatible) fixed point.

Jaerv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Tartu Observatory, Toravere 61602 (Estonia)

2008-10-15

315

Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

316

Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan.  

PubMed

The principal chemical components of milk from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) were monitored in Jordan over one year. The analyses included total solids, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and organic acids. Large seasonal variations in total solids and fat were apparent, with maxima in mid-winter of 139 and 39.0 g/l, respectively, and minima in August of 102 and 25.0 g/l. These differences may be sufficient to alter the sensory properties of the milk, and the fat: casein ratio may need standardisation for cheesemaking. The mean values of trace elements like zinc (5.8 mg/l), iron (4.4 mg/l) and manganese (0.05 mg/l) in Jordanian camel milk could provide valuable additions to the diet of urban populations, as could the mean concentration of vitamin C (33 mg/l). The levels of organic acids were generally higher than in bovine milk and, as with all the constituents of the milk, there were discernible patterns linking concentration and season of the year. PMID:17971263

Haddadin, Malik Sy; Gammoh, Sana I; Robinson, Richard K

2007-10-31

317

Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques utilized in this study include a temperature survey and chemical analysis of wells and springs, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. Also, further site specific gravity modelling for the Warm Springs fault geothermal area and initial modelling for the entire valley were also conducted. Areas identified as having potential low-temperature geothermal resources at depth are: (1) the north-central valley area; (2) an east-west portion of the central valley; and (3) a north-south oriented area extending from Draper to Midvale. Each of these areas exhibits ground-water temperatures 20/sup 0/C or greater. Each area has thermal wells with common ion characteristics similar to both Crystal Hot Springs and the Warm Springs fault geothermal systems. Significant concentrations of Sr, Li, B, and F are present in many of these wells.

Klauk, R.H.

1984-07-01

318

Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’. PMID:22413173

Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

2012-01-01

319

Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer Settlement in Eastern Jordan  

PubMed Central

Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22–11,600 cal BP) inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian) is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity—precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less well known and generally considered as campsites for small groups of seasonally-mobile hunter-gatherers. Work at the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharaneh IV in eastern Jordan highlights that some of these earlier sites were large aggregation base camps not unlike those of the Natufian and contributes to ongoing debates on their duration of occupation. Here we discuss the excavation of two 20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores) that indicate substantial settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian homeland as currently understood.

Maher, Lisa A.; Richter, Tobias; Macdonald, Danielle; Jones, Matthew D.; Martin, Louise; Stock, Jay T.

2012-01-01

320

A Unique Human-Fox Burial from a Pre-Natufian Cemetery in the Levant (Jordan)  

PubMed Central

New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000–11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500–11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of ‘Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

Maher, Lisa A.; Stock, Jay T.; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J. N.; Miracle, Preston T.; Banning, Edward B.

2011-01-01

321

Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan.  

PubMed

Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and "domestic" settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with "special purpose" buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities. PMID:21536900

Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Mari?evi?, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

2011-05-02

322

The psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan: A national study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan, distinguishing between the impact on working school children, nonworking school children and working and nonschooled children. More than 351 million children across the world work. Emotional, behavioral and psychiatric problems in working children are a considerable public health problem in developing countries. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used in this study. All data were collected in 2010. A total of 4008 children aged six to 16 years were interviewed. Of these, 2093 (52.2%) were nonworking school children, 896 (22.4%) working school children, and 1019 (25.4%) working and nonschooled children. Working school children reported psychosocial problems more often than working and nonschooled children. Child labour has a negative impact on children's psychosocial health and development. These findings indicate that psychoeducational support and problem-solving programs help children to cope better with the consequences of their work and study. More effort is needed to reduce children's involvement in labour. Understanding the impact of work on child mental and social health is essential to inform policy and future research as well as to improve the lives of children. PMID:23586366

Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Matrouk, Reema; Nawaiseh, Maram Al

2013-04-15

323

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases: single center experience in Jordan.  

PubMed

HSCT can be curative for many PID. Little is known about the outcome of HSCT for patients with PID in the developing countries. We retrospectively reviewed all children with PID who received HSCT at KHCC in Jordan between August 2003 and October 2011. Twenty-eight patients were identified. The median age was 16 months (3 months-17 yr). Patients' diagnoses were SCID (n = 16), CHS (n = 3), HLH (n = 3), WAS (n = 2), Griscelli syndrome (n = 1), ALPS (n = 1), Omenn's syndrome (n = 1), and DiGeorge syndrome (n = 1). Seventeen patients received HLA-matched related HSCT, eight received maternal un-manipulated haploidentical HSCT, and three received unrelated cord blood transplantation. Nine patients (32%) developed BCGosis secondary to reactivation of pretransplant vaccination. Three died while still receiving anti-tuberculosis drugs, one still on treatment, and all others have recovered. Six patients had graft failure; four of them received no conditioning regimens. At a median follow up of 32 months (range 1-67), 21 patients are alive, with overall survival of 72%. We conclude that HSCT for PID patients can be performed with a good outcome in developing countries; however, delayed diagnosis or referral and BCG reactivation are unique challenges. PMID:23692601

Amayiri, Nisreen; Al-Zaben, Abdulhadi; Ghatasheh, Lubna; Frangoul, Haydar; Hussein, Ayad Ahmed

2013-06-01

324

A review of 16 cases of honour killings in Jordan in 1995.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine the causes of death as reported in court files of the female victims of honour crimes, the Jordanian penal codes regarding crimes of honour, the evidence used in the sentencing of the defendants, the types of weapons used, the characteristics of the physical assaults on the victims and the sentencing of the offenders. A retrospective study of crimes of honour in Jordan was conducted, and the 16 homicide cases considered to be crimes of honour were reviewed. The autopsy reports of the victims provided information on the physical condition of the victims, including the type and severity of injuries. In over 60% of the honour crime cases, multiple gunshot wounds were the direct cause of death. In cases where the victim was a single pregnant female, the offender was acquitted of murder or received a reduced sentence. The majority of murders were committed by the brother of the victim and the length of sentence received by the offender varied from no sentence to life with hard labour. Offenders who received the harshest punishment were those whose victims married without the family consent. PMID:11508804

Hadidi, M; Kulwicki, A; Jahshan, H

2001-01-01

325

Ineffective contraceptive use and its causes in a natural fertility population in southern Jordan.  

PubMed

Based on our interview survey of 574 randomly selected married women from a rural population in the South Ghor district, Jordan, where traditional Arab customs have been persistently maintained, in this paper we analyze the age-specific marital fertility rates (ASMFRs) and contraceptive practices, especially the prevalence and duration of contraceptive use. The ASMFRs fitted the natural fertility pattern proposed by Coale and Trussell's model, and the total fertility rate was estimated to be 7.2. Even though the prevalence rate of modern contraceptive methods has reached 14.3%, because of the recent increase among young women in particular, the users had larger numbers of children than the nonusers and the duration of contraceptive use was short, especially at young ages (e.g., about 90% 24-month discontinuation probabilities in 15-19- and 20-24-year-olds). These ineffective contraceptive uses were related to traditional Arab norms, represented by the pooled proportion of "as many as possible" and "up to God" answers to the ideal number of children (70% of men and 30% of women). PMID:15757242

Sueyoshi, Shuji; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

2004-10-01

326

Reported incidence, causes, and reporting of medication errors in teaching hospitals in Jordan: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This research assessed the reported incidence, causes and reporting of medication errors in intensive care units (ICUs) and wards of Jordanian teaching hospitals. There are few studies about medication errors in Jordan. This survey was conducted in 2010 using a convenience sample of 212 nurses from four teaching hospitals. The response rate was 70.6% (212/300). The mean of the reported incidence of medication errors for the whole sample was 35%; 36.4% in ICUs and 33.8% in wards. An inaccurate rate of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was the scenario most commonly classified as a drug error; for this nurses would notify the physician, and complete an incident report. Poor quality or damaged medication labels were the most commonly reported causes of errors. Nurses failed to report medication errors because they were afraid that they might be subjected to disciplinary actions. There were some significant differences between ICUs and wards in assessment of clinical scenarios, causes of medication errors as well as their reporting. Reporting of medication errors should be encouraged. Immediate interventions should be initiated by all healthcare professionals in all clinical settings, especially in wards. PMID:22800388

Mrayyan, Majd T

2012-06-01

327

Reported incidence, causes, and reporting of medication errors in teaching hospitals in Jordan: A comparative study.  

PubMed

Abstract This research assessed the reported incidence, causes and reporting of medication errors in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and wards of Jordanian teaching hospitals. There are few studies about medication errors in Jordan. This survey was conducted in 2010 using a convenience sample of 212 nurses from four teaching hospitals. The response rate was 70.6% (212/300). The mean of the reported incidence of medication errors for the whole sample was 35%; 36.4% in ICUs and 33.8% in wards. An inaccurate rate of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) was the scenario most commonly classified as a drug error; for this nurses would notify the physician, and complete an incident report. Poor quality or damaged medication labels were the most commonly reported causes of errors. Nurses failed to report medication errors because they were afraid that they might be subjected to disciplinary actions. There were some significant differences between ICUs and wards in assessment of clinical scenarios, causes of medication errors as well as their reporting. Reporting of medication errors should be encouraged. Immediate interventions should be initiated by all healthcare professionals in all clinical settings, especially in wards. PMID:22551274

Mrayyan, Majd T

2012-02-13

328

Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.  

PubMed

Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

2010-06-07

329

Subsidence and Sinkhole Hazard Assessment in the Southern Dead Sea Area, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea area is increasingly facing serious subsidence and sinkhole hazards. On March 22, 2000, the dyke of a two-month old major salt evaporation pond, located along the shore of the Lisan Peninsula (Jordan), collapsed over almost two kilometers. The pond was set up over unstable new lands that have been progressively emerging during the last three decades. In one hour, 56 millions m3 of brine poured out into the northern, natural part of the Sea. Here, we present data suggesting that the drop of the water level, in conjunction with the particular tectonic setting of this area, is at least one of the factors that led to the disaster. We focused our study over the northern part of the Lisan Peninsula and Ghor Al Haditha which are two places undergoing the most intense deformations along the Jordanian Dead Sea coast. We used the results of a static high precision gravimetric survey to detect subsurface cavities in Ghor Al Haditha. We analyzed a interferometric digital terrain model of the recent emerged platform of the Lisan peninsula and interpreted radar differential interferograms contemporary with gravity measurements for the peninsula. We discuss the possibilities to detect, assess and monitor areas prone to collapse on the Jordanian side of the southern Dead Sea coast.

Closson, Damien; Karaki, Najib Abou; Klinger, Yann; Hussein, Musa Jad

2005-02-01

330

High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan  

PubMed Central

Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Munger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

2008-01-01

331

Relationship Between Vehicle Count and Particulate Air Pollution in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P < .001; PM10, r = 0.719, P < .001). There was a significant positive relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P < .001; PM10, P < .001. Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature. PMID:22899706

Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Md Isa, Zaleha

2012-08-16

332

Caries prevalence and periodontal treatment needs in public and private school pupils in Jordan.  

PubMed

A total of 886 pupils aged 15-16 years selected from 20 public and 10 private schools in northern Jordan were investigated for frequency of toothbrushing and sweet consumption, dental caries and periodontal treatment needs. A questionnaire and clinical examination were used utilising decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) code and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), respectively. Results revealed that 35.5 per cent of public and 57.1 per cent of private school pupils reported to brush their teeth regularly while the majority of them frequently consumed sweets. There were slight differences in caries experience amongst public and private school pupils, as measured by DMFT (4.74: 4.95). While bleeding and calculus scores were prevalent in pupils of both types of schools, they were slightly higher in pupils of public schools than those in private schools. Both shallow and deep pathological pockets were found in fewer numbers (6.09 per cent) in pupils in public schools only. Oral hygiene instruction and scaling were the predominant periodontal treatment needs in both types of schools. However, the treatment needed by pupils in public schools was higher than those in private schools. Complex treatment was rarely needed by public school pupils only. PMID:9448794

Taani, D Q

1997-04-01

333

An isotopic perspective on the transport of Byzantine mining camp laborers into southwestern Jordan.  

PubMed

The Byzantine Empire managed a complex administrative network that controlled the mining and processing of natural resources from within its boundaries. Scholars relying upon archeological and textual evidence debate the level of imperial involvement in these ventures, particularly in the provinces. Ancient sources note that many mining camps, for instance, purportedly contained criminal laborers and elite administrators transported from distant locales, indicating significant organization and expenditures by the imperial administration to run the mines. This analysis explores the presence of these nonlocal individuals in a cemetery associated with the third to seventh century A.D. mining camp of Phaeno (Faynan), located in modern Jordan. Strontium isotope analysis of 31 burials indicates that most spent their childhood in a similar geological region as Phaeno, implying that they were locally born. The delta(18)O results mirror the homogeneous (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, confirming a local origin for most of the sample. Isotopic evidence therefore suggests that the Phaeno mining camp was largely a local operation, contrary to the picture presented in textual sources, although the profits surely padded imperial coffers. PMID:19425090

Perry, Megan A; Coleman, Drew S; Dettman, David L; al-Shiyab, Abdel Halim

2009-11-01

334

Wellness appraisal among adolescents in Jordan: a model from a developing country: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

The demographic and economic transition that many developing countries, including Jordan, are undergoing is producing important changes in diet and lifestyle that greatly impact the development of chronic illness. The health behavior of adolescents in developing countries constitutes one of the most serious global challenges we face. The purpose of this study was to explore the wellness appraisal of Jordanian adolescents. It specifically describes the (i) self-care and health history pattern, (ii) to assess physical activity and nutrition appraisal, (iii) quality of life appraisal and (iv) school and outside activities appraisal. A self-administrated questionnaire collected the data from adolescent groups (boys and girls.). A multi-stage stratified random sample was obtained from six public schools by first selecting the educational directorate located in the city of Irbid, which is located in the north of Jordan. A random sub sample of six individual schools was then selected. Individual classes were then selected. A total of 269 boys and 261 girls (12-17-year old) were included in the analysis. The results showed that the students engaged in risky health behaviors which could lead to short- and long-term health problems. The most alarming finding of this study was students' nutritional habits, including less than the daily requirements of fruits, vegetables, milk and meat, while the intake of fast food, soft drinks and sweets were higher than recommended. School-based health promotion and wellness programs should be established in Jordan to influence the health behaviors of adolescents and parents and to avoid further deterioration of their health. Jordanian school curriculum needs to integrate more precise health education programs about diet, exercise, self care and other life style behaviors. More detailed studies are needed with more elaborate instruments about food habits, physical activities and psycho social life. PMID:19304735

Haddad, Linda G; Owies, Arwa; Mansour, Amani

2009-03-19

335

Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone: U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A vast sequence of quartz-rich sandstone was deposited over North Africa and Arabia during Early Palaeozoic times, in the aftermath of Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny and the amalgamation of Gondwana. This rock sequence forms a relatively thin sheet (1-3 km thick) that was transported over a very gentle slope and deposited over a huge area. The sense of transport indicates unroofing of Gondwana terranes but the exact provenance of the siliciclastic deposit remains unclear. Detrital zircons from Cambrian arkoses that immediately overlie the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield in Israel and Jordan yielded Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages (900-530 Ma), suggesting derivation from a proximal source such as the Arabian-Nubian Shield. A minor fraction of earliest Neoproterozoic and older age zircons was also detected. Upward in the section, the proportion of old zircons increases and reaches a maximum (40%) in the Ordovician strata of Jordan. The major earliest Neoproterozoic and older age groups detected are 0.95-1.1, 1.8-1.9 and 2.65-2.7 Ga, among which the 0.95-1.1 Ga group is ubiquitous and makes up as much as 27% in the Ordovician of Jordan, indicating it is a prominent component of the detrital zircon age spectra of northeast Gondwana. The pattern of zircon ages obtained in the present work reflects progressive blanketing of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield by Cambrian-Ordovician sediments and an increasing contribution from a more distal source, possibly south of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The significant changes in the zircon age signal reflect many hundreds of kilometres of southward migration of the provenance. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

Kolodner, K.; Avigad, D.; McWilliams, M.; Wooden, J. L.; Weissbrod, T.; Feinstein, S.

