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  1. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  2. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  4. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Raymoony, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted on 100 patients with symptomatic gallbladder stones, aged 22-81 years with a mean of 51.5 years, who underwent cholecystectomy in Zarqa city, Jordan between July 1998 and July 1999. The success rate was 87% and the procedure was completed using the conventional method in 13 patients. The mean operative time was 60 minutes, complication rate was 5% and there were no deaths. The mean hospital stay was 1 day and mean time to return to work was 10 days. This study showed that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe procedure with reasonable operative time, less postoperative pain, a short hospital stay, early return to work, and a low morbidity and mortality rate. PMID:15332788

  5. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  6. Circassian Language Maintenance in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Ulle

    2009-01-01

    The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data…

  7. Basic Space Sciences in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naimy, H. M. K.; Konsul, Khalil

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the activities and research projects of Basic Space Sciences (Astronomy and Space Sciences (AASS)) in the following Jordanian organizations and Institutions: 1. Jordanian Astronomical Society (JAS). 2. Universities {Mainly Al al-Bayt University}. Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (IAASS). Maragha Astronomical Observatory (MAO). 3. Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences (AUASS). 4. ICOP Activities: Islamic Crescent Observational Program. The paper summarizes also other activities in some Jordanian organizations and the future expectation, for AASS in Jordan.

  8. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  10. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  11. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

    1999-07-23

    The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of

  12. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

  14. English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saidat, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

  15. Fertility and family planning in Jordan: results from the 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey.

    PubMed

    Warren, C W; Hiyari, F; Wingo, P A; Abdel-Aziz, A M; Morris, L

    1990-01-01

    The 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey (JHFS) was designed to assess husbands' attitudes and behavior toward fertility and family planning. The 1985 JHFS was a follow-up survey to obtain data from husbands of women who were currently married in the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey (JFFHS). The results from the 1985 JHFS point to the usefulness of collecting fertility and family planning information from husbands. These findings showed that nearly 40 percent of the husbands do not believe in practicing contraception, and more than 50 percent of the husbands report that family size should be "up to God." How program officials address these issues will be important for the future success of the family planning program in Jordan. PMID:2315966

  16. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  17. Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Engineering Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the…

  18. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  19. Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

  20. Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

  1. Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

  2. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  3. Gender and the Expansion of University Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Willy

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how gender is threaded through the expansion and privatization of higher education in Jordan. Due to the justified current concern with the educational deficit of Muslim girls, it is easy to overlook the educational advances made by girls in some Islamic countries. In Jordan, girls have profited more than boys from the…

  4. University Acceptance Features in the Open Arab University (Jordan Branch) Amman Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALmahasneh, Ebtisam Z.; ALhabees, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the experience of the Open Arab University/Jordan branch, in terms of accepted students as well as the graduates from 2002 to 2005, and to conclude on one hand the relation between the students' genders, the majors and the scientific programs, and to study the differences between the number of graduates…

  5. Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

  6. 78 FR 34089 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2013, Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P. (Jordan Cove), 125 Central Avenue, Suite 380, Coos Bay... granted Jordan Cove's request to utilize the Pre-Filing Process and assigned Docket No. PF12- 7 to...

  7. Concept of biosimilar products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, Rania Dakhlallah

    2011-09-01

    After the expiration of patents on originator biological products, Jordanian local manufacturers and the agents of international pharmaceutical companies in Jordan started to submit registration dossiers for biosimilar products. The Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) is the national regulatory authority responsible for the registration of biosimilar products. Biosimilars are registered under the same regulations used for drugs until specific guidelines for registration of biological and biosimilar products are released. Those regulations are called Criteria of Registration of Drugs, Vaccines, Sera and Biological Products, the Renewal of its Registration and the Cancellation of Any of them which was published in the official gazette in 2004 under the Provisional Law Number 80 of the year 2001, Drug and Pharmacy Law and its amendments of the year 2003. Also, the JFDA follows the EMA guidelines on similar biological medicinal products for specific active biological substances for non-clinical and clinical studies requirements and the EMA guideline on similar biological medicinal products containing biotechnology-derived proteins as active substance: quality issues. A post marketing surveillance study is requested after a biosimilar product is authorized. The JFDA keeps pace with all advances in the regulatory issues related to biosimilars in order to be capable of authorizing biosimilar products with a safe, effective and good quality profile. PMID:21873079

  8. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1989-01-01

    The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

  9. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  10. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    PubMed

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern. PMID:17838033

  11. Jordan: A Study of the Educational System of Jordan and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Jordan in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Garland G.

    The educational system of Jordan is described, and placement recommendations concerning students who want to study in the United States are presented. After describing the setting and structure of Jordanian education, attention is directed to curricula and enrollments, undergraduate student admissions, higher education, and graduate education and…

  12. Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2010-01-01

    This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

  13. General and Special Education Systems in Jordan: Present and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Jabery, Mohammad; Zumberg, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Educating a student with special needs became an interest in Jordan at the end of the 1960s. This article provides an overview of the general and special education systems in Jordan. Historical and demographical information is included for the purpose of placing the education of children in Jordan within the context of its land and the population…

  14. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, N; Melnick, J L; Hatch, M H; Dawod, S T

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease.Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  15. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Melnick, Joseph L.; Hatch, Milford H.; Dawod, Saleh T.

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease. Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  16. Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

  17. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  19. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  20. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  1. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-05-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  2. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  3. 77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and... comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in...

  4. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  5. Paving a Path for the Future: Comparing Israel and Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ivan; Fitzhugh, William P.

    The materials in this paper could be used to enrich the secondary classroom curriculum in Middle Eastern studies or in world affairs. The paper provides four essay questions to use as a starting point in composing a research paper on the general topic, "Israel and Jordan: Paving the Way to Peace." It outlines the common history and political…

  6. What Is the Reality of Preschool in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALdarab'h, Intisar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo; Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reality of the preschools in Jordan. A random sample of 500 preschool teachers participated in this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Preschools' learning environment quality was assessed using the revised version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Harms, Clifford, & Cryer,…

  7. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  8. Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

  9. Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…

  10. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  11. Negotiating Cultural Identities through Language: Academic English in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how a group of multilingual scholars in Jordan negotiate multiple linguistic and cultural affiliations. These writers' experiences demonstrate the varied ways English's global dominance affects individuals' lives. The scholars find both empowerment and disempowerment in English, viewing English as linked to Western hegemony…

  12. Educational Demands to Reduce Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsa'aideh, Monim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the educational demands to reduce students' avoidance of vocational education in Jordan. Results of a previous study addressing reasons for avoidance of vocational education, distributed these reasons into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. Focus-groups method was used to identify the…

  13. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  14. Reasons for Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saaideh, Mon'im A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the factors that lead students to avoid joining Vocational Education (VE) in Jordan. A pilot study was conducted, then a 39-item questionnaire was developed, and its validity and reliability were ensured. The reasons included were divided into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. The…

  15. Clinical bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Alqawasmeh, D M

    2010-12-01

    A 1-year-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented for anorexia and acute diarrhoea. The heifer was born and raised at the farm. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection was diagnosed using clinical signs and RT-PCR. Clinical BVDV infection has never been reported in Jordan. PMID:21117287

  16. Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

  17. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  18. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  19. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Elementary School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…

  20. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F.; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. Methods: A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Results: Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07–0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500–999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. <250 JD monthly, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.31–4.31). There were also significant associations between perception of harm and addictiveness and each outcome. Discussion: Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan. PMID:20418383

  1. Distribution of Upper Pliocene brines in the northern Jordan Rift Valley, Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Guttman, Joseph; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    In the triangle of Lake Tiberias (LT), Yarmouk Gorge and Lower Jordan Valley (Fig. 1), fresh groundwaters are frequently deteriorated by variable admixture of ascending subsurface Upper-Pliocene brines. Element ratios and water isotopes reveal, that common source brine is present and is modified by water rock interaction and dilution with freshwater. This common source brine is inferred from the composition of the known Ha'on well brine being characterized by molar ratios of Na/Cl=0.53, 1000Br/Cl=5.5 and Ca/Mg=0.39 (Möller et al., 2011). The low Ca/Mg, a ratio also found for Newe Ur, is unique in an environment in which ratios >1 dominate because of omnipresent dolomitization of abundant limestones. Interaction with abundant intrusive basaltic bodies would add sodium and hence increase the low Na/Cl ratio to >1. Uptake of halite increases Na/Cl but decreases Br/Cl ratios. These ratios resemble seawater after 37-fold enrichment in Li molality by evaporation (McCaffrey et al. 1987). Although being diluted by freshwater the Ha'on well brine proves the presence of an evaporated seawater mother brine residing at unknown depth. The derivatives of inferred Ha'on mother brine are present around Lake Tiberias, in the lower Yarmouk Valley and in the northern Rift Valley at least as far southwards as Newe Ur. Areas of structural weakness, where the major fault systems occur, are the main distribution areas for these brines. The study provides an example whereby hydrochemical analyses are applied as key tool to better understand deep fluid transport processes at basin-scale, which are supported by numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Möller P., Siebert C., Geyer S., Inbar N., Rosenthal E., Flexer A., Zilberbrand M. (2011): Relationship of brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley. Geofluids 12(2): 166-181. McCaffrey M.A., Lazar B., Holland H.D. (1987): The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br- and K+ with halite. J. Sediment. Petrol

  2. Landscape development in the context of soil distribution in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Processes of landscape change can be assessed by studying the distribution of soil types and their connection to climate, the geology, and land use. In this context, even in areas where no virgin soils are available, paleosols pre-dating the introduction of agriculture can be utilized for estimating potential soil development without human impact. Soil distribution in Jordan follows closely the climate and topography: specific soil orders can be found within the dry and hot subtropical, subhumid-semiarid, semiarid-arid, and arid regions. The pattern of soil and paleosol distribution in Jordan points to an important role of the geology (bedrock and relief), and of climate in their formation, both locally such as in the vicinity of the ancient site of Abila, and regionally in the whole country. In contrast, the impact of land use appears relatively limited: overall erosion has been estimated not to exceed the expected geological rate, and Jordan is considered to be in the stable state of completed geologic erosion. This is further supported by strongly varying soil properties and archaeological material on agricultural fields, which suggests that overall erosion processes during historical periods were limited. The presence of a quite uniform 4 m thick loess cover around the site of Umm el-Jimal in north-east Jordan suggests that aeolian deposits are probably the by far dominating parent material of current soils in northern Jordan. In this context, an apparent division of some soil profiles into subsoil and topsoil could correspond to dominant in-situ soil formation out of bedrock weathering at the bottom, while the upper part of the profiles could correspond to aeolian dust as main parent material. A stone line or lithological discontinuity separating these two parts of the profile might refer to a major erosion event. If true, this could indicate that current soils in Jordan might represent a mixture of at least two phases of soil development with probably

  3. Bringing the professional challenges for nursing in Jordan to light.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Arwa I

    2005-12-01

    The definition of a profession consists of contributing characteristics. Nursing must achieve these characteristics in order to confirm its professional status. These characteristics include: a standard of education; professional organizations; commitment; autonomy; continuing education; body of knowledge and competencies; social value; and a code of ethics. Nursing in Jordan faces a unique set of challenges to meet these criteria. The purpose of this discussion is to bring the professional challenges of nursing in Jordan to light, to motivate collaborative efforts to remediate them and to discuss the value of evidence-based practice in this process. The key to confirming Jordanian nurses' professional status is for nurses to seek every opportunity to prove themselves, earn respect, take control over their work, support their colleagues and to make informed decisions. In addition, a more active and effective role for the nursing organizations is necessary to change the public's view of nursing. Efforts to reform regulation also should be intensified. PMID:16255735

  4. Education reform and the quality of kindergartens in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan—the implementation of public kindergartens—and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of kindergartens was selected to represent these new public kindergartens (n = 84) and previously existing private kindergartens (n = 23). Independent observers rated the quality of kindergarten environments in seven domains. Overall, 13% of public kindergarten environments were observed to be inadequate, 43% were of minimal quality, 43% were good, and 1% were excellent. In four of the seven domains, the quality of public kindergartens was significantly higher than the quality of private kindergartens; there were no significant differences in the other domains. Findings suggest the importance of continuing to implement high quality kindergartens in Jordan and of incorporating evaluations into education reform. PMID:21170163

  5. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  6. Soil erosion and land degradation in the Highlands of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2013-04-01

    The Highlands of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the Highlands area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern Highlands, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation

  7. Bell Correlated and EPR States in the Framework of Jordan Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Sobotíková, Veronika

    2016-03-01

    We study Bell inequalities and EPR states in the context of Jordan algebras. We show that the set of states violating Bell inequalities across two operator commuting nonmodular Jordan Banach algebras is norm dense in the global state space. It generalizes hitherto known results in quantum field theory in several directions. We propose new Jordan quantity for incommensurable observables in a given state, introduce the concept of EPR state for Jordan structures, and study relationship between EPR states and Bell correlated states. Our analysis shows crucial role of spin factors and Pauli spin matrices for studying noncommutative properties of states and observables.

  8. Molecular characterization of the circulating Bacillus anthracis in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Amin Abdelfattah; Hailat, Ekhlas; Serrecchia, Luigina; Aqel, Suad; Campese, Emanuele; Vicari, Nadia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To understand the biomolecular charcteristics of Bacillus anthracis in Jordan, 20 blood smear slides from dead animals with suspected anthrax were analyzed using conventional and molecular approaches. All slides were positive for B. anthracis by conventional staining but no growth of the organism on selective media was detected. However, of the 20 samples, 16 were B. anthracis DNA-positive using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven samples provided enough quantity and quality of DNA, and their multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-15 loci analysis revealed two different genotypes. All genotypes were belonging to A.B..r. 008/009 which is very common in Asia and Europe. Single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis revealed that there were no sub genotypes. Molecular diagnosis of animal anthrax in Jordan is not used routinely; henceforth, official diagnosis of anthrax is based on the observation of the slides by optical microscope and this can often cause reading errors. Therefore, the prevalence of the disease in Jordan might be slightly lower than that reported by the official bodies. PMID:26156620

  9. Towards establishing a multiple sclerosis biobank in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Zaza, Rand; Ibayyan, Leena; Dahbour, Said; Bahou, Yacoub; El-Omar, Ammar; Samhouri, Bilal; El-Khateeb, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a promising approach in unraveling genetic associations to multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex, multifactorial disease. Biobanks are repositories of patient biospecimens and information that can promote GWAS research. However, the success of GWAS and biobanking is dependent on the level of participation of MS patients in genetic research. In order to initiate MS-based biobanking and GWAS research in Jordan, the willingness of MS patients to participate in long-term, genetic research in Jordan and their preferred type of a consent form were investigated. MS patients (289) were recruited for genetic studies. Personal and clinical information were collected from those who enrolled in the study. Approximately 96% of MS patients agreed to participate in genetic studies. The female:male ratio among patients was 2:1 with most patients being diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (88%). The mean age of onset was 28.3 years, the mean duration of illness was 6 years, and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.8. Relatedness of parents was significantly associated with having secondary-progressive MS. Approximately 85% of the patients preferred open consent with 37% of them preferring to renew their consent. All the patients approved to be recontacted and update their information via accessing their medical files or physicians. These observations support the establishment of a specialized MS biobank in Jordan and pave the way to participate in international large-scale genetic initiatives. PMID:24456262

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations. PMID:22525279

  11. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  12. 77 FR 48138 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Jordan Cove...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission [Jordan Cove Energy Project LP--Docket No. PF12-7-000: Pacific Connector Gas... Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects, Request for Comments on... impact statement (EIS) that will discuss the environmental impacts of Jordan Cove Energy Project...

  13. 77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects...), will hold three additional public scoping meetings to take comments on Jordan Cove Energy Project...

  14. Particle size and X-ray analysis of Feldspar, Calvert, Ball, and Jordan soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Pipette analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize the particle size distribution and clay mineral content of the feldspar, calvert, ball, and jordan soils. In general, the ball, calvert, and jordan soils were primarily clay size particles composed of kaolinite and illite whereas the feldspar soil was primarily silt-size particles composed of quartz and feldspar minerals.

  15. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  16. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for...-12740-003. c. Date filed: July 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Pound River, in the Town...

  17. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f. Location: On the Pound River, in the Town of Clintwood, in Dickenson County, Virginia. The project would...

  18. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  19. Deletion Variants of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Humans, Jordan, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Mart M.; Raj, V. Stalin; Shafei, Mah’d; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Abdallh, Sultan M.; Gazo, Mahmoud; Nofal, Samer; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Abdallat, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined. PMID:26981770

  20. Social Growth Problems Experienced by First-Grade Students at Bseera District, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrfooh, Atif Eid

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the problems of social growth experienced by students, and as recognized by teachers at "Bseera", Jordan. The study sample consisted of (88) male and female students from first-grade in the public schools in Bseera/governorate of Tafila/Jordan 2009/2010. The researcher has developed a questionnaire which…

  1. Women's Perspectives on Retention in Higher Education in Jordan: Commute and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaf, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic and advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. However, some reports claim that Jordan maintains the widest gender gap in higher education completion in the region while others report that the percentage of females…

  2. Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The study examined students with disabilities perspectives toward their experiences in a public University in Jordan using a survey approach. The aim of this study was to take a closer look at the experiences of students with disabilities in Jordan and, in light of new legislation, to identify obstacles in the higher education system. It found…

  3. 76 FR 76703 - Jordan Whittaker; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Whittaker; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2011, and supplemented November 17 and 21, 2011. d. Applicant: Jordan Whittaker. e. Name of...

  4. The Effect of an Education Program for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalaf, Amany; Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    There are few support services for parents of children with a disability in Jordan. The present exploratory study investigated whether the provision of an education program in Jordan for mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder increased mothers' understanding of their child's behaviour, improved the mothers' coping skills,…

  5. 75 FR 41898 - Slash Support, Inc. Gamehouse Products Support Workers South Jordan, UT; Notice of Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21362). The subject workers provide technical support services for the... Employment and Training Administration Slash Support, Inc. Gamehouse Products Support Workers South Jordan... Slash Support, Inc., Gamehouse Products Support Workers, South Jordan, Utah. The negative...

  6. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that...

  8. Child, Family and Community Characteristics Associated with School Readiness in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated demographic differences in school readiness within Jordan, a particularly interesting context because of widespread national reform currently sweeping the education system in Jordan. Teacher reports and researcher direct assessments of the school readiness of a national sample of 4681 Jordanian first grade children…

  9. Potential for use of Kochia prostrata and perennial grasses for rehabilitation in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although rangelands in Jordan are often degraded, they provide valued and traditional lifestyles through livestock production. A series of studies were conducted to evaluate practical approaches to restore degraded arid rangelands in Jordan. Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Sh...

  10. Content Analysis of Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning TIMSS Items in Mathematics in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innabi, Hanan; Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze items that exhibit gender-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in Mathematics in Jordan. Data was taken from the TIMSS 1999 of Jordan, which includes responses of 5, 299 eighth grade students. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) DIF procedure was applied to 124 multiple-choice items. The results showed that 37 items…

  11. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  12. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. PMID:20623320

  13. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency among Newborns in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Lang, Ryan D.; Blevins, Meridith; Kudyba, Katherine; Lawrence, Lindsey; Davidson, Mario; Faouri, Samir; Halasa, Natasha B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in selected Middle Eastern countries, but neonatal vitamin D status is not well studied in Jordan and other nearby countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Jordanian newborns and risk factors associated with low levels. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of newborn infants who were delivered at the Al Bashir Government Hospital in Amman, Jordan, from January 31, 2010, to January 27, 2011. Heel stick blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained within 96 hours of birth. Maternal dress pattern, vitamin supplementation, smoke exposure during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age, and birth weight were documented. Results: Samples were obtained from 3,731 newborns. Median gestational age was 39 weeks, median birth weight was 3.1 kilograms, median maternal age was 27 years, and median newborn 25(OH)D level was 8.6nmol/L. A total of 3,512 newborns (94.1%) in this study were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L). Lower gestational age, maternal smoke exposure, and birth during winter months were associated with lower infant vitamin D levels, while vitamin D supplementation and time spent outside during pregnancy were associated with higher vitamin D levels. Conclusions: The prevalence of severely low vitamin D levels in newborn infants in Amman, Jordan, is substantial, even in newborns born during the spring and summer months. Vitamin D supplementation is needed in this population. PMID:24373276

  15. Early Bronze Age Dolmens in Jordan and their orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, A.; Polcaro, F.

    This work presents the results of a survey of dolmen fields of the Early Bronze I in Jordan, in the Wadi Zarqa Valley, started in October 2004 and still in progress. Our data show, with a very high statistical significance, that in many sites of the Early Bronze IA a large majority of dolmens were built oriented along the N-S direction. A first interpretative hypothesis of these results, based on the astronomical contents of the mythology of the nearby civilizations culturally connected to the Palestinian area, is suggested.

  16. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.

    2005-11-01

    The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E-W and NW-SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment

  17. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Mukattash, Tareq L; Hajaj, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3%) dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%), diarrhea (83%), and otitis media (68.4%). The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7%) refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5%) of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4%) came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed without prescription in Jordan in violation with national regulations regarding this practice. The findings of this study could provide a layout for governmental health authorities to implement strict enfrorcment of national

  18. Status of Neonatal Pain Assessment and Management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Akuma, Akuma O; Jordan, Sue

    2016-08-01

    Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present study results. Of 240 questionnaires distributed, 184 useable responses were returned. Nurses' knowledge regarding neonates' neurological development, nociception, and need for neonatal pain management was suboptimal. The analgesics most commonly used to treat neonatal pain were acetaminophen (52%) and lidocaine (45%). Benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, and muscles relaxants were also used. Most nurses (54%-97%) reported that pain emanating from most painful procedures was never or rarely treated. Circumcision, lumbar punctures, and chest tube insertion were assigned the highest pain scores (≥9), but were rarely accompanied by analgesia. Pain assessment scales were more likely to be used, and procedural pain was more likely to be treated, in private hospitals than public hospitals. Neonates who require special care still suffer unnecessary pain that could be avoided and managed by following best practice recommendations. Disparities between developed and developing countries in quality of neonatal pain care appear to exist. Resources for education and routine care are needed to address these discrepancies. PMID:27108085

  19. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students’ knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level. PMID:26941925

  20. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afaneh, Feras; Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem; Hamasha, Safeia; Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He2+-Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O+-He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron-electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  1. Jordan tobacco dependence treatment guidelines: rationale and development.

    PubMed

    Ayub, H; Obeidat, N; Leischow, S; Glynn, T; Hawari, F

    2016-11-01

    Jordan, a high tobacco-burden country, has been working to expand its tobacco dependence treatment services and has completed development of its first customized treatment guidelines. Our paper presents the development process for these guidelines. A group of national and international experts was formed and a national situation analysis for tobacco dependence treatment practices and a detailed review of international evidence were conducted. The guidelines were then drafted and reviewed by national, regional and international experts and were official endorsed by the Jordanian Ministry of Health before being launched. The guidelines comprise concise descriptions and practical supplementary flowcharts covering the major elements of general tobacco dependence treatment. These are the first comprehensive Arabic-language guidelines, including a section focusing on waterpipe use, and we believe they are a reliable and useful resource for neighbouring countries seeking to develop similar guidelines. PMID:26857722

  2. Radionuclides in hot mineral spring waters in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Saqan, S A; Kullab, M K; Ismail, A M

    2001-01-01

    Hot mineral springs in Jordan are very attractive to people who seek physical healing but they are unaware of natural radioactive elements that may be contained in the hot mineral water. The activities of the natural radioactive isotopes were measured and the concentrations of the parents of their natural radioactive series were calculated. The measured radionuclides were 234Th, 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 228Th, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl. In addition the activities of 235U and 40K were measured. The activities ranged from 0.14 to 34.8 Bq/l, while the concentrations of parent uranium and thorium isotopes ranged from 3.0 x 10(-3) to 0.59 mg/l. The results were compared with those for drinking water. PMID:11202689

  3. Action with Acceleration II: Euclidean Hamiltonian and Jordan Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2013-10-01

    The Euclidean action with acceleration has been analyzed in Ref. 1, and referred to henceforth as Paper I, for its Hamiltonian and path integral. In this paper, the state space of the Hamiltonian is analyzed for the case when it is pseudo-Hermitian (equivalent to a Hermitian Hamiltonian), as well as the case when it is inequivalent. The propagator is computed using both creation and destruction operators as well as the path integral. A state space calculation of the propagator shows the crucial role played by the dual state vectors that yields a result impossible to obtain from a Hermitian Hamiltonian. When it is not pseudo-Hermitian, the Hamiltonian is shown to be a direct sum of Jordan blocks.

  4. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

  5. Near infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honigs, D. E.; Freelin, J. M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1983-02-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  6. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP), which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. Participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in the BPP; the control group did not. Before and after the BPP, all participants completed questionnaires to assess their knowledge regarding key areas of child development, activities with their children, discipline practices, and perceptions regarding behaviours that constitute child abuse and neglect. Over time, participants in the experimental group (but not the control group) improved on parenting knowledge, spending time playing and reading books with their children, using more explanations during the course of disciplining their child, and accurately perceiving behaviours that constitute child neglect. Results suggest modest beneficial effects of participation in the Better Parenting Programme. PMID:21769161

  7. Human metapneumovirus in hospitalized children in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Asad; Williams, John V; Chen, Qingxia; Faouri, Sameer; Faori, Sameer; Shehabi, Assem; Jundi, Eshan Al; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Halasa, Natasha

    2010-05-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has recently been identified as an important cause of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children worldwide. However, there is little systematic data on its frequency and importance as a cause of ARI in the Middle East. We conducted a viral surveillance study in children <5 years of age admitted with respiratory symptoms and/or fever at two major tertiary care hospitals in Amman, Jordan from 1/18-3/29/07. Nose and throat swabs were collected and tested for HMPV and other respiratory viruses by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 743 subjects were enrolled. Forty-four (6%) subjects were positive for HMPV, 467 (64%) were positive for RSV and 13 (1.3%) had co-infection with both HMPV and RSV. The frequency of HMPV in January, February, and March was 4.1%, 3.0%, and 11.9% respectively. Clinical features associated with HMPV infection were similar to those of other respiratory viruses, except children with HMPV were more likely to present with fever than children not infected with HMPV. Children with HMPV and RSV co-infection were administered supplemental oxygen and were admitted to the ICU more frequently than children infected with HMPV alone or RSV alone, though these differences did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory infections in children in Amman, Jordan. Longer surveillance studies are needed to better understand the seasonal epidemiology of HMPV and to assess if co-infection with HMPV and RSV leads to more severe illness. PMID:20419816

  8. Human metapneumovirus in Hospitalized Children in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Asad; Williams, John V.; Chen, Qingxia; Faori, Sameer; Shehabi, Assem; Al Jundi, Eshan; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Halasa, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has recently been identified as an important cause of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children worldwide. However, there is little systematic data on its frequency and importance as a cause of ARI in the Middle East. We conducted a viral surveillance study in children <5 years of age admitted with respiratory symptoms and/or fever at two major tertiary care hospitals in Amman, Jordan from 1/18-3/29/07. Nose and throat swabs were collected and tested for HMPV and other respiratory viruses by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 743 subjects were enrolled. Forty-four (6%) subjects were positive for HMPV, 467 (64%) were positive for RSV and 13 (1.3%) had co-infection with both HMPV and RSV. The frequency of HMPV in January, February, and March was4.1%, 3.0%, and 11.9% respectively. Clinical features associated with HMPV infection were similar to those of other respiratory viruses, except children with HMPV were more likely to present with fever than children not infected with HMPV. Children with HMPV and RSV co-infection were administered supplemental oxygen and were admitted to the ICU more frequently than children infected with HMPV alone or RSV alone, though these differences did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory infections in children in Amman, Jordan. Longer surveillance studies are needed to better understand the seasonal epidemiology of HMPV and to assess if co-infection with HMPV and RSV leads to more severe illness. PMID:20419816

  9. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Migdadi, Hussein M.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  10. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Lafi, Hamzeh A; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T; Migdadi, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  11. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck

  12. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. PMID:21168249

  13. On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

  14. Water-quality along selected flowpaths in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in southeastern Minnesota is comprised of the dolomitic Prairie du Chien Group and the underlying Jordan Sandstone. Differences in water quality between the Prairie du Chien and the Jordan parts of the aquifer were investigated by sampling 139 wells in six study areas within Hennepin, Dakota, and Olmsted Counties. The study areas, which represent paths of groundwater flow through the aquifer, averaged 13 miles long and 3 miles wide. The wells were screened in the Jordan, Prairie du Chien, and overlying aquifers. Concentrations of tritium, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and chloride were useful indicators of the actual and potential extent of human-related contamination of the aquifer. Differences in water quality were related to land use, aquifer permeability, thickness and lithology of overlying units, presence of confining units, flow path length, and well construction. Water samples from wells completed in the Jordan aquifer have lower tritium, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and chloride concentrations than samples from wells completed in the overlying Prairie du Chien, St. Peter, and glacial drift aquifers. The distribution of these indicators on vertical sections of the aquifer, geochemical analysis of saturation indices (WATEQF), piper diagrams, and statistical analyses were used to analyze the hydrogeology and sensitivity to contamination of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer.

  15. Urbanisation of Suweimeh area, Jordan, versus sinkholes and landslides proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2013-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake whose level lowers each year of about one meter per year since more than one decade. This is caused mainly by the diversion of surface waters from its watershed. Currently, 1/10 of the Jordan River still reaches the salt lake. The rapid lowering of the lake level does not allow all the surrounding groundwater tables to adjust their level to that of the Dead Sea. This imbalance causes an always faster migration of a part of the groundwater causing underground erosion leading to the formation of sinkholes along the coast, especially where discontinuities, such as faults, are present. The first collapses occurred in the years 1980-90. From the 2000s, in Jordan, they have proliferated to the point of causing serious damages to the facilities of the Arab Potash Company, the agricultural area of Ghor Al Haditha, and more recently the touristic region of Suweimeh. Aware of the problem and the need for gradual rising of the lake level, the Jordanian authorities attended from 2009 to 2011 to the feasibility study of the Red Sea - Dead Sea conduit. Currently, on the one hand, the growing environmental imbalance, and, on the other hand, the desires to develop economic activities along the coast, imply that more goods will be exposed to damages. For example, the area of Wadi Mujib Bridge was rebuilt completely in the late 2000s. It is the same for the 12 km of the dam 18 of an evaporation pond Arab Potash Company. The Numeira Salt Factory was completely destroyed in Ghor Al Haditha and was relocated to Safi. In August 2012, during touristic period, a landslide destroyed half of the Holiday Inn front beach, Suweimeh area ... End of December 2012, a team lead by Prof. Najib Abou Karaki warned the Arab Potash Company of the presence of a circular depression 250 m in diameter within the evaporation pond SP-0A. Although the dike of this saltpan is closely monitored, the exact location and shape of this large sinkhole were not known to the security

  16. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    Most of the precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones (Black, 2011). Furthermore, a low pressure over this region is often accompanied by a high pressure in the Western Mediterranean (WM). This pattern has been referred to as the Mediterranean Oscillation and given rise to the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), which can be expressed as pressure differences between Algiers in the WM and Cairo in the EM (Palutikof et al., 1996). In this study, the relationship between the MOI and precipitation in the Jordan River region, located in the EM is addressed. First of all, 30 precipitation series were tested for homogeneity and serial correlation. Thereafter, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses were applied to the homogenous series and the years 1960-1993. The results showed that the EOF-1 explained 60-71% of the precipitation variance and received a significant correlation with the MOI in December-February whereas no correlation was obtained for the EOF-2. In order to obtain the large scale pressure anomalies associated with winter precipitation in the study region, the EOF-1 coefficient time series was correlated with Sea Level Pressure (SLP) obtained for ca. 23° W to 70° E and 5° N to 67° N. This resulted in a correlation coefficient between -0.5 and 0.5; where negative values correspond to below normal SLP, and positive values to above normal SLP by the time of rainfall in the study region. The spatial pattern showed above normal SLP over central Europe and the WM and below normal SLP in the EM. Hence, it was reminiscent of the Mediterranean Oscillation and consistence with the results from the previous correlation analysis. The probability of precipitation during negative and positive MOI phases was thereafter derived by fitting gamma distributions to monthly precipitation. The result showed that negative MOI phases are associated with low- and below normal winter precipitation whereas positive MOI phases

  17. Expected future runoff of the Upper Jordan River simulated with CORDEX climate change data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The Jordan River, flowing from the Mount Hermon area to the Dead Sea, is an important freshwater source in the region. Its water is almost fully used by withdrawal from Lake Kinneret, fed to a large extent from the upper Jordan River (UJR) basin. Future climate change is expected to increase the pressure on the water availability in a region already now suffering from scarcity of water. Simulation of the future UJR discharge is therefore a societal highly relevant key scientific task. The contribution presents simulations of the future discharge of the Upper Jordan River based on climate change data from five different RCM models run in two Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX) experiments. This data are applied together with the hydrological simulation model WaSiM-ETH. Obtained findings extend the previous simulations performed within the GLOWA Jordan River project (www.glowa-jordan-river.de), an interdisciplinary research project providing scientific support for sustainable water management in the Jordan River region. The presentation discuses the difficult constraints of hydrological simulations in the UJR region, which include complex terrain, karstic features and missing observational meteorological reference. It describes the setup of the applied hydrological model and concentrates upon the obtained results. The performed simulations for the period from 1976 to 2100 indicate an increasing annual mean temperature for 20071-2100 by 2.6 K above the 1971-2000 mean. The simulated ensemble mean precipitation is predicted to decrease in this period by 20 %. Related to the mean for 1976 - 2000, the discharge of the upper Jordan River is simulated to decrease by 25.3% until 2100

  18. One Region: Two Cultures. Comparing Israel and Jordan: A Unit for Elementary Students. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This social studies unit for elementary school students concentrates on comparing the different cultures of the neighboring countries of Israel and Jordan. The unit describes the educational objectives and explains that a variety of strategies are used to reach those objectives. It lists materials needed and procedures for evaluation, provides…

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M R; Castor, S B; Robins, J W

    1982-04-01

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures.

  1. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

  2. Geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics of marl deposits in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqour, Fathi M.; Jarrar, Ghaleb; Hencher, Steve; Kuisi, Mostafa

    2008-10-01

    Marls and marly limestone deposits cover most of Northern Jordan, where Amman City and its suburbs are located. These deposits serve as foundations for most buildings and roads as well as fill material for structural back filling, especially road bases and sub-bases. The present study aims at investigating the geotechnical characteristics and mineral composition of the marl units of these deposits through field investigations and laboratory testing. Using X-ray diffraction technique along with chemical analysis, representative samples of marl horizons were tested for mineral composition, and for a set of index and geotechnical properties including: specific gravity, grain size, Atterberg limits, Proctor compaction and shear strength properties. The test results show a positive linear relationship as expected between the clay content and both liquid and plastic limits. The tests results also show an inverse linear relationship between the clay content and the maximum dry density in both standard and modified compaction. This is attributed to the adsorption of water by the clay minerals. The relationship is more prominent in the case of modified compaction test. The results also indicate a similar relationship for the angle of internal friction. No clear correlation between cohesion and clay content was apparent.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed.

    PubMed

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  4. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  5. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid A.; Holton, Elwood F., III.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees employed by public and private sector organizations operating in Jordan. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was used to uncover the underlying structure…

  6. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Jordan. Based on this analysis, we believe that the application of one or more designated...

  7. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on Environmental Technical Cooperation ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2013 U.S.-Jordan Environmental... or suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the...

  8. Meals served to hypertensive and cardiac inpatients in Jordan: comparison with WHO and NIH dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bawadi, H A; Banks, A D; Tayyem, R F; ElKhoury, C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the compliance of daily meals served to hypertensive and cardiac inpatients in Jordan according to WHO guidelines and the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets plans. Weekly cycle menus from the food service department of major hospitals in Jordan (n = 16) were analysed using ESHA Food Processor software to obtain data about macroand micronutrient contents and food groups represented. The results showed inappropriate amounts of several nutrients in the menus provided, along with a general noncompliance with the DASH, TLC and WHO guidelines. Meals had higher than recommended sodium content coupled with low potassium content. Fatty acid profiles were often outside the recommended ranges. Meals provided to cardiac inpatients in Jordan need to be revised to meet the guidelines specified for the health conditions of these patients. PMID:27117647

  9. From Weyl to Born-Jordan quantization: The Schrödinger representation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    The ordering problem has been one of the long standing and much discussed questions in quantum mechanics from its very beginning. Nowadays, there is more or less a consensus among physicists that the right prescription is Weyl's rule, which is closely related to the Moyal-Wigner phase space formalism. We propose in this report an alternative approach by replacing Weyl quantization with the less well-known Born-Jordan quantization. This choice is actually natural if we want the Heisenberg and Schrödinger pictures of quantum mechanics to be mathematically equivalent. It turns out that, in addition, Born-Jordan quantization can be recovered from Feynman's path integral approach provided that one used short-time propagators arising from correct formulas for the short-time action, as observed by Makri and Miller. These observations lead to a slightly different quantum mechanics, exhibiting some unexpected features, and this without affecting the main existing theory; for instance quantizations of physical Hamiltonian functions are the same as in the Weyl correspondence. The differences are in fact of a more subtle nature; for instance, the quantum observables will not correspond in a one-to-one fashion to classical ones, and the dequantization of a Born-Jordan quantum operator is less straightforward than that of the corresponding Weyl operator. The use of Born-Jordan quantization moreover solves the "angular momentum dilemma", which already puzzled L. Pauling. Born-Jordan quantization has been known for some time (but not fully exploited) by mathematicians working in time-frequency analysis and signal analysis, but ignored by physicists. One of the aims of this report is to collect and synthesize these sporadic discussions, while analyzing the conceptual differences with Weyl quantization, which is also reviewed in detail. Another striking feature is that the Born-Jordan formalism leads to a redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  11. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Erin M; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J; Katz, Rebecca L; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response - including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  12. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Erin M.; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J.; Katz, Rebecca L.; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response – including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  13. An algorithm for calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1973-01-01

    Jordan canonical forms are used extensively in the literature on control systems. However, very few methods are available to compute them numerically. Most numerical methods compute a set of basis vectors in terms of which the given matrix is diagonalized when such a change of basis is possible. Here, a simple and efficient method is suggested for computing the Jordan canonical form and the corresponding transformation matrix. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector, and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques.

