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Sample records for jovian plasma torus

  1. Interaction of Europa with Jovian Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnicek, Pavel M.; Sebek, Ondrej; Bale, Stuart D.; Hellinger, Petr; Halekas, Jasper

    2015-04-01

    We present results of a simulation study of the interaction of Europa with Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma compared to in situ observations of Galileo spacecraft. For simulations we use multi-species hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) three-dimensional model. We consider O++, S++ as the main constituents of the Jovian plasma torus at Europa while its neutral atmosphere is considered to be composed primarily of (neutral) O2 molecules. We consider ionization processes of the neutral O2 atmosphere which is then a source of dense population of pick-up ions at Europa. We examine global structure of the interaction and we compare the simulated results with in situ measurements of spacecraft Galileo. The plasma composed of pick-up ions represents an obstacle for the Jovian magnetic field resulting in the compression of the magnetic field lines which in return causes development of temperature anisotropies. We study the regions where the threshold of temperature anisotropy driven instabilities has been reached. We also focus on the refiling processes of the small cavity formed in the plasma downstream the relative plasma flow between Europa and the magnetospheric plasma. We acquire high resolution simulated data along virtual trajectories of Galileo spacecraft which allows us to directly compare simulation results to in situ observations.

  2. Jovian dust streams: Probes of the Io plasma torus

    E-print Network

    Harald Krueger; Mihaly Horanyi; Eberhard Gruen

    2002-11-04

    Jupiter was discovered to be a source of high speed dust particles by the Ulysses spacecraft in 1992. These dust particles originate from the volcanic plumes on Io. They collect electrostatic charges from the plasma environment, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of the magnetosphere, and leave Jupiter with escape speeds over $\\rm 200 km s^{-1}$. The dust streams were also observed by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft. While Ulysses and Cassini only had a single encounter with Jupiter, Galileo has continuously monitored the dust streams in the Jovian magnetosphere since 1996. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to both systematic and stochastic changes. By combining the entire data set, the variability due to stochatic processes can be approximately removed and a strong variation with Jovian local time is found. This result is consistent with theoretical expectations and confirms that the majority of the Jovian dust stream particles originate from Io rather than other potential sources.

  3. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  4. Jovian Plasmas Torus Interaction with Europa. Plasma Wake Structure and Effect of Inductive Magnetic Field: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to a variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions). Photoionization, electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider the models with Oþ þ and Sþ þ background plasma, and various betas for background ions and electrons, and pickup electrons. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population (Cassidy et al., 2007). In this paper, we discuss two tasks: (1) the plasma wake structure dependence on the parameters of the upstream plasma and Europa's atmosphere (model I, cases (a) and (b) with a homogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and high oceanic shell conductivity); and (2) estimation of the possible effect of an induced magnetic field arising from oceanic shell conductivity. This effect was estimated based on the difference between the observed and modeled magnetic fields (model II, case (c) with an inhomogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and low oceanic shell conductivity).

  5. Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

  6. Jovian plasma torus interaction with Europa. Plasma wake structure and effect of inductive magnetic field: 3D Hybrid kinetic simulation

    E-print Network

    Lipatov, A S; Paterson, W R; Sittler, E C; Hartle, R E; Simpson, D G

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect a to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream backgr...

  7. In situ observations of Io torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. D.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties of the Io plasma formation deduced from in situ observations are described. The torus plasma is characterized by spatially distinct regions with steep gradients in plasma parameters between them. The innermost region has a cool plasma which collapses toward the centrifugal equator and gives rise to a distinctive localized concentration of plasma well inside of Io's orbit. The next region has a warm plasma which includes the L-shell of Io and is the presumed injection region of the plasma. Other regions, known as the plasma ledge and ramp, are described. The changes in plasma characteristics are accounted for by centrifugally driven flux tube interchange diffusion to provide radial mass transport. The ramp is shown to result from impoundment of the plasma by the inner edge of the energetic particle population. It is also shown how the power required to excite the ultraviolet emissions of the torus and the Jovian aurora determines the rate at which new plasma is fed into the torus.

  8. Plasma properties in the deep jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Wilson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    New Horizons observed consistently and continuously the jovian magnetotail at distances up to ~2500 Jupiter Radii (Rj) during its Jupiter flyby in 2007. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) plasma instrument on New Horizons made in situ observations of plasma ions in the energy per charge range of ~21 eV to 7.8 keV. We analyze the SWAP plasma observations and derive the bulk properties of the plasma ions in the deep jovian magnetotail for 64 intervals from ~500 to 1700 Rj, just before the spacecraft start crossing the jovian magnetopause. There is no clear evolution of the plasma parameters over this distance range and we show that the plasma is very diverse over this entire range. There are significant changes in the plasma parameters and the flow direction over times as short as a few hours, showing evidence that boundaries between different plasma structures pass over the spacecraft rapidly. We discuss in detail a few subintervals where two species are observed within the instrument's energy per charge range and a set of subintervals where the plasma flow rotates ~20° over just six hours. We finally discuss the mass flux during the subintervals we study and the scenario of expanding plasmoids that propagate tailward and expand and interact to fill the magnetotail. This scenario is supported by the observed plasma diversity and flow characteristics.

  9. Plasma Parameters in Io's Torus: Measurements from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schneider, N. M.; Chaffin, M.; McNeil, E.; Chanover, N.; Oza, A.; Rugenski, S.; Thelen, A.; Johnson, R. E.; Bittle, L.; King, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Io plasma torus is an astrophysical nebula wrapped around Jupiter, originating from the intense volcanic activity of Jupiter's moon Io. The torus varies both spatially and temporally, driven by changes in volcanism and asymmetries in the Jovian magnetosphere. We report results from 9 nights of observation spanning November 2013 to February 2014 with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the ARC 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico. Emissions in these data include the [SII] doublets at 6716/6731A and 4069/4076A, [OII] at 3726/3729A, [SIII] at 3722A and 6312A, as well as resonantly scattered neutral [NaI] at 5890/5896A. Constraints on electron density, temperature and ion mixing rations can be obtained. Observations of both ansa during a 5 hour period characterize the complete longitudinal structure. Specifically, the intensity ratio of the collisionally excited [SII] doublet at 6716/6731A is a diagnostic for local electron density sampled at ~20 minute cadence. Absolute intensity can be derived directly from the reflectance of Jupiter's disc and standard calibrations are performed on the data such as bias subtraction, wavelength calibration and rectification. A unique background subtraction procedure is developed to disentangle scattered Jovian reflection and the torus. These observations were made in conjunction with JAXA's Hisaki mission, the HST auroral campaign and infrared monitoring of volcanism to better understand how mass and energy are transported throughout the system.

  10. The Encounter of P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with the Jovian Plasma and Extended Sodium Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niciejewski, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The encounter of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter during July, 1994, provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe any potential perturbations in the Jovian plasma torus and extended sodium cloud as the comet entered the planet's atmosphere. Though the most obvious affect of the encounter was the distinctive response of the visible disk to the impact of the cometary fragments, the potential disruptions to the extended Jovian atmosphere and the restoration of the system to equilibrium also provided a test for the current interpretation of the Jovian plasma torus and sodium magneto-nebula. The observations that were performed for this grant were made by a complementary group of researchers and could not have been made if the individuals worked singly. In a sense, the exciting opportunity provided by this astronomical event also provided a mechanism to test the potential of pooling limited resources from several sources to construct a state-of-the-art spectrally resolving instrument, to acquire the necessary time and resources from institutions that maintain world-class optical telescopes, to perform the observations with the assistance of students, and to analyze the data sets.

  11. Long Term Monitoring of the Io Plasma Torus During the Galileo Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 1999, the Galileo spacecraft made four passes into the Io plasma torus, obtaining the best in situ measurements ever of the particle and field environment in this densest region of the Jovian magnetosphere. Supporting observations from the ground are vital for understanding the global and temporal context of the in situ observations. We conducted a three-month-long Io plasma torus monitoring campaign centered on the time of the Galileo plasma torus passes to support this aspect of the Galileo mission. The almost-daily plasma density and temperature measurements obtained from our campaign allow the much more sparse but also much more detailed Galileo data to be used to address the issues of the structure of the Io plasma torus, the stability mechanism of the Jovian magnetosphere, the transport of material from the source region near Io, and the nature and source of persistent longitudinal variations. Combining the ground-based monitoring data with the detailed in situ data offers the only possibility for answering some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of the Io plasma torus.

  12. Physics of Spherical Torus Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    1999-11-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the Spherical Torus (ST, or Very Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak) have emerged recently. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST MHD equilibria more than a decade ago [Peng and Strickler, Nucl. Fusion 26 (1986) 576.]. Exciting data have been obtained from Concept Exploration-level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm). These include START (U.K.), HIT-I and II (University of Washington), CDX-U (PPPL), HIST and TS-3 (Japan), etc., and made important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. These results have helped approval of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful Tokamak and Advanced Tokamak (AT) research, a wide range of new ST physics features have been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1-MA level (with major radii up to 80 cm) in the new Proof-of-Principle devices NSTX (U.S.), MAST (U.K.), and Globus-M (R.F.), which are scheduled to resume experiments before this APS meeting. New Concept Exploration tests such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) and others in Japan present additional opportunities for progress. This tutorial paper will summarize our understanding and projections of the physics of the ST plasmas, the investigation of which will hopefully bring new excitement and enthusiasm for fusion energy sciences research in the U.S. and the world. the address below:

  13. Ray tracing of Jovian kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of computer ray tracing of Jovian kilometric radiation from 56.2 kHz to 1 MHz in a model Jovian magnetosphere with an Io torus are presented. Ray tracing calculations indicate that the Io torus presents a propagation barrier to the radiation and that the Jovian kilometric radiation must be generated in the L-O mode from a source near Jupiter on field lines passing through the Io torus. One effect of the Io torus is to refract the rays away from the magnetic equator forming a shadow zone at radial distances beyond the torus. In general, at radial distances greater than 10 Jovian radii, as the wave frequency increases (greater than 200 kHz) so does the magnetic latitude of the shadow zone. These and other features of the ray tracing calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the observations from the plasma wave receiver and planetary radio astronomy experiment on board both Voyagers 1 and 2.

  14. Injection of Compact Torus into the HIST spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Katsumoto, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2006-10-01

    The three-dimensional interaction of a spheromak-like compact torus (CT) plasma with spherical torus (ST) plasmas has been experimentally studied to understand magnetic reconnection, helicity current drive, particle fuelling and Alfvén wave excitation [1]. We have examined how the sign of helicity (Co-HI and Counter-HI) of the injected CT influences on the ST plasmas on HIST [2]. The dynamics of the CT have been identified to be significantly different between the both injection cases. Time-frequency analysis shows that the fluctuation induced in the co-HI case has the maximum spectral amplitude at around 300 -- 400 kHz that may indicate the magnetic reconnection. In this case, the CT particle is released quickly at a periphery region, but on the other hand, for the counter-HI case, the CT could penetrate deeply into the core region as accompanied by Alfvén wave due to no magnetic reconnection. [1] M. Nagata, et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, 1056 (2005) [2] M. Nagata, et al., Physics of Plasmas 10, 2932 (2003)

  15. Energy partitioning in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; Strobel, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Io plasma torus, which emits substantial amounts of EUV radiation from multiply ionized oxygen and sulfur, represents one of the significant discoveries of the Voyager 1 mission. The present study is concerned with the effects of various physical processes on the density and energy partitioning of the Io plasma torus. For the ions the dominant effects, which have different relative importance in different parameter regimes, are electron impact ionization, charge exchange, electron-ion collisions, and confinement time loss. Attention is given to a physical model, the solution of the quasi-linear equations, the obtained results, and an interpretation of observations in relation to the model results.

  16. Modeling the Enceladus Plasma and Neutral Torus in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yingdong; Russell, C. T.; Khurana, K. K.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2010-10-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus, produces hundreds of kilograms of water vapor every second. These water molecules form a neutral torus which is comparable to the Io torus in the Jovian system. These molecules become ionized producing a plasma disk in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn which exchanges momentum with the "corotating” magnetospheric plasma. To balance the centripetal force of this plasma disk, Saturn's magnetic field is stretched in the radial direction and to accelerate the azimuthal speed to corotational values, the field is stretched in the azimuthal direction. At Enceladus the massive pickup of new ions from its plume slows down the corotating flow and breaks this force balance, causing plasma flows in the radial direction. Such radial flows in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are supported by Cassini observations using various particle and field instruments. In this study we develop a global model of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn in an attempt to reproduce such processes.

  17. Io plasma torus electrons - Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Strobel, Darrell F.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal Maxwellian component of the electron distribution function, together with a suprathermal, non-Maxwellian one, are featured in the present analysis of in situ plasma electron observations made by the Voyager 1 plasma science experiment in the Io plasma torus. A large difference in the hot electron pressure P(H) is noted between the inbound and the outbound data; this is interpreted as a latitudinal gradient, with P(H) being maximum at the magnetic equator. The presence of a neutral corona around Io is inferred from the observed decrease and symmetry with respect to Io of the cold electron temperature.

  18. Plasma Parameters in Io's Torus: Measurements from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Turner, Jake; Schmidt, Carl; Thelen, Michael; McNeil, Eric; Rugenski, Stacey; Chanover, Nancy; Oza, Apurva; Thelen, Alexander; Johnson, Robert E.; Bittle, Lauren; King, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    We report observations from nine nights of observations of the Io plasma torus made in conjunction with JAXA's Hisaki mission torus observations and the Hubble Space telescope auroral campaign. Groundbased remote sensing of forbidden line emissions yield measures of plasma density which cannot be made at UV wavelengths.

  19. X-Ray Probes of Jupiter's Auroral Zones, Galilean Moons, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we review the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian system and describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing study for possible application to future missions to Jupiter such as JIMO. X-MIME has the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.

  20. The transmission of Alfven waves through the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of Alfven wave propagation through the Io plasma torus was investigated using a one-dimensional model with uniform magnetic field and an exponential density decrease to a constant value. The solution was interpreted in terms of a wave that is incident upon the torus, a reflected wave, and a wave that is transmitted through the torus. The results obtained indicate that Io's Alfven waves may not propagate completely through the plasma torus, and, thus, the WKB theory and ray tracing may not provide meaningful estimates of the energy transport.

  1. Torus-Shaped Dust Clouds in Magnetized Anodic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, I.; Reichstein, T.; Greiner, F.; Piel, A.

    2008-09-07

    The generation of a torus-shaped dust cloud in an anodic plasma is decribed. The confined dust particles perfom a rotational motion around the torus major axis. The structure of the cloud in dependence of the external parameters are observed and the rotation velocity of the particles was measured and compared with a simple estimate.

  2. Ion Temperature Control of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Steffl, A. J.; Robbins, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on observational and theoretical studies of ion temperature in the Io plasma torus. Ion temperature is a critical factor for two reasons. First, ions are a major supplier of energy to the torus electrons which power the intense EUV emissions. Second, ion temperature determines the vertical extent of plasma along field lines. Higher temperatures spread plasma out, lowers the density and slows reaction rates. The combined effects can play a controlling role in torus energetics and chemistry. An unexpected tool for the study of ion temperature is the longitudinal structure in the plasma torus which often manifests itself as periodic brightness variations. Opposite sides of the torus (especially magnetic longitudes 20 and 200 degrees) have been observed on numerous occasions to have dramatically different brightness, density, composition, ionization state, electron temperature and ion temperature. These asymmetries must ultimately be driven by different energy flows on the opposite sides, presenting an opportunity to observe key torus processes operating under different conditions. The most comprehensive dataset for the study of longitudinal variations was obtained by the Cassini UVIS instrument during its Jupiter flyby. Steffl (Ph.D. thesis, 2005) identified longitudinal variations in all the quantities listed above wit the exception of ion temperature. We extend his work by undertaking the first search for such variation in the UVIS dataset. We also report on a 'square centimeter' model of the torus which extend the traditional 'cubic centimeter' models by including the controlling effects of ion temperature more completely.

  3. Ganymede's interaction with the jovian plasma from hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Leblanc, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ganymede is a unique object: it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field leading to the formation of a small magnetosphere. The magnetosphere of Ganymede being embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere, the environment of the Galilean moon presents the only known case of interaction between two magnetospheres (Kivelson et al. 1996). This peculiar interaction has been investigated by means of a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid model based on a CAM-CL algorithm (Mathews et al. 1994). This generic model has been largely used for other magnetized or unmagnetized bodies such as Mars (Modolo et al. 2005; 2006 and 2012), Titan (Modolo et al. 2007, Modolo and Chauteur 2008) or Mercury (Richer et al. 2012). IIn this formalism, ions have a kinetic description whereas electrons are considered as an inertialess fluid which ensure the neutrality of the plasma and contribute to the total current and electronic pressure. Maxwell's equations are solved to compute the temporal evolution of electromagnetic field. The hybrid simulation describes the dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma, composed of O+ and H+ ions, and Ganymede's ionospheric plasma (W+, H2+, H+). Similarly to Paty and Winglee (2004), a density profile with a scale height of 125km of the ionospheric plasma is loaded and feeded during the simulation. Charge exchange leading to H2+ and H+ are also computed. To represent Ganymede's magnetosphere a magnetic dipole is implemented at initialization with dipolar moments values taken from Kivelson et al, 2002. This dipole is progressively distorted and lead to the formal of the mini-magnetopshere. Simulation results also emphasize the presence of Alfvén wings and are in good agreement with other simulation results (Jia et al, 2008, Paty et al, 2008). Hybrid simulations are performed on a uniform cartesian grid with a spatial resolution of about 200 km. Simulations results are presented and compared to magnetometer and particle observations obtained during G1 and G2 Galileo flybys.

  4. Energetic (approx. 100-keV) tailward-directed ion beam outside the Jovian plasma boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Krimigis, S.M.; Armstrong, T.P.; Axford, W.I.; Bostrom, C.O.; Fan, C.Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Hamilton, D.C.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The hot plasma instrument on the Voyager-2 spacecraft measured a nearly monoenergetic (approx.100 keV) ion beam several hours after crossing the Jovian plasma boundary on the nightside of the planet. The beam, deduced to consist primarily of heavy ions, persisted for about four hours and originated from the general direction of Jupiter. The energy density of the beam was approx. several times the energy density of the magnetic field (..beta..>1). This beam, a product of an as yet not understood Jovian plasma acceleration mechanism, provides a dramatic example of the energetic dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere.

  5. On the energy crisis in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert A.; Bagenal, Fran; Cheng, Andrew F.; Strobel, Darrell

    1988-01-01

    Recent calculations of the energy balance of the Io plasma torus show that the observed UV and EUV radiation cannot be maintained solely via energy input by the ion pickup mechanism. Current theoretical models of the torus must be modified to include non-local energy input. It is argued that the required energy may be supplied by inward diffusion of energetic heavy ions with energies less than about 20 keV.

  6. Modeling Variability of Plasma Conditions in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2003-01-01

    Telescopic observations an in situ measurements of the Io plasma torus show the density, temperature and composition to vary over time, sometimes up to a factor of 2. While previous models of the physical and chemical processes in the Io plasma torus have reasonably modeled the conditions of the Voyager 1 era, their authors have not addressed the observed variability nor explored the sensitivity of torus conditions to input parameters. In this paper we present a homogeneous torus model parameterized by five variables (transport timescale, neutral source strength, ratio of oxygen sulfur to atoms in the source, fraction of superthermal electrons, temperature of these hot electrons). The model incorporates the most recent data for ionization, recombination, charge exchange and radiative energy losses for the major torus species (S, S(sup +), S(sup ++), S(sup +++), O, O(sup +), O(sup ++). We solve equations of conservation of mass and energy to find equilibrium conditions for a set of input parameters. We compare model plasma conditions with those observed by Voyager 1 Voyager 2, and Cassini. Furthermore, we explore the sensitivity of torus conditions to each parameter. We find that (1) torus conditions are distinctly different for the Voyager 1, Voyager 2 and Cassini eras, (2) unique torus input parameters for any given era are poorly constrained given the wide range of solution space that is consistent with the range of observed torus conditions, (3) ion composition is highly sensitive to the specification of a non-thermal electron distribution, (4) neutral O/S source ratio is highly variable with model values ranging between 1.7 for Cassini to 4.0 for Voyager 1 conditions, (5) transport times range between 23 days for Voyager 2 to 50 days for Voyager 1 and Cassini, (6) neutral source strengths range between 7 to 30 x 10(sup -4) cm (sup -3) s(sup -1) which corresponds to a net production of 0.4 to 1.3 tons/s for a torus volume of 1.4 x 10(sup 31) cm(sup 3), or 38 R(sub j)(sup 3).

  7. The plasma physics of the Jovian decameter radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Eviatar, A.

    1972-01-01

    We have assumed that the decameter radiation from Jupiter is produced near the local electron gyrofrequency and is amplified as it propagates out of the Jovian magnetosphere. We have derived the growth rate for radiation that propagates almost perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. When the electrons are described by a loss-cone distribution function, the growth rate is large enough to lead to a large amplification factor over a source of 100-4000 km, depending on the choice of parameters. Because we expect low-energy electrons to be trapped in the Jovian dipole field regardless of the position of the satellite Io, we maintain that this model provides a plausible mechanism for the decametric radiation not associated with Io.

  8. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The wideband waveform data show considerable evidence of dust impacts at radial distances inside of about 3 RJ, at rates as high as a few impacts per second.

  9. Coupled low-energy - ring current plasma diffusion in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The outwardly diffusing Iogenic plasma and the simultaneously inwardly diffusing ring current plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere are described using a coupled diffusion model which incorporates the effects of the pressure gradient of the ring current into the cross-L diffusion coefficient. The coupled diffusion coefficient is derived by calculating the total energy available to drive the diffusion process. The condition is imposed that the diffusion coefficient takes on a local minimum value at some point in the region L = 7-8, at which point the gradient of the Io plasma density is specified as ramp value given by Siscoe et al. (1981). The hypothesis that the pressure gradient of the ring current causes the diminution of radial plasma transport is tested, and solution profiles for the Iogenic and ring current plasma densities are obtained which imply that the Io plasma ramp is caused by a high-density, low-energy component of the ring current hitherto unobserved directly.

  10. Latitudinal oscillations of plasma within the Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, W. D.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium latitude and the period of oscillations about this equilibrium latitude are calculated for a plasma in a centrifugally dominated tilted dipole magnetic field representing Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. It is found that for a hot plasma the equilibrium latitude in the magnetic equator, for a cold plasma it is the centrifugal equator, and for a warm plasma it is somewhere in between. An illustrative model is adopted in which atoms are sputtered from the Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io and escape Io's gravity to be subsequently ionized some distance from Io. Finally, it is shown that ionization generally does not occur at the equilibrium altitude, and that the resulting latitudinal oscillations provide an explanation for the irregularities in electron concentration within the torus, as reported by the radioastronomy experiment aboard Voyager I.

  11. Empirical probability model of cold plasma environment in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Barabash, Stas; Roussos, Elias; Truscott, Pete

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the Galileo PLS dataset to produce a new cold plasma environment model for the Jovian magneto- sphere. Although there exist many sophisticated radiation models, treating energetic plasma (e.g. JOSE, GIRE, or Salammbo), only a limited number of simple models has been utilized for cold plasma environment. By extend- ing the existing cold plasma models toward the probability domain, we can predict the extreme periods of Jovian environment by specifying the percentile of the environmental parameters. The new model was produced in the following procedure. We first referred to the existing cold plasma models of Divine and Garrett, 1983 (DG83) or Bagenal and Delamere 2011 (BD11). These models are scaled to fit the statistical median of the parameters obtained from Galileo PLS data. The scaled model (also called as "mean model") indicates the median environment of Jovian magnetosphere. Then, assuming that the deviations in the Galileo PLS parameters are purely due to variations in the environment, we extended the mean model toward the percentile domain. The input parameter of the model is simply the position of the spacecraft (distance, magnetic longitude and lati- tude) and the specific percentile (e.g. 0.5 for the mean model). All the parameters in the model are described in mathematical forms; therefore the needed computational resources are quite low. The new model can be used for assessing the JUICE mission profile. The spatial extent of the model covers the main phase of the JUICE mission; namely from the Europa orbit to 40 Rj (where Rj is the radius of Jupiter). In addition, theoretical extensions toward the latitudinal direction are also included in the model to support the high latitude orbit of the JUICE spacecraft.

  12. The Far Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Io Plasma Torus

    E-print Network

    Paul D. Feldman; Darrell F. Strobel; H. Warren Moos; Harold A. Weaver

    2003-10-23

    The spectrum of the Io plasma torus in the range 905 - 1187 A was recorded at 0.26 A resolution by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) on 2001 January 14. Five orbits of data were obtained with the west ansa of the torus centered and tracked in the 30" x 30" apertures of the FUSE spectrographs for a total observation time of 9740 seconds. This region of the spectrum is dominated by transitions of S II, S III and S IV, whose multiplet structure is nearly completely resolved. We confirm our earlier detection of emission from resonance multiplets of Cl III and Cl II and derive an abundance of Cl^{+2} of 2.1% relative to S^{2+}, leading to an overall chlorine ion abundance in the torus of slightly less than 1%. A number of features near 990 A remain unidentified, and C III at 977 A is detected in two independent channels at the 3-sigma level. The inferred relative ion abundance of C^{2+} relative to S^{2+} is 3.7 x 10^{-4}. We also present spectra at 0.085 A resolution taken on 2001 October 19 and 21 with the 4" x 20" aperture. In these spectra the observed lines are resolved and their widths correspond to ion temperatures of 60 - 70 eV for all three sulfur ions.

  13. Spheromak plasma flow injection into a torus chamber and the HIST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatuzaki, Akinori

    2005-10-01

    The importance of plasma flow or two-fluid effect is recognized in understanding the relaxed states of high-beta torus plasmas, start-up and current drive by non-coaxial helicity injection, magnetic reconnection and plasma dynamo in fusion, laboratory and space plasmas. As a new approach to create a flowing two-fluid plasma equilibrium, we have tried to inject tangentially the plasma flow with spheromak-type magnetic configurations into a torus vacuum chamber with an external toroidal magnetic field (TF) coil. In the initial experiments, the RFP-like configuration with helical magnetic structures was realized in the torus vessel. The ion flow measurement with Mach probes showed that the ion flow keeps the same direction despite the reversal of the toroidal current and the axial electric field. The ion fluid comes to flow in the opposite direction to the electron fluid by the reversal of TF. This result suggests that not only electron but also ion flow contributes significantly on the reversed toroidal current. In this case, the ratio of ui to the electron flow velocity ue is estimated as ui/ue ˜ 1/2. We also will inject the spheromak flow into the HIST spherical torus plasmas to examine the possibilities to embedding the two-fluid effect in the ST plasmas.