2006-01-01

336

Use of information and communication technology among dental students at the University of Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the current knowledge, skills, and opinions of undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan with respect to information communication technology (ICT). Dental students from the second, third, fourth, and fifth years were asked to complete a questionnaire presented in a lecture at the end of the second semester in the 2002-03 academic year. The response rate was 81 percent. Besides free and unlimited access to computers at the school of dentistry, 74 percent of the students had access to computers at home. However, 44 percent did not use a computer regularly. Male students were more regular and longer users of computers than females (p<0.001). A significant number of students (70 percent) judged themselves competent in information technology (IT) skills. More males felt competent in basic IT skills than did females (p<0.05). More than two-thirds acquired their computer skills through sources other than at the university. The main educational use of computers was accessing the Internet, word processing, multimedia, presentations, Medline search, and data management. More clinical students felt competent in word-processing skills (p<0.05) and many more used word processing for their studies (p<0.001) than did preclinical students. More males used word processing for their studies than females (p<0.001). Students used computers for personal activities more frequently than for academic reasons. More males used computers for both academic (p<0.01) and personal activities (p<0.001) than did females. All students had access to the Internet at the university, and 54 percent had access at home. A high percentage of students (94 percent) indicated they were comfortable using the Internet, 75 percent said they were confident in the accuracy, and 80 percent said they were confident in the relevance of information obtained from the Internet. Most students (90 percent) used email. Most students (83 percent) supported the idea of placing lectures on the web, and 61.2 percent indicated that this would not influence lecture attendance. Students used the Internet more for personal reasons than for the study of dentistry. More clinical students used the Internet for dentistry than preclinical students (p<0.001). More males than females used the Internet for dentistry (p<0.01) as well as for pleasure (p<0.01). Time and availability were the main obstacles to Internet use. Dental students at the University of Jordan have access to substantial IT resources and demonstrated attitudes toward the computer and Internet technology and use that were similar to other students in other nations. However, the educational use of ICT among Jordanian students remains low. PMID:15749951

Rajab, Lamis D; Baqain, Zaid H

2005-03-01

337

Slip deficit along the Jordan Valley segment of the Dead Sea Fault from paleoseismology, historical seismology and archeoseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 110-km-long fault rupture of the Jordan Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault exhibits a significant late Quaternary active deformation. We document repeated earthquake ruptures from geomorphological and paleoseismic investigations at three sites along the fault combined with the historical seismicity catalogue and previous studies in archeology. At Ghor Katar, offset stream gullies display increasing cumulative displacements that may be sorted into six distinct classes. Climatic record of Lake Lisan -a precursor to the Dead Sea- reveals that three intense drops in lake level followed by three strong rainfall episodes are responsible for the onset of gullies. We establish a chronology of the six displacement classes using climatic events and obtain a 5 ± 0.2 mm/yr left-lateral slip-rate for the last 47 ka, in agreement with the 4 to 6 mm/yr measured on neighboring fault segments. At Ghor Kabed, paleoseismic trenches dug across the bounding faults of a pull-apart basin show that at least two fault movements have occurred between A.D. 560 and A.D. 1800 (2?-calibration) and can be attributed with the A.D. 749 and A.D. 1033 large earthquakes (M>7) that struck the Jordan Valley. Further north, at the archeological site of Tell Es-Saidiyeh, ~ 7 m and ~ 114 m cumulative left-lateral offsets of a drainage pattern indicate the succession of fault movements and related past large earthquakes. Paleoseismic trenches evidence up to 8 surface-rupturing events during the last 14 ka, of which the most recent is radiocarbon dated and may be correlated to the historical A.D. 1033 earthquake. Archeoseismic data from previous investigations indicate levels of destruction possibly due to past earthquakes at ~ 2900 B.C. and ~ 1130 B.C.. Considering the Jordan Valley Fault has accumulated 5 ± 0.2 mm/yr since the last large earthquake of A.D. 1033, a total of ~ 5 m of slip is yet to be released along the fault segment. The paleoseismic record along the Jordan Valley fault spans several seismic cycles and suggests 1000 to 1400 year recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the last 14 ka.

Ferry, M. A.; Meghraoui, M.; Abou Karaki, N.; Al-Taj, M.; Barjous, M.; Grootes, P.; Nadeau, M.

2006-12-01

338

Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. METHODS: A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment. RESULTS: Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam or intra-canal medicaments. PMID:15361258

Al-Omari, Wael M

2004-09-10

339

Public awareness of the abuse of herbs and drugs to decrease body weight: a novel national survey in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The aim of this investigation was to measure the degree of public preferences regarding the various weight-loss practices\\u000a and to assess the level of awareness regarding the risks and health hazards associated with the application of unhealthful\\u000a measures to lose weight.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Approximately 30,000 individuals selected from various regions in Jordan filled in a self?reported questionnaire. Participants\\u000a were interviewed by well–trained

Saafan A. Al-Safi; Nehad M. Ayoub; Abeer M. Ayoub; Enaam Al-Momany; Imad Al-Doghim; Mosa’b Al-Balas; Ahmad S. Alkofahi; Faisal H. Aboul-Enein; Basil H. Aboul-Enein

2008-01-01

340

Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.  

PubMed

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy. PMID:21952870

Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

2011-09-28

341

Shock-metamorphic microfeatures in chert from the Jebel Waqf as Suwwan impact structure, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrographic investigation of a shocked, chalcedony-, quartzine-, and quartz-bearing allochthonous chert nodule (probably Upper Cretaceous) recovered from surficial wadi gravels in the inner parts of the central uplift of the approximately 6 km in diameter Jebel Waqf as Suwwan impact structure, Jordan, reveals new potential shock indicators in microfibrous-spherulitic silica, in addition to well-established shock-metamorphic effects in coarser crystalline quartz. The microcrystalline chert groundmass exhibits a macroscopic dendritic and suborthogonal fracture pattern commonly associated with thin "recrystallization bands" that intersect the pre-existing diagenetic chert fabric. Fibrous aggregates of quartzine spherulites in chalcedony-quartzine-quartz veinlets locally have a shattered appearance and show conspicuous "curved fractures" perpendicular to the quartzine fiber direction (and parallel to [0001]) that commonly trend subparallel to planar fractures (PFs) in neighboring shocked quartz. Quartz exhibits PFs, feather features (FFs), and mainly single sets of planar deformation features (PDFs) parallel to the basal plane (0001) (Brazil twins) and, rarely, additional PDFs parallel to {101¯3}. Shock petrography indicates shock pressures of ?10 GPa and high shock-induced differential stresses that affected the chert nodule. The internal crosscutting relationships of primary diagenetic and impact-related deformational features together with shockpressure estimates suggest that the curved fractures across quartzine spherulites might represent specific (low- to medium-pressure) shock-metamorphic features, possibly in structural analogy to basal plane PFs in quartz. The dendritic-suborthogonal fractures in the microcrystalline chert groundmass and recrystallization bands are likely related to impact-induced shear deformation and recrystallization, respectively, and cannot be considered as definite shock indicators.

Schmieder, Martin; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Buchner, Elmar; Khirfan, Maria; Salameh, Elias; Khoury, Hani

2011-04-01

342

Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ca Mg relationship in groundwaters strongly points to the overall dolomitization and local albitization. The Mg/Ca ratios reveal two trends by which saline waters develop: increase of Mg/Ca ratio by evaporation and decreasing Mg/Ca ratios due to dolomitization and albitization. Br/Cl vs. Na/Cl ratios demonstrate that albitization does not play a major role which leaves dolomitization to be the main source for decreasing Mg/Ca ratios in saline waters. In the eastern and southern Region of Lake Kinneret, salinization occurs by mixing with a Ca/Mg molar ratio <1 brine (Ha’On type). Along the western shoreline of the Lake, a Ca/Mg > 1 dominates, which developed by the albitization of plagioclase in abundant mafic volcanics and the dolomitization of limestones. The most saline groundwater of the Tabgha-, Fuliya-, and Tiberias clusters could be regional derivatives of at least two mother brines: in diluted form one is represented by Ha’On water, the other is a Na-rich brine of the Zemah type. Additionally, a deep-seated Ca-dominant brine may ascend along the fractures on the western side of Lake Kinneret, which is absent on the eastern side. Groundwaters of the Lower Jordan Valley are chemically different on both sides of the Jordan River, indicating that the exchange of water is insignificant. All saline waters from the Dead Sea and its surroundings represent a complex mixture of brines, and precipitation and local dissolution of halite and gypsum. Many wells of the Arava/Araba Valley pump groundwater from the Upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer, the origin of the water is actually from the Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group sandstones. Groundwater drawn from the Quaternary alluvial fill either originates from Kurnub Group sandstones (Eilat 108, Yaalon 117) or from altered limestones of the Judea Group. The origin of these waters is from floods flowing through wadis incised into calcareous formations of the Judea Group. On the other hand, as a result of step-faulting, hydraulic contact is locally established between the Kurnub- and the Judea Groups aquifers facilitating the inter-aquifer flow of the confined Kurnub paleowater into the karstic formations of the Judea Group. Two periods of Neogene brine formation are considered: the post-Messinan inland lagoon resulting in drying up of the Sdom Sea and the evaporation of the Pleistocene Samra Lake, which went further through the stage of Lake Lisan to the present Dead Sea. For the first period, major element hydrochemistry suggests that the saline waters and brines in the Jordan-Dead Sea Arava Valley transform evolved from the gradual evaporation of an accumulating mixture of sea-, ground-, and surface water. Due to the precipitation of carbonates, gypsum, and halite, such an evaporating primary water body was strongly enriched in Mg, Br, and B and shows high molar ratios of Br/Cl, B/Cl, and Mg/Ca but low Na/Cl ratios. The development of the Br/Cl ratio is chemically modelled, showing that indeed brine development is explicable that way. Along with the evaporation brine, evaporites formed which are leached by infiltrating fresh water yielding secondary brines with Na/Cl ratios of 1. When primary brines infiltrated the sub-surface, they were subjected to Mg Ca exchange in limestones (dolomitization) and to chloritization and albitization in basic igneous rocks turning them into Ca-Cl brines. These tertiary brines are omnipresent in the Rift. The brines of the late Lisan and Dead Sea were generated by evaporating drainage waters, which leached halite, gypsum, and carbonates from the soil and from the sub-surface. All these brines are still being flushed out by meteoric water, resulting in saline groundwaters. This flushing is regionally enhanced by intensive groundwater exploitation. In variable proportions, the Neogene and late Lisan Lake and Recent Dead Sea brines have to be considered as the most serious sources of salinization of groundwaters in the Rift. Deep-seated pre-Sdom brines cannot strictly be excluded, but if active they play a negligible role only.

Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

2007-06-01

343

Assessment of health awareness and its sources among journalism and mass communication students at yarmouk university, jordan.  

PubMed

This study assesses the overall health awareness level of students of the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at Yarmouk University/Jordan who are supposed to have an important leadership role among mass media professionals in Jordan. A Health Awareness Test (HAT) was administered to a random sample of 139 students of this group (52.85% of the target population). Findings revealed that their overall average performance on the HAT was significantly much lower than the acceptable criterion score determined by the HAT authors. Female students' performance on the HAT was significantly higher than males' performance. The academic level of these students (2nd, 3rd or 4th academic year) did not have significant influence on their scores. Furthermore, the two-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the achievement of the study subjects on the HAT by sex and academic level. The major sources of the health awareness information of these students ranked by order were: mass media, self-education, academic preparation (information included in the curricula), family and peers, and finally cultural events in the form of extra-curricular activities at the University. Recommendations based upon these results are given. PMID:20841296

El-Qaderi, S S

1997-01-01

344

Jordan v. The City of New London, police hiring and IQ: “When all the answers they don’t amount to much”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent case of Jordan v. The City of New London a police applicant was denied employment because he scored too well on the cognitive ability portion of his written application test. The importance of the case stems from its potential impact on three areas. First, in a time of shrinking applications to police forces, legal decisions related to

Tom “Tad” Hughes

2003-01-01

345

An experimental study for a combined system of tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake as a potential energy source in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan is an example of a third world country that is non-oil producing but contains huge reserves of other energy sources such as tar sand, oil shale, and olive cake. Some limited research is available about how to utilize these energy sources in pure form. However, available research does not deal with combinations of these energy sources. This experimental study

M. M Kablan; T. M Alkhamis

1999-01-01

346

Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

Sweet, Richard

2009-01-01

347

Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

Shafiq, M. Najeeb

2011-01-01

348

Mechanisms and Development Strategies for Teaching Thinking to Move the Role of Jordan Universities as the Product of the Think Tank from the Faculty Members Point of View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed at revealing the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking to move the role of Jordan universities as the product of think tank from the faculty members point of view. Also aimed to determine the influence of academic rank in shaping the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking in Jordanian…

Ziadat, Ayed H.; Abu-Nair, Natheer S.; Abu Sameha, Mansour A.

2011-01-01

349

Mechanisms and Development Strategies for Teaching Thinking to Move the Role of Jordan Universities as the Product of the Think Tank from the Faculty Members Point of View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study aimed at revealing the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking to move the role of Jordan universities as the product of think tank from the faculty members point of view. Also aimed to determine the influence of academic rank in shaping the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking in Jordanian…

Ziadat, Ayed H.; Abu-Nair, Natheer S.; Abu Sameha, Mansour A.

2011-01-01

350

The Streptomyces flora of Badia region of Jordan and its potential as a source of antibiotics active against antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 60 different Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 12 soil samples collected from the Badia region north-eastern of Jordan. These were then characterized by conventional methods and assessed for their antagonistic activity against three pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Results indicated that grey and white colour series were the most abundant with 30% of all isolates active against, at

Ismail Saadoun; Raad Gharaibeh

2003-01-01

351

Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. during different growth stages in the south of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant space and time of harvesting on yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated in Jordan. Thyme was cultivated in rows of 50?cm apart with inter-row spacing of 15, 30 or 45?cm and was grown at various development stages. Plants were harvested during different growth stages including vegetation, beginning of blooming, full blooming and fruit maturation.

Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish; Muhammad H. Alu’datt; Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha; Khalil Ereifej; Ali Almajwal; Nidal Odat; Wesam Al Khateeb

2012-01-01

352

Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. during different growth stages in the south of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant space and time of harvesting on yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris was evaluated in Jordan. Thyme was cultivated in rows of 50?cm apart with inter-row spacing of 15, 30 or 45?cm and was grown at various development stages. Plants were harvested during different growth stages including vegetation, beginning of blooming, full blooming and fruit maturation.

Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish; Muhammad H. Alu’datt; Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha; Khalil Ereifej; Ali Almajwal; Nidal Odat; Wesam Al Khateeb

2011-01-01

353

Chemical characteristics of rainwater collected at a western site of Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out from October 2006 to May 2007 in Ghore El-Safi area western side of Jordan nearby the Dead Sea. Rainwater samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, NH 4+, HCO 3-, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd). The highest concentration of elements is observed at the beginning of the rainfall season when large amounts of dust accumulated in the atmosphere scavenged by rain. The majority of rainwater had a neutral or alkaline character as a result of neutralization caused by the alkaline local dusts which contain large amount of CaCO 3. The pH ranged from 4.8 to 8.2 with a mean value of 6.9 ± 0.65 which was in alkaline range considering 5.6 as the neutral pH of cloud water with atmospheric CO 2 equilibrium. In the total 35 rain events, only three events were observed in acidic range (< 5.6) which occurred after continuous rains. The equivalent concentration of components followed the order: Ca 2+ > HCO 3- > Cl - > Mg 2+ > NO 3- > SO 42- > NH 4+ > Na + > K +. Rainwater chemistry was analyzed using Factor Component Analysis to find the possible sources of the measured species. Three components that accounted for 84% of the total variance were extracted sea salts spray (Na+, Cl - and Mg 2+), and soil particles (natural origin), (Mg 2+, Ca 2+ and HCO 3-) and biomass burning (NH 4+). The results obtained in this study are compared with those other studies conducted at different sites in the world. In general, the results of this study suggested that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local anthropogenic sources (potash factory and agricultural activities in Ghore El-Safi area) rather than natural and marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from long distance transport, local industry and traffic sources.