  14. On the use and computation of the Jordan canonical form in system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1974-01-01

    This paper investigates various aspects of the application of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix in system theory and develops a computational approach to determining the Jordan form for a given matrix. Applications include pole placement, controllability and observability studies, serving as an intermediate step in yielding other canonical forms, and theorem proving. The computational method developed in this paper is both simple and efficient. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques. Examples are included for demonstration purposes.

  15. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  16. Graduates in the kitchen. Educating girls: Jordan, Morocco and Syria.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D

    1993-01-01

    Muslim girls in Jordan have become better educated due to 3 decades of free and compulsory (10 years) schooling policy. Fertility has declined from 7.7 during 1971-75 to 5.6 during 1987-90. 58% of Jordanian women use some form of family planning (FP). Over 90% of eligible children are enrolled in school and 60% go on for advanced 2-year vocational or specialized training. There are actually more girls than boys in school. Although female literacy is high, only 14% are engaged in the labor force. A leader from the Business and Professional Women's Club related that man is considered the breadwinner. Some professions are considered unsuitable for women's employment. Traveling after dark alone is considered problematic for a decent woman. A visit to a school revealed that girls envisioned receiving training and working until marriage, having children, and looking after grandchildren. Many thought 3-4 children was an appropriate family size. Government statistics show that men enroll primarily in the industrial training courses and agriculture, while women tended toward more manual vocations such as sewing, knitting, cooking, hair styling, and secretarial skills. Out of the entire class there were only 2 or 3 girls who envisioned working after having children. Husbands were assumed to always work; if unemployment occurred, the girls thought that a factory job might be a possibility. Conversations with several women in the engineering school were conducted in a lecture hall rather than the cafeteria so the boys would not think they were making themselves available to them. Concern was also expressed about working with men, but the issue of unwanted approaches was dismissed during work hours because of their academic qualifications. Only if one worked lake in the day would there be anticipation of problems. There were many styles of dress for women ranging from modern Western garb to traditional attire in grey and black with a slit for the eyes. The most traditional

  17. Political Economy of Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: The Case of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaan, Taher H.; Al-Salamat, Mamdouh N.; Hanania, May D.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes patterns of expenditure on higher education in Jordan, explores the current system's adequacy, efficiency, and equity, and identifies its strengths and weaknesses in light of current constraints and future challenges. Among the constraints are the relatively low public expenditure on higher education, leaving households to…

  18. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Curricula on Seventh Grade Mathematics Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhanna, Wafa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using web-based curricula on seventh grade students' achievement in mathematics in King Abdullah School in Irbid, Jordan. The researcher followed the equivalent pre/post T-test two group designs. To achieve the aim of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students'…

  19. The Impact of Marketing Actions on Relationship Quality in the Higher Education Sector in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Alak, Basheer A. M.

    2006-01-01

    This field/analytical study examined the marketing actions (antecedents) and performance (consequences) of relationship quality in a higher education setting. To analyze data collected from a random sample of 271 undergraduate students at AL-Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan, the linear structural relationship (LISREL) model was used to…

  20. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  1. Needs of Parents Caring for Children with Physical Disabilities: A Case Study in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.; Fayez, Merfat; Bataineh, Osama

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the needs of families of children with physical disabilities in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of 96 parents of children with physical disabilities whose ages ranged from 6 to 16 years old. A survey of Needs of Caring Parents was developed to achieve the purposes of this study. Results revealed that the…

  2. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  3. Application of Water Quality Model of Jordan River to Evaluate Climate Change Effects on Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grouw, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Jordan River is a 51 mile long freshwater stream in Utah that provides drinking water to more than 50% of Utah's population. The various point and nonpoint sources introduce an excess of nutrients into the river. This excess induces eutrophication that results in an inhabitable environment for aquatic life and is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Adaptive measures must be evaluated based on predictions of climate variation impacts on eutrophication and ecosystem processes in the Jordan River. A Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model was created to analyze the data results acquired from a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study conducted on the Jordan River. Eutrophication is modeled based on levels of phosphates and nitrates from point and nonpoint sources, temperature, and solar radiation. It will simulate the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton in the river. This model will be applied to assess how water quality in the Jordan River is affected by variations in timing and intensity of spring snowmelt and runoff during drought in the valley and the resulting effects on eutrophication in the river.

  4. Sexual Offenses Among Children in the North of Jordan: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Oweis, Arwa; Alhawamdeh, Khalid A; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    Sexual offenses are an important global health problem threatening people of all age groups. There are no reported studies regarding sexual violence among children in Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the problem of sexual violence among children in the Northern region of Jordan. A retrospective design was adopted to review all reports from the Forensic Medicine Teaching Center of North of Jordan clinic on cases of sexual-related assaults that occurred between 2003 and 2007. Reports were reviewed for age, gender, toxicological analysis, and relevant information provided by victims and their relatives. Results indicated that 53% of the cases were male victims, with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Ages ranged from 3 to 18 years with a mean age of 12.5 years. Most cases were considered indecent assaults, while 37.1% were cases of rape. In most cases, offenders were strangers. It could be concluded that Jordanian children are as susceptible to sexual assaults as their counterparts worldwide. This study is the first to report sexual offenses among children in Jordan. As such, it provides baseline data that can be used to inform policy and prevention strategies focused on reducing sexual violence among this vulnerable segment of the Jordanian population. PMID:26301439

  5. Molecular Diagnosis and Identification of Leishmania Species in Jordan from Saved Dry Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Kanani, Kalil A.; Rasheed, Malak; Atoum, Manar; Abdel-Dayem, Mona; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Jordan relies on patient clinical presentation and microscopic identification. Studies toward improved identification of the causative Leishmania species, especially in regions where multiple species exist, and the introduction of these techniques into medical diagnosis is paramount. This study looked at the current epidemiology of CL in Jordan. Clinically diagnosed 41 patients with CL were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite using both Giemsa staining from skin scraps on glass slides and ITS1-PCR from samples blotted onto storage cards (NucleoCards®). Microscopically, 28 out of the 41 (68.3%) collected samples were positive for amastigotes, whereas the molecular ITS1-PCR amplification successfully identified 30 of the 41 samples (73.2%). Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis allowed species identification which is impossible microscopically. Of the 30 PCR positive samples, 28 were Leishmania major positive and the other two samples were Leishmania tropica. This indicates that L. major is the most prevalent species in Jordan and the two L. tropica cases originated from Syria indicating possible future L. tropica outbreaks. Diagnosis of CL based on clinical presentation only may falsely increase its prevalence. Although PCR is more sensitive, it is still not available in our medical laboratories in Jordan. PMID:27403435

  6. Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

  7. Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

  8. 76 FR 46793 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of... Hydroelectric Project located on the Pound River, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) John W....

  9. 76 FR 71967 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of...) Flannagan Hydroelectric Project located on the Pound River, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  10. 76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 447897), the Office of Energy Projects has... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment... located on the Jackson River in Alleghany County, Virginia, and has prepared an Environmental...

  11. 76 FR 70437 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final... located on the Jackson River in Alleghany County, Virginia, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'...

  12. Assessing Special Needs of Students with Hearing Impairment in Jordan and Its Relation to Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Zraigat, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess special needs for students with hearing impairment. The sample of the study consisted of 231 students enrolled at schools for deaf children in Jordan, 113 males and 118 females. A special needs scale was developed and used in assessing special needs for students. The reliability and validity of…

  13. Effectiveness of Web Quest Strategy in Acquiring Geographic Concepts among Eighth Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the Effectiveness of using Web Quest Strategy in acquiring the geographic concepts among eighth grade students in Jordan. The study individuals consisted of (119) students in the scholastic year 2013-2014. Four sections were randomly selected from two schools divided into experimental and control groups. They were…

  14. A Rationale to Adopt Team Teaching in Prevocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saaideh, Monim A.

    2010-01-01

    Prevocational education (PVE) in Jordan is a multi-disciplinary subject. It is known that it is difficult to prepare one teacher to teach all its fields. This study investigated the possibility to teach prevocational education by a team of teachers. Through questionnaires addressed to PVE teachers and teachers of other subjects, the study…

  15. Human Capital Planning in Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Human Resource Development Initiative in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…

  16. Medical Problems in a Sample of Children with Intellectual Impairments in Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Medical problems of 262 children attending special schools for persons having intellectual impairments in Jordan were examined. The most common problems were neurological problems (affecting 38.55%), followed by dental disease, orthopedic problems, vision and eye problems, hearing/ear problems, urinary diseases, and heart problems. (JDD)

  17. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  18. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  19. Presidents' Panel: A Conversation with I. King Jordan, Robert Davila, and T. Alan Hurwitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.; Jordan, I. King; Davila, Robert; Hurwitz, T. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Former Gallaudet presidents: I. King Jordan and Robert Davila join current president T. Alan Hurwitz on a panel moderated by Brian H. Greenwald as they share their experience leading this institution of higher education and offer insight into the transformative changes brought about by the "Deaf President Now" movement.

  20. Facebook Use in Education: Experiences of University Science Education Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of Facebook use in education in one public university located in the middle part of Jordan. A sample of 189 undergraduate students enrolled in the science education courses participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire composed of 15 items. The results of the study indicated that…

  1. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  2. Faculty Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of higher education (HE) faculty members towards inclusion of students with disabilities at one large public University in Jordan using a survey approach. A total of 170 faculty members completed the survey. The most important findings of this study are: (a) regardless of the academic discipline, the majority of…

  3. On the Myth of the Crisis of Representation: A Response to Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The author observes that, in "Applied Utility and the Auto-Ethnographic Short Story: Persuasions for, and Illustrations of, Writing Critical Social Science," Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan present claims about why we might choose to represent auto-ethnographic data in a literary form such as short story and for the "potential" or…

  4. Arabic Language Teachers and Islamic Education Teachers' Awareness of Authentic Assessment in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Basheer, Akram; Ashraah, Mamdouh; Alsmadi, Rana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating Islamic Education teachers' and Arabic Language teachers' perceptions of authentic assessment in Jordan, and exploring the effects of factors related to teachers' specialization, gender and years of experience on their understanding of the implications of this kind of assessment. In this mixed-method research, a…

  5. Growing School Networks for Instructional Improvement in Jordan, 2009-2010. CPRE Research Report, # RR-70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marian A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure,…

  6. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  7. I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

  8. Educating Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Regular Schools in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khatib, Jamal M.; Al Khatib, Fareed

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a description of current practices in educating students with mild intellectual disabilities in regular schools in Jordan. The data were obtained using several methods, including interviews with special education staff at the Ministry of Education, summaries of documents and published research related to resource rooms and…

  9. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  10. Assessment and demonstration of ecologically-based medusahead and cheatgrass management in Jordan Valley, Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead was first noted in Jordan Valley, OR approximately 25-30 years ago. It has significantly expanded within the last 10-20 years. As part of the USDA-ARS Area-wide project for invasive annual grasses, landscape scale demonstration plots were established with five cooperating ranches in 200...

  11. Assessing the High School Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Karak District of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to assess the level of the emotional intelligence (EI) of high school teachers in Karak district of Jordan. A sample of 222 teachers was randomly selected and filtered on the basis of an inconsistency index. A scale of 55 items measuring empathy, emotions regulation, interpersonal management, self management,…

  12. A 16th Suggestions for Educational Curriculum Improvement in Jordan, from the Experts Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The present research was conducted to identify the most important suggestions for educational curriculum improvement in Jordan, from the expert's point of view. A descriptive survey through data and information collection tool (questionnaire) was used as an approach. The study sample consisted of (620) educational experts in the field of…

  13. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

  14. Beliefs about Parental Authority Legitimacy among Refugee Youth in Jordan: Between- and Within-Person Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M[subscript age] = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The "normative" profile (67% of the…

  15. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  16. Obstacles of Teaching Mathematics Faced by the Class Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejem, Khamis Mousa; Muhanna, Waffa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the obstacles of teaching mathematics faced by the class teachers in Jordan. To achieve this purpose a study sample of 192 male and female class teachers was selected randomly from government schools. The instrument of the study was a questionnaire used to investigate the obstacles of mathematics…

  17. Status of Services Provided to Deaf Woman in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ihsan Ighdeifan; ALkhateeb, Akef Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the status of services provided to deaf woman in Jordan. The study was conducted on a sample of (100) deaf women chosen by the intended available method. A researcher self developed questionnaire consisting of (75) items covering seven most important domains representing the most important services that should be…

  18. Accreditation in Higher Business Education in the Private Sector: The Case of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabri, Hala Ahmad; El-Refae, Ghaleb Awad

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the development of a quantitative research designed to examine the accreditation system of undergraduate Business Administration program in private universities in Jordan, in comparison with the standards of the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) in the United Kingdom. The research has set out a description of Jordanian…

  19. Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

  20. Potential of Kochia prostrata and perennial grasses for rangeland restoration in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Shad.], three native shrubs, two introduced Atriplex shrub species native to cold deserts in the western United States and drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties w...

  1. Accountability and Discipline in Classroom Management: Case Study--Jarash-Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magableh, Atef Yusuf; Hawamdeh, Basim Ali

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at identification of the undesired student's behaviors, which are investigated, by teachers and the strategies followed by beginning teachers in classroom discipline at the schools of Jarash government-Jordan. To achieve the aim of the study, both researchers used the organized interviews; size of the sample was 50 male and female…

  2. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  3. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Potential Use of Course Management Systems in Higher Education Institutions in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shboul, Muhannad

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased adoption of the CMS (course management systems) as an instructional tool, it is important to address the potential use of this technology in Jordanian higher education institutions. This study investigates the potential to use CMS tools in instruction in the academic institutions in Jordan. This study does not seek to evaluate…

  5. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom. PMID:24522127

  6. Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

  7. On the Quality of Higher Education in Jordan: Empirical Evidence from Princess Sumaya University for Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahateet, Mohammed Issa

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the main indicators of scores of K-12 leavers who were admitted at Princess Sumaya University for Technology, PSUT, in Jordan and their graduation scores. It uses time series data covering the period 1993-2012, including all 3,229 Bachelor graduates in all specialisations. The paper applies several statistical techniques to…

  8. 78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Economic Growth, Education, and Environment, Director and Deputy Director, Office of Development Credit... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 233 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013--Standard Terms and Conditions AGENCY: Agency for International Development...

  9. An Integrated Learning Management System for Islamic Studies: An Innovation from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumzan, Ismael; Chowdhury, Imran; Mirza, Saudah; Idil, Raidah Shah

    2010-01-01

    The use of ICT in the Middle East is expanding at a fast rate; hence managers and decision makers must decide on the best learning solution for their organizations. This article describes how a small team of individuals in Jordan developed an effective learning solution to a social problem. This may provide some useful lessons for other…

  10. Effect of extreme rainfall events on the water resources of the Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Rana; Rimmer, Alon; Alpert, Pinhas

    2009-09-01

    SummaryAs a response to climate change, shifting rainfall trends including increased multi-year droughts and an escalation in extreme rainfall events are expected in the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of these shifting trends on stream flow in the Jordan River and its tributaries. We use a non-homogeneous hidden Markov model to generate artificial daily rainfall simulations which capture independently shifting trends of increased droughts and escalated extreme. These simulations are then used as input into a hydrological model calibrated for the upper catchments of the Jordan River to compare the impact on stream flow and water resources between the different rainfall scenarios. We compare the predicted baseflow and surface flow components of the tested watersheds, and find that while an increase in extreme rainfall events increases the intensity and frequency of surface flow, the over all flow to the Jordan River, and the characteristics of the baseflow in the Jordan River system is not largely impacted. In addition, though it has been suggested that in the case of a multi-year drought the karstic nature of the aquifer might lead to more intense, non-linear reductions in stream flow, here we quantify and show the conditions when annual stream flow reduce linearly with rainfall, and when these relations will become non-linear.

  11. Potential for Use of Kochia Prostrata and Perennial Grasses for Use in Rangeland Rehabilitation in Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six varieties of forage kochia [Kochia prostrata (L.) Shad.], three native shrubs, two introduced Atriplex shrub species native to cold deserts in the western United States and drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties ...

  12. Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of special education teachers in the city of Amman, Jordan, toward the inclusion of students with autism in public schools and what the teachers believed to be the most important prerequisite skills for successful inclusion. Ninety two special education teachers were selected to complete the survey. The…

  13. Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parents in Jordan towards the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public schools and what the parents believed to be the most important prerequisite of child-based skills for successful inclusion. A total of 148 parents were selected to complete the survey. The researchers explored…

  14. 75 FR 58356 - Mission Statement for Executive-Led Trade Mission to Jordan and Israel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., medical and surgical equipment, lab equipment, and furniture. Local production of medical equipment is... related facilities and the growing private hospitals, clinics, and physicians working there. Medical... medical devices into the Kingdom. With Jordan's medical sector advancement and its newer focus on...

  15. A Report to the 36th Session of the International Conference on Education in Geneve. Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Amman (Jordan).

    The educational system of Jordan follows principles set down by law in 1964. Education is compulsory for nine years, free to all students, and available equally to both sexes and all religious groups. Central administrative functions are carried out by the Ministry of Education which administers examinations, recruits teachers, and sets general…

  16. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  17. West Virginia State College, Drain-Jordan Library, Circulation Department Manual of Circulation Desk Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Monica A.

    This manual is designed to prepare and aid the staff for expected duties working at the circulation desk at Drain-Jordan Library at West Virginia State College. The manual is divided into sections to help with a quick review of procedures and policies. Topics discussed include an overview of the circulation department; patron registration;…

  18. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  19. Techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu Qdais, H A

    2007-01-01

    Mismanagement of solid waste leads to public health risks, adverse environmental impacts and other socio-economic problems. This is obvious in many developing countries around the world. Currently, several countries have realized that the way they manage their solid wastes does not satisfy the objectives of sustainable development. Therefore, these countries, including Jordan, which forms the case study presented here, have decided to move away from traditional solid waste management (SWM) options to more integrated solid waste management approaches. Unfortunately, in many developing countries like Jordan, the lack of adequate resources to implement the necessary changes is posing a serious obstacle. The present paper discusses the various practices and challenges of solid waste management in Jordan from both a technical and economic perspective. An overview of the current practices and their environmental implications in three major cities of the country, which generate more than 70% of the country's solid waste, is presented. Recent literature on solid waste management in Jordan has been reviewed; and data on the total amount of municipal solid waste generated, compositional variations over the last two decades, and future projections are presented. The necessity, importance and needs of solid waste recovery and reuse are identified. The review of the legal frameworks indicated that there is a need for detailed and clear regulations dealing specifically with solid waste. The service cost analysis revealed that none of the municipalities in Jordan sufficiently recover the cost of the services, with more than 50% being subsidized from the municipalities' budgets. The allocation of the available resources was analyzed and service performance indicators assessed. Factors that should be taken into consideration when making the decision to move from a traditional SWM approach to a more integrated approach are highlighted and suggestions for a more smooth transition are

  20. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. Methods A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Results Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Discussion Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs. PMID:27073930

  1. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  2. Special Education Practicum at The University of Jordan: Preliminary Indicators of Students' Satisfaction and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL Jabery, Mohammad A.; AL Khamra, Hatem A.

    2013-01-01

    teachers are needed. The Special Education program at the University of Jordan places student teachers for their practicum in different educational settings. The purpose of this study was to report preliminary information about students' satisfaction and concerns…

  3. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  4. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system. PMID:25876820

  5. Substance Use in Muslim Culture: Social and Generational Changes in Acceptance and Practice in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mauseth, Kira B; Skalisky, Jordan; Clark, Noël E; Kaffer, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Through narrative analysis, this paper explores the changes in acceptance of and response to substance use in Muslim culture by evaluating data collected in qualitative interviews in Jordan in 2013. What is known and unknown about substance use in Muslim culture throughout the Arab world from previous research findings provides a foundation from which to explore new perspectives and compare themes between younger and older generations in Jordan. Trends of social change and behavioral expression influenced by dramatic political and social upheaval in the Arab world in the last 5 years will also be evaluated for the way in which they may be influencing both substance use and its acceptance among young adults in this population. Recommendations for future research and work in this area are also provided based on these findings. PMID:25972289

  6. Prevalence of aggressive behaviours among inpatients with psychiatric disorders: A case study analysis from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Y; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Sarayreh, Faris; Nawafleh, Hani; Moxham, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlates of aggression among consumers with mental illness within two psychiatric hospitals in Jordan. This was a descriptive, cross sectional study carried out by auditing consumers' medical records in regards to incidents of aggression before and during admission. Approval was gained from 203 next of kins to review the consumers' medical records. Results from this case analysis, found the prevalence of aggressive behaviours among psychiatric inpatient's in Jordan to be 23.6%, the most common form of aggression was consumer to consumer and that the aggressive act was more likely to be perpetrated by younger consumers. Such findings contribute to the discourse about aggression and understanding who and what causes aggression can go toward identify strategies for early intervention and management. After all, mental health units should be places of safety, that is, an asylum, and everyone who enters that environment deserves to be safe. PMID:26538486

  7. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

  8. Mortality and causes of death in Jordan 1995-96: assessment by verbal autopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, S. A.; Massad, D.; Fardous, T.

    1999-01-01

    Mortality indicators and causes of death in Jordan were assessed by verbal autopsy. A random sample of 100 clusters of ca. 300 households each were monitored for one year by notification assistants selected from the study area itself. Registered deaths were reported to research assistants who visited the family to complete the verbal autopsy form, which was structured and contained about 100 questions. Causes of death were determined by two physicians according to preset algorithms. A total of 965 deaths were reported among 198,989 persons, giving a crude death rate of 5 per 1000 population per year. The three leading causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system, malignancies and accidents. In the absence of a health information system, verbal autopsy as implemented in Jordan can serve as a reliable substitute. PMID:10516786

  9. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    operation as quickly as possible. The task of collecting and interpreting basic data or mineral resources must be done largely by Jordanians, for only in this way will Jordan acquire the technical competence needed to use the information. Few Jordanians have enough training or experience to work independently in these fields now, however, so help from outside technicians would be necessary over an initial training period of several years. But the number of outside technicians should never exceed the number of Jordanian technicians, and for this reason, neither organization could have a staff of more than a few people during the early years of operation.

  10. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  11. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Neospora spp. Infection among Asymptomatic Horses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Rutley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection. PMID:25925174

  12. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes. PMID:27271178

  13. Construction of linear models: A framework based on commutative Jordan algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covas, R.; Carvalho, F.

    2016-06-01

    We show how to obtain the necessary structures for statistical analysis of the folllowing orthogonal models Y˜(1 μ +∑i Xiβi ,∑j σj2Mj+σ2I ) . These structures rely on the existence of Jordan algebras, in the sequence of [24], [8], [12], [9], [5] and [10].

  14. Family ties and economic stability concerns of migrant labour families in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Kamiar, M S; Ismail, H F

    1991-12-01

    74 labor migrant families from various socioeconomic classes in Amman, Jordan were interviewed to examine changes in relationships among family members, extended family, and neighbors and their concerns about economic stability in the host country, Jordan, and the world market. Another purpose was to determine how current migration policies of the Arab oil-producing countries which prohibit labor migrants from bringing their families to the host country affect labor migration among families. The families consisted of either those who did or did not accompany the labor migrant. Overall labor migration affected unaccompanied families more than accompanied families, e.g., only 19% of the unaccompanied families reported increased family unity compared with 56% of accompanied families. Problems within unaccompanied families increased in 43% of the cases but in only 6% of the accompanied families. Many of these problems resulted in children dropping out of school which reflected the control fathers had within the family, separation, or divorce. Yet labor migration reduced family ties with extended family members and neighbors almost equally for both groups. Accompanied families were not as concerned about economic stability in Jordan as unaccompanied families (38% vs. 50%). Perhaps these families tended not to invest remittances received from the labor migrants working in Arab oil-producing countries in Jordan. Both groups were quite concerned about the economic stability in the host countries (66% and 72%, respectively) and the world market (59% and 62%, respectively), however. Since family unity suffers when families do not accompany labor migrants, it is suggested that oil-producing nations that depend on foreign labor should guarantee family unity as a human right. PMID:12285111

  15. On integral and differential representations of Jordan chains and the confluent supersymmetry algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2015-08-01

    We construct a relationship between integral and differential representation of second-order Jordan chains. Conditions to obtain regular potentials through the confluent supersymmetry algorithm when working with the differential representation are obtained using this relationship. Furthermore, it is used to find normalization constants of wave functions of quantum systems that feature energy-dependent potentials. Additionally, this relationship is used to express certain integrals involving functions that are solution of Schrödinger equations through derivatives.

  16. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk in Jordan: the impact of sociodemographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-sheyab, Nihaya A; Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Tahboub, Yahya R

    2015-08-01

    There is scarcity in literature in regards to the exact levels of such compounds in the Middle Eastern region including Jordan. This study was conducted to measure the presence and levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluoroocane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) in human milk and local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan and also to investigate the relationship between levels of PFASs and some sociodemographic characteristics of breastfeeding mothers and their infants as well as usage of Teflon kitchenware products. Seventy-nine milk samples were collected from breastfeeding women and 25 samples from local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan. Levels of PFOS and PFOA were liquid/liquid extracted (LLE) by acetone followed by purification on an Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid-phase extraction (SPE). Separations and detections were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 10 ng/L for both PFOA and PFOS. The measured concentrations ranged between non-detectable (ND) and 178 ng/L for PFOS and between 24 and 1120 ng/L for PFOA in human milk and between ND-178 ng/L and LOQ-160 ng/L in fresh cow milk, respectively. Median concentrations of PFOS in human milk samples from Jordan in this study were lower than those found in a recent study from Italy. Moreover, mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in milk samples provided by older women. Also, mean concentrations of PFOA was much higher in multiparas and those who have younger infants. The mean rank of PFOA was twice as high in the milk of women who had older Teflon products in kitchen compared to those who had relatively new Teflon products. PMID:25903175

  17. Photoacoustic measurements of black carbon light absorption coefficients in Irbid city, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamasha, Khadeejeh M; Arnott, W Patrick

    2010-07-01

    There is a need to recognize air pollution levels by particles, especially in developing countries such as Jordan where data are scarce due to the absence of routine monitoring of ambient air quality. This study aims at studying the air quality in different locations at Irbid, Jordan through the measurement and analysis of the time series of black carbon light absorption coefficients (B (abs)). Black carbon light absorption coefficients were measured with a photoacoustic instrument at a wavelength of 870 nm. The measurements were conducted during July 2007 at six sites in Irbid city, Jordan. Comparisons of black carbon concentrations at various locations were conducted to understand where values tend to be largest. The average value of B (abs) of all sites was 40.4 Mm(-1). The largest value of B (abs) was 61.2 Mm(-1) at Palestine Street which is located at a very crowded street in a highly populated region in the city center. The lowest value was 14.1 Mm(-1) at Thirtieth Street which is located at a main street in an open plain region in the east of the city. The black carbon light absorption coefficients fluctuate above a background level (transported black carbon from the neighboring states), which are almost identical at all sampling sites. The light absorption coefficients will be used as a benchmark in later years as combustion efficiencies and population patterns change. PMID:19479334

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Mandatory Premarital Screening Among University Students in North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkhaldi, Sireen M; Khatatbeh, Moawia M; Berggren, Vanja E M; Taha, Hana A

    2016-01-01

    A mandatory National Premarital Thalassemia Screening Program was implemented in Jordan in 2004. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of university students in North Jordan toward this program. Data was collected from 542 students from four universities (two public and two private universities) located in North Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Results of t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that while respondents had adequate knowledge of and positive attitudes toward the premarital screening program, there was still a lack of knowledge about the disease itself. Nearly half the respondents were under the impression that β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a disease that can be treated simply. One-third of the respondents believed that if both partners were carriers of β-thal they should proceed with marriage. Negative attitude was revealed when many respondents believed that diagnosing a family member as a carrier affects other family members' future marriage opportunities. Significant associations were detected between the knowledge scores and gender, urban/rural residence, and the university where the students were enrolled. Students in private universities showed significantly lower attitude scores. Consideration of prenatal diagnostic services as part of a β-thal prevention program is necessary. It would also be helpful to include information about β-thal as a preventable inherited illness with a severe debilitating impact on the family in the high school curriculum. There is also a need for social marketing of the program. PMID:26821551

  19. Creep along the northern Jordan Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov

    2016-03-01

    We geodetically investigate the interseismic deformation along two neighboring sections of the Dead Sea Fault in Israel and present first clear evidence for shallow creep along this fault. We obtain the velocities of near-fault GPS campaign stations across the northern section of the Jordan Valley Fault (JVF) and the Jordan Gorge Section (JGS) that were surveyed each year between 2009 and 2015. The JVF extends from the northern shore of the Dead Sea to the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, and the JGS extends from the Sea of Galilee to the Hula Basin. We infer a slip rate of ~4.1 mm/yr and a locking depth of ~10 km for both sections. Data analysis indicates that while the JGS is found to be fully locked above the locking depth, the northern section of the JVF is found to be creeping from a depth of 1.5 ± 1.0 km to the surface, with a creep rate of 2.5 ± 0.8 mm/yr. Our observations also suggest that the current slip rate of the fault at the western margin of the Jordan Valley is minor, less than the GPS velocities uncertainties.

  20. Quantum Explorers: Bohr, Jordan, and Delbrück Venturing into Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquim, Leyla; Freire, Olival; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper disentangles selected intertwined aspects of two great scientific developments: quantum mechanics and molecular biology. We look at the contributions of three physicists who in the 1930s were protagonists of the quantum revolution and explorers of the field of biology: Niels Bohr, Pascual Jordan, and Max Delbrück. Their common platform was the defense of the Copenhagen interpretation in physics and the adoption of the principle of complementarity as a way of looking at biology. Bohr addressed the problem of how far the results reached in physics might influence our views about life. Jordan and Delbrück were followers of Bohr's ideas in the context of quantum mechanics and also of his tendency to expand the implications of the Copenhagen interpretation to biology. We propose that Bohr's perspective on biology was related to his epistemological views, as Jordan's was to his political positions. Delbrück's propensity to migrate was related to his transformation into a key figure in the history of twentieth-century molecular biology.

  1. Formulation of an Integrated Model for Freshwater Resources Policy Evaluation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Sigel, K.; Tilmant, A.; Lachaut, T.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Padula, S.; Mustafa, D.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan is one of the four water poorest countries in the world. It is a highly vulnerable arid region whose freshwater system is at a tipping point due to the confluence of severely limited water supplies, rapid population growth, refugee influxes, climate change and variability, internal and transboundary competition for shared freshwater resources, and institutional impediments. Our team is engaged in an interdisciplinary effort aimed at developing a new approach to evaluate policies that enhance sustainability of freshwater resource systems. Our work adopts a multi-agent modeling framework that incorporates institutional complexity to evaluate policy instruments for improving water security in Jordan. We are developing this model using a modular approach, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena (e.g., groundwater-surface water flow, reservoir storage, network routing, salt balance, and crop yield) with human modules that represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules adopt a multi-agent simulation approach, defining agents as autonomous decision-makers at the government, administrative, organizational, and user levels. Our goal is to construct a suite of policy intervention scenarios that will form the basis for analysis of freshwater sustainability. This work has benefitted from a strong working relationship with leaders of the water sector in Jordan. Our approach and the merit of the policy interventions should have significant transfer value to other water-stressed regions.

  2. Home Health Care (HHC) Managers Perceptions About Challenges and Obstacles that Hinder HHC Services in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Ajlouni, Musa T.; Dawani, Hania; Diab, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Home care aims at supporting people with various degrees of dependency to remain at home rather than use residential, long-term, or institutional-based nursing care. Demographic, epidemiological, social, and cultural trends in Jordan as in other countries are changing the traditional patterns of care with growing emphasis on home care. The purpose of this study is to highlight the most common challenges related to home health care (HHC) services in Jordan as perceived by the managers of HHC agencies. Methods: a descriptive qualitative design that depends on focus group discussions has been used to collect data from a sample of 18 managers who met the selection criteria and who are willing to participate, the study found that, the main challenges of HHC services as perceived by managers were: shortage of female staff, lack of governance and regulation, poor management, unethical practices, lack of referral systems, and low accessibility of the poor and less privileged as HHC services are not included in health insurance schemes, it concludes also that the home health care industry in Jordan is facing many challenges and problems that may have negative effects on the effectiveness, efficiency, equity and quality of services and should be addressed by health policy makers. PMID:25946949

  3. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in undergraduate university female students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Al-Sheyab, N A; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquiring Toxoplasma gondii infection by undergraduate female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional study from September 2013 to July 2014 analysed 202 blood samples for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a semi-constructed questionnaire was completed by participants to gather information about Toxoplasma infection risk factors. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 66.5% of the females. Only one sample was positive for both IgG and IgM. Using χ2 test, six factors showed significant association with T. gondii infection (P ⩽ 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female students living in houses, wet areas, with income >US $750/month and using spring (untreated) water were 47.42, 10.20, 5.00, 3.25 more times at risk to be seropositive for T. gondii, respectively, compared to female students living in apartments, dry areas, with income ≤ US $750/month and using treated water, respectively. This study concluded that T. gondii infection in female university students in Jordan is high and most women become infected before marriage; however, congenital toxoplasmosis is still likely to occur in Jordan. Thus, dissemination of protective measures and knowledge by healthcare professionals is essential especially for pregnant women. PMID:25543692

  4. CNV Analysis Associates AKNAD1 with Type-2 Diabetes in Jordan Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Rana; Li, Jin; Wei, Zhi; Glessner, Joseph T.; Chang, Xiao; Cardinale, Christopher J.; Pellegrino, Renata; Wang, Tiancheng; Hakooz, Nancy; Khader, Yousef; Sheshani, Amina; Zandaki, Duaa; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D), but copy number variation (CNV) association has rarely been addressed, especially in populations from Jordan. To investigate CNV associations for T2D in populations in Jordan, we conducted a CNV analysis based on intensity data from genome-wide SNP array, including 34 T2D cases and 110 healthy controls of Chechen ethnicity, as well as 34 T2D cases and 106 healthy controls of Circassian ethnicity. We found a CNV region in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D (PTPRD) with significant association with T2D. PTPRD has been reported to be associated with T2D in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We additionally identified 16 CNV regions associated with T2D which overlapped with gene exons. Of particular interest, a CNV region in the gene AKNA Domain Containing 1 (AKNAD1) surpassed the experiment-wide significance threshold. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related pathways were significantly enriched among genes which are predicted to be functionally associated with human or mouse homologues of AKNAD1. This is the first CNV analysis of a complex disease in populations of Jordan. We identified and experimentally validated a significant CNVR in gene AKNAD1 associated with T2D. PMID:26292654

  5. Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere. PMID:11545334

  6. An Agent-Based Model of Farmer Decision Making in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selby, Philip; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Harou, Julien; Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim

    2016-04-01

    We describe an agent based hydro-economic model of groundwater irrigated agriculture in the Jordan Highlands. The model employs a Multi-Agent-Simulation (MAS) framework and is designed to evaluate direct and indirect outcomes of climate change scenarios and policy interventions on farmer decision making, including annual land use, groundwater use for irrigation, and water sales to a water tanker market. Land use and water use decisions are simulated for groups of farms grouped by location and their behavioural and economic similarities. Decreasing groundwater levels, and the associated increase in pumping costs, are important drivers for change within Jordan'S agricultural sector. We describe how this is considered by coupling of agricultural and groundwater models. The agricultural production model employs Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP), a method for calibrating agricultural production functions to observed planted areas. PMP has successfully been used with disaggregate models for policy analysis. We adapt the PMP approach to allow explicit evaluation of the impact of pumping costs, groundwater purchase fees and a water tanker market. The work demonstrates the applicability of agent-based agricultural decision making assessment in the Jordan Highlands and its integration with agricultural model calibration methods. The proposed approach is designed and implemented with software such that it could be used to evaluate a variety of physical and human influences on decision making in agricultural water management.