  14. Dense Plasma Torus in the GPS Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    Seiji Kameno; Makoto Inoue; Kiyoaki Wajima; Satoko Sawada-Satoh; Zhi-Qiang Shen

    2002-10-21

    We report results from nearly simultaneous pentachromatic VLBI observations towa rds a nearby GPS galaxy NGC 1052. The observations at 1.6 and 4.8 GHz with VSOP, and at 2.3, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz wit h VLBA, provide linear resolutions of $\\sim 0.1$ pc. Convex spectra of a double-sided jet imply that synchrotron emission is obscured through foreground cold dense plasma, in terms of free--free absorption (FFA). We found a central condensation of the plasma which covers about 0.1 pc and 1 pc of the approaching and receding jets, respectively. A simple model with a geometrically thick plasma torus perpendicular to the jets is established to explain the asymmetric distribution of FFA opacities.

  15. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Research efforts in the second quarter have been focused upon a preliminary exploration of the likely impact of Europs's local atmospheres and neutral clouds on the plasma torus and the initiation of an assessment of the basic nature of the radial structure of the electron density in the plasma torus during the JO encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.

  16. Plasma flow velocity measurements in the HIST spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, P.; Nasada, Y.; Yagi, N.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1998-11-01

    Helicity injection current drive (HICD) using the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) is expected to be the most attractive current drive method for toroidal configuration plasmas, especially for Spherical Torus (ST). However, the current drive mechanism in the spherical tokamak plasmas has not yet been established and also it is still questionable even whether closed poloidal flux can be actually created by helicity injection. Hence, the most important requirement for HICD in the ST research is to reveal the current drive mechanism. So far, it has been found that the electrostatic fluctuations (20 kHz) in the gun voltage, which may produce repetitively plasma flows, have a strong correlation with intermittent increase in the toroidal current at the magnetic axis. Hence, the plasma flow from the MCPG plays an important role on HICD. In order to obtain the intermittent axial and toroidal plasma flow velocity, we have been performing the Doppler shift measurement of spectral lines using a multi-channel spectrometer and Mach probe measurements. The results from these mesurements will be presented.

  17. The Jovian magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The current understanding of the plasma, magnetic field, and plasma wave characteristics of the near and distant Jovian magnetotail is discussed. The properties of these two regions are compared, with particular emphasis given to the data on the distant tail obtained by Voyager 2. The Jovian tail has many unusual properties, such as the large scale sausage-string shape of its outer boundary, but some of its properties resemble those of the earth's magnetotail, such as its central current sheet and a surrounding region resembling a plasma sheet consisting of hot ions. Data are presented that support the view that plasma in the Jovian tail plasma sheet comes from Jupiter.

  18. Characteristic of hot plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere: Results from the Voyager spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Krimgis, S.M.; Carbary, J.F.; Keath, E.P.; Bostrom, C.O.; Axford, W.I.; Gloeckler, G.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Armstrong, T.P.

    1981-09-30

    The low-energy charged particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft made measurements of the intensity, energy spectra, angular distributions and composition of ions (30 keV< or approx. =E< or approx. = 150 MeV) and the electrons (14 keV< or approx. =E< or approx. =10 MeV) during encounters with the Jovian magnetosphere in 1979. Detailed analysis of the multicomponent (H, He, O, S) low-energy (approx.30 keV to approx.4 MeV) ion population reveals the Jovian environment to be dominated by magnetospheric ions to distances > or approx. =200 R/sub J/ upstream and > or approx. =350 R/sub J/ downstream from the planet. Inside the magnetosphere, ions move generally in the sense of corotation to the dayside magnetopause, and on the nightside to distances of approx.130--150 R/sub J/, beyond this distance, but inside the magnetopause, ion flow abruptly changes to an antisunward, antiJupiter direction and continues to large (>350 R/sub J/) radial distances outside the magnetosphere. The ion particle spectrum is characterized by a nonthermal power law (E/sup -gamma/) component for E> or approx. =200 keV, and a convected Maxwellian for E< or approx. =200 with characteristic temperatures (kT) of approx.20--45 keV. Temperature maxima generally coincide with crossings of the Jovian plasma sheet, while at higher energies spectra become softer at the equator. The ion spectra and composition are affected strongly by convective flows in all parts of the magnetosphere. By using the observed spectra and angular distributions, density and pressure profiles are produced for ions measured above the lowest LECP detector threshold (E> or approx. =30 keV) and are compared with reported ambient total electron densities and magnetic field pressures. The particle pressures are found to be comparable to magnetic field pressures to at least approx.10 R/sub J/, i.e., Jovian magnetosphere dynamics are determined by pressure variations in a high ..beta.. plasma.

  19. Amalthea's modulation of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-08-01

    Most modulation lanes in dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission (DAM) are formed by radiation scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. The positions and frequency drift of hundreds of lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from UFRO archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that some lanes are formed near the magnetic shell of the satellite Amalthea mainly at longitudes of 123 to 140 deg. (north; III 1965 system) and 284 to 305 deg. (south). These disturbances coincide with regions of plasma compression by the rotating magnetic field of Jupiter. Such modulations are found at other longitudes too (189 to 236 deg.) with higher sensitivity. Amalthea's plasma torus could be another argument for the ice nature of the satellite, which has a density less than that of water.

  20. Amalthea's modulation of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-05-01

    Most modulation lanes in dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission (DAM) are formed by radiation scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. The positions and frequency drift of hundreds of lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from UFRO archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that some lanes are formed near the magnetic shell of the satellite Amalthea mainly at longitudes of 123°??_III?140° (north) and 284°??_III?305° (south). These disturbances coincide with regions of plasma compression by the rotating magnetic field of Jupiter. Such modulations are found at other longitudes too (189° to 236°) with higher sensitivity. Amalthea's plasma torus could be another argument for the ice nature of the satellite, which has a density less than that of water.

  1. Limit on rotational energy available to excite Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    There is a fundamental relationship between the power that is extracted from Jupiter's rotation to drive magnetospheric processes and the rate at which mass is injected into the Io plasma torus. Half of this power is consumed by bulk motion of the plasma and the other half represents an upper limit on the energy from rotation available for dissipation and in particular to excite the Jovian aurora. Since the rotation of the planet is the only plausible source of energy, the power inferred from the observed auroral intensities requires a plasma injection rate of 2.6 x 10 to the 29th AMU/sec or greater. This in turn leads to a residence time of a torus particle of 48 days or less. These results raise doubts about the applicability of equilibrium thermodynamics to the determination of plasma parameters in the Io torus.

  2. Plasma depletions in the Jovian magnetosphere - Evidence of transport and solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Coppi, Bruno

    1987-01-01

    A series of plasma voids ('dropouts') was observed by the Plasma Science (PLS) experiment in Jupiter's magnetosphere during the Voyager 2 encounter with that planet. A reexamination of Voyager 2 data has led to the conclusion that the dropout phenomenon cannot be a manifestation of a plasma wake produced by Ganymede. Rather, the appearance of the dropouts is attributed to changes in the upstream solar wind conditions and the global state of the magnetosphere; the proximity of Voyager 2 to Ganymede at the time is considered to be coincidental. It is suggested that these dropouts are evidence of a state of 'bubbling' of the magnetosphere that alternates with 'laminar' states in which, as in the case of the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter, voids are not present and that these states correspond to different processes by which plasma is transported out of the system. The nature of these states is related to changes in the magnitude of the upstream solar wind ram pressure. In the bubbling state, this pressure is higher than in the laminar state and drives an intermittent instability. The analysis presented is one of the first attempts to introduce, in space physics, recently acquired theoretical notions of the physics of the finite-beta plasmas of which the Jovian magnetospheric plasma is an important example.

  3. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet explorer satellite observation of Jupiter's Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. T; Gladstone, G. R.; Moos, H. W.; Bagenal, F.; Clarke, J. T.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcgrath, M. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Shemansky, D. E.; Strobel, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observation of the Jupiter system, obtained during the 2 day period 1993 March 30 through April 1, which shows a rich emission-line spectrum from the Io plasma torus spanning wavelengths 370 to 735 A. The emission features correspond primarily to known multiplets of oxygen and sulfur ions, but a blended feature near 372 A is a plausible Na II transition. The summed detected energy flux of (7.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -11) ergs/sq cm(s) corresponds to a radiated power of approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 11) W in this spectral range. All ansa emissions show a distinct dawn-dusk brightness asymmetry and the measured dusk/dawn ratio of the bright S III lambda-680 feature is 2.3 +/- 0.3, significantly larger than the ratio measured by the Voyager spacecraft ultraviolet (UV) instruments. A preliminary estimate of ion partitioning indicates that the oxygen/sulfur ion ratio is approximately equal to 2, compared to the value approximately equal to 1.3 measured by Voyager, and that (Na(+))/(e) greater than 0.01.

  5. Momentum Transport in Electron-Dominated Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.; Wang, W.; Yuh, H.

    2009-02-24

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operates between 0.35 and 0.55 T, which, when coupled to up to 7 MW of neutral beam injection, leads to central rotation velocities in excess of 300 km/s and ExB shearing rates up to 1 MHz. This level of ExB shear can be up to a factor of five greater than typical linear growth rates of long-wavelength ion (e.g., ITG) modes, at least partially suppressing these instabilities. Evidence for this turbulence suppression is that the inferred diffusive ion thermal flux in NSTX H-modes is often at the neoclassical level, and thus these plasmas operate in an electron-dominated transport regime. Analysis of experiments using n=3 magnetic fields to change plasma rotation indicate that local rotation shear influences local transport coefficients, most notably the ion thermal diffusivity, in a manner consistent with suppression of the low-k turbulence by this rotation shear. The value of the effective momentum diffusivity, as inferred from steady-state momentum balance, is found to be larger than the neoclassical value. Results of perturbative experiments indicate inward pinch velocities up to 40 m/s and perturbative momentum diffusivities of up to 4 m2/s, which are larger by a factor of several than those values inferred from steady-state analysis. The inferred pinch velocity values are consistent with values based on theories in which low-k turbulence drives the inward momentum pinch. Thus, in Spherical Tori (STs), while the neoclassical ion energy transport effects can be relatively high and dominate the ion energy transport, the neoclassical momentum transport effects are near zero, meaning that transport of momentum is dominated by any low-k turbulence that exists.

  6. Hybrid Simulation of the Interaction of Europa's Atmosphere with the Jovian Plasma: Multiprocessor Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dols, V. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Cassidy, T. A.; Crary, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    We model the interaction of Europa's tenuous atmosphere with the plasma of Jupiter's torus with an improved version of our hybrid plasma code. In a hybrid plasma code, the ions are treated as kinetic Macro-particles moving under the Lorentz force and the electrons as a fluid leading to a generalized formulation of Ohm's law. In this version, the spatial simulation domain is decomposed in 2 directions and is non-uniform in the plasma convection direction. The code is run on a multi-processor supercomputer that offers 16416 cores and 2GB Ram per core. This new version allows us to tap into the large memory of the supercomputer and simulate the full interaction volume (Reuropa=1561km) with a high spatial resolution (50km). Compared to Io, Europa's atmosphere is about 100 times more tenuous, the ambient magnetic field is weaker and the density of incident plasma is lower. Consequently, the electrodynamic interaction is also weaker and substantial fluxes of thermal torus ions might reach and sputter the icy surface. Molecular O2 is the dominant atmospheric product of this surface sputtering. Observations of oxygen UV emissions (specifically the ratio of OI 1356A / 1304A emissions) are roughly consistent with an atmosphere that is composed predominantely of O2 with a small amount of atomic O. Galileo observations along flybys close to Europa have revealed the existence of induced currents in a conducting ocean under the icy crust. They also showed that, from flyby to flyby, the plasma interaction is very variable. Asymmetries of the plasma density and temperature in the wake of Europa were also observed and still elude a clear explanation. Galileo mag data also detected ion cyclotron waves, which is an indication of heavy ion pickup close to the moon. We prescribe an O2 atmosphere with a vertical density column consistent with UV observations and model the plasma properties along several Galileo flybys of the moon. We compare our results with the magnetometer observations, PLS plasma measurements (ion density, temperature and bulk flow velocity) and PWS electron density measurements.

  7. The Io plasma torus during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter: Temporal, radial and azimuthal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, Andrew Joseph

    During the Cassini spacecraft's flyby of Jupiter (1 October 2000 to 31 March 2001), the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) produced an extensive dataset consisting of several thousand spectrally-dispersed images of the lo plasma torus. The temporal, radial, and azimuthal variability of the to plasma torus during this period are examined. The total EUV power radiated from the torus is found to be ~1.7 x 10 12 W with variations of 25%. Several events were observed during which the torus brightened by 20% over a few hours. Significant changes in the composition of the torus plasma were observed between 1 October 2000 and 11 November 2000. The composition and electron temperature of the torus plasma as a function of radial distance were derived from a scale of the midnight sector of the torus. The radial profile during the Cassini epoch shows significant differences from the Voyager era. The Io torus is found to exhibit significant azimuthal variations in ion composition. This compositional variation is observed to have a period of 10.07 hours 1.5% longer than the System III rotation period of Jupiter. While exhibiting many similar characteristics, the periodicity in the UVIS data is 1.3% shorter than the "System IV" period. The amplitude of the azimuthal variation of S II and S IV varies between 5-25% during the observing period, while the amplitude of the variation of S III and O II remains in the range of 2-5%. The amplitude of the azimuthal compositional asymmetry appears to be modulated by its location in System III longitude. The observed temporal variability is reproduced by models of the torus chemistry that include a factor of 3 increase in the rate of oxygen and sulfur atoms supplied to the extended neutral clouds that are the source of the torus plasma coupled with a ~35% increase in the amount of riot electrons in the Io torus. The observed azimuthal variability of the Io torus is well matched by models incorporating a primary source of hot electrons that slips 12.2°/day relative to the System III coordinate system and a secondary source of hot electrons that remains fixed in System III.

  8. X-ray Probes of Magnetospheric Interactions with Jupiter's Auroral zones, the Galilean Satellites, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed fiom Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission fiom the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties, as well as energetic ion flux models or measurements, required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We discuss the proposed scenarios leading to possible surface compositions. For Europa, the two most extreme are (1) a patina produced by exogenic processes such as meteoroid bombardment and ion implantation, and (2) upwelling of material fiom the subsurface ocean. We also describe the characteristics of X - m , an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIM0 mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  9. Energy branching in the Io plasma torus - The failure of neutral cloud theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Model calculations are used to explore the energy source characteristics of the energy branching of the hot Io plasma torus. It is assumed that the energy is derived from the kinetic energy acquired by ions created in the rotating planetary magnetic field, and that Coulomb collisions with the electron gas control the flow of energy to the ionizing and radiative processes. The results show that neutral cloud theory is qualitatively inadequate. It is shown that neutral cloud theory can only support a dominantly singly ionized system (at the measured electron densities in the plasma torus) and that it fails to predict observed plasma properties relative to variations in number density.

  10. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts in the second quarterly period have been focused primarily upon reviewing and assessing the neutral-plasma reactions and the plasma-plasma reactions that are important in determining the production and loss rates for the primary heavy ion species S(+), S(++), S(+++), O(+), and O(++) in the plasma torus and in acquiring new and updating old cross sections for the important processes.

  11. Ion heating and containment in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental observations have been made during steady state operation of a torus experiment at input powers up to 150 kilowatts in deuterium and helium gas. The steady state ion heating method utilizes a modified Penning discharge operated in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. The bumpy torus plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. In a deuterium plasma, electron temperatures from 14 to 140 electron volts and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 electron volts were observed. At least two distinct operating regimes exist, each of which is associated with a characteristic range of background gas pressure and electron temperature. Experimental data show that the average ion residence time in the plasma is virtually independent of magnetic field strength.

  12. Ion heating and containment in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental observations have been made during steady-state operation of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment at input powers up to 150 kilowatts in deuterium and helium gas. A steady-state ion heating method utilizes a Modified Penning discharge operated in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. The bumpy torus plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. In a deuterium plasma, electron temperatures from 14 to 140 electron volts and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 electron volts were observed. At least two distinct operating regimes exist, each of which is associated with a characteristic range of background gas pressure and electron temperature. Experimental data show that the average ion residence time (ionization time) in the plasma is virtually independent of the magnetic field strength.

  13. Atomic clouds as distributed sources for the plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Ip, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Implications of recent developments for the neutral particle environment of Jupiter are considered. The first detection is reported of very hot S+ ions with gyrospeeds comparable to the corotations speed, a phenomenon which results from a neutral sulfur cloud. Evidence supports the hypothesis that extensive neutral clouds of oxygen and sulfur exist and are important sources of ions and energy for the Io torus.

  14. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power-law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of the potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied include the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings (and hence the direction of the radial electric field), the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  15. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  16. DISCOVERY OF SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM IO, EUROPA, AND THE IO PLASMA TORUS Ronald F. Elsner,1

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    DISCOVERY OF SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM IO, EUROPA, AND THE IO PLASMA TORUS Ronald F. Elsner,1 G the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment, Europa, Jupiter) -- X-rays: general 1. INTRODUCTION Imaging and spectral data from the infrared through

  17. Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

    2009-08-20

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  18. Spectrophotometric studies of the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Pilcher, C. B.; Strobel, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A toroidal volume near Io's orbit is made luminous by multiple optical and ultraviolet line emissions excited by resonant scattering of sunlight and by electron collisions. These emitting atoms and ions have been lost from Io. The spectrophotometric measurements of these emissions and their physical interpretation are considered. It is now known that the flow of material from Io dominates the particle and energy budgets of the Jovian magnetosphere. The observed emitting species in the Io torus are examined, and the atomic clouds are discussed, taking into account morphology and kinematics, atomic cloud supply rates, ion-atom collisions, and charge-exchange collisions. Observations and studies concerning the plasma torus are reported, giving attention to the forbidden lines, the extreme ultraviolet lines, and aspects of ion temperature and spatial distribution. Two types of radial transport in the Io torus include the ballistic motion of neutrals escaping from Io and the cross-L transport of ions.

  19. Momentum-Transport Studies in High E B Shear Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Momentum-Transport Studies in High E B Shear Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment W) to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy

  20. Resonant instability near the two-ion crossover frequency in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Moses, J. J.

    1985-07-01

    Thorne and Scarf (1984) have presented evidence for the existence of intense low-frequency fluctuating electric fields in the Io plasma torus. Two distinct mechanisms have been proposed for this phenomenon, namely, ion cyclotron instability which occurs at intermediate latitude, and whistler instability near the equator. The present investigation is concerned with a quantitative appraisal of each of these mechanisms, taking into account an evaluation of the net convective growth rate of waves along ray paths which traverse the Io torus. Aspects of wave propagation near the crossover frequency are considered along with questions regarding the resonant interaction with energetic particles.

  1. Discovery of an Io-correlated energy source for Io's hot plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandel, B. R.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1982-04-01

    Energy flowing into Io's hot plasma torus from a local-time correlated source and from an Io-related source are discussed, and a correlation of the brightness of the ansae of the torus with the apparent orbital phase of Io is reported. It is shown that the energy flows cause an azimuthal modulation of the brightness of the torus that is correlated with the position of Io, and the plasma downstream from Io is shown to be brighter in S III 685-A emission, which indicates a higher electron temperature. Differences in electron temperature inferred from spectral analyses account for all observed differences in brightness, implying that no change in the composition or density of the hot plasma occurs. The mechanism regulating the Io-related source is clearly distinct from the mechanism driving the local time source, although both draw on the same pool of energy, and the combination of the two sources is easily capable of supplying all the energy radiated by the torus.

  2. The source of Jovian auroral hiss observed by Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bagenal, F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of auroral hiss obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed. The Jovian auroral hiss was observed near the inner boundary of the warm Io torus and has a low-frequency cutoff caused by propagation near the resonance cone. A simple ray tracing procedure using an offset tilted dipole of the Jovian magnetic field is used to determine possible source locations. The results obtained are consistent with two sources located symmetrically with respect to the centrifugal equator along an L shell (L approximately = 5.59) that is coincident with the boundary between the hot and cold regions of the Io torus and is located just inward of the ribbon feature observed from Earth. The distance of the sources from the centrifugal equator is approximately 0.58 +/- 0.01 R(sub J). Based on the similarity to terrestrial auroral hiss, the Jovian is auroral hiss is believed to be generated by beams of low energy (approximately tens to thousands of eV) electrons. The low-frequency cutoff of the auroral hiss suggests that the electrons are accelerated near the inferred source region, possibly by parallel electric fields similar to those existing in the terrestrial auroral regions. A field-aligned current is inferred to exist at L shells just inward of the plasma ribbon. A possible mechanism for driving this current is discussed.

  3. The Dense Plasma Torus Around the Nucleus of an Active Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    S. Kameno; S. Sawada-Satoh; M. Inoue; Z. -Q. Shen; K. Wajima

    2001-04-03

    A subparsec-scale dense plasma torus around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is unveiled. We report on very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at 2.3, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz towards the active galaxy NGC 1052. The convex spectra of the double-sided jets and the nucleus imply that synchrotron emission is obscured through free--free absorption (FFA) by the foreground cold dense plasma. A trichromatic image was produced to illustrate the distribution of the FFA opacity. We found a central condensation of the plasma which covers about 0.1 pc and 0.7 pc of the approaching and receding jets, respectively. A simple explanation for the asymmetric distribution is the existence of a thick plasma torus perpendicular to the jets. We also found an ambient FFA absorber, whose density profile can be ascribed to a spherical distribution of the isothermal King model. The coexistence of torus-like and spherical distributions of the plasma suggests a transition from radial accretion to rotational accretion around the nucleus.

  4. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to investigate the roles of local and spatially extended plasma sources created by Io, plasma torus chemistry, and plasma convective and diffusive transport in producing the long-lived S(+), S(++) and O(+) radial ribbon structures of the plasma torus, their System III longitude and local-time asymmetries, their energy sources and their possible time variability. To accomplish this objective, two-dimensional [radial (L) and System III longitude] plasma transport equations for the flux-tube plasma content and energy content will be solved that include the convective motions for both the east-west electric field and co-rotational velocity-lag profile near Io s orbit, radial diffusion, and the spacetime dependent flux-tube production and loss created by both neutral-plasma and plasma-ion reaction chemistry in the plasma torus. For neutral-plasma chemistry, the project will for the first time undertake the calculation of realistic three-dimensional, spatially-extended, and time-varying contributions to the flux-tube ion-production and loss that are produced by Io's corona and extended neutral clouds. The unknown two-dimensional spatial nature of diffusion in the plasma transport will be isolated and better defined in the investigation by the collective consideration of the foregoing different physical processes. For energy transport, the energy flow from hot pickup ions (and a new electron source) to thermal ions and electrons will be included in investigating the System III longitude and local-time temperature asymmetries in the plasma torus. The research is central to the scope of the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Roadmap in Quest II Campaign 4 "Comparative Planetary Space Environments" by addressing key questions for understanding the magnetosphere of planets with high rotation rates and large internal plasma sources and, in addition, is of considerable importance to the NASA Solar System Exploration Science Theme. In this regard, Jupiter is the most extreme example with its rapid rotation and with its inner Galilean satellite Io providing the dominant plasma source for the magnetosphere.

  5. Periodic Bursts of Jovian Non-Io Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H O.; Farrell, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have Recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period approx. = 1:5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300 deg. and 60 deg. (via 360 deg.). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every approx. 25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind.

  6. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, M; Rucker, H O; Farrell, W M

    2013-03-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period [Formula: see text] longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every [Formula: see text] days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  7. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission

    PubMed Central

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H.O.; Farrell, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000–2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period ?1.5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every ?25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  8. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. 4; Modeling Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this fourth paper in a series, we present a model of the remarkable temporal and azimuthal variability of the Io plasma torus observed during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter. Over a period of three months, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed a dramatic variaton in the average torus composition. Superimposed on this long-term variation, is a 10.07-hour periodicity caused by azimuthal variation in plasma composition subcorotating relative to System III longitude. Quite surprisingly, the amplitude of the azimuthal variation appears to be modulated at the beat frequency between the System III period and the observed 10.07-hour period. Previously, we have successfully modeled the months-long compositional change by supposing a factor of three increase in the amount of material supplied to Io's extended neutral clouds. Here, we extend our torus chemistry model to include an azimuthal dimension. We postulate the existence of two azimuthal variations in the number of superthermal electrons in the torus: a primary variation that subcorotates with a period of 10.07 hours and a secondary variation that remains fixed in System III longitude. Using these two hot electron variations, our model can reproduce the observed temporal and azimuthal variations observed by Cassini UVIS.

  9. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. IV. Modeling Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    E-print Network

    A. J. Steffl; P. A. Delamere; F. Bagenal

    2007-09-19

    In this fourth paper in a series, we present a model of the remarkable temporal and azimuthal variability of the Io plasma torus observed during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter. Over a period of three months, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed a dramatic variation in the average torus composition. Superimposed on this long-term variation, is a 10.07-hour periodicity caused by an azimuthal variation in plasma composition subcorotating relative to System III longitude. Quite surprisingly, the amplitude of the azimuthal variation appears to be modulated at the beat frequency between the System III period and the observed 10.07-hour period. Previously, we have successfully modeled the months-long compositional change by supposing a factor of three increase in the amount of material supplied to Io's extended neutral clouds. Here, we extend our torus chemistry model to include an azimuthal dimension. We postulate the existence of two azimuthal variations in the number of super-thermal electrons in the torus: a primary variation that subcorotates with a period of 10.07 hours and a secondary variation that remains fixed in System III longitude. Using these two hot electron variations, our model can reproduce the observed temporal and azimuthal variations observed by Cassini UVIS.