Al-Khashman, Omar Ali.

2009-01-01

354

Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broodstock of Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert) aged 3-4 years old were selected, and reinforced cultivation was conducted to promote maturation under controlled water temperature and photoperiod conditions. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial fertilization, and the development of embryos, larvae and juveniles was observed continuously. The results showed that the fertilized eggs of V. moseri were spherical, with transparent yolk and homogeneous bioplasm, and had no oil globule inside. The average diameter of the eggs was 1.77±0.02 mm. The eggs of V. moseri were buoyant in water with salinity above 35. The cleavage type was typical discoidal. Young pigment cells appeared when olfactory plates began to form. Hatching occurred at 187 h after fertilization at a water temperature of 8.5°C. The newly hatched larvae, floating on the water surface, were transparent with an average total length of 4.69±0.15 mm. During the cultivation period, when the water temperature was raised from 9 to 14.5°C, 4-day old larvae showed more melanophores on the body surface, making the larvae gray in color. The pectoral fins began to develop, which enabled the larvae to swim horizontally and in a lively manner. On days 7-8, the digestive duct formed. The yolk sac was small and black. The yolk sac was absorbed on day 11. Larvae took food actively, and body length and body height clearly increased. The rudiments of dorsal and anal fin pterygiophores were discernible and caudal fin ray elements formed on day 19. On day 24, the larval notochord flexed upwards, and the rays of unpaired fins began to differentiate. Pigment cells converged on the dorsal and anal fin rays, and the mastoid teeth on the mandible appeared. On day 29, the left eyes of juveniles began to move upwards. Depigmentation began in some juveniles and they became sandy brown in color on day 37. Most juveniles began to settle on the bottom of the tank. The left eyes of juveniles migrated completely to the right side on day 50, when the average body length attained 2.5±0.18 cm, and juveniles accomplished metamorphosis to young. The embryonic and larval characters of several flounder species are compared.

Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

2010-01-01

355

Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular:1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly interbeds to accelerate sliding during mass wasting. The most vulnerable areas prone to slope instabilities are those with compressional tectonics followed by extensional movements, with fault bound springs and smectite-bearing marly layers interbedded with pure massive limestones. The semi-arid to arid climate with periodic rainfalls combined with subsurface water circulation along the joints and faults can trigger mass wasting.

Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

2012-03-01

356

Mantle domains beneath Arabia:contraints from Sr-Nd-Hf and high precision Pb isotopic analyses of intraplate volcanism and mantle xenoliths from Jordan and Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analysed Sr-Nd-Hf and high-precision Pb isotope ratios (with a 207Pb/204Pb double spike) in intraplate volcanics and lithospheric mantle (LM) xenoliths (cpx) entrained in volcanism erupted in Jordan and Yemen. These data represent the first high-precision Hf-Pb isotopic study of continental volcanism and associated mantle xenoliths, and constrain the role of the LM as a source of volcanism. Jordanian rocks exhibit subtle isotopic variations (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51297-0.51285) that correlate with elemental data and, to a large extent, are not the result of crustal contamination. This heterogeneity represents mixing of 2-5% spinel-facies melts, potentially from shallow Arabian LM, with smaller degree melts (<1%) from a deep garnet-bearing asthenospheric(?) source. Volcanism was triggered by lithospheric-extension-activated melting of LM in the Dead Sea plate boundary region that, with time, allowed progressively deeper mantle to decompress, melt and mix with the shallower melts. Chemical and isotopic differences between Jordan and Yemen volcanism suggest the Afar plume has not been channelled NW beneath the Arabian plate. Key differences and similarities between the Jordan and Yemen rocks are: (a) a Late Archean crustal contaminant in Yemen as opposed to a juvenile Pan-African contaminant in Jordan; (b) a common shallow LM component in both areas despite different crustal ages (0.7 versus > 2 Ga); (c) contrasting deeper-seated mantle components which reflect melting of deep asthenosphere in Jordan and melting of shallow mantle metasomatised by the Afar plume during flood volcanism in Yemen. Jordanian spinel lherzolites have a large range of isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd = 0.5135-0.5127; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.2836-0.2828; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.501-20.361). Radiogenic Pb is associated with unradiogenic Hf-Nd and LREE enrichment (Ce/Yb(N) > 1). Remarkably, preliminary cpx analyses define a Pb-Pb isochron of 1.34 ± 1 Ga, although the age of the overlying crust (0.7 Ga) and correlations with other isotopes suggest this a mixing line rather than having age significance. Interestingly, the xenoliths do not constitute an isotopic end-member for the inferred shallow LM component identified in both Jordan and Yemen. Thus, either the shallow component resides within the asthenosphere, which is difficult to reconcile with its shallow spinel-facies origin in the Jordan suite and estimates of Pan-African lithospheric thickness, or there is significant vertical isotopic stratification of the LM.

Shaw, J.; Baker, J.; Thirlwall, M.; Menzies, M.; Ibrahim, K.

2003-04-01

357

Stationary axially symmetric exterior solutions in the five-dimensional representation of the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse scattering method of Belinsky and Zakharov is used to investigate axially symmetric stationary vacuum soliton solutions in the five-dimensional representation of the Brans-Dicke-Jordan theory of gravitation, where the scalar field of the theory is an element of a five-dimensional metric. The resulting equations for the spacetime metric are similar to those of solitons in general relativity, while the scalar field generated is the product of a simple function of the coordinates and an already known scalar field solution. A family of solutions is considered that reduce, in the absence of rotation, to the five-dimensional form of a well-known Weyl-Levi Civita axially symmetric static vacuum solution. With a suitable choice of parameters, this static limit becomes equivalent to the spherically symmetric solution of the Brans-Dicke theory. An exact metric, in which the Kerr-scalar McIntosh solution is a special case, is given explicitly.

Bruckman, William

1986-11-01

358

Pathological, immunological and molecular diagnosis of rabies in clinically suspected animals of different species using four detection techniques in Jordan.  

PubMed

A total of 29 brain tissue samples (BTS) were examined for rabies infection by different diagnostic techniques. None of the examined brain tissues were presented as a whole intact brain. Twenty-seven brain tissue samples from various animal species - dog (13 cases), cat (one case), fox (one case), pig (one case), cow (three cases), sheep (two cases), goat (one case), camel (one case), horse (one case) and donkey (three cases) - were provided by the Vaccine and Sera Department/Al-Bashir Central Hospital in Amman/Jordan from July 2009 up to May 2010. All these samples were frozen at -20°C, for a period of time and then fixed in 10% formalin after being tested for rabies virus by fluorescence antibody test (FAT). The results showed that 21 (77.77%) of 27 BTS were positive for rabies by FAT. Seventeen samples (58.62%) of 29 were positive by histopathology, 2 (6.90%) were positive by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and of those which were fixed for 24h only, and 21 (72.42%) were positive using RT-PCR assay. Five of 29 BTS had no pathological lesions, 17 had Negri bodies and the remaining had non-suppurative encephalitis and necrosis. Thirteen BTS that were diagnosed positive by FAT were also positive by RT-PCR and histopathology, but negative by IHC. Four BTS that were positive by FAT were negative by histopathology, IHC and RT-PCR. Also, 3 BTS (cases 19, 22, and 25) that were negative by FAT were positive by RT-PCR and negative by IHC. One of these was negative, while two were positive by histopathology. Therefore, definitive diagnosis of rabies under these conditions in Jordan needs one or more other diagnostic tests in addition to FAT. Also, freezing and prolonged formalin fixation of BTS is not suitable for the detection of rabies virus antigen using IHC. PMID:22390575

Faizee, N; Hailat, N Q; Ababneh, M M K; Hananeh, W M; Muhaidat, A

2011-08-21

359

A 300m-width sinkhole threatens the stability of the embankment of a saltpan in Jordan, Dead Sea Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1980s, the Dead Sea coastal zone is affected by sinkholes. The dynamic of the salt karst system is attested by a drastic increase of collapse events. The energy available for sub-surface erosion (or cavities genesis) is related to the head difference between the water table and the lake level which drop down at an accelerating rate of more than 1 m/yr. In the region of Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, the size of the craters increased significantly during the last decade. Up to now, the greatest compound structure observed (association of metric subsidence, decametric sinkholes, and landslides) was about 150-200 m in diameter. End of December 2012, a single circular structure having 250-300 m in diameter was identified within a 10 km x 1.5 km saltpan of the Arab Potash Company. This finding raises questions regarding the origin of the underlying cavity and the capability of prediction of all models developed up to now in Israel and Jordan regarding the Dead Sea sinkholes. The analysis of satellite images of the past shows that the appearance of this unique depression is very recent (probably less than 5 years). Cosmo-SkyMed radar images have been processed to map the associated deformation field. Ground motions attest that the overall diameter could be around 600 m. Currently, this sinkhole is threatening the stability of more than one kilometer of a 12 km long dike holding 90 million m3 of Dead Sea brine. This case study underlines the great fragility of the Dead Sea salt karst and demonstrates the need for the setting up of an early warning system.

Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo

2013-04-01

360

Two recent but temporally distinct outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis among foreign workers in the Dead-Sea area of Jordan.  

PubMed

Two temporally distinct outbreaks of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), as well as scattered cases of the disease, have recently been observed close to the Dead Sea, in Jordan. Each of the two outbreaks, which occurred in 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, involved a group of foreign workers who were deployed within otherwise uninhabited locations. During each outbreak, about 20% of the workers were found infected with the causative parasite. In the earlier outbreak, 61 workers were found to have skin lesions like those of CL and all but three were confirmed by culture and/or the examination of smears (40 cases) or, in the case of 18 (86%) of the 21 suspected cases found smear- and culture-negative, by PCR. In the second outbreak, the cases were only identified from their clinical manifestations and their response to antileishmanial treatment (cryotherapy). Leishmania major was identified as the cause of the 2004/2005 outbreak and some sporadic cases that occurred, in 2004, along the shores of the Dead Sea. The burrows of potential reservoir hosts were found close to the outbreak locations, frequently under the chenopod Seidlitzia rosmarinus. The two outbreaks emphasise the continuing problem posed by the CL focus in the Mid Jordan Valley and its impact on humans who move into the area. Curiously, an investigation on the socio-economic conditions of the workers during the outbreaks identified a group of 48 workers who were living in air-conditioned rooms during the 2007/2008 outbreak, among whom no CL cases were found. In contrast, 26 of a neighbouring group of 124 workers, who were all living in non-air-conditioned rooms, developed CL lesions. The role of air conditioning, and of other factors and measures, in the prevention of the transmission of the causative parasites of CL merits further investigation and the attention of the local health authorities. PMID:19583910

Mosleh, I M; Geith, E; Schönian, G; Kanani, K A

2009-07-01

361

Irrigation and water scarcity in the Zerqa Triangle, Jordan or why archaeology is relevant for understanding current practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scarcity of water resources for development is a recurrent and important issue, and has been for thousands of years. Based on the case of the Jordan Valley, this contribution will argue that our understanding of current issues can be improved by studying ancient contexts. At the same time, archeology can benefit from analysis and models applied in the engineering domain. In the Zerqa triangle in the Jordan Valley, irrigation would have been an important instrument to deal with the arid climate and its associated uncertainties concerning rainfall for societies in different periods. Before irrigation modernization efforts were started in the 1960's, the people of the Zerqa area used the known ethnohistorical irrigation system, which dates back to the Mamluk period. This system consisted of a number of sub-systems tapping water from the Zerqa river and transporting water to the fields through open canals under gravity. The settlement pattern of the Iron Age points to an irrigation system of similar type being in use during this period. The location of Early Bronze Age settlements along natural watercourses suggests that a form of flood irrigation was practiced, without a dedicated canal system. Each of these settings will have had its specific uncertainties in terms of water availability to deal with, which will be discussed. In other words, each setting provided specific materially structuring conditions for societies to develop responses in terms of agriculture, institutions and power relations. This contribution discusses these uncertainties and responses for the different periods. In the discussion, insights from both archaeology and irrigation engineering will be integrated.

Ertsen, M. W.; Kaptijn, E.

2009-04-01

362

Differences in self-reported oral health behavior between dental students and dental technology/dental hygiene students in Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare differences in oral health behavior between dental students and dental technology/dental hygiene students in Jordan. One hundred and five dental students and seventy-eight dental technology/dental hygiene students were recruited into this study. All subjects were recruited from the students who were receiving training at the clinics and laboratories that belong to the Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) was used to assess the oral heath behavior of the subjects. Significant differences were found between students from different disciplines. Dental students were found to worry more about visiting their dentist, to be less aware of bleeding gums when brushing and were less bothered by the color of their gums compared with dental technology and dental hygiene (DT/DH) students (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Dental students tended to be more professionally educated about brushing and to have a belief that they cannot clean their teeth well without using toothpaste (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Most of them did not feel they have brushed well unless they brush with strong strokes (P < 0.05). A logistic regression model showed that it might be possible to distinguish dental students from DT/DH students by using three items of the HU-DBI and the level of dental education. The difference in the HU-DBI scores was not a major feature. There were significant differences in oral health attitudes/behavior between dental students and DT/DH students. The findings might reflect differences in students' training experience and education between different specialties. PMID:15508753

Al-Wahadni, Ahed Mohammed; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud Khaled; Kawamura, Makoto

2004-09-01

363

Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of ?O18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and ?D = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with ?O18 = -4.06 and ?D = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (?O18 = -6, ?D = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (?O18 = -5, ?D = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (?O18 -3.8, ?D = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (?O18 -18 = -6, ?D = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces groundwater, which, from the highlands towards the Jordan Valley, shows increasing enrichment in isotopes. The highlands aquifer, with its groundwater depleted in isotopes, becomes confined towards the Jordan Valley; and, due to its confining pressure, leaks water upwards into the overlying aquifers causing their water to become less enriched in isotopes. Water depleted in its isotopic composition also seeps upward to the ground surface at the mountain foothills through faults and fissures. Les zones de recharge, les mécanismes d'écoulement et les zones de décharges des différentes masses d'eau souterraine sous le bassin versant de la rivière Yarmouk en Jordanie, étaient expliquées de manière ambiguë par les seuls outils isotopiques. Le long de la parti Jordanienne du bassin versant de la rivière Yarmouk l'eau souterraine provient de différents aquifères et se distinguent par leur type et leur composition chimique, selon que l'eau provient du même ou des différents aquifères. Les mécanismes conventionnels de recharge et de décharge, bilan hydrologique ne donnaient pas d'explications satisfaisantes concernant les variations chimiques et les différents types d'eau. En appliquant les isotopes environnementaux combinés aux effets de l'altitude sur les variations des teneurs isotopiques (l'altitude varie de 250 à 1,300 m sur une distance de 20 km.) et en prenant en considération les effets de ré-évaporation sur l'appauvrissement et l'enrichissement isotopique des eaux pluviales ont fortement contribués à une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de recharge des différents aquifères. Les précipitations annuelles sont comprises entre 600 mm dans les zones en altitude et 350 mm dans la vallée de la Jordanie. Les écoulements de l'eau souterraine sont dirigés des zones en altitude vers la vallée de la Jordanie. Les eaux souterraines des zones en altitude sont isotopiquement appauvries (?O18 = -6, ?D = -30), les eaux souterraines des zones de moyenne altitude sont enrichies (?O18 = -5, ?D = -23) et les eaux de la vallée très enrichies (

Salameh, Elias

364

Genotypes of rotavirus strains circulating in Amman, Jordan, in 2006\\/07 and their significance for the potential effectiveness of future rotavirus vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, seasonality and genotypes of rotavirus circulating in Jordan were determined to provide data useful for the\\u000a implementation of a rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood vaccination program. During 2006\\/07, rotavirus was detected\\u000a in 35% of hospitalized children, and 88% of the cases occurred in children aged between 6 and 23 months. Rotavirus infection\\u000a persisted throughout the year and peaked

Khitam Salem; Salwa Bdour; Mark Zeller; Marc Van Ranst; Jelle Matthijnssens

365

Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation by Means of a Proposed 50 MW Grid-connected Wind Power Plant for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complying with the decision made by the Jordanian government to install a new wind power plant with a capacity ranging between 50–75 MW—to complement the Hofa and Ibrahimiyya wind power plants, whose electricity production presently forms only about 0.035% of the total electricity generated in Jordan mainly by power plants operating on conventional fuels—a 50 MW grid-connected wind power plant

E. S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

366

Vitis vinifera L.: Wild or cultivated? Study of the grape pips found at Petra, Jordan; 150 B.C. – A.D. 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of carbonised grape pips (Vitis vinifera ssp.) is problematic, and the morphological features generally used to distinguish the wild subspeciesV. vinifera ssp.sylvestris from the cultivated subspeciesV. vinifera ssp.vinifera are not satisfactory. Different biometric studies were carried out on Nabataean and Roman seeds found at Petra, Jordan, dated to 150 B.C. – A.D. 400, and the results were compared

Christiane Jacquat; Danièle Martinoli

1999-01-01

367

Isolation and characterization Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from sheep and goats in Jordan with evidence of multiresistant serotype O157:H7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-three rectal swabs of lambs and young goats from two extensively and two intensively man - aged herds in Jordan were taken and examined for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The bacterio- logical examination included the preenrichment of rectal swabs in EC broth with novobiocin, and a subsequent parallel isolation on enterohemolysin agar and immunomagnetic separation with cultivation on CT-SMAC.