  7. Spatial distribution patterns of molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in potable groundwater in Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Mashal, Kholoud; Abed, Abdulkader M

    2015-03-01

    Two hundred and three groundwater samples were collected during March 2011 to June 2012 from the B2/A7 aquifer water supply wells of northern part of Jordan. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in situ for the major cations, anions, while certain heavy metals were analyzed in the laboratory. Some oilshale rock samples were geochemically analyzed. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer (B2/A7) is used as water supply for most of the communities in the study area. It consists of limestone, marly limestone, bedded chert, and minor phosphorite. Hydrochemical results from the B2/A7 aquifer indicate two main water types: alkaline-earth water (CaHCO3) and alkaline-earth water with high alkaline component (NaHCO3 (-), Na2SO4). Standard column leaching experiments on oilshale rock samples and the R-mode factor analysis suggest that the sources for elevated Mo concentrations in the groundwater of certain parts of northern Jordan are attributed to water-oilshale interaction, mobility of Mo down to the groundwater and the extensive use of fertilizers within these areas. Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in the groundwater water range from 0.07 to 1.44 mg/L with an average value of 98 μg/L. They are found to exceed the JISM and WHO guidelines in two areas in northern part of Jordan. Spatial distribution of Mo, using ordinary kriging techniques and the resulting map, shows high Mo concentration in the northwestern part near Wadi Al Arab area reaching concentrations of 650 μg/L and in the southeastern corner of the investigated area, south of Al Ukaydir village, with an average concentration of 468 μg/L. Both areas are characterized by extensive oilshale exposures with average concentration of 11.7 mg/kg Mo and intensive agricultural activities. These two areas represent approximately 33 % of the groundwater in the northern part of Jordan. Mobility of Mo to the groundwater in northern part of Jordan is attributed to two mechanisms. First, there is reductive dissolution of Fe

  8. Intermediate accelerated solutions as generic late-time attractors in a modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Antonella; Leon, Genly; Leyva, Yoelsy

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of a Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field, Φ, with a power-law potential in the presence of a second scalar field, phi, with an exponential potential, in both the Jordan and the Einstein frames. We present the relation of our model with the induced gravity model with power-law potential and the integrability of this kind of models is discussed when the quintessence field phi is massless, and has a small velocity. The fact that for some fine-tuned values of the parameters we may get some integrable cosmological models, makes our choice of potentials very interesting. We prove that in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, the de Sitter solution is not a natural attractor. Instead, we show that the attractor in the Jordan frame corresponds to an ``intermediate accelerated'' solution of the form a(t) simeq eα1 tp1, as t → ∞ where α1 > 0 and 0 < p1 < 1, for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, when we work in the Einstein frame we get that the attractor is also an ``intermediate accelerated'' solution of the form fraktur a(fraktur t) simeq eα2 fraktur tp2 as fraktur t → ∞ where α2 > 0 and 0Jordan frame. In the special case of a quadratic potential in the Jordan frame, or for a constant potential in the Einstein's frame, the above intermediate solutions are of saddle type. These results were proved using the center manifold theorem, which is not based on linear approximation. Finally, we present a specific elaboration of our extension of the induced gravity model in the Jordan frame, which corresponds to a particular choice of a linear potential of Φ. The dynamical system is then reduced to a two dimensional one, and the late-time attractor is linked with the exact solution found for the induced gravity model. In this example the ``intermediate accelerated'' solution does not exist, and the attractor solution has an asymptotic de Sitter-like evolution law for the

  9. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  10. The Effectiveness of Conflict Maps and the V-Shape Teaching Method in Science Conceptual Change among Eighth-Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of Conflict Maps and the V-Shape method as teaching methods in bringing about conceptual change in science among primary eighth-grade students in Jordan. A randomly selected sample (N = 63) from the Bani Kenana region North of Jordan was randomly assigned to the two teaching…

  11. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  12. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  13. DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

  14. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

  15. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  16. Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Emily; Akhu‐Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Weiss, William

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background With over one million Syrian refugee children in the region, we undertook this study to characterize care‐seeking behaviors and health service utilization for child refugees with the aim of informing humanitarian programming for non‐camp settings in Jordan. Methods A survey of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan was conducted using a 125 × 12 cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a representative sample. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children. Results Care seeking was high with 90.9% of households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Households most often sought care for children in the public sector (54.6%), followed by private (36.5%) and charity sectors (8.9%). Among child care seekers, 88.6% were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 90.6% of which obtained the medication. Overall, 49.4% of households reported out‐of‐pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (mean $US21.1 and median $US0). Conclusions Syrian refugees had good access to care for their sick children at the time of the survey; however, this has likely deteriorated since the survey because of the withdrawal of free access for refugees. The number of refugees in Jordan and relative accessibility of care has resulted in a large burden on the health system; the Jordanian government will require additional support if current levels of health access are to be maintained for Syrian refugees. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26799158

  17. Slope failure on the Jordan River Delta in the Dead Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Almagor, G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Dead Sea is a longitudinal (80 km {times} 20 km) terminal lake that was formed by the active Syrian-African transform fault. Considerably saline inflow from the Jordan River and a very high evaporation rate have led to the excessive salinity (360 g/L) and water density (1.226-1.232 g/cc) of the lake. The rate of evaporite precipitation is 630-2,000 mg/cm{sup 2}/yr. Clastic sediments from the Jordan River have formed a very moderately sloping (about 2{degree}) delta that covers the northern lake to a distance of 8 km offshore and to a depth of 300 m. Many irregularly shaped mounds of sediment that are acoustically transparent and that contain numerous discontinuous reflectors cover the delta slope. They extend over several hundred square meters each and rise 2-5 m above their surroundings. These sediments indicate active downslope slumping processes. The small-scale sedimentary pattern and the engineering properties of the sediments were examined by testing 6 core samples collected at various depths along the Jordan delta. Lengths range from 0.90 to 3.20 m. Depth of coring was restricted by an extremely hard, impenetrable layer of halite, and the topmost 10-25 cm consists of unconsolidated, recently deposited grainy halite. Euhedral crystals of halite are disseminated throughout the entire length of the core samples, especially in the deep-water cores. The high salinity of the pore water and the presence of large amounts of disseminated halite within the cores required modifications of the standard soil mechanics laboratory testing procedures. The sediments are predominantly dark brown, layered kaolinitic silty clays. They contain numerous conspicuous black organic-matter and sulfide-bearing layers and white aragonite and gypsum layers. Occasionally, slump structures are encountered.

  18. Sediment flux and recent paleoclimate in JordanBasin, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    2015-03-01

    We report planktonic foraminiferal fluxes (accumulation rates) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) from a nine-month sediment trap deployment, and δ18O from three sediment cores in Jordan Basin, Gulf of Maine. The sediment trap was deployed at 150 m, about halfway to the basin floor, and samples were collected every three weeks between August 2010 and May 2011. The planktonic foraminiferal fauna in the trap is dominated by Neogloboquadrina incompta that reached a maximum flux in the second half of October. Oxygen isotope ratios on that species indicate that on average during the collecting period it lived in the surface mixed layer, when compared to predicted values based on data from a nearby hydrographic buoy from the same period. New large diameter piston cores from Jordan Basin are 25 and 28 m long. Marine hemipelagic sediments are 25 m thick, and the sharp contact with underlying red deglacial sediments is bracketed by two radiocarbon dates on bivalves that indicate ice-free conditions began 16,900 calibrated years ago. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera indicates that the basin floor sediments (270-290 m) accumulated at >3 m/kyr during the Holocene, whereas rates were about one tenth that on the basin slope (230 m). In principle, Jordan Basin sediments have the potential to provide time series with interannual resolution. Our results indicate the Holocene is marked by ~2°C variability in SST, and the coldest events of the 20th century, during the mid 1960s and mid 1920s, appear to be recorded in the uppermost 50 cm of the seafloor.

  19. Source detection in the Lower Jordan River - How to monitor the impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Siebert, Christian; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Jordan River (LJR) is a major ecosystem in the semi-arid to arid Jordan-Dead Sea Graben, the backbone of abundant farming activities in the Lower Jordan Valley and the major inflow to the dying Dead Sea. During the 1960's the Sea of Galilee and the Yarmouk River, the main sources of the river, were dammed, decreasing its annual flow from ˜1.2×109 m3 to less than 0.2×109 m3, leaving a mix of point and non-point sources composing its base flow. Beside natural saline springs along its course, current day anthropogenic sources (e.g. sewage, agricultural return flow and fishpond effluents) have a negative impact on the water quality and the ecosystem, contributing high salinity and causing overall pollution. To enable an environmental assessment of the river and to satisfy the regulations of LJR international treaties, the temporal dynamics of water quantity and quality must be observed on a regular basis. As the LJR forms the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, nearly the entire river course is physically inaccessible. To overcome that situation, considerable efforts have been made to install a network of 7 sampling stations along the LJR to identify and separate the different contributing sources. Automatic water samplers in three of the stations collect water daily in addition to continuous measurement of stage, EC, pH and temperature. Sensors at all locations transmit online real-time data. During monthly campaigns a total of 14 sites are manually sampled along the river and some tributaries. Water samples are analyzed for major ions, trace elements and stable isotopes. While the sensor network allows separating events occurring in different reaches along the river course and calculating travel time between stations, water sample analyses enable fingerprinting and separating the actual sources. By doing so, an unusual and very local event was recorded by the most southern station (5.5 km north of the Dead Sea

  20. Modeling Household Water Consumption in a Hydro-Institutional System - The Case of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 CM per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 CM, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. This poses a severe challenge to the already strained institutions in the Jordanian water sector. The Stanford-led G8 Belmont Forum project "Integrated Analysis of Freshwater Resources Sustainability in Jordan" aims at analyzing the potential role of water sector institutions in the pursuit of a sustainable freshwater system performance. In order to do so, the project develops a coupled hydrological and agent-based model, allowing for the exploration of physical as well as socio-economic and institutional scenarios for Jordan's water sector. The part of this integrated model in focus here is the representation of household behavior in Jordan's densely populated capital Amman. Amman's piped water supply is highly intermittent, which also affects its potability. Therefore, Amman's citizens rely on various decentralized modes of supply, depending on their socio-economic characteristics. These include water storage in roof-top and basement tanks, private tanker supply, and the purchase of bottled water. Capturing this combination of centralized and decentralized supply modes is important for an adequate representation of water consumption behavior: Firstly, it will affect the impacts of supply-side and demand-side policies, such as reductions of non-revenue water (including illegal abstractions), the introduction of continuous supply, support for storage enhancements, and water tariff reforms. Secondly, it is also necessary to differentiate the impacts of any policy on the different socio-economic groups in Amman. In order to capture the above aspects of water supply, our model is based on the tiered supply curve approach, developed by Srinivasan et al. in 2011 to model a similar situation in Chennai, India

  1. Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overstreet, W.C.; Grimes, D.J.; Seitz, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of

  2. Open Software Tools Applied to Jordan's National Multi-Agent Water Management Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Harou, Julien; Yoon, Jim; Selby, Philip; Lachaut, Thibaut; Klassert, Christian; Avisse, Nicolas; Khadem, Majed; Tilmant, Amaury; Gorelick, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is the fourth most water scarce country in the world, where demand exceeds supply in a politically and demographically unstable context. The Jordan Water Project (JWP) aims to perform policy evaluation by modelling the hydrology, economics, and governance of Jordan's water resource system. The multidisciplinary nature of the project requires a modelling software system capable of integrating submodels from multiple disciplines into a single decision making process and communicating results to stakeholders. This requires a tool for building an integrated model and a system where diverse data sets can be managed and visualised. The integrated Jordan model is built using Pynsim, an open-source multi-agent simulation framework implemented in Python. Pynsim operates on network structures of nodes and links and supports institutional hierarchies, where an institution represents a grouping of nodes, links or other institutions. At each time step, code within each node, link and institution can executed independently, allowing for their fully autonomous behaviour. Additionally, engines (sub-models) perform actions over the entire network or on a subset of the network, such as taking a decision on a set of nodes. Pynsim is modular in design, allowing distinct modules to be modified easily without affecting others. Data management and visualisation is performed using Hydra (www.hydraplatform.org), an open software platform allowing users to manage network structure and data. The Hydra data manager connects to Pynsim, providing necessary input parameters for the integrated model. By providing a high-level portal to the model, Hydra removes a barrier between the users of the model (researchers, stakeholders, planners etc) and the model itself, allowing them to manage data, run the model and visualise results all through a single user interface. Pynsim's ability to represent institutional hierarchies, inter-network communication and the separation of node, link and

  3. The FRW Universes with Barotropic Fluids in Jordan-Brans-Dicke Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet-Alducin, P.

    The description of homogeneous and isotropic models for the expansion of the Universe represented by a perfect, barotropic, fluid pose mathematical difficulties that have been overcome when the space is non-flat in scalar-tensor theories only if the energy-stress tensor is vacuous or describes stiff matter, incoherent radiation or ultrarelativistic matter. This paper reveals the dynamics for these and the other ideal fluid models, in non-flat spaces mainly, for the Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmological theory by showing that its field equations, when written in terms of reduced variables, allow their straightforward partial integration.

  4. Mid-late Holocene palaeoclimate of northern Jordan from speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S. A.; Black, S.; Lovell, J.; Atkinson, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The southern Levant region (encompassing the modern countries of Israel and Jordan) is a climatically sensitive area due to the proximity of the Negev and Arabian Deserts to the south and east. Although there is a general pattern of decreasing rainfall to the south and east of the region, local topographic features, most notably the Dead Sea Rift Valley, have a significant effect on detailed rainfall patterns. Our understanding of the Holocene climate of the southern Levant is principally known from records obtained to the west of the Dead Sea Rift, on the borders of the Negev Desert and from the lakes within the rift valley itself. Palaeoclimate records from the more interior regions, such as Jordan, are fewer in number and, generally at lower stratigraphic resolution. A recent archaeological survey has revealed the existence of limestone caves in northern Jordan, many of which were previously unknown to academics working in the region. These caves contain a variety of architectures, including stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones and soda straws. We present geochemical data (oxygen and carbon-isotopes, and uranium-series dates) from a small speleothem that provides the first detailed mid-late Holocene climate record for the area east. The new data are similar in value and contain similar magnitude shifts to previously published data from Israel (Soreq and Nahal Qanah Caves) and Lebanon (Jeita Cave). Through comparison with these other speleothem records we suggest that the oxygen-isotopic composition of the Jordanian speleothem is consistent with rainfall from Mediterranean-sourced weather systems that evolved to lighter isotopic compositions through rainout of 18O as they moved into the interior of the southern Levant. The Ras Muneef GNIP monitoring station provides a limited record of precipitation rates and isotopic compositions of rainwater. Combining this data with the speleothem data, suggests that Holocene temperatures in northern Jordan were broadly

  5. Geophysical analysis of the recent sinkhole trend at Ghor-Haditha (Dead Sea, Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlynck, Christian; Bodet, Ludovic; Galibert, Pierre-Yves; Boucher, Marie; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2013-04-01

    For essentially the last 30 year the water level of the Dead Sea has highly dropped. One of the major associated facts is sinkhole occurrences along the shoreline both in Jordan and Israel. As the principal invoked mechanism, many studies have concluded that sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of a previously immersed salt layer, progressively in contact with fresh to brackish water. In Jordan, the triggering of this phenomenon could also be the result of particular tectonic settings, associated with the Jordan-Dead Sea transform fault system. At Ghor Haditha (south-est Jordan), the consequences have been dramatic for farmers with the shrinking of temporary available lands and industry with the closing of at least one factory. The shallow material in this area is heterogeneous and composed of intercalated sand and clay layers of alluvial-colluvial origin, over a salty substratum, whose precise depth and thickness are yet partially hypothesized. Between 2005 and 2008, a multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey was performed, approximately over a 1 km2 area at Ghor Haditha, associating mainly electromagnetic soundings, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS), and seismic profiling, ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. At the same time, this specific area was the location of a dramatic evolution of sinkhole occurences, regularly followed by geodetic measurements. Over the 3 years period, about 120 TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) soundings allow to map precisely the depth of the conductive layers below the resistive overburden. Two conductive layer are then revealed, the latter showing the lowest resistivity below 1 Ohm.m corresponding to the saline substratum. Several MRS (3 in 2005, repeated in 2007 and 12 additional soundings) show an east-west hydraulic gradient towards the Dead. However, the main sinkhole trend coincides with both: - a clear low transmissivity axis determined from MRS measurements; - the western side of a

  6. La structure de Jordan des matrices de transfert des modeles de boucles et la relation avec les hamiltoniens XXZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi

    Lattice models such as percolation, the Ising model and the Potts model are useful for the description of phase transitions in two dimensions. Finding analytical solutions is done by calculating the partition function, which in turn requires finding eigenvalues of transfer matrices. At the critical point, the two dimensional statistical models are invariant under conformal transformations and the construction of rational conformal field theories, as the continuum limit of these lattice models, allows one to compute the partition function at the critical point. Many researchers think however that the paradigm of rational conformal conformal field theories can be extended to include models with non diagonalizable transfer matrices. These models would then be described, in the scaling limit, by logarithmic conformal field theories and the representations of the Virasoro algebra coming into play would be indecomposable. We recall the construction of the double-row transfer matrix DN (λ, u) of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn model, seen as an element of the Temperley-Lieb algebra. This transfer matrix comes into play in physical theories through its representation in link modules (or standard modules). The vector space on which this representation acts decomposes into sectors labelled by a physical parameter d, the number of defects, which remains constant or decreases in the link representations. This thesis is devoted to the identification of the Jordan structure of DN(λ, u) in the link representations. The parameter β = 2 cos λ = -(q + q-1) fixes the theory : for instance β = 1 for percolation and 2 for the Ising model. On the geometry of the strip with open boundary conditions, we show that DN(λ, u) has the same Jordan blocks as its highest Fourier coefficient, FN. We study the non-diagonalizability of FN through the divergences of some of the eigenstates of ρ(F N) that appear at the critical values of λ. The Jordan cells we find in ρ(DN(λ, u)) have rank 2 and

  7. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  8. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  9. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  10. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs, chicken and meat in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafat; Salem, Nida' M; Estaitieh, Hussein

    2010-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in 519 samples; comprising eggs, chicken and meat (lamb and beef), collected from Jordan were determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The samples were Soxhlet extracted for 8h in 250mL petroleum ether. The cleanup of the samples was performed by Florisil column chromatography and analysis was done on a gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 28% (38/134), 20% (23/115) and 49% (131/270) of the examined eggs, chicken and meat samples, respectively, were contaminated with OCP residues. HCHs and DDTs are the most prominently noticed compounds, as they were detected at a high incidence. On the other hand, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin and endrin compounds were only present in less than 7% of the analyzed samples. These residues are present despite complete ban on the use of OCPs for agricultural purposes in Jordan. No residues of op'-DDD, op'-DDT, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were detected. PMID:20042222

  11. Current situation and the development of the dairy industry in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, O Assah; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Hemme, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    The development of the dairy industry plays an important role in the economy of Middle Eastern countries. Judged by its growth rate, the dairy industry is viewed as one of the most progressive food industries in the Middle East. During the early 1970s, countries established executive programs to promote dairy farming; the major objective was to attain self-sufficiency in milk production. A massive investment was set up for importing top class cattle, complying with top industry operating standards, and a simultaneous introduction of the latest technology in processing, packaging, and distributing. Milk production has grown tremendously at rates of 6.6% and 4.9% in Syria and Saudi Arabia, respectively, between 2002 and 2007, which resulted in these nations being almost self-sufficient. Regarding Jordan, milk production has not yet met this target. An excessive growth in the dairy industry is quite noticeable in this region with an expanding capacity for exports. The aim of this study is to show the most recent trends and future prospects of the dairy industries in Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. It also attempts to investigate the drivers for the development of milk production, consumption, and trade in the region. PMID:20352329

  12. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  13. Developing a meal-planning exchange list for traditional dishes in jordan.

    PubMed

    Bawadi, Hiba Ahmad; Al-Sahawneh, Safa'a Adel

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for traditional combination dishes in Jordan. A total of 80 traditional dishes were selected from local cookbooks and through interviews with housewives. To minimize individual variations in preparation methods, five different recipes for each dish were collected and averaged. Dishes were cooked according to the averaged recipe. The weight of each ingredient and dish's net weight were documented in both kitchen and standard measures to be later used in dishes fitting into the exchange list. Samples from each prepared dish were analyzed for their macronutrient content following the Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedures. Correlation analysis was performed between macronutrient content of prepared dishes and that published in food composition tables for the use in the Middle East or analyzed using food analysis software. Exchange lists were then developed using an approximation method suggested in the literature. Significant correlation was found between carbohydrate, protein, and fat amounts obtained in this study and that previously published or obtained by food analysis software. Meal-planning exchange list for combination dishes is now available and ready to be used by food and nutrition professionals and health care providers in Jordan. PMID:18442508

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

  15. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  16. Comparison of GRACE data and groundwater levels for the assessment of groundwater depletion in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Tanja; Ohmer, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived groundwater storage (GWS) data are compared with in-situ groundwater levels from five groundwater basins in Jordan, using newly gridded GRACE GRCTellus land data. It is shown that (1) the time series for GRACE-derived GWS data and in-situ groundwater-level measurements can be correlated, with R 2 from 0.55 to 0.74, (2) the correlation can be widely ascribed to the seasonal and trend component, since the detrended and deseasonalized time series show no significant correlation for most cases, implying that anomalous signals that deviate from the trend or seasonal behaviour are overlaid by noise, (3) estimates for water losses in Jordan based on the trend of GRACE data from 2003 to 2013 could be up to four times higher than previously assumed using estimated recharge and abstraction rates, and (4) a significant time-lagged cross correlation of the monthly changes in GRACE-derived groundwater storage and precipitation data was found, suggesting that the conventional method for deriving GWS from GRACE data probably does not account for the typical conditions in the study basins. Furthermore, a new method for deriving plausible specific yields from GRACE data and groundwater levels is demonstrated.

  17. Predictors of waterpipe smoking progression among youth in Irbid, Jordan: A Longitudinal Study (2008-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Rana; Madhivanan, Purnima; Khader, Yousef; Mzayek, Fawaz; Ward, Kenneth; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The predictors of waterpipe smoking progression are yet to be examined using a longitudinal study that is guided by a theoretical model of behavioral change. This study identifies the gender-specific predictors of waterpipe smoking progression among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan. METHODS This study uses data from a school longitudinal study of smoking behavior in Irbid, Jordan. A random sample of 19 schools was selected by probability proportionate to size. A total of 1781 seventh graders were enrolled at baseline, and completed a questionnaire annually from 2008 through 2011. Students who reported ever smoking waterpipe (N = 864) at any time point were assessed for progression (escalation in the frequency of waterpipe smoking) in the subsequent follow-up. Grouped-time survival analysis was used to identify the risk of progression. RESULTS During the three years of follow-up, 29.6% of students progressed in waterpipe smoking. Predictors of waterpipe smoking progression were higher mother's education, enrollment in public school, frequent physical activity, and low refusal self-efficacy among boys, having ever smoked cigarettes, and having friends and siblings who smoke waterpipe among girls. Awareness of harms of waterpipe was protective among boys and seeing warning labels on the tobacco packs was protective among girls. CONCLUSIONS Even at this early stage, about a third of waterpipe smokers progressed in their habit during the 3 year follow up. Factors predicting progression of use differed by gender, which calls for gender-specific approaches to waterpipe interventions among Jordanian youth. PMID:26024787

  18. Archaeological evidences of the tectonic activity of Shueib Structure (NW Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awabdeh, Mohammad; Azañón, J. Miguel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Booth-Rea, Gillermo

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological damage in buried ruins often offers an excellent record of recent tectonic activity. The lower Jordan valley has experienced a continuous occupation in the last 5000 year, being frequent archaeological remains of human settlements along the valley. In this work we studied the Early Neolithic-to-Middle Islamic Periods archaeological site of Tall al-Hammam (Arabic name, ¨Hill of Baths¨). This ruin is located 27 km southwest of Amman city and it constitutes the largest Bronze Age archaeological site in Jordan. It consists of two main parts; the Upper Tall and the Lower Tall. This ruin lies within the southwestern termination of the Shueib structure (SHS); a Cretaceous fold-bend fault structure thought inactive through the entire Cenozoic. The relics, in the lower Tall, show clear fault-related damage in some walls. Two Middle Bronze Age (MBA) walls are displaced 26 and 20 cm respectively, according with a NNE-SSW fault plane. Apart of wall displacements, hundreds of joints and cracks in boulders of the walls are present. They strike generally NW-SE and NE-SW. Both archaeological evidences, boulder fractures and walls distortion, are coherent with the present-day tectonic setting of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in the region, and suggest a Quaternary reactivation of the SHS.

  19. Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

  20. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26038907

  1. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    PubMed Central

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  2. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies used to manage diabetic foot in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid; Wilson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 patients with diabetes who have used complementary therapies to treat diabetic foot problems. These 68 persons represented a subgroup of the study population surveyed using a questionnaire, to the effect of investigating diabetic foot treatments provided in Jordan. Informants were recruited from eight healthcare facilities established in the southern part of Jordan plus from one hospital established in the Jordanian capital. The study was approved by the Boards of Ethics of the participating healthcare facilities. Content analysis yielded the category "Complementary Therapies Used", which included a range of household items (olive oil, sesame oil, honey, and vinegar), and also some indigenous Jordanian herbs (Wormwood, Myrrh, Caper, and Henna among others). The remedies were used either as a monotherapy or as mixtures, to the common goal of treating diabetic foot problems. Other interventions like Al-cowy were also sought from traditional healers. Educational campaigns are required to increase the awareness of patients and their families on possible hazards of unwise complementary therapy use. The decisions on the use of such therapies should be made in agreement with the attending healthcare professionals. PMID:23983379

  3. Symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents with seizures in Irbid, Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alwash, R H; Hussein, M J; Matloub, F F

    2000-09-01

    In Jordan, individuals with epilepsy commonly attend neuropsychiatric clinics. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial outcome of epilepsy among adolescents. The study included 101 epileptic adolescents who attended the neurology clinic at the Princess Basma Teaching Hospital in Northern Jordan and 101 non-epileptic controls. Sociodemographic characteristics and all relevant clinical data were collected through interviewing the cases and controls. Identification of the symptoms of anxiety and depression was made according to DSM-IV criteria. The patients were age and sex matched with the controls. The controls had achieved a significantly better education (> 12 years education) than the patients with epilepsy. The adolescents with epilepsy were also shown to be disadvantaged in their living circumstances. Some of them were dependent on their parents in some daily physical activities, such as bathing, which might be a sign of overprotection by their parents. Those with epilepsy had a significantly higher tendency to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression than the control group. Moreover these psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety symptoms, were more likely to happen when seizures had not been properly medically controlled. Overprotective parental behaviour towards their ill children could also delay their psychosocial maturation. Therefore, counselling of patients and parents about epilepsy is an important factor in the control of seizures and their sequelae. PMID:10985998

  4. KAr ages, chemical composition and geothermal significance of cenozoic basalt near the Jordan rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; McKee, E.H.; El, Salem F.; Teimeh, M.

    1988-01-01

    Late Cenozoic mafic lavas crop out locally along the Jordan rift. Some of these lavas are spatially associated with thermal springs, and this association has prompted some workers to hypothesize that the hot water derives its thermal energy from the shallow, still hot intrusive roots of the volcanic rocks. However, all of the volcanic rocks appear to represent mantle-derived mafic magma that rose rather quickly to the Earth's surface, without filling crustal reservoirs within which differentiation would have produced evolved, derivative products. Moreover, the lavas are too old and of too small a volume to represent the surface expression of an active reservoir of magma within the crust. These interpretations of the volcanic geology are consistent with conclusions drawn from the chemistry of the thermal water; the water has equilibrated with host rocks at no more than 110??C, probably at depths of 2-3 km. Thus, thermal springs along the Jordan rift appear to reflect heating during circulation through a regional regime of average crustal heat flow (Galanis et at., 1986). The magmatic activity may only be a second or third order contributor to this heat flow. ?? 1988.

  5. An agent-based hydroeconomic model to evaluate water policies in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern water systems can be characterized by a complex network of institutional and private actors that represent competing sectors and interests. Identifying solutions to enhance water security in such systems calls for analysis that can adequately account for this level of complexity and interaction. Our work focuses on the development of a hierarchical, multi-agent, hydroeconomic model that attempts to realistically represent complex interactions between hydrologic and multi-faceted human systems. The model is applied to Jordan, one of the most water-poor countries in the world. In recent years, the water crisis in Jordan has escalated due to an ongoing drought and influx of refugees from regional conflicts. We adopt a modular approach in which biophysical modules simulate natural and engineering phenomena, and human modules represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules employ agent-based modeling, in which agents act as autonomous decision makers at the transboundary, state, organizational, and user levels. A systematic nomenclature and conceptual framework is used to characterize model agents and modules. Concepts from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) are adopted to promote clear conceptualization of model classes and process sequencing, establishing a foundation for full deployment of the integrated model in a scalable object-oriented programming environment. Although the framework is applied to the Jordanian water context, it is generalizable to other regional human-natural freshwater supply systems.

  6. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from brined white cheese in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Taha, Mohammad H; Al-Holy, Murad A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Rousan, Walid M; Shaker, Reyad R

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from different dairy food products. Several foodborne outbreaks of listeriosis have been associated with consumption of cheese. The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in brined white cheese (BWC) sold in Jordan, and to determine the susceptibility of isolated L. monocytogenes to antimicrobials. Three hundred and fifty samples of 5 different types of BWC (akkawi, boiled, halloumi, pasteurized, and shellal) were collected from a local market in Jordan. The ISO (11290-1) procedure was followed for isolation and identification of Listeria spp. from cheese samples and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for confirmation of L. monocytogenes isolates. The VITEK2 automated system was used for testing antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. in cheese sample was 27.1%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 39 (11.1%) samples. Other isolated species were L. grayi (6.9%), L. innocua (2%), L. ivanovii (4%), L. seeligeri (2%), and L. welshimeri (0.3%). The pH values and salt concentrations of L. monocytogenes positive cheese samples ranged from 5.10 to 6.32 and 5.64 to 13.16, respectively. L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to imipenem, gentamicin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to fosfomycin, oxacillin, and clindamycin. PMID:22897495

  8. Progress report on the geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Darling, R.; Davis, D.A.; Gwynn, J.W.; Murphy, P.J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    Two known geothermal areas have been investigated previously in the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah. These reports indicate meteoric water is being circulated to depth and heated by the ambient temperature derived from normal heat flow. This warm water subsequently migrates upward along permiable fault zones. The gravity survey conducted in the valley indicates a number of fault blocks are present beneath the unconsolidated valley sediments. The faults bounding these blocks could provide conduits for the upward migration of warm water. Four areas of warm water wells, in addition to the two known geothermal areas, have been delineated in the valley. However, the chemistry of the Jordan Valley is quite complex and at this time is not fully understood in regard to geothermal potential. Thick sequences of unconsolidated valley fill could conceal geothermal areas due to lateral dispersion or dilution within the principal aquifer, as well as retardation of warm water flow allowing time for cooling prior to discharge in wells or springs. Other areas are possibly diluted and cooled by high quality, ground water recharge from snow melt in the Wasatch Range.

  9. Predators and Prey: Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Henry, III; Stamm, Daniel K.

    This document provides hands-on environmental education activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. The activity packet, designed for grades K-3, meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. It includes on-site…

  10. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  11. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Jordan and Lakewood Extension Campus Programs of Long Beach City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard L.

    The effectiveness of instruction at the Jordan and Lakewood Extension Campuses of Long Beach City College (LBCC) was examined by questionnaire and interview. A 4-item questionnaire was used for the extension students and a 7-item one for the evening high school graduates. Interviews were conducted with 25 former students (on the quality and…

  12. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  13. Attitude of Ash-Shobak University College Students to E-Exam for Intermediate University Degree in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da'asin, Khaled Awad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the attitude of Ash-Shobak university college students concerning the electronic exam for intermediate university degree in Jordan, and identify the impact of gender and grade point average (GPA) variables on students' attitudes. To achieve this objective, a questionnaire consisting of (26) items was used, and…

  14. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  15. Degree of Student's Assimilation to the Meaning of the Term Citizenships in the Schools High Grade Basic Level in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zboon, Mohamed Saleem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the degree of the Assimilation of the meaning of the term "CITIZENSHIP" by the high grade basic level school students in Jordan. The research sample was composed of (1,116) male and female students during the scholastic year 2012/2013. To collect data and then measure results, the standard measurement tool…

  16. Effectiveness of Analogy Instructional Strategy on Undergraduate Student's Acquisition of Organic Chemistry Concepts in Mutah University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Nawaf Ahmad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of analogy instructional strategy on undergraduate students' acquisition of organic chemistry concepts in Mutah University, Jordan. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study; Participants were 97 students who enrolled in organic chemistry course at the department of chemistry during the…

  17. Hydraulic properties of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, southeastern Minnesota, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, James F.

    1999-01-01

    An aquifer test of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was conducted in the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community located southwest of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A well open to the Jordan Sandstone was pumped at 600 gallons per minute for 57 hours. Drawdown was monitored in three observation wells located near the pumped well. These wells were open to: (1) the Jordan Sandstone, the principal unit of the aquifer; (2) the Prairie du Chien Group, a secondary, carbonate-rock unit of the aquifer; and (3) a confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer. Test results indicate that the Jordan Sandstone had a transmissivity of 6,267 ft2/d, a storativity of 1.193 x 10-4, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 31 ft/d based on a saturated thickness of 204 ft, and a ratio of vertical to horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 5.29 x 10-4. The pumped well was hydraulically connected to the Prairie du Chien Group observation well. No drawdown was observed in the observation well completed in the confined, glacial-drift sand aquifer; thus, a hydraulic connection of this observation well to the pumped well was not indicated.

  18. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  19. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on October 12, 2010 (75 FR 62500-62501, Docket No. APHIS-2010... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant...

  20. A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

    2010-11-28

    This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan. PMID:20956366

  1. The Impact of Employing Brainstorming Strategy on Improving Writing Performance of English Major Students at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoush, Kholoud Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the impact of employing brainstorming strategy on improving writing performance of English Major Students at Balqa Applied University in Jordan. The sample of the study which consisted of 80 male and female university students was distributed into two groups; experimental (taught by brainstorming strategy) and…

  2. Examining Collaboration and Constrains on Collaboration between Special and General Education Teachers in Mainstream Schools in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Natour, Mayada; Amr, Muna; Al-Zboon, Eman; Alkhamra, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines collaboration between general and special education teachers in mainstream schools in Jordan from their own points of view. It explores the extent to which teachers work collaboratively throughout the different stages of the special educational programs of students with special needs (i.e. referral, assessment, planning, and…

  3. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  4. Rationales of a Shift towards Knowledge Economy in Jordan from the Viewpoint of Educational Experts and Relationship with Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Al Ahmad, Suliman Diab Ali; Al Zboon, Saleem Odeh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify rationales underlying a shift towards knowledge economy in education as perceived by the educational experts in Jordan and relationship with some variables. The random stratum sample (n = 90) consisted of educational experts representing faculty members in the Jordanian universities and top leaders…

  5. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  6. Utility of multi temporal satellite images for crop water requirements estimation and irrigation management in the Jordan Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of crop water requirements is a key for successful management of water resources in the dry areas. Climatic data were obtained from three automated weather stations to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETO) in the Jordan Valley according to the...

  7. Acquisition of Some Selected Prepositions of Time by English Major Undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qudah, Ayat Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the acquisition of some selected prepositions of time by English major undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan and to reveal any significant differences among their acquisition attributed to the academic level (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year levels) and to studying "English Basic Grammar" course. A…

  8. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) received a request from the national...

  9. Educational Attainment and Attitudes towards War in Muslim Countries Contemplating War: The Cases of Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Ross, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the little understood relationship between educational attainment and public attitudes towards war in four predominantly Muslim countries contemplating war: Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. The multivariate analysis using public opinion data suggests that the educational attainment of respondents has no statistically…

  10. Learning English as a Second Language at the University Level in Jordan: Motivation, Self-Regulation and Learning Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Eman; Aldridge, Jill M.; Khine, Myint Swe

    2016-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of the learning environment and whether these influenced their motivation and self-regulation in learning English as a second language at the university level in Jordan. Our sample involved 994 students, drawn from 13 schools, within three faculties (humanities, health…

  11. Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation in annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer from 1971 to 1980 caused water levels in that aquifer to rise, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years.

  12. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources: The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan industrial-energy-efficiency program. A report of the Office of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is a significant potential for energy savings in the small and medium-size industrial segment in Jordan. In order to achieve these savings, the Government of Jordan must take a more aggressive and coordinated role in promoting energy conservation through awareness and training programs. At the same time, the local market for C/E firms to provide energy conservation services can and should be developed. USAID and/or other donor agencies should assist the Government of Jordan through the funding of a medium-term technical assistance program, to help establish an autonomous or semi-autonomous energy conservation agency.

  13. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  14. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB

  15. Ten-year Diabetes Risk Forecast in the Capital of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Alghwiri, Alia A.; Awad, Hamzeh; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan has been increasing. The early diagnosis of diabetes is vital to slow its progression. The Arab Risk (ARABRISK) screening tool is a self-administered questionnaire used to determine people who are at high risk for developing diabetes. This study aimed to identify people at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes by using the ARABRISK in the capital of Jordan. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of people in the capital of Jordan. The ARABRISK screening tool was administered to identify the participants’ risk for developing diabetes. In addition to descriptive statistics, percentages of the ARABRISK categories were represented, and an independent samples t test was used to explore the differences between men and women. A total of 513 participants with a mean age of 51.94 (SD = 10.33) were recruited; 64.9% of the participants were men (n = 333). The total ARABRISK score ranged from 0 to 25 with a mean score of 12.30 (SD = 4.76). Using the independent samples t test, women (mean = 13.25, SE = 0.10) had significantly higher ARABRISK total scores than men did (mean = 12.95, SE = 0.09), t(141) = −2.23, P = 0.03 in the “moderate risk” category. All of the items in the ARABRISK questionnaire were found to be good predictors of the ARABRISK total scores. Among them, age, body mass index (BMI), and high blood glucose (HBG) were the best predictors as indicated by the standardized regression coefficient (β). Older age, obesity, elevated weight circumference, absence of daily physical activity, daily consumption of fruits/vegetables, presence of high blood pressure (HBP), and HBG were significantly associated with increased odds of high ARABRISK total scores. Neither a history of gestational diabetes nor a positive family history was associated with an increased odds of high ARABRISK total scores. By identifying risk factors in these participants

  16. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  17. Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2014-05-01

    Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers

  18. Source detection by chemical and isotopic means - the Lower Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Geyer, Stefan; Khayat, Saed; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the past several decades the volume of freshwater carried by the Lower Jordan River (LJR) has been reduced by 90% due to damming of its main tributaries, leaving a mixed flow of polluted and brackish to saline water from anthropogenic and partly known geogenic sources. Since the river represents the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, neither systematic nor long-term measurements were conducted in it. Only vague knowledge exists about the amount and composition of natural contributors and no knowledge concerning their temporal dynamics. However, since the river water is intensely used for irrigation along its course and represents the major source of water to the Dead Sea, the spatio-temporal variation of water discharge and chemistry are required for water resource assessment in the Lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea. To monitor the temporal variations of water discharge and hydrochemistry, an automatic sampler, including water level and EC sensors with real time transmission were installed at the Baptism site, a few kilometers upstream of the delta. Major ions are analyzed on a daily basis, while stable isotopes of sulfate (δ34S, δ18O), nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) and water (δ2H, δ18O) are analyzed on an event basis. A general inverse correlation between EC and water level was found although extreme high conductivity values relate to flood events during the wet period. Due to the high-resolution monitoring, a series of flood events could be observed, some having unusually high saline water. Results from Cl/Br, Na/Cl, Mg/Ca, δ34S allow separation and identification of sources: (i) the dissolution of evaporite minerals, abundant in the surrounding geological strata, (ii) sewage and (iii) brine springs. The continuous monitoring is an essential tool for understanding long-term processes and changes in such a dynamic system, and is crucial for identifying rarely occurring extreme flow events. However, a single sampling location is

  19. Characterization And Provenance Of Marble Chancel Screens, Νorthern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naddaf, M.; Al-Bashaireh, K.; Al-Waked, F.