  10. Source characteristics of Jovian hectometric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Direct confirmation that low-frequency Jovian hectometric (HOM) radio emissions centered near 0 deg central meridian longitude consist of distinct, oppositely polarized northern and southern beams has been achieved using data from the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. Distinct northern and southern beams were observed in the frequency range from approximately 300 kHz to 1 MHz for at least eight Jovian rotations during the Ulysses inbound pass at distances from 100 to 40 R(sub j). The radiation from the two magnetic hemispheres was measured from different Jovigraphic longitudes and magnetic (or centrifugal) latitudes. Observed temporal variations in the radio intensities, with time scales on the order of 30 min, may result either from longitudinal variations of the HOM sources or from longitudinal density variations in the Io plasma torus. Using the URAP direction-finding capabilities and assuming a tilted dipole planetary magnetic field model, the three-dimensional HOM source locations, the L shell through these source locations, and the beam opening angles were independently deduced. The HOM sources were found to originate at approximately 3 R(sub j) and on low L shells (L approximately 4 to 6), with beam opening angles ranging from 10 to 50 deg.

  11. Decametric modulation lanes as a probe for inner jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Rucker, Helmut O.

    2013-11-01

    We use the specific scintillations of jovian decametric radio sources (modulation lanes), which are produced by plasma inhomogeneities in the vicinity of that planet, to probe the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The positions and frequency drift of 1762 lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for space localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. As a result, the main regions of the lane formation are found: the Io plasma torus; the magnetic shell of the Gossamer Ring at Thebe and Amalthea orbits; and the region above the magnetic anomaly in the northern magnetosphere. It is shown that modulation lanes reveal the depleted magnetic tubes in practically unvisited, innermost regions of the jovian magnetosphere. The local and probably temporal plasma enhancement is found at the magnetic shell of Thebe satellite. Hence, the modulation lanes are a valuable instrument for remote sensing of those parts of jovian magnetosphere, which are not studied yet in situ.

  12. Electron Gyro-scale Fluctuation Measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D R; Lee, W; Mazzucato, E; Park, H K; Bell, R E; Domier, C W; LeBlanc, B P; Levinton, F M; Luhmann, N C; Menard, J E

    2009-08-10

    A collective scattering system has measured electron gyro-scale fluctuations in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-mode plasmas to investigate electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. Observations and results pertaining to fluctuation measurements in ETGstable regimes, the toroidal field scaling of fluctuation amplitudes, the relation between between fluctuation amplitudes and transport quantities, and fluctuation magnitudes and k-spectra are presented. Collectively, the measurements provide insight and guidance for understanding ETG turbulence and anomalous electron thermal transport.

  13. Fuelling and plasma flow change by compact torus injection into the STOR-M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, Takumi; Liu, Yelu; Dreval, Mykola; McColl, David; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Asai, Tomohiko; Wolfe, Sean

    2012-10-01

    The Saskatchewan TORus Modified (STOR-M) tokamak is equipped with a Compact Torus (CT) injector for tangential (toroidal) injection of a high density plasmoid at a velocity of 150 km/s. The objectives of CT injection (CTI) are to fuel the core region of tokamak and optimize the bootstrap current in future reactors by control of the plasma pressure gradient. After CTI, the line averaged density along central chord increases from ne˜x 10^12 to 1.5 x 10^13 [cm-3]. Measurement of soft X-ray bremsstrahlung emission profile indicates a steeper density gradient is generated after the asymmetric density profile is formed and the profile become symmetry again in STOR-M. Intrinsic impurity ion flows have been measured with ion Doppler spectroscopy. Significant radial velocity shear from center to edge region is observed even in Ohmic discharges. The toroidal flow direction is found to depend on the plasma current direction. CTI also modifies toroidal plasma flow. The edge plasma flow increases by 5 km/s 1millisecond after CTI. During these milliseconds of time, toroidal flow shear is also increased from 214.3 to 285.7 [10^3 x1/s]. A few milliseconds later than that time, plasma flow slows down, but plasma confinement is improved. H? emission decreases by 50%.

  14. Formation and Sustainment of Flipped Spherical Torus Plasmas on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguro, T.; Jinno, T.; Hasegawa, H.; Nagata, M.; Fukumoto, N.; Uyama, T.; Masamune, S.; Iida, M.; Katsurai, M.

    2002-11-01

    In order to understand comprehensively the relaxation and self-organization in the coaxial helicity injection system, we have investigated dynamics of ST plasmas produced in the HIST device by decreasing the external toroidal field (TF) and reversing its sign in time. In results, we have discovered that the ST relaxes towards flipped/reversed ST configurations. Surprisingly, it has been observed that not only toroidal flux but also poloidal flux reverses sign spontaneously during the relaxation process. This self-reversal of the poloidal field is thought to be evidence for global helicity conservation. Taylor helicity-driven relaxed theory predicts that there exists the relaxed state of the flipped ST plasma when the TF current is reversed. We found that when q_axis passes through the q_axis =1 rational barrier in the initial phase, the ST plasma becomes unstable and relaxes to flipped states through RFP states. The n=1 mode activities are essential in the formation and sustainment of the flipped ST.

  15. Sustainment Study of Flipped Spherical Torus Plasmas on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamiya, T.; Nagata, M.; Kawami, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Fukumoto, N.; Uyama, T.; Masamune, S.; Iida, M.; Katsurai, M.

    2003-10-01

    We have discovered that helicity-driven ST plasmas relax toward the flipped state by decreasing the external toroidal field and reversing its sign in time [1]. From the viewpoint of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, it is conceivable that the flipped ST (F-ST), which consists of only closed flux surfaces, compares favorably with the normal ST. We have investigated the sustainment mechanism of the F-ST plasma. The helicity-driven relaxed theory shows that there exist the mixed states of ST and F-ST in the flux conserver. Helicity is transferred to F-ST through the ST with coupling with gun electrodes. It has been found that magnetic reconnection between the toroidal magnetic field plays important role in the sustainment of the F-ST. The magnetic field in the outer edge region shows regular oscillations which have a large amplitude of the n=1 mode. The core region of the F-ST seems to be relatively stable. [1] M. Nagata, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 225001 (2003)

  16. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. 3; Observations of Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this third paper in a series presenting observations by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) of the Io plasma torus, we show remarkable, though subtle, spatio-temporal variations in torus properties. The Io torus is found to exhibit significant, near sinusoidal variations in ion composition as a functions of azimuthal position. The azimuthal variation in composition is such that the mixing ratio of S II us strongly correlated with the mixing ratio of S III and the equatorial electron density and strongly anti-correlated with the mixing ratios of both S IV and O II and the equatorial electron temperature. Surprisingly, the azimuthal variation in ion composition is observed to have a period of 10.07 h -- 1.5% longer than the System III rotation period of Jupiter, yet 1.3% shorter than the System UV period defined by [Brown, M. E., 1995. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 21683-21696]. Although the amplitude of the azimuthal variation of S III and O II remained in the range of 2-5%, the amplitude of the S II and S IV compositional variation ranged between 5 and 25% during the UVIS observations. Furthermore, the amplitude of the azimuthal variations of S II and S IV appears to be modulated by its location in System III longitude, such that when the region of maximum S II mixing ration (minimum S IV mixing ratio) is aligned with a System III longitude of 200 deg +/-, the amplitude is a factor of 4 greater than when the variation is anti-aligned. This behavior can explain numerous, often apparently contradictory, observations of variations in the properties of the Io plasma torus with the System III and System IV coordinate systems.

  17. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. III. Observations of Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    E-print Network

    A. J. Steffl; P. A. Delamere; F. Bagenal

    2005-08-01

    In this third paper in a series presenting observations by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) of the Io plasma torus, we show remarkable, though subtle, spatio-temporal variations in torus properties. The Io torus is found to exhibit significant, near-sinusoidal variations in ion composition as a function of azimuthal position. The azimuthal variation in composition is such that the mixing ratio of S II is strongly correlated with the mixing ratio of S III and the equatorial electron density and strongly anti-correlated with the mixing ratios of both S IV and O II and the equatorial electron temperature. Surprisingly, the azimuthal variation in ion composition is observed to have a period of 10.07 hours--1.5% longer than the System III rotation period of Jupiter, yet 1.3% shorter than the System IV period defined by Brown (1995). Although the amplitude of the azimuthal variation of S III and O II remained in the range of 2-5%, the amplitude of the S II and S IV compositional variation ranged between 5-25% during the UVIS observations. Furthermore, the amplitude of the azimuthal variations of S II and S IV appears to be modulated by its location in System III longitude, such that when the region of maximum S II mixing ratio (minimum S IV mixing ratio) is aligned with a System III longitude of ~200 +/- 15 degrees, the amplitude is a factor of ~4 greater than when the variation is anti-aligned. This behavior can explain numerous, often apparently contradictory, observations of variations in the properties of the Io plasma torus with the System III and System IV coordinate systems.

  18. The effect of lithium surface coatings on plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.; Bell, M.; Ahn, J W; Bush, C.E.; Maingi, R.

    2008-01-01

    National Spherical Torus Experiment [which M. Ono , Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, that benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components found previously in limited plasmas can occur also in high-power diverted configurations. Lithium coatings were applied with pellets injected into helium discharges, and also with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium oven depositions from a few milligrams to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coatings were sometimes, but not always, seen. These benefits sometimes included decreases in plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and edge-localized mode occurrence, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement, and periods of edge and magnetohydrodynamic quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  19. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.; Ebrahimi, F.; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 ; Menard, J. E.

    2013-09-15

    The generation of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), including flux surface closure, is studied using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations with plasma flows, currents, ohmic heating and anisotropic thermal conduction. An injection-voltage pulse shape is used that separates the injection and closure phases allowing elucidation of the physics. The formation of an X-point near the helicity-injection gap is triggered as the injector voltage drops to zero. Near the forming X-point, magnetic pressure due to toroidal field entrained in the E × B plasma flow from the helicity-injection gap drops, allowing resistive magnetic reconnection even though the total injected current is almost constant. Where appropriate, the simulations are compared with Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments in the NSTX spherical tokamak, which have demonstrated the formation of a promising candidate for non-inductive startup plasmas [Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075005 (2003)].

  20. The Columbia Non-neutral Torus: A new experiment to confine nonneutral and positron-electron plasmas in a stellarator.

    E-print Network

    The Columbia Non-neutral Torus: A new experiment to confine nonneutral and positron have become of interest as confinement devices for non-neutral plasmas [5,6]. The physics of pure at arbitrarily low density, which is an important advantage for making non-neutral and electron- positron plasmas

  1. Modeling Temporal Variability of Plasma Conditions in the Io Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Steffl, A.; Bagenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of ultraviolet (UV) emissions from the major ion species (S(sup +), S(sup ++), S(sup +++), O(sup +), O(sup ++) of the Io Plasma torus made during the Cassini flyby (October 2000 to March 2001) have revealed significant time variability. Using a homogenoeus model for mass and energy flow in the torus parameterized by five input variables (transport timescale, neutral source strength, ratio of oxygen to sulfur atoms in the source, fraction of superthermal electrons, and temperature of the hot electrons), we have investigated the time variability of the torus properties (density, composition, and temperature) during the Cassini era. In order to match the changes in emissions, the model suggests that a significant change in the neutral source occurred near the beginning of the observing period, decreasing from more than 1.8 tons/s to 0.7 tons/s. The changes in the neutral source appear to coincide with the declining phase of a dramatic (i.e., 2-3 order of magnitude) peak in iogenic dust emissions observed by Galileo prior to the Cassini era.

  2. Modeling of Jovian Hectometric Radiation Source Locations: Ulysses Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Reiner, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on Ulysses has provided unique high latitude measurements of Jovian hectometric radiation (HOM) during its encounter with Jupiter in February 1992. URAP was the first radio instrument in the Jovian environment with radio direction-finding capability, which was previously used to determine the HOM source locations in the Jovian magnetosphere. These initial source location determinations were based on several assumptions, including the neglect of refractive effects, which may be tested. We have, for the first time, combined the measured incident ray-direction at the spacecraft with a model magnetosphere to directly trace the rays back to the HOM source. We concentrate on the observations of HOM from high northern latitudes when Ulysses was at distances less than 15 R(sub j). The three- dimensional ray-tracing calculations presented here indicate that the HOM sources probably lie on L shells in the range 3 less than or approximately equal to L less than 7 (tilted dipole magnetic field model) consistent with previous determinations that ignored the effects of refraction. The ray-tracing results, however, indicate that wave refraction due to the Io torus and the magnetic field can significantly influence the precise source location. We show that constraints on the locations imposed by the gyroemission mechanism suggest that the lo torus density may have experienced temporal and/or spatial fluctuations during the Ulysses observations of HOM. Finally, in the cold plasma approximation we demonstrate that even if the emission were nearly linearly polarized near the source region, almost circular polarization will be observed at Ulysses, in agreement with observations.

  3. Radial Variations in the Io Plasma Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Steffl, A.

    2005-01-01

    A radial scan through the midnight sector of the Io plasma torus was made by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on 14 January 2001, shortly after closest approach to Jupiter. From these data, Steffl et al. (2004a) derived electron temperature, plasma composition (ion mixing ratios), and electron column density as a function of radius from L = 6 to 0 as well as the total luminosity. We have advanced our homogeneous model of torus physical chemistry (Delamere and Bagenal, 2003) to include latitudinal and radial variations in a manner similar to the two-dimensional model by Schreier et al. (1998). The model variables include: (1) neutral source rate, (2) radial transport coefficient, (3) the hot electron fraction, (4) hot electron temperature, and (5) the neutral O/S ratio. The radial variation of parameters 1-4 are described by simple power laws, making a total of nine parameters. We have explored the sensitivity of the model results to variations in these parameters and compared the best fit with previous Voyager era models (schreier et al., 1998), galileo data (Crary et al., 1998), and Cassini observations (steffl et al., 2004a). We find that radial variations during the Cassini era are consistent with a neutral source rate of 700-1200 kg/s, an integrated transport time from L = 6 to 9 of 100-200 days, and that the core electron temperature is largely determined by a spatially and temporally varying superthermal electron population.

  4. Ground-based observations of comets, the Jupiter plasma Torus, and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of cometary and magnetospheric physics were investigated by means of ground-based astronomical spectroscopy. High-throughput, dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometers were used to obtain very high resolution spectra of atomic, molecular, and ionic emission lines from the diffuse gases and plasmas associated with comets and the Jupiter plasma torus. The Fabry-Perot spectrometers were also used with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to obtain images of these extended emission sources in individual spectral lines at high spectral resolution. A new program using the McMath solar-stellar spectrograph to observe emission lines from Io was recently initiated. The McMath spectrograph has a high resolution mode which allows the detection of narrow, relatively faint emission lines superimposed on Io's reflected solar spectrum.

  5. Acceleration of compact torus plasma rings in a coaxial rail-gun

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.

    1985-05-16

    We discuss here theoretical studies of magnetic acceleration of Compact Torus plasma rings in a coaxial, rail-gun accelerator. The rings are formed using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and are accelerated by injection of B/sub theta/ flux from an accelerator bank. After acceleration, the rings enter a focusing cone where the ring is decelerated and reduced in radius. As the ring radius decreases, the ring magnetic energy increases until it equals the entering kinetic energy and the ring stagnates. Scaling laws and numerical calculations of acceleration using a O-D numerical code are presented. 2-D, MHD simulations are shown which demonstrate ring formation, acceleration, and focusing. Finally, 3-D calculations are discussed which determine the ideal MHD stability of the accelerated ring.

  6. Jovian Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.

    1996-09-01

    Seismic observations were performed immediately after the impacts of Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments A and H with the mid-IR camera \\timmi\\ at the ESO 3.6-m telescope, and one week after the impacts with \\timmi, \\camiras\\ at the NOT and c10\\mu at the CFHT. These mid-IR cameras allowed us to monitor the atmospheric temperature over the full planetary disk, and to search for possible perturbations due to sound waves. The hodogram analysis has been unable to detect any seismic signature of the primary pressure waves crossing the planet within two hours following each impact (Mosser et al. 1996). This non-detection implies that the kinetic energy of impacts A and H was less than 2* 10(21) J, within the frame of the theoretical simulation (Lognonne et al. 1994). The error bar is as large as one order of magnitude. Pressure modes (resonant waves with periods in excess of 5.5 minutes, trapped in the Jovian cavity) were searched during the week following the impacts period. Even if the energy deposited by all the impacts was certainly too low to excite detectable modes, the 40-hour observation provided a unique time series for the monitoring of the Jovian normal modes. The main steps of the data reduction and analysis will be presented (centering of the IR images, decomposition of the Jovian thermal map in spherical harmonics...), as well as by-products (10-mu m maps of Jupiter...). Lognonne Ph., Mosser B., Dahlen F.} 1994. Excitation of Jovian seismic waves by the Shoemaker-Levy/9 cometary impact. Icarus 110, 180-195 Mosser B., et al. 1996. Impact seismology: a search for primary pressure waves following impacts A and H. Icarus 121, 331-340

  7. Detection of Chlorine Ions in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Spectrum of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Ake, Thomas B.; Berman, Alice F.; Moos, H. Warren; Sahnow, David J.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Peter R.

    2001-06-01

    The spectrum of the Io plasma torus in the range of 995-1187 Å was recorded at 0.26 Å resolution by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) on 2000 January 20. Five orbits of data were obtained in point-and-shoot mode (no tracking of the moving target), with the east ansa of the torus initially centered in the 30''×30'' aperture of the FUSE LiF spectrographs yielding a total observation time of 3405 s. The spectral resolution exceeds by a factor of 10 that of the data obtained by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) during the Astro-1 mission. This region of the spectrum is dominated by resonance multiplets of S III and S IV, whose multiplet structures are nearly completely resolved, as well as numerous S II multiplets originating on the 2Do state of the ground configuration. Weak emission from a few lines of the resonance multiplets of Cl III and Cl II is detected at or above the 3 ? level, Cl III being stronger with two components roughly one-tenth the brightness of the main components of S III ?1018. We derive an abundance of Cl+2 of 3% relative to S+2, leading to an overall chlorine ion abundance in the torus of ~1%. The ratio of S IV to S III brightness is about twice that observed by HUT, which, when the different slit geometries are accounted for, supports the earlier analysis that S IV emissions originate from a region more extended out of the centrifugal plane than the S III emissions.

  8. Amalthea's Modulation of Jovian Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.

    2006-08-01

    Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine Amalthea is the largest body after Galilean satellites near Jupiter. An anomaly in Jovian synchrotron radiation has been found just on the Amalthea magnetic shell (de Pater, Schulz & Brecht 1997). It has been suggested that Amalthea's motion through Jupiter's magnetic field induces Alfvén or whistler wings or electrostatic high-frequency waves which lead to the pitch angle scattering. It is reasonable to search for another effect of these processes: magnetospheric inhomogeneities which could be found via scattering of Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). Such scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus is known as "modulation lanes" in DAM dynamic spectra. To search for analogous Amalthea's modulation, the positions and frequency drift of about 600 lanes are measured on the UFRO spectra of DAM. The special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that about 4% of the lanes are clustered near Amalthea's magnetic shell. There are two such clusters near longitudes of 123°??[III]?140° and 284°??[III]?305°, which coincide with the regions of maximum compression of fresh plasma due to rotating magnetic field of Jupiter (where ?(B^2)/??[III]) is maximal). The Amalthea modulation could explain the enigmatic "hf-lanes" (Genova, Aubier & Lecacheux 1981). The found magnetospheric formations are a new argument for the ice nature of Amalthea which has the density less than that of water (Anderson et al. 2005). Anderson J.D. et al. 2005, Science, 308, 5726, pp. 1291-1293. de Pater I., Schulz M., Brecht S.H. 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 102, A10, pp. 22043-22064. Genova F., Aubier M.G., Lecacheux A. 1981, Astron. and Astrophys. 104, 2, pp. 229-239.

  9. Volcanic control of the Io atmosphere and neutral and plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, Aharon

    1987-01-01

    Rate equations for the column density of Io's atmosphere and the number density of neutral atoms and ions in the torus have been formulated in terms of surface sublimation and venting of volcanic gases, sputtering efficiency, thermal escape, and the plasma processes that take place in the torus which included electron impact ionization, charge exchange, and transport. In the limit of low volcanic activity, estimates of the densities can be obtained, and the baseline configuration that would exist in the absence of volcanic activity is found. Solution of the coupled steady state rate equations shows that the densities are sensitive, to a varying degree, to the level of Io volcanism. The steady state densities predicted by the model are consistent with a volcanic flux of no more than 10 to the 12th/sq cm per sec. This is significantly lower than the values obtained on the basis of resurfacing rates and appears to imply that surface lava flows play a major role in the resurfacing process.

  10. Final Technical Report on DOE Grant for Modeling of Plasma Rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2009-07-09

    This is the final technical report on the Modeling of Plasma Rotation in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-02ER54679. The research subjects, technical abstracts, and publications where details of the research results can be found are reported here.

  11. Plasma behaviour at high beta and high density in the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, M.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J.; Bonomo, F.; Bower, D L; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Craig, D.; Foust, Charles R

    2009-01-01

    Pellet fuelling of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) plasmas has resulted in high density and high plasma beta. The density in improved confinement discharges has been increased fourfold, and a record plasma beta (beta(tot) = 26%) for the improved confinement reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved. At higher beta, a new regime for instabilities is accessed in which local interchange and global tearing instabilities are calculated to be linearly unstable, but experimentally, no severe effect, e. g., a disruption, is observed. The tearing instability, normally driven by the current gradient, is driven by the pressure gradient in this case, and there are indications of increased energy transport ( as compared with low-density improved confinement). Pellet fuelling is also compared with enhanced edge fuelling of standard confinement RFP discharges for the purpose of searching for a density limit in MST. In standard-confinement discharges, pellet fuelling peaks the density profile where edge fuelling cannot, but transport appears unchanged. For a limited range of plasma current, MST discharges with edge fuelling are constrained to a maximum density corresponding to the Greenwald limit. This limit is surpassed in pellet-fuelled improved confinement discharges.

  12. Effect of plasma shaping on performance in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Kaye, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, L.; Ruskov, E.; Ryan, P.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tritz, K.; Halle, A. von; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.

    2006-05-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has explored the effects of shaping on plasma performance as determined by many diverse topics including the stability of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (e.g., ideal external kinks and resistive wall modes), edge localized modes (ELMs), bootstrap current drive, divertor flux expansion, and heat transport. Improved shaping capability has been crucial to achieving ?t˜40%. Precise plasma shape control has been achieved on NSTX using real-time equilibrium reconstruction. NSTX has simultaneously achieved elongation ? ˜2.8 and triangularity ? ˜0.8. Ideal MHD theory predicts increased stability at high values of shaping factor S ?q95Ip/(aBt), which has been observed at large values of the S ˜37[MA/(m•T)] on NSTX. The behavior of ELMs is observed to depend on plasma shape. A description of the ELM regimes attained as shape is varied will be presented. Increased shaping is predicted to increase the bootstrap fraction at fixed Ip. The achievement of strong shaping has enabled operation with 1s pulses with Ip=1MA, and for 1.6s for Ip=700kA. Analysis of the noninductive current fraction as well as empirical analysis of the achievable plasma pulse length as elongation is varied will be presented. Data are presented showing a reduction in peak divertor heat load due to increasing in flux expansion.

  13. High density, high performance high-confinement-mode plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttrop, W.; Ongena, J.; Bécoulet, M.; Cordey, J. G.; Dumortier, P.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Lang, P. T.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Parail, V. V.; Valovic, M.; Andrew, Ph.; Andrew, Y.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Budny, R.; Charlet, M.; Coffey, I.; Eich, T.; Gowers, C.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J.; Ingesson, L. C.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Koslowski, H. R.; Lawson, K. D.; Maddison, G. P.; Maraschek, M. E.; McDonald, D. C.; Messiaen, A.; Milani, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Nave, M. F. F.; Puiatti, M. E.; Rapp, J.; Righi, E.; Sauter, O.; Sartori, F.; Schweinzer, J.; Stamp, M.; Strachan, J. D.; Stober, J.; Telesca, G.; Unterberg, B.; Valisa, M.; de Vries, P.; Weyssow, B.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Recent experiments at the Joint European Torus [Rebut et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 22, 7 (1993)] aim to improve confinement quality in high-confinement-mode (H-mode) plasmas at high densities. Energy confinement time as predicted by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER-H98(y,2) scaling at densities near or in excess of 85% of the Greenwald density limit scaling has been obtained by (i) strong plasma shaping (triangularity 0.35plasmas, reduction of average power loss associated with type I edge localized modes (ELMs) is found which is attributed to the occurrence of additional losses in between ELMs. Broad band magnetic fluctuations are seen which are reminiscent of regimes with small ELMs in other tokamaks. Plasma configurations have been varied to find best combinations of edge pedestal parameters and small ELM losses.

  14. Density dependence of trace tritium transport in H-mode Joint European Torus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovitch, I.; Garbet, X.; McDonald, D. C.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Adams, M.; Baranov, Yu.; Belo, P.; Bertalot, L.; Budny, R.; Conroy, S.; Cordey, J. G.; Garzotti, L.; Mantica, P.; McCune, D.; Ongena, J.; Parail, V.; Popovichev, S.; Stork, D.; Whiteford, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Tritium transport in edge localized mode (ELM) high confinement (H-mode) plasmas is analyzed here as a function of density for discharges from the recent trace tritium experimental campaign performed on Joint European Torus. In this campaign small amounts of tritium have been puffed or injected (with neutral beam injectors) into deuterium plasmas [K.-D. Zastrow, J. M. Adams, Yu. Baranov et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 46, B255 (2004)]. Information about the tritium has been obtained from the evolution of the profiles of neutron emission simulated via the TRANSP [R. J. Goldston, D. C. McCune, H. H. Towner, S. L. Davis, R. J. Hawryluk, and G. L. Schmidt, J. Comput. Phys. 43, 61 (1981)] and SANCO (L. Lauro-Taroni, B. Alper, R. Giannella, K. Lawson, F. Marcus, M. Mattioli, P. Smeulders, and M. Von Hellermann, Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Montpelier, France, 1994) codes. A strong inverse correlation of tritium transport with plasma density is found in this analysis. The low tritium transport at high density is close to neoclassical values while the transport becomes strongly anomalous in low density plasmas. The thermal transport does not exhibit such a strong density dependence, leading to a varying ratio of thermal to tritium transport in these discharges. An interpretation of the density effects on the trace tritium transport, partially based on the test particle simulations in plasmas with stochastic magnetic field, is proposed. A simple model for the tritium diffusion coefficient and convective velocity, which includes the modification of the neoclassical particle diffusion in presence of electromagnetic turbulence [A. I. Smolyakov and P. N. Yushmanov, Nucl. Fusion 35, 383 (1993)] completed with an empirical density dependence, is developed. This model has positive ? dependence in agreement with the results of the similarity experiments performed for trace tritium transport.