R. NOVOTNA; P. ALEXA; J. HAMRIK; A. MADANAT; J. SMOLA; A. CIZEK

368

Seasonal variations and depth dependence of soil radon concentration levels in different geological formations in Deir Abu-Said District, Irbid—Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil radon concentration levels in Deir Abu-Said District, Irbid—Jordan were measured using CR-39 track detectors in both summer and winter at several depths over six geological formations.Seasonal variations of soil radon were measured at five depths (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100cm). At a depth of 100cm; soil radon concentration levels, in summer, range from 6.85kBqm-3 for Muwaqqar Chalky-Marl (MCM)

S. A. Al-Shereideh; B. A. Bataina; N. M. Ershaidat

2006-01-01

369

Proliferation of Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria and Concomitant Antibiotic Production as the Basis for the Antibiotic Activity of Jordan's Red Soils?  

PubMed Central

Anecdotes, both historical and recent, recount the curing of skin infections, including diaper rash, by using red soils from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Following inoculation of red soils isolated from geographically separate areas of Jordan, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were rapidly killed. Over the 3-week incubation period, the number of specific types of antibiotic-producing bacteria increased, and high antimicrobial activity (MIC, ?10 ?g/ml) was observed in methanol extracts of the inoculated red soils. Antibiotic-producing microorganisms whose numbers increased during incubation included actinomycetes, Lysobacter spp., and Bacillus spp. The actinomycetes produced actinomycin C2 and actinomycin C3. No myxobacteria or lytic bacteriophages with activity against either M. luteus or S. aureus were detected in either soil before or after inoculation and incubation. Although protozoa and amoebae were detected in the soils, the numbers were low and did not increase over the incubation period. These results suggest that the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils is due to the proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria.

Falkinham, Joseph O.; Wall, Thomas E.; Tanner, Justin R.; Tawaha, Khaled; Alali, Feras Q.; Li, Chen; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2009-01-01

370

Proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria and concomitant antibiotic production as the basis for the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils.  

PubMed

Anecdotes, both historical and recent, recount the curing of skin infections, including diaper rash, by using red soils from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Following inoculation of red soils isolated from geographically separate areas of Jordan, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were rapidly killed. Over the 3-week incubation period, the number of specific types of antibiotic-producing bacteria increased, and high antimicrobial activity (MIC, approximately 10 microg/ml) was observed in methanol extracts of the inoculated red soils. Antibiotic-producing microorganisms whose numbers increased during incubation included actinomycetes, Lysobacter spp., and Bacillus spp. The actinomycetes produced actinomycin C(2) and actinomycin C(3). No myxobacteria or lytic bacteriophages with activity against either M. luteus or S. aureus were detected in either soil before or after inoculation and incubation. Although protozoa and amoebae were detected in the soils, the numbers were low and did not increase over the incubation period. These results suggest that the antibiotic activity of Jordan's red soils is due to the proliferation of antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:19286796

Falkinham, Joseph O; Wall, Thomas E; Tanner, Justin R; Tawaha, Khaled; Alali, Feras Q; Li, Chen; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2009-03-13

371

Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophene and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.

Koopmans, M. P.; Rijpstra, W. I. C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M. D.; Damste, J. S. S.

1998-01-01

372

The domestication of water: water management in the ancient world and its prehistoric origins in the Jordan Valley.  

PubMed

The ancient civilizations were dependent upon sophisticated systems of water management. The hydraulic engineering works found in ancient Angkor (ninth to thirteenth century AD), the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan (thirteenth to fifteenth century AD), Byzantine Constantinople (fourth to sixth century AD) and Nabatean Petra (sixth century BC to AD 106) are particularly striking because each of these is in localities of the world that are once again facing a water crisis. Without water management, such ancient cities would never have emerged, nor would the urban communities and towns from which they developed. Indeed, the 'domestication' of water marked a key turning point in the cultural trajectory of each region of the world where state societies developed. This is illustrated by examining the prehistory of water management in the Jordan Valley, identifying the later Neolithic (approx. 8300-6500 years ago) as a key period when significant investment in water management occurred, laying the foundation for the development of the first urban communities of the Early Bronze Age. PMID:20956370

Mithen, Steven

2010-11-28

373

Knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding antibiotics use and misuse among adults in the community of Jordan. A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with antibiotic use, resistance and safety have been well recognized worldwide in the literature. Nevertheless, only few studies have been conducted in Jordan in this area. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, behavior and attitude toward antibiotics use among adult Jordanians. The study represents a cross sectional survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data collected from a random sample of 1141 adult Jordanians, recruited at different settings, regarding their knowledge about the effectiveness of, resistance toward, and self medications with antibiotics against bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. 67.1% believed that antibiotics treat common cold and cough. 28.1% misused antibiotics as analgesics. 11.9% of females showed inadequate knowledge about the safe use of antibiotics during pregnancy and nursing. 28.5% kept antibiotics at home for emergency use and 55.6% use them as prophylaxis against infections. 49.0% use left-over antibiotics without physicians’ consultation while 51.8% use antibiotics based on a relative advice. 22.9% of physicians prescribe antibiotics over the phone and >50.0% routinely prescribe antibiotics to treat common cold symptoms. Our findings indicated that young adults showed unsatisfactory knowledge of proper antibiotic use. Therefore, there is an urge for educational programs using all media means.

Shehadeh, Mayadah; Suaifan, Ghadeer; Darwish, Rula M.; Wazaify, Mayyada; Zaru, Luna; Alja'fari, Suzan

2011-01-01

374

Cleaning Strategies Of Pottery Objects Excavated From Khirbet Edh-Dharih And Hayyan Al-Mushref, Jordan: Four Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any cleaning process for pottery objects has to consider not only the effectiveness of the treatment but also the potential damage for the art object. Cleaning is one of the most common of the treatment processes used on pottery conservation. A variety of mechanical and chemical methods is currently used in restoration practice. Unfortunately, pottery objects are subjected to various deterioration factors, starting in manufacturing process and passing through burial and excavation stages. This study aims to present and explain an application of already established cleaning methods to four pottery pots excavated from the archaeological sites of Khirbet edh-Dharih and Hayyan al-Mushref in Jordan. It also tackles the decision making problems about which methods should be applied to which pots, according to the conservation state and the technological features. Addition to the visual examination, SEM was used to investigate the surface morphology of each object. XRD was used to determine accurately the mineralogical composition of pottery objects as well as the different kinds of dirt which deposited on their surfaces. It could be concluded that the selected pottery objects were very dirty and covered with dust, soil particles, soot and calcareous crusts. The selected pottery objects were cleaned using refiring, mechanical, wet and chemical cleaning methods according to the type of dirt and nature of each object. Finally, objects were consolidated and strengthened to ensure their safety in the condition of storage or display, and to prevent them against the various environmental conditions.

Abd-Allah, R.; al-Muheisen, Z.; al-Howadi, S.

375

Reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women aged 15 years and above in southern Jordan.  

PubMed

Failure to address women's health, including their reproductive health needs, increases health care costs and social inequity. This descriptive study assessed the reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women over 15 years old in poverty pockets in the southern region of Jordan. Two villages were selected using purposive sampling and all women in the villages were invited to participate in a "healthy family week": 259 responded to the invitation. Although 49.4% of the surveyed women were overweight or obese, only 8.5% had high blood pressure. Reproductive health concerns included the high proportions of women married at an early age (15-20 years) (76.8%), having 5+ children (43.1%) and with haemoglobin level < 12 g/dL, indicating anaemia (55.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common health problem (29.0%). Health care providers should be sensitized to the health needs of Jordanian women in general and those living in disadvantaged areas in particular. PMID:22764426

Abu-Moghli, F A; Khalaf, I A; Tokiko, S; Atsuko, I; Nabolsi, M M; Al-Sharairi, B A

2012-05-01

376

Characterization of local chicken production systems and their potential under different levels of management practice in Jordan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterize the local chickens and their production systems and to investigate the opportunities for improvement. The study was carried out in 18 villages in northern Jordan with the participation of 120 households. Data were collected by individual interviews and surveys supported with structured questionnaires. A scoring system was developed to study the effect of different levels of management on chicken performance. The main reasons for keep local chickens were egg production and generation of income. The main features of the production systems were improper housing and inadequate hygiene. Newcastle disease, predators, and parasites were the main causes of flock losses. Purchasing rate was controlled by the chickens' phenotype, sex and age, and by season of year. The average flock size was 41.6 (+/-32.9) chickens per household, with a hen:cock ratio of 6.4:1. The average effective population size was 15.35, which indicated a high rate of inbreeding (5.52%). The main selection criterion adopted by farmers was egg production. There were positive significant correlations (p<0.001) between management level and chickens' performance. Hatchability, survivability, flock size, number of clutches, egg weight and egg mass were the major parameters that improved significantly with improvement in management level. Local chickens fulfil significant functions in the livelihood of rural smallholders; however, many constraints affected the efficiency of the production systems. Solutions should start with improving the management practices and establishing an effective breeding system. PMID:17691540

Abdelqader, A; Wollny, C B A; Gauly, M

2007-04-01

377

Molecular and isotopic insights into particulate organic carbon sources and dynamics in Jordan Basin, Gulf of Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon isotope and lipid biomarker composition of suspended particles and surface sediment was measured to examine the impact of sediment supply, redistribution and post-depositional alteration processes on organic matter cycling in the Gulf of Maine, a semi-enclosed shelf sea in the northwest Atlantic. A beam attenuation profile revealed a >50 m-thick benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) in the Jordan Basin at the time of sampling (April 2006). The relatively low radiocarbon content of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in the BNL indicates that up to 82% of the POC in this layer was supplied from resuspension of sediment. The concentration of alkenones normalized to POC increased with increasing depth in the water column and was highest in the surface sediment. In contrast to these markers of surface ocean photoautotrophy, the vertical profiles for the concentration and composition of short-chain (C14-C18) n-alkanoic acids provided evidence for enhanced heterotrophic processes near the top of the BNL. Suspended POC samples from two depths within the BNL exhibited marked differences in radiocarbon content and fatty acid composition, suggesting that biological activity and associated processes within the BNL are vertically heterogeneous.

Hwang, Jeomshik; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

2013-10-01

378

Magnetic properties of the quantum spin-frac{1}{2} XX diamond chain: the Jordan-Wigner approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jordan-Wigner transformation is applied to study magnetic properties of the quantum spin-1/2 XX model on the diamond chain. Generally, the Hamiltonian of this quantum spin system can be represented in terms of spinless fermions in the presence of a gauge field and different gauge-invariant ways of assigning the spin-fermion transformation are considered. Additionally, we analyze general properties of a free-fermion chain, where all gauge terms are neglected and discuss their relevance for the quantum spin system. A consideration of interaction terms in the fermionic Hamiltonian rests upon the Hartree-Fock procedure after fixing the appropriate gauge. Finally, we discuss the magnetic properties of this quantum spin model at zero as well as non-zero temperatures and analyze the validity of the approximation used through a comparison with the results of the exact diagonalization method for finite (up to 36 spins) chains. Besides the m = 1/3 plateau the most prominent feature of the magnetization curve is a jump at intermediate field present for certain values of the frustrating vertical bond.

Verkholyak, T.; Stre?ka, J.; Jaš?ur, M.; Richter, J.

2011-04-01

379

Predicting the Impact of Global Warming on the Middle East Region: Case Study on Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Using the Application of Geographical Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study intends to analyze the metrological data like rain fall, temperature and humidity obtained from Jordanian metrological department, covering the period of 1955-2002. These obtained data were analyzed using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and converted into geographical maps. Three different parameters were investigated temperatures annual mean maximum and annual mean minimum, the average annual rainfall and the average annual relative humidity. The results show that no change in the average annual rainfall in both northern and eastern part of the kingdom, while it has been increases in the middle region of the kingdom. Although local temperatures fluctuates naturally, but over the past 50 years the average local temperature in Jordan has increased at very rapid rate since 1990 and it reached an elevation in temperature up to about 1.5-2°C. It is noticed that the global warming impact on Jordan weather has been started after the 1991, in which the phenomena of the global warming was noticed to have its impacts worldwide since that date. Due to the predicted increase in both maximum and minimum temperatures in some regions, the rate of evaporation will also tends to increase and hence higher relative humidity will be expected in that regions. The application of GIS in this analytical study was successfully used to analyze the data and to produce maps easy to understand the impact of global warming. GIS also helps to calculate the exact area where region experienced a change in temperature and or rain falls. This application will be the first in its application in Jordan at country level. The result will be in a great help for those in decision making in the field of environment.

Matouq, Mohammed

380

Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources (such as landfills, feedlots, agricultural chemicals applied to fields, and septic systems) is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, Began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie du Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of streamflow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity. (Lantz-PTT)

Ruhl, J. F.

1989-01-01

381

Time trends of cigarette and waterpipe smoking among a cohort of school children in Irbid, Jordan, 2008-11.  

PubMed

Background: Coordinated high-impact interventions and community-level changes in smoking behaviour norms effectively reduced prevalence of smoking among youth in many developed countries. Smoking trends among Jordanian adolescents are likely different than their Western counterparts and must be understood in the context of their daily lives to tailor interventions specifically for adolescents in this setting. Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, a school-based longitudinal study was conducted in Irbid, Jordan. All seventh-grade students in 19 randomly selected schools (of 60) were surveyed annually for 4 years. Outcomes of interest were time trends in smoking behaviour, age at initiation and change in frequency of smoking. Results: Among 1781 participants, baseline prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes or waterpipe) for boys was 22.9% and 8.7% for girls. Prevalence of ever-smoking and current any smoking, cigarette smoking, waterpipe smoking and dual cigarette/waterpipe smoking was significantly higher in boys than girls each year (P < 0.001). Smoking prevalence increased every year after year 2 for current smoking (P < 0.05) across all methods (any, cigarette, waterpipe and dual). At all time points for both boys and girls, prevalence of waterpipe smoking was higher than that of cigarette smoking (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows intensive smoking patterns at early ages among Jordanian youth in Irbid, characterized by a predominance of waterpipe smoking and steeper age-related increase in cigarette smoking. It also points to the possibility of waterpipe being the favourite method for introducing youth to tobacco, as well as being a vehicle for tobacco dependence and cigarette smoking. PMID:24078649

McKelvey, Karma L; Wilcox, Meredith L; Madhivanan, Purnima; Mzayek, Fawaz; Khader, Yousef S; Maziak, Wasim

2013-10-01

382

Earliest evidence for social endogamy in the 9,000-year-old-population of basta, jordan.  