    This research characterizes marble chancel screens and their supporting columns, confiscated from treasure thieves, probably from northern Jordan in order to manage the most fruitful conservation and restoration interventions for them. It provides new archaeometric data and determines the probable source of the marbles. The results of mineropetrographic, X-ray diffraction and carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses show that the marbles most probably are Proconnesian-1. The results agree with the historical records supported by archaeometric analyses that Proconnesos marble was widely used during the Roman and Byzantine periods for architectural purposes. The results suggest that color style of Proconnesian marble astonished the Byzantine stonemasons and architects thus have been widely used.

  20. Chameleon effect in the Jordan frame of the Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Israel; García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, F. Antonio

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the chameleon effect in the different conformal frames of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory. Given that, in the standard literature on the subject, the chameleon is described in the Einstein frame almost exclusively, here we pay special attention to the description of this effect in the Jordan and in the string frames. It is shown that, in general, terrestrial and solar system bounds on the mass of the BD scalar field, and bounds of cosmological origin, are difficult to reconcile at once through a single chameleon potential. We point out that, in a cosmological context, provided that the effective chameleon potential has a minimum within a region of constant density of matter, the Brans-Dicke theory transmutes into general relativity with a cosmological constant, in that region. This result, however, can be only locally valid.

  1. Women's autonomy and support for wife beating: findings from a population-based survey in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Linos, Natalia; Khawaja, Marwan; Al-Nsour, Mohannad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine attitudes among married women toward wife beating and to investigate the hypothesis that female individual empowerment is associated with such attitudes within a broader context of societal patriarchy in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of married women (n = 5,390) conducted in 2002. Associations between acceptance of wife beating and several women's empowerment variables, including decision-making power, as well as other risk factors were assessed, using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. The key finding is that the vast majority (87.5%) of Jordanian women believe that wife beating is justified in at least one hypothetical scenario, and justification is negatively associated with empowerment variables and some demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors. PMID:20565010

  2. Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

  3. Post-classification version of Jordan's theorem on finite linear groups

    PubMed Central

    Weisfeiler, Boris

    1984-01-01

    Using classification of finite simple groups, I show that a finite subgroup G of GLn(C), where C = the complex numbers, contains a commutative normal subgroup M of index at most (n + 1)!nalogn+b. Moreover, if G is primitive and does not contain normal subgroups that are direct products of large alternating groups, then the factor (n + 1)! can be dropped. I further show that similar statements hold also in characteristics p ≥ 2, if one takes M to be an extension of a group of Lie type of characteristic p by a solvable group that has a normal p-subgroup with commutative p′-quotient. These results improve the celebrated theorems of Jordan and of Brauer and Feit. PMID:16593506

  4. Evolution of microbiology as seen in the textbooks of Edwin O. Jordan and William H. Park.

    PubMed Central

    Strick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Historians of science account the appearance of textbooks as an important step in the formation and consolidation of a new discipline. The texts of Park and Jordan were both very important in this light; however; they also can be used as a gauge of changing concepts within microbiology in the first four decades after its consolidation as a discipline, 1900-1940. This paper tracks these important texts and through them changing attitudes toward several important concepts: bacterial variation, human/bovine tuberculosis, and the existence of a non-symptomatic carrier state in infectious disease. The two texts are also compared regarding their view of microbes as pathogens vs. microbes as important and ubiquitous ecological agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:11049163

  5. Reflections on sex research among young Bedouin in Jordan: risks and limitations.

    PubMed

    Al-Shdayfat, Noha M; Green, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Research about sexuality is characterised by silences and invisibilities. This is particularly evident in some Islamic Arab societies where discussion of sexuality in general is not encouraged and practices such as homosexuality or pre-marital sex are not acknowledged. This creates a barrier to carrying out sex research and also means that much of the research-based knowledge and methodologies developed in a Western setting may have limited applicability. This paper uses research recently carried out among Bedouin young women in Jordan to examine these limitations and the extent to which research approaches and findings from relatively liberal Western cultures are appropriate and relevant. Following a description of the cultural context in which the study took place, the paper identifies potential risks of conducting sex research in this setting and the research limitations related to this risk. Finally, it addresses the question of whether doing sex research has any value given these restrictions. PMID:22085369

  6. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  7. Higgs inflation with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the Jordan frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-03-01

    We consider an extension of Higgs inflation in which the Higgs field is coupled to the Gauss-Bonnet term. Working solely in the Jordan frame, we first recover the standard predictions of field inflation without a Gauss-Bonnet term. We then calculate the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations in the presence of a coupling to a Gauss-Bonnet term. We show that generically the predictions of Higgs inflation are robust and the contributions to the power spectra coming from the Gauss-Bonnet term are negligible. We find, however, that the end of inflation can be strongly modified and that we hence expect the details of (p)reheating to be significantly altered, leading to some concerns over the feasibility of the model which require further investigation.

  8. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays

    2016-09-01

    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation. PMID:27611319

  9. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  10. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  11. The role of the extended family in women's risk of intimate partner violence in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Silverman, Jay G; Shahrouri, Manal; Everson-Rose, Susan; Groce, Nora

    2010-01-01

    The extended family as a potential cause of and protection against intimate partner violence (IPV) remains relatively unstudied. This mixed-methods study used focus group discussions (FGDs) and a clinic-based survey to investigate several family-based risk and protective factors associated with women's risk of IPV in Jordan. Seventeen FGDs (total number of participants = 105) were conducted with women in Amman. Each transcript was coded for categories using open coding methodology and mapping. Relevant categories and subcategories were family support, family interference, family abuse, exposure to violence in childhood, and place of residence. For the survey, systematic probability proportionate to size methodology was used to select a sample of 517 literate, ever married, women from seven reproductive health clinics located throughout the country (response rate = < or = 70%); due to missing data, the analytic sample was restricted to 418 women. Measures assessed the categories mentioned above. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between IPV and the main predictors of interest (residence, family interference, family violence, exposure to violence as a child, and family support). The combined results of the FGDs and the survey demonstrated that the respondent's husband's exposure to violence in childhood and violence perpetrated by other family members were risk factors for IPV. Family interference was also significantly related to IPV but only when the respondent identified the interference as harmful to her relationship. Residence with the respondent's in-laws demonstrated mixed effects. A supportive family was protective against IPV, although the FGDs revealed that families were not always an effective source of assistance. Findings demonstrate the continued role of the wife's and husband's kin in women's risk of IPV in Jordan, highlighting the importance of a broader view of the context of IPV. PMID

  12. Quantifying sediment connectivity in Wadi Al-Arab (NW Jordan) using a sediment budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Pöppl, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Due to data scarcity, sediment connectivity most often only qualitatively describes the potential transfer of sediments through a landscape. However, quantitative information on sediment delivery is of special relevance for modelling approaches as well as for sustainable land and water management, especially in water scarce regions such as Jordan, where valuable water reservoirs suffer from sediment pollution. Measurements are needed to quantify sediment outputs of the different land units and to trace their pathways though the catchments. This study uses the outcomes of a multiple response sediment budget approach conducted in the Wadi al-Arab catchment in northwest Jordan (263.5 km²) to quantify sediment connectivity. The catchment shows a Mediterranean to semi arid climate and consists of carbonatic and marly geology of the Upper Cretaceous. The topography ranges from rolling hills in the East to steeper mountainous areas in the North and West were olive orchards are the main agricultural use. Soil erosion measurements in the main land use units and relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, and natural vegetated slopes uncovered the potential ranges of soil erosion rates in these units. Furthermore, the annual sediment yield in the Wadi Al Arab water reservoir was calculated. With the extrapolation of the erosion rates of the main contributing land use units and the annual sediment amount that reaches the sink, a maximum value of lateral sediment connectivity could be quantified, reaching up to 18%. A multiple sediment fingerprint method was used to delineate the relative contribution of each measured source to the sink based on the lake sediment samples. Supported by additional 137Cs analysis of terrace samples and a survey of the Wadi bed a high longitudinal connectivity could be derived. The applied method mix allowed the quantification of lateral sediment connectivity on catchment scale and gave a comprehensive understanding of

  13. Potential impact of climate change on rainfed agriculture of a semi-arid basin in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bakri, Jawad; Suleiman, Ayman; Abdulla, Fayez; Ayad, Jamal

    Rainfed agriculture in Jordan is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change, as the available water and land resources are limited and most of the country’s land is arid. In this study, a crop simulation model (DSSAT) was used to assess the impact of different climate change scenarios on rainfed wheat and barley in the Yarmouk basin in Jordan. Analysis of observed crop data showed differences between cultivated and harvested areas for both crops in the study area with variations among years. Results from DSSAT model for years showed that it was able to capture the trend of yield over the years realistically well. The model predicted an average yield of wheat of 1176 kg ha -1, which was close to the average (1173 kg ha -1) obtained from the data of department of statistics (DOS), and an average predicted yield of barley was 927 kg ha -1 while the DOS average was 922 kg ha -1, with higher RMSE for barley (476 kg ha -1) than for wheat (319 kg ha -1). Results for predicting future yield of both crops showed that the responses of wheat and barley were different under different climate change scenarios. The reduction of rainfall by 10-20% reduced the expected yield by 4-8% for barley and 10-20% for wheat, respectively. The increase in rainfall by 10-20% increased the expected yield by 3-5% for barley and 9-18% for wheat, respectively. The increase of air temperature by 1, 2, 3 and 4 °C resulted in deviation from expected yield by -14%, -28%, -38% and -46% for barley and -17%, +4%, +43% and +113% for wheat, respectively. These results indicated that barley would be more negatively affected by the climate change scenarios and therefore adaptation plans should prioritize the arid areas cultivated with this crop.

  14. Epidemiologic study on Besnoitia besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Ababneh, Mohammad M; Abutarbush, Sameeh M

    2015-07-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite and the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis which is considered as a re-emergent disease in Europe. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with B. besnoiti infection in 68 dairy herds (n = 806 cows) in Jordan during the period from January to June 2007 and the spring of 2014. Data regarding herd's management was obtained by filling questionnaires through personal interviews with farmers. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect antibodies against B. besnoiti. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to B. besnoiti. At the individual cow and herd level, the true prevalence of seropositive animals was 6 and 28.7 %, respectively. Cows between 2 and 6 years of age had significantly higher seroprevalence of B. besnoiti than other age groups. The highest seroprevalence of B. besnoiti was found in Zarqa and Irbid governorates. Multivariable logistic regression model identified that exchanging visits by farm workers to neighboring farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to B. besnoiti, while smaller herd size and twice a day farm cleaning using sweeping and water hosing were identified as protective factors. This is the first study that investigated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical manifestation of B. besnoiti infection as well as to identify the possible presence of other Besnoitia species and definitive hosts for the parasite. PMID:25843571

  15. A retrospective study on imported malaria in Jordan. 1. Malaria among Jordanian UN peacekeeping forces.

    PubMed

    Kanani, K; Amr, Z-S; Shadfan, B; Al-Rashadan, M; Bani Hani, R

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is considered as one of the most threatening diseases affecting peacekeeping forces serving in malaria endemic countries. The Jordanian Armed Forces participated in many of the United Nations peacekeeping missions in over 20 countries across the world. Thin and thick blood smears were collected from military personnel returning to Jordan, and relevant data including occupation, age, sex, residence address and the country they served in were recorded. Mefloquine 250 mg/week was prescribed for prophylaxis during the period of stay for three contingents of Jordanian military forces deployed to East Timor. Members of two contingents were given post exposure prophylactic treatment of Doxycycline 100 mg coupled with Primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days soon after returning to Jordan. Blood smears were taken from all soldiers suspected to be affected by malaria, and were monitored over a period of 15 weeks. A total of 811 malaria cases were reported during 1992-2011 among Jordanian military personnel whom served in over 20 countries. Most cases were reported among troops returning from Eretria (54.74%), East Timor (18.86%), Ivory Coast (9.12%) and Sierra Leone (5.1%). Troops aged between 20-40 years constituted 96.3% of the total reported cases. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium vivax (83.5%), followed by Plasmodium falciparum (13.6%). The attack rates (AR) of malaria/100 soldiers among the three contingents were 10.8% for Timor 1, with no post-exposure prophylaxis, and 2.8% for Timor 2 and 3 with post-exposure prophylaxis. There was an evident reduction of malaria attack rate and relapse rate between the two groups Timor 1 (without post-exposure prophylaxis) and Timor 2 and 3 (given post exposure prophylaxis). PMID:24639137

  16. Current trends in drug abuse associated fatalities - Jordan, 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, Mu'men S; Ibrahim, Mudhaffar I; Abdallat, Imad M; Hadidi, Kamal A

    2009-04-15

    This study is the first study that addresses drug abuse associated fatalities in Jordan. It is aimed to give a close picture to the demography, toxicological data, manner, cause of death and other associated findings in such cases. Postmortem forensic pathology reports for all autopsies examined in the National Institute of Forensic Medicine were reviewed over a 5-year period and drug abuse associated deaths were selected. The study revealed that 44 cases (0.76%) out of the 5789 total autopsies were attributed to drug abuse associated deaths. The age range was from 20 to 60 years (mean+/-S.D.=32.7+/-7.2). More than 80% of cases were Jordanian males. The reported abuse substances as single drug or in combination were alcohol in 56.8%, morphine 36.4%, heroin 15.9%, benzodiazepines in 11.4% and cocaine in one body packer case. Surprisingly, neither a case with amphetamine or amphetamine analogue, nor with marijuana or methadone was recorded. In 75% of cases the death was accidental and only one case was reported to be suicidal, while in 18.2% and 4.5% death was due to sudden death and road traffic accidents, respectively. Regarding the cause of death, it was related to drug overdose in 50% of cases and in 34.1%, 11.4% and 4.5% of cases it was attributed to drug related medical complications, non-drug related complications, and trauma, respectively. Alcohol was mainly associated with accidental death; morphine and heroin were associated with drug overdose and abused through intravenous route. Injection marks were reported in 56.8% of cases and in 52.3% death occurred at home. This study confirmed the variation in the incidence and type of abused substances in Jordan compared with different countries. PMID:19217732

  17. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Linda G; Malak, Malakeh Z

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and to describe the habits, attitudes, and practices related to smoking among students of Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan. Students (n = 650) were recruited in randomly selected, cluster samples drawn from the medical and engineering colleges of JUST. They were made familiar with a modified Arabic version of the World Health Organisation Smoking Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Smoking Questionnaire to study their habits, attitudes, and beliefs in relation to smoking. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 28.6% (50.2% among males and 6.5% among females). Friends, not family, were the main source of the first smoking, and this most often occurred after 15 years of age (82.3%). Males preferred smoking in the cafeteria, females in the bathroom. The main advantage of smoking for males was calming down, while for females it was independence. Non-smokers chose not to smoke because of health and hatred of the habit. The non-smokers had more positive attitudes against smoking and were more aware of the adverse effects of smoking. The reasons smokers gave for starting smoking were pleasure, followed by stress and curiosity. Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit smoking in the future. Some smokers disagreed with some criticisms against smoking, and reasons why they did not want to quit included social attitudes, addiction, and not knowing how to quit. Results of this study may provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program in the university and encourage policy makers to limit smoking in the university by strengthening the policies against smoking. PMID:12379297

  18. High frequency of mismatch repair deficiency among pediatric high grade gliomas in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Amayiri, Nisreen; Tabori, Uri; Campbell, Brittany; Bakry, Doua; Aronson, Melyssa; Durno, Carol; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Malkin, David; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Musharbash, Awni; Swaidan, Maisa; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Al-Hussaini, Maysa

    2016-01-15

    Biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (bMMRD) is a cancer predisposition syndrome affecting primarily individuals from consanguinous families resulting in multiple childhood cancers including high grade gliomas (HGG). This is the first study to assess the prevalence of bMMRD among patients with HGG in countries where consanguinity is high. We collected molecular and clinical information on all children diagnosed with HGG and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) between 2003 and 2013 at King Hussein Cancer Center, Jordan. Comparison was made to a similar cohort from Toronto. Clinical data regarding presence of café au lait macules(CAL), family history of cancer, consanguinity, pathology and treatment were collected. Tumors were centrally reviewed and tested for MMRD by immunohistochemistry of the corresponding proteins. Forty-two patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 36 with HGG. MMRD was observed in 39% of HGG of whom 79% also lost MMR staining in the corresponding normal cells suggestive of bMMRD. P53 dysfunction was highly enriched in MMR deficient tumors (p = 0.0003).The frequency of MMRD was significantly lower in Toronto cohort (23%, p = 0.03). Both evidence of CAL and consanguinity correlated with bMMRD (p = 0.005 and 0.05,respectively) but family history of cancer didn't. HGG with all three bMMRD risk factors had evidence of MMRD and all children affected by multiple bMMRD related cancers had identical gene loss by immunohistochemical staining. In Jordan, the frequency of clinical and immunohistochemical alterations suggestive of bMMRD in pediatric HGG is high. Genetic testing will enable appropriate counseling and cancer screening to improve survival of these patients. PMID:26293621

  19. Late ordovician—early silurian glaciofluvial deposits preserved in palaeovalleys in South Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, John H.; Moh'd, Basim Khalil; Masri, Ahmed

    1994-03-01

    Periglacial, fluvial strata of Late Ordovician age, infilling incised palaeovalleys in the lower part of the shallow-marine, siliciclastic Khreim Group (Late Ordovician to Silurian) are described from outcrops in south Jordan. The palaeovalley fill predominantly comprises poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained, sub-arkose with subordinate beds of pebble- to cobble-size diamictite. Clasts include subangular rip-up sandstone and sparse shelly fossils derived from the local bedrock, together with exotic, rounded pebbles and cobbles derived from the Cambro-Ordovician sandstones and granitoid Precambrian rocks in the palaeohinterland, situated to the south. The palaeovalley fill is locally characterised by synsedimentary slump folds, micro-faulting and contorted bedding. These are attributed either to gravitational slumping at palaeovalley margins, or collapse due to melting of stagnant supporting ice. At some localities, the sandstones are typically trough cross-bedded, and exhibit upward-fining trends terminating in current ripples, suggesting episodic infill of the palaeovalleys. The few palaeocurrent measurements available from these sedimentary structures indicate a general palaeoflow to the north, coincident with the general orientation of the exposed palaeovalleys. The palaeovalleys may have been formed by glacial and/or fluvial processes; their predominantly sandstone fill is interpreted as fluvial and/or glaciofluvial in origin, and was probably deposited as proximal proglacial outwash at some distance from the ice-sheet which lay to the south, in present-day Saudi Arabia. The Batra Mudstone, which overlies coeval, non-channelised, glaciofluvial sandstones yields an Early Llandovery fauna, thus constraining the upper age of the palaeovalley infilling. By analogy with similar strata in Saudi Arabia, erosion of the palaeovalleys and infilling is likely to have taken place during Ashgill to Early Llandovery times. Erosion of the palaeovalleys and their

  20. Mound measurements - quantifying medium-term soil erosion under olive trees in Northern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, S.; Herrmann, N.; Ollesch, G.; Vogel, H.-J.; Siebert, C.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few decades many quantitative erosion studies have revealed that olive orchard expansion and increased mechanization in southern European countries have led to increased soil erosion under olive trees. Consequently, these studies have suggested different methods of mitigation. In light of the 2014 European trading zone expansion to countries east and south of the Mediterranean, a further intensification of olive plantations is postulated to meet market demands. To attain first medium-term estimates of erosion in Northern Jordan and its driving factors, a new method measuring olive mounds was implemented. Seven fields with clearly erosive structures were chosen throughout the Wadi Al-Arab catchment in Northern Jordan. Topographic measurements were used to reconstruct the historical and recent surface level and calculate the volume eroded since the planting of the trees. A total of 81 bulk density measurements and 14 tree cores allowed the estimation of the soil loss in tons per hectare. The combination of modified land use map and slope information helped to identify similar olive fields with high erosive potential. Results show that the method provides medium-term quantitative estimates for averaged soil loss consistent with some existing results from similar research areas in the Mediterranean. They clearly indicate the significant potential for erosion in olive orchards with around 95 ± 8 t ha- 1 yr- 1. Tillage practice and water erosion were identified as critical erosion processes, both depending on tillage characteristics, tillage timing, and soil parent material. The investigated fields represent about 19% of the catchment's surface area and are likely to contribute to the measured yearly sediment yield that fills up the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir with sediments.

  1. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  2. Reference crop evapotranspiration derived from geo-stationary satellite imagery: a case study for the Fogera flood plain, NW-Ethiopia and the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Jitan, M. A.; Temesgen Enku, N.; van der Tol, C.; Gieske, A. S. M.

    2010-11-01

    First results are shown of a project aiming to estimate daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 from geo-stationary satellite imagery. In particular, for Woreta, a site in the Ethiopian highland at an elevation of about 1800 m, we tested a radiation-temperature based approximate formula proposed by Makkink (MAK), adopting ET0 evaluated with the version of the Penman-Monteith equation described in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage paper 56 as the most accurate estimate. More precisely we used the latter with measured daily solar radiation as input (denoted by PMFAO-Rs). Our data set for Woreta concerns a period where the surface was fully covered with short green non-stressed vegetation. Our project was carried out in the context of the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LANDSAF) facility. Among others, the scope of LANDSAF is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT Satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this study we applied daily values of downward solar radiation at the surface obtained from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) radiometer. In addition, air temperature at 2 m was obtained from 3-hourly forecasts provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Both MAK and PMFAO-Rs contain the psychrometric "constant", which is proportional to air pressure, which, in turn, decreases with elevation. In order to test elevation effects we tested MAK and its LANDSAF input data for 2 sites in the Jordan Valley located about 250 m b.s.l. Except for a small underestimation of air temperature at the Ethiopian site at 1800 m, the first results of our LANDSAF-ET0 project are promising. If our approach to derive ET0 proves successfully, then the LANDSAF will be able to initiate nearly real time free distribution of ET0 for the full MSG disk.

  3. Reference crop evapotranspiration derived from geo-stationary satellite imagery - a case study for the Fogera flood plain, NW-Ethiopia and the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Jitan, M. A.; Temesgen Enku, N.; van der Tol, C.; Gieske, A. S. M.

    2010-07-01

    First results are shown of a project aiming to estimate daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration ET0 from geo-stationary satellite imagery. In particular, for Woreta, a site in the Ethiopian highland at an elevation of about 1800 m, we tested a radiation-temperature based approximate formula proposed by Makkink (MAK) adopting ET0 evaluated with the version of the Penman-Monteith equation described in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage paper 56 as the most accurate estimate. More precisely we used the latter with measured daily solar radiation as input (denoted by PMFAO-Rs). Our data set for Woreta concerns a period where the surface was fully covered with short green non-stressed vegetation. Our project was carried out in the context of the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LANDSAF) facility. Among others, the scope of LANDSAF is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT Satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this study we applied daily values of downward solar radiation at the surface obtained from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) radiometer. In addition, air temperature at 2 m was obtained from 3-hourly forecasts provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Both MAK and PMFAO-Rs contain the psychrometric "constant", which is proportional to air pressure, which, in turn, decreases with elevation. In order to test elevation effects we tested MAK and its LANDSAF input data for 2 sites in the Jordan Valley located about 250 m b.s.l. Except for a small underestimation of air temperature at the Ethiopian site at 1800 m, the first results of our LANDSAF-ET0 project are promising. If our approach to derive ET0 proves successfully, then the LANDSAF will be able to initiate nearly real time free distribution of ET0 for the full MSG disk.

  4. Endolithic cyanobacteria in soil gypsum: Occurrences in Atacama (Chile), Mojave (United States), and Al-Jafr Basin (Jordan) Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hailiang; Rech, Jason A.; Jiang, Hongchen; Sun, Henry; Buck, Brenda J.

    2007-06-01

    Soil sulfates are present in arid and hyperarid environments on Earth and have been found to be abundant in soils on Mars. Examination of soil gypsum from the Atacama Desert, Chile, the Mojave Desert, United States, and Al-Jafr Basin, Jordan, revealed endolithic cyanobacteria communities just below the surface of soil gypsum samples. Optical and scanning electron microscope observations of the colonized layers indicated that the unicellular Chroococcidiopsis is the dominant cyanobacterium in all studied communities. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that in addition to Chroococcidiopsis, a few other cyanobacteria are present. Heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant in the colonized zones of the fine-grained gypsum from the Atacama and Mojave Desert, but insignificant in the fibrous gypsum from the Jordan Desert. Endolithic life forms similar to these described here may exist or have existed on Mars and should be targeted by the Mars Science Laboratory and future in situ missions.

  5. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel

  6. The Arabic culture of Jordan and its impacts on a wider Jordanian adoption of business continuity management.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Meaton, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Culture is important to individuals and societies, as well as organisations. Failing to address cultural aspects will hinder the wider adoption and development of business continuity management (BCM) and will subsequently increase the vulnerabilities of organisations to crises, disasters and business interruptions. Three main issues are discussed in this paper. The first is the background to culture and the characteristics of the Jordanian culture. Secondly, the influence of the Arab culture on the wider adoption and development of BCM in Jordan is considered. Thirdly, the paper looks at potential factors that underpin the role of culture in the BCM process in Jordan. These issues are significant, as they represent the characteristics and influence of the Arab culture. This paper contributes to the understanding of the significance of culture in the adoption and development of BCM for organisations operating in Jordan and in the Arab world more generally. It also highlights current cultural changes and trends taking place in the Arab world in a time of huge political instability in the Middle East and Arab countries. PMID:22948108

  7. Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Developing new water resources continues to be a challenge in water scarce regions and water reuse offers a sustainable means by which water availability can be maximised. In Jordan, treated domestic wastewater (reclaimed water) already provides a valuable contribution to the annual water budget. This resource is used for irrigation either directly around wastewater treatment plants, or indirectly after reclaimed water released from treatment plants has been transferred though natural waterways and blended with surface runoff. Direct reuse is employed for the irrigation of fodder crops such as barley or alfalfa, while indirect reuse is employed for the irrigation of high-value fruit and vegetable crops grown in the Jordan Valley, a major commercial agricultural area. In order to ensure water reuse is conducted successfully, it is essential that the benefits of reclaimed water (water availability, high nutrient content) are maximised while the potential risks (to human health, soil sustainability and agricultural yields) are minimised. Stakeholder participation in water reuse management decisions could raise the capacity of the water user (such as the farmer) to manage the risks without compromising the benefits of this resource. To investigate the extent to which stakeholders are participating in water reuse management, semi-structured interviews with farmers and institutional representatives were conducted in Jordan. A particular aim of the interviews was to explore the variation in participation between those stakeholders using reclaimed water directly and indirectly. The data collected during 56 interviews with Jordanian farmers showed that the farmers' perception and management of reclaimed water varied considerably between the indirect and direct users. The direct users had a greater level of satisfaction with the water (55 per cent of those asked described the water as "good water") and recognised that they were able to produce larger yields and raise their

  8. Anthropogenic Influence On Groundwater Quality In Jericho and And Adjoining Wadis (Lower Jordan Valley, Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, S.; Khayat, S.; Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Lower Jordan Valley is part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift. The graben is filled by sedmiments of limnological and marine origin. Towards the Dead Sea, the occurance of gipseous and salty sediments on the valley floor increase. The southern part of the Lower Jordan Valley, where the city of Jericho is situated, is an arid area (<150 mm precipitation/year), with less amount of exploitable fresh groundwater or surface water. Jericho was founded on an alluvial fan, closely to the western mountain range in front of mouth of Wadi Qilt. The fan serves as reservoir for infiltrating water from wadi runoff and groundwater from the crataceous aquifers of the western shoulder. The fan is surrounded by unsuitable aquifers of the graben, which are filled with saline water. The aim of this study, which takes place inside the multilateral SMART-project, is to understand the vulnerability of the Jericho groundwater aquifers in connection with lowering the groundwater table by overexploitation and the intensively use of pesticides Jericho and its vicinity are of most importance for the Palestinians. However, beside the about 25,000 residents, the tourism industry and the vital agriculture depend on sufficient and expoitable fresh water resources. Because the demand of water is increasing, overexpoitaion takes place. Due to over extraction of groundwater a huge depression cone is evolving during the dry season which is filled up again according to the groundwater recharge in the rainy season. Concomitantly, depression cone in the fresh water aquifers leads to an infiltration of the surrounding saltwater. The amount of saltwater which infiltrates into the freshwater resource was calculated by different stable isotope methods (d2H, d18O) and hydrochemical analyses of wellwater. The agriculture is main consumer of groundwater - over 60% of the pumped water is used for inefficient irrigation. Additionally, an intensive use of pesticides in concentrated liquid and gaseous forms for

  9. Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Rukah, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ♢111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ♢1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ♢385 ♢35 ♢48.25 ♢1435 69.25 0.18 ♢2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ♢601.9 ♢520.3 282.5 30

  10. Motivational factors and stages of change for physical activity among college students in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Madanat, Hala; Merrill, Ray M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity levels across the five stages of change for physical activity and to identify motivational factors for physical activity according to these stages of change among college students in Amman, Jordan. Analyses were based on a cross-sectional survey of 431 students, with a mean age of 21.1 (SD=0.16) and 67.5% female. Based on the recommendation that physical activity requires at least 30 minutes of physical activity 3 or more days per week, men were more likely than women to classify themselves in later stages: 7.3% vs. 9.5% in the precontemplation stage, 17.4% vs. 14.7% in the contemplation stage, 50.0% vs. 63.5% in the preparation stage, 9.4% vs. 5.6% in the action stage, and 15.9% vs. 6.7% in the maintenance stage [X2(4) = 14.04, p = 0.0072]. Seven potential motivational items for physical activity were assessed using factor analysis: experience better self-worth, prevent chronic disease, relieve stress, stay in shape, longevity, recreation/fun, and social benefits. Two factor groupings were identified from these items. The first factor included the first five items, labeled as "Physical and Mental". The second factor included the last two items, labeled as "Social and Recreational." "Physical and Mental" items compared with "Social and Recreational" items were most likely to motivate physical activity across the stages of change for physical activity. The strongest motivator of physical activity was to stay in shape. The weakest motivator of physical activity was for social reasons. The influence of the intermediate motivational factors was slightly affected by the students' stage of change for physical activity. Motivators for physical activity did not differ according to sex. These results provide important information about the motivational factors for physical activity for college-aged students in Jordan that can be useful in developing effective physical activity intervention programs. PMID

  11. Adverse Reactions to Field Vaccination Against Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Hananeh, W M; Ramadan, W; Al Sheyab, O M; Alnajjar, A R; Al Zoubi, I G; Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Tuppurainen, E S M

    2016-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging disease in the Middle East region and has been recently reported in Jordan. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. Geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. Sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. Of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administration. The duration between vaccine administration and appearance of adverse clinical signs ranged from 1 to 20 days (Mean = 10.3, SD ± 3.9). Clinical signs were similar to those observed with natural cases of lumpy skin disease. These were mainly fever, decreased feed intake, decreased milk production and variable sized cutaneous nodules (a few millimetres to around 2 cm in diameter) that could be seen anywhere on the body (head, neck, trunk, perineum), udder, and/or teats. Nodules were raised and firm initially and then formed dry scabs that could be peeled off the skin. The characteristic deep 'sit fast' appearance was rarely seen and most lesions were superficial. Some cattle had swollen lymph nodes, while a few pregnant animals aborted. The percentage of affected cattle ranged from 0.3 to 25% (Mean = 8, SD ± 5.1). Fever, decreased feed intake, and decreased milk production were seen in 83.9, 85.7, and 94.6% in cattle on the affected farms, respectively. All affected cattle displayed skin nodules over their entire bodies, while 33.9 and 7.1% of the affected farms reported nodular lesions present on the udders and teats, respectively. No mortalities were reported due to vaccine adverse reactions. Duration (course) of clinical signs ranged from 3 to 20 days (Mean = 13.7, SD ± 4.1). Two types of LSD vaccines were used by the farmers in this study. The first one was a sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccine derived from the RM65 isolate [Jovivac, manufactured by Jordan

  12. Measurements, Fingerprint, Modeling - Compiling a sediment budget in a data scarce catchment in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Wilkinson, Scott; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    In regard to the quantitative and qualitative water problems in Jordan the soil layer and its physical integrity is important to slow down runoff, guarantee infiltration, and a sensible parameter in terms of hydrologic modeling. Erosion harms this potential and needs to be better understood and quantified in the region. Therefore, a multiple response approach was implemented to compile a sediment budget for the research area Wadi Al-Arab in the NW of Jordan (263,5km2). The climate is Mediterranean to semi-arid with <300 to 550mm of rain in winter. Mainly marl and limestone of the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleocene make up the catchment's geology. The area is characterized by an agricultural basin in the east and an increase in relief energy to the west and south. Different field measurements were implemented on relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, natural vegetated slopes and exposed rock with patchy vegetation as well as the Wadi Al Arab Dam Lake as the final sink. The focus involved the quantification of the yearly sediment yields and the deposition in the lake, respectively. In a second step a multiple sediment fingerprint was applied including the geochemical differentiation of the sources with inorganic elements and radio nuclides. The relative importance of each source could be calculated on the basis of lake sediment samples. Results of these two approaches cover different spatial scales and only partly integrate the transport way. Hence, they cannot be directly compared but consider the problem from different perspectives and are used in the final step to calibrate and validate the setup of the SedNet model (Wilkinson et al. 2008) for the catchment. The model offers the possibility to incorporate additional raster information, includes additional sources such as gully and bank erosion, and takes account for different areas of deposition according to the measured and regionalized discharge in the region. Its' implementation

  13. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Key words: karst aquifers, stable isotopes, water travel time, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs are located about 75 kilometers northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan. The aquifer is composed of Upper Cretaceous limestone that exhibits a moderate to high degree of karstification. The two springs represent the main drinking water resources for the surrounding villages. The yearly water production is about 1,135,000 m3/yr for Tanour spring and 125,350 m3/yr for Rasoun spring (MWI 2015). Due to contamination from microbiological pollution (leakage of wastewater from septic tanks) or infiltration of wastewater from local olive presses, drinking water supply from the two springs is frequently interrupted. From November 2014 through March 2015, spring water samples were collected from Tanour and Rasoun spring for the analysis of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to investigate spring response to precipitation and snowmelt events. Both Tanour and Rasoun spring show a fast response to precipitation and snowmelt events, implying short water travel times. Based on the variation of δ 18O and δ 2H in spring discharge, the average maximum water travel time is in the order of 8 days for Tanour spring and 6 days for Rasoun spring. Due to fast water travel times, Tanour and Rasoun spring can be considered as highly vulnerable to pollutants. δ 18O and δ 2H values of Tanour and Rasoun springs parallel other monitored parameter like water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity and spring discharge. In addition, a high turbidity peak was monitored in Tanour spring during a pollution event from olive mills wastewater (Hamdan et al., 2016; Hamdan, in prep.). The fast response in both Tanour and Rasoun springs to precipitation events requires monitoring potential sources of pollution within the catchment area. References: MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation) (2015) Monthly Production values for Tanour and Rasoun Springs for the time period between 1996 and 2014

  14. Groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment under high climatic variability and over-pumping: Ajlun Highlands example, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Siebert, Christian; Roediger, Tino; Moller, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Jordan's ground water resources are being exploited up to 190% of the safe yield while rainfall rates are decreasing and highly variable, thereby affecting recharge volumes of the aquifers. The Ajlun highlands, forming the northwestern edge of Jordan are characterized by annual rainfall rates exceeding 500 mm, the highest in the country, which leads to accordingly high replenishment of almost the entire groundwater system in northern Jordan. The high recharge and the NW-wards dipping strata lead to a groundwater flow towards the north and northwest, areas which host the vital aquifers of the region. Limited and degraded groundwater recharge combined with growing over-pumping are the main issues that regard the northern groundwater basins, such as Wadi Arab, Yarmouk and the Jordan Valley side basins. To evaluate the groundwater potential under high recharge variability, groundwater recharge was modeled and compared to different Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Groundwater recharge was calculated based on climatic data covering the time period from 1965 to 2014. Recharge modeling was conducted by applying the J2000 water budget model. The simulation of hydrologic processes uses independent parameters that are calculated prior to simulate the recharge flow. The simulations estimate recharge of 47.6 MCM, which is 12% less than the values given by the Jordanian authorities. The low calculated recharge is likely due to an overestimation of the evapotranspiration in areas with high topographic slopes. To examine the variability of groundwater recharge under current climatic conditions, statistical downscaling of global circulation models was conducted for the time period 1965 - 2000. Data for the time period 2001 - 2014 was used for the model validation. Results indicated a decline of 18.7% in precipitation by the year 2050 with an increase of 1.7 and 2.2 degrees in maximum and minimum temperatures respectively. Accordingly recharge for the year 2050 is 27% less than

  15. Determination of selected heavy metals in air samples from the northern part of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; El-Rjoob, Abdul-Wahab O; Harb, Mohammed K

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the atmospheric concentrations of selected heavy metals including lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) were measured for two different sampling sites (urban and rural) in the northern part of Jordan (Irbid city). Samples were collected according to a certain schedule for 1 year. High volume air samplers and glass fiber filters were used to collect the samples. Collected samples were digested using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and analytical grade hydrochloric acid, and analyzed to evaluate the levels of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Zn) were measured in all samples; the concentrations of Cd and Co were not detected in Irbid atmosphere by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results were used to determine the levels of heavy metal pollutants in air, possible sources, and to compare the levels of selected heavy metals in the two studied sites. Aerosols from the rural site have lower concentrations for all the metals compared to those from the urban site. The daily and monthly variations of the elements were investigated. All heavy metals in urban and rural sites reached maximum concentrations in June, July, and August. This is consistent with the increased activities leading to particulate matter emission during the summer period. The enrichment factors with respect to earth crust and correlation coefficients of heavy metals were investigated to predict the possible sources of heavy metals in air. PMID:19083108

  16. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.