  15. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    E-print Network

    Ronald F. Elsner; G. Randall Gladstone; J. Hunter Waite; Frank J. Crary; Robert R. Howell; Robert E. Johnson; Peter G. Ford; Albert E. Metzger; Kevin C. Hurley; Eric D. Feigelson; Gordon P. Garmire; Anil Bhardwaj; Denis C. Grodent; Tariq Majeed; Allyn F. Tennant; Martin C. Weisskop

    2002-02-14

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (>10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fail to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  16. Properties of the Io plasma torus inferred from Voyager EUV data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Davis, J.

    1980-01-01

    A physical model for the Io plasma torus is constructed to explain the EUV radiative emission observed by the Voyager UV spectrometer. Electron impact excitation rate coefficients for electronic transitions of S III, S IV, O II and O III are calculated by the method of distorted waves (Davis, Kepple, and Blaha, 1976); these coefficients account for the asymmetric shape of the 686 A feature. It is concluded that the electron gas must have a distribution function with a non-Maxwellian tail. An approximate representation of the distribution function as two temperature components requires a cold component of 3.5-4 eV and density of 2000 per cu cm and a hot component of about 100 eV and density of 50-100 per cu cm to satisfy observational constraints.

  17. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    E-print Network

    Elsner, R F; Waite, J H; Crary, F J; Howell, R R; Johnson, R E; Ford, P G; Metzger, A E; Hurley, K C; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Bhardwaj, A I; Grodent, D C; Majeed, T; Tennant, A F; Weisskopf, M C; Elsner, Ronald F.; Crary, Frank J.; Howell, Robert R.; Johnson, Robert E.; Ford, Peter G.; Metzger, Albert E.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bhardwaj, Anil; Grodent, Denis C.; Majeed, Tariq; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskop, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (>10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fail to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  18. A three-barrel repeating pneumatic pellet injector for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, S. K.; Milora, S. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Gethers, F. E.; Sparks, D. O.

    A three barrel repeating pneumatic pellet injector was developed for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak. The versatile device consists of three independent machine gun-like mechanisms that operate at cryogenic temperature (10 to 20 K). Individual extruders provide a continuous supply of solid hydrogen isotope to each gun assembly, where a reciprocating breech side cutter forms and chambers cylindrical pellets from the extrusion; the deuterium pellets are then accelerated in the gun barrels with compressed hydrogen gas (pressures up to 105 bar) to velocities less than or = to 1.5 km/s. The injector features three nominal pellet sizes and repetitive operation for quasi-steady-state conditions. The design allows the gun barrels to be mechanically aligned for accurate aiming. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector operation. The injector system was installed on JET. The design features, operation, and performance characteristics of the injector are described.

  19. Rocket FUV Observations of the Io Plasma Torus During the Shoemaker-Levy/9 Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Slater, D.; Cash, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Green, J.; Gladstone, R.

    1995-01-01

    We observed the Io torus from 820-1140 A on universal time (UT) 20.25 July 1994 from a sounding rocket telescope/spectrograph. These observations serve as only the fourth published spectrum of the torus in this wavelength range, and the only far ultraviolet (FUV) data documenting the state of the torus during the Shoemaker Levy 9 Impacts.

  20. Long Pulse High Performance Plasma Scenario Development for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Bell, R.E.; Bell, M.G.; Gates, D.A.; Harvey, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion, 44, 452 (2004)] is targeting long pulse high performance, noninductive sustained operations at low aspect ratio, and the demonstration of nonsolenoidal startup and current rampup. The modeling of these plasmas provides a framework for experimental planning and identifies the tools to access these regimes. Simulations based on neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated plasmas are made to understand the impact of various modifications and identify the requirements for (1) high elongation and triangularity, (2) density control to optimize the current drive, (3) plasma rotation and/or feedback stabilization to operate above the no-wall limit, and (4) electron Bernstein waves (EBW) for off-axis heating/current drive (H/CD). Integrated scenarios are constructed to provide the transport evolution and H/CD source modeling, supported by rf and stability analyses. Important factors include the energy confinement, Zeff, early heating/H mode, broadening of the NBI-driven current profile, and maintaining q(0) and qmin>1.0. Simulations show that noninductive sustained plasmas can be reached at IP=800 kA, BT=0.5 T, 2.5, N5, 15%, fNI=92%, and q(0)>1.0 with NBI H/CD, density control, and similar global energy confinement to experiments. The noninductive sustained high plasmas can be reached at IP=1.0 MA, BT=0.35 T, 2.5, N9, 43%, fNI=100%, and q(0)>1.5 with NBI H/CD and 3.0 MW of EBW H/CD, density control, and 25% higher global energy confinement than experiments. A scenario for nonsolenoidal plasma current rampup is developed using high harmonic fast wave H/CD in the early low IP and low Te phase, followed by NBI H/CD to continue the current ramp, reaching a maximum of 480 kA after 3.4 s.

  1. A three-barrel repeating pneumatic pellet injector for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.; Sparks, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    Pellet fueling, the injection of frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at high velocity, has been used to improve plasma performance in various tokamak experiments. In one recent experiment, the repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector was used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This machine gun-like device, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with an objective of steady-state fueling applications, was characterized by a fixed pellet size and a maximum repetition rate of 4 to 6 Hz for several seconds. It was used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into TFTR plasma discharges. In the first experiments, injection of single, large (nominal 4-mm-diam) pellets provided high plasma densities in TFTR (1.8 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ on axis). After a conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-diam) pellets, the pellet injector was operated in the repeating mode to gradually increase the plasma density, injecting up to five pellets on a single machine pulse. This resulted in central plasma densities approaching 4 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and n tau values of 1.4 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/s. For plasma fueling applications on the Joint European Torus (JET), a pellet injector fashioned after the prototype repeating pneumatic design has been developed. The versatile injector features three repeating guns in a common vacuum enclosure; the guns provide pellets that are 2.7, 4.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter and can operate independently at repetition rates of 5, 2.5, and 1 Hz, respectively. The injector has been installed on JET. A description of the equipment is presented, emphasizing the differences from the original repeating device. Performance characteristics of the three pneumatic guns are also included.

  2. In situ detection of interplanetary and Jovian nanodust with radio and plasma

    E-print Network

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    such interplanetary nanodust (Gr¨un et al., 2001). In fact, this capability of wave instruments to measure dust should in the E and G rings of Saturn was performed serendipitously by the radio (Aubier et al., 1983) and the plasma wave (Gurnett et al., 1983) instruments on the spacecraft Voyager, despite the fact that neither

  3. Dust in the Jovian System: Streams, Clouds and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Gruen, E.

    2003-04-01

    Spacecraft investigations during the last ten years have vastly improved our knowledge about dust in the Jovian system. All Galilean satellites, and probably all smaller satellites as well, are sources of dust in the Jovian system. In-situ measurements with the dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have for the first time demonstrated the electromagnetic interaction of charged dust grains with the interplanetary magnetic field and with a planetary magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a giant mass-velocity spectrometer for charged 10-nanometer dust grains. These grains are released from Jupiter's moon Io with a typical rate of ˜ 1 kg s-1. The seven-year long record of Galileo in-situ dust measurements revealed significant variations of the fluxes of the dust stream particles with Jovian local time which are caused by the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus. The streams probe the plasma conditions in the torus, and they can be used as a potential monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity. The joint Galileo-Cassini dust measurements at Jupiter imply stream particle speeds up to 400 km s-1. All Galilean satellites are surrounded by tenuous impact-generated clouds of mostly sub-micrometer ejecta grains. Jovian rings not only exist in the well-known region of the main and gossamer rings but also much farther out. Very tenuous rings composed of mostly micron-sized grains have been detected in-situ in the region between the Galilean moons and further beyond out to ˜ 250 R_J from the planet. The dust densities there are much too low to allow detection with imaging techniques. The measurements have demonstrated that impact-ejecta derived from hypervelocity impacts onto satellites are the major constituent of dusty planetary rings. On 5 November 2002 Galileo traversed Jupiter's gossamer rings for the first time and had a close flyby at Amalthea. Several hundred dust impacts have been detected during this passage with the dust detector on board. The in-situ dust measurements provide information about the physical properties of the dust population not accessible with imaging techniques. They directly provide dust spatial densities, grain sizes and impact speeds, this way allowing one to constrain the forces dominating grain dynamics in the ring. We review the in-situ dust measurements at Jupiter and present first results from Galileo's gossamer ring passage.

  4. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-12-17

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.

  5. Nonlinear MHD simulation of magnetic relaxation during DC helicity injection in spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro

    2009-11-01

    Recently, the intermittent plasma flow has been observed to be correlated with the fluctuations of the toroidal current It and n=1 mode in the HIST spherical torus device. During the partially driven phase mixed with a resistive decay, the toroidal ion flow velocity (˜ 40 km/s) in the opposite direction of It is driven in the central open flux region, and the oscillations in n=1 mode occur there, while during the resistive decay phase, this flow velocity reverses and results in the same as that of It, and the oscillations in n=1 mode disappear there. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the plasma flow reversal process and the relevant MHD relaxation by using the 3-D nonlinear MHD simulations. The numerical results exhibit that during the driven phase, the toroidal flow velocity (˜ 37 km/s) is in the opposite direction to It, but in the same direction as the ExB rotation induced by an applied voltage. This flow is driven by the magnetic reconnection occurring at the X-point during the repetitive process of the non-axisymmetric magnetized plasmoid ejection from the helicity injector. The oscillations of poloidal flux ?p are out of phase with those of toroidal flux ?t and magnetic energy for the dominant n=1 mode, indicating the flux conversion from ?t to ?p. The effect of the vacuum toroidal field strength on the plasma dynamics is discussed.

  6. Progress towards high performance plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gibney, T.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; von Halle, A.; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Domier, C.; Dudek, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Finkenthal, M.; Fredd, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Glasser, A.; Goldston, R. J.; Greenough, N. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Gorelenkov, N.; Guazzotto, L.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hogan, J.; Houlberg, W.; Humphreys, D.; Jaeger, F.; Kalish, M.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lao, L. L.; Lawrence, J.; Leuer, J.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N. C.; Mazzucato, E.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Schaffer, M.; Semenov, I.; Shaing, K. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Sichta, P.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Walker, D.; Wampler, W.

    2005-10-01

    The major objective of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to understand basic toroidal confinement physics at low aspect ratio and high ?T in order to advance the spherical torus (ST) concept. In order to do this, NSTX utilizes up to 7.5 MW of neutral beam injection, up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast waves (HHFWs), and it operates with plasma currents up to 1.5 MA and elongations of up to 2.6 at a toroidal field up to 0.45 T. New facility, and diagnostic and modelling capabilities developed over the past two years have enabled the NSTX research team to make significant progress towards establishing this physics basis for future ST devices. Improvements in plasma control have led to more routine operation at high elongation and high ?T (up to ~40%) lasting for many energy confinement times. ?T can be limited by either internal or external modes. The installation of an active error field (EF) correction coil pair has expanded the operating regime at low density and has allowed for initial resonant EF amplification experiments. The determination of the confinement and transport properties of NSTX plasmas has benefitted greatly from the implementation of higher spatial resolution kinetic diagnostics. The parametric variation of confinement is similar to that at conventional aspect ratio but with values enhanced relative to those determined from conventional aspect ratio scalings and with a BT dependence. The transport is highly dependent on details of both the flow and magnetic shear. Core turbulence was measured for the first time in an ST through correlation reflectometry. Non-inductive start-up has been explored using PF-only and transient co-axial helicity injection techniques, resulting in up to 140 kA of toroidal current generated by the latter technique. Calculated bootstrap and beam-driven currents have sustained up to 60% of the flat-top plasma current in NBI discharges. Studies of HHFW absorption have indicated parametric decay of the wave and associated edge thermal ion heating. Energetic particle modes, most notably toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes and fishbone-like modes result in fast particle losses, and these instabilities may affect fast ion confinement on devices such as ITER. Finally, a variety of techniques has been developed for fuelling and power and particle control.

  7. Resistive wall mode stabilization of high-? plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontag, Aaron C.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Zhu, W.; Bialek, J. M.; Menard, J. E.; Gates, D. A.; Glasser, A. H.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Bell, M. G.; Bondeson, A.; Callen, J. D.; Chu, M. S.; Hegna, C. C.; Kaye, S. M.; Lao, L. L.; Liu, Y.; Maingi, R.; Mueller, D.; Shaing, K. C.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2005-05-01

    The resistive wall mode (RWM) poses a limit to the maximum ? that can be sustained in magnetic fusion experiments. RWM stabilization physics at low aspect ratio is studied in high-? National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] plasmas (?t up to 39%; ?N up to 6.8) to understand and alleviate this constraint. Plasmas with increased q in NSTX have been maintained with ? above the computed ideal no-wall ? limit for more than 20 wall times with no signs of RWM growth in cases where toroidal rotation ??>?A/4q2 across the entire plasma cross section. Plasmas that violate this stability criterion can suffer a RWM induced collapse within a few wall times. This critical rotation profile for stabilization is in agreement with drift-kinetic theory applied to low frequency magnetohydrodynamics modes [A. Bondeson and M. S. Chu, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3013 (1996)]. A toroidally symmetric array of internal sensors has been used to observe n =1-3 RWMs in NSTX. This array consists of Bp and Br sensors both above and below the midplane at 12 toroidal locations instrumented to detect toroidal mode numbers of n =1-3. RWM perturbations exceeding 30G have been measured with mode growth rates on the order of 5ms. Small modes (?B<10G) which cause minor drops in ?, with growth rates ˜1500 s-1 have been observed when ?N exceeds 6. Resonant field amplification of an externally applied error field by the stable RWM has been observed.

  8. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Paterson ,W.; Christian, E.; Mahaffy, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Lipatov, A.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter s magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keV, wide field-ofview (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter s magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for Io. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from Io to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We show that Europa's exospheric ionosphere is dominated by pickup ions with energies of 100-1000 eV. We also expect field aligned polar ion outflows driven by ionospheric electrons via the polarization electric field at Europa; the IMS will observe such outflows and thus sample the ionosphere below spacecraft orbit altitude approximately 100 km. Based on previous Ganymede studies, we also comment on IMS applications to a Ganymede orbiter. The IMS and the Europa interaction model are respectively being developed with support from NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development (ASTID) and Outer Planets Research (OPR) programs.

  9. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P R.; Paschalidis, N.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keY, wide field-of-view (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for 10. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from 10 to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We show that Europa's exospheric ionosphere is dominated by pickup ions with energies of 100-1000 eV. We also expect field aligned polar ion outflows driven by ionospheric electrons via the polarization electric field at Europa; the IMS will observe such outflows and thus sample the ionosphere below spacecraft orbit altitude approximately 100 km. Based on previous Ganymede studies, we also comment on IMS applications to a Ganymede orbiter. The IMS and the Europa interaction model are respectively being developed with support from NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development (ASTID) and Outer Planets Research (OPR) programs.

  10. Effect of plasma shaping on performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Kaye, S.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Darrow, D.S.; Davis, W.; Diem, S.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.

    2006-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has explored the effects of shaping on plasma performance as determined by many diverse topics including the stability of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (e.g., ideal external kinks and resistive wall modes), edge localized modes (ELMs), bootstrap current drive, divertor flux expansion, and heat transport. Improved shaping capability has been crucial to achieving {beta}{sub t}{approx}40%. Precise plasma shape control has been achieved on NSTX using real-time equilibrium reconstruction. NSTX has simultaneously achieved elongation {kappa}{approx}2.8 and triangularity {delta}{approx}0.8. Ideal MHD theory predicts increased stability at high values of shaping factor S{identical_to}q{sub 95}I{sub p}/(aB{sub t}), which has been observed at large values of the S{approx}37[MA/(m{center_dot}T)] on NSTX. The behavior of ELMs is observed to depend on plasma shape. A description of the ELM regimes attained as shape is varied will be presented. Increased shaping is predicted to increase the bootstrap fraction at fixed I{sub p}. The achievement of strong shaping has enabled operation with 1 s pulses with I{sub p}=1 MA, and for 1.6 s for I{sub p}=700 kA. Analysis of the noninductive current fraction as well as empirical analysis of the achievable plasma pulse length as elongation is varied will be presented. Data are presented showing a reduction in peak divertor heat load due to increasing in flux expansion.

  11. Propagation analysis of the helicity-drive Alfven wave in the HIST spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyobu, T.; Hanao, T.; Hirono, H.; Ito, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakayama, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection is an efficient current-drive method used in spherical torus experiments. It is a key issue to investigate the dynamo mechanism required to maintain the plasmas. The behavior of a low frequency Alfven wave being possibly related to the dynamo current drive has been studied on HIST. The observed magnetic fluctuation with about 80 kHz propagates along the open flux column (OFC) region, spreading toward the core region. The parallel phase velocity is estimated at 321 km/s from the propagation velocity measured axially along the OFC. The parallel phase velocity agrees well to the Alfven velocity. The radial perpendicular propagation of the Alfven wave can be calculated by a theory based on cold or warm plasma approximation with the Hall term. The theoretical calculation indicates that there are two resonance points and is a cut-off point. These resonance and cut-off points agree well with the magnetic measurement. A part of fluctuation propagates slowly beyond the first resonance point. The wave polarization is left-handed near the resonance point and then converts to be nearly liner outside the resonance point. From these results, we speculate that the torsional Alfven wave evolves to the kinetic Alfven wave during the radial propagation.

  12. Interaction of rotating helical magnetic field with the HIST spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Sugahara, Masato; Yamada, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Fukumoto, Naoyuki; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2006-10-01

    The physical mechanism of current drive by co-axial helicity injection (CHI) has been experimentally investigated on both spheromak and spherical torus (ST) configurations on the HIST device [1]. It has been observed that the n = 1 kink mode rotates toroidally with a frequency of 10-20 kHz in the ExB direction. It seems that the induced toroidal current by CHI strongly relates with the observed rotating kink mode. On the other hand, it is well known that MHD instabilities can be controlled or even suppressed by an externally applied helical magnetic field in tokamak devices. Therefore, we have started to install two sets of external helical coils in order to produce a rotating helical magnetic field on HIST. Mode structures of the generated rotating helical magnetic field and preliminary experimental results of the interaction of the rotating helical magnetic field with the HIST plasmas will be shown in the conference. [1] M. Nagata, et al., Physics of Plasmas 10, 2932 (2003)

  13. Neutral cloud theory of the Jovian nebula: Anomalous ionization effect of superthermal electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    The standard model of the Jovian nebula postulates that its particle source is the extended cloud of neutral sulfur and oxygen atoms that escape from the satellite Io and become ionized through electron impact from the corotating plasma. Its energy source is the gyroenergy acquired by newly formed pickup ions as they are swept up to corotation velocity by the planetary magnetic field. Elastic collisions between plasma ions and electrons cool the ions and heat the electrons, while inelastic collisions cool the electrons and excite the ions to radiate intense line emission, which is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the plasma. This neutral cloud theory of the Io plasma torus, as it has come to be known, has been the subject of recent critcism which asserts that the theory cannot account for the observed charge state of the plasma which features O(+) and S(2+) as the dominant ions. It is shown in this work that the inclusion of a small population of super-thermal electrons is required to achieve the correct ion partitioning among various charge states. It is also argued that the anomalous ionization effect of the superthermal electrons is responsible for the overall spatial bifurcation of the nebula into a hot multiply charged plasma region outside of 5.7 Jovian radii and a cool singly ionized plasma inside this distance.

  14. Development of a Multi-Grids Approach into a Parallelized Hybrid Model to Describe Ganymede's Interaction with the Jovian Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S. L.; Andre, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ganymede is the only satellite which has its own magnetosphere, which is embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere (Kivelson et al. 1996). This peculiar interaction has been investigated by means of a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid model based on a CAM-CL algorithm (Mathews et al. 1994). In this formalism, ions have a kinetic description whereas electrons are considered as an inertialess fluid which ensures the neutrality of the plasma and contributes to the total current and electronic pressure. Maxwell's equations are solved to compute the temporal evolution of electromagnetic field. Hybrid simulations are performed on a uniform cartesian grid with a spatial resolution of about 240 km. Our results are globally consistent with other models and Galileo measurements. Nevertheless, our description of the magnetopause and the ionosphere is not satisfying enough due to the low spatial resolution. Indeed, we want to describe scale heights of 125 km in the ionosphere whereas the best spatial resolution that we are allowed to use is about 240 km. Therefore, in order to obtain more efficient and relevant results, it is necessary to improve the size of the grid. In this optic, we are introducing a multi-grids approach in order to refine the spatial resolution by a factor 2 (~120km) near Ganymede. The creation of a finer mesh in the simulation grid leads to make some peculiar computations at the interfaces between the two different grids, whether for the calculation of moments, such as charge density or current, or the computation of electromagnetic fields. Moreover, the parallelization of the code, based on domain decomposition methods, imposes us to take care of boundary conditions. In the hybrid model, macroparticules, which represent a kind of cloud of physical particles, have a volume equal to that of a grid cell. Then, the macroparticules entering into the higher spatial resolution region are splited into smaller macroparticules whose the volume corresponds to the volume of a cell of the finer mesh. The improvement of the spatial resolution in the hybrid model will also allow us to relevantly couple the results of this model with those of our 3D multi-species exospheric model (Turc et al. 2014), into a test-particle model that describes the ionosphere of Ganymede. Basic tests and validation results of the multi-grids approach are presented.

  15. Local Regulation of Interchange Turbulence in a Dipole-Confined Plasma Torus using Current-Collection Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T. Maximillian

    2014-10-01

    Turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short coherence. We report the first laboratory demonstration of the regulation of interchange turbulence in a plasma torus confined by an axisymmetric dipole magnet using active feedback. Feedback is performed by varying the bias to an electrode in proportion to the electric potential measured at other locations. The phase and amplitude of the bias to the electrode is adjusted with a linear circuit, forming a relatively broad-band current-collection feedback system. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in modification of turbulent fluctuations, observed as amplification or suppression of turbulent spectrum. Significantly, power can be either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. When the gain and phase are adjusted to suppress turbulence, the external circuit becomes a controlled load extracting power from the plasma. This is analogous to the regulation of magnetospheric convection by ionospheric currents. When the gain and phase of the external circuit is adjusted to amplify turbulence, the direction of power flow from the electrode reverses, enhancing the fluctuations. Although we observe significant changes to the intensity and spectrum of plasma fluctuations, these changes appear only on those magnetic field lines within a region near the current collector equal in size to the turbulent correlation length and shifted in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. We conclude that the effects of this feedback on turbulence in a dipole plasma torus is localized. The clear influence of current-collection feedback on interchange turbulence suggests the possibility of global regulation of turbulent motion using multiple sensor and electrode pairs as well as the ability to perform controlled tests of bounce-averaged gyrokinetic theory of turbulence in the geometry of a dipole plasma torus. Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science and DOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF Award PHY-1201896.

  16. Three-barrel repeating pneumatic pellet injector for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.; Sparks, D.O.

    1988-05-01

    A three-barrel repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed for plasma fueling of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak. The versatile device consists of three independent machine-gun-like mechanisms that operate at cryogenic temperatures (10--20 K). Individual extruders provide a continuous supply of solid hydrogen isotope to each gun assembly, where a reciprocating breech-side cutter forms and chambers cylindrical pellets from the extrusion; the deuterium pellets are then accelerated in the gun barrels with compressed hydrogen gas (pressures up to 105 bar) to velocities less than or equal to1.5 km/s. The injector features three nominal pellet sizes (2.7, 4.0, and 6.0 mm) and repetitive operation (5, 2.5, and 1 Hz, respectively) for quasi-steady-state conditions (>10 s). The design allows the gun barrels to be aligned mechanically for accurate aiming. A remote stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector operation. The injector system has been installed on JET. The design features, operation, and performance characteristics of the injector are described.

  17. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M.; Betti, R.

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-? National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n?=?1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest ?{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at ?{sub N}?l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E?×?B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  18. Jovian Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The knots of light which have been circled in yellow in this false color picture probably represent lightning in Jupiter's atmosphere. The picture was taken at 5 hours 3 minutes Universal Time on November 9, 1996 through the clear filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The largest of the circled spots is over 500 kilometers across, comparable in size to the lightning events seen by NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979, but much larger than the single lightning flashes seen by Voyager 1. Thus each of the larger circled spots represents either multiple flashes within a large lightning storm, or a single flash illuminating a much higher cloud.

    The planetocentric latitude lines imposed on this image indicate that the circled events lie at about 44 degrees North latitude, just below a westward moving jet at 46 degrees North. Almost all of the Jovian lightning seen by Voyager similarly occurred near the latitude of a westward moving jet. Moreover, the circled events occurred in Jupiter's most atmospherically active high latitude region (between 36 and 46 degrees North), which is one of the zones where lightning is most likely.

    In order to detect lightning the camera was scanned horizontally across the darkside of Jupiter, starting just inside the eastern edge of the planet and ending just inside its western edge. The scanning motion was employed both to cover the largest possible longitude range, and to help separate lightning strokes emanating from the same storm.

    Several of the circled spots are relatively elongated in the east-west direction, perhaps due to the scanning motion of the camera (and/or to a foreshortening in the north-south direction caused by the curvature of the planet). The circled events appear well separated in space, and any apparent separation in latitude is real. Because of the scanning motion of the camera, however, these events may not have been truly separated in longitude. It is even possible that they all came from the same localized storm, and were separated principally in time.

    Diffuse light covers much of this picture, and is particularly bright in the bottom righthand corner. Some of this emission may be moonlit clouds, but much of it is likely sunlight scattered into the camera by the atmosphere along Jupiter's edge.