PubMed

The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity - such as open access to resources and land - had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1). Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%). Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of exogamous mating partners but a socio-cultural choice. PMID:23776517

Alt, Kurt W; Benz, Marion; Müller, Wolfgang; Berner, Margit E; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Knipper, Corina; Gebel, Hans-Georg K; Nissen, Hans J; Vach, Werner

2013-06-11

383

Impact of an educational program on nursing students' caring and self-perception in intensive clinical training in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Background Framing and development of clinical skills in nursing students during their clinical practice is critical because this can shape their future caring skills. Professional caring empowers patients and contributes to their well-being and health. Education may enhance the capacity of nurses to be effective caring practitioners. Their study program encourages caring behavior in nursing students, consequently affecting their professional self-perception. Methods The present study investigated the effect of an educational program on caring behavior and professional self-perception in nursing students using a controlled pre/post test study design. The study sample consisted of 50 nursing students undertaking their final year in 2010–2011. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The study was conducted in two critical care units affiliated to the Ma’an and Queen Rania hospitals in the south of Jordan. The instruments utilized were the Caring Dimensions Inventory, Nursing Students Attitude Observational Checklist, and Professional Self-Concept of Nurses Instrument. Results The study findings favor the effect of the educational program because there was increased knowledge and understanding of caring theory and related concepts, a more holistic approach to care, enhanced caring practices, and improved self-perception in the study group compared with the control group during different periods of assessment. The study group showed significantly better caring perception in psychological, technical, and professional terms than the control group during different periods of assessment. There was a significant positive trend of overall professional self-perception for the study group compared with the control group. Conclusion Nursing curricula should incorporate concepts and principles that guide students in developing caring, safe, competent, and professional behavior. Nursing students must seek educational opportunities to acquire knowledge for role preparation, to participate in knowledge generation, and for personal and professional development.

Khouri, Rawda

2011-01-01

384

The validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D: a study from Jordan  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: EQ-5D is a generic measure that permits comparisons in quality of life across disease states, and which may provide useful data for health policy and resource allocation decision-making. There are no published reports on the acceptability and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in the Arabic language. We therefore investigated the validity and reliability of the Arabic translation of the EQ-5D in Jordan. METHODS: The study was conducted on a convenience sample consisting of consecutive adult Arabic-speaking outpatients or visitors attending a university teaching hospital. Subjects were interviewed twice using a standardized questionnaire containing the EQ-5D, Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To assess the validity of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D, ten hypotheses relating responses to EQ-5D dimensions or the visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) to SF-36 scores or other variables were examined and test-retest reliability was assessed. RESULTS: The study included 186 subjects who had a mean age of 45.3 years and included 87 (47%) females. The major problem reported in more than 102 (55%) of the subjects was anxiety/depression. All of the ten a-priori hypothesis relating EQ-5D responses to external variables were fulfilled. Cohen's ? for test-retest reliability (n=52) ranged from 0.48 to 1.0. CONCLUSION: The Arabic translation of EQ-5D appears to be valid and reliable in measuring quality of life in Jordanian people.

Aburuz, Salah; Bulatova, Naela; Twalbeh, Mohammed; Gazawi, Moatasem

2009-01-01

385

"Voices of Fear and Safety" Women's ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: a qualitative study from Jordan  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among Jordanian women. Breast malignancies are detected at late stages as a result of deferred breast health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women’s views and perceptions about breast cancer and breast health. Methods We performed an explorative qualitative study with purposive sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted consisting of 64 women (aged 20 to 65?years) with no previous history and no symptoms of breast cancer from four governorates in Jordan. The transcribed data was analysed using latent content analysis. Results Three themes were constructed from the group discussions: a) Ambivalence in prioritizing own health; b) Feeling fear of breast cancer; and c) Feeling safe from breast cancer. The first theme was seen in women’s prioritizing children and family needs and in their experiencing family and social support towards seeking breast health care. The second theme was building on women’s perception of breast cancer as an incurable disease associated with suffering and death, their fear of the risk of diminished femininity, husband’s rejection and social stigmatization, adding to their apprehensions about breast health examinations. The third theme emerged from the women’s perceiving themselves as not being in the risk zone for breast cancer and in their accepting breast cancer as a test from God. In contrast, women also experienced comfort in acquiring breast health knowledge that soothed their fears and motivated them to seek early detection examinations. Conclusions Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and feelings of fear and safety could be better addressed by designing breast health interventions that emphasize the good prognosis for breast cancer when detected early, involve breast cancer survivors in breast health awareness campaigns and catalyse family support to encourage women to seek breast health care.

2012-01-01

386

Spatial variability of environmental isotope and chemical content of precipitation in Jordan and evidence of slight change in climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of the ?18O and ?D compositions of rain is attributed to variations in amount of precipitation (PPT), altitude effect, and air masses originating from different sources. Air masses that enter the area passing the Mediterranean Sea result in higher d-excess. The cold and dry continental air masses originating from the European continent come in contact with the warm Mediterranean Sea water, resulting in rapid evaporation and large scale convergence. The low d-excess value is less than 16 ‰ and associated with air masses that cross over the North African continent and controlled by a local orographic effect. The change in isotopic composition of ?18O in PPT with altitude is -0.15 ‰ per 100 m. A statistical model confirms that a slight decrease in annual average precipitation has occurred since 1988 and attributed to a minor change in climate. The current level of tritium in rain corresponds to the average level of tritium in the atmosphere. Rabba station recorded a twofold higher tritium concentration in 1995 than the other stations, which may be from leakage from a nuclear station in Israel. The chemistry of rainwater demonstrates a wide range of salinity (100-600 mg/l). The lowest solute concentrations are found at high elevations, and the highest solute concentrations are found in the eastern desert and the Jordan Rift valley. The salinity of rain is affected by desert dust, aerosols, amounts of PPT, and the direction of rain fronts. The aerosols and windblown soil are the most prevailing as the country is confined between three seas and the outcrop surficial geology is mainly sedimentary rocks.

Bajjali, William

2012-12-01

387

Olive Mounds, Roman cisterns, erosion pins - potential to characterize erosion in a Mediterranean catchment in north Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of a three years' time period of a PhD thesis it is luck to catch the "right" rain events for good general erosion approximations. Methods that (i) cover longer time periods, (ii) are not confined to constructed boundaries, and finally (iii) include all possible erosion processes are crucial for good average estimates of sediment yields from different landscapes. The aim of the study was to get a first understanding of erosion processes and sediment yields in a Mediterranean to semi-arid catchment in NW Jordan, wherefore different measurement methods were tested in the predominant landscape units: olive orchards (27%), fields (14%) and natural shrubs on steep slopes (~30%). One of the applied methods was the measurement of topographic olive mounds within 7 orchards with an average size of 800 m2 in synergy with tree-coring and age estimation of the orchards. Furthermore the OSL dating of deposited sediments in two roman cisterns adjacent to fields was conducted and the 9 erosion pin fields, each about 200m2 large, were installed on steep slopes with natural vegetation. The methods cover different time scales from 560 years for the fields, an average of 32 years for the olive orchards and up to two rainy seasons for the erosion pin fields. Results show that olive orchards on steep slopes (>10%) have the highest erosion potential in the region with 95±8 t ha-1year-1 followed by natural vegetated slopes with 37±4 t ha-1year-1 of dislocated material and fields with 1.22±0.06 t ha-1year-1 sediment yield. These spatially constrained outcomes are supported by geochemical sediment fingerprint results of lake sediments from the catchment and will be discussed in regard to the basic assumption that underlie the principle of measurement and the limitations of the methods.

Kraushaar, Sabine; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

388

Childhood Lead Exposure in the Palestinian Authority, Israel, and Jordan: Results from the Middle Eastern Regional Cooperation Project, 1996-2000  

PubMed Central

In the Middle East, the major sources of lead exposure have been leaded gasoline, lead-contaminated flour from traditional stone mills, focal exposures from small battery plants and smelters, and kohl (blue color) in cosmetics. In 1998–2000, we measured blood lead (PbB) levels in children 2–6 years of age in Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority (n = 1478), using a fingerstick method. Mean (peak; percentage > 10 ?g/dL) PbB levels in Israel (n = 317), the West Bank (n = 344), Jordan (n = 382), and Gaza (n = 435) were 3.2 ?g/dL (18.2; 2.2%), 4.2 ?g/dL (25.7; 5.2%), 3.2 ?g/dL (39.3; < 1%), and 8.6 ?g/dL (> 80.0; 17.2%), respectively. High levels in Gaza were all among children living near a battery factory. The findings, taken together with data on time trends in lead emissions and in PbB in children in previous years, indicate the benefits from phasing out of leaded gasoline but state the case for further reductions and investigation of hot spots. The project demonstrated the benefits of regional cooperation in planning and carrying out a jointly designed project.

Safi, Jamal; Fischbein, Alf; Haj, Sameer El; Sansour, Ramzi; Jaghabir, Madi; Hashish, Mohammed Abu; Suleiman, Hassan; Safi, Nimer; Abu-Hamda, Abed; Witt, Joyce K.; Platkov, Efim; Reingold, Steven; Alayyan, Amber; Berman, Tamar; Bercovitch, Matti; Choudhri, Yogesh; Richter, Elihu D.

2006-01-01

389

Ground-water flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer related to contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St Louis Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was developed to assess the movement of coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. The model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. Sensitivity testing indicated that leakage to the upper model layer and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the basal confining unit of the St. Peter were the most sensitive model hydrologic properties. Model simulations indicated that water introduced into the aquifer through wells open to several aquifers would raise the potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan by as much as 3 ft in the area of the former plant. Other simulations suggested that withdrawal from certain upgradient wells may have altered local hydraulic gradients. These factors contributed to the potential for movement of contaminants from the area of the former plant to wells. Simulations of a proposed gradient-control plan indicate that the actions would be effective in limiting the expansion of the contaminated volume. These simulations also show, however, that control of discharge from all wells in the area will be important to the overall effectiveness of the plan. (USGS)

Stark, J. R.; Hult, M. F.

1985-01-01

390

Comparison of the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts of nine salvia species grown in Jordan against breast cancer cell line models  

PubMed Central

Background: The antiproliferative activity of Salvia species grown in Jordan has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts from nine Salvia species grown in Jordan against a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in human tumor models of breast cancer; MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, and BT 474 by the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, the extracts were evaluated using a non-transformed cell line (Vero) and normal fibroblast cells in order to demonstrate their selectivity and safety. Results: From the nice ethanol extracts under investigation, those of S. dominica and S. fruticosa showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% of cells (IC50) in concentrations less than 30?g/mL against the four cell lines under investigation. S. syriaca and S. hormium showed an IC50 below 30?g/ml for two out of the four cell lines. S. fruticosa, S. hormium and S. syriaca showed selectivity in their antiproliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive cell lines with minimal toxicity against normal human periodontal fibroblasts. Phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins in all examined extracts. Conclusion: Three of the plant extracts under investigation exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells and were shown to be safe and selective. These could be considered as a potential source for novel anticancer therapy.

Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma; Kasabri, Violet; Majdalawi, Lara; Naffa, Randa

2012-01-01

391

A natural analogue of high-pH cement pore waters from the Maqarin area of northern Jordan: Comparison of predicted and observed trace-element chemistry of uranium and selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current design concepts for low-\\/intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal in many countries involve emplacement underground in a cementitious repository. The highly alkaline groundwaters at Maqarin, Jordan, are a good analogue for the cementitious pore waters that will be present within such a repository. A geochemical modelling study of these groundwaters has been carried out in order to test the applicability of

C. M. Linklater; Y. Albinsson; W. R. Alexander; I. Casas; I. G. McKinley; P. Sellin

1996-01-01

392

A case study of ancient mortars and concretes from Umm al-Jimal, Jordan with implications for archaeological site conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excavation at Umm al-Jimal, a Late Roman-Byzantine site in northeast Jordan, yielded large amounts of fragmented mortar and concrete. These materials are relevant both to the archaeological context and to the continued care and management of the site. An analysis of the mortars and concretes can reveal the geologic origin of the raw materials, how they were processed, and how technology changed over time. This information, when viewed within the context of the inhabitational history of the site, contributes to an understanding of the site's historic development. It may also shed light on various social, economic and technological aspects of the people who manufactured these materials. The management of archaeological sites is usually designed as an afterthought to archaeological research. Unfortunately one result is that valuable information can be lost or remain uncollected. There is often a great deal of useful information present in the archaeological record which could be helpful to archaeological site conservators, engineers and planners. Specifically, a complete understanding of the site's original architectural materials provides a basis for decisions regarding the preservation and management of existing site features. Stabilization of existing standing structures cannot be accomplished without an understanding of the original materials used in their construction. In order to maximize the information available to archaeological site managers, a comprehensive site management plan must be an integral component of the archaeological research design and implementation. This requires integrating an investigation of construction materials into the original archaeological research model. The origin, manufacture, use and subsequent deterioration of these materials, as well as their archaeological context are important to the conservation plan. Ancient mortars and concretes from Umm al-Jimal proved to be complex mixtures containing both raw geologic, biological and human processed components. This formulation gave the original mortars and concretes specific qualities of physical strength and durability. These compounds are markedly different from modern materials, such as Portland cement, frequently used to "stabilize" archaeological structures. Analysis indicates that all of the materials used in the manufacture of the ancient mortars and concretes were locally available to the historic occupants of Umm al-Jimal.

Dunn, Edith Ann

393

Seismic cycle, long-term faulting behavior and slip rate variations along the Dead Sea Fault (Jordan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recurrence of large and destructive earthquakes along major fault systems is key to understanding the seismic cycle, the driving mechanism and forecast future behavior. We study the ~ 110-km-long Jordan Valley Fault segment (JVF) of the North-South trending Dead Sea Transform Fault and plate boundary by means of two independent approaches: i) the build-up of a paleoseismic catalogue of surface-rupturing events for the last 14 kyr, and ii) the construction of a history of slip rate over the last 48.5 kyr from different generations of left-lateral offset streams of the late Pleistocene and Holocene Lissan lacustrine deposits. Firstly, we combine published historical data, re-appraised archaeological data and paleoseismic trenching to produce and unprecedentedly complete catalogue of large (Mw > 7) earthquakes with at least 13 events in the last 14 kyr. The average ~1000 yrs recurrence interval presents large variations from 300 to more than 1500 yrs, with the various datasets intersecting and completing each other. Secondly, we present a detailed map of the active fault trace that intersects a set of 20 gullies. Stream incisions are classified as a function of their depth and relative age and characterized in terms of cumulative offsets. Absolute ages are obtained from paleoclimatic analysis of lacustrine deposits. Using the numerous isotopic dating of lacustrine deposits, lake-level fluctuations and extreme rainfall episodes, we obtain an average 4.9 mm/yr slip rate with extreme values of 3.5 and 11 mm/yr. Our results indicate slip rate variations and provide evidence for episodic faulting behavior. Both approaches indicate that the JVF encounters periods of increased seismic activity which suggests episodicity or mode-switching. Reduced recurrence intervals and/or larger co-seismic slip (and magnitudes) are required to account for observations as suggested by GPS observations (4.5 mm/yr) and seismic moment summation. The JVF has accumulated 3.5 m to 5 m of slip deficit after the AD 1033 earthquake and may be the site for a large earthquake in the near future.

Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Abou Karaki, N.

2009-12-01

394

Assessment of natural recharges of the Plio-Plistocene shallow aquifer system in Al Uja area /Lower Jordan Valley / Occupied Palestinian Territories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al Uja area locates in the Lower Jordan Valley/West Bank at 250 m below sea level. The availability of ground water, fertile soil, and warm climate during winter months make it remarkable for its agricultural activities where 600 hectares are under irrigation. Al Uja karstic spring that drain water from the Mountain carbonate aquifer system with a discharge rate between 0.5 and 8 MCM/a , and nine groundwater boreholes that tape water from the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system, with an annual abstraction of 3.5 MCM are the water sources. The south-north fault system of the Jordan Rift Valley separates the two aquifer system. The shallow aquifer system locates to the east of the fault, where the Mountain aquifer system locates to the west. The Mountain aquifer consists of high fractured and karstified limestone and dolomite of Upper Cretaceous age, and the shallow aquifer system consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay layers of the Dead Sea group. Groundwater recharge of the Mountain aquifer system takes place in the highland area in the West with an annual precipitation of about 550 mm. Formations of the shallow aquifer system crop out in the Jordan Valley where rainfall does not exceed 250 mm/a . Due to the high evaporation rate, direct recharge is neglected. Only small portion of flooding water about 0.4MCM/a infiltrate through wadi Al Uja drainage system in to the Alluvial deposits to the shallow aquifer system. In the other hand, and since more than 40 years, the nine groundwater boreholes are taping about 3 MCM/a, water table decline of about 5 m. Currently, water table locates between -290 m in the west and decrease to - 311 m in the east. Groundwater flows from the Mountain aquifer in the west to the Shallow aquifer in the east through the major fault system. The permeability of the Mountain carbonate layers is 2.49E-1 m/min and decrease to 1.6 E-2 m/min in the layers of the Shallow aquifer system, this decrease of Kf-value east wards cause a semi-barrier for groundwater flow regime, also water salinity increase from 1500 µS/cm in Mountain aquifer to 3000 few hundred m to the east of the fault and rise to 6000 µS/cm in the eastern part. The groundwater flows east wards through a corridor of 1500 meter length along the fault system.

Manasra, Kayan; Marei, Amer; Sbiah, Mohamed; Uter, Hussam; Abu Thaher, Ayman

2013-04-01

395

Strontium isotopes in Melanopsis sp. as indicators of variation in hydrology and climate in the Upper Jordan Valley during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, and wider implications.  

PubMed

Aquifers dominated by Pleistocene basalts and Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous rocks feed the Hula basin which is drained by the Jordan River into Lake Kinneret. The sedimentary sequence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene Benot Ya'akov Formation (BYF) exposed by excavations of the 0.78 Ma lake-side site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) consists of six cycles representing ca. 100 ka history of the Hula basin. This study characterizes the types of water sources in the catchment, tests the use of the Strontium (Sr) isotopes in the common extant snail Melanopsis sp. as a tracer for water in its habitat, and uses this tracer in the fossil specimens from GBY to investigate the palaeohydrology of the Hula paleolake during the corresponding period. The Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of extant Melanopsis shells in the Hula catchment range widely (0.7046-0.7079). These analyses define distinct groups of water sources and aquifers, while the Jordan River at the GBY site has values around 0.70685. The values for fossil Melanopsis from GBY vary along stratigraphy; they are highest around 0.70710 in Cycles 1 and 2, decrease to around 0.70685 in Cycle 3, and exhibit upward trending fluctuations in the subsequent cycles to 0.70703 in Cycle 6. This trend reveals the dominance of the Hermon Jurassic aquifer during the earlier, colder periods before the Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary (MBB) and enhanced influence of the Golan basaltic aquifers, in subsequent warmer periods, indicating that the MBB coincides with climate warming as supported by other indicators. Hence, this global geochronological indicator of 0.78 Ma is also potentially a global palaeoclimatic marker. The similarity between the Sr isotope composition of the Jordan River waters and Melanopsis and those from Cycle 3 suggests that the current climate corresponds to that of the warmest period within the record of GBY, clarifying the comparative interpretation of this 100 k.yr. climate record. PMID:21036385

Spiro, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Shoshana; Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

2010-10-30

396

Significant effects of Fatwa-based perception on contraceptive practice among Muslim women in south Jordan under the early stage of fertility transition.  

PubMed

An interview survey of 450 Muslim women in a rural village of south Jordan under the early stage of fertility transition was conducted to explore major causes of contraceptive use, taking both their sociodemographic attributes and fatwa (Islamic jurisprudence)-based perception into account. Discriminant analysis, which was performed for the subject women divided into 15- to 29-, 30- to 39-, and 40- to 49-year age groups, revealed that "the number of living children" in the former and "to do contraception for good care of children" in the latter played significant roles in discrimination into contraceptive user and nonuser groups for any age groups. To cope with demographically and socioeconmically vulnerable situations, contraceptive prevalence rate should be increased by means of government-led family planning programs in cooperation with the imam (Muslim religious leaders and priests) through fatwa, in which special attention is paid to traditional norms, represented by good childcare. PMID:20589988

Sueyoshi, Shuji; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

2010-01-01

397

Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate: The Late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated

H. G. Dill; A. Bechtel; J. Kus; R. Gratzer; A. M. B. Abu Hamad

2010-01-01

398

Evaluation of seismic hazard, local site effect, liquefaction potential, and dynamic performance of a world example of an embankment dam characterized by very complex and unique foundations conditions: Karameh dam in the Jordan Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geologic structures associated with the site of a 55·106 m3 Karameh embankment dam (under construction in Jordan Valley) and the tectonic effects on dam foundation and reservoir margins\\u000a were reviewed. The regional seismicity and history of events were analyzed and a design earthquake was established.\\u000a \\u000a At Karameh dam site, the geotechnical conditions for the foundations formations (including liquefiable sands)

Azm S. Al-Homoud

1995-01-01

399

Late Holocene activity of the Dead Sea Transform revealed in 3D palaeoseismic trenches on the Jordan Gorge segment [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional excavations of buried stream channels that have been displaced by the Jordan Fault, the primary strand of the Dead Sea fault zone in northern Israel, demonstrate that late Holocene slip has been primarily strike slip at a minimum rate of 3 mm/yr. The palaeoseismic study was carried out in the Bet-Zayda Valley, the delta of the Jordan River at the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. The site was chosen where a north-striking scarp with up to 1-m vertical expression crosses the flat valley. One group of trench excavations was located where a small stream crosses the scarp. The active stream, which is incised into the scarp, is not offset by the fault. However we found two palaeo channels about 2 m below the surface offset sinistrally 2.7±0.2 m by the fault and two younger nested channels offset 0.5±0.05 m. Based on radiocarbon dates we attribute the last 0.5 m rupture to the earthquake of October 30, 1759. The older offset of 2.2 m most probably occurred in the earthquakes of May 20, 1202. These two events correlate with the findings at Ateret, about 12 km north of Bet-Zayda, where the 1202 earthquake produced 1.6 m of lateral displacement in E W-striking defence walls of a Crusader castle, and an Ottoman mosque was offset 0.5 m in the earthquake of 1759. In the second group of trenches some 60 m farther south we found another offset channel. Its northern margin is displaced 15 m sinistrally whereas the southern margin shows only 9 m of sinistral offset. The dip slip component is 1.2 m, west side down. The different amounts of margin offset can be explained by erosion of the southern margin during the first 6 m of displacement. Additional slip of 9 m accrued after the stream had been abandoned and buried by a 2-m-thick lacustrine clay layers. Radiocarbon dates on organic residue provide the age control which indicates that the 15 m of slip has accrued over the past 5 kyr, yielding a short-term slip rate of 3 mm/yr for the late Holocene. It is possible that our study covers only part of the fault zone, hence we regard this mean slip rate to be a minimum for the DST. Based on other palaeoseismic studies the best estimate for Quaternary slip rate is 4±1 mm/yr.

Marco, Shmuel; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Heimann, Ariel; Frieslander, Uri; Agnon, Amotz

2005-05-01

400

Scutifolium jordanicum gen. et sp. nov. (Cabombaceae), an aquatic fossil plant from the Lower Cretaceous of Jordan, and the relationships of related leaf fossils to living genera.  

PubMed

A new species of aquatic plant, Scutifolium jordanicum gen. et sp. nov., Taylor, Brenner & Basha, is described from the Albian of Jordan. The leaves are microphyllous with a symmetrical, elliptical to suborbiculate shape, convex to rounded apex and base, and actinodromous to palinactinodromous primary venation. The peltate, centrally attached petioles are narrow, elongate, and alternately arranged on similarly sized stems. The leaves appear to be thick and have aerenchyma. Comparisons to plants with centrally peltate leaves and palmate venation and to aquatic plants with floating leaves suggest that S. jordanicum belongs to the Cabombaceae lineage within the Nymphaeales. Cladistic analysis including the fossil and living members of the Nymphaeales shows that the S. jordanicum is basal to the living members of the family and has unique characters not found in any living genera. This is the oldest evidence of the Cabombaceae from the Old World. Inclusion of two other Early Cretaceous peltate leaf fossils in the phylogenetic analysis indicates their affinities to Cabombaceae and that some of the shared derived characters for the living members are progressively acquired in the fossils. These data show the Cabombaceae were widespread in Gondwana and Laurasia by the mid-Cretaceous. PMID:21632359

Taylor, David Winship; Brenner, Gilbert J; Basha, Sa'd Hasan

2008-03-01

401

Prevalence and risk indicators of gingivitis and periodontitis in a Multi-Centre study in North Jordan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data about the epidemiology and risk factors/indicators of gingivitis, aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP) in Jordan. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators of gingivitis, AgP and CP. Methods A sample of 595 subjects was randomly selected from subjects escorting out-patients attending a Medical Center, a Dental Teaching Hospital, and 2 private dental clinics. The socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, income, smoking and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Full mouth periodontal examination was performed, and radiographs were taken for sites with probing depth > 3 mm. Results About 76% had gingivitis, 2.2% had AgP and 5.5% had CP. Periodontitis was more frequent among males than females with a M: F ratio of 1.6:1 and the prevalence increased with age. Subjects who reported not using a tooth brush, smokers and subjects with BMI > 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher prevalence of periodontitis. The risk for periodontitis was greater among subjects who reported positive family history and subjects with ? 12 years of education. Conclusions This is the first study to report on the prevalence of gingivitis, CP and AgP in North Jordanian. Age, low education, low frequency of tooth brushing and family history were significantly associated with increased risk of periodontitis.

2012-01-01

402

The Waqf as Suwwan crater, Eastern Desert of Jordan: aspects of the deep structure of an oblique impact from reflection seismic and gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deeply eroded Waqf as Suwwan ring structure was recently discovered to be a large impact, the first identified in the near east. Large-scale reflection seismic structure shows the impact situated high on the northeastern flank of the Jordan Uplift sloping into Wadi Sirhan Basin. If exhumation is linked to the Arabia-Eurasia collision, a likely time window for the impact event may be latest Eocene to Late Oligocene. Impact into a shallow sea seems an optional scenario. Old reflection seismic lines offer limited insight into the deep structure of the rim and part of the central uplift of the complex crater. An important structural clue is provided by a well-resolved seismic horizon of a yet tentative correlation with a Paleozoic black shale. The central gravity high is compatible with a mass surplus by the uplift of denser Paleozoic basement below the central uplift. The gravity model further indicates a ring of dense Paleozoic sediments rising from below into the ring syncline. Seismics show presumably radial synclines in the central uplift which are interpreted by centripetal constrictional flow during crater collapse. Beneath the final crater's outer boundary, a shallow-dip normal fault zone, subtle seismic structure in uncollapsed footwall segments reveal an asymmetry of strain. The asymmetry is attributed to the cratering flow by an oblique impact directed toward NE. The finding provides independent support to an earlier suggestion of impact obliquity based on vergency of folds exposed on the central uplift.

Heinrichs, Till; Salameh, Elias; Khouri, Hani

2013-07-01

403

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

404

Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Jordan quadrangle, Miles City quadrangle, Glendive quadrangle (Montana), Watford City quadrangle, (North Dakota). Final report  

SciTech Connect

An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the area covered by the Glendive, Miles City, Jordan, and Watford City, 1:250,000 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS), quadrangle maps. The survey was part of DOE's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer with a large crystal volume, and with a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test Range. Data quality was ensured during the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, plotted, and contoured to produce anomaly maps based on the radiometric response of individual geological units. The anomalies were interpreted and an interpretation map produced. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data collection procedures, the data processing procedures, the data presentation, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology. A separate Volume II for each quadrangle contains the data displays and the interpretation results.

Not Available

1981-01-01

405

Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 ?g/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M

2012-08-01

406

A hybrid composite dike suite from the northern Arabian Nubian Shield, southwest Jordan: Implications for magma mixing and partial melting of granite by mafic magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian Nubian Shield is an exemplary juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age (1000-542 Ma). The post-collisional rift-related stage (~ 610 to 542 Ma) of its formation is characterized among others by the intrusion of several generations of simple and composite dikes.This study documents a suite of hybrid composite dikes and a natural example of partial melting of granite by a mafic magma from the northernmost extremity of Arabian Nubian Shield in southwest Jordan. The petrogenesis of this suite is discussed on the basis of field, petrographic, geochemical, and Rb/Sr isotopic data. These dikes give spectacular examples of the interaction between basaltic magma and the granitic basement. This interaction ranges from brecciation, partial melting of the host alkali feldspar granite to complete assimilation of the granitic material. Field structures range from intrusive breccia (angular partially melted granitic fragments in a mafic groundmass) to the formation of hybrid composite dikes that are up to 14 m in thickness.The rims of these dikes are trachyandesite (latite) with alkali feldspar ovoids (up to 1 cm in diameter); while the central cores are trachydacite to dacite and again with alkali feldspar ovoids and xenoliths from the dike rims.The granitic xenoliths in the intrusive breccia have been subjected to at least 33% partial melting.A seven-point Rb/Sr isochron from one of these composite dikes yields an age of 561 ± 33 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70326 ± 0.0003 (2?) and MSWD of 0.62.Geochemical modeling using major, trace, rare earth elements and isotopes suggests the generation of the hybrid composite dike suite through the assimilation of 30% to 60% granitic crustal material by a basaltic magma, while the latter was undergoing fractional crystallization at different levels in the continental crust.

Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Yaseen, Najel; Theye, Thomas

2013-03-01

407

The Application of a Combined Geophysical Survey (Ground-Penetrating Radar and Seismic Refraction) for mapping Sinkholes in Ghor Al-Haditha Area, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth subsidence and sinkholes are natural phenomena that occur in certain geological environments and are associated with surface, subsurface, local and regional processes. The natural solution cavities are common in carbonate rocks and other geological environments, which characterized by the presence of large volumes of evaporates. Subsidence and or sinkholes follow the creation of subsurface caverns, especially if the overlying material consists of soft or poorly cemented sediments. The water circulation and fluctuations play a major role in the creation of caverns as well as causing the triggering of the failure of the overlying earth material. Tectonic and seism tectonic processes have a major role in forming the subsidence and sinkholes particularly in tectonic-active zones such as the Dead Sea region that characterized by the presence of many local and regional subsurface salt features. The study area, Ghor Al Haditha form a part of the southern Dead Sea basin, where subsidences and sinkholes are representing natural phenomena. The occurrence of these phenomena in the area dates back to many years. But since the transfer of the Jordan River in the 1960s and the subsequent lowering of the Dead Sea level, the problem started to occur in a rather serious manner with a noticeable correlation with the fluctuations in the level of the Dead Sea. . Geophysical surveys were carried out in the study area. The aim is to perform a geophysical map of the subsurface layers and to infer its physical properties. Deployed geophysical methods are Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Seismic Refraction technique. The results of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) indicate the presence of cavities and cracks, which may verify drainage of water at surface and actually affirms the formation of sinkholes. The seismic refraction survey support the idea of a possible regional subsurface fault in a NNE direction. The highest recorded P-velocity for subsurface layers is 3948 m/sec which may represent salt intrusions at 70m depth.