    1984-07-01

    Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques utilized in this study include a temperature survey and chemical analysis of wells and springs, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. Also, further site specific gravity modelling for the Warm Springs fault geothermal area and initial modelling for the entire valley were also conducted. Areas identified as having potential low-temperature geothermal resources at depth are: (1) the north-central valley area; (2) an east-west portion of the central valley; and (3) a north-south oriented area extending from Draper to Midvale. Each of these areas exhibits ground-water temperatures 20/sup 0/C or greater. Each area has thermal wells with common ion characteristics similar to both Crystal Hot Springs and the Warm Springs fault geothermal systems. Significant concentrations of Sr, Li, B, and F are present in many of these wells.

  17. Waterpipe a gateway to cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.; Madhivanan, P.; Veledar, E.; Khader, Y.; Mzayek, F.; Maziak, W.

    2015-01-01

    SETTING According to anecdotal evidence, waterpipe smoking may lead to the initiation of cigarette smoking among young people. This hypothesis is yet to be examined using an appropriate study design and a theoretical model for behavioral change. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of cigarette smoking initiation among waterpipe-only smokers and never smokers in a school-based sample of adolescents from Irbid, Jordan. METHODS A total of 1454 cigarette-naïve participants were drawn from a longitudinal study on smoking behavior conducted in Irbid among 1781 seventh graders who were enrolled at baseline (2008) and completed the study questionnaire on smoking behavior annually until 2011. Grouped time-survival analysis was used to compare the risk of subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking between waterpipe smokers (n = 298) and never smokers (n = 1156) using adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS Risk of initiation of cigarette smoking among waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than among never smokers after adjusting for potential confounders (aHR 1.67, 95%CI 1.46–1.92). The association between waterpipe and cigarette smoking initiation was dose-dependent. The risk of initiating cigarette smoking increased with increase in the frequency of waterpipe smoking (P for linear trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Waterpipe smoking led to the initiation of cigarette smoking among this cohort of Jordanian adolescents; the effect was dose-dependent. PMID:25860006

  18. Pain Assessment and Management in Critically ill Intubated Patients in Jordan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayasrah, Shahnaz Mohammad; O’Neill, Teresa Mary; Abdalrahim, Maysoon Saleem; Sutary, Manal Mohammed; Kharabsheh, Muna Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe: (1) pain indicators used by nurses and physicians to assess pain, (2) pain management interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) used by nurses, and (3) indicators used by nurses to verify pain intervention effectiveness. Methodology A total of 301 medical records of currently admitted patients from six different ICUs in Jordan were reviewed using a data collection instrument developed by Gélinas et al. (2004) Pain-related indicators were classified into non-observable (patient’s self-reports of pain) and observable (physiological and behavioral) categories. Results Only 105 (35%) of a total 301 reviewed medical records contained pain assessment data. From these medical records, 15 pain episodes were collected altogether. Observable indicators documented 98% of the 115 pain episodes. Patients’ self-reports of pain were documented only 1.7% of the time. In 78% and 46% of the 115 pain episodes, pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain management were documented, respectively. Only 37% of the pain episodes were reassessed with self- report (1%) and observable indicators (36%) to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion Pain documentation for assessment, management, and reassessment was lacking and needs improvement. PMID:25505864

  19. The hydrology of the Jordan tributaries (Israel): Hydrographic and isotopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Barbara; Carmi, I.

    1983-04-01

    Nahal Dan, Nahal Snir and Nahal Hermon are the three principal tributaries of the Jordan River. All three are spring-fed and appear to derive their discharges from the same regional groundwater aquifer. The behaviour of this aquifer is examined by hydrograph separation and multivariate time-series analysis of discharge and rainfall records, and by investigation of 18O and tritium records. Hydrograph separation gives base-flow recession constants of 11-20 months and in addition N. Snir and N. Hermon show an interflow recession of ˜ 1 month. The dual reservoir system for these two tributaries is confirmed by time-series analysis. 18O data distinguish the different catchments for the springs and support the idea that interflow occurs in the near-surface part of the regional groundwater reservoir. Tritium data illustrate the inhomogeneity of the karstic reservoir. Assuming well-mixed conditions, the difference in behaviour between tritium records for rainfall and the tributaries is used to estimate the age distribution of water in the reservoir. At any time 50% of the storage is less than 1 yr. old and 90% is less than 3 yr. old.

  20. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  1. Trace elements in daily collected aerosols in Al-Hashimya, central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Momani, Idrees F.; Daradkeh, A. S.; Haj-Hussein, Amin T.; Yousef, Yaser A.; Jaradat, Q. M.; Momani, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    Coarse (>2.2 μm) and fine (<2.2 μm) atmospheric particulate material samples were collected from an urban area (Al-Hashimya, Jordan), from August 2000 to August 2001 using a "GENT" stack filter unit (SFU). Collected samples were analyzed for 19 elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crustal elements exhibit atmospheric concentrations that are comparable to those in urban and industrial areas. The anthropogenic elements, on the other hand, are clearly less abundant in Al-Hashimya than in other industrial regions. Results indicated that, elements of crustal origin are associated with the coarse particles, while elements of anthropogenic origins are more associated with fine particles. Concentrations of crustal-derived elements were higher in summer and those of anthropogenic elements were higher in winter. Crustal enrichment factor calculations showed that concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, Sb and Ag are highly enriched and of As, Cu, Co, Ca and Ni are moderately enriched. Factor analysis calculations permitted the identification of four source groups for the fine fraction, namely oil combustion, crustal and urban dust, smelting industries and motor vehicles.

  2. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminthes among local chickens, in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A; Abo-Shehada, M N

    2008-06-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2004 to February 2005 and from June 2005 to August 2005. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and tracheal helminthes among local chickens in northern Jordan. A total of 208 male and female local scavenging chickens were selected randomly. We examined the trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird for the presence of helminthes. We recovered three nematode and eight cestode species. No trematodes were found. One hundred and fifty-two birds (73.1%) (95% CI: 67, 79) were infected. The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. The prevalences of A. galli and R. cesticillus were higher in male than female hosts while those of C. infundibulum and H. carioca were higher in females. The median worm burden was 7 (range 0-168) worms per chicken. PMID:18329115

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Musallam, Imadidden I.; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N.; Guitian, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11–25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4–40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results showed that 100% of the interviewed livestock keepers were aware of brucellosis: 87% indicated a high risk of infection if unpasteurized milk is consumed and 75% indicated a high risk if unpasteurized dairy products are consumed. Awareness of the risk of infection through direct contact with fetal membranes or via physical contact with infected livestock is considerably lower, 19% and 13%, respectively. These knowledge gaps manifest in a high frequency of high-risk practices such as assisting in animal parturition (62%), disposing aborted fetuses without protective gloves (71.2%) or masks (65%), and not boiling milk before preparation of dairy products (60%). When brucellosis is suspected, basic hygiene practices are often disregarded and suspect animals are freely traded. Public health education should be enhanced as the disease is likely to remain endemic in the ruminant reservoir as long as a suitable compensation program is not established and trust on available vaccines is regained. PMID:26438029

  4. Mathematics achievement based on gender among eight grade school students in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in gender base on numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among Jordanian 8th grade school students. The respondent of this study were 337 students from eight public secondary schools in Alkoura district and selected by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Finding from independent sample t-test shows that female student score higher than male students in numbers, algebra, mathematics achievement and spatial visualization. There is no significant difference in geometry base for gender. This study also indicates that numbers, algebra and mathematics achievement favorable to female and bias to male students. The main recommendations from this study are for teachers and other educational professionals to focus on the numbers and algebra for male students to improve the learning of mathematics, and feeding program through benefiting from tutorial classes to avoid of weakness in different aspects of mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics in secondary school students in Jordan continue to exist and these differences may influence future educational and occupational pathways.

  5. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  6. Men's perceptions of and participation in family planning in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, A M; Malkawi, A O; Sato, T; Hamaideh, S H; Hanouneh, S I

    2016-02-01

    Men's participation in family planning has become a cornerstone in women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning of Jordanian men in southern Jordan. In a cross-sectional descriptive study in 2012, structured interviews were made with 104 married men in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates. Although 93.5% of the men had heard about family planning-most commonly the intrauterine device (IUD) and oral contraceptives-only 45.1% reported that they and their wife currently used it. Most men agreed about a minimum 2 years' child spacing (93.3%) and starting contraception after childbirth (71.2%) and that husband and wife should share decisions about family planning (90.2%) and the number of children (89.5%). Level of education significantly affected current use of contraception, while number of children significantly affected previous use of contraception. Although married men had positive attitudes and good knowledge about family planning, this did not translate into practice of contraceptive use. PMID:27180740

  7. Absorption and Mobility of Cr and Zn in Soil in the Vicinity of Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, M.; Ghrair, A. M.; Jaradat, D. M. M.; Aquilanti, G.; Jaber, R.; Aldrabee, A.; Sawai, N.

    2016-05-01

    Sediments from the basin of Jordan River are to some extent significantly contaminated by heavy metals. The goal of this study was to examine the nature of the heavy metals, their mobility, and their binding in the soil matrix in order to understand the accumulation mechanism. Exhaustive mineralogical and geochemical study on the heavy metals in the vicinity of the river will allow knowing the dominant forms of emitted metals. The structural local order around Cr and Zn in soil samples were investigated by analyzing XAFS data. Our investigations show that the coordination sphere, around both Cr and Zn, is constituted of oxygen atoms at an interatomic distance of ∼2 Å which is close to those in clay minerals. It is also shown that Cr(III) is the most dominating redox state in soil samples. Moreover, the next backscattering neighbors around Zn and Cr are either carbon or sulfur atoms which reveal a multiple and heterogeneous speciation of Cr and Zn with organic matter.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Imadidden I; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Guitian, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4-40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results showed that 100% of the interviewed livestock keepers were aware of brucellosis: 87% indicated a high risk of infection if unpasteurized milk is consumed and 75% indicated a high risk if unpasteurized dairy products are consumed. Awareness of the risk of infection through direct contact with fetal membranes or via physical contact with infected livestock is considerably lower, 19% and 13%, respectively. These knowledge gaps manifest in a high frequency of high-risk practices such as assisting in animal parturition (62%), disposing aborted fetuses without protective gloves (71.2%) or masks (65%), and not boiling milk before preparation of dairy products (60%). When brucellosis is suspected, basic hygiene practices are often disregarded and suspect animals are freely traded. Public health education should be enhanced as the disease is likely to remain endemic in the ruminant reservoir as long as a suitable compensation program is not established and trust on available vaccines is regained. PMID:26438029

  9. Byzantine maritime trade in southern Jordan: The evidence from Port of Aila ('Aqaba).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nasarat, Mohammed

    Eusebius of Caesarea, in (Onomasticon) said that: "Ailath (Aila) is situated at the extremity of Palestine between the southern desert and the Red Sea where cargo was transported by ship from both Egypt and India". There is no doubt that port of Aila- 'Aqaba was important for the sea trade during the Byzantine Period and ancient times. Aila acquired significance in the Byzantine Empire commerce and seafaring according to the information derived from the Byzantine historians, documents and pilgrim's archaeological excavations. This paper focuses on Byzantine Maritime Trade in port of Aila during the period between the fourth and seventh centuries A.D, its importance in the flourishing of trade of southern Jordan, and its relations with other major trade centers such as Gaza, Alexandria and Ethiopia. It appears that port of Aila played a major role in the economy of Byzantine Empire and international trade as attested in the accounts of historians, pilgrims who visited the area during this period, and archaeological excavations which revealed that Aila was at least a transit point and perhaps even a production site for fish sauce or related products in the Byzantine period.

  10. The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  11. Prevalence of Toxocara ova in some schools and public grounds in northern and central Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, M N

    1989-02-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six soil samples were collected from school playgrounds and public places in four cities and 17 villages in northern and central Jordan. Toxacara eggs were found in 35 (15.45%) of the samples. Viable eggs were found in 18 samples, with viability ranging from 20 to 78%, and among these 18 samples the mean number of viable eggs per 5 g soil was 5.5 +/- 4.58 S.D. (range one to 15 eggs). Nine of 94 samples collected from public places and five of 86 samples collected from schools contained Toxocara eggs. Viable eggs were found in higher proportions of soils collected from villages around Jerash (three of 21) and Irbid (five of 44), and from Yarmouk University campus (four of 37), than of soils collected from cities (six of 124), but the differences are not significant (P less than 0.05). Eggs of Taenia spp., Hymenolepis diminuta and Ascaris lumbricoides were also recovered, in 34, 15 and nine samples respectively of the 226 examined. PMID:2596905

  12. Perceived Sources of Stress Among First-Year Nursing Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shudifat, Ra'ed M; Al-Husban, Raya Yousef

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the most prevalent sources of stress among first-year nursing students at a military college in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a convenience sample of 138 students (females between ages 18 and 22). The Student Stress Survey was used to identify stressors and assess their relative importance. The instrument consists of 40 items divided into four categories of potential sources of stress: (a) intrapersonal, (b) interpersonal, (c) academic, and (d) environmental. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The top five sources of stress reported were: increased class workload (89%), change in living environment (83%), change in social activities (78%), change in eating habits (77.5 %), and change in sleeping habits (76%), with academic sources of stress being the most frequently reported. The results provide valuable information for educators and administrators in nursing colleges to identify types of stress among first-year nursing students and establish strategies to reduce stress among such students, particularly from academic and environmental sources. PMID:26091549

  13. An artistic and mythological study of a Nabatean female Sphinx from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Eyad R.; Al-Ajlouny, Fardous K.; Alghazawi, Raed Y.

    In 1967 the Group of Sculptures was discovered in Petra during clearance works organized by the Department of Antiquities in Jordan in the Temenos of Qasr el Bint around the Temenos Gate. One of these sculptures was a high relief statue of a female sphinx. Due to the paucity of information about this statue, this paper has been written to answer a number of questions: What was its original site or monument? When was it made? Who was the deity or deities it represented? Could there be another interpretation of its existence? The answers to the above provide enlightenment of Nabataean styles of carvings and an insight into their religious thoughts. Rgarding the interpretation of the Female Sphinx. Three ideas have been suggested. First, it can be the main Nabataean goddess Allat, "the mother of the gods". Second, it is an image of Petra as a goddess. Third, it is carved on the Temenos Gate as a guardian of Petra city in general and its holy monuments like temples and tombs in particular.

  14. Extreme value indicators in highly resolved climate change simulations for the Jordan River area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, R.; Smiatek, G.; Krichak, S.; Kunstmann, H.; Alpert, P.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding changing trends and frequency of extreme rainfall and temperature events is extremely important for optimal planning in many sectors, including agriculture, water resource management, health, and even economics. For people living in the Jordan River region of the Middle East such changes can have immediate devastating impacts as water resources are already scarce and overexploited and summer temperatures in the desert regions can reach 45°C or higher. Understanding shifts in frequency and intensity of extreme events can provide crucial information for planning and adaptation. In this paper we present results from regional climate model simulations with RegCM3 and MM5 centered on the eastern Mediterranean region. Our analysis focuses on changes in extreme temperature and rainfall events. We show that maximum daily summer temperature is expected to increase by between 2.5°C and 3°C, with an increase in warm spell length. Precipitation extremes are expected to increase with longer dry spells, shorter wet spells, and increases in heavy rainfall. Model agreement for the control period 1961-1990 is higher in the southern region than in the north, perhaps because of the complex topography, suggesting that even small differences in spatial scale play an important role. In addition, we notice that the chosen global model plays an important role in determining future temperature trends, while the choice of regional climate model is critical for understanding how precipitation is expected to evolve.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens in Northern area of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Al-Tayyar, Ibrahim Ali; Hussein, Emad; Jabali, Alla Al; Khudairat, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The global spread of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes one of the most serious contemporary challenges to the treatment of hospital-acquired infections. We aimed to screen and assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens in local hospitals of Northern province in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified using standard methods from various clinical specimens of different infected body sites from 358 patients during the period from January 2008 to November 2012. Results: Our analysis showed that 31.6% of S. aureus infections were MRSA, while 31% were multidrug resistance (MDR) and 42.7% were Oxacillin-resistant (ORSA). Most of these strains were isolated from wound specimens. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (100%). They were also susceptible to chloramphenicol, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, rifampicin and teicoplanin (>80%), but showed resistance to erythromycin and penicillin. Conclusion: Vancomycin was the most effective antimicrobial agent against S. aureus. We recommend regular surveillance of hospital associated infections and monitoring antibiotic sensitivity pattern and strict drug policy for antibiotics used within and outside the hospital environments. PMID:26719783

  16. Higgs gravitational interaction, weak boson scattering, and Higgs inflation in Jordan and Einstein frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: xianyuzhongzhi@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ξH{sup †}HR, with H  the Higgs doublet and R  the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ξ  on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ξ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ξ-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at O(1−30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.

  17. Stigma and mental health treatment of adolescents with depression in jordan.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Brewer, Kathryne B; Batayneh, Jude S; Schwalbe, Craig S J

    2015-01-01

    Stigma is a fundamental barrier to seeking and engaging in mental health treatment for individuals managing depression. This study examines stigma perceptions of mental health treatment for Arab adolescents managing depression using a vignette survey completed by adults in public spaces in Amman, Jordan (n = 108). The vignette was systematically changed across four different conditions that varied the described youth's gender and whether or not they were receiving treatment for their depression. Two-way ANOVAs found that gender and receipt of mental health treatment influenced perceptions of stigma. Seeking treatment, however, did not increase perceived stigma, and receiving mental health treatment rather than no treatment was found as more likely to be a helpful approach for both males and females. Findings indicate that personal level stigma may have greater effects on females whereas public stigma may exert more influence on males. Participants endorsed that adolescents with depression are most likely to be helped when a family sought treatment rather than not seeking treatment. Findings also indicate that the community seems to appreciate the need for treatment and the likelihood of benefiting from formal mental health services. PMID:25027014

  18. Heavy metals in vegetables sold in the local market in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al Jamali, Abbas F; Makhadmeh, Ibrahim M; Taha, Mohammad; Jarrar, Sukiena K

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in various vegetables (cabbage, green onion, lettuce, parsley, rocket, spinach, carrot, onion, potato and cauliflower) from the market in Jordan were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn ranged from 0.009-0.275 mg kg(-1) wet weight, 0.004-0.060 mg kg(-1), 0.003-0.401 mg kg(-1), 0.105-3.51 mg kg(-1), 0.15-1.15 mg kg(-1), 0.93-14.39 mg kg(-1), 0.044-0.702 mg kg(-1), 0.072-0.289 mg kg(-1) and 2.23-6.65 mg kg(-1), respectively. Parsley, followed by spinach, contained the highest concentration of heavy metals. Onion contained high levels of toxic heavy metals. The content of Cu in parsley and spinach and Pb in onion exceeded the Codex limits. However, the daily intake of heavy metals from the tested vegetables was lower than the maximum limits for allowable intake. PMID:27117608

  19. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  20. Beliefs about parental authority legitimacy among refugee youth in Jordan: Between- and within-person variations.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The normative profile (67% of the sample, n = 585) most strongly endorsed parental authority legitimacy for prudential (risky) items, followed by moral, conventional, and then friendship items, with legitimacy lowest for personal items. The low-normative profile (10%, n = 85) followed a similar pattern, although legitimacy ratings were significantly lower than normative youth for most items, but not the personal ones. Rebellious youth (11%, n = 96) held deviant peer values; they endorsed less legitimacy, particularly for prudential and friendship items, than did youth in other profiles. Mixed youth (12%, n = 101) were similar to rebellious youth in some judgments and ryouth in others. Profile membership did not differ by adolescents' age or parental socioeconomic status but did differ by gender and national background. Youth fitting the normative (and to some extent, the low-normative) profile rated parents higher in support, behavioral control, and knowledge of adolescents' activities and lower in psychological control-disrespect and harsh punishment than did rebellious or mixed youth. Normative (and also, but less consistently, low-normative) youth reported better psychosocial adjustment across multiple measures than did rebellious and mixed youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689756

  1. Issues of water supply and contemporary urban society: the case of Greater Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Potter, Robert B; Darmame, Khadija; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-11-28

    Over the last two decades, Jordan has suffered a chronic water crisis, and is the tenth most water-scarce nation on Earth. Such water stress has been well illustrated in the case of Greater Amman, the capital, which has grown dramatically from a population of around 2000 in the 1920s, to 2.17 million today. One of the distinctive characteristics of the water supply regime of Greater Amman is that since 1987 it has been based on a system of rationing, with households receiving water once a week for various durations. Amman is highly polarized socio-economically, and by means of household surveys, both quantitative and qualitative, conducted in high- and low-income divisions of the city, a detailed empirical evaluation of the storage and use of water, the strategies used by households to manage water and overall satisfaction with water supply issues is provided in this paper, looking specifically at issues of social equity. The analysis demonstrates the social and economic costs of water rationing and consequent management to be high, as well as emphasizing that issues of water quality are of central importance to all consumers regardless of their socio-economic status within the city. PMID:20956372

  2. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  3. The psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan: a national study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Matrouk, Reema; Al Nawaiseh, Maram

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan, distinguishing between the impact on working school children, nonworking school children and working and nonschooled children. More than 351 million children across the world work. Emotional, behavioral and psychiatric problems in working children are a considerable public health problem in developing countries. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used in this study. All data were collected in 2010. A total of 4008 children aged six to 16 years were interviewed. Of these, 2093 (52.2%) were nonworking school children, 896 (22.4%) working school children, and 1019 (25.4%) working and nonschooled children. Working school children reported psychosocial problems more often than working and nonschooled children. Child labour has a negative impact on children's psychosocial health and development. These findings indicate that psychoeducational support and problem-solving programs help children to cope better with the consequences of their work and study. More effort is needed to reduce children's involvement in labour. Understanding the impact of work on child mental and social health is essential to inform policy and future research as well as to improve the lives of children. PMID:23586366

  4. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-06-22

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  5. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, Malik Sy; Gammoh, Sana I; Robinson, Richard K

    2008-02-01

    The principal chemical components of milk from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) were monitored in Jordan over one year. The analyses included total solids, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and organic acids. Large seasonal variations in total solids and fat were apparent, with maxima in mid-winter of 139 and 39.0 g/l, respectively, and minima in August of 102 and 25.0 g/l. These differences may be sufficient to alter the sensory properties of the milk, and the fat: casein ratio may need standardisation for cheesemaking. The mean values of trace elements like zinc (5.8 mg/l), iron (4.4 mg/l) and manganese (0.05 mg/l) in Jordanian camel milk could provide valuable additions to the diet of urban populations, as could the mean concentration of vitamin C (33 mg/l). The levels of organic acids were generally higher than in bovine milk and, as with all the constituents of the milk, there were discernible patterns linking concentration and season of the year. PMID:17971263

  6. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters. PMID:19297533

  7. Adherence in outpatients taking warfarin and its effect on anticoagulation control in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Mera A; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M

    2016-08-01

    Background Medication adherence is an important element for the success of any therapeutic plan. The picture is more complicated with warfarin, due to its small therapeutic window and patients' needs to have effective anticoagulation control. Objective To measure warfarin-adherence, warfarin-knowledge and to assess the relationship between adherence and anticoagulation control. Setting Adult outpatients (≥18 years) taking warfarin at two medical sites in north of Jordan were invited to participate. Method This was a cross sectional study in which survey questionnaire that included demographic, clinical, warfarin related questions and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to patients in Arabic language. International normalization ratio (INR) readings were retrieved from patients' medical records. Main outcome measure MMAS-8 adherence scores and time within therapeutic range were calculated. Results More than half of study participants (54 %) were adherent (MMAS-8 = 8). The MMAS-8 adherence scores were significantly associated with warfarin-knowledge scores (Spearman's ρ = 0.291, p = 0.000). Adherent patients were more likely to have good anticoagulation control compared to non-adherent patients (MMAS-8 ≤ 7). Conclusion Adherence to warfarin therapy can have a substantial effect on anticoagulation control. Thus, healthcare practitioners should consider strategies to improve patient adherence to warfarin. PMID:27015937

  8. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M.; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-01-01

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term “honey” commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Reov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th–early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Reov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  9. Metals distribution in soils around the cement factory in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2006-04-01

    Thirty one soil samples were collected from south Jordan around the cement factory in Qadissiya area. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometery for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu and Cr. Physicochemical factors believed to affect their mobility of metals in soil of the study area were examined such as; pH, TOM, CaCO3, CEC and conductivity. The relatively high concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium in the soil samples of the investigated area were related to anthropogenic sources such as cement industry, agriculture activities and traffic emissions. It was found that the lead, zinc and cadmium have the highest level in area close to the cement factory, while the concentration of chromium was low. This study indicate that all of the metals are concentrated on the surface soil, and decreased in the lower part of the soil, this due to reflects their mobility and physical properties of soil and its alkaline pH values. The use of factor analysis showed that anthropogenic activities seem to be the responsible source of pollution for metals in urban soils. PMID:16361028

  10. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases: single center experience in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Amayiri, Nisreen; Al-Zaben, Abdulhadi; Ghatasheh, Lubna; Frangoul, Haydar; Hussein, Ayad Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    HSCT can be curative for many PID. Little is known about the outcome of HSCT for patients with PID in the developing countries. We retrospectively reviewed all children with PID who received HSCT at KHCC in Jordan between August 2003 and October 2011. Twenty-eight patients were identified. The median age was 16 months (3 months-17 yr). Patients' diagnoses were SCID (n = 16), CHS (n = 3), HLH (n = 3), WAS (n = 2), Griscelli syndrome (n = 1), ALPS (n = 1), Omenn's syndrome (n = 1), and DiGeorge syndrome (n = 1). Seventeen patients received HLA-matched related HSCT, eight received maternal un-manipulated haploidentical HSCT, and three received unrelated cord blood transplantation. Nine patients (32%) developed BCGosis secondary to reactivation of pretransplant vaccination. Three died while still receiving anti-tuberculosis drugs, one still on treatment, and all others have recovered. Six patients had graft failure; four of them received no conditioning regimens. At a median follow up of 32 months (range 1-67), 21 patients are alive, with overall survival of 72%. We conclude that HSCT for PID patients can be performed with a good outcome in developing countries; however, delayed diagnosis or referral and BCG reactivation are unique challenges. PMID:23692601

  11. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  12. Risk factors for neonatal intensive care unit admission in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C E; Sivasubramaniam, P; Blevins, M; Al Hajajra, A; Znait, A Taleb; Khuri-Bulos, N; Faouri, S; Halasa, N

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission can inform interventions to improve neonatal survival. This study aimed to describe a population of newborns admitted to a NICU in Amman, Jordan, and compare them with newborns discharged to home. Newborns born within 96 hours at Al-Bashir Hospital were enrolled from February 2010 to June 2011. Demographic and clinical data were collected for mothers and newborns. Of 5466 enrolled neonates, 373 (6.8%) were admitted to the NICU. The median gestational age of NICU infants was 36 weeks, median birth weight was 2.2 kg and 49.5% were delivered by non-elective caesarean section. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight, delivery by caesarean section and birth in the month of May were statistically significant risk factors for NICU admission. Risk factors for NICU admission were consistent with other populations worldwide; however, median gestational age and birth weight were higher than in developed countries. PMID:27334073

  13. An isotopic perspective on the transport of Byzantine mining camp laborers into southwestern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Perry, Megan A; Coleman, Drew S; Dettman, David L; al-Shiyab, Abdel Halim

    2009-11-01

    The Byzantine Empire managed a complex administrative network that controlled the mining and processing of natural resources from within its boundaries. Scholars relying upon archeological and textual evidence debate the level of imperial involvement in these ventures, particularly in the provinces. Ancient sources note that many mining camps, for instance, purportedly contained criminal laborers and elite administrators transported from distant locales, indicating significant organization and expenditures by the imperial administration to run the mines. This analysis explores the presence of these nonlocal individuals in a cemetery associated with the third to seventh century A.D. mining camp of Phaeno (Faynan), located in modern Jordan. Strontium isotope analysis of 31 burials indicates that most spent their childhood in a similar geological region as Phaeno, implying that they were locally born. The delta(18)O results mirror the homogeneous (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, confirming a local origin for most of the sample. Isotopic evidence therefore suggests that the Phaeno mining camp was largely a local operation, contrary to the picture presented in textual sources, although the profits surely padded imperial coffers. PMID:19425090

  14. The Psychosocial Experience of Adolescents with Haematological Malignancies in Jordan: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  15. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Maričević, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-05-17

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and "domestic" settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with "special purpose" buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities. PMID:21536900

  16. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  17. Higgs gravitational interaction, weak boson scattering, and Higgs inflation in Jordan and Einstein frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian

    2014-06-01

    We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ξH†HScript R, with H the Higgs doublet and Script R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ξ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ξ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ξ-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at Script O(1-30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.

  18. Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone: U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolodner, K.; Avigad, D.; McWilliams, M.; Wooden, J.L.; Weissbrod, T.; Feinstein, S.

    2006-01-01

    A vast sequence of quartz-rich sandstone was deposited over North Africa and Arabia during Early Palaeozoic times, in the aftermath of Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny and the amalgamation of Gondwana. This rock sequence forms a relatively thin sheet (1-3 km thick) that was transported over a very gentle slope and deposited over a huge area. The sense of transport indicates unroofing of Gondwana terranes but the exact provenance of the siliciclastic deposit remains unclear. Detrital zircons from Cambrian arkoses that immediately overlie the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield in Israel and Jordan yielded Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages (900-530 Ma), suggesting derivation from a proximal source such as the Arabian-Nubian Shield. A minor fraction of earliest Neoproterozoic and older age zircons was also detected. Upward in the section, the proportion of old zircons increases and reaches a maximum (40%) in the Ordovician strata of Jordan. The major earliest Neoproterozoic and older age groups detected are 0.95-1.1, 1.8-1.9 and 2.65-2.7 Ga, among which the 0.95-1.1 Ga group is ubiquitous and makes up as much as 27% in the Ordovician of Jordan, indicating it is a prominent component of the detrital zircon age spectra of northeast Gondwana. The pattern of zircon ages obtained in the present work reflects progressive blanketing of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield by Cambrian-Ordovician sediments and an increasing contribution from a more distal source, possibly south of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The significant changes in the zircon age signal reflect many hundreds of kilometres of southward migration of the provenance. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  19. Teaching Science in Engineering Freshman Class in Private University in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarey, M. M.; Malkawi, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    A United Nations initiative for the Arab region that established and calculated National Intellectual Capital Index has shown that Jordan is the wealthiest Arab country in its National Human Capital Index (i.e. metrics: literacy rate, number of tertiary schools per capita, percentage of primary teachers with required qualifications, number of tertiary students per capita, cumulative tertiary graduates per capita, percentage of male grade 1 net intake, percentage of female grade 1 net intake) and National Market Capital Index (i.e. metrics: high-technology exports as a percentage of GDP, number of patents granted by USPTO per capita, number of meetings hosted per capita) despite its low ranking when it comes to National Financial Capital (i.e. metric: GDP per capita). The societal fabric in Jordan fully justifies this: the attention paid to education is extreme and sometimes is considered fanatic (e.g. marriage of a lot of couples needs to wait until both graduate from the university). Also, the low financial capital has forced a lot of people to become resourceful in order to provide decent living standard to their beloved ones. This reality is partially manifested in the sharp increase in the number of universities (i.e. 10 public and 20 private ones) relative to a population of around 6.5 million. Once in an engineering freshman classroom, it is totally up to the lecturers teaching science in private Jordanian universities to excel in their performance and find a way to inject the needed scientific concepts into the students' brains. For that, clips from movies that are relevant to the topics and truthful in their scientific essence have been tested (e.g. to explain the pressure on humans due to rapidly increasing "g" force, a clip from the movie "Armageddon" proved very helpful to Physics 101 students, and entertaining at the same time), plastic toys have also been tested to illustrate simple physical concepts to the same students (e.g. a set called The Junior

  20. Assessing the potential boron toxicity of soils irrigated with reclaimed water in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is a potentially plant toxic ion and is present in domestic treated wastewater (reclaimed water) in Jordan in concentrations of around 1 mg L-1. As reclaimed water is used for irrigation in Jordan the concentration of B gives potential for detrimental effects on crop productivity. Such effects are dependent on the crop type and importantly, the concentration of B in the soil solution and on the readily exchanged component of the soil solid phase. Boron also behaves complexly in soil because it has sorbing tendencies. The sorption of B onto the soil solid phase removes it from solution and effectively reduces its toxicity potential to crops. However, desorption raises its availability in the soil solution and increases the potential for toxicity effects. To investigate B sorption behaviour in Jordanian soils, experimental work was conducted to describe how B sorption and desorption is affected by the concentration of B in the soil solution. Boron isotherms (to show the amount of B sorbed onto the soil surface relative to the amount of B remaining in the soil solution at constant pressure and temperature) were created which showed that the soil had a high affinity to adsorb B and that desorption of B occurs as the concentration of the soil solution is reduced (for example, through the addition of freshwater) to create a new equilibrium between the concentration of B in the soil solution and the amount of B sorbed onto the soil particles. This suggests that freshwater inputs to soil to which B has previously sorbed onto the soil solid phase during irrigation with reclaimed water will lead to the desorption of B, possibly raising the concentration in the soil solution. To test this hypothesis, the B concentration in the soil solution (B in the soil saturation paste extract) of soils irrigated with reclaimed water was determined. This work confirmed that soils to which a greater volume of reclaimed irrigation water had been applied had a higher concentration

  1. Effect of snow accumulation and melt on the stream flow in the Jordan River, East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Alon; Hartmann, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Snow melt on high mountains, at low latitudes (<40 degrees N), can be an important component of the surface water flow during the winter and spring seasons. As opposed to snow cover at high latitudes which are persistent due to below zero temperatures, snow cover in warmer climates is rapidly changing, potentially resulting in several complete melting cycles during one winter season. In the Mt. Hermon region (Israel-Lebanon-Syria border, East Mediterranean, ~33.5 degrees N) previous studies have concluded that snow storage accounts for ~10% of the Jordan River annual yields. Here we apply a modified version of HYdrological Model for Karst Environment (HYMKE) to estimate the effect of snow accumulation and snow melt on the timing of stream flow in the Jordan River. It is a system approach, physically based karst hydrology model, which receives daily precipitation and potential evaporation time series as input. The modeled fast flow stream component is correlated with the physical area of the catchment, while the area of the groundwater aquifer is a parameter which is calibrated against the separated measured baseflow. We have added a snowmelt routine before the main equations in HYMKE creating the following model structure: the snow routine (1), surface layer water balance (2), surface ("fast") flow (3), vadose zone flow (4), and groundwater ("base flow", 5). The new snowmelt routine uses the measured precipitation and temperature data, and analyzes it separately to produce snow and snowmelt at 56 discrete stripes of 50 m' height each, ranging in elevation from 75 m' to 2825 m'. It uses a standard HBV (Hydrological Bureau Waterbalance-section) approach based on a degree-day temperature-index. With current available temperature data the actual temperature gradient was calibrated, and the daily temperature at each elevation stripe was evaluated. However, due to the lack of measured snowmelt, several parameters of the model could not be calibrated, and were adopted

  2. Burden of respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized infants and young children in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    KHURI-BULOS, NAJWA; WILLIAMS, JOHN V.; SHEHABI, ASEM A.; FAOURI, SAMIR; JUNDI, EHSAN AL; ABUSHARIAH, OMAR; CHEN, QINGXIA; ALI, S. ASAD; VERMUND, STEN; HALASA, NATASHA B.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) play a major role in hospitalizations in the Middle East, but the specific viral causes are unknown. We conducted prospective viral surveillance in children <5 y of age admitted with ARI and/or fever at 2 dissimilar hospitals in Amman, Jordan during peak respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season. We collected prospective clinical and demographic data and obtained nose/throat swabs for testing for RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We obtained clinical and laboratory data for 728/743 (98%) subjects enrolled. The children’s median age was 4.3 months, 58.4% were males, 87% were breastfed, 4% attended day care, 67% were exposed to smokers, 7% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 0.7% died (n = 5). Out of 728 subjects, 467 (64%) tested positive by RT-PCR for RSV. Comparing RSV-positive with RSV-negative subjects, the RSV-positive subjects had lower median age (3.6 vs 6.4 months, p < 0.001) and fewer males (55% vs 64%, p = 0.02). RSV-positive children had higher rates of oxygen use (72% vs 42%, p < 0.001), a longer hospital stay (5 vs 4 days, p = 0.001), and higher hospital charges (US$538 vs US$431, p < 0.001) than RSV-negative children. In young hospitalized Jordanian infants, the medical and financial burden of RSV was found to be high. Effective preventive measures, such as an RSV vaccine, would have a significant beneficial impact. PMID:20100116