    At the time of this observation Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32 Jovian radii) from the planet.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    2002-07-01

    The icy Galilean satellites form an integral but poorly understood component of Jupiter's magnetospheric system. While the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft encounters yielded evidence for the existence of a source of oxygen ions beyond Io's orbit, conclusive evidence that Europa and Ganymede possess thin oxygen atmospheres was only recently provided by HST/GHRS detections of faint far-UV airglow emissions of OI. Moreover, the OI emission on Ganymede is localized to the region of the satellite's poles, consistent with an auroral excitation source that would be expected from the internal magnetic field of Ganymede. More recently, spectrally resolved images of Ganymede obtained with STIS have confirmed this result and demonstrated the variation in location and brightness of the OI emissions with the position of Ganymede relative to Jupiter's plasmasheet. The energy and source of the exciting electrons remain unknown and there is little or no relevant in situ Galileo data that bear directly on this question and thus the determination of the molecular abundance remains highly uncertain. However, the energy can be constrained by the observation of the forbidden OI red line at 6300 Ang, but this requires observation when the satellite is in Jupiter's shadow, to avoid the emissions being swamped by the strong solar reflected light. Europa similarly shows the UV OI emissions, and recent HST/STIS observations show a complex time-dependent variation in the spatial distribution of these emissions. Europa does not have an intrinsic magnetic field, but rather the Jovian field at Europa is modified by a magnetic field induced by Europa's rotation. We will investigate Kivelson's suggested European conducting ocean by timing observations to coincide with different orientations of the induced magnetic field.

  20. Effect of the Interaction of Jovian Magnetosphere with Europa's Exosphere on Pick-up Ion Population and Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikov, D.; Tenishev, V.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    With hypothesized liquid water ocean beneath its crust and observed large amount of oxygen in its exosphere, Europa is one of the potentially habitable locations of Solar system. This made the satellite the object of high scientific interest, the primary goal of Clipper mission drafted by NASA in particular. As of today, certain amount of data is already available (e.g. from Galileo spacecraft), yet more is awaited from Juno spacecraft, which is on its way to Jupiter. Europa's exosphere should be studied with connection with Jovian magnetosphere, as the two form together a complex system. They are tightly coupled through the processes of the magnetospheric ion sputtering, photolytic and electron reactions. Successful investigation of coupled system requires a simultaneous simulation of both its components. Previous approaches studied this system in a piece-wise manner. Our efforts presented here are aimed at developing of a more global approach that would combine the exosphere and magnetosphere into a single model. This approach is more complete as it accounts for mutual influence of Jovian magnetosphere and Europa's exosphere and allows us to study their time dependent interaction. We employed coupled MHD (Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme) and Monte-Carlo (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator) codes. Among the properties studied are distributions of pick-up ions (spatial, energy, pitch angle) and mass-loading of the magnetosphere in the vicinity of the satellite. A brief comparison of these properties with those resulted from previous works on the problem (Lipatov et al., 2010; Ip et al., 1998) and analysis of how introduced interaction of the satellite's atmosphere with Jovian magnitosphere changes the results are provided.

  1. Electrostatic waves in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Barbosa, D. D.; Scarf, F. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Observations by the plasma wave receivers on Voyagers 1 and 2 show that a wide variety of electrostatic waves are present within the Jovian magnetosphere and that the Jovian electrostatic waves are for the most part very similar to those observed in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Bands of emission near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in the dayside outer magnetosphere are detected between higher harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. Inside of about 23 Jupiter radii, electron cyclotron harmonic emissions appear to be durable features of the inner Jovian magnetosphere and are extremely well confined to the Jovian magnetic equator. The cyclotron emissions extend from just above the local electron gyrofrequency to the upper hybrid resonance frequency.

  2. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  3. Spontaneous Formation of Closed-Field Torus Equilibrium via Current Jump Observed in an Electron-Cyclotron-Heated Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2006-03-01

    Spontaneous current jump resulting in the formation of closed field equilibrium has been observed in electron-cyclotron-heated toroidal plasmas under steady external fields composed of a toroidal field and a relatively weak vertical field in the low aspect ratio torus experiment device. This bridges the gap between the open field equilibrium maintained by a pressure-driven current in the external field and the closed field equilibrium at a larger current. Experimental results and theoretical analyses suggest a current jump model that is based on the asymmetric electron confinement along the field line appearing upon simultaneous transitions of field topology and equilibrium.

  4. The Jovian aurora: Electron or ion precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Clarke, J. T.; Cravens, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora at UV wavelengths obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory (including the brightest Jovian aurora observed to date) set strigent upper limits for sulfur and oxygen emissions, which would be associated with the precipitation of energetic heavy ions in the upper Jovian atmosphere if they were solely responsible for Jovian auroral processes. Model calculations of heavy ion precipitation and corresponding estimates of the associated sulfur and oxygen UV emissions previously carried out suggest emission values for 1304 A OI emission that are at least 30 times larger than the upper limit values set by the IUE observations reported. On the other hand the observed (feature of SII at 1256 A of 2 kR) is quite comparable to the theoretically predicted emission intensity. Taken together these observations and calculations suggest that electron as well as ion precipitation play a role in Jovian auroral processes. In light of earlier X-ray observations and in-situ plasma observations that suggest energetic heavy ion precipitation in the Jovian auroral zone, a scenario is suggested where heavy ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause. Electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions since they deposit their energy above the methane absorbing layer defined by the homopause.

  5. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  6. Processes and properties of edge-localised instabilities in 2T 2MA plasmas in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, A. J. Webster, S. J.

    2014-11-15

    During July 2012, 150 almost identical H-mode plasmas were consecutively created in the Joint European Torus, providing a combined total of approximately 8 minutes of steady-state plasma with 15?000 Edge Localised Modes (ELMs). In principle, each of those 15?000 ELMs are statistically equivalent. Here, the changes in edge density and plasma energy associated with those ELMs are explored, using the spikes in Beryllium II (527?nm) radiation as an indicator for the onset of an ELM. Clearly different timescales are observed during the ELM process. Edge temperature falls over a 2?ms timescale, edge density and pressure fall over a 5?ms timescale, and there is an additional 10?ms timescale that is consistent with a resistive relaxation of the plasma's edge. The statistical properties of the energy and density losses due to the ELMs are explored. For these plasmas the ELM energy (?E) is found to be approximately independent of the time between ELMs, despite the average ELM energy (??E?) and average ELM frequency (f) being consistent with the scaling of ??E??1/f. Instead, beyond the first 0.02 s of waiting time between ELMs, the energy losses due to individual ELMs are found to be statistically the same. Surprisingly no correlation is found between the energies of consecutive ELMs either. A weak link is found between the density drop and the ELM waiting time. Consequences of these results for ELM control and modelling are discussed.

  7. Observations of the plasma torus of Jupiter with a Fabry-Perot/charge-coupled device /CCD/ imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, F. L.; Scherb, F.; Oliversen, R.; Jaehnig, K.; Williams, T.; York, D. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the use of a CCD imaging spectrometer which has been employed at a 2.1 m telescope to obtain monochromatic images in the red and near infrared. The system studied was Jupiter's plasma torus which circles the planet with radial extent about 5 RJ and 7 RJ (RJ is the radius of Jupiter). In ground based measurements the torus has been observed in the forbidden emission lines of S(plus) at 6716 A and 6731 A and S(plus plus) at 9531 A. Attention is given to aspects of instrumentation, observations, and performance. It is felt that the particular significance of the obtained results from the instrumental point of view is the demonstration that the CCD is an excellent detector for monochromatic imaging in the near infrared out to at least 10830 A and that pixel binning before readout can produce significantly improved S/N ratios for the study of faint, diffuse sources in cases where readout noise is dominant.

  8. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D; Menard, J; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, R E; Bush, C; Kaita, R

    2008-09-22

    Experiments conducted in high-performance 1.0-1.2 MA 6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with a high flux expansion radiative divertor in NSTX demonstrate that significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and access to detachment may be facilitated naturally in a highly-shaped spherical torus (ST) configuration. Improved plasma performance with high {beta}{sub p} = 15-25%, a high bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} = 45-50%, longer plasma pulses, and an H-mode regime with smaller ELMs has been achieved in the lower single null configuration with higher-end elongation 2.2-2.4 and triangularity 0.6-0.8. Divertor peak heat fluxes were reduced from 6-12 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5-2 MW/m{sup 2} in ELMy H-mode discharges using high magnetic flux expansion and partial detachment of the outer strike point at several D{sub 2} injection rates, while good core confinement and pedestal characteristics were maintained. The partially detached divertor regime was characterized by a 30-60% increase in divertor plasma radiation, a peak heat flux reduction by up to 70%, measured in a 10 cm radial zone, a five-fold increase in divertor neutral pressure, and a significant volume recombination rate increase.

  9. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  10. Simultaneous observations of Jovian quasi-periodic radio emissions by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    of many Jovian plasma wave and radio emissions. One of these emissions is Jovian type III radio emissions); 2784 Magnetospheric Physics: Solar wind/magnetosphere interactions; 6984 Radio Science: Waves in plasma rich in radio and plasma wave emissions. One interesting radio emission component is the quasi

  11. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  12. The Io Plasma Torus: Motivation for Abandoning the "Active Sector" Concept in Favor of System IV Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, J. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Marconi, M.; Woodward, R. C., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We use an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 1000 observations of Io in [OI] 6300A, presented by Oliversen et al. (2001), narrow-band images of the torus in [SII] 6731A, and HST/STIS EUV observations of Io and its environs to confirm that the Io [OI] flux is an excellent proxy for the electron density in the Io plasma to torus (IPT). Furthermore, we find: (1) A careful statistical analysis of short-term variations in this dataset (20 min to 1 hour), previously suspected to be from flux tube interchange (Oliversen et al. 2001, Morgenthaler et al. 2012) are, in fact, consistent with the expected statistical variation of the parent population of observations. (2) The semi-empirical IPT model developed by W. Smyth (Oliversen et al. 2001; Smyth, Peterson, & Marconi 2011) fits the overall trends in the data reasonably well, with notable exceptions. (3) There may be a link between what was previously known the "active sector" at system III longitudes of 170 ~ 230 degrees and the modulation in IPT plasma density caused by the beating between system III and system IV, predicted by Hess et al. (2011). Conclusion: a simple modification to the W. Smyth semi-empirical torus model to incorporate a system IV-controlled density enhancement, rather than a fixed "active sector" in system III, should enable the model to "lock in" more readily to our extensive set of [OI] 6300A observations recorded between 1990 and 2008. This will provide detailed information about the flow of mass and energy in the IPT during the Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, and New Horizons missions. Additional observations are planned during NASA's upcoming Juno mission. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Research Program RTOP 344-32-40 to GSFC and grants NAGW-3319 and NAG5-6787 to the University of Wisconsin--Madison, STIS contract NAS5-30131 to the University of Wisconsin--Madison and NASA Outer Planets Research Program grant NNX11AM43G to PSI.

  13. Radio emission observed by Galileo in the inner Jovian magnetosphere during orbit A-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas; Gurnett, Donald A.; Groene, Joseph B.

    2005-10-01

    The Galileo spacecraft encountered the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter on its way to a flyby of Amalthea on November 5, 2002. During this encounter, the spacecraft observed distinct spin modulation of plasma wave emissions. The modulations occurred in the frequency range from a few hundred hertz to a few hundred kilohertz and probably include at least two distinct wave modes. Assuming transverse EM radiation, we have used the swept-frequency receivers of the electric dipole antenna to determine the direction to the source of these emissions. Additionally, with knowledge of the magnetic field some constraints are placed on the wave mode of the emission based on a comparative analysis of the wave power versus spin phase of the different emissions. The emission appears in several bands separated by attenuation lanes. The analysis indicates that the lanes are probably due to blockage of the freely propagating emission by high density regions of the Io torus near the magnetic equator. Radio emission at lower frequencies (<40 kHz) appears to emanate from sources at high latitude and is not attenuated. Emission at f>80kHz is consistent with O-mode and Z-mode. Lower frequency emissions could be a mixture of O-mode, Z-mode and whistler mode. Emission for f<5kHz shows bands that are similar to upper hybrid resonance bands observed near the terrestrial plasmapause, and also elsewhere in Jovian magnetosphere. Based on the observations and knowledge of similar terrestrial emissions, we hypothesize that radio emission results from mode conversion near the strong density gradient of the inner radius of the cold plasma torus, similar to the generation of nKOM and continuum emission observed in the outer Jovian magnetosphere and in the terrestrial magnetosphere from source regions near the plasmapause.

  14. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as ?e, ?*e, the MHD ? parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when ?e and ?*e were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both ?e and ?*e increased, microtearing became the dominant low-?? mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-??, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  15. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as ? e , ?e ? , the MHD ? parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when ?e and ?e ? were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both ?e and ?e ? increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k? mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k?, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  16. Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetometer experiment. [interaction of a flowing plasma with Titan and the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of a flowing plasma with Titan was studied. A Monte carlo simulation method is planned for the determination of the average flow field and pressure/temperature variations about Titan. Jupiter's magnetic field was also studied. Polynomial expressions describing this magnetic field are discussed briefly.

  17. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; G. Gettelfinger; T. Gray; D. Hoffman; S. Jardin; H. Kugel; P. Marfuta; T. Munsat; C. Neumeyer; S. Raftopoulos; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; L. Delgado-Aparicio; R.P. Seraydarian; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; M. Baldwin; R.W. Conn; R. Maingi; M. Menon; R. Causey; D. Buchenauer; M. Ulrickson; B. Jones; D. Rodgers

    2004-06-07

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  18. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  19. Integrated simulations of saturated neoclassical tearing modes in DIII-D, Joint European Torus, and ITER plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Federico D.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2006-06-01

    A revised version of the ISLAND module [C. N. Nguyen et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 3604 (2004)] is used in the BALDUR code [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1988)] to carry out integrated modeling simulations of DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)], and ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)] tokamak discharges in order to investigate the adverse effects of multiple saturated magnetic islands driven by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). Simulations are carried out with a predictive model for the temperature and density pedestal at the edge of the high confinement mode (H-mode) plasma and with core transport described using the Multi-Mode model. The ISLAND module, which is used to compute magnetic island widths, includes the effects of an arbitrary aspect ratio and plasma cross sectional shape, the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, and the effect of the distortion in the shape of each magnetic island caused by the radial variation of the perturbed magnetic field. Radial transport is enhanced across the width of each magnetic island within the BALDUR integrated modeling simulations in order to produce a self-consistent local flattening of the plasma profiles. It is found that the main consequence of the NTM magnetic islands is a decrease in the central plasma temperature and total energy. For the DIII-D and JET discharges, it is found that inclusion of the NTMs typically results in a decrease in total energy of the order of 15%. In simulations of ITER, it is found that the saturated magnetic island widths normalized by the plasma minor radius, for the lowest order individual tearing modes, are approximately 24% for the 2/1 mode and 12% for the 3/2 mode. As a result, the ratio of ITER fusion power to heating power (fusion Q) is reduced from Q =10.6 in simulations with no NTM islands to Q =2.6 in simulations with fully saturated NTM islands.

  20. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Jovian Dust Streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    E-print Network

    Harald Krueger; Paul Geissler; Mihaly Horanyi; Amara L. Graps; Sascha Kempf; Ralf Srama; Georg Moragas-Klostermeyer; Richard Moissl; Torrence V. Johnson; Eberhard Gruen

    2003-09-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's innermost Galilean moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over $\\rm 200 km s^{-1}$. Galileo, which was the first orbiter spacecraft of Jupiter, has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about the planet between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between $10^{-3}$ and $\\mathrm{10} \\rm kg s^{-1}$, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to $\\rm 1 kg s^{-1}$. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes.

  2. Stability of the Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. S.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The inherent stability of the coupled neutral-plasma Io torus is investigated. Under the assumptions that the neutrals arise through sputtering by corotating torus ions, and that the ions move radially by centrifugally driven diffusion, it is found that the equilibrium state properties of the Io torus depend on two quantities: the sputtering yield, and Jupiter's ionospheric Pedersen conductance. For fixed values of these quantities, the torus equilibrium state is stable. When the torus neutral and ion densities deviate from the equilibrium state, the perturbations decay without oscillating, with a decay time near 1 day for the neutrals and near 60 days for the ions. The growths of the neutrals and ions from seed populations are computed. The torus evolves directly to its equilibrium state.

  3. Progress in Understanding Error-field Physics in NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    E. Menard, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.P. Gerhardt, J.-K. Park, S.A. Sabbagh, J.W. Berkery, A. Egan, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, Y.Q. Liu, A. Sontag, D. Swanson, H. Yuh, W. Zhu and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-05-19

    The low aspect ratio, low magnetic field, and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyze error fields, to measure error field amplification, and to detect resistive wall modes in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field, and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favorable error field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n=1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n=1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n=3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n=1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E × B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.

  4. Investigations of the magnetic structure and the decay of a plasma-gun-generated compact torus

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.

    1983-07-01

    The results of a series of experimental measurements of compact toroidal (CT) plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun injecting into a flux-conserving metallic liner are reported. The experiments were performed on the Beta II facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The magnetic equilibria are well described by a force-free eigenmode structure that results from an extension of Taylor's theory of the reversed-field pinch. Consideration of helicity conservation during relaxation of the composite plasma-gun flux-conserver system to the final state equilibrium yields theoretical expressions that are compared with the experiment.

  5. Experimental observations and model calculations of impurity radiation in a plasma gun compact torus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-08-10

    Several types of radiation measurements were performed on the Beta II compact forms experiment. Among these are time integrated spectra ranging in wavelength from the vuv to the uv, time resolved bolometer measurements of radiation from the x-ray to the infrared, and time and wavelength resolved measurements of certain spectral lines. It is difficult to relate any one of these measurements to plasma parameters of interest such as temperature, density, or impurity content. In this report we compare the results of these, and other measurements with two simple models of the power balance in the plasma in order to estimate the effect of carbon and oxygen impurities on plasma lifetime.

  6. Observations of the Jovian System with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Grodent, D.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Bhardwaj, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The {\\sl Chandra X-ray Observatory) observed the Jovian system on 25-26 Nov 1999 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), in support of the Galileo flyby of Io, and on 18 Dec 2000 with the imaging array of the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), in support of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. These sensitive, very high spatial-resolution X-ray observations have revealed that Jupiter's northern x-ray aurora originates at a spot fixed in a coordinate system rotating with the planet at latitude (60--70 deg north) and longitude (160--180 deg System III). Contrary to previous expectations, this location is poleward of the main FUV auroral oval and the foot of the Io Flux Tube, and is apparently connected magnetically to a region of the outer magnetosphere beyond $\\sim$30 Jupiter radii. The northern auroral x-ray emission varies with a period $\\sim$45 minute and has a an average power of $\\sim$1 GW. The earlier view that Jupiter's x-ray aurora resulted from the precipitation of heavy ions from the outer edge of the lo Plasma Torus is now in doubt. Jupiter's disk also emits x-rays with a power of $\\sim$2 GW, perhaps resulting from reprocessing of solar x-rays in its atmosphere. These observations reveal for the first time x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus, with a power of $\\sim$0.1 Gw. The origin of this emission is not currently understood, although bremmstrahlung from non-thermal electrons may play a significant role. Finally, we report the discovery of very faint ($\\sim$1--2 MW) soft x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede, most likely as a result of bombardment of their surfaces by energetic ($ greater than $10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the Io Plasma Torus.

  7. Beta-limiting MHD Instabilities in Improved-performance NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson D.A. Gates: S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; C.E. Bush; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; F. Paoletti; S.F Paul; M. Ono; Y.-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; the NSTX Research Team

    2003-05-29

    Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during normal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) {beta}{sub t} = 35%, {beta}{sub N} = 6.4, <{beta}{sub N}> = 4.5, {beta}{sub N}/l{sub i} = 10, and {beta}{sub P} = 1.4. High {beta}{sub P} operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of {beta}{sub N} {approx} 6 above the ideal no-wall limit and near the with-wall limit. Details of the {beta} limit scalings and {beta}-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described.

  8. The role of the interaction between Jovian plasma and icy surface in the generation of Ganymede's exosphere (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plainaki, Christina; Milillo, Anna; Massetti, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro; Jia, Xianzhe; Orsini, Stefano; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Mangano, Valeria; Rispoli, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma with Ganymede intrinsic magnetic field and with its icy surface is mainly responsible for the generation of a neutral environment around Ganymede. In the current work, we simulate the major exospheric components, water and oxygen, of Jupiter's moon Ganymede applying a 3-D Monte Carlo modeling technique. The model takes into consideration the effect of water sublimation in the warmer regions and the combined effects of the precipitation of Jupiter's magnetospheric ions determined by the moon's intrinsic field, and the surface release processes of sputtering and radiolysis. The intrinsic magnetic field imposes the existence of non-homogeneously distributed ion-precipitation zones on Ganymede's surface implying also a spatially inhomogeneous neutral release. Our results are summarized as follows: a) the maximum contribution to the exosphere comes from sublimated water and is located at small altitudes above the moon's subsolar point; b) there is a close correspondence of the near-surface spatial distribution of the directly sputtered-water molecules with the open-closed magnetic field lines boundary, that also agrees well with the Galileo magnetic field and plasma flow measurements; c) the molecular oxygen exosphere comprises two different regions: the first one is an homogeneous, relatively dense, close to the surface thermal-oxygen region (extending to some 100s of km above the surface) and the second one is a less homogeneous region of more energetic oxygen molecules resulting from direct sputtering to the surface; the later has a spatial distribution that depends both on the plasma surface impact and the moon's surface temperature distribution (that determines the actual efficiency of radiolysis); d) a slight asymmetry in the modelled oxygen exosphere appears between Jupiter and anti-Jupiter direction, that seems to be consistent with the HST observations of Ganymede's auroral emissions.

  9. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Torus Experiment Upgrade F. Scotti and V.A. Soukhanovskii Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory A two Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially-available mechanically- referenced Experiment (LTX) are presented. I. INTRODUCTION Visible imaging is widely applied for the routine mon

  10. High-harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive Results for Deuterium H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor, P.T. Bonoli, R.W. Harvey, J.C. hosea, E.F. Jaeger, B.P. LeBlanc, C.K. Phillisp, P.M. Ryan, E.J. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, J.C. Wright, and the NSTX Team

    2012-07-25

    A critical research goal for the spherical torus (ST) program is to initiate, ramp-up, and sustain a discharge without using the central solenoid. Simulations of non-solenoidal plasma scenarios in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [1] predict that high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) [2] can play an important roll in enabling fully non-inductive (fNI {approx} 1) ST operation. The NSTX fNI {approx} 1 strategy requires 5-6 MW of HHFW power (PRF) to be coupled into a non-inductively generated discharge [3] with a plasma current, Ip {approx} 250-350 kA, driving the plasma into an HHFW H-mode with Ip {approx} 500 kA, a level where 90 keV deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) can heat the plasma and provide additional CD. The initial approach on NSTX has been to heat Ip {approx} 300 kA, inductively heated, deuterium plasmas with CD phased HHFW power [2], in order to drive the plasma into an H-mode with fNI {approx} 1.

  11. Positional Coincidence of H2O Maser and a Plasma Obscuring Torus in Radio Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    Satoko Sawada-Satoh; Seiji Kameno; Kayoko Nakamura; Daichi Namikawa; Katsunori M. Shibata; Makoto Inoue

    2008-02-28

    We present multi-frequency simultaneous VLBA observations at 15, 22 and 43 GHz towards the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 1052. These three continuum images reveal a double-sided jet structure, whose relative intensity ratios imply that the jet axis is oriented close to the sky plane. The steeply rising spectra at 15-43 GHz at the inner edges of the jets strongly suggest that synchrotron emission is absorbed by foreground thermal plasma. We detected H2O maser emission in the velocity range of 1550-1850 km/s, which is redshifted by 50-350 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 1052. The redshifted maser gas appears projected against both sides of the jet, in the same manner as the HI seen in absorption. The H2O maser gas are located where the free-free absorption opacity is large. This probably imply that the masers in NGC 1052 are associated with a circumnuclear torus or disk as in the nucleus of NGC 4258. Such circumnuclear structure can be the sence of accreting onto the central engine.

  12. Zebra spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rošker, S.; Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H. O.; Brazhenko, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radiation in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of complicated interactions between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moon Io. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from a few MHz up to 40 MHz. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAM exhibits different complex spectral structures. Recent observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) enabled the detection of fine spectral structures, specifically zebra stripe-like patterns, never reported before in the Jovian decametric wavelength regime (Figure 1). In this presentation we describe and analyse these new observations by investigating the characteristics of the Jovian decametric zebra patterns. On basis of these findings the possible mechanism of wave generation is discussed and in particular the value of the determination of local plasma densities within the Jovian magnetosphere by remote radio sensing is emphasized.

  13. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfusa, M.; Gaudio, P.; Peluso, E.; Murari, A.; Baruzzo, M.; Lupelli, I.; Hawkes, N.; Brix, M.; Drozdov, V.; Meigs, A.; Romanelli, M.; Schmuck, S.; Sieglin, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of properly validating the results of the codes with independent measurements.

  14. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M. Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-15

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as ?{sub e},??{sub e}{sup ?}, the MHD ? parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of T{sub e}, T{sub i}, and n{sub e} were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when ?{sub e} and ?{sub e}{sup ?} were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both ?{sub e} and ?{sub e}{sup ?} increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k{sub ?} mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k{sub ?}, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting T{sub e} for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  15. Observations of Reduced Electron Gyro-scale Fluctuations in National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode Plasmas with Large E × B Flow Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Kaye, S. M.; Lee, W.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H. K.; Bell, R. E.; Domier, C. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.; Menard, J. E.; Yu, H.

    2009-02-13

    Electron gyro-scale fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-mode plasmas with large toroidal rotation reveal fluctuations consistent with electron temper- ature gradient (ETG) turbulence. Large toroidal rotation in NSTX plasmas with neutral beam injection generates E × B flow shear rates comparable to ETG linear growth rates. Enhanced fluctuations occur when the electron temperature gradient is marginally stable with respect to the ETG linear critical gradient. Fluctuation amplitudes decrease when the E × B flow shear rate exceeds ETG linear growth rates. The observations indicate E × B flow shear can be an effective suppression mechanism for ETG turbulence.