Abueladas, A. A.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.

2004-12-01

408

Field and Dual Magnetic Susceptibility Proxies Implication for Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in the Urban Soil of Al-Karak City, South Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 115 urban soil samples collected on grid bases from Al-Karak City, south Jordan, were investigated for their magnetic properties using Bartington portable magnetic susceptibility system with (MS2B and MS2D) probes. The magnetic proxies that were used in this study are the field & dual magnetic susceptibilities (?). In addition the heavy metal contents in soil were determined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS). The dual frequency magnetic susceptibility meter (MS2B) measurements showed that upper soils have higher values of (?lf) than lower soils. Moreover, the large grain size particles have more magnetic materials than smaller grain size particles. This might be attributed to the lack or low degree of pedogensis due to prevailing arid climate. The field magnetic susceptibility measurements (?field) were positively correlated with low frequency dual magnetic susceptibility (?lf). Few selected samples that have anomalous magnetic susceptibility values were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The results showed a positively significant correlation between total heavy metal content and ?, this was evident from the higher degree of fitness between the distribution maps of ? and each heavy metal in the study area. These results indicate the applicability of these proxies as pollution indicator, and showed that higher ? is associated with traffic areas more than industrial and residential areas. The Frequency Dependent Susceptibility (?fd% ) was found to be medium value and ranges between (2-10%), which indicate the presence of admixture of fine Super magnetic Particles (SP) or coarse non-SP grains or SP grains < 0.005 micron. A mildly significant correlation existed between ?fd% and ?lf, which implies that the soils contain anthropogenic multi-domain and stable single domain grains. Moreover, the hysteresis loop patterns, SEM investigations, thermo magnetic heating curves and XRD charts reveal the presence of magnetite as the main magnetic mineral phase. This confirms the anthropogenic source of pollution mainly from the vehicles emissions beside frame and brakes corroded materials. The positive correlation between heavy metal and magnetic parameters was additionally evidenced by using the index of pollution (IP) method, where the samples of high IP for (?lf) are almost the same samples that have high IP of THM content.

El-Hasan, T.; Lataifeh, M.

2012-04-01

409

Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center  

PubMed Central

Background Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005). Methods An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes. Results The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative. Conclusion The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC suggests culture is broader than organizational or societal culture to include an informal global network of medical professionals and Western technologies which facilitate global interaction. Additionally, political competencies among leaders may be particularly relevant in globalizing health care services where the goal is achieving international standards of care. Western communication technologies facilitate cross-border interaction, but social and political capital possessed by the leaders may be necessary for transactions across national borders to occur thus gaining access to specialized information and global thought leaders in a medical sub-specialty such as oncology.

Moe, Jeffrey L; Pappas, Gregory; Murray, Andrew

2007-01-01

410

Evidence of Hydrogeological Connection between the Mountain and Plio-Plistocene Aquifer Systems, Using Pharmaceutical Residual- case study Jericho area/Lower Jordan Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jericho Oases (-258 m b.s.l) is known through the history for its fertile soil, date trees, and sweet fruits. Groundwater is the only water sources for domestic and agricultural activities, where about 8 MCM/a discharge form three major springs groups, in addition to 20 MCM are taped from 45 shallow boreholes (10-180 m) in the Plio-Plistocene aquifer system. The current and future availability of groundwater of the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system is the key factor for the economical development of agricultural sector, where during the last 10 years around 50 million USD are invested in this sector. Green houses agriculture, and date trees farming become the major groundwater consumers. From the hydrological point view, the study area is part of the eastern Wadi Al Quilt drainage system, where recharge take place along the mountain range in the western part of the catchment area. The shallow aquifer system consists of gravel; sand and silt inter fingering with clay layers. Chalk and chalky limestone formation of Senonian age separate the shallow aquifer from Mountain aquifer which consists of limestone, and dolomite. Both aquifer systems are part from the Eastern Basin where groundwater flows towards the Jordan River-Dead Sea basin. Direct recharge from rainfall to the shallow aquifer system is neglected due to the high evaporation rates, and only about 1 MCM/a of flooding water infiltrate into this aquifer. The hypotheses of this study is an indirect groundwater replenishment take places in certain sites along the N-S-major fault system, and groundwater flow through passages into the Plio-Plistocene aquifer systems. We tried to use pharmaceutical residuals to trace groundwater flow regimes in the Mountain and Plio-Plistocene aquifer system. Twenty eight water samples were collected during the hydrological year 2011 (in March and July) from 19 sampling sites (springs and boreholes). Few samples were collected from Al Bereh waste water treatment plant as well as from flooding water. The groundwater samples present the Mountain and the Shallow aquifer systems. The Pharmaceutical residuals were analyzed using the HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method. The result show that six pharmaceutical residuals were detected in groundwater samples from the two aquifer systems in addition to the waste water. These are Anti-Epileptic Carbamazepine, the lipid lowering agent Fenofibrate, and the X-ray contrast agents Diatrizoic acid, Iohexol, Iopromide and Iopamidol. Source of these compounds is waste water from Al Bereh Treatment plant and raw waste water from different communities. These compounds are found in springs water drain from the Mountain Aquifer as wells as in boreholes from the shallow aquifer system. The areal distribution of these compounds in groundwater extends about 4 km from wadi Al Quilt drainage system northwards to north of wadi Nueimah. The result of this study confirm the hypotheses that there is an indirect recharge from the Mountain aquifer into the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system in Jericho area. It is expected that S-N- major fault system, and the 80 m thick Chalk-Chalky limestone of Senonian age does not act as barrier between the two groundwater systems. Key words: Jericho, Shallow Plio-Plistoces and Mountain aquifer systems, Pharmaceutical Residuals, indirect replenishments

Marei, Amer; Schmidt, Natali; Tiehm, Andreas

2013-04-01

411

Strategic School Planning in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to…

Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Hasan, Manal Subhi

2012-01-01

412

A multi-isotope (radium, boron,strontium, sulfur, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen) investigation of fossil groundwater from the Disi Aquifer in southern Jordan: tracing water sources, water-rock interactions, and residence time (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise in population, consecutive droughts induced from climate change, and associated increased water demands in the Middle East have placed an increasing pressure on available water resources, which in turn has accelerated the rates of their depletion and contamination. In addition to desalination and recycling waste water, exploitation of non-renewable (“fossil”) groundwater has become an alternative water source. Most of the fossil groundwater in the Middle East and Northern Africa occupies confined sandstone aquifers and is typically characterized by high water quality. Recent findings have shown, however, that fossil groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone aquifers in southern Jordan and Israel has high levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes that largely exceed the international drinking water standards, and poses a health risk upon long-term utilization. Here we present the results of a multi-isotope study of low-saline (TDS=250-450 mg/L) groundwater from the Cambro-Ordovician Disi-Mudawarra sandstone aquifer systems in southern Jordan. The ?18O, ?2H, and 14C variations show at least three recharge phases into the confined and unconfined zones of the aquifer. High ?11B values (34-47‰) and B/Cl ratios (>>seawater ratio) suggests that the recharge water originated from rainwater of an early stage of air mass evolution, with negligible water-rock interaction in the aquifer. This meteoric composition is consistent with 87Sr/86Sr (70804 to 0.70860) and ?34S (9-16‰) values, and infers minimum dissolution of diagenetic carbonates that could have contributed depleted 11B, high 87Sr/86Sr, and dead carbon. The uncorrected 14C ages point to three major recharge episodes to the northwestern Arabian Peninsula: (1) >30 ka (Khrein aquifer); (2) 15-29 ka (confined Disi aquifer); and (3) 8-12 ka (unconfined Disi aquifer), in which the latter coincide with the “pluvial maximum” of Early Holocene. The stable isotope composition of the Disi groundwater (?18O -6.4 to -5.5‰) is significantly different from the depleted 18O and 2H composition recorded in fossil groundwater of the same age in other sandstone aquifers in Northern Africa and suggests origin from marine moisture sources of the initial stage of condensation with minimal rainout fractionation, possibly by northern migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).

Vengosh, A.; Rimawi, O.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Marie, A.; Ganor, J.

2010-12-01

413

Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits.(1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As long as the basal parts of the pyroclastic units at Tell Rimah were in the reaches of the saline groundwaters, calcite and faujasite developed in the pyroclastic host rocks. (4) Another lake level lowstand within the rift basin caused the pyroclastic host rocks to get emerged and forced zeolite-carbonate mineralization in the tuffs to a complete stillstand. Hypogene and supergene alteration in these phreatomagmatic-strombolian pyroclastic cones of the Pleistocene x were correlated with lake high- and lowstands in the adjacent rift basin along the DSTFS.The results obtained by current tectono-morphological studies of the rift-related alteration of pyroclastic rocks along the DSTFS may also be applied to basin-and-swell-topographies elsewhere in the world. The current studies involved microscopy supplemented by SEM-EDX, X-ray diffraction analysis, mid (MIR) and far (FIR) infrared spectroscopy. Major and trace elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). C- and O isotope analyses were conducted on carbonate minerals, which were also targeted on by radiocarbon dating.

Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

2012-09-01

414

Outcomes of the Boston Keratoprosthesis in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To report the indications, outcomes, and complications of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) from the first Jordanian study on the subject. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 20 eyes of 19 consecutive patients who had Boston type I KPro implantation at King Abdullah University Hospital. Surgeries were performed by the same surgeon (WS) from November 2007 to March 2010. Data collected included age, sex, primary indication, number of previous grafts, preoperative comorbidities, visual acuity before and after surgery, and complications. Results: The mean age of the participants was 51.7±19.9 years (range: 10–80 years). The mean follow-up was 18.1±9.5 months (range: 3–6 months). The most common primary corneal pathology was vascularized corneal opacity (40%). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly in 85% of eyes; 65% had a BCVA of 20/200 or better and 25% had a BCVA of 20/50 or better. The most frequent complication was retroprosthesis membrane (RPM) formation, which occurred in 45% of eyes. Two eyes (10%) had implant extrusion and required further surgery. Conclusion: Boston Kpro offers a reasonably safe and effective solution for patients with corneal blindness in whom the prognosis for natural corneal grafting is poor.

Shihadeh, Wisam A.; Mohidat, Hasan M.

2012-01-01

415

Rainfall harvesting using sand ditches in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall harvesting in rain-fed agricultural areas increases water availability for plants during the growing season, thus increasing crop production. Rainfall can be stored directly in the soil for crop production using terraces, rippers, contour ridges, and other types of water collection methods. However, the efficiency of these methods is limited by the infiltration characteristics of soil and climatic conditions. In

Majed Abu-Zreig; Mousa Attom; Nisreen Hamasha

2000-01-01

416

International Religious Freedom Report, 2006: Jordan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The constitution provides for the freedom to practice the rites of one's religion and faith in accordance with the customs that are observed in the Kingdom, unless they violate public order or morality. According to the constitution, Islam is the state re...

2006-01-01

417

Jordan Rift Valley Telecommunications Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the technical and financial feasibility of three potential fiber optics routes: Project 1: Dead Sea to Red Sea - North/South from Amman to Aqaba; Project 2: Red Sea Submarine Cable; Project 3: East/West Amman to Tel...

1998-01-01

418

A longifurcate distome cercaria from Bulinus truncatus snails in the Jordan Valley, Jordan.  

PubMed

Bulinus truncatus snails collected from water bodies of the South Shuna region, north of the Dead Sea, were found infected with a pharyngeal longifurcate distome cercaria. This new form of cercaria is named Cercaria bulini I. It has three pairs of penetration glands, 12 pairs of flame cells, and lacks the intestinal cecae. This cercaria is an active swimmer and develops within an elongated sporocyst. Other details on the morphology, behavior, and development of C. bulini I are presented. PMID:9095414

Saliba, E K; Ismail, N S

419

Israel and Jordan, 1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1998 (Israel and Jordan).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum project focuses on ancient civilizations, especially the various cultures that have inhabited the territory that is now Jerusalem, Israel. The project gives objectives for students to aim for and outlines the following 4-part procedure: (1) Background and Preparation; (2) Archaeology; (3) Group Research Project; and (4) Jerusalem…

Burpee, Mark

420

Obstetric outcome of teenage pregnancies in North Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate obstetric outcomes of nulliparous teenagers and to compare selected\\u000a variables of their course and outcome of pregnancy with controls. Methods: A review of hospital records from 1997—1999 was\\u000a done to compare the obstetric outcome in 760 teenage first pregnancies (study group) with that in control group i.e. 20 years\\u000a to 29

S. Ziadeh

2001-01-01

421

Vitamin D Status in Jordan: Dress Style and Gender Discrepancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide and has been linked to many diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess the vitamin D status of Jordanians at the national level and to identify groups of the population at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Vitamin D status was assessed in a national sample of 5,640

A. Batieha; Y. Khader; H. Jaddou; D. Hyassat; Z. Batieha; M. Khateeb; A. Belbisi; K. Ajlouni

2011-01-01

422

Spatial and Environmental Planning Challenges in Amman, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to identify the key spatial and environmental housing related challenges facing Amman and to consider them in the context of past, present and future planning policies. The paper reports on face-to-face, in-depth interviews conducted with planning professionals based in Amman, designed to explore their concerns regarding current planning issues and their proposals for addressing

Julia Meaton; Jamal Alnsour

2012-01-01

423

Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs toward Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to examine the beliefs of Jordanian kindergarten teachers toward developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). The sample consists of 285 (14.9%) randomly selected teachers working in public and private kindergartens. A questionnaire with two parts, (1) general information and (2) teachers' beliefs regarding DAP,…

Abu-Jaber, Majed; Al-Shawareb, Aseel; Gheith, Eman

2010-01-01

424

Good Governance Practices by Local Administration in Jordan and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practicing good governance is a way of strengthening democracy. Good governance from citizens’ perspective means to receive quality public services by democratic means. The aim of this article is to explore how citizens evaluate the performance of local administration in providing them with basic services, and whether Jordanians and Americans perceive good governance practices differently. To this end, a random

Abdulfattah Yaghi

2008-01-01

425

Performance of cool towers under various climates in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of cool towers, which is a modern version of the historical wind catchers was re-visited. In contrast with the expression of cooling towers, which usually refers to equipment used to cool the water in power stations, air conditioning plants etc., cool towers are used to cool the air to provide comfort conditions for occupants. The main driving force

Ali A Badran

2003-01-01

426

Jordan River: Source of Life and Source of Conflict.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clean fresh water is the lifeblood of human existence. In some parts of the world, this essential resource is undeniably quite scarce - a scarcity which contributes to the belief that violence or armed conflict over water will eventually occur. This perce...