  3. Burden of respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized infants and young children in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Williams, John V; Shehabi, Asem A; Faouri, Samir; Al Jundi, Ehsan; Abushariah, Omar; Chen, Qingxia; Ali, S Asad; Vermund, Sten; Halasa, Natasha B

    2010-05-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) play a major role in hospitalizations in the Middle East, but the specific viral causes are unknown. We conducted prospective viral surveillance in children <5 y of age admitted with ARI and/or fever at 2 dissimilar hospitals in Amman, Jordan during peak respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season. We collected prospective clinical and demographic data and obtained nose/throat swabs for testing for RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We obtained clinical and laboratory data for 728/743 (98%) subjects enrolled. The children's median age was 4.3 months, 58.4% were males, 87% were breastfed, 4% attended day care, 67% were exposed to smokers, 7% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 0.7% died (n = 5). Out of 728 subjects, 467 (64%) tested positive by RT-PCR for RSV. Comparing RSV-positive with RSV-negative subjects, the RSV-positive subjects had lower median age (3.6 vs 6.4 months, p < 0.001) and fewer males (55% vs 64%, p = 0.02). RSV-positive children had higher rates of oxygen use (72% vs 42%, p < 0.001), a longer hospital stay (5 vs 4 days, p = 0.001), and higher hospital charges (US$538 vs US$431, p < 0.001) than RSV-negative children. In young hospitalized Jordanian infants, the medical and financial burden of RSV was found to be high. Effective preventive measures, such as an RSV vaccine, would have a significant beneficial impact. PMID:20100116

  4. Trend analysis in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, north of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Temporal status and trends in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, Jordan, from 2006 to 2012 indicate that the dam is subject to a combination of impacts from rainstorm and agricultural runoffs. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall events, evaporation, and water-level fluctuation are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Al-Wehda Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO₃, and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of carbonate weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed a cyclic pattern with highest values observed in the spring seasons. Total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca, Mg, and HCO₃ are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the rainy winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH₄-N contents showed decreased values in winter. Peaks in NO₃-N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Fluctuations in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP). Seasonal variations in organic matter content were also apparent, with peaks that generally occurred in spring through early fall corresponding with high algal growth. On an annual basis, the vast majority of water quality data have generally declined, particularly, in 2011. However, it is not clear whether these decreases are related to change in management practices within the Yarmouk basin, or protective measures have been implemented. Comparison of in-lake and post-dam water quality from 2009 to 2011 showed variation in concentrations, where Ca, HCO₃, NO₃-N, Mg, and TDS showed relatively greater post-dam values than in-lake water, whereas pH, Na, Cl, K, COD, BOD₅, and chlorophyll-a were consistently lower in post-dam water. This comparison emphasizes the importance of self-purification capacity of Al-Wehda Dam in reducing some contaminants. PMID

  5. Determinants of waterpipe smoking initiation among school children in Irbid, Jordan: a 4-year longitudinal analysis*

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Karma; Attonito, Jennifer; Madhivanan, Purnima; Jaber, Rana; Yi, Qilong; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective Guided by the Attitude-Social influence-self Efficacy (ASE) theory, this study identified predictors of waterpipe (WP) smoking initiation in a WP naïve cohort of Jordanian schoolchildren. Methods A school-based cohort of all 7th grade students (N=1,781) in 19 of 60 schools in Irbid, Jordan, was followed from 2008 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to examine predictors of WP initiation among WP-naïve students (N=1,243). Results During the 3-year study, WP initiation was documented in 39% of boys and 28% of girls. Prior cigarette smoking (boys: Odds Ratio 7.41; 95% Confidence Interval 4.05–12.92 and girls: 8.48; 4.34–16.56) and low WP refusal self-efficacy (boys: 26.67; 13.80–51.53 and girls: 11.49; 6.42–20.55) were strongly predictive of initiating WP. Boys were also more likely to initiate WP smoking if they had siblings (2.30; 1.14- 4.64) or teachers (2.07; 1.12–3.84) who smoked and girls if they had friends (2.96; 1.59–5.54) who smoked. Conclusion There is a sizeable incidence of WP initiation among students of both sexes. These findings will help in designing culturally responsive prevention interventions against WP smoking. Gender-specific factors, refusal skills, and cigarette smoking need to be important components of such initiatives. PMID:25060962

  6. Ophthalmology residency training in Jordan: an evaluation of quality and comparison with international standards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salem, Khalil M.; Al-Sarayra, Fawwaz A.; Abu Al-Dabaat, Mohammad; Shihadeh, Wisam; Al-Salem, Mohammad M.; Al-Salem, Mahmoud K.; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate Jordanian ophthalmology residency programs in achieving competencies outlined by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and residents' satisfaction with available training programs in Jordan, and to highlight weakness points that may be improved and strengthened. METHODS A closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to all ophthalmologists who completed their training in Jordanian institutions between 2006 and 2011, to measure the quality of residency training and satisfaction level with regards to clinical conferences, journal clubs, scientific lectures, wet lab sessions, simulations, outpatient clinics and operating room training. Barriers to a successful board exam were cited. All ophthalmologists had official residency training in Jordanian Hospitals; this includes military, university, governmental and private sector hospitals. RESULTS Sixty-one questionnaires completed out of 69 circulated. Males (75.4%) were more than females. Mean age was 32.5±3.27y. A total 21 (34.4%) responders expressed an overall satisfaction, 38 (62.3%) were dissatisfied and 2 (3.3%) were equivocal. Respondents reported insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation 57 (93.4%), or refraction and glasses prescription 34 (55.7%). Regarding operative experiences, the mean cataract extraction per-resident was 43 cataracts; the number of phacoemulsification surgery was 2.96 per-resident, 46 (75.4%) of responders never did a single phacoemulsification during residency. Nine (14.8%) had training in refractive surgery, and 15 (24.6%) assisted orbital surgery. Forty-four (72.1%) never assisted in vitreoretinal surgery. Among The graduates surveyed, 14 (23.0%) passed Jordanian licensing board exam at the first attempt, and felt that their residency programs adequately prepared them for the examinations. CONCLUSION Around two thirds (62.3%) of ophthalmologists expressed dissatisfaction with residency training at Jordanian programs, further study is required to assess

  7. A mixed methods study of participant reaction to domestic violence research in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Shahrouri, Manal; Halasa, Louma; Khalaf, Inaam; Spencer, Rachael; Everson-Rose, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Research on domestic violence against women has increased considerably over the past few decades. Most participants in such studies find the exercise worthwhile and of greater benefit than emotional cost; however, systematic examination of participant reaction to research on violence is considerably lacking, especially in the Middle East region. This study begins to fill this gap by examining women's reactions to domestic violence research in Jordan and whether a personal history of violence is associated with unfavorable experiences. This sequential exploratory mixed methods study included 17 focus group discussions (FGD) with women in Amman followed by a survey conducted in reproductive health clinics throughout the country (pilot n = 30; survey n = 517). Open coding was used to identify the theme related to participant reaction in the FGD data. This construct was further examined by the subsequent survey that included dichotomous questions inquiring whether the respondent thought the study questions were important and whether they were angry or felt resentment as a result of the survey. One open-ended question on the survey provided additional qualitative data on the theme that was combined with the FGD data. Themes identified in the qualitative data pertained to expressions of gratitude and comments on the survey's value. Findings of this study indicate that Jordanian women's responses to the research process are similar to women currently represented by the extant literature in that a vast majority of its participants felt that the study was important (95%) and it did not evoke anger or resentment (96%). Many even found the study to be useful to them personally or to society. Among those who had a negative emotional reaction, most still found the research to be important. This study's findings highlight the safety and potential benefits of ethically conducted violence research. PMID:22203623

  8. Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in surface sediments of Ziqlab Reservoir, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Batayneh, Awni T; El-Radaideh, Nazem; Ghrefat, Habes; Zumlot, Taisser; Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M; Al-Momani, Talal; Taani, Aymen

    2015-02-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from Ziqlab dam in northwestern Jordan to investigate the spatial distribution of selected trace metals and assess their pollution levels. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn exceeded the environmental background values. Cd, Ni, and Cr contents were higher than the threshold effect level (TEL) in 63, 83, and 60 % of the reservoir sediments, respectively; whereas Pb, Zn, and Cu were less than the TEL limit. The concentrations of trace metals in reservoir sediment varied spatially, but their variations showed similar trends. Elevated levels of metals observed in the western part (adjacent to the dam wall) were coincided with higher contents of clay-silt fraction and total organic matters. Multivariate analysis indicated that Pb, Co, and Mn may be related to the lithologic component and/or the application of agrochemicals in the upstream agricultural farms. However, Cd and Zn concentrations were probably elevated due to inputs from agricultural sources, including fertilizers. Evaluation of contamination levels by the Sediment Quality Guidelines of the US-EPA, revealed that sediments were non-polluted to moderately polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr, but non-polluted to moderately to heavily polluted with Ni and non-polluted with Mn. The geoaccumulation index showed that Ziqlab sediments were unpolluted with Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, and Mn, but unpolluted to moderately polluted with Cd. The high enrichment values for Cd and Pb (>2) indicate their anthropogenic sources, whereas the remaining elements were of natural origins consistent with their low enrichment levels. PMID:25632906

  9. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic Losses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al Zoubi, I G; Al Sheyab, O M; Al Zoubi, M G; Alekish, M O; Al Gharabat, R J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Jordan and associated clinical signs, complications and preliminary economic losses. In mid-April, 2013, two adult dairy cattle developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD and were confirmed as positive by PCR. The two cases were in Bani Kenanah district, Irbid governorate, on the Jordanian border of Israel and Syria. The disease spread rapidly to all the districts of Irbid governorate. During the month following the emergence of the disease, data were collected related to the epidemiology of the disease and the numbers of affected cattle on the premises. Forty-one dairy cattle holdings were surveyed. The morbidity rate ranged from 3% to 100%, (Mean = 35.1%, SD ±28.5%). The mortality rate ranged from 0% to 20%, (Mean = 1.3%, SD ±4.4%). The case fatality rate ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 6.2%, SD ±22%). The overall morbidity rate was 26%, mortality rate 1.9% and case fatality rate 7.5%. Skin nodules, anorexia, decreased milk production and decreased body weight were common clinical signs, while mastitis and myiasis were seen as complications in a few affected animals. Decreased body weight ranged from 0% to 80%, (Mean = 23.1%, SD ±15.7%). Decreased milk production ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 51.5%, SD ±22.2%). Affected cattle were treated mainly with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The cost of treatment ranged from 0 to 84.3 British Pound/animal, (Mean = 27.9 GBP, SD ±22.5 GBP). LSD continues to spread through the Middle East region and poses a serious threat to the rest of Asia and Europe. International collaboration and communication is warranted to prevent the further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:24148185

  10. Rapid landscape change in 6th century northern Jordan: interdisciplinary geoarchaeological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Landscapes of the ancient fertile crescent are considered affected by soil degradation as result of long-term farming since the Neolithic, and impressive ruins of antiquity led to assumptions that their abandonment must have been conntected with reduced agricultural productivity. In this context, a valley fill near the site of Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan was apparently deposited largely during the 6th century AD, and provides evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. However, an interdisciplinary case study of land use, soil development, and sediments found that the valley fill cannot be connected with large-scale soil erosion in the vicinity of the site. On the one hand, this is indicated by the distribution of soil development and archaeological material as marker of past land use activity in the past, which suggests that the best soils were and still are used intensively. On the other hand, the sediments seem to point to the occurrence of climatic extremes such as heavy floods, the occurrence of soil creep after water saturation, but also a significant shift to aridity which may have triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, possibly connected with the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. Modern analogies of the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 let it seem possible that a volcanic event, perhaps the outbreak of the Ilopango volcano, was connected with these environmental turbulences. Such events cannot be understood by isolated studies: without a broad interdisciplinary framework, single archives are prone to misinterpretation, and our understanding of the environmental history of Abila is still very limited.

  11. Dating Pliocene lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel — Implications for cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Matmon, A.; Fink, D.; Ron, H.; Niedermann, S.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmogenic burial dating of sediments is usually used at sites with relatively simple or known exposure-burial histories, such as in caves. In an attempt to extend the applicability of the method to other common geological settings (i.e. the dating of late Neogene sedimentary formations), where much less is known about the exposure-burial history, we apply the cosmogenic burial method on Pliocene-early Pleistocene (1.5-4.5 Ma) lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel. 26Al, 10Be, and 21Ne concentrations in quartz were obtained from a 170 m tectonically-tilted section. Assuming fast burial and no post-burial production we obtained burial ages which range between 3.5 and 5.3 Ma. Integrating simple geological reasoning and the cosmogenic nuclide data, post burial production is found to be insignificant. We also found that the samples contain two distinct populations of grains (chert and quartz) from two different sources which experienced different pre-burial exposure histories. The cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the samples are in accordance with those expected for the mixing of two sources, and the burial ages computed for both end members agree. Theoretical calculations of two-source mixing show that initial 26Al/10Be ratios are depressed relative to the expected surface ratios and may result in burial ages overestimated by as much as 500 ka. Using ages derived from cosmogenic nuclides, independent age constraints, and magnetostratigraphy we correlate the bottom of the section to the Cochiti Normal magnetic subchron (4.19-4.30 Ma) within the Reverse Gilbert chron, and the top of the section to the Reverse subchron at the top of the Gilbert chron (3.60-4.19 Ma).

  12. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively. PMID:27396212

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the 595 Ma shoshonitic Qunai monzogabbro, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.

    2013-12-01

    The last stage in the formation of the Arabian Nubian Shield in Jordan was dominated by post-orogenic igneous activity of the ˜610-542 Ma Araba Suite, including a monzogabbroic stock intruding the Saramuj Conglomerate, near the southeastern corner of the Dead Sea. The geological setting, petrography, geochemistry and geothermometry of the monzogabbro and other cogenetic varieties are used to shed light on the petrogenesis of this stock and reveal its magma source. The monzogabbro, megaporphyry dikes, and scattered syenite pockets are co-magmatic and alkaline, potassic and shoshonitic in nature. REE and trace elements patterns indicate that these magmas were produced from a mantle that had been modified by subduction-related metasomatism. The parental mafic magma could have been derived by 10% partial melting of LILE-enriched phlogopite-bearing spinel lherzolite, probably lithospheric mantle, in association with post-collisional extension. Fractional crystallization of this parental magma by olivine and pyroxene gave rise to the monzogabbroic magma. The megaporphyry dikes with their giant labradorite plagioclase megacrysts represent feeders of a voluminous volcanic activity that could have lasted for about 105 years. Thermodynamic modeling applying the MELTS software indicates crystallization of this suite in the temperature range of 1184-760 °C at a pressure of 2 kbars, agreeing with olivine-pyroxene, pyroxene, and two-feldspar thermometry. The modeled mineralogy and sequence of crystallization of constituent minerals using MELTS is in remarkable agreement with the observed modal mineralogy of the monzogabbro. Furthermore, a great degree of congruity exists between the modeled and observed chemistry of the major minerals with only minor discrepancies between modeled composition of biotite and olivine.

  14. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60°C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A.H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67°C), Gofra (68°C), the Russian Garden (40°C), and the Yesha well (53–65°C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation.

  15. Screening for anxiety symptoms and social desirability in children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina

    2013-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. PMID:23242812

  16. Voice restoration following total laryngectomy by tracheoesophageal prosthesis: Effect on patients' quality of life and voice handicap in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Attieh, Abdelrahim Y; Searl, Jeff; Shahaltough, Nada H; Wreikat, Mahmoud M; Lundy, Donna S

    2008-01-01

    Background Little has been reported about the impact of tracheoesophageal (TE) speech on individuals in the Middle East where the procedure has been gaining in popularity. After total laryngectomy, individuals in Europe and North America have rated their quality of life as being lower than non-laryngectomized individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in quality of life and degree of voice handicap reported by laryngectomized speakers from Jordan before and after establishment of TE speech. Methods Twelve male Jordanian laryngectomees completed the University of Michigan Head & Neck Quality of Life instrument and the Voice Handicap Index pre- and post-TE puncture. Results All subjects showed significant improvements in their quality of life following successful prosthetic voice restoration. In addition, voice handicap scores were significantly reduced from pre- to post-TE puncture. Conclusion Tracheoesophageal speech significantly improved the quality of life and limited the voice handicap imposed by total laryngectomy. This method of voice restoration has been used for a number of years in other countries and now appears to be a viable alternative within Jordan. PMID:18373867

  17. Dental plaque, caries prevalence and gingival conditions of 14-15-year-old schoolchildren in Jerash District, Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Qaderi, S S; Quteish Ta'ani, D

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries prevalence in 14-15-year-old school children in Jerash District, Northern Jordan. Twenty schools (10 male and 10 female schools) with 1362 children of eighth and ninth grades were randomly selected and incorporated in this study. All participants had dental examinations for oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries experience using the Silness and Löe Plaque Index (PI), Löe and Silness Gingival Index (GI), and decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT) and surface (DMFS) codes respectively. The results showed that males had significant lower plaque but significantly higher gingival scores than females (P < 0.001). About 24% of children were caries-free. The proportions of children with one, two or three decayed teeth were between 10% and 18%. Slight non-significant variations between males and females were observed in regard to DMFT/S and their components (P < 0.05). It is concluded that significant gender variations were noted in PI and GI scores but not in DMFT/S or their components. However, the values of these clinical scores were lower than those results previously reported in northern Jordan. PMID:16958744

  18. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  19. The Perceived Barriers of Access to Health Care Among a Group of Non-camp Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ay, Merve; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the most needed health care services, accessibility of various health care services, and barriers to access as perceived by a group of Syrian refugees living in non-camp settings in Jordan and to compare accessibility among different groups. The study was conducted in the Amman, Irbid, Karak, and Maan governorates of Jordan. This is a cross-sectional, analytical, observational study using convenience and snowball sampling for data collection. A structured questionnaire was included in an ongoing needs assessment of a Jordanian nongovernment organization in April 2014, with a total of 196 surveys conducted. In addition to the prevalent acute and communicable diseases, chronic diseases and dental problems were common. Preventive and primary health care were more accessible than advanced services. Structural and financial barriers hindered access. The specific survey location and governorate were associated with a difference in reported access. Registration status, health provider, duration, and out-of-pocket payment did not affect accessibility. The capacities of health facilities at different levels should be increased. Enhanced information sharing among health providers can improve identification of needs and gaps. PMID:26962004

  20. Characterisation and modelling of conduit restricted karst aquifers - Example of the Auja spring, Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Geyer, Tobias; Guttman, Joseph; Marei, Amer; Ries, Fabian; Sauter, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The conduit system of mature karstified carbonate aquifers is typically characterised by a high hydraulic conductivity and does not impose a major flow constriction on catchment discharge. As a result, discharge at karst springs is usually flashy and displays pronounced peaks following recharge events. In contrast, some karst springs reported in literature display a discharge maximum, attributed to reaching the finite discharge capacity of the conduit system (flow threshold). This phenomenon also often leads to a non-standard recession behaviour, a so called “convex recession”, i.e. an increase in the recession coefficient during flow recession, which in turn might be used as an indicator for conduit restricted aquifers. The main objective of the study is the characterisation and modelling of those hydrogeologically challenging aquifers. The applied approach consists of a combination of hydrometric monitoring, a spring hydrograph recession and event analysis, as well as the setup and calibration of a non-linear reservoir model. It is demonstrated for the Auja spring, the largest freshwater spring in the Lower Jordan Valley. The semi-arid environment with its short but intensive precipitation events and an extended dry season leads to sharp input signals and undisturbed recession periods. The spring displays complex recession behaviour, exhibiting exponential (coefficient α) and linear (coefficient β) recession periods. Numerous different recession coefficients α were observed: ∼0.2 to 0.8 d-1 (presumably main conduit system), 0.004 d-1 (fractured matrix), 0.0009 d-1 (plateau caused by flow threshold being exceeded), plus many intermediate values. The reasons for this observed behaviour are the outflow threshold at 0.47 m3 s-1 and a variable conduit-matrix cross-flow in the aquifer. Despite system complexity, and hence the necessity of incorporating features such as a flow threshold, conduit-matrix cross-flow, and a spatially variable soil/epikarst field

  1. Decay of sandstone monuments in Petra (Jordan): Gravity-induced stress as a stabilizing factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řihošek, Jaroslav; Bruthans, Jiří; Mašín, David; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillova, Jana

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by physical experiments and numerical modeling the gravity-induced stress (stress in further text) in sandstone massive reduces weathering and erosion rate (Bruthans et al. 2014). This finding is in contrast to common view that stress threatens stability of man-made monuments carved to sandstone. Certain low- levels of gravity-induced stress can in fact stabilize and protect these forms against weathering and disintegration. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the stress on weathering of sandstone monuments at the Petra World Heritage Site in Jordan via field observations, salt weathering experiments, and physical and numerical modeling. Previous studies on weathering of Petra monuments have neglected the impact of stress, but the ubiquitous presence of stress-controlled landforms in Petra suggests that it has a substantial effect on weathering and erosion processes on man-made monuments and natural surfaces. Laboratory salt weathering experiments with cubes of Umm Ishrin sandstone from Petra demonstrated the inverse relationship between stress magnitude and decay rate. Physical modeling with Strelec locked sand from the Czech Republic was used to simulate weathering and decay of Petra monuments. Sharp forms subjected to water erosion decayed to rounded shapes strikingly similar to tombs in Petra subjected to more than 2000 years of weathering and erosion. The physical modeling results enabled visualization of the recession of monument surfaces in high spatial and temporal resolution and indicate that the recession rate of Petra monuments is far from constant both in space and time. Numerical modeling of stress fields confirms the physical modeling results. This novel approach to investigate weathering clearly demonstrates that increased stress decreases the decay rate of Petra monuments. To properly delineate the endangered zones of monuments, the potential damage caused by weathering agents should be combined with stress

  2. Sources of salinity in ground water from Jericho area, Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Marie, A; Vengosh, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems in the lower Jordan Valley is the increasing salinization (i.e., chloride content) of local ground water. The high levels of salinity limit the utilization of ground water for both domestic and agriculture applications. This joint collaborative study evaluates the sources and mechanisms for salinization in the Jericho area. We employ diagnostic geochemical fingerprinting methods to trace the potential sources of the salinity in (1) the deep confined subaquifer system (K2) of Lower Cenomanian age; (2) the upper subaquifer system (K1) of Upper Cenomanian and Turonian ages; and (3) the shallow aquifer system (Q) of Plio-Pleistocene ages. The chemical composition of the saline ground water from the two Cenomanian subaquifers (K1 and K2) point to a single saline source with Na/Cl approximately 0.5 and Br/Cl approximately 7 x 10(-3). This composition is similar to that of thermal hypersaline spring that are found along the western shore of the Dead Sea (e.g., En Gedi thermal spring). We suggest that the increasing salinity in both K1 and K2 subaquifers is derived from mixing with deep-seated brines that flow through the Rift fault system. The salinization rate depends on the discharge volume of the fresh meteoric water in the Cenomanian Aquifer. In contrast, the chemical composition of ground water from the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer shows a wide range of Cl- (100-2000 mg/L), Na/Cl (0.4-1.0), Br/Cl (2-6 x 10(-3)), and SO4/Cl (0.01-0.4) ratios. These variations, together with the high SO4(2-), K+, and NO3- concentrations, suggest that the salinity in the shallow aquifer is derived from the combination of (1) upconing of deep brines as reflected by low Na/Cl and high Br/Cl ratios; (2) leaching of salts from the Lisan Formation within the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer, as suggested by the high SO4(2-) concentrations; and (3) anthropogenic contamination of agriculture return flow and sewage effluents with distinctive high K+ (80 mg/L) and NO3- (80 mg

  3. Anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System in NW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.

    2012-03-01

    In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly

  4. Desert agricultural terrace systems at EBA Jawa (Jordan) - Layout, water availability and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Julia; Krause, Jan; Müller-Neuhof, Bernd; Portillo, Marta; Reimann, Tony; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Located in the arid basalt desert of northeastern Jordan, the Early Bronze Age (EBA) settlement of Jawa is by far the largest and best preserved archaeological EBA site in the region. Recent surveys in the close vicinity revealed well-preserved remains of three abandoned agricultural terrace systems. In the presented study these archaeological features are documented by detailed mapping and the analysis of the sediment records in a multi-proxy approach. To study the chronology of the terrace systems optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the water management techniques and its impact on harvest yields, a crop simulation model (CropSyst) under today's climatic conditions is applied, simulating crop yields with and without (runoff) irrigation. In order to do so, a runoff time series for each agricultural terrace system and its catchment is generated, applying the SCS runoff curve number method (CN) based on rainfall and soil data. Covering a total area of 38 ha, irrigated terrace agriculture was practiced on slopes, small plateaus, and valleys in the close vicinity of Jawa. Floodwater from nearby wadis or runoff from adjacent slopes was collected and diverted via surface canals. The terraced fields were arranged in cascades, allowing effective water exploitation through a system of risers, canals and spillways. The examined terrace profiles show similar stratigraphic sequences of mixed unstratified fine sediments that are composed of small-scale relocated sediments with local origin. The accumulation of these fines is associated with the construction of agricultural terraces, forcing infiltration and storage of the water within the terraces. Two OSL ages of terrace fills indicate that the construction of these terrace systems started as early as 5300 ± 300 a, which fits well to the beginning of the occupation phase of Jawa at around 3.500 calBC, thus making them to the oldest examples of its kind in the Middle East

  5. Chemical characteristics of rainwater collected at a western site of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar Ali.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out from October 2006 to May 2007 in Ghore El-Safi area western side of Jordan nearby the Dead Sea. Rainwater samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, NH 4+, HCO 3-, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd). The highest concentration of elements is observed at the beginning of the rainfall season when large amounts of dust accumulated in the atmosphere scavenged by rain. The majority of rainwater had a neutral or alkaline character as a result of neutralization caused by the alkaline local dusts which contain large amount of CaCO 3. The pH ranged from 4.8 to 8.2 with a mean value of 6.9 ± 0.65 which was in alkaline range considering 5.6 as the neutral pH of cloud water with atmospheric CO 2 equilibrium. In the total 35 rain events, only three events were observed in acidic range (< 5.6) which occurred after continuous rains. The equivalent concentration of components followed the order: Ca 2+ > HCO 3- > Cl - > Mg 2+ > NO 3- > SO 42- > NH 4+ > Na + > K +. Rainwater chemistry was analyzed using Factor Component Analysis to find the possible sources of the measured species. Three components that accounted for 84% of the total variance were extracted sea salts spray (Na+, Cl - and Mg 2+), and soil particles (natural origin), (Mg 2+, Ca 2+ and HCO 3-) and biomass burning (NH 4+). The results obtained in this study are compared with those other studies conducted at different sites in the world. In general, the results of this study suggested that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local anthropogenic sources (potash factory and agricultural activities in Ghore El-Safi area) rather than natural and marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from long distance transport, local industry and traffic sources.

  6. Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) phosphorites in Jordan: implications for the formation of a south Tethyan phosphorite giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, Peir K.; Grimm, Kurt A.; Abed, Abdulkader M.; Sadaqah, Rushdi M. Y.

    2003-10-01

    A record of sedimentary, authigenic, and biological processes are preserved within the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Alhisa Phosphorite Formation (AP) in central and northern Jordan. The AP formed near the eastern extremity of the south Tethyan Phosphorite Province (STPP), a carbonate-dominated Upper Cretaceous to Eocene "phosphorite giant" that extends from Colombia, North Africa to the Middle East. Multidisciplinary research of the AP and associated cherts, chalks, and oyster buildups indicate that phosphatic strata formed on a highly productive, storm-dominated, east-west trending epeiric platform along the south Tethyan margin. The onset of phosphogenesis and the accumulation of economic phosphorite coincided with a rise in relative sea level that onlapped peritidal carbonates of the Ajlun Group. Pristine phosphates are associated with well-developed micrite concretionary horizons and contain abundant non-keeled spiral planktic foraminifera and a low diversity benthic assemblage of Buliminacean foraminifera, suggesting that pristine phosphates are a condensed facies and phosphogenesis was stimulated by the effects of a highly productive surface ocean and the suboxic diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The bulk sediment composition and absence of Fe-bearing authigenic phases such as glauconite, pyrite (including pyrite molds), siderite, and goethite within pristine phosphates suggests that deposition and authigenesis occurred under conditions of detrital starvation and that "iron-pumping" played a minimal role in phosphogenesis. Authigenic precipitation of phosphate occurred in a broad array of sedimentary environments—herein termed a "phosphorite nursery"—that spanned the entire platform. This is a non-uniformitarian phenomenon reflecting precipitation of sedimentary apatite across a wide depositional spectrum in a variety of depositional settings, wherever the conditions were suitable for phosphogenesis. Sedimentologic data indicate that pristine

  7. Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    Broodstock of Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert) aged 3-4 years old were selected, and reinforced cultivation was conducted to promote maturation under controlled water temperature and photoperiod conditions. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial fertilization, and the development of embryos, larvae and juveniles was observed continuously. The results showed that the fertilized eggs of V. moseri were spherical, with transparent yolk and homogeneous bioplasm, and had no oil globule inside. The average diameter of the eggs was 1.77±0.02 mm. The eggs of V. moseri were buoyant in water with salinity above 35. The cleavage type was typical discoidal. Young pigment cells appeared when olfactory plates began to form. Hatching occurred at 187 h after fertilization at a water temperature of 8.5°C. The newly hatched larvae, floating on the water surface, were transparent with an average total length of 4.69±0.15 mm. During the cultivation period, when the water temperature was raised from 9 to 14.5°C, 4-day old larvae showed more melanophores on the body surface, making the larvae gray in color. The pectoral fins began to develop, which enabled the larvae to swim horizontally and in a lively manner. On days 7-8, the digestive duct formed. The yolk sac was small and black. The yolk sac was absorbed on day 11. Larvae took food actively, and body length and body height clearly increased. The rudiments of dorsal and anal fin pterygiophores were discernible and caudal fin ray elements formed on day 19. On day 24, the larval notochord flexed upwards, and the rays of unpaired fins began to differentiate. Pigment cells converged on the dorsal and anal fin rays, and the mastoid teeth on the mandible appeared. On day 29, the left eyes of juveniles began to move upwards. Depigmentation began in some juveniles and they became sandy brown in color on day 37. Most juveniles began to settle on the bottom of the tank. The left eyes of juveniles migrated completely to the right

  8. Professors' Perceptions of Distance Education in Virtual Environments: The Case of the Education Faculty of University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oassim-Al-shboul, Oassim Mahmoud; Sabiote, Clemente Rodriguez; Álvarez-Rodríguez, José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the perceptions that the teaching staff of the Faculty of Education at University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan) have of the implementation of distance learning in virtual environments, more specifically, the professors' opinion of the potential and limitations of this educational strategy. To fulfil this goal, we…

  9. Mechanisms and Development Strategies for Teaching Thinking to Move the Role of Jordan Universities as the Product of the Think Tank from the Faculty Members Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziadat, Ayed H.; Abu-Nair, Natheer S.; Abu Sameha, Mansour A.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed at revealing the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking to move the role of Jordan universities as the product of think tank from the faculty members point of view. Also aimed to determine the influence of academic rank in shaping the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking in Jordanian…

  10. Features of Computerized Educational Games in Sciences of the Elementary Phase in Jordan from the Point of View of Specialists in Teaching Science and Computer Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Sarhan, Khaled Ali; AlZboon, Saleem Odeh; Olimat, Khalaf Mufleh; Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at introducing the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary school in Jordan according to the specialists in teaching science and computer subjects, through answering some questions such as: What are the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary schools in Jordan…

  11. The Degree of Adherence to Educational Values by the Students of the University of Jordan--In Their Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Serhan, Khaled Ali

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to probe the degree of adherence by students of the University of Jordan to moral values. To achieve this, a survey was prepared and distributed to a random sample of 1769 students in the second semester of the 2013-2014 school year. The study showed a high degree of adherence to religious, social and behavioral values, and a…

  12. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  13. Configuration of water table and distribution of downward leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson-Higdem, Dana C.; Larson, S.P.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

    1975-01-01

    Based on available data and estimates of vertical hydraulic conductivity for geologic units, major leakage to the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer is indicated to occur in formation subcrop areas, especially where these areas are. overlain by the most permeable glacial drift.

  14. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Burnout among Special Education Teachers in Jordan: An Analytical Descriptive Study on the Southern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bawaliz, Mohammad Abdessalam; Arbeyat, Ahmad; Hamadneh, Burhan Mahmmod

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the measurement of the level of emotional intelligence and the level of burnout among teachers working in special education centers in the southern territory in Jordan, and also aimed to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout, and how does this relationship differ according to…

  15. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  16. Problems of Understanding English Ironic Expressions by M.A. Students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khawaldeh, Suhaib

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the problems of understanding English ironic expressions M.A. of Applied Linguistics students at Mu'tah University in Jordan. This quantitative and qualitative study includes 15 of M.A. students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University. The participants were selected randomly. Two research instruments…

  17. The Effect of Using Learning Journals on Developing Self-Regulated Learning and Reflective Thinking among Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jado, Saleh Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using learning journals on self-regulated learning and reflective thinking among a sample of pre-service teachers enrolled in Educational Psychology course at the Faculty of Educational Sciences and Arts (FESA) in Jordan. The study sample consisted of (61) participants. To achieve the purpose of the…

  18. Using the Training Reactions Questionnaire to Analyze the Reactions of University Students Undergoing Career-Related Training in Jordan: A Prospective Human Resource Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Al-Zawahreh, Abdelghafour

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to validate Morgan and Casper's training reactions questionnaire (TRQ) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the reactions of university students to career-related training programs. Another purpose of the study was to determine the impact of certain aspects of training programs on the…

  19. Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching and Learning--A Comparison of Teachers' and Student Teachers' Beliefs from Jordan, Turkey and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amoush, Siham; Markic, Silvija; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses beliefs about teaching and learning chemistry. The sample includes chemistry student teachers and in-service teachers from Jordan, Turkey, and Germany. Two test instruments were used to investigate (student) teachers' beliefs. A qualitative instrument was used to explore Beliefs about Classroom Organization, Beliefs about…

  20. Effect of the Van Hiele Model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition: The Attitudes towards Geometry and Learning Transfer Effect of the First Three Grades Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-ebous, Tahani

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the van Hiele model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition, and the attitudes towards Geometry and learning transfer of the first three grades students in Jordan. Participants of the study consisted of 60 students from the third grade primary school students from the First Directorate, Amman, in the…

  1. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  2. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  3. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  4. Continuity and change in ceramic manufacture: Archaeometric study of Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas Mohamad

    This thesis investigates continuity and change of ceramics from Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition period Jordan. The transition period has been characterized largely by an overlap of two ceramic traditions. The material culture of this period has been primarily viewed through formal and stylistic changes. However, ceramic technology and distribution have never been subjected to rigorous analytical study. In order to explain continuity and change in ceramic tradition the undertaken study has focused on the provenance and technology, using multifaceted analytical approach. This study of the transition period pottery has focused on the classification and technological features of potsherds from selected sites in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Beit Ras, Khirbet el-Nawafleh, Jarash, Jericho, Pella, Madaba, Gharndal, Humaimah, Um er-Rassas and Um el-Waleed). Samples were studied by particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and optical microscopy to analyze their chemical, mineralogical and textural features in the aim of determining their possible provenance and production technology. Compositional data were statistically processed with multivariate analysis using SYSTAT II software 2006. To obtain further information about possible source areas of raw materials used in ceramic production, clays were also sampled in the studied areas. Firing experiments were conducted for clays with compositions comparable with those of ceramic sherds, to better understand the firing technology of the pottery. The multifaceted analytical approach has revealed important information on ceramic production in Transjordan. Khirbet el-Nawafleh and Aqaba in the south, Jarash and Pella in the north, Amman and Madaba in the middle are possibly just a few important production centers during this period. The study shows a multidirectional socio-cultural exchange and economic trade patterns within each region and between adjacent regions, as well. Also, importation from

  5. Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-07-01

    Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in places where they had not been identified previously. The morphology of the terraces was investigated in six cross-sections using differential GPS altimetry. The levels of the terraces range between - 370 and - 148 m a.s.l. The high stand of Lake Lisan at - 148 m correlates well with the high level of - 150 m reported by Bowman and Gross [Bowman, D., Gross, T., 1992. The highest stand of Lake Lisan: ~ 150 meters below MSL. Israel Journal of Earth-Science 41, 233-237.] along the western coast of Lake Lisan. The lake terraces are horizontal, elongated and tectonically undisturbed, and have a sub-horizontal foreshore (tread) with an average slope of 8.2° and steep backshore cliff (riser) with an average slope of 17.7°. The six cross-sections show a good altitudinal correlation between their terraces. Moreover, the terraces appear in undisturbed continuity on the aerial photos. These morphological characteristics demonstrate that the retreat of the lake was a result of substantial climatic changes, not of tectonic subsidence. In-situ stromatolites were found on most of the terraces, reflecting a shallow water environment and emphasizing that these terraces are recessional. Well-developed desert varnish and Tafoni observed on blocks sitting on the terrace surfaces imply a long period of exposure and a low rate of post lacustrine erosion. The formation of Lisan terraces is constrained mainly by coastal slope, water depth and underlying lithology. The morphological analysis of these terraces allows identification of two kinds of pseudo-terraces, which were formed as a result of tread or riser destruction. U

  6. Satisfaction of undergraduate students at University of Jordan after root canal treatment of posterior teeth using rotary or hand preparation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Tahun, Ibrahim; El-Ma'aita, Ahmad; Khraisat, Ameen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report the satisfaction of fifth year undergraduate students on the clinical use of rotary endodontic preparation compared with stainless steel standard technique and to evaluate the impact of rotary nickel-titanium instruments on undergraduate teaching. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training program using a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant satisfaction of the undergraduate students with the use of the nickel-titanium system (P < 0.001) compared to stainless steel standard technique. Under the conditions of this study, the results showed a positive acceptance and consensus among novice dental students regarding the use of ProTaper rotary files and the need for undergraduate teaching of rotary nickel-titanium systems in Jordan. PMID:26492829

  7. Burials from Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, Southern Jordan - Results of a Survey and Salvage Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameen, Zeyad al; Falahat, Hani

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey and excavation conducted in 2006 on small cemeteries at Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, which are located c. 30 km southeast of the village of al-Hussayniah on the Desert Highway in southern Jordan. In total five graves were excavated. Preservation was excellent including human and other organic materials (hair, leather, textiles). Preliminary scientific dating points to the period between the second and fourth centuries AD. The research questions discussed are: - the date, the relationship between the cemeteries and surrounding sites, the significance of this area, the identity of the groups buried, the burial techniques and practices adopted and what influenced them and the funerary gifts included with the dead.