  16. The Jupiter hot plasma torus - Observed electron temperature and energy flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the optical emission /O I/ 6300 A (8 + or - 4 R) and /S III/ 6312 A (48 + or - 5 R) is reported. It is noted that these emissions are indicators of the ion source morphology and the plasma physical state and that the S III emitters have a kinetic temperature of approximately 10 to the 6th K. When combined with observations of UV lines from the same species, the optical measurements separately imply effective electron temperatures for radiative processes that are mutually consistent (approximately 50,000 K).

  17. Observation of dust torus with poloidal rotation in direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manjit Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K. Sharma, Devendra; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2015-03-15

    Observation of dust cloud rotation in parallel-plate DC glow discharge plasma is reported here. The experiments are carried out at high pressures (?130?Pa) with a metallic ring placed on the lower electrode (cathode). The dust cloud rotates poloidally in the vertical plane near the cathode surface. This structure is continuous toroidally. Absence of magnetic field rules out the possibility of E?×?B induced ion flow as the cause of dust rotation. The dust rotational structures exist even with water cooled cathode. Therefore, temperature gradient driven mechanisms, such as thermophoretic force, thermal creep flow, and free convection cannot be causing the observed dust rotation. Langmuir probe measurement reveals the existence of a sharp density gradient near the location of the rotating dust cloud. The gradient in the density, giving rise to a gradient in the ion drag force, has been identified as the principal cause behind the rotation of dust particles.

  18. Effects of density gradient caused by multi-pulsing CHI on two-fluid flowing equilibria of spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2014-10-01

    Two-fluid dynamo relaxation is examined to understand sustainment mechanism of spherical torus (ST) plasmas by multi-pulsing CHI (M-CHI) in the HIST device. The steeper density gradient between the central open flux column (OFC) and closed flux regions by applying the second CHI pulse is observed to cause not only the E × B drift but also the ion diamagnetic drift, leading the two-fluid dynamo. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the steep change in the density gradient on the ST equilibria by using the two-fluid equilibrium calculations. The toroidal magnetic field becomes from a diamagnetic to a paramagnetic profile in the closed flux region while it remains a diamagnetic profile in the OFC region. The toroidal ion flow velocity is increased from negative to positive values in the closed flux region. Here, the negative ion flow velocity is the opposite direction to the toroidal current. The poloidal ion flow velocity between the OFC and closed flux regions is increased, because the ion diamagnetic drift velocity is changed in the same direction as the E × B drift velocity through the steeper ion pressure gradient. As a result, the strong shear flow and the paramagnetic toroidal field are generated in the closed flux region. Here, the ion flow velocity is the same direction as the poloidal current. The radial electric field shear between the OFC and closed flux regions is enhanced due to the strong dependence on the magnetic force through the interaction of toroidal ion flow velocity and axial magnetic field. The two-fluid effect is significant there due to the ion diamagnetic effect.

  19. Direct observation of transition to electron Bernstein waves from electromagnetic mode by three mode-conversion scenarios in the dipole confinement torus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchijima, K.; Takemoto, T.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Direct measurement experiments on the mode conversion to the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) have been conducted in dipole confinement torus plasmas for three excitation scenarios; i.e. perpendicular injections of an eXtraordinary mode (X-mode) from the low- and high-magnetic-field sides, and the oblique injection of an Ordinary mode (O-mode) from the low-magnetic-field side. By inserting probe antennas into plasmas, wave propagation has been directly measured. At plasma conditions for the EBW excitation, several characteristics which indicate the mode conversion to the EBWs have been observed; i.e. a short wavelength wave, an electrostatic and longitudinal mode, backward propagation at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region. Meanwhile, the wavelengths experimentally observed might be slightly longer than those of theoretical prediction. In the case of the oblique injection of the O-mode, it has been identified that the window of the injection angle for the excitation of the EBW would be quite limited, and the optimum angle seems to be roughly in agreement with theory. These experimental results might support that the electromagnetic waves injected outside of torus plasmas reach to the UHR region and convert wave characteristics to the EBWs for three excitation scenarios.

  20. The Jovian Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Wing-Huen

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the Jovian and Saturnian rings is made by reviewing the recent advances in planetary spacecraft exploration and theoretical study. Two main issues are addressed, namely, the different structures of these two planetary ring systems and the water ice composition of the Saturnian rings. It is suggested that answers might be found by invoking tidal capture of Trans-Neptunian Objects with highly differentiated structures even though catastrophic breakup of pre-existing satellites in the ring regions remains a real possibility. Erosion mechanisms such as meteoroid impact, photo-sputtering, orbital instability of charged dust particles and thermal evaporation acting at different time scales could lead to the preservation of the Saturnian ring system but not the Jovian ring system of large mass originally.

  1. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S.; Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2013-10-15

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3} to 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10{sup 18} m{sup ?3}. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  2. Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S. (editor); West, Robert A. (editor); Rahe, Jurgen (editor); Pereyda, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    The current state of knowledge of dynamic processes in the Jovian system is assessed and summaries are provided of both theoretical and observational foundations upon which future research might be based. There are three sections: satellite phenomena and rings; magnetospheric phenomena, Io's torus, and aurorae; and atmospheric phenomena. Each chapter discusses time dependent theoretical framework for understanding and interpreting what is observed; others describe the evidence and nature of observed changes or their absence. A few chapters provide historical perspective and attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge.

  3. Pasma Wave Characteristics of the Jovian Magnetopause Boundary Layer: Can Wave-Particle Interactions Cause the Jovian Aurora?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Arballo, J. K.; Goldstein, B. E.; Ho, C.; Smith, E. J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Prange, R.; Lin, N.; Phillips, J. R.; Balogh, A.; Krupp, N.; Kane, M.

    1996-01-01

    The full Jovian magnetopause boundary layer (BL) plasma wave spectra from 10(sup -3) to 10(sup 3) Hz, have been measured for the first time...The B'/E' ration does not have a f(sup -1) dependency, so it was suggested that the waves are a mixture of whistler mode electromagnetic emissions and electrostatic waves.

  4. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  5. Modeling the Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Jovian aurora is the most powerful aurora in the solar system, over 100 times more powerful than the Earth's aurora. These magnificent visual displays can provide important information about the planetary magnetosphere which is responsible for the acceleration of energetic particles that produce aurora at any planet. Similarities and differences in planetary auroral emissions are thus a viable means of classifying and studying both comparative atmospheric and magnetospheric processes. For instance, at Earth the solar wind is the primary source of auroral power while at Jupiter it is conjectured that the rotation of the planet is the major source of magnetospheric and auroral power. The purpose of this IR project was to develop a model: (1) for use in interpreting the existing set of multispectral observations of Jupiter's aurora; and (2) to design new experiments based on the findings to improve understanding of the underlying auroral processes.

  6. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions Due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in Joint European Torus Shear Optimized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; A. Gondhalekar; A.A. Korotkov; S.E. Sharapov; D. Testa; and Contributors to the EFDA-JET Workprogramme

    2002-01-18

    Internal radial redistribution of MeV energy ICRF-driven hydrogen minority ions was inferred from neutral particle analyzer measurements during large amplitude MHD activity leading to internal reconnection in Shear Optimized plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET). A theory is developed for energetic ion redistribution during a reconnection driven by an m=2/n=1 internal kink mode. Plasma motion during reconnection generates an electric field which can change the energy and radial position of the energetic ions. The magnitude of ion energy change depends on the value of the safety factor at the plasma core from which the energetic ions are redistributed. A relation is found for corresponding change in canonical momentum. P(subscript phi), which leads to radial displacement of the ions. The model yields distinctive new features of energetic ion redistribution under such conditions. Predicted characteristics of ion redistribution are compared with the NPA measurements, and good correlation is found. Sometimes fast ions were transported to the plasma edge due to interaction with a long-lived magnetic island which developed after the reconnection and had chirping frequency in the laboratory frame. Convection of resonant ions trapped in a radially moving phase-space island is modeled to understand the physics of such events.

  7. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  8. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program has supported a vigorous three-year program of groundbased observations and detailed analysis of the Jupiter/Io system. Our work focused on Io's escaping atmosphere and the plasma torus that it creates.

  9. A theory of the Io phase asymmetry of the Jovian decametric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    An explanation of an asymmetry in the occurrence probability of the Io-dependent Jovian decametric radiation is proposed. Io generates stronger Alfven waves toward the south when it is in the northern part of the torus. This wave then generates decametric radiation in the northern ionosphere after it reflects in the southern ionosphere. The asymmetry then results from computing the propagation time of the alfven wave along this trajectory. The ray paths of the decameter radiation are calculated using a three dimensional ray tracing program in the Jovian ionosphere. Variations in the expected probability plots are computer for two models of the Jovian ionosphere and global magnetic field, as well as for several choices of the ratio of the radiated frequency to the X-mode cutoff frequency.

  10. Emissions from neutrals and ions in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Strobel, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of the system of neutrals and plasma surrounding Jupiter and originating at Io and their interpretation are reviewed, and related processes are discussed. The optical emission detected from the neutral cloud around Jupiter is treated, and results of measurements of the thermal electron density, the ion and electron temperatures are presented. The results of studies of the EUV emissions are considered, and the mechanisms and rates of ionization of neutral material to form the plasma torus are discussed along with the radial diffusion processes that transport plasma through and out of the torus. Finally, the competing plasma loss process of dielectronic recombination is addressed.

  11. Investigation of Jovian satellites and the origin of Jovian system by LAPLACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yamaji, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kimura, Jun; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hussmann, Hauke; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    LAPLACE (ESA-JAXA joint mission for the Jovian system) was selected as one of future ESA scientific missions Cosmic Vision in October 2007. LAPLACE is a mission with three spacecrafts aiming at coordinated observations of Jovian satellites and the magnetosphere, atmosphere and interior of Jupiter. An orbiter around Europa or Ganymede is involved. There is a possibility that JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner. Japanese scientists working on the origin and evolution of Jupiter, satellite evolution, and astrobiology have been participating in the LAPLACE working group in Japan. Detailed observation of Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and Io as well as smaller satellites such as Amalthea would be important also for the study of the origin of Jovian system. Resurfacing processes on Europa and Ganymede should be studied to know the properties of the internal oceans. The processes can be investigated by infrared observation for salt minerals and amorphous/crystal ices. Not only the thickness of icy crust of Europa but also thickness of the ocean and its bottom topography should be important targets, which would be investigated by gravity and magnetism measurements. For both Europa and Ganymede, the surface layering and structure of icy crust should be an interesting geological target, which will be clarified by subsurface radar. In Japan, KAGUYA is observing the Moon, and Venus remote sensing mission (PLANET-C) and Mercury mission Bepi Colombo will be launched in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Several instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, a laser altimeter, a radar, a magnetometer, plasma instruments, and a dust detector should come from the heritage of instruments on board KAGUYA, PLANET-C, and BepiColombo.

  12. Ion anisotropies in the outer Jovian magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Carbary, J.F.; Krimigis, S.M.; Keath, E.P.; Gloeckler, G.; Axford, W.I.; Armstrong, T.P.

    1981-09-30

    We present results from the Voyager 1 and 2 low-energy charged particle measurement of ion anisotropies in the outer Jovian magnetosphere (R> or approx. =20 R/sub J/). Theses anisotropies represent the first observed from an instrument rotating in the spin plane of Jupiter. For the several ion species ivestigated the first-order anisotropies are all strongly in the corotational sense throughout most of the Jovian magnestophere and out to the magnetopause on the dayside. There is some evidence for a small component of outward flow in the corotating region. Beyond approx.130--150 R/sub J/ along the Voyager outbound trajectories the anisotropies indicate a magnetospheric wind flowing outward from Jupiter. The change corotational to tailward flow on the nightside occurs well inside the magnetopause. The anisotropy amplitudes increase linearly with radial distance and, in the disc regions, decrease with distance from the magnetodisc mid-plane. In one case examined in detail using separtely identified H, He, and O/S ions the convection speed at 58 R/sub J/ is found to agree with the corotation speed (..cap omega..R) to within approx.3%. A linear Compton-Getting analysis reveals that the convective speeds in the dayside magnetosphere are in agreement with rigid corotation whenever the plasma flow direction is approximately in the corotation sense, while at other times the convection speeds are substantially less than corotation.

  13. Jovian Planet Systems Are jovian planets all alike?

    E-print Network

    Crenshaw, Michael

    · Jupiter and Saturn ­ Mostly H and He gas ­ Rocky Core · Uranus and Neptune ­ Mostly hydrogen compounds: water (H2O), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) ­ Some H, He ­ Rocky core Density Differences · Uranus · Models suggest cores of jovian planets have similar composition · Lower pressures inside Uranus

  14. Whistler mode waves in the Jovian magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Naiguo; Kellogg, P. J.; Thiessen, J. P.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Phillips, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    During the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter in February 1992, the spacecraft traversed the Jovian magnetosheath for a few hours during the inbound pass and for aa few days during the outbound pass. Burstlike electomagnetic waves at frequencies of approximately 0.1-0.4 of the local electron cyclotron frequency have been observed by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiement. The waves were more often observed in the regions which were probably the outer or the middle magnetosheath, especially near the bow shock, and rarely seen in the magnetosphere/magnetosheath boundary layer. The propagation angles of the waves are estimated by comparing the measurements of the wave electric and magnetic fields in the spacecraft spin plane with the corresponding values calculated using the cold plasma dispersion relation under local field and plasma conditions. It is found that the waves propagate obliquely with wave angles between approximately 30 deg and 50 deg. These waves are likely to be the whistler mode waves which are excited by suprathermal electrons with a few hundred eV and a slight anisotropy (T(sub perp)/T(sub parallel) approximately 1.1-1.5). They are probably similar in nature to the lion roars observed in the Earth's magnetosheath. Signature of coupling between the mirror and the whistler mode have also been observed. The plasma conditions which favor the excitation of the whistler mode instability during the wave events exists as observed by the plasma experiement of Ulysses.

  15. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the plasma analyzer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer detected the 10 plasma torus. Evidence was found of corotating ions which appear to be primarily S (++) and O (++) in the Pioneer 10 plasma data as the spacecraft moved inward from 6.9 to 5.4 R sub J. The Pioneer plasma analyzer was effective in obtaining information on the heavy ion populations in the Jovian magnetosphere. Interplanetary solar wind plasma shocks can trap energetic particles (cosmic rays) for weeks and out to distances of 17 AU. Energetic particles (o.5 MeV to 20 MeV) were confined between two plasma shocks from solar flares as the shocks propagated outward in the solar system.

  16. Influence of vacuum toroidal field on two-fluid flowing equilibria of helicity-driven spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2006-07-15

    Two-fluid flowing equilibrium configurations of a helicity-driven spherical torus (HD-ST) in the realistic confinement region, including a flux conserver and a coaxial helicity source, are numerically determined by means of the combination of the finite difference and the boundary element methods. It is found from the numerical results that electron fluid near the central conductor is tied to a vacuum toroidal field and ion fluid is not. The magnetic configurations change from the high-q HD-ST (safety factor, q>1) with a paramagnetic toroidal field and low-{beta} (volume average {beta} value, <{beta}>{approx_equal}2%) through the helicity-driven spheromak and reversed-field pinch to the ultra-low-q HD-ST (0{approx_equal}18%) as the vacuum toroidal field at the inner edge regions decreases and reverses the sign. The two-fluid effects are more significant in this equilibrium transition when the ion diamagnetic drift has the same direction as the ExB one.

  17. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  18. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; G. Barnes; J.H. Chrzanowski; P. Heitzenroeder; et al

    1999-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions between the PFC's and the vacuum vessel on which supports are attached. This paper will provide a brief review of the issues associated with the design, fabrication and assembly of the NSTX Torus system including those outlined above.

  19. Single crystal diamond detector measurements of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium neutrons in Joint European Torus fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzaniga, C. Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano ; Sundén, E. Andersson; Binda, F.; Ericsson, G.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Griesmayer, E.; Kaveney, G.; Syme, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-04-15

    First simultaneous measurements of deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium neutrons from deuterium plasmas using a Single crystal Diamond Detector are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed at JET with a dedicated electronic chain that combined high count rate capabilities and high energy resolution. The deposited energy spectrum from DD neutrons was successfully reproduced by means of Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response function and simulations of neutron emission from the plasma, including background contributions. The reported results are of relevance for the development of compact neutron detectors with spectroscopy capabilities for installation in camera systems of present and future high power fusion experiments.

  20. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region of the atmosphere. These types of waves have never been seen before. What is interesting about these waves is both that they are 'channeled' within the warm band at the top of the panel, and that they appear to have no counterpart in the visible cloud structure. Thermal waves have already been seen in Jupiter that are independent of the cloud structure, but those waves were much larger in size. This is the first time Jupiter's temperatures have been mapped at a spatial resolution better than 2,000 kilometers (1,243 miles), allowing these waves to be detected.

    These maps include an area on Jupiter between approximately the equator and 40 degrees south latitude, covering about 60 degrees of longitude. They were taken in late September during the spacecraft's 17th orbit.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  1. JOURNALOF GEOPHYSICALRESEARCH,VOL. 92, NO. A9, PAGES9963-9970, SEPTEMBER1, 1987 THE INTERACTION OF IO'S ALFVEN WAVES WITH THE JOVIAN

    E-print Network

    Wright, Andrew N.

    OF IO'S ALFVEN WAVES WITH THE JOVIAN MAGNETOSPHERE Andrew N. Wright Theoretical Astronomy Unit, School densityseen by the wave as it propagatesthrough the torus the Alfv·n wavesproducedby Io is presented and magnetic particularly complex pattern of waves behind Io as there field inhomogeneities.We find

  2. Low-frequency fluctuation spectra and associated particle transport in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, C. M.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Roth, J. R.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.; Powers, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The strong radial electric field associated with the Penning discharge and the strong toroidal magnetic field give rise to a diversity of E/B phenomena, such as rotating waves and spokes, which in turn manifest themselves as space-time fluctuations of the plasma density and potential. Work is done to further understand the nature and origin of the fluctuations and their connection with fluctuation-induced transport. The approach is to monitor the density and potential fluctuations; to digitize the data; and to generate, with the aid of a computer, various spectral properties by means of the fast fourier transform. Of particular interest is the computer-generated transport spectrum that indicates in a quantitative way which fluctuation spectral components contribute to transport and which do not. All experimental measurements of the spectral characteristics of the plasma are given in absolute units rather than as relative values. Preliminary measurements of the transport spectrum of the ion population are given, and it is shown that the fluctuation-induced transport is in order-of-magnitude agreement with that inferred from the steady state current flowing to the electrodes that generate the plasma.

  3. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 23S-23P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogane, S.; Shikama, T.; Zushi, H.; Hasuo, M.

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 23S-23P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.

  4. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 2(3)S-2(3)P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ogane, S; Shikama, T; Zushi, H; Hasuo, M

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2(3)S-2(3)P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet. PMID:26520955

  5. Flow and shear behavior in the edge and scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D.; Zweben, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as observed by the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic are studied. Calculation of local, time resolved velocity maps using the Hybrid Optical Flow and Pattern Matching Velocimetry (HOP-V) code enables analysis of turbulent flow and shear behavior. Periodic reversals in the direction of the poloidal flow near the separatrix are observed. Also, poloidal velocities and their radial shearing rate are found to be well correlated with the fraction of D? light contained in the SOL, which acts as a measure of turbulentmore »bursts. The spectra of GPI intensity and poloidal velocity both have a strong feature near 3 kHz, which appears to correspond with turbulent bursts. This mode exhibits a poloidal structure with poloidal wavenumber of 7.7 m-1 for GPI intensity and 3.4 m-1 for poloidal velocity, and the poloidal velocity fluctuations near 3 kHz remain coherent over length scales in excess of the turbulent scales. Furthermore, recent SOL Turbulence (SOLT) simulations find a parameter regime that exhibits periodic bursty transport and shares many qualitative similarities with the experimental data. Strong correlations between the shearing rate and the turbulent bursts are observed for time periods of ~ 2 ms, but the relationship is complicated by several factors. Finally, measurements of the radial profiles of the Reynolds shear stresses are reported. These radial profiles exhibit many similarities for several shots, and a region with positive radial gradient is seen to be coincident with local flow shear.« less

  6. Flow and shear behavior in the edge and scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D.; Zweben, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as observed by the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic are studied. Calculation of local, time resolved velocity maps using the Hybrid Optical Flow and Pattern Matching Velocimetry (HOP-V) code enables analysis of turbulent flow and shear behavior. Periodic reversals in the direction of the poloidal flow near the separatrix are observed. Also, poloidal velocities and their radial shearing rate are found to be well correlated with the fraction of D? light contained in the SOL, which acts as a measure of turbulent bursts. The spectra of GPI intensity and poloidal velocity both have a strong feature near 3 kHz, which appears to correspond with turbulent bursts. This mode exhibits a poloidal structure with poloidal wavenumber of 7.7 m-1 for GPI intensity and 3.4 m-1 for poloidal velocity, and the poloidal velocity fluctuations near 3 kHz remain coherent over length scales in excess of the turbulent scales. Furthermore, recent SOL Turbulence (SOLT) simulations find a parameter regime that exhibits periodic bursty transport and shares many qualitative similarities with the experimental data. Strong correlations between the shearing rate and the turbulent bursts are observed for time periods of ~ 2 ms, but the relationship is complicated by several factors. Finally, measurements of the radial profiles of the Reynolds shear stresses are reported. These radial profiles exhibit many similarities for several shots, and a region with positive radial gradient is seen to be coincident with local flow shear.

  7. Long-term study of longitudinal dependence in primary particle precipitation in the north Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Strobel, D. F.; Moos, H. W.

    1990-01-01

    The wavelength-dependent absorption apparent in IUE spectra of the north Jovian aurora is analyzed to determine the column density of hydrocarbons above the altitude of the FUV auroral emission. Both the magnetotail and torus auroral zone models are considered in estimating zenith angles, with very similar results obtained for both models. It is found that the hydrocarbon column density above the FUV emission displays a consistent dependence on magnetic longitude, with the peak density occurring approximately coincident with the peak in the observed auroral intensity. Two distinct scenarios for the longitude dependence of the column density are discussed. In one, the Jovian upper atmosphere is longitudinally homogeneous, and the variation in optical depth is due to a variation in penetration, and thus energy, of the primary particles. In the other, the energy of the primaries is longitudinally homogeneous, and it is aeronomic properties which change, probably due to auroral heating.

  8. Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 2000 to 2003 H. Kruger a,b,, D. Bindschadler c

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 2000 to 2003 H. Kr¨uger a,b,�, D. Bindschadler c , S/magnetosphere interaction Interplanetary dust Dusty plasmas a b s t r a c t The Galileo spacecraft was the first man approximately 2 and 370 RJ (jovian radius RJ¼71 492 km). The Galileo dust detector was a twin of the one flying

  9. Jovian Substorms: A Study of Processes Leading to Transient Behavior in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar system magnetospheres can be divided into two groups: induced and intrinsic. The induced magnetospheres are produced in the solar wind interaction of the magnetized solar wind with planetary obstacles. Examples of these magnetospheres are those of comets, Venus and Mars. Intrinsic magnetospheres are the cavities formed in the solar wind by the magnetic fields produced by dynamo current systems inside the planets: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are known to have intrinsic magnetospheres. Intrinsic magnetospheres can be further subdivided as to how the circulating plasma is driven by external or internal processes. The magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth are driven by the solar wind. The magnetospheres of Jupiter and possibly of Saturn are principally driven by internal processes. These processes provide the energy for the powerful jovian radio signals that can be detected easily on the surface of the Earth.

  10. Jovian X-ray emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H.; Lewis, W. S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Brandt, W. N.

    1996-01-01

    The Einstein and Rosat observations of X-ray emissions from Jupiter are summarized. Jupiter's soft X-ray emission is observed to originate from the planet's auroral zones, and specifically, from its equatorial region. The processes responsible for these emissions are not established. The brightness distribution of the Jovian X-rays is characterized by the dependence on central meridian longitude and by north-south and morning-afternoon asymmetries. The X-rays observed during the impact of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 are believed to be impact-induced brightenings of the X-ray aurora.

  11. Energetic oxygen and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of 1 to 20 MeV/nuc oxygen, sodium, and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere are reported. Measurements made by the cosmic ray subsystem on Voyager 1 and 2 were used to calculate abundances and energy spectra in the region from 5 to 20 Jovian radii. The phase space density of the oxygen ions calculated from the spectra has a positive radial gradient between 6 and 17 Jovian radii, indicating an inward diffusive flow. The diffusion coefficient upper limit at 9 Jovian radii is approximately 10 to the -5 power/s. This limit, combined with the analysis of Voyager plasma observations by Siscoe et al.1981, implies an upper limit to the mass loading rate near Io of approximately 10 to the 28th power ions/s. The energetic oxygen lifetime is within an order of magnitude of the strong pitch-angle diffusion lifetime in this region, with the largest total number of particles lost between 7.5 and 12.5 Jovian radii. It is shown that the losses are not due to geometric absorption by Io, absorption by dust grains, or energy loss in the plasma of the inner magnetosphere, and it is therefore postulated that the primary loss mechanism is pitch-angle scattering into the loss cone.

  12. Jupiter's magnetosphere: Plasma description from the Ulysses flyby

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gisler, G.R.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Thomsen, M.F. ); Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M. )

    1992-09-11

    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and Io torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  13. Radiation chemistry in the Jovian stratosphere - Laboratory simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The results of the present low-pressure/continuous-flow laboratory simulations of H2/He/CH4/NH3 atmospheres' plasma-induced chemistry indicate radiation yields of both hydrocarbon and N2-containing organic compounds which increase with decreasing pressure. On the basis of these findings, upper limits of 1 million-1 billion molecules/sq cm/sec are established for production rates of major auroral-chemistry species in the Jovian stratosphere. It is noted that auroral processes may account for 10-100 percent of the total abundances of most of the observed polar-region organic species.

  14. Variable opening angle of emission cone of Jovian decameter radiation generated by cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galopeau, P. H. M.; Boudjada, M. Y.; Rucker, H. O.