S. J. Bowser

2010-01-01

427

Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many\\u000a sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated\\u000a concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence\\u000a of radium (Ra) in PG

Robert A. ZielinskiMohammad; Mohammad S. Al-Hwaiti; James R. Budahn; James F. Ranville

2011-01-01

428

Preterm Singleton Breech in North Jordan: Vaginal versus Abdominal Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of vaginal birth for singleton preterm breech has not often been addressed before. We retrospectively compared the perinatal outcome of two groups of preterm breech delivery. Sixty-six patients delivered vaginally and 32 delivered abdominally between 26 and 36 completed weeks. Vaginal delivery was allowed under the same protocol for singleton breech delivery at term. Both groups had similar

Saeed Ziadeh; Adel T. Abu-Heija; Ellias El-Sunna; Mohammad F. El-Jallad; Ahmad Shatnawi; A. Obeidat

1997-01-01

429

Observation of guided waves at the Wadi Arava Fault, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Dead Sea Rift Transect Project (DESERT 2000) we conducted an active seismic experiment to study the small-scale structure of the Wadi Arava fault zone (WAF). This fault is considered the principal active fault in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform system, which extends over a length of about 1000 km and is characterized by a sinistral movement of 105 km within the last 18 Ma. One of the aims of the project was to generate and observe seismic guided waves in the fault zone. Guided waves are multiple-reflected waves propagating in narrow low-velocity channels. They provide information on properties and geometry of the fault zones itself which are often not obtained by conventional seismic experiments. In April 2000 we placed 12 detonations within or very close to the surface trace of the WAF. The charges consisted of 45 kg of chemical explosives placed in 20 m boreholes. Seismic signals were recorded at 5 densely-spaced linear geophone arrays crossing the fault. The recordings exhibit prominent wave trains emerging from 2 in-fault explosions. We interpret these phases as waves being guided by a fault-zone related low-velocity layer. Observations of these wave trains are confined to certain segments of the receiver lines and occur only for certain shot locations, matching the surface trace of the WAF. They show high energy and monochromatic or weak dispersive behaviour. We model the guided waves by using an analytical solution for the wavefield (Ben-Zion & Aki, 1990). The model is characterized by a vertical low-velocity layer embedded in two quarter spaces. Although strong trade-offs between the free parameters are present, preliminary calculations suggest that the observations are adequately fit by models with a 10 to 30 m thick vertical layer where the S wave velocity is reduced by approximately 15 to 25 % relative to the surrounding rock. We relate the vertical low-velocity layer to the damage zone of the WAF. Compared to other major continental shear zones, the damage zone of the shallow part of the WAF at this location seems to be rather narrow. The WAF shows 100 km of cumulative offset, about a fifth of the San Andreas Fault. The damage zone is proportionately thinner, suggesting a scaling between damage zone thickness and offset.

Haberland, C.; Maercklin, N.; Ryberg, T.; Rumpker, G.; Weber, M.; Agnon, A.; El-Kelani, R.; Qabbani, I.; Scherbaum, F.

2001-12-01

430

Observation of guided waves at the Wadi Arava Fault, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Dead Sea Rift Transect Project (DESERT 2000) we conducted an active seismic experiment to study the small-scale structure of the Wadi Arava fault zone (WAF). This fault is considered the principal active fault in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform system, which extends over a length of about 1000 km and is characterized by

C. Haberland; N. Maercklin; T. Ryberg; G. Rumpker; M. Weber; A. Agnon; R. El-Kelani; I. Qabbani; F. Scherbaum

2001-01-01

431

Restoration as Responsibility: An Interview with Bill Jordan III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interest in ecological restoration is increasing. A pioneer in the field discusses the value of restoration projects; deciding what state of the landscape to restore; how to educate people about the importance of reintroducing species, especially large predators; why people are so willing to volunteer and sacrifice for restoration projects; and…

Jordan, Bill, III

2002-01-01

432

A STUDY OF EDUCATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education has become a major thrust throughout the world. If a country is to advance and prosper economically, it has to participate in international trade and involve its citizens in cultural supplementation. Then, education becomes a need for the masses rather than a privilege for the few. Such views on the importance of education in the national development have been

GHASSAN RAMADAN SALAMEH

1986-01-01

433

Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

2006-01-01

434

MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial or complete failure of agricultural development programs in developing countries is often due to the lack of understanding by decision makers at all levels of the marketing links. Marketing is often conceptualized and understood only as a process of assembling produce in rural or wholesale markets. Other aspects and roles of marketing mainly as incentives for production are

Yousef M. Qat

1991-01-01

435

Geochemistry of highly basic calcium hydroxide groundwater in Jordan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly-alkaline (pH > 12.5) meteoric waters of a Ca2+OH--type issue from naturally calcined bituminous marl. The cold (16.5 ??? T(??C) ??? 19.1) waters are super-saturated with minerals thought to be of high-temperature origin. ?? 1982.

Barnes, I.; Presser, T. S.; Saines, M.; Dickson, P.; Van Groos, A. F. K.

1982-01-01

436

PHONE RING TONES IN JORDAN: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study lends itself to investigating ring'tone c hoice by a sample of sixty Jordanian university students in the Department of English at the Hashemite University. Various types of texts as ring tones in the form of songs and poetry, whether folkloric, national, religious or romantic can be very informative means of understanding the cultu' ral and social values of

B. Al-Azzam

437

Islamic tourism as an ideological construction: A Jordan study case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2001, the Jordanian Ministry of Awqâf1 and Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities endorsed a new branch of tourism: Islamic tourism. This new policy has economic, cultural and religious dimensions, and targets Muslim as well as Westerner tourists. It focuses on promoting visitation of the newly rebuilt mausoleums of the pre-Islamic prophets and the Companions of Prophet Muhammad all

Norig Neveu

2010-01-01

438

Organizational Learning Culture, Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examined the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

2004-01-01

439

Ionic composition of wet precipitation in the Petra Region, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of chemical analysis of precipitation samples collected in Petra between October 2002 and May 2004 are presented. All samples were analyzed for major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), major anions (Cl-, NO3-, HCO3- and SO42-), conductivity and pH. The daily sample pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.15 with an average value of 6.85 ± 0.5.

Omar A. Al-Khashman

2005-01-01

440

Ionic composition of wet precipitation in the Petra Region, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of chemical analysis of precipitation samples collected in Petra between October 2002 and May 2004 are presented. All samples were analyzed for major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), major anions (Cl?, NO3?, HCO3? and SO42?), conductivity and pH.The daily sample pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.15 with an average value of 6.85±0.5. Rainwater quality is

Omar A. Al-Khashman

2005-01-01

441

Kindergarten Teachers’ Beliefs Toward Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the beliefs of Jordanian kindergarten teachers toward developmentally appropriate\\u000a practices (DAP). The sample consists of 285 (14.9%) randomly selected teachers working in public and private kindergartens.\\u000a A questionnaire with two parts, (1) general information and (2) teachers’ beliefs regarding DAP, was developed to answer the\\u000a research questions. The items were distributed into

Majed Abu-JaberAseel Al-Shawareb; Aseel Al-Shawareb; Eman Gheith

2010-01-01

442

OPHTHALMIC EMERGENCIES DURING THE FESTIVE PERIOD IN AQABA - SOUTH JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted in Princess Haya Military Hospital. The aim was to evaluate the emergency eye cases during the feast vacation in Aqaba. Methods: We chose four feast vacations during the years 2001 and 2002, counting 20 days, and compared the emergency cases during these days with those seen on other randomly chosen 20 days during

Rihab A. Ghanma; Abdullah M. Ghanma

443

Hospital policies and practices concerning normal childbirth in Jordan.  

PubMed

We investigated reported policies and practices of normal delivery in Jordanian hospitals to assess whether these practices are evidence-based and whether women are given choices in delivery. Staff at a nationally representative sample of 30 hospitals were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. The surveyed hospitals were found to be well equipped to deal with obstetric emergencies, and many follow evidence-based procedures. The internal evaluation system, however, typically is based on team feedback, and 20 percent of hospitals reported having no internal evaluation procedure. Some unnecessary procedures, including pubic shaving and enemas, are frequently practiced. Women are restricted in their movement during labor, and the lithotomy position is usually adopted for delivery; the majority of hospitals report strapping women in the delivery position. Most hospitals do not allow social support during labor and delivery. Measures are needed to encourage the best evidence-based practices regarding normal childbirth, including better evaluation. Jordanian women need much more information about their delivery options so that they can exercise their preferences wherever possible. PMID:18540524

Sweidan, Mary; Mahfoud, Ziyad; DeJong, Jocelyn

2008-03-01

444

Psychological Loneliness among Arab Students at Irbid National University, Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of psychological loneliness among Arab students studying at Irbid National University, and to investigate the effect of year of study and gender of students on the level of psychological loneliness. The sample of the study consisted of 149 students, 133 males and 16 females from first, second,…

Al-Kadoumi, Khawla; Sawalha, Abdel Muhdi; Al Momani, Mohammad

2012-01-01

445

Kidney biopsy in jordan: complications and histopathological findings.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records, and histopathology findings of 191 patients who underwent renal biopsies at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) during a four-year period (1993-97). All were performed using Tru-Cut needles under ultrasound guidance. There were 119 males (62.3%) and 72 females (37.7%); the mean age was 29.1 years (range 5-76 years). Side effects of the renal biopsies included pain at the site of he biopsy in 17 (8.9%), gross hematuria in six (3.1%) and hematuria requiring blood transfusion in one (0.5%) patient. Nephrotic syndrome was the most common indication for biopsy followed by acute renal failure of unknown etiology. Among the nephritic patients, minimal change disease and post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN) were the commonest findings in children below the age of 15 years, membrano-proliferative GN ranked first in adults whole membranous GN and amyloidosis were more common in the elderly. WE conclude that renal biopsy was associated with a n acceptably low rate of complications in our practice, and that the patterns of renal histology vary slightly from those reported from other countries. PMID:18212424

Ghnaimat, M; Akash, N; El-Lozi, M

446

Utah Lake-Jordan River Water Quality Management Planning Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Water quality terminology and basic ecological concepts; Health effects; Water quality standards and treatment levels; Water quality management; Effects on the terrestrial ecosystem; Land use; Air quality; Economic considerations; Water right co...

1976-01-01

447

THE END OF THE CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD IN THE SOUTH JORDAN VALLEY: NEW 14C DETERMINATIONS FROM TELEILAT GHASSUL, JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on 12 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates from the latest phases of the Chalcolithic period occupation (late 5th millennium cal BC) at Teleilat Ghassul, type site for the south Levantine Ghassulian Chalcolithic culture. The new AMS dates from Teleilat Ghassul favor an amendment to a previous suggestion (Bourke et al. 2001), that all significant occupation at

Stephen Bourke; Ugo Zoppi; John Meadows; Quan Hua; Samantha Gibbins

2004-01-01

448

Cyclospora cayetanensis and other intestinal parasites associated with diarrhea in a rural area of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis have emerged as important causes of epidemic and endemic diarrhea in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. The exact\\u000a modes of transmission in certain rural areas are still unclear. Reports of water-borne and food-borne outbreaks suggest that\\u000a fecally contaminated water or food acts as a vehicle of transmission. Two hundred stool samples of patients with gastroenteritis\\u000a from

Laila F. Nimri

2003-01-01

449

Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer Settlement in Eastern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22–11,600 cal BP) inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian) is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity—precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less

Lisa A. Maher; Tobias Richter; Danielle Macdonald; Matthew D. Jones; Louise Martin; Jay T. Stock

2012-01-01

450

Engineering behavior of the Lisan Marl as a dyke foundation material: Dead Sea, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems have occurred with dykes constructed on the Lisan Marl to retain brine pumped from the Dead Sea, which is chemically\\u000a processed to produce potash. In this study the engineering behavior, collapse potential and compressibility of the Lisan Marl\\u000a were assessed by undertaking laboratory tests with both natural, distilled water and brine as the media. The results showed\\u000a that the

Ziad Mansour; Mohd Raihan Taha; Zamri Chik

2009-01-01

451

Hydrochemistry of aquifers in the southern Dead Sea area, southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for water resources in the area south of the Dead Sea due to continued development, especially at the Arab Potash Company (APC) works necessitates that water quality in the area be monitored and evaluated based on the local geology and hydrogeology. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the past and present status of the

N. S. Abu-Jaber; N. A. Wafa

1996-01-01

452

CARNALLITE FROTH FLOTATION OPTIMIZATION AND CELL EFFICIENCY IN THE ARAB POTASH COMPANY, DEAD SEA, JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arab Potash Company (APC) was formed to develop minerals from the Dead Sea. Currently, APC is producing potash for agriculture and industrial potash for the chemical industry, industrial salt, bromine, and NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) fertilizers. The flotation unit at APC is a significant part of the overall processes, which end up separating halite from the carnallite in the mixture.

Z. S. H. Abu-Hamatteh; A. M. Al-Amr

2008-01-01

453

Hydrochemistry of aquifers in the southern Dead Sea area, southern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for water resources in the area south of the Dead Sea due to continued development, especially at the Arab Potash\\u000a Company (APC) works necessitates that water quality in the area be monitored and evaluated based on the local geology and\\u000a hydrogeology. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the past and present status of the

N. S. Abu-Jaber; N. A. Wafa

1996-01-01

454

Proceedings of the Annual Linguistics Conference (3rd, Irbid, Jordan, April 1-3, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proceedings include: (1) "Communicative Competence Reconsidered," by M. Doushaq; (2) "Scenarios for Enhancing Communicative Competence," by G. Salah; (3) "Oral Style Strategies in EFL Written Discourse: Implications for Teaching College Composition," by O. Atari; (4) "Arabic and English Imperative Structures," by M. Anani; (5) "Simplification…

Abu-Salim, Issam, Ed.; Owens, Jonathan, Ed.

455

Heavy metal concentrations in common freshwater snails of Azraq Oasis, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal concentrations in three freshwater snails, an aquatic plant, sediment, and water from Azraq Oasis pools in the Jordanian desert were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were significant differences in metal accumulation among snail species. These snails are ranked according to their metal accumulation capacity in the order: Melanoides tuberculata > Melanopsis praemorsa > Theodoxus jordani. Although there

Khaled M. Swaileh; Mohamed N. Mesmar; Naim S. Ismail

1994-01-01

456

Water Conflict in the Jordan River Basin: What Should Strategists Ask.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a fresh water shortage in the world, which is rapidly growing worse. Nearly every source is full of ominous statistics, indicating broad consensus among government, corporate, and scientific experts that the problem is real. Sometimes, such numbe...

A. A. Costales

2002-01-01

457

Dental Local Anesthesia In Jordan: Part 2, Injection Techniques And Local Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the most popular local anesthetic injection techniques carried out by a sample of the Jordanian dentists. This study also investigates the incidence of local complications tlnt miyht arise following the administration of a local anesthetic injection. A numher of dentists were randomly selected from a list of dental practitioners registered with thi

Najla Said Dar-Odeh

458

Side Effects of Regime Building in Jordan: The State and the Nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the September 1970 Jordanian ‘civil war’ and the signing of the Jordanian National Charter in 1991 mark critical junctures in the processes of state, regime, and nation building in the kingdom. The subduing of the fedayeen in 1970–71 eliminated the final significant challenger to the sovereignty of the Jordanian state. The National Charter brought historic opposition groups together to

Russell Lucas

2008-01-01

459

Knowledge of the Effects of Indoor Air Quality on Health among Women in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the extent of knowledge about symptoms relating to respiratory illnesses and home environments among a random sample of 200 urban Jordanian women. Method: This customized, validated, cross-sectional questionnaire evaluated the knowledge of these women about the association between the indoor environment and health, the…

Madanat, Hala; Barnes, Michael D.; Cole, Eugene C.

2008-01-01

460

Sources of Social Support among Special Education Teachers in Jordan and Their Relationship to Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the source of social support (supervisors, colleagues, friends, spouse, and family) that would be the most efficient in reducing burnout among special education teachers. A sample of 83 special education teachers (43 men and 40 women) completed Burnout and Sources of Social Support questionnaires. Person correlation…

Bataineh, Osamah

2009-01-01

461

ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF EARLY STEEL FROM THE BACQAH VALLEY, JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

precipitates as iron carbide (or possibly nitride) formed during quench-aging. Further in- vestigation in the recent metallurgical literature reveals that this needle-form precipitate is indeed typical of quench-aged carbides; this finding brings into doubt the previous attributions of this precipitate form as nitrides in the archaeological literature. Direct microanalytical study could be important in determining whether this precipitate form is

K. H. Liu; H. Chan; M. R. Notis; V. C. Pigott

462

Bioavailability of iron from four different local food plants in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioavailability of iron from local plants(black cumin seeds, milk thistle seeds, sesame seedsand thyme leaves) was investigated. Appare