  8. An observational study of the summer Mediterranean Sea breeze front penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, R.; Potchter, O.; Shafir, H.; Alpert, P.

    2015-09-01

    The Mediterranean summer sea breeze front (SBF) climatic features of penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) were investigated. It was shown that the SBF penetration into the JRV occurs in a well-defined chronological order from north to south. One exception to this general rule is the breeze penetration of Sdom, which occurs after it has penetrated the Arava which is located further south, probably due to the micro-climatic effect of the Dead Sea. It was also noted that the breeze increases the local specific humidity as it reaches the JRV in spite of significant temperature increases. The temperature reaches its daily peak 2 to 3 h later in the southern valley compared to the northern valley and is suggested to be due to the later SBF penetration and the valley structure. The pre-SBF line features in the JRV are described.

  9. 'We are nurses, they are doctors': barriers to nurses' roles in pain management following surgery in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shoqirat, Noordeen

    2015-04-01

    This study explored barriers to nurses' roles in pain management following surgery in Jordan. A qualitative approach using four focus group discussions (n = 4) was used. The total convenience sample of surgical wards nurses included 25 nurses. The analysis revealed two categories explaining the context and perceived barriers affecting nurses' roles in pain management. First were barriers within bedside nursing, comprising attention-seeking patients, 'buzzer obsession' and family interferences. Second were barriers within nursing, comprising lack of staff and 'nurses need pain relief before patients', and the perception of 'we are nurses, they are doctors.' Nurses' roles in managing patients' pain following surgery is hindered by contextually complex barriers identified by this research. Multidisciplinary actions are therefore urgently needed to address barriers to pain management at the nursing professional, ward culture and policy levels. Failure to do so might lead to more pain sufferers following surgery, and thus poor recovery. PMID:25307454

  10. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being

  11. Antibiogram of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from clinical specimens at King Hussein Medical Centre, Jordan: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Batarseh, A; Al-Sarhan, A; Maayteh, M; Al-Khatirei, S; Alarmouti, M

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the local antibiogram of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Al-Hussein Hospital at King Hussein Medical Centre in Amman, Jordan. In a retrospective study from January to December 2013, data on 116 non-repetitive positive clinical samples were retrieved from patients' laboratory records. The resistance rates of A. baumannii isolates were high for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ticarcillin (100%), ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin (98.3%), imipenem (97.4%), piperacillin/tazobactam (96.6%), quinolones (94.8%), ampicillin/sulbactam (89.7%), gentamicin, (87.9%), tobramycin and tetracycline (76.7%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (75.9%), but lower for minocycline (26.7%) and colistin (1.7%). A. baumannii in our hospital were highly resistant to all antibiotics, including tigecycline, except for minocycline and colistin which are considered the last resort treatment for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:26857720

  12. Smoking behaviour, knowledge and perceived susceptibility to lung cancer among secondary-school students in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shadid, H M; Hossain, S Z

    2015-03-01

    Smoking in Jordan is a serious problem as it affects almost all segments of society including children. This study aimed to evaluate the smoking behaviour of Jordanian secondary-school students (aged 16-18 years), their awareness of the dangers of smoking and their perceived susceptibility to lung cancer. Of the stratified random sample of students from Amman schools (n = 648), 43% were ever smokers (had smoked for 1 year) and 27.6% were current smokers, while 81% reported having a smoker in the family. Students in western Amman (higher socioeconomic status) and those who started smoking at a younger age demonstrated better knowledge about smoking-related consequences. Perceived susceptibility to lung cancer was significantly associated with sex, perceived seriousness of lung cancer and school location. Students' sex, socioeconomic status and the family environment were important factors that influenced students' smoking behaviour and risk perceptions and these findings have significant policy implications. PMID:26074218

  13. Shedding of antibiotic-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in healthy residents of France and Jordan.

    PubMed

    Chachaty, E; Youssef, M T; Bourneix, C; Andremont, A

    1995-02-01

    We compared the frequency of shedding of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin and ceftazidime in 83 French residents of the Paris urban area and in 101 subjects in Jordan, 64 of whom resided in the urban area of Irbid, 15 in rural areas, and 22 of whom had a nomadic lifestyle. There was no significant difference between these populations regarding (i) the percentages of subjects with strains resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested and (ii) the proportions of total counts of organisms of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to these agents. The simultaneous shedding of strains resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and kanamycin was significantly associated with (i) exposure to antibiotic treatment during the six months preceding the study and (ii) the presence of many children at home. PMID:7652211

  14. Drug-related problems in a sample of outpatients with chronic diseases: a cross-sectional study from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Alzoubi, Karem H; AbuRuz, Salah; Alefan, Qais

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of drug therapy and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs) are major factors to improve health care, reduce expenditure, and potentially save lives. This study aimed at describing the types, numbers, and frequencies of DRPs in the outpatient settings of a group of hospitals in Jordan. The study was set in the cardiology, endocrine, and respiratory outpatient clinics of five major hospitals in Jordan. Patients who visited the above clinics during the period from September 2012 to December 2013, were candidates for this study. Each included subject was fully assessed for DRPs by clinical pharmacists according to a specially designed and validated pharmaceutical care manual. The main outcome measures were the number and types of DRPs. Data were collected from 2,898 patients (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.59±13.5 years). The total number of identified DRPs was 32,348, with an average of 11.2 DRPs per patient. The most common DRPs were a need for additional or more frequent monitoring, a problem in patients’ adherence to self-care activities or nonpharmacological therapy, and that the patient was not given instruction in or did not understand nonpharmacological therapy or self-care advice. The numbers of DRPs per patient in our sample were associated with older age (>57 years), being unmarried, having an education level of high school or less, not having health insurance, and the presence of certain clinical conditions, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, cardiac catheterization, heart failure, and gout. In conclusion, implementation of clinical pharmacy services is a strategy to limit DRPs. Certain patient populations are more vulnerable to DRPs. PMID:26937195

  15. Irrigation and water scarcity in the Zerqa Triangle, Jordan or why archaeology is relevant for understanding current practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, M. W.; Kaptijn, E.

    2009-04-01

    Scarcity of water resources for development is a recurrent and important issue, and has been for thousands of years. Based on the case of the Jordan Valley, this contribution will argue that our understanding of current issues can be improved by studying ancient contexts. At the same time, archeology can benefit from analysis and models applied in the engineering domain. In the Zerqa triangle in the Jordan Valley, irrigation would have been an important instrument to deal with the arid climate and its associated uncertainties concerning rainfall for societies in different periods. Before irrigation modernization efforts were started in the 1960's, the people of the Zerqa area used the known ethnohistorical irrigation system, which dates back to the Mamluk period. This system consisted of a number of sub-systems tapping water from the Zerqa river and transporting water to the fields through open canals under gravity. The settlement pattern of the Iron Age points to an irrigation system of similar type being in use during this period. The location of Early Bronze Age settlements along natural watercourses suggests that a form of flood irrigation was practiced, without a dedicated canal system. Each of these settings will have had its specific uncertainties in terms of water availability to deal with, which will be discussed. In other words, each setting provided specific materially structuring conditions for societies to develop responses in terms of agriculture, institutions and power relations. This contribution discusses these uncertainties and responses for the different periods. In the discussion, insights from both archaeology and irrigation engineering will be integrated.

  16. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G

    2009-10-01

    The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U and their progeny results in external exposures of the residents of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for a typical Jordan concrete room are calculated using Monte Carlo method. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling are assumed. Using activity concentrations of natural radionuclides typical for the Jordan houses and assuming them to be in secular equilibrium with their progeny, the maximum annual effective doses are estimated to be 0.16, 0.12 and 0.22 mSv a(-1) for (40)K, (232)Th- and (238)U-series, respectively. In a total, the maximum annual effective indoor dose due to external gamma-radiation is 0.50 mSv a(-1). Additionally, organ dose coefficients are calculated for all organs considered in ICRP Publication 74. Breast, skin and eye lenses have the maximum equivalent dose rate values due to indoor exposures caused by the natural radionuclides, while equivalent dose rates for uterus, colon (LLI) and small intestine are found to be the smallest. More specifically, organ dose rates (nSv a(-1)per Bq kg(-1)) vary from 0.044 to 0.060 for (40)K, from 0.44 to 0.60 for radionuclides from (238)U-series and from 0.60 to 0.81 for radionuclides from (232)Th-series. The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors. PMID:19628312

  17. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17405622

  18. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  19. Prevalence of obesity and behaviors associated with the development of metabolic disease among medical practitioners in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alarjan, Jafar F.; Hindawi, Omar S.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Aleyadh, Ziad A.; Bellar, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The health status of medical practitioners can potentially impact their ability to counsel patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and behaviors associated with the development of metabolic disease among medical practitioners in the country of Jordan. Materials and Methods: The participants were 748 (male n = 285, 32.3 years ± 7.3, female n = 463, 29.7 years ± 5.7) randomly selected pharmacists, nurses, physicians, medical lab technicians, and radiation specialists from a variety of medical institutions in Jordan. A short 25-item validated instrument was chosen for this investigation. After the survey was administered and data were tabulated, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson's Chi-square analysis were conducted to examine differences in reported risk behaviors (low physical activity [PA], smoking) and obesity by gender, age and medical specialty. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed that 20.9% of the participants self-reported as smokers of cigarettes, 47.9% were either overweight or obese, and 52.9% reported no days of planned PA on average per week. The results suggested a difference in body mass index (BMI) classification (F = 17.9, P ≤ 0.001) and smoking (F = 5.33, P = 0.021) by age. Mean age associated with being underweight was 26.4 years for normal weight 29.3 years for overweight 31.6 years and finally for obese was 34.5 years. Chi-square test resulted in differences by gender (χ2 > 50, P ≤ 0.001) for BMI (males: 26.4 ± 3.7; females: 24.6 ± 3.7), PA (males no planned PA 61.1%, females 47.9%) and smoking (males 43.1% smokers, females 7.1%). Researchers discovered that medical specialty was related to differences in reported smoking (χ2 = 26.5, P ≤ 0.001) and days of planned PA (χ2 = 24.2, P = 0.019). Conclusions: Within the population of medical practitioners there is still a high incidence of obesity and risk behaviors associated with metabolic diseases. It also appears that these

  20. Structural control on the evolution of groundwater quality for B2A7 aquifer in the area extending from Ajlun to Yarmouk river in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Muller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow in the Northwestern highlands of Jordan is controlled y the Ajlun Heights were groundwater flows towards north and west along the Yarmouk river and the Jordan Valley. Due to water rock interactions, groundwater that discharges in the Jordan Valley and along the Yarmuk River is thermal, radioactive and mineralized. Its total dissolved solids especially in the confined parts of the aquifer. Electrical conductivity of groundwater in the unconfined aquifer of B2A7 ranges between 500 to 700 µs/cm and increases up to 1600 µs/cm towards the confined part of the aquifer with a notable increase in Na and Cl towards the discharge areas. According to the chloride content in the groundwater the evaporation in the recharge areas is considered to be high representing 82% of the total rainfall. Groundwaters are classified as calcium bicarbonate types with Mg/Ca ratios varying from 0.11 to1.21 and Na/Cl ratio in the range of 0.49 to 1.85. The chemical evolution of groundwater from Ajlun Heights toward Jordan Valley and Yarmouk River is marked by a progressive decrease in calcium and bicarbonate with increase of sodium, and chloride due to halite dissolution and upward percolation of deep saline groundwater. The 3D modeling for the aquifer system indicated the rule of geologic structure in the groundwater digenesis through upward and downward leakage enhanced along high permeability lineaments. According to the modeled water budget, the inflow to the upper B2A7 Aquifer 54 *106 m3/yr replenishing the B2A7 system as underground flow in the karstic limestone of the vadose zone. The underground discharge to the Yarmouk River and Jordan valley modeled to be 23.2 *106 m3/yr as underflow to the springs. The leakage from B2A7 aquifer into the lower aquifer is about 9.7 *106 m3/yr. Within the north western lowered elevations the hydraulic different between upper and deep aquifers is at minimum an upward leakage and seems to take place through the main faults trending EW

  1. Evaluating unfractionated heparin fixed dosing protocol and establishing an institutional therapeutic range for UFH in hospital setting in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tahaineh, Linda; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Iflaifel, Mais; Shehabi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate current unfractionated heparin (UFH) dosing regimen and establish an institutional therapeutic range for UFH in a public hospital in Jordan. In the first part, medical records of 241 patients who received UFH were reviewed retrospectively. In the second part, blood samples were withdrawn from 60 patients on UFH, and activated partial thromboplastin time and anti-Xa assay were measured. Most activated partial thromboplastin time readings were not therapeutic (91.4%) and recurrence of thrombosis was reported in 35.3% of patients. In the second part, therapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time range corresponding to the UFH concentration of 0.3 to 0.7 anti-factor Xa unit/mL was 56 to 95 seconds, which corresponds to an activated partial thromboplastin time range of 1.5 of 2.8 times the mean control value. The traditional activated partial thromboplastin time range ratio of 1.5 to 2.5 times the control value can result in subtherapeutic UFH levels. PMID:22949741

  2. Numerical long-term assessment of managed aquifer recharge from a reservoir into a karst aquifer in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanke, Julian; Jourde, Hervé; Liesch, Tanja; Goldscheider, Nico

    2016-09-01

    In semi-arid regions with high seasonal variability of water availability, adaptive management strategies and technical measures are required to ensure the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, managed recharge of storm water into a karst aquifer and the water level fluctuations related to pumping in a nearby wellfield were simulated at Wadi Wala, Jordan. We used a numerical equivalent porous medium (EPM) approach with specific adaptations to account for the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst aquifer. The model domain was vertically projected along the wadi course, resulting in a 2-dimensional model, and subdivided into hydraulic zones representing the karst-specific flow pattern of fast flow and slow depletion. Results show satisfying agreement of measured and simulated groundwater tables from 2002 to 2012 and predict a lowering of the average groundwater table until 2022 of around 2.7 m in the immediate surroundings of the reservoir and an increased depletion towards the wellfield, mainly caused by sedimentation in the reservoir and an associated decrease in infiltration. Abstraction at the wellfield changed considerably over the regarded time period and strongly influences the groundwater fluctuations, which shows the need of improved pumping management and monitoring. The results can serve as a basis for decision makers regarding an optimization of water management at the reservoir and wellfield. Furthermore, the presented numerical approach can be transferred to karst regions with similar physio-geographical conditions to assess managed aquifer recharge.

  3. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  4. The radioactivity of seasonal dust storms in the Middle East: the May 2012 case study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamadneh, Hamed S; Ababneh, Zaid Q; Hamasha, Khadeejeh M; Ababneh, Anas M

    2015-02-01

    Dust storms in the Middle East are common during spring. Some of these storms are massive and carry a large amount of dust from faraway regions, which pose health and pollution risks. The huge dust storm event occurred in early May, 2012 was investigated for its radioactive content using gamma ray spectroscopy. Dust samples were collected from Northern Jordan and it was found that the storm carried a large amount of both artificial and natural radioactivity. The average activity concentration of fallout (137)Cs was 17.0 Bq/kg which is larger than that found in soil (2.3 Bq/kg), and this enrichment is attributed to particle size effects. (7)Be which is of atmospheric origin and has a relatively short half-life, was detected in dust with relatively large activity concentrations, as it would be expected, with an average of 2860 Bq/kg, but it was not detected in soil. Despite the large activity concentration of (7)Be, dose assessment showed that it does not contribute significantly to the effective dose through inhalation. The concentrations of the primodial nuclides (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were 547, 30.0 and 49.3 Bq/kg, respectively. With the exception of (40)K, these were comparable to what was found in soil. PMID:25461517

  5. Iridium contents in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary clays in relation to the K/T boundary, North Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The mineralogy, lithology, and geochemistry of five discrete laminations across the K/T boundary of clayey shale at the Yarmouk River area, Jordan, were examined. There were no marked changes in the mineralogy of the clayey shale within the K/T boundary. This outcrop consists of more than 100 m of Maastrichtian oil shale overlying about 20 m limestone. Marly limestone included many clay laminations from organic and volcanic origins, which are considered an evidence of the K/T boundary through detected iridium anomalies. Any of these particular lamellae range from 2 mm to 5 mm in thickness. Smectite was the predominant clay mineral in smectitic shale laminations. It was located at eight meters above the K/T boundary and includes some anomalous concentrations of iridium and traces of other elements. The analysis of geochemical platinum group at the K/T boundary clays showed anomalous enrichments of iridium, compared with other carbonate rocks as a result of weathering processes of oil shale, or through concentration from weathering of basalt flows, but not pointing to an impact process. The clays in late Maastrichtian have Ir-Sc prevailed anomalies and synchronize with increasing of terrigenous and volcanogenic traced elements. Kaolin, smectite, and volkonskoite were the dominant clay minerals at the K/T boundary with high concentrations of iridium. The concentration levels of iridium in some laminations of the Yarmouk sediments ranged between 1.6 and 7.8 ppb.

  6. Effects of exposure model resolution on seismic risk estimates - Examples from the cities of Kerak and Madaba in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Michael; Al-Qaryouti, Mahmoud; Ashour, Anas; Daoud, Nazar; Pittore, Massimiliano; Sarayrah, Abdullah; Sawarieh, Ali; Wieland, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Seismic risk is composed of the three components seismic hazard, exposed structures and the structures' vulnerability with respect to ground motion. Seismic risk estimates are subject to often large uncertainties, whose precise quantification remain a challenge. In general the largest uncertainties are considered to stem from the seismic hazard component, followed by the uncertainties in the vulnerability models. The importance of uncertainties in the exposure component are often regarded as of minor importance. This is obvious in the case the seismic risk assessment is carried out for a set of specific structures, but in case of risk estimates at city- or regional-scale the importance of uncertainties in the exposure model strongly increases. In this presentation exposure models derived from census data, remote sensing data and panoramic images obtained by a mobile mapping system for the two cities of Kerak and Madaba in Jordan and their uncertainties are discussed. Furthermore, the presentation aims to provide an insight on the effects of using these exposure models, derived from different data with varying resolution and different model assumptions on the uncertainties of seismic risk estimates for the two considered locations.

  7. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60°C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A. H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Mixing models and evaluation of SiO 2 contents of warm-water manifestations in the Jordan—Dead Sea Rift Valley indicate that these waters are fed by aquifers with estimated temperatures of up to 68°C. These calculations and Na/K ratios, concentrations of Na, K and Ca, concentrations of atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe; and concentrations of the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes all indicate below-boiling temperatures. No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67°C), Gofra (68°C), the Russian Garden (40°C), and the Yesha well (53-65°C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation.

  8. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region. PMID:9645667

  9. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  10. Trace elements in atmospheric precipitation at Northern Jordan measured by ICP-MS: acidity and possible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Momani, I. F.

    Rainwater samples were collected in a rural region in Northern Jordan using 24-h sampling periods from December 1998 to April 2000. All samples were analyzed for major ions (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, H +, Mg 2+, NH 4+, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Al, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb and V). The majority of the rain samples collected had pH values higher than 5.6. The average pH was 6.4±0.9. High values of pH were attributed to the neutralization by natural alkaline local dusts which contain large fractions of calcite. The annual average SO 42--to-NO 3- ratio is 1.8, which is close to that observed in more polluted regions. Concentrations of measured species were lower than those reported for other rural sites worldwide. Elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Ag and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition. Factor analysis permitted the identification of four source groups, namely crustal dust, sea-salt spray, road traffic and combustion and secondary aerosol formation processes.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Haddad, Linda; Alzyoud, Sukaina; El-Shahawy, Omar; Baker, Nesrin Abu; Umlauf, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure. PMID:22163203

  12. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Co-occurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts. PMID:25255940

  13. Cancer in refugees in Jordan and Syria between 2009 and 2012: challenges and the way forward in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of non-communicable diseases such as cancer in refugees is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries, but is of increasing importance because the number of refugees is growing. The UNHCR, through exceptional care committees (ECCs), has developed standard operating procedures to address expensive medical treatment for refugees in host countries, to decide on eligibility and amount of payment. We present data from funding applications for cancer treatments for refugees in Jordan between 2010 and 2012, and in Syria between 2009 and 2011. Cancer in refugees causes a substantial burden on the health systems of the host countries. Recommendations to improve prevention and treatment include improvement of health systems through standard operating procedures and innovative financing schemes, balance of primary and emergency care with expensive referral care, development of electronic cancer registries, and securement of sustainable funding sources. Analysis of cancer care in low-income refugee settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is needed to inform future responses. PMID:24872112

  14. Effectiveness of an electrical barrier in blocking a sea lamprey spawning migration on the Jordan River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Mark-recapture studies indicated that a pulsed-DC electrical barrier set to a 2-ms pulse width and 10 pulses/s completely blocked the spawning migration of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Jordan River, Michigan. Capture efficiency of fyke nets averaged 24% for four groups, about 300 tagged sea lampreys each, released upstream of the barrier; no unmarked sea lampreys and none of the 1,194 sea lampreys tagged and released downstream of the barrier were captured in the fyke nets while the barrier was energized. At a lower pulsator setting (1-ms pulse width; 10 pulses/s), 1 of 900 sea lampreys released below the barrier was recaptured in the nets. Sea lampreys from downstream were captured in the fyke nets after the barrier was de-energized, indicating that the barrier should remain in operation later than mid-July. Both sea lampreys and teleosts exposed to the electrical field were stunned but exhibited no apparent damage at either barrier setting. The pulsed-DC electrical barrier should help reduce the use of chemical lampricides for controlling sea lampreys in some Great Lakes streams and would be particularly suited for streams where even the smallest low-head barrier would create an unacceptably large impoundment.

  15. Impact of managed aquifer recharge on the chemical and isotopic composition of a karst aquifer, Wala reservoir, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanke, Julian; Goeppert, Nadine; Sawarieh, Ali; Liesch, Tanja; Kinger, Jochen; Ali, Wasim; Hötzl, Heinz; Hadidi, Khair; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-08-01

    Storm-water harvesting and storage via managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a promising approach to combat water scarcity in semi-arid regions, but poses a challenge for karst aquifers and regions with highly variable water availability. The infiltration of low-mineralized surface water and its impact on highly mineralized groundwater of a karst aquifer was investigated at Wala reservoir in Jordan over a period of approximately 10 years. The results show significant groundwater-level rise in a wellfield, in response to the yearly average infiltration of about 6.7 million m3. This corresponds to about 60 % of the yearly average abstraction of about 11.7 million m3, confirmed by mixing calculations with tritium. A decreasing trend in infiltration due to sedimentation is observed. Mean groundwater residence times of several thousand years, derived from carbon-14 dating, indicate a large storage capacity of the aquifer. The heterogeneous distribution of the residence times is caused by strong groundwater withdrawals and artificial recharge along with karst-specific aquifer characteristics. Temporal groundwater salinity fluctuations in the wellfield are observed after the first MAR infiltration. Enhanced groundwater flow along the wadi course was demonstrated, which is an important aspect with regards to future MAR projects in similar wadis of the region.

  16. Nurses’ Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Giving: A Comparison Study Among All Health Care Sectors in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Ghaith Ahmad Bani; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Zaqqout, Ossama Abed.; Aljwad, Ashraf Ismail; Shawagfeh, Mohammed Qasim; Al- Rahim, Maysoon Abd

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care in Jordan, and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographic variables. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design and recruited a convenience sample of 408 Jordanian registered nurses to complete the spiritual care giving scale. Results: The findings of the study demonstrated that most of the participating nurses had a high level of spirituality and spiritual care perception. Significant differences were found between male and female nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care (P < 0.05); previous attendance of courses on spiritual care also made a significant difference to perceptions (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The research findings suggest that, Jordanian nurses’ gender made a difference in their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. They had satisfactory levels of perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Moreover, spiritual care courses appeared to have a positive impact on their perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Enhancing nursing care by integrating standardized spiritual care into the current nursing care, training, and education should also be emphasized. PMID:26962280

  17. An assessment study of heavy metal distribution within soil in upper course of Zarqa River basin/Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderahman, Nabil; Abu-Rukah, Y. H.

    2006-04-01

    Levels of heavy metals are found in soils and waters of the major tributary valleys of the Jordan Valley. Heavy metal content in soils irrigated by treated waste water were measured for a 40 km reach of Zarqa River. Soil samples from eight different sites along the upper course of this river were analyzed to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals (CO, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn). Silt forms the major component of the soils with an average of 54%. Clay fractions show an increase with depth from 17 to 41%. Trends in particle size distribution and metal contents were compared across sample sites. Samples contained moderate to considerable levels of Pb and Ni. Concentrations of Cu and Cr ranged between 33-59 and 65-90 ppm, respectively. These values represent a slight to moderate class of pollution. The concentration of Cr shows a decrease with depth and distance from the waste water plant. Cu, Zn, and Ni show increasing concentrations with depth but Pb and CO do not. The concentrations of the measured heavy metals increases near the waste water treatment plant but decreases with distance from the plant due to precipitation in the stream bed and dilution with stream water. This decline in metal content with distance from the treatment plant suggests that most metals reaching floodplain soils may derive from the same source. Although current metal concentrations are low to moderate, floodplain surface soils in this area should be regarded as a potential source for future heavy metal pollution downstream.

  18. Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Layer Farms in Northern Jordan Using Microbroth Dilution and Disc Diffusion Techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Alaboudi, Akram R; Osaili, Tareq M; Obaidat, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen of significant public health importance. This pathogen is associated with human infection and has been isolated from mammals and birds. Ninety-two cloacal C. jejuni isolates were identified from 35 layer farms in Northern Jordan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion techniques with variable suggested breakpoints. Using MIC and EUCAST cut-off values, the study revealed a significantly high resistance level (100%) among the layers' isolates against ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. A relatively high resistance (41%) toward gentamicin and amoxicillin and low resistance to nalidixic acid (21%), erythromycin (14%), and florfenicol (6.5%) were also found. This high level of resistance may indicate abuses in the handling of antibiotics, which may require stricter control in the local layer industry. A good agreement between the 2 techniques used was demonstrated and the disc diffusion technique could be used as a rapid screening test for antimicrobial susceptibility of C. jejuni to many antibiotics using specific Campylobacter breakpoints. PMID:27300500

  19. Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Elias

    The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of δO18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and δD = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with δO18 = -4.06 and δD = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (δO18 = -6, δD = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (δO18 = -5, δD = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (δO18 -3.8, δD = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (δO18 -18 = -6, δD = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces

  20. Prevalence of asthma in Jordan: comparison between Bedouins and urban schoolchildren using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III protocol.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, Faisal; Otoom, Sameer; Shehabi, Iman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of asthma and its symptoms in children aged 6-7 years and 13-14 years in an urban (Amman city) area and among Bedouins in northern Jordan. The number of students included in both studied groups was 9108. This study is part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), phase III. The response rate was 84% for urban schoolchildren compared with 68% among Bedouin schoolchildren. There was no statistical significance in prevalence of asthma diagnosed by a physician between the Amman city group and Bedouins (8.8% versus 9.5%). Wheeze induced by exercise and night cough was significantly common in schoolchildren aged 13-14 years compared with primary schoolchildren (18.5 and 25.3% versus 11.1 and 22.6%; p < 0.001). Wheezing ever and sleep disturbances were significantly more common in male subjects (27.5%, p < 0.01, and 12.2%, p < 0.001, respectively). Primary schoolchildren aged 6-7 years had significant wheezing ever (27.2%) compared with older children (25.1%; p < 0.05). Bedouin children had significant exercise-induced wheeze (16.4%) compared with children in Amman city (13.1%, p < 0.001), but the latter had significant prevalence of night cough (25%) compared with the Bedouin group (22.6%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this study shows that asthma is moderately common in Jordan. There was no difference in prevalence of asthma diagnosed by a physician between an urbanized region and Bedouins having low socioeconomic status. Asthma was common in male children, which is similar to other reports elsewhere. There is a twofold increase in the prevalence of asthma in Jordan in the last 10 years. PMID:19463207

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Payne, D. C.; Lu, X.; Erdman, D.; Wang, L.; Faouri, S.; Shehabi, A.; Johnson, M.; Becker, M. M.; Denison, M. R.; Williams, J. V.; Halasa, N. B.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalized children < 2 years of age in Amman, Jordan, admitted for fever and/or respiratory symptoms, were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). This was a prospective year-round viral surveillance study in children <2 years of age admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever from March 2010 to September 2012 and enrolled from a government-run hospital, Al-Bashir in Amman, Jordan. Clinical and demographic data, including antibiotic use, were collected. Combined nasal/throat swabs were collected, aliquoted, and frozen at −80°C. Specimen aliquots were shipped to Vanderbilt University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and tested by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the 2433 subjects enrolled from 16 March 2010 to 10 September 2012, 2427 subjects had viral testing and clinical data. Of 1898 specimens prospectively tested for other viruses between 16 March 2010 and 18 March 2012, 474 samples did not have other common respiratory viruses detected. These samples were tested at CDC for MERS-CoV and all were negative by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the remaining 531 samples, collected from 19 March 2012 to 10 September 2012 and tested at Vanderbilt, none were positive for MERS-CoV. Our negative findings from a large sample of young Jordanian children hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms suggest that MERS-CoV was not widely circulating in Amman, Jordan, during the 30-month period of prospective, active surveillance occurring before and after the first documented MERS-CoV outbreak in the Middle East region. PMID:24313317

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, N; Payne, D C; Lu, X; Erdman, D; Wang, L; Faouri, S; Shehabi, A; Johnson, M; Becker, M M; Denison, M R; Williams, J V; Halasa, N B

    2014-07-01

    Hospitalized children < 2 years of age in Amman, Jordan, admitted for fever and/or respiratory symptoms, were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). This was a prospective year-round viral surveillance study in children <2 years of age admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever from March 2010 to September 2012 and enrolled from a government-run hospital, Al-Bashir in Amman, Jordan. Clinical and demographic data, including antibiotic use, were collected. Combined nasal/throat swabs were collected, aliquoted, and frozen at -80°C. Specimen aliquots were shipped to Vanderbilt University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and tested by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the 2433 subjects enrolled from 16 March 2010 to 10 September 2012, 2427 subjects had viral testing and clinical data. Of 1898 specimens prospectively tested for other viruses between 16 March 2010 and 18 March 2012, 474 samples did not have other common respiratory viruses detected. These samples were tested at CDC for MERS-CoV and all were negative by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the remaining 531 samples, collected from 19 March 2012 to 10 September 2012 and tested at Vanderbilt, none were positive for MERS-CoV. Our negative findings from a large sample of young Jordanian children hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms suggest that MERS-CoV was not widely circulating in Amman, Jordan, during the 30-month period of prospective, active surveillance occurring before and after the first documented MERS-CoV outbreak in the Middle East region. PMID:24313317

  3. New structural/tectonical model and its implication on hydrological thinking and groundwater management - the Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Lake Tiberias is a fresh water lake located at the Kinneret basin which is approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide. It comprises a link in the chain of pull-apart basins that characterizes the structure of the conspicuous Jordan Rift Valley (JRV). The basin surface is about 200 m below mean sea level (msl) and basin-fill attains a thickness of up to 8 km. Until recently, studies focused mainly on the upper strata of basin fill. Consequently, a complete three dimensional geological model, including clear view of the tectonic framework at the Kinneret Basin was incomplete. This situation imposes great difficulty in understanding the local hydrological system and as consequence enforce constrains on groundwater management of the regional aquifers that flows towards the lake. A recently proposed structural/tectonical model (Inbar, 2012) enables revaluation of several geohydrological aspects at Sea of Galilee and its surroundings and a new hydrological model based on those findings aims to clarify those aspects with relation to groundwater management. The deep-seated stratigraphical units were seismically studied at the Kinnarot Valley (southern part of Kinneret basin) where sufficient information is available (Inbar, 2012). This study shows the subsidence and northwestward tilting of the basin floor (pre-rift formations) and the flow of thick Late Miocene salt accumulation accordingly. Furthermore, shallower seismic data, collected at the lake itself, shows a suspected salt dome close to the western boundary fault of the basin (Resnikov et al., 2004). Salt flow is now suggested to be a substantial factor in the tectonic play. At the lake surroundings there are several springs and boreholes where brine immerges from an estimated depth of about 2-3 kilometers. Significant differences in brine characteristics raised questions regarding the location of brine traps, flow mechanism and the mixture process between the fresh water and the brine. However, the effect of the

  4. Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.; Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.; Al-Taani, Ahmed A.; Al-Khateeb, Fadi L.; Knutsson, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin's total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the

  5. Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources (such as landfills, feedlots, agricultural chemicals applied to fields, and septic systems) is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, Began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie du Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of streamflow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity.

  6. Earliest Evidence for Social Endogamy in the 9,000-Year-Old-Population of Basta, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wolfgang; Berner, Margit E.; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H.; Knipper, Corina; Gebel, Hans-Georg K.; Nissen, Hans J.; Vach, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity – such as open access to resources and land – had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1). Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%). Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of exogamous mating

  7. Uplift and denudation history of the eastern Dead Sea rift flank, SW Jordan: Evidence from apatite fission track thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, S.; Eyal, M.; Kohn, B. P.; Steckler, M. S.; Ibrahim, K. M.; Moh'd, B. K.; Tian, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Dead Sea rift (DSR), developed along the Dead Sea transform plate boundary, is characterized by salient flanks and morphotectonic asymmetry. Apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT) along ~1200 m high vertical profiles in Neoproterozoic basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone in southwestern Jordan is used to reconstruct timing, magnitude, and rate of uplift and denudation of the eastern DSR flank and examine its relationship to rift development and its flank landscape. Time-temperature models based on AFT data suggest three major Phanerozoic heating and cooling episodes, Late Paleozoic, Early Cretaceous, and Oligocene. The latest episode, on which this study focuses, indicates uplift of ~3.8±0.3 km under a moderate paleogeothermal gradient. About 40% of the uplift was tectonically driven with the remainder attributed to isostatic rebound in response to denudation and erosion. Models suggest that uplift commenced in the Oligocene with a considerable part occurring prior to development of the DSR, despite being ~200 km from the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift margin. Uplift is probably part of a regional rearrangement along the western Arabian platform margin occurring at the time of Red Sea rift initiation. Transition from primarily sedimentary layer stripping, most likely by scarp retreat, to one of dominantly incision of the underlying crystalline basement occurred in Late Miocene-Pliocene time following enhanced subsidence and development of a low base level in the DSR. Consequently, the magnitude of uplift by isostatic rebound due to incision exceeded lowering by surface truncation and increased summit elevation and riftward flexing of the flank.

  8. Spatial analysis of soil and shallow groundwater physicochemical parameters in El-Mujib Basin-central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Abeer; Al-Qinna, Mohammed; Kuisi, Mustafa Al

    2014-01-01

    In this study statistical and geostatistical methods were applied to a monitoring data set in order to assess contamination risk in soil and shallow groundwater. The study covered an area within El-Mujib Basin in central Jordan, where the barren land is dominating with a small number of irrigated areas in the vicinity of Wadi El-Mujib and in the northern part of the basin. A total of 77 soil and 104 water samples were collected randomly and analyzed physically, chemically, statistically and spatially using ordinary and indicator kriging techniques. Phosphate, nitrate, organic matter and effective field capacity in the soil system were spatially investigated and correlated to current landuse. Maximum soil maximum nitrate (125.6 mg/L), phosphate (9.7 mg/L), and organic matter (3%) contents are encountered in the central area at Wadi El-Mujib, Qattrana and Umm Rasas due to the use of fertilizers and existence of solid landfill. The soil has low water holding capacity as it is dominated by coarse texture and therefore subjecting the groundwater for potential risks through the fast soil system. The major cations and anions in the groundwater were mainly concentrated in the Wadi El-Mujib and in the central part of the Basin increases along the groundwater flow direction. Spatial groundwater indicator maps of salinity; nitrate and sulfate contents proves the high susceptibility of the study area to be contaminated. By determining the impacts, more effective (specific to contamination sources) measures for preventing groundwater quality could be implemented.