    2015-10-01

    A recent study of the Io-controlled Jovian decameter radiation revealed that the radio emission is beamed in a hollow cone which presents a flattening in a specific direction linked to the local magnetic field in the source. We investigate some reasons for the existence of such a flattening. The Jovian decameter radiation, like the other auroral radio emissions emanating from the magnetized planets in the solar system, is known to be produced by the cyclotron maser instability (CMI). This mechanism allows the direct amplification of the waves through a resonant coupling between the electron population of the plasma and the electromagnetic.

  15. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  16. Pallene dust torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiss, M.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Sun, K. L.; Seiler, M.; Sachse, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.

    2014-12-01

    The tiny moon Pallene (diameter < 5 km, semi-major axis 212,000 km) orbits between Saturn's moons Mimas and Enceladus. The ISS cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along its inclined orbit (Hedman, 2009). The source of the torus is believed to be the moon itself, where dust particles are ejected from the surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on-board the spacecraft Cassini which confirm a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled with a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 10-3 m-3. Additionally, the data show an enhancement of larger particle in the torus in comparison to the background E-ring size distribution. The radial mean position of the torus is radially shifted outwards by around 1200 km in all flybys. This could point to a systematic larger semi-major axes of the dust particles (in comparison to Pallene) or a possible heliotropic appearance of the torus (all flybys in anti-solar direction).

  17. Wake flowfields for Jovian probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

  18. Jovian satellite eclipse study. 1: 1971 eclipses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, T. F.; Shorthill, R. W.; Despain, L. G.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of five Jovian satellite eclipses were obtained during February, March, and April 1971 with the 200-inch Hale telescope and multichannel spectrometer. Eclipse light curves in 20 wavelength bandpasses were obtained for each eclipse.

  19. A Jovian Trojan-Satellite Population Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, T. N.

    2003-07-01

    In Special Session 1, Recent Progress in Planetary Exploration, Monash University's Andrew Prentice discusses the possible origin of Jovian satellite Amalthea as a captured Trojan asteroid. Galileo spacecraft data gives a low bulk density (~1 g/cc) for Amalthea, more consistent with a captured minor body, rather than one formed in-situ. Its 83 km radius is within the size range of the known Jovian Trojans, less than that of Trojan 624 Hektor, for example.

  20. Saturn in hot water: viscous evolution of the Enceladus torus

    E-print Network

    Alison J. Farmer

    2008-06-09

    The detection of outgassing water vapor from Enceladus is one of the great breakthroughs of the Cassini mission. The fate of this water once ionized has been widely studied; here we investigate the effects of purely neutral-neutral interactions within the Enceladus torus. We find that, thanks in part to the polar nature of the water molecule, a cold (~180 K) neutral torus would undergo rapid viscous heating and spread to the extent of the observed hydroxyl cloud, before plasma effects become important. We investigate the physics behind the spreading of the torus, paying particular attention to the competition between heating and rotational line cooling. A steady-state torus model is constructed, and it is demonstrated that the torus will be observable in the millimeter band with the upcoming Herschel satellite. The relative strength of rotational lines could be used to distinguish between physical models for the neutral cloud.

  1. The Jovian boundary layer as formed by magnetic-anomaly effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A model is presented in which a plasma boundary layer of Jupiter is formed from plasma of internal origin. It is proposed that, unlike the Earth's boundary layer, which is thought to consist principally of solar wind plasma, Jupiter's boundary layer consists principally of sulphur and oxygen from the Io plasma torus, plus a small component of hydrogen from Jupiter's ionosphere. Fresh plasma is supplied to the boundary layer once each planetary rotation period by a convection pattern that rotates with Jupiter.

  2. Radiation from Electron Phase Space Holes as a Possible Source of Jovian S-bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, K. A.; Ergun, R. E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio-frequency short burst emissions (10-40 MHz), known as Jovian S-bursts, have been observed from the Jovian aurora for over fifty years. These emissions, associated with Io’s motion, have a rapidly declining frequency and an exceptionally narrow bandwidth. While it is widely believed that S-bursts are generated by the electron cyclotron maser instability, the mechanism responsible for the rapidly declining frequency and narrow bandwidth currently is not well established. We explore a hypothesis that electron phase space holes radiate or stimulate radiation in the Jovian aurora plasma environment as a possible source of S-burst emissions. Electron phase-space holes (EHs) are ubiquitous in an auroral environment and travel at the implied speeds (˜20,000 km s-1) of the structures creating the Jovian S-bursts. Furthermore, EHs have the proper physical size to create the observed bandwidth, have sufficient energy content, and can create an environment whereby X mode emissions can be excited. If verified, these findings imply that EHs may be an important source of radiation from strongly magnetized or relativistic astrophysical plasmas.

  3. Mandibular torus morphology.

    PubMed

    Sellevold, B J

    1980-11-01

    The morphology of the mandibular torus was examined, and comparisons were made between a Medieval Norse skeletal population from Greenland and a 14th to 17th century Greenland Eskimo skeletal series. Three parameters were analyzed: degree of development (on a 4-point scale), position and length, and surface morphology according to the number of knobs, or lobuli. It was found that the Eskimos have a high frequency of weakly developed tori and no cases of the extreme development, while over 20% of the Norsemen had tori in the "extreme" category. The Norse torus was generally found to be longer than that of the Eskimos, and both groups exhibited a slight asymmetry between the sides, the torus on the left side tending to be longer and more forward in position than the right. A great difference was found in surface morphology. The Norse torus is in general very irregular, while the Eskimo torus is rather smooth. These differences are believed to be genetically determined. PMID:7468791

  4. Field-aligned Currents in Io's Plasma Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuxin

    2008-09-01

    Since the discovery of Io-controlled decametric radio emissions, the interaction between Io and Jovian magnetosphere has been studied intensively. Two types of interaction have been proposed so far. One is electric circuit model, in which the induced currents flow between Io and the Jovian ionosphere along the magnetic flux tube threading Io. The other is Alfvén wing model. A wing forms in the perturbed magnetic field lines behind Io, the Alfvénic currents develop in the wing rather than along the magnetic flux tubes. More recently, auroral emission associated with Io's footprint and its trailing emission were observed. Such auroral arc may extend longitudinally westward for more than 100 degrees. This trail of aurora is brightest near Io and dims with increasing downstream distance. There is no clear theoretical understanding of the physics that generates this downstream aurora. However it is generally believed that Io's plasma wake is associated with this phenomenon and field-aligned currents lead to downstream emissions. Along with the above two types of the interaction between Io and its surrounding medium, there are also two theoretical frameworks in which these downstream emissions can be interpreted. The first one is corotational lag. When an Io-perturbed (mass loading and/or Io's conductivity) magnetic flux tube moves slowly relative to Jovian magnetosphere, an electric field would be induced at the equatorial plane of the flux tube, which in turn causes a current perpendicular to the field lines that is connected by field-aligned currents. The Lorentz force due to the perpendicular current would play the role of bring the lagged plasma up to corotation. The second is Alfvén wave, in which the Io-perturbed Alfvén wave is reflected between the Jovian ionosphere and the torus edge, driving particles into loss cone. Our present study attempts to use a MHD method to solve the above problem. MHD simulations of Io-Jupiter interaction has been carried out by several groups and yielded some suggestive results, but these studies concentrated primarily on the vicinity of Io and did not treat the Jovian ionospheric effect realistically. To investigate the mechanism for emissions in the trailing tail, a model extending longitudinally more than 100 degrees and latitudinally from the southern Jovian ionosphere to the northern ionosphere is needed. In particular, such a model should reflect both the non-uniform magnetic field and the non-uniform plasma distributions together with realistic boundary conditions. To tackle this problem with available computer resources, we provide instead an equivalent approach "theory of thin filament motion". Our model is indeed a one-dimensional MHD simulation that satisfies all the above requirements and has the advantage of using much less computer resources than the earlier MHD models, which in turn allows us to try various physical conditions within limited computing time. We assume Io's plasma wake can be regarded as a tail of thin magnetic flux tubes perturbed by Io successively. In this assumption, a flux tube is considered as thin if the pressure variations across the flux tube are negligible compared to the total external pressure (gas plus magnetic pressure) representing the effects of the enveloping magnetized plasma (Jovian magnetosphere). Furthermore we assume that in Io's reference frame the variations of the physical quantities along the downstream distance do not change with time. After converting to the corotating frame, the study of Io's plasma wake can be simplified to investigate the evolution of a magnetic flux tube in Io's wake with appropriate initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that the mechanism for producing wake aurora could not be explained by either Alfvén wave or electric circuit alone, rather, the underlying physics possesses the characteristics typical for both Alfvén wave and corotational lag models. An upstream-coming flux tube must be in contact with Io for approximately 500 seconds, until a tilt angle of about 4 degrees has been develo

  5. MPI Multicore Torus Communication Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-05

    The MPI Multicore Torus Communications Benchmark (TorusTest) measues the aggegate bandwidth across all six links from/to any multicore node in a logical torus. It can run in wo modi: using a static or a random mapping of tasks to torus locations. The former can be used to achieve optimal mappings and aggregate bandwidths that can be achieved with varying node mappings.

  6. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1983-01-04

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa < 1), increases as R/sup -2/, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency.

  7. Radiation characteristics of quasi-periodic radio bursts in the Jovian high-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Misawa, Hiroaki; Morioka, Akira; Nozawa, Hiromasa

    2008-12-01

    Ulysses had a "distant encounter" with Jupiter in February 2004. The spacecraft passed from north to south, and it observed Jovian radio waves from high to low latitudes (from +80° to +10°) for few months during its encounter. In this study, we present a statistical investigation of the occurrence characteristics of Jovian quasi-periodic bursts, using spectral data from the unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) onboard Ulysses. The latitudinal distribution of quasi-periodic bursts is derived for the first time. The analysis suggested that the bursts can be roughly categorized into two types: one having periods shorter than 30 min and one with periods longer than 30 min, which is consistent with the results of the previous analysis of data from Ulysses' first Jovian flyby [MacDowall, R.J., Kaiser, M.L., Desch, M.D., Farrell, W.M., Hess, R.A., Stone, R.G., 1993. Quasi-periodic Jovian radio bursts: observations from the Ulysses radio and plasma wave. Experiment. Planet. Space Sci. 41, 1059-1072]. It is also suggested that the groups of quasi-periodic bursts showed a dependence on the Jovian longitude of the sub-solar point, which means that these burst groups are triggered during a particular rotational phase of the planet. Maps of the occurrence probability of these quasi-periodic bursts also showed a unique CML/MLAT dependence. We performed a 3D ray tracing analysis of the quasi-periodic burst emission to learn more about the source distribution. The results suggest that the longitudinal distribution of the occurrence probability depends on the rotational phase. The source region of quasi-periodic bursts seems to be located at an altitude between 0.4 and 1.4 Rj above the polar cap region ( L>30).

  8. Spectra of the Jovian ring and Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements made between 0.887 and 2.4 microns demonstrate that the Jovian ring and Amalthea have similar reflection spectra. The spectra, in particular the ratio of the 0.9- to 2.2-micron reflectivities, are inconsistent with those expected from water, ammonia, or methane frosts, but are consistent with reflection from large rock bodies.

  9. PAMELA observational capabilities of Jovian electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Felice, V.; Casolino, M.; de Simone, N.; Picozza, P.

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that has been launched on June 15th, 2006. It is designed to make long duration measurements of cosmic radiation over an extended energy range. Specifically, PAMELA is able to measure the cosmic ray antiproton and positron spectra over the largest energy range ever achieved and will search for antinuclei with unprecedented sensitivity. Furthermore, it will measure the light nuclear component of cosmic rays and investigate phenomena connected with solar and earth physics. The apparatus consists of: a time of flight system, a magnetic spectrometer, an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter, a shower tail catcher scintillator, a neutron detector and an anticoincidence system. In this work a study of the PAMELA capabilities to detect electrons is presented. The Jovian magnetosphere is a powerful accelerator of electrons up to several tens of MeV as observed at first by Pioneer 10 spacecraft (1973). The propagation of Jovian electrons to Earth is affected by modulation due to Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR). Their flux at Earth is, moreover, modulated because every ˜13 months Earth and Jupiter are aligned along the average direction of the Parker spiral of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. PAMELA will be able to measure the high energy tail of the Jovian electrons in the energy range from 50 up to 130 MeV. Moreover, it will be possible to extract the Jovian component reaccelerated at the solar wind termination shock (above 130 MeV up to 2 GeV) from the galactic flux.

  10. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamoto, T.; Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ? 7 km s{sup –1} at 1 AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup –1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup –1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5 AU and 3.5 AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  11. A review of the Jovian magnetosphere based upon Pioneer 10 and 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Data derived from the plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle experiments on the December, 1973 and December, 1974 Jupiter encounters are reviewed. A bow shock was discovered on the solar side of the planet, as predicted. However, a smaller magnetic field and larger fluxes of energetic electrons were found than anticipated. A ring current and current sheet in the Jovian plasmasphere are inferred from magnetic field measurements.

  12. Pamela observational capabilities of Jovian electrons component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Felice, V.; PAMELA Collaboration

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that will be launched in the first half of 2006 It will make long duration measurements of cosmic radiation over an extended energy range 80Mev to 200 GeV Specifically PAMELA will measure the cosmic-ray antiproton and positron spectra over the largest energy range ever achieved 80MeV -- 190 GeV and will search for antinuclei with unprecedented sensitivity Furthermore it will measure the light nuclear component of cosmic rays and investigate phenomena connected with solar and earth physics The apparatus consists of a time of flight system a magnetic spectrometer an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter a shower tail catcher scintillator a neutron detector and an anticoincidence system In this work a study of the PAMELA capabilities to detect Jovian electrons is presented The Jovian magnetosphere is a powerful accelerator of electrons to several tens of MeV as observed at first by Pioneer 10 spacecraft 1973 The propagation of Jovian electrons to Earth is affected by modulation due to Corotating Interaction Regions CIR Their flux at Earth is moreover modulated because every sim 13 months Earth and Jupiter are aligned along the average direction of the Parker spiral of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field PAMELA will be able to measure the high energy tail of the Jovian electrons in the energy range from 50 MeV up to 130 MeV Moreover it will be possible to extract the Jovian component reaccelated at the solar wind termination shock above 130 MeV up to 2 GeV from the galactic flux

  13. A new perspective concerning the influence of the solar wind on the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2001-04-01

    The solar wind exerts a strong influence on the Jovian magnetosphere in changing its volume, in energizing plasma, and in stimulating the aurora and a host of other associated effects. However, whereas at Earth the dominant solar terrestrial coupling process is magnetic reconnection, the dominant energy reservoir in Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma, continually present, is the kinetic energy of its rotating plasma disk. This ``flywheel'' produces effects with no terrestrial analogy, some of which we describe here. The most surprising prediction from the analysis of this paper is that remotely sensed symptoms of Jovian magnetospheric activity are likely to occur in conjunction with solar wind pressure decreases. Compressions of the magnetosphere produced by forward shocks and other solar wind pressure increases will heat the magnetospheric plasma but substantially reduce the ionosphere-magnetosphere current systems. The intensity of dayside aurora and of radio wave emissions associated with increased ionospheric-magnetospheric current systems will tend to anticorrelate with magnetospheric compressions and correlate with expansions. The link to the aurora is based on an argument that the auroral zone maps to the plasma disk of the middle magnetosphere and is thus linked to plasma sheet dynamics. The effect of expansion on the plasma sheet is to increase the parallel pressure, setting up conditions that can produce detached plasma ``blobs'' and enhance mass loss. The analysis is particularly apposite in light of the opportunities for observing solar wind-Jovian interactions using data from both the Galileo and the Cassini spacecraft during the Cassini flyby of Jupiter in late 2000, ideally supplemented by auroral imaging with ground-based and Hubble telescopes.

  14. Charge exchange in the Io torus and exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Strobel, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Charge-exchange cross sections and their velocity dependence have been estimated for the most important reactions in the Io torus and exosphere. The methods used for calculating the cross sections are given and discussed in some detail. For symmetric-resonant single and double charge exchange, the cross sections are slowly varying functions of velocity. For inelastic charge-exchange collisions, the transition probabilities into a given final state can depend critically on velocity. Models are described which can be used to estimate both the most rapid charge-exchange processes and those states which play an important role. Calculated cross sections are used to obtain reaction rates as a function of radial position, demonstrating the importance of charge exchange in the inner torus. Charge-exchange reactions of torus ions with molecular species in Io's exosphere may yield a net supply of neutrals and plasma to the torus.

  15. Fast ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta...

    E-print Network

    Fast ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta... A; published online 23 April 2004 Ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in a spherical torus Y.-K. M power are injected into the plasma simultaneously, a fast ion population with energy above the beam

  16. Fast ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in the National Spherical Torus Experiment a...

    E-print Network

    Egedal, Jan

    Fast ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in the National Spherical Torus Experiment a; published online 23 April 2004# Ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in a spherical torus #Y.­K. M neutral beam and rf power are injected into the plasma simultaneously, a fast ion population with energy

  17. Acceleration of compact toruses and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Logan, B.G.; McLean, H.S.; Molvik, A.W.

    1990-10-11

    The Compact Torus (Spheromak-type) is a near ideal plasma confinement configuration for acceleration. The fields are mostly generated by internal plasma currents, plasma confinement is toroidal, and the compact torus exhibits resiliency and stability in virtue of the ``rugged`` helicity invariant. Based on these considerations we are developing a coaxial rail-gun type Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA). In the CTA, the CT ring is formed between coaxial electrodes using a magnetized Marshall gun, it is quasistatically ``precompressed`` in a conical electrode section for inductive energy storage, it is accelerated in a straight-coaxial electrode section as in a conventional rail-gun, and it is focused to small size and high energy and power density in a final ``focus`` cone section. The dynamics of slow precompression and acceleration have been demonstrated experimentally in the RACE device with results in good agreement with 2-D MHD code calculations. CT plasma rings with 100 {micro}gms mass have been accelerated to 40 Kj kinetic energy at 20% efficiency with final velocity = 1 X 10{sup 8} cm/s (= 5 KeV/H{sup +}). Preliminary focus tests exhibi dynamics of radius compression, deceleration, and bouncing. Compression ratios of 2-3 have been achieved. A scaled-up 10-100 MJ CTA is predicted to achieve a focus radius of several cm to deliver = 30 MJ ring kinetic energy in 5-10 nsec. This is sufficient energy, power, and power density to enable the CTA to act as a high efficiency, low cost ICF driver. Alternatively, the focused CT can form the basis for an magnetically insulated, inertial confinement fusion (MICF) system. Preliminary calculations of these fusion systems will be discussed.

  18. On dust emissions from the jovian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, H. A.; Gruen, E.; Baguhl, M.; Balogh, A.; Bame, S. J.; Fechtig, H.; Forsyth, R.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.

    1993-01-01

    As described by Gruen et al., the dust impact detector on the Ulysses spacecraft detected a totally unexpected series of dust streams in the outer solar system near the orbit of Jupiter. Five considerations lead us to believe that the dust streams emanate from the jovian system itself: the dust streams only occur within about 1 AU of the jovian system, with the strongest stream being the one closest to Jupiter (about 550 R(sub J) away); the direction from which they arrive is never far from the line-of-sight direction to Jupiter; the time period between streams is about 28 (+/- 3) days; the impact velocities are very high--mostly around 40 km/s; and we can think of no cometary, asteroidal, or interstellar source that could give rise to the above four phenomena (such streams have never before been detected).

  19. Forward and inverse modeling for jovian seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, Jason; Nettelmann, Nadine; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    Jupiter is expected to pulsate in a spectrum of acoustic modes and recent re-analysis of a spectroscopic time series has identified a regular pattern in the spacing of the frequencies (Gaulme, P., Schmider, F.-X., Gay, J., Guillot, T., Jacob, C. [2011]. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A104). This exciting result can provide constraints on gross jovian properties and warrants a more in-depth theoretical study of the seismic structure of Jupiter. With current instrumentation, such as the SYMPA instrument (Schmider, F.X. [2007]. Astron. Astrophys. 474, 1073-1080) used for the Gaulme et al. (Gaulme, P., Schmider, F.-X., Gay, J., Guillot, T., Jacob, C. [2011]. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A104) analysis, we assume that, at minimum, a set of global frequencies extending up to angular degree ?=25 could be observed. In order to identify which modes would best constraining models of Jupiter's interior and thus help motivate the next generation of observations, we explore the sensitivity of derived parameters to this mode set. Three different models of the jovian interior are computed and the theoretical pulsation spectrum from these models for ??25 is obtained. We compute sensitivity kernels and perform linear inversions to infer details of the expected discontinuities in the profiles in the jovian interior. We find that the amplitude of the sound-speed jump of a few percent in the inner/outer envelope boundary seen in two of the applied models should be reasonably inferred with these particular modes. Near the core boundary where models predict large density discontinuities, the location of such features can be accurately measured, while their amplitudes have more uncertainty. These results suggest that this mode set would be sufficient to infer the radial location and strength of expected discontinuities in Jupiter's interior, and place strong constraints on the core size and mass. We encourage new observations to detect these jovian oscillations.

  20. Two-dimensional MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, R. A.; Malova, H. V.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-09-01

    A self-consistent stationary axially symmetric MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk is constructed. This model is a generalization of the models of plane current sheets that have been proposed earlier in order to describe the structure of the current sheet in the magnetotail of the Earth [1, 2]. The model takes centrifugal force, which is induced by the corotation electric field, and the azimuthal magnetic field into account. The configurations of the magnetic field lines for the isothermic (plasma temperature assumed to be constant) and the isentropic (plasma entropy assumed to be constant) models of the magnetodisk are determined. The dependence of the thickness of the magnetodisk on the distance to Jupiter is obtained. The thickness of the magnetodisk and the magnetic field distribution in the isothermic and isentropic models are similar. The inclusion of a low background plasma pressure results in a considerable reduction in the thickness of the magnetodisk. This effect may be attributed to the fact that centrifugal force prevails over the pressure gradient at large distances from the planet. The mechanism of unipolar induction and the related large-scale current system are analyzed. The direct and return Birkeland currents are determined in the approximation of a weak azimuthal magnetic field. The modeling results agree with theoretical estimates from other studies and experimental data.

  1. Io revealed in the Jovian dust streams

    E-print Network

    Amara Lynn Graps; Eberhard Grün; Harald Krüger; Mihá?y Horányi; Håkan Svedhem

    2002-06-04

    The Jovian dust streams are high-speed bursts of submicron-sized particles traveling in the same direction from a source in the Jovian system. Since their discovery in 1992, they have been observed by three spacecraft: Ulysses, Galileo and Cassini. The source of the Jovian dust streams is dust from Io's volcanoes. The charged and traveling dust stream particles have particular signatures in frequency space and in real space. The frequency-transformed Galileo dust stream measurements show different signatures, varying orbit-to-orbit during Galileo's first 29 orbits around Jupiter. Time-frequency analysis demonstrates that Io is a localized source of charged dust particles. Aspects of the particles' dynamics can be seen in the December-2000 joint Galileo-Cassini dust stream measurements. To match the travel times, the smallest dust particles could have the following range of parameters: radius: 6nm, density: 1.35-1.75gr/cm$^3$, sulfur charging conditions, which produce dust stream speeds: 220|450km/sec (Galileo|Cassini) and charge potentials: 5.5|6.3Volt (Galileo|Cassini).

  2. New periodicity in Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H. O.; Kaiser, M. L.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Goetz, K.; Bale, S. D.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the finding of a new periodicity in the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). Periodic bursts of non-Io component of DAM which recur with a period 1.5% longer than the Jupiter rotation (System III) have been found in the dynamic radio spectra acquired by STEREO/WAVES, Wind/WAVES and Cassini/RPWS during the years 2002-2008. Typically, the bursts appear very periodically over several Jovian days with a decreasing intensity and they display a negative frequency drift. All the bursts were detected within the same sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude (III), between 300° and 60° (via 360°) of CML (III), close to the region of the non-Io-C source. No correlation has been found with the position of Io. Considering the simultaneous stereoscopic observations onboard STEREO-A and STEREO-B, as well as Wind and Cassini we can conclude that the sources of the periodic bursts most probably sub-corotate with Jupiter.

  3. Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; D. Mueller; D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron

    1999-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma {beta} ( = 2{micro}{sub 0}

    /B{sup 2} a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable {beta} is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented.

  4. VOLUME54, NUMBER9 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 4 MARCH1985 Conversion of Wave Energy to Magnetic Field Energy in a Plasma Torus

    E-print Network

    Karney, Charles

    VOLUME54, NUMBER9 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 4 MARCH1985 Conversion of Wave Energy to Magnetic Field efficiency of 25%. Previous experiments2-' have concentrated more on maintaining an rf current ("steady state into plasma heating so that the conversion efficiency of rf energy to po- loidal field energy, given

  5. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas J. B. Titus, E. D. Mezonlin, and J. A. Johnson III

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    , Florida 32310, USA 2 Pyramid Plasmas LLC, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043, USA (Received 8 May 2014; accepted influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail). VC 2014 AIP Publishing LLC information about the ions and their distribution, neu- tral particle analyzers (NPA) convert collimated beams

  6. The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Alexander, N.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Beebe, C.; Clark, G.; Crary, F.; Desai, M. I.; De Los Santos, A.; Demkee, D.; Dickinson, J.; Everett, D.; Finley, T.; Gribanova, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kofoed, C.; Loeffler, C.; Louarn, P.; Maple, M.; Mills, W.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Rodriguez, B.; Rouzaud, J.; Santos-Costa, D.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R. J.; White, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on Juno provides the critical in situ measurements of electrons and ions needed to understand the plasma energy particles and processes that fill the Jovian magnetosphere and ultimately produce its strong aurora. JADE is an instrument suite that includes three essentially identical electron sensors (JADE-Es), a single ion sensor (JADE-I), and a highly capable Electronics Box (EBox) that resides in the Juno Radiation Vault and provides all necessary control, low and high voltages, and computing support for the four sensors. The three JADE-Es are arrayed 120? apart around the Juno spacecraft to measure complete electron distributions from ˜0.1 to 100 keV and provide detailed electron pitch-angle distributions at a 1 s cadence, independent of spacecraft spin phase. JADE-I measures ions from ˜5 eV to ˜50 keV over an instantaneous field of view of 270?×90? in 4 s and makes observations over all directions in space each 30 s rotation of the Juno spacecraft. JADE-I also provides ion composition measurements from 1 to 50 amu with m/?m˜2.5, which is sufficient to separate the heavy and light ions, as well as O+ vs S+, in the Jovian magnetosphere. All four sensors were extensively tested and calibrated in specialized facilities, ensuring excellent on-orbit observations at Jupiter. This paper documents the JADE design, construction, calibration, and planned science operations, data processing, and data products. Finally, the Appendix describes the Southwest Research Institute [SwRI] electron calibration facility, which was developed and used for all JADE-E calibrations. Collectively, JADE provides remarkably broad and detailed measurements of the Jovian auroral region and magnetospheric plasmas, which will surely revolutionize our understanding of these important and complex regions.