  9. Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie due Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of stream-flow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Impact of an educational program on nursing students’ caring and self-perception in intensive clinical training in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, Rawda

    2011-01-01

    Background Framing and development of clinical skills in nursing students during their clinical practice is critical because this can shape their future caring skills. Professional caring empowers patients and contributes to their well-being and health. Education may enhance the capacity of nurses to be effective caring practitioners. Their study program encourages caring behavior in nursing students, consequently affecting their professional self-perception. Methods The present study investigated the effect of an educational program on caring behavior and professional self-perception in nursing students using a controlled pre/post test study design. The study sample consisted of 50 nursing students undertaking their final year in 2010–2011. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The study was conducted in two critical care units affiliated to the Ma’an and Queen Rania hospitals in the south of Jordan. The instruments utilized were the Caring Dimensions Inventory, Nursing Students Attitude Observational Checklist, and Professional Self-Concept of Nurses Instrument. Results The study findings favor the effect of the educational program because there was increased knowledge and understanding of caring theory and related concepts, a more holistic approach to care, enhanced caring practices, and improved self-perception in the study group compared with the control group during different periods of assessment. The study group showed significantly better caring perception in psychological, technical, and professional terms than the control group during different periods of assessment. There was a significant positive trend of overall professional self-perception for the study group compared with the control group. Conclusion Nursing curricula should incorporate concepts and principles that guide students in developing caring, safe, competent, and professional behavior. Nursing students must seek educational opportunities to

  11. The establishment of an ISO compliant cancer biobank for Jordan and its neighboring countries through knowledge transfer and training.

    PubMed

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Sughayer, Maher A

    2014-02-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  12. Quantifying specific capacity and salinity variability in Amman Zarqa Basin, Central Jordan, using empirical statistical and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaqour, F; Taany, R; Rimawi, O; Saffarini, G

    2016-01-01

    Modeling groundwater properties is an important tool by means of which water resources management can judge whether these properties are within the safe limits or not. This is usually done regularly and in the aftermath of crises that are expected to reflect negatively on groundwater properties, as occurred in Jordan due to crises in neighboring countries. In this study, specific capacity and salinity of groundwater of B2/A7 aquifer in Amman Zarqa Basin were evaluated to figure out the effect of population increase in this basin as a result of refugee flux from neighboring countries to this heavily populated basin after Gulf crises 1990 and 2003. Both properties were found to exhibit a three-parameter lognormal distribution. The empirically calculated β parameter of this distribution mounted up to 0.39 m(3)/h/min for specific capacity and 238 ppm for salinity. This parameter is suggested to account for the global changes that took place all over the basin during the entire period of observation and not for local changes at every well or at certain localities in the basin. It can be considered as an exploratory result of data analysis. Formal and implicit evaluation followed this step using structural analysis and construction of experimental semivariograms that represent the spatial variability of both properties. The adopted semivariograms were then used to construct maps to illustrate the spatial variability of the properties under consideration using kriging interpolation techniques. Semivariograms show that specific capacity and salinity values are spatially dependent within 14,529 and 16,309 m, respectively. Specific capacity semivariogram exhibit a nugget effect on a small scale (324 m). This can be attributed to heterogeneity or inadequacies in measurement. Specific capacity and salinity maps show that the major changes exhibit a northwest southeast trend, near As-Samra Wastewater Treatment Plant. The results of this study suggest proper management

  13. The Establishment of an ISO Compliant Cancer Biobank for Jordan and its Neighboring Countries Through Knowledge Transfer and Training

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  14. Olive Mounds, Roman cisterns, erosion pins - potential to characterize erosion in a Mediterranean catchment in north Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a three years' time period of a PhD thesis it is luck to catch the "right" rain events for good general erosion approximations. Methods that (i) cover longer time periods, (ii) are not confined to constructed boundaries, and finally (iii) include all possible erosion processes are crucial for good average estimates of sediment yields from different landscapes. The aim of the study was to get a first understanding of erosion processes and sediment yields in a Mediterranean to semi-arid catchment in NW Jordan, wherefore different measurement methods were tested in the predominant landscape units: olive orchards (27%), fields (14%) and natural shrubs on steep slopes (~30%). One of the applied methods was the measurement of topographic olive mounds within 7 orchards with an average size of 800 m2 in synergy with tree-coring and age estimation of the orchards. Furthermore the OSL dating of deposited sediments in two roman cisterns adjacent to fields was conducted and the 9 erosion pin fields, each about 200m2 large, were installed on steep slopes with natural vegetation. The methods cover different time scales from 560 years for the fields, an average of 32 years for the olive orchards and up to two rainy seasons for the erosion pin fields. Results show that olive orchards on steep slopes (>10%) have the highest erosion potential in the region with 95±8 t ha-1year-1 followed by natural vegetated slopes with 37±4 t ha-1year-1 of dislocated material and fields with 1.22±0.06 t ha-1year-1 sediment yield. These spatially constrained outcomes are supported by geochemical sediment fingerprint results of lake sediments from the catchment and will be discussed in regard to the basic assumption that underlie the principle of measurement and the limitations of the methods.

  15. Earliest evidence for social endogamy in the 9,000-year-old-population of Basta, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alt, Kurt W; Benz, Marion; Müller, Wolfgang; Berner, Margit E; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Knipper, Corina; Gebel, Hans-Georg K; Nissen, Hans J; Vach, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity - such as open access to resources and land - had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1). Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%). Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of exogamous mating

  16. Tectonic paleostress fields in the southwestern part of Jordan: New insights from the fault slip data in the southeastern flank of the Dead Sea Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaideh, Omar M. A.; Melichar, Rostislav

    2015-09-01

    A new approach for paleostress analysis, using the nine-dimensional space fault slip inversion method, was performed in the southeastern flank of the Jordan-Dead Sea Fault. Five major tectonic episodes with different kinematics were successfully detected from the inversion of a new fault slip data, which thereby caused reactivation of inherited crustal structures and established new ones. These episodes prevailed since Late Cretaceous times, and their chronological constraints were established essentially from the stratigraphic ages of the affected rocks and the crosscutting relationships of successive striae locally observed on the fault planes. During the Late Cretaceous to late Eocene, the area was under a compressional/strike-slip stress regime with a ~E-W trending σ1. At Oligocene, a strike-slip stress regime with NW-SE striking σ1 occurred. Both compression regimes correspond to the so-called Syrian Arc Deformation that gave rise to distinctive folds in Jordan and its surrounding areas. An extension with ~N-S to NE-SW trending σ3 followed the late Oligocene compression event and took place during Miocene time, most probably linked to the opening of the Red Sea-Suez Rift. Late Cenozoic tectonics show the occurrence of two successive compressions, NW-SE then both NE-SW and ~N-S, which generally reflect a continental collisional setting between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  17. Ground-water flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer related to contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St Louis Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer was developed to assess the movement of coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. The model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. Sensitivity testing indicated that leakage to the upper model layer and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the basal confining unit of the St. Peter were the most sensitive model hydrologic properties. Model simulations indicated that water introduced into the aquifer through wells open to several aquifers would raise the potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan by as much as 3 ft in the area of the former plant. Other simulations suggested that withdrawal from certain upgradient wells may have altered local hydraulic gradients. These factors contributed to the potential for movement of contaminants from the area of the former plant to wells. Simulations of a proposed gradient-control plan indicate that the actions would be effective in limiting the expansion of the contaminated volume. These simulations also show, however, that control of discharge from all wells in the area will be important to the overall effectiveness of the plan. (USGS)

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees and pigeon dropping samples from four major cities in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamasha, Akram Mohammad Saad; Yildiran, Sinasi Taner; Gonlum, Ahmet; Saracli, Mehmet Ali; Doganci, Levent

    2004-08-01

    To our best knowledge, any study related to the ecological distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan does not exist in the medical literature. In order to determine the environmental occurrence of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan, pigeon droppings and material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees were collected from four major cities of this country. For the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii from environmental sources, 500 samples of the mixed soil debris, including tree materials, under the eucalyptus trees from cities of Amman, Irbid, Jerash, and Ajlun were collected. Also, 509 samples of pigeon droppings were collected from the same cities for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans. After inoculating the samples onto modified Staib agar medium in Petri dishes, a total of 336 melanoid yeast colonies were picked up during screening process. At the end of serial mycological studies, none of these isolates was identified as Cryptococcus neoformans, but all were Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans. For determining the exact status, more extensive environmental studies need to be done in the future. PMID:15518348

  19. Telecardiology application in jordan: its impact on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life. PMID:25400661

  20. Telecardiology Application in Jordan: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Disease Management, Patients' Quality of Life, and Time- and Cost-Savings

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M.; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A.; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life. PMID:25400661

  1. Incidence and risk factors of bacterial infections in children following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Single-center experience from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ayad Ahmed; Al-Antary, Eman T; Najjar, Rula; Al-Zaben, Abdulhadi; Frangoul, Haydar

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a serious sequela following AHSCT; however, limited data are available regarding pediatric recipients, especially in developing countries. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and risk factors of bacterial infections during the first 100 days after AHSCT in children at KHCC in Amman, Jordan between January, 2005 and September, 2013. A total of 65 patients were identified, with median age of four yr (1-17). Forty-seven patients (72.3%) had solid tumors and 18 (27.7%) had lymphoma. Bacterial infections were documented in 33 patients (50%), with a total of 63 episodes. Gram-negative infection (57.1%) was more prevalent than Gram-positive infection (38%). The risk of bacterial infections was higher among patients less than five yr of age (p = 0.028) and those who developed hypogammaglobulinemia requiring IVIG replacement (p = 0.001). Patients with solid tumors developed more bacterial infections compared to patients with lymphoma (p = 0.0057). No deaths were attributed to bacterial infection. Bacterial infection rate is high among recipients of AHSCT in Jordan with Gram-negative bacteria being the most common. PMID:27273463

  2. [Crystal chemical and micromorphologic evaluation of ancient bone discoveries (Arabia Petraea, Jordan) from the 10th millennium B.C].

    PubMed

    Newesely, H

    1987-01-01

    As specialisations of osteoarchaeometry become increasingly developed, so the need of new analytical techniques and tests of a skillful applicability becomes more necessary. The crystal-chemical and micromorphological evaluations of preserved bone discoveries implicate reliable methods as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy with the skeletal materials and the soil environment in which bones are found. The reactivity of soils varies widely as geological and sedimentological conditions offer typical but different environments: gravels, chalk soil, clay, salt soils, sands, cave earths are examples of this wide variety, including atmospheric and biogenetic implications. The last mentioned features are strongly effective also in aride regions, with the well known fluctations of high parching and dewiness. However, despite the diversity in deposition and burial modes only few parameters govern the gradual decomposition of bone material: 1. pH value of the surrounding medium; 2. humidity of the surrounding medium, may be governed directly by autolysis; 3. transport of matter, related to grain size, pore volume, solubility behaviour; 4. physical pressure; 5. destruction by microorganisms; as well as the surrounding medium will be altered by the uptake and the transformation of the products of bone decomposition. The materials of investigation were skeletal fragments buried of ea. 10,000 a within the soft dune sediment of the western border mountains of Wadi el Araba (Arabia Petraea, Jordan). The discovered bones are, as a common feature of this locality Basta, strongly sintered--indication on the afore mentioned reactivity of the aride soil as well. Bone fragments were partially burnt at Sabra locality and discolored, and sintered also at these circumstances. The reactivity of the bone fragments is shown in terms of exchange reactions within the crystal structure of the bone mineral, apatite Ca5(PO4)3OH at the calcium sites, hydroxyl sites, and

  3. New process model for the Dead Sea sinkholes at Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, derived from shear-wave reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    In October 2013 a shear wave reflection seismic pilot study was carried out at the most destructive sinkhole site in Jordan, close to the village of Ghor Al Haditha at the South-East end of the Dead Sea. The investigation is part of the DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE), a virtual institute of the Helmholtz Association, designed as a cross-disciplinary and cooperative international project of the Helmholtz Centers KIT, GFZ, and UFZ, and their partners. Since nearly 30 years - apparently contemporaneous to the rapid decrease of the Dead Sea level - ongoing unknown sinkhole processes in the subsurface continuously compromise farming areas, housings, industrial sites, and infrastructure at the investigation site, resulting in massive destructions. Similar processes are observed also at the western border of the Dead Sea. Although many geophysical studies have been carried out at the site since more than 20 years, the subsurface structure and the process itself is quite unknown until yet. In recent years, a massive salt layer at 40 m depth or more was proposed below alluvial fan deposits, which was the target of this reflection seismic pilot study. We spent 10 days in the field and acquired four shear-wave reflection seismic profiles of 1.8 km total length to yield a high-resolution structural image of the subsurface. The lines cover in NW-SE and NE-SW direction the sinkhole-affected area as close as possible to recent collapse structures. There is no evidence for the hypothesized shallow salt layer, at least not down to 100 m probably up to 200 m depth. Instead, the detected subsurface structures show a complex interlock of alluvial fan deposits and marine sedimentation layers of the Dead Sea between 0-200 m depth. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis for the sinkhole processes in the region: salt-rich marine clay layers are present in the fresh water contact zones inside the alluvial fan, which are destabilized and mobilized by dissolution of the salt contained

  4. Multi-response calibration of a conceptual hydrological model in the semiarid catchment of Wadi al Arab, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödiger, T.; Geyer, S.; Mallast, U.; Merz, R.; Krause, P.; Fischer, C.; Siebert, C.

    2014-02-01

    A key factor for sustainable management of groundwater systems is the accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Hydrological models are common tools for such estimations and widely used. As such models need to be calibrated against measured values, the absence of adequate data can be problematic. We present a nested multi-response calibration approach for a semi-distributed hydrological model in the semi-arid catchment of Wadi al Arab in Jordan, with sparsely available runoff data. The basic idea of the calibration approach is to use diverse observations in a nested strategy, in which sub-parts of the model are calibrated to various observation data types in a consecutive manner. First, the available different data sources have to be screened for information content of processes, e.g. if data sources contain information on mean values, spatial or temporal variability etc. for the entire catchment or only sub-catchments. In a second step, the information content has to be mapped to relevant model components, which represent these processes. Then the data source is used to calibrate the respective subset of model parameters, while the remaining model parameters remain unchanged. This mapping is repeated for other available data sources. In that study the gauged spring discharge (GSD) method, flash flood observations and data from the chloride mass balance (CMB) are used to derive plausible parameter ranges for the conceptual hydrological model J2000g. The water table fluctuation (WTF) method is used to validate the model. Results from modelling using a priori parameter values from literature as a benchmark are compared. The estimated recharge rates of the calibrated model deviate less than ±10% from the estimates derived from WTF method. Larger differences are visible in the years with high uncertainties in rainfall input data. The performance of the calibrated model during validation produces better results than applying the model with only a priori parameter

  5. Hydro-mechanical model of a reactivated paleo-salt karst system in the Lisan area, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a pull-apart basin forming a terminal lake (-429 m) located over the Jordan - Dead Sea transform fault. The slope of the fresh/saline interface is ten times shallower than observed near the ocean because salinity is ten times greater than in the average sea water. Underground lateral extension is acting as a high density layer over which groundwater is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Since the 1960s, a slice of brine 0.033 km x 77 km x 16.5 km vanished due to water resources over-exploitation in the catchment area. Monitoring of wells in the Dead Sea zone indicated that the water table does not drop at the same pace as the lake. The head difference is increasing with time. Groundwater moves so rapidly towards the lake to compensate for the imbalance provoking the proliferation of sinkholes, subsidence, and landslides. Since the 1980s, the emerged spaces have been covered by industrial and touristic infrastructures. Such a dynamic system provides a test bed to study an Early Warning System to help minimizing geo-hazards effects. The reactivation of a paleo-channel located below a US 48 M salt evaporation pond of the Arab Potash Company, Lisan peninsula, provides an illustrative case-study. Sinkholes lineaments whose orientations fit with the main structural directions highlight the role of conduit played by faults and fractures. Rapid underground water circulation explains the appearance of tamarisk in unexpected places. Time series analysis of high and very high resolution visible/radar satellite images acquired from the 1970s and on indicated major changes in the landscape. This work underlines the need of very carefully analyzing all available data sources acquired prior to and during the recession of the lake level before the development of human activities along the coast. This work is supported by the Arab Potash Company. Thanks are due to H.E. Eng. Jaman Sarayreh, Chairman of the Arab Potash Company, and to Dr Dureid Mahasneh et Mr. Bisher

  6. Improved Dead Sea sinkhole site characterization at Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, based on repeated shear wave reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    In October 2014 a high-resolution shallow shear wave reflection seismic survey was carried out at the Dead Sea sinkhole site Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan. It extended a survey undertaken in 2013, also in order to gather time-lapse profiles. In the framework of the DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE), a virtual institute of the Helmholtz Association and international partners, this investigation is part of a cross-disciplinary and cooperative international project of the Helmholtz Centers KIT, GFZ, and UFZ. At the investigation site, characterized by alluvial fan deposits, ongoing subsidence and sinkhole processes in the subsurface create massive reshaping of farming areas, including the destruction of housings, industrial sites, and infrastructure. The sinkhole hazard at the Dead Sea is significant, since similar processes are observed at several coastal segments of the Dead Sea. The new survey (in total 2.1 profile km) was targeted to improve the knowledge about the subsurface structures and to confine the results of the initial survey (1.8 km profile km), with respect to the presence or non-presence of a massive salt layer proposed at nearly 40 m depth. This salt layer is the central part of a widely established process hypothesis to generate shallow cavities by salt subrosion, which subsequently collapse to sinkholes at the surface. Results of the initial survey carried out in 2013 highlighted a new process hypothesis of subsurface mass transport by Dead Sea mud mobilization enclosed in the alluvial fan, so that an extended survey was undertaken in 2014. This, indeed, confirmed that there are no reflection seismic signal responses that would be expected to occur in the presence of a massive salt layer. Since evaluation of both hypothesis by new drilling could not be carried out due to safety reasons and permissions, it remained unclear which hypothesis is valid for the investigation site. However, we combined the 2013 and 2014 reflection seismic profiles and the

  7. Employing hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in analyzing groundwater flow mechanism, dynamics in karst aquifer of the Lower Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, Shadha; Sauter, Martin; Marei, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Water is a valuable resource, especially in arid and semi arid areas. In order to do proper management of the water resources, studies on the aquifer system is essential. The study case is located in the lower part of the western Jordan Valley. This karstic area has different systems from which the upper and lower Mountain aquifer systems. Two representative springs were chosen for each aquifer, Sultan spring for the lower aquifer and Auja spring for the upper one. Sultan spring has a continues and constant discharge rate through the year while Auja spring has high oscillation in discharge accompanied by frequent dry-out in summer months and fast response to precipitation events. The two systems have been thought to be separated by an aquiclute, however after frequent intensive sampling of both springs during the raining winter season, This study shows that with the exception of Na+ and Cl- all other concentration of ions are very similar. The average of Sodium for Sultan spring is 33 mg/L, while the average Chloride for the same spring is 54.5 mg/L. As for Auja spring the average Sodium and Chloride are 24 mg/L and 39.4 mg/L respectively, therefore, the water of Sultan spring contains higher content of sodium and chloride than Auja, this could be related to the chemistry of the lower aquifer. The ratio of Na+/Cl- for Sultan and Auja springs are 0.92 and 0.94 respectively, this indicates that Auja is close to the rain ratio of 0.86 while Sultan (although slightly higher) may be closer to the Halite ratio of 1. The isotopic signature of 18O for both springs has shown to be very similar with only a -0.5‰ of difference in most cases, with a range of -5.2‰ to -6.2‰ for Sultan and -5.4‰ to -6.2‰ for Auja spring. These results may indicate the same recharge elevation for both springs in the Mountain area. On the other hand, in some places east to the major fault system, the shallow aquifer's 18O content in Jericho is close to that of Sultan spring, which could

  8. Development of Marine Sciences in Arab Universities. Meeting of Experts Held at the Marine Science Station (Aqaba, Jordan, December 1-5, 1985). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The "Unesco Reports in Marine Science" are designed to serve as a complement to the "Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science." This report focuses on the current situation in marine sciences in Arab universities. A special meeting was convened in Jordan during December, 1985, to discuss the objectives of teaching and research in the marine…

  9. Tidal-bundle sequences in the Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian), southeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.: Evidence for tides along inboard shorelines of the Sauk Epicontinental Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, C.H.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents for the first time tidal bundling in a lower Paleozoic sheet sandstone from the cratonic interior of North America, providing insights into the hydrodynamics of ancient epicontinental seas. The Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian) in the Upper Mississippi Valley contains large-scale planar tabular cross-sets with tidal-bundle sequences, which were analyzed in detail at an exceptional exposure. Tidal-bundle sequences (neap-spring-neap cycles) were delineated by foreset thickening-thinning patterns and composite shale drapes, the latter of which represent accumulations of mud during the neap tides of neap-spring-neap tidal cycles. Fourier analysis of the bundle thickness data from the 26 measurable bundle sequences revealed cycles ranging from 15 to 34 bundles per sequence, which suggests a semidiurnal or mixed tidal system along this part of the Late Cambrian shoreline. We extend the tidal interpretation to widespread occurrences of the same facies in outcrops of lesser quality, where the facies is recognizable but too few bundles are exposed for tidal cycles to be measured. By doing so, this study shows that tidally generated deposits have a significant geographic and temporal extent in Upper Cambrian strata of central mid-continent North America. The deposition and preservation of tidal facies was related to the intermittent development of shoreline embayments during transgressions. The tidally dominated deposits filled ravined topographies that were repeatedly developed on the updip parts of the shoreface. Resulting coastal geomorphologies, accompanied perhaps by larger-scale changes in basinal conditions and/or configuration, led to changes in depositional conditions from wave-dominated to tide-dominated. Outcrops of the Jordan Sandstone tidal facies in the Upper Mississippi Valley represent the farthest inboard recorded transmission of ocean-generated tides in the Laurentian epicontinental seas, demonstrating that tidal currents were

  10. Strontium isotopes in Melanopsis sp. as indicators of variation in hydrology and climate in the Upper Jordan Valley during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, and wider implications.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Shoshana; Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Aquifers dominated by Pleistocene basalts and Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous rocks feed the Hula basin which is drained by the Jordan River into Lake Kinneret. The sedimentary sequence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene Benot Ya'akov Formation (BYF) exposed by excavations of the 0.78 Ma lake-side site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) consists of six cycles representing ca. 100 ka history of the Hula basin. This study characterizes the types of water sources in the catchment, tests the use of the Strontium (Sr) isotopes in the common extant snail Melanopsis sp. as a tracer for water in its habitat, and uses this tracer in the fossil specimens from GBY to investigate the palaeohydrology of the Hula paleolake during the corresponding period. The Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of extant Melanopsis shells in the Hula catchment range widely (0.7046-0.7079). These analyses define distinct groups of water sources and aquifers, while the Jordan River at the GBY site has values around 0.70685. The values for fossil Melanopsis from GBY vary along stratigraphy; they are highest around 0.70710 in Cycles 1 and 2, decrease to around 0.70685 in Cycle 3, and exhibit upward trending fluctuations in the subsequent cycles to 0.70703 in Cycle 6. This trend reveals the dominance of the Hermon Jurassic aquifer during the earlier, colder periods before the Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary (MBB) and enhanced influence of the Golan basaltic aquifers, in subsequent warmer periods, indicating that the MBB coincides with climate warming as supported by other indicators. Hence, this global geochronological indicator of 0.78 Ma is also potentially a global palaeoclimatic marker. The similarity between the Sr isotope composition of the Jordan River waters and Melanopsis and those from Cycle 3 suggests that the current climate corresponds to that of the warmest period within the record of GBY, clarifying the comparative interpretation of this 100 k.yr. climate record. PMID:21036385

  11. Ten-year Diabetes Risk Forecast in the Capital of Jordan: Arab Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire Perspective-A Strobe-Complaint Article.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Alghwiri, Alia A; Awad, Hamzeh; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan has been increasing. The early diagnosis of diabetes is vital to slow its progression. The Arab Risk (ARABRISK) screening tool is a self-administered questionnaire used to determine people who are at high risk for developing diabetes. This study aimed to identify people at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes by using the ARABRISK in the capital of Jordan.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of people in the capital of Jordan. The ARABRISK screening tool was administered to identify the participants' risk for developing diabetes. In addition to descriptive statistics, percentages of the ARABRISK categories were represented, and an independent samples t test was used to explore the differences between men and women. A total of 513 participants with a mean age of 51.94 (SD = 10.33) were recruited; 64.9% of the participants were men (n = 333).The total ARABRISK score ranged from 0 to 25 with a mean score of 12.30 (SD = 4.76). Using the independent samples t test, women (mean = 13.25, SE = 0.10) had significantly higher ARABRISK total scores than men did (mean = 12.95, SE = 0.09), t(141) = -2.23, P = 0.03 in the "moderate risk" category. All of the items in the ARABRISK questionnaire were found to be good predictors of the ARABRISK total scores. Among them, age, body mass index (BMI), and high blood glucose (HBG) were the best predictors as indicated by the standardized regression coefficient (β). Older age, obesity, elevated weight circumference, absence of daily physical activity, daily consumption of fruits/vegetables, presence of high blood pressure (HBP), and HBG were significantly associated with increased odds of high ARABRISK total scores. Neither a history of gestational diabetes nor a positive family history was associated with an increased odds of high ARABRISK total scores.By identifying risk factors in these participants, interventions and lifestyle

  12. Cadomian (˜560 Ma) crust buried beneath the northern Arabian Peninsula: Mineral, chemical, geochronological, and isotopic constraints from NE Jordan xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Ali, Kamal A.; Ren, Minghua; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Romer, Rolf L.; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ibrahim, Khalil M.

    2016-02-01

    In order to better understand the nature and formation of the lower continental crust beneath northern Arabia, we studied lower crustal xenoliths brought up by Neogene basalts in NE Jordan. Most of these xenoliths are comprised of primary phases plagioclase + two-pyroxenes with magnetite and ilmenite. Most clinopyroxene are augite whereas orthopyroxene mostly are hypersthene (Mg# = 50-80). Plagioclase feldspar is dominantly andesine-labradorite; pyrope-rich garnet and Fe-rich olivine (Fo75 to Fo62) are rare. These xenoliths represent cumulates formed from intermediate magmas that pooled in the lower crust. Many xenoliths also contain small, fine-grained K-rich zones interpreted as melt pockets reflecting late magmatic infiltration of the lower crust. The xenoliths display a wide range in major element compositions (37-51 wt.% SiO2, 4-15 wt.% MgO and 0.1-6.3 wt.% TiO2), enrichment in Ba, K, Sr, Pb and Eu, and some trace element ratios atypical of bulk continental crust (e.g., K/Rb = 1265 ± 565, K/U = 63 000 ± 60 080 and Th/U = 0.96 ± 0.56); these extreme ratios reflect widespread K-metasomatism associated with melt pockets. The magmas from which these cumulates formed may have been generated at a reararc convergent margin setting. Four U-Pb zircon populations yield indistinguishable ages of 554 ± 4 Ma; 559 ± 5 Ma; 559 ± 6 Ma, and 563 ± 5 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70260-0.70352) and positive εNd(560) (with the exception of a single, more radiogenic sample (+9.6), range = + 1.3 to +4.8) indicate that the lower crust sampled by the xenoliths originated in the asthenospheric mantle, with little or no interaction with older crust, although Pb isotopic compositions allow for some interaction with older or subducted crustal materials. We interpret the geochemistry and mineralogy of these xenoliths to indicate that the lower crust beneath NE Jordan is mafic and comprised of plagioclase-rich 2-pyroxene igneous rocks. The lower crust of this area formed by

  13. Unsafe sexual behaviour in domestic and foreign migrant male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan: occupational-based and behavioural assessment survey

    PubMed Central

    Al Rifai, Rami; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Morita, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge, health and work-related conditions, and correlates of practising unsafe sex among domestic and foreign male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional behavioural assessment survey. Setting Multinational workplaces in Jordan. Participants 230 Jordanian and 480 foreign male workers aged ≥18 years who had worked in a Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) for 12 months or more. Outcomes The primary outcome was the prevalence of practising unsafe sex. ‘Unsafe sex’ was defined as sex with a non-regular sexual partner with inconsistent condom usage. Results Overall, 74.3% of workers reported lifetime sexual experience. The proportion of lifetime unsafe sex was similar among domestic (31.8%) and foreign (35.6%) workers. Of those, 59.2% of domestic and 68.1% of foreign workers started practising unsafe sex after joining the QIZ. Rates of lifetime unsafe sex were significantly higher among those who had their sexual debut after joining the QIZ in domestic (aOR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and foreign workers (aOR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.1). Among the domestic workers, being 18–24 years old (aOR, 4.9), unmarried (aOR, 4.8), working in the QIZ for 5–8 years (aOR, 5.0), sometimes/frequently shopped with foreign workers (aOR, 2.1) or were current/ex-alcohol drinkers (aORs, 3.4) were independently significantly associated with higher odds of practising unsafe sex. Conclusions A significant proportion of domestic and foreign male workers had been practising unsafe sex. The findings indicated that not only foreigners but also domestic male workers associating with foreign workers are at high risk of unsafe sex. Tailored interventions to promote safer sex in multinational workplaces in Jordan are needed. PMID:26068511

  14. Cadomian (˜560 Ma) crust buried beneath the northern Arabian Peninsula: Mineral, chemical, geochronological, and isotopic constraints from NE Jordan xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Ali, Kamal A.; Ren, Minghua; Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Romer, Rolf L.; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ibrahim, Khalil M.

    2016-02-01

    In order to better understand the nature and formation of the lower continental crust beneath northern Arabia, we studied lower crustal xenoliths brought up by Neogene basalts in NE Jordan. Most of these xenoliths are comprised of primary phases plagioclase + two-pyroxenes with magnetite and ilmenite. Most clinopyroxene are augite whereas orthopyroxene mostly are hypersthene (Mg# = 50-80). Plagioclase feldspar is dominantly andesine-labradorite; pyrope-rich garnet and Fe-rich olivine (Fo75 to Fo62) are rare. These xenoliths represent cumulates formed from intermediate magmas that pooled in the lower crust. Many xenoliths also contain small, fine-grained K-rich zones interpreted as melt pockets reflecting late magmatic infiltration of the lower crust. The xenoliths display a wide range in major element compositions (37-51 wt.% SiO2, 4-15 wt.% MgO and 0.1-6.3 wt.% TiO2), enrichment in Ba, K, Sr, Pb and Eu, and some trace element ratios atypical of bulk continental crust (e.g., K/Rb = 1265 ± 565, K/U = 63 000 ± 60 080 and Th/U = 0.96 ± 0.56); these extreme ratios reflect widespread K-metasomatism associated with melt pockets. The magmas from which these cumulates formed may have been generated at a reararc convergent margin setting. Four U-Pb zircon populations yield indistinguishable ages of 554 ± 4 Ma; 559 ± 5 Ma; 559 ± 6 Ma, and 563 ± 5 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70260-0.70352) and positive ɛNd(560) (with the exception of a single, more radiogenic sample (+9.6), range = + 1.3 to +4.8) indicate that the lower crust sampled by the xenoliths originated in the asthenospheric mantle, with little or no interaction with older crust, although Pb isotopic compositions allow for some interaction with older or subducted crustal materials. We interpret the geochemistry and mineralogy of these xenoliths to indicate that the lower crust beneath NE Jordan is mafic and comprised of plagioclase-rich 2-pyroxene igneous rocks. The lower crust of this area formed by

  15. STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiwan, A.; Khadra, L.; Shahab, W.; Olgaard, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Students in developing countries interested in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering & math) often choose majors that will improve their job opportunities in their home country when they graduate, e.g. engineering or medicine. Geoscience might be chosen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, but rarely as a primary major unless there are local economic natural resources. The Institute of International Education administers the ExxonMobil Middle East and North Africa region scholars program designed to develop skilled students with a focus on geoscience and to build relationships with academic leaders by offering select faculty the opportunity to participation in the AGU fall meeting. At the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), research in electrical engineering applied to medicine has potential links to geosciences. In geophysics, neural wavelet analysis (NWA) is commonly used to process complex seismic signals, e.g. for interpreting lithology or identifying hydrocarbons. In this study, NWA was used to characterize cardiac arrhythmias. A classification scheme was developed in which a neural network is used to identify three types of arrhythmia by distinct frequency bands. The performance of this scheme was tested using patient records from two electrocardiography (ECG) databases. These records contain normal ECG signals, as well as abnormal signals from atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrhythmias. The continuous wavelet transform is applied over frequencies of 0-50 Hz for times of 0-2s. For a normal ECG, the results show that the strongest signal is in a frequency range of 4-10 Hz. For AF, a low frequency ECG signal in the range of 0-5 Hz extends over the whole time domain. For VT, the low frequency spectrum is in the range of 2-10 Hz, appearing as three distinct bands. For VF, a continuous band in the range of 2-10 Hz extends over the whole time domain. The classification of

  16. Multicomponent reactive transport in discrete fractures. II: Infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater at Maqarin, Jordan, a natural analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steefel, C. I.; Lichtner, P. C.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical multicomponent reactive transport model described fully in Steefel and Lichtner (1998)[Steefel, C.I., Lichtner, P.C., 1998. Multicomponent reactive transport in discrete fractures, I. Controls on reaction front geometry. J. Hydrol. (in press)] is used to simulate the infiltration of hyperalkaline groundwater along discrete fractures at Maqarin, Jordan, a site considered as a natural analogue to cement-bearing nuclear waste repositories. In the Eastern Springs area at Maqarin, two prominent sets of sub-parallel fractures trending NW-SE are approximately perpendicular to the local water table contours, with the slope of the water table indicating north-westward flow. Extensive mineralogic investigations [Alexander W.R. (Ed.), 1992. A natural analogue study of cement-buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a sedimentary host rock. NAgrA Technical Report (NTB 91-10), Wettingen, Switzerland; Milodowski, A.E., Hyslop, E.K., Pearce, J.M., Wetton, P.D., Kemp, S.J., Longworth, G., Hodginson, E., and Hughes, C.R., 1998. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the western springs area. In: Smellie, J.A.T. (ed.), 1998: Maqarin Natural Analogue Study: Phase III. SKB Technical Report TR98-04, Stockholm, Sweden] indicate that the width of intense rock alteration zone bordering the fractures changes from about 4 mm at one locality (the M1 sampling site) to approximately 1 mm 100 m to the north-west in the flow direction (the M2 site), suggesting a lessening of alteration intensity in that direction. Using this information, the dimensionless parameter δ v/φ D' (φ=porosity, D'=effective diffusion coefficient in rock matrix, δ=fracture aperture, and v=fluid velocity in the fracture) and measurements of the local hydraulic head gradient and effective diffusion coefficient in the rock matrix, a mean fracture aperture of 0.194 mm is calculated assuming the cubic law applies. This information, in combination with measured groundwater compositions at the

  17. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged

  18. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Most classifications of mass movements in rock slopes use relatively simple, idealized geometries for the basal sliding surface, like planar sliding, wedge sliding, toppling or columnar failures. For small volumes, the real sliding surface can be often well described by such simple geometries. Extended and complex rock surfaces, however, can exhibit a large number of mass movements, also showing various kind of kinematisms. As a consequence, the real situation in large rock surfaces with a complicate geometry is generally very complex and a site depending analysis, such as fieldwork and compass, cannot be comprehensive of the real situation. Since the outstanding development of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in recent years, rock slopes can now be investigated and mapped through high resolution point clouds, reaching the resolution of few mm's and accuracy less than a cm in most advanced instruments, even from remote surveying. The availability of slope surface digital data can offer a unique chance to determine potential kinematisms in a wide distributed area for all the investigated geomorphological processes. More in detail the proposed method is based on the definition of least squares fitting planes on clusters of points extracted by moving a sampling cube on the point cloud. If the associated standard deviation is below a defined threshold, the cluster is considered valid. By applying geometric criteria it is possible to join all the clusters lying on the same surface; in this way discontinuity planes can be reconstructed, rock mass geometrical properties are calculated and, finally, potential kinematisms established. The Siq of Petra (Jordan), is a 1.2 km naturally formed gorge, with an irregular horizontal shape and a complex vertical slope, that represents the main entrance to Nabatean archaeological site. In the Siq, discontinuities of various type (bedding, joints, faults), mainly related to geomorphological evolution of the slope, lateral stress

  19. Studies on the bacterial etiology of airsacculitis of broilers in northern and middle Jordan with special reference to Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium.

    PubMed

    El-Sukhon, Saeb N; Musa, Asad; Al-Attar, Majed

    2002-01-01

    A total of 100 poultry farms in northern and middle areas of Jordan were sampled to investigate the bacteria associated with airsacculitis in broiler chickens. Of 170 bacterial isolates, 88.2% were identified as Escherichia coli, 8.8% as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and 3% as Bordetella avium. Fourteen serotypes of E. coli were identified among 66 typeable isolates and the remainder were untypeable. The most prevalent serotypes were O1, O8, and O78. The main serotype of O. rhinotracheale was serotype A. Experimental inoculation of O. rhinotracheale via intravenous, intratracheal, and intra-air sac routes resulted in growth retardation, thickening in the air sacs, arthritis, and liver necrosis. Reisolation of O. rhinotracheale from the air sacs, liver, trachea, heart, and spleen at day 7 postinoculation confirmed its role. In vitro susceptibility testing revealed that E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and colistin, O. rhinotracheale to tetracyline, and B. avium to most of the nine antibiotics examined. PMID:12243524

  20. Correlation between the silica concentration and the orifice temperature in the warm springs along the jordan-dead sea rift valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levitte, D.; Eckstein, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of twenty-one thermal springs emerging along the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley in Israel indicates a very good correlation between the concentration of dissolved silica and the temperature of the spring orifice. Dissolution of quartz was identified as the apparent source of the silica in the water. Application of the silica geothermometer for mixed systems suggests that the springs in the Tiberias Lake Basin are supplied with hot water from deep reservoir (or reservoirs) at a temperature of 115??C (239??F). The same temperature was postulated earlier by the application of the Na-K-Ca hydro-geothermometer to a group of thermal springs in the same basin. The temperature of the reservoir supplying hot brines to the springs emerging along the western shore of the Dead Sea is estimated at 90??C (194??F).