  7. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-15

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A?=?R{sub 0}/a) reduced to A???1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A???2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta ? (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as ????1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation ?, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  8. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ? 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta ? (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as ? ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation ?, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  9. Detectability of Torus Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Ophélia; Prunet, Simon; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The global shape, or topology, of the universe is not constrained by the equations of General Relativity, which only describe the local universe. As a consequence, the boundaries of space are not fixed and topologies different from the trivial infinite Euclidean space are possible. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the most efficient tool to study topology and test alternative models. Multi-connected topologies, such as the 3-torus, are of great interest because they are anisotropic and allow us to test a possible violation of isotropy in CMB data. We show that the correlation function of the coefficients of the expansion of the temperature and polarization anisotropies in spherical harmonics encodes a topological signature. This signature can be used to distinguish an infinite space from a multi-connected space on sizes larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface (D LSS ). With the help of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, we set the size of the edge of the biggest distinguishable torus with CMB temperature fluctuations and E-modes of polarization to 1.15 D LSS . CMB temperature fluctuations allow us to detect universes bigger than the observable universe, whereas E-modes are efficient to detect universes smaller than the observable universe.

  10. Primary ELM filament structure in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Primary ELM filament structure in the National Spherical Torus Experiment R. J. Maqueda,1 R. Maingi modes give rise to plasma filaments that burst radially outward during the non-linear phase to study the evolution and characteristics of the post-ELM filaments. These edge filaments, which are well

  11. Jovian Magnetospheric Interactions with Io, Amalthea, and the Planetary Rings: Current and Expected Results from the Galileo Orbiter Heavy Ion Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    The energetic (keV to MeV) heavy ion population in the inner jovian magnetosphere, out to Io's orbit, originates mostly from acceleration of Io plasma torus ions and contributes to erosion of satellite surfaces and ring particles by sputtering. Photo- and plasma-ionization of iogenic neutrals, magnetospheric pickup of the resultant ions, and magnetospheric acceleration processes produce high fluxes of oxygen and sulfur ions at total energies above 40 MeV which are measured by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) instrument on the Galileo Orbiter. Directional measurements during the spacecraft's 20-second spin period allow determination of local anisotropy distributions with respect to magnetic pitch angles of magnetospheric ions and to absorption by satellite surfaces approached during close flybys. Numerical modeling of anisotropy data from these flybys allows limits to be set on the ion charge states and on models for the magnetic environments including possible presence of internal field sources. The Io phase of the Galileo satellite tour has concluded with successful HIC and magnetometer data return from five of seven flybys, including two passes (I31 and I32) over Io's poles. The absorption signatures from the polar passes are very different from the more equatorial ones (J0, I24, I27) and modeling is in progress to determine best-fit configurations of Io's global magnetic environment. Due to high electronic thresholds for the heavy ion measurements, HIC has been insensitive to magnetospheric electron and proton backgrounds during these flybys and is expected to return good data for the upcoming Amalthea flyby on Nov. 5, 2002. This assumes that spacecraft systems will survive the return to perijove (2.0 Rj) just outside Jupiter's main ring (1.8 Rj), first traversed by Pioneer 11 in Dec. 1974 and again by the Galileo Probe twenty-one years later. Detectors on both of these latter spacecraft resolved the cutoff of magnetospheric ion flux by interaction with the jovian ring particles and/or the shepard satellites, and part of this interaction region within the gossamer ring zone extending outwards from the main ring will also be accessible to HIC. It would be highly desirable from engineering (e.g., radiation effects on electronics) and magnetospheric science perspectives if real-time telemetry from HIC and other durable systems could be returned as long as possible for the final plunge through the ring system and the innermost ion radiation belt, first discovered by Galileo Probe. One of the first reports on post-launch science data from Galileo Orbiter concerned measurements of solar flare ions by HIC, and it seems appropriate that the final science and engineering data could also returned by that instrument. Particular acknowledgement of encouragement and support is given to the late Dr. Thomas L. Garrard of the HIC group at Caltech. Deep thanks are due to Dr. Edward C. Stone, the HIC Principal Investigator, and to Dr. Christina M. S. Cohen, for continuous support of HIC science data processing at Caltech. The local support at GSFC of Dr. Neil Gehrels, HIC Co-Investigator, has been deeply appreciated. Funding through Raytheon ITSS is gratefully acknowledged for contract NASW-99029 from NASA's Jovian System Data Analysis Program and for NAS5-98156 from the Space Science Data Operations Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  12. Evidence for global electron transportation into the jovian inner magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M

    2014-09-26

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic electrons in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot electrons (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, electron transportation in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward transport of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot electron fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot electrons responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves. PMID:25258073

  13. Physical Analysis of the Jovian Synchrotron Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Thorne, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of our recent investigation of the Jovian synchrotron emission based on a particle transport code. The features of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves are correlated to the different phenomena driven the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. The adiabatic invariant theory was used for performing this analysis work. The theoretical approach first enabled us to describe the electron radiation belts by modeling the interactions between high-energy trapped particles and plasmas, neutrals, moons, dust and magnetic field. Then radio observations were used to discuss the computed particle distributions in the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The simulated brightness mappings were compared with VLA observations made at two wavelengths (20 and 6 cm). The beaming curve comparisons at 13-cm wavelength were performed for different epochs in order to evaluate the dependence of the model to the geometric factor De. The computed radio spectra were discussed with measurements made in the [0.5-20] GHz radio band. The simulation results match the different remote observations very well and thus allowed us to study the phenomenology of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission. The analysis of the Jovian synchrotron emission demonstrates that during the inward particle transport, local losses associated with the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron radiation along the magnetic equator. Close to the planet, trapped electrons suffer from the interactions with dust and magnetic field, resulting in the transport of particles toward the high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce the measurable secondary radio emissions. The simulations show that the moon sweeping effect controls both the transport toward the planet and at high latitudes by reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate the regions out of the equator. Among the phenomena taken into consideration in our model, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the moderator for the intensity of the radiation emitted at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the amplitude of the double- peaked beaming curve. The sweeping effect amplifies its intrinsic amplitude while the energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to the phenomena setting it to the right level. The results from our modeling conclude that the interactions with dust do not cause significant changes on the characteristics of the radio spectrum. The effect of the interactions of the trapped particles with the magnetic field are only noticeable at high frequencies. The general features of the radio spectrum are driven by the moon sweeping effect. The absorption by Amalthea affects its shape for frequencies beyond 0.7 GHz more than Thebe does. But the resonances occurring near Thebe's orbit prominently modulate the shape of the radio spectrum. Nevertheless, the resonances taking place near Amalthea and Thebe are both responsible of the slope of the radio spectrum. The effect of the radial transport on the characteristics of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves will be discussed based on our ongoing work.

  14. Discrimination between Jovian radio emissions and Saturn electrostatic discharges

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Discrimination between Jovian radio emissions and Saturn electrostatic discharges G. Fischer,1 W in the frequency range of a few MHz can be due to Jovian radio emissions or SEDs (Saturn electrostatic discharges caused by lightning in Saturn's atmosphere. We show a method for discriminating between these two

  15. JOVIAN RADIO EMISSIONS: AN EARLY OVERVIEW OF GALILEO

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    JOVIAN RADIO EMISSIONS: AN EARLY OVERVIEW OF GALILEO OBSERVATIONS W. S. Kurth , D. A. Gurnett , S the Galileo investigation of Jovian radio emissions. While some of the Galileo results are already quite interest- ing and novel, this report serves primarily to introduce the Galileo observations and place them

  16. The Influence of The Galilean Satellites on Radio Emissions From The Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Galilean satellites influence radio emissions from the Jovian system in a variety of ways. The best and most familiar example of these is the Io control of decametric radiation discovered in 1964 by Bigg. Voyager observations of broadband kilometric radiation revealed a low-latitude shadow zone cast by the Io torus at frequencies between a few tens of kHz and about 1 MHz. Voyager also discovered narrowband kilometric radio emissions emanating from the outer edge of the torus. In this paper we will discuss expansions in the suite of satellite influences based on new observations by Galileo. These include the discovery of Ganymede's magnetosphere and evidence of radio emissions generated via mode conversion from upper hybrid waves in the frequency range of about 20 - 100 kHz. There is evidence that Ganymede may control some of the hectometric or low-frequency decametric radio emissions based on occultation measurements and statistical studies of radio emission occurrence as a function of Ganymede phase. Direction-finding measurements in the vicinity of Io suggest that a portion of the hectometric emissions may be generated near the lo L-shell. A rotationally modulated attenuation band in the hectometric emission appears to be the result of scattering at or near the Io L-shell where the waves propagate nearly parallel to the magnetic field. There is even a tantalizing hint of a Europa connection to the source of narrowband kilometric radiation.

  17. Millimeter-wave spectra of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is critical for understanding the subcloud atmospheric structure of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). This research utilizes a combination of laboratory measurements, computer modeling, and radio astronomical observation in order to obtain a better understanding of the millimeter-wave spectra of the Jovian planets. The pressure broadened absorption from gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was measured in the laboratory under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmospheres. Researchers developed new formalisms for computing the absorptivity of gaseous NH3 and H2S based on their laboratory measurements. They developed a radiative transfer and thermochemical model to predict the abundance and distribution of absorbing constituents in the Jovian atmospheres. They used the model to compute the millimeter wave emission from the Jovian planets.

  18. Paris to Hektor: A Concept for a Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Robert E.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Napolillo, David H.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Tanzman, Jennifer R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Hartka, Theodore J.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Ostdiek, Paul H.; Persons, David F.; Prockter, Louise M.; Vernon, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an example of a new class of planetary exploration missions that is been enabled by the combination of the three technologies of advanced radioisotope power systems, electric propulsion, and expendable launch vehicles. These PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) missions are optimized for rendezvous with outer solar system bodies in shallow gravity wells. They are low-thrust missions that are launched to a high C3 and use their electric propulsion systems to slow them to enable orbit insertion or landing on the target body. The PARIS spacecraft can be powered by traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), but will benefit greatly from the improved power-to-mass ratio of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) that results from their high conversion efficiency. These New-Frontiers class missions can carry a significant science payload to the Jovian Trojan asteroids. The Trojans are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points. The PARIS to Hektor mission can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. The PARIS to Hektor spacecraft has a candidate payload that includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. The power system generates about 900 W and the launch mass is slightly less than 1000 kg. The trip time is 5 years if ``classic'' GPHS RTGs are used for power. Next generation Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs), with a demonstrated thermal conversion efficiency of > 30% and an estimated specific power of > 8W/kg would reduce the travel time to about 4 years.

  19. Characteristics of Energy Transport of Li-conditioned and non-Li-conditioned Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, S.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Paul, S.; Wan, B.

    2009-10-21

    The transport properties of NSTX plasmas obtained during the 2008 experimental cam- paign have been studied and are reported here. Transport trends and dependences have been isolated, and it is found that both electron and ion energy transport coefficients have strong dependences on local values of n?T, which in turn is strongly dependent on local current density profile. Without identifying this dependence, it is difficult to identify others, such as the dependence of transport coefficients on Bp (or q), Ip and Pheat. In addition, a comparison between discharges with and without Lithium wall conditioning has been made. While the trends in the two sets of data are similar, the thermal transport loss, especially in the electron channel, is found to strongly depend on the amount of Lithium deposited, decreasing by up to 50% of its no-Lithium value.

  20. Thermoelectric Rotating Torus for Fusion A. B. Hassam and Yi-Min Huang

    E-print Network

    Hassam, Adil

    Thermoelectric Rotating Torus for Fusion A. B. Hassam and Yi-Min Huang Institute for Plasma power maintains the rotation and also heats the plasma. The thermoelectric effect from the resultingRevLett.91.195002 PACS numbers: 52.58.­c, 52.30.­q, 52.55.­s In magnetized plasma, thermoelectric currents

  1. Cross-field potential hill arisen eccentrically in toroidal electron cyclotron resonance plasmas in the Low Aspect ratio Torus Experiment device to regulate electron and ion flows from source to boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kengoh; Wada, Manato; Uchida, Masaki; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the electron and ion flows in toroidal electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas maintained by a 2.45 GHz microwave power around 1 kW under a simple toroidal field in the low aspect ratio torus experiment (LATE) device. We have found that a vertically uniform ridge of electron pressure that also constitutes the source belt of electron impact ionization is formed along just lower field side of the ECR layer and a cross-field potential hill ({{V}S}\\cong 30?V while {{T}e}\\cong 10?eV), eccentrically shifted toward the corner formed by the top panel and the ECR layer, arises. Combination of the hill-driven E× B drift and the vertical drift due to the field gradient and curvature, being referred to as vacuum toroidal field (VTF) drift, realizes steady flows of electrons and ions from the source to the boundary. In particular, the ions, of which VTF drift velocity is much slower than the electron VTF drift velocity near the source belt, are carried by the E× B drift around the hill to the vicinity of the top panel, where the ion VTF drift is enhanced on the steep down slope of potential toward the top panel. On the other hand the electron temperature strongly decreases in this area. Thus the carrier of VTF drift current is replaced from the electrons to the ions before the top panel, enabling the current circulation through the top and bottom panels and the vessel (electrons mainly to the bottom and ions mainly to the top) that keeps the charge neutrality very high. A few percent of electrons from the source turn around the hill by 360 degree and reentry the source belt from the high field side as seed electrons for the impact ionization, keeping the discharge stable.

  2. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Peng; C. Kessel; C. Neumeyer; J. Schmidt; J. Chrzanowski; D. Darrow; L. Grisham; P. Heitzenroeder; T. Jarboe; C. Jun; S. Kaye; J. Menard; R. Raman; T. Stevenson; M. Viola; J. Wilson; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2003-10-27

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction.

  3. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not readily observable.

  4. A theory of Jovian decameter radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sharma, R. R.; Ben-Ari, M.; Eviatar, A.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-02-01

    A theory of the Jovian decameter radiation is presented based on the assumed existence of beams of energetic electrons in the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Beam-like electron distributions are shown to be unstable to the growth of both upper hybrid and lower hybrid electrostatic waves. The upconversion of these waves to fast extraordinary mode electromagnetic radiation is calculated by using a fluid model. Two possibilities are considered. First, a random phase approximation is made which leads to a very conservative estimate of intensity that can be expected in decameter radiation. The alternative possibility is also considered, viz, that the upconversion process is coherent. A comparison of both processes suggests that an incoherent interaction may be adequate to account for the observed intensity of decametric radiation, except perhaps near the peak of the spectrum (8 MHz). The coherent process is intrinsically more efficient and can easily produce the observed intensity near 8 MHz if only 0.01% of the energy in the beam is converted to electrostatic energy.

  5. Intrinsic luminosities of the Jovian planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1980-02-01

    We review available data and theories on the size and nature of interior power sources in the Jovian planets. Broad band infrared measurements indicate that Jupiter and Saturn have interior heat fluxes about 150 and 50 times larger, respectively, than the terrestrial value. While Neptune has a modest heat flux (approx.5 times terrestrial), it is clearly detected by earth-based measurements. Only Uranus seems to lack a detectable interior heat flow. Various models, ranging from simple cooling to gravitational layering to radioactivity, are discussed. Current evidence seems to favor a cooling model in which the escape of heat is regulated by the atmosphere. This model seems capable of explaining phenomena such as the uniformity of effective temperature over Jupiter's surface and the different emission rates of Uranus and Neptune. In such a model the heat radiated from the atmosphere may derived from depletion of a thermal reservoir in the interior, or it may derive from separation of chemical elements during formation of a core. Calculations indicate that in the earlier stages of cooling, Jupiter and Saturn may have more homogeneous abundances of hydrogen and helium and radiate energy derived from simple cooling. At a subsequent phase (which may be later than the present time), hydrogen and helium will separate and supply grativational energy. Either model is consistent with a hot, high-luminosity origin for the Jovian Planets.

  6. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

  7. The Orbits of the Regular Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R.

    2014-04-01

    At the conclusion of the Galileo Mission we produced ephemerides for the Galilean and four inner Jovian satellites, Amalthea, Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis [1]. The satellite orbits were determined by fitting a data set that included Earthbased astrometry through 2001 and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, and Galileo spacecraft. The spacecraft tracking data provided additional information on the Jovian system gravity parameters. In preparation for the Juno mission currently enroute to Jupiter, we have been developing new ephemerides from updated satellite orbits. As before, the orbits are determined through a comprehensive data fit which also redetermines the gravity parameters and spacecraft trajectories to be consistent with the revised satellite orbits. Our standard model for the orbits, both satellite and spacecraft, is a numerical integration of their equations of motion. We include the gravitational effects of the point mass mutual interactions of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, and Amalthea (Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis are assumed to be massless), the effects of an oblate Jupiter, and perturbations from the Sun and planets. For our new orbits we also take into account the effects of tides raised on Jupiter by the satellites. Lainey et al. [4] have pointed out the importance of the tidal accelerations. The spacecraft are also affected by nongravitational forces, e.g., solar radiation pressure, trajectory correction maneuvers. These forces are discussed by several authors [2, 3, 5]. Our current data set is an expansion of that used previously. We have extended the Galilean satellite Earthbased astrometry back to 1891 and forward to 2013 and the inner satellite astrometry back to 1892 and forward to 2002. We added the Galilean satellite mutual events from 2003 and 2009, the Galilean satellite eclipse timings from 1878 to 2013, and the Earthbased radar ranges to Ganymede and Callisto measured in 1992. We also augmented our spacecraft data set with imaging acquired by the New Horizons spacecraft when it flew through the Jovian system in February 2007. In this paper we present the results of our latest determination of the satellite orbits and associated gravity parameters. We compare the orbits and gravity parameters to those that we found previously and our tidal parameters to those of Lainey et al.. We comment on possible future modifications and enhancements before our ephemeris delivery to the Juno Project for orbital operations.

  8. Jovian Chromophore Characteristics from Multispectral HST Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The chromophores responsible for coloring the jovian atmosphere are embedded within Jupiter's vertical aerosol structure. Sunlight propagates through this vertical distribution of aerosol particles, whose colors are defined by omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda), and we remotely observe the culmination of the radiative transfer as I/F(lambda). In this study, we employed a radiative transfer code to retrieve omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) for particles in Jupiter's tropospheric haze at seven wavelengths in the near-UV and visible regimes. The data consisted of images of the 2008 passage of Oval BA to the south of the Great Red Spot obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present derived particle colors for locations that were selected from 14 weather regions, which spanned a large range of observed colors. All omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves were absorbing in the blue, and omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) increased monotonically to approximately unity as wavelength increased. We found accurate fits to all omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves using an empirically derived functional form: omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) = 1 A exp(-B lambda). The best-fit parameters for the mean omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curve were A = 25.4 and B = 0.0149 for lambda in units of nm. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on our omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) results and found that one or two independent chromophores were sufficient to produce the variations in omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda). A PCA of I/F(lambda) for the same jovian locations resulted in principal components (PCs) with roughly the same variances as the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA, but they did not result in a one-to-one mapping of PC amplitudes between the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA and I/F(lambda) PCA. We suggest that statistical analyses performed on I/ F(lambda) image cubes have limited applicability to the characterization of chromophores in the jovian atmosphere due to the sensitivity of 1/ F(lambda) to horizontal variations in the vertical aerosol distribution.

  9. Dust charging in the dense Enceladus torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Victoria; Lühr, Hermann; Morfill, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    The key parameter of the dust-plasma interactions is the charge carried by a dust particle. The grain electrostatic potential is usually calculated from the so called orbit-motion limited (OML) model [1]. It is valid for a single particle immersed into collisionless plasmas with Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Apparently, such a parameter regime cannot be directly applied to the conditions relevant for the Enceladus dense neutral torus and plume, where the plasma is multispecies and multistreaming, the dust density is high, sometimes even exceeding the plasma number density. We have examined several new factors which can significantly affect the grain charging in the dust loaded plasma of the Enceladus torus and in the plume region and which, to our knowledge, have not been investigated up to now for such plasma environments. These include: (a) influence of the multispecies plasma composition, namely the presence of two electron populations with electron temperatures ranging from a few eV up to a hundred eV [2], a few ion species (e.g. corotating water group ions, and protons, characterized by different kinetic temperatures), as well as cold nonthermalized new-born water group ions which move with Kepler velocity [3]; (b) effect of the ion-neutral collisions on the dust charging in the dense Enceladus torus and in the plume; (c) effect of high dust density, when a grain cannot be considered as an isolated particle any more (especially relevant for the plume region, where the average negative dust charge density according to Cassini measurements is of the order or even exceeds the plasma number density [4,5]). It turns out that in this case, the electrostatic potential and respective dust charge cannot be deduced from the initial OML formalism and there is a need to incorporate the effect of dust density into plasma fluxes flowing to the grain surface to calculate the grain equilibrium charge; (e) since the dust in the planetary rings comes in a wide spectrum of sizes from macromolecules to the boulders of a few m in sizes, it becomes important to examine the effect of dust size distribution on the equilibrium particle potential. The obtained results might be of importance for understanding the main physical processes occurring in the planetary rings including the problem of dust transport as well as for interpretations of Cassini plasma measurements in Saturn's rings. [1] M. Horányi, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 34, 383, (1996). [2] B. L. Fleshman et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03202, (2010). [3] R. L. Tokar, et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13203, (2009). [4] T. W. Hill, et al., J. Geophys. Res., 117, A05209, (2012). [5] M. Shafiq, et al., Planet. Space Sci., 59, 17, (2010).

  10. A beaming model of the Io-independent Jovian decameter radiation based on multipole models of the Jovian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Eviatar, A.; Thieman, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A geometrical model is presented in which the apparent source locations of the Io-independent decameter radiation are computed. The calculations assume that the radiation is produced by stably trapped electrons radiating near the electron gyrofrequency and that the emission is then beamed onto a conical surface. The maximum occurrence probability of noise storms is associated with regions in the Jovian magnetosphere where the axis of the emission cone is most inclined toward the Jovian equatorial plane. The calculations utilize and compare two of the octupole spherical harmonic expansions of the Jovian magnetic field constructed from data accumulated by the fluxgate and vector helium magnetometers on board Pioneer 11.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Under this grant we have undertaken a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation and data analysis studies to help better understand the configuration and dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere. We approached our studies of Jupiter's magnetosphere in two ways. First we carried out a number of studies using our existing MHD code. We carried out simulation studies of Jupiter s magnetospheric boundaries and their dependence on solar wind parameters, we studied the current systems which give the Jovian magnetosphere its unique configuration and we modeled the dynamics of Jupiter s magnetosphere following a northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Second we worked to develop a new simulation code for studies of outer planet magnetospheres.

  12. A critical review on the dynamics of Jovian atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    1994-06-01

    Some basic theoretical issues of the Jovian atmospheric dynamics are discussed. Those include the depth of the motions, thermal convection both with deep and shallow configurations, the two-dimensional turbulence theory and its relevance. The refractive index analysis is suggested to interpret the coherent structures like Jupiter's Great Red Spot in terms of Charney-Drazin constraint based on the observations. A possibility of Jovian data assimilation is proposed as a future direction. PMID:12780105

  13. The Status of the Design and Construction of the Columbia Non-neutral Torus

    E-print Network

    The Status of the Design and Construction of the Columbia Non-neutral Torus J. P. Kremer , T. S. The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) is a tabletop (R=0.3 m, a=0.1 m, B=0.2 T) stel- larator now being of non-neutral plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. CNT will use four circular, planar coils: two

  14. Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the “embryology” of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings.

  15. Recent results in the Los Alamos compact torus program

    SciTech Connect

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W.T.; Barnes, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A Compact Toroid is a toroidal magnetic-plasma-containment geometry in which no conductors or vacuum-chamber walls pass through the hole in the torus. Two types of compact toroids are studied experimentally and theoretically at Los Alamos: spheromaks that are oblate in shape and contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, and field-reversed configurations (FRC) that are very prolate and contain poloidal field only.

  16. Modeling Enceladus and its torus in Saturn's magnetosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Khurana, K. K.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics of the saturnian magnetosphere is controlled by the planetary spin at a rate of about 10.5 hours. The second icy moon of Saturn, Enceladus, orbits at 4 planetary radii deep in the inner magnetosphere. Enceladus creates neutrals at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second. These neutrals are ionized and picked up by the ambient plasma and spun up to the corotational velocity to form a plasma disk. Consequently, the gas and plasma density peak close to the Enceladus orbit. In the gas torus, the majority of the gas particles travel at their keplerian speed of 14 km/s, while the bulk of the plasma rotates at 30-40 km/s as a response to the rigid spinning of the saturnian magnetic field. The corotating plasma torus feels a centrifugal force that is balanced by the magnetic tension force. To balance the centripetal force of this plasma disk, Saturn’s magnetic field is stretched in both radial and azimuthal directions. At Enceladus the massive pickup of new ions from its plume slows down the corotating flow and breaks this force balance to cause plasma flows in the radial direction of Saturn. Such radial flows in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are supported by Cassini observations using various particle and field instruments. In this study we summarize the lessons learned from recent Cassini observations and our numerical simulation effort of the local interactions at Enceladus, and model the inner magnetosphere of Saturn to reproduce the force balance processes. The neutral torus is treated as a background in this axis-symmetric model.

  17. Edge ion heating by launched high harmonic fast waves in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    E-print Network

    Biewer, Theodore

    Edge ion heating by launched high harmonic fast waves in the National Spherical Torus Experiment T power High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) rf heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature MHz HHFW launched by the NSTX antenna is expected and observed to heat core electrons, but plasma ions

  18. Io's Interaction with the Jovian Magnetosphere: Models of Particle Acceleration and Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, Frank Judson

    1998-09-01

    I develop models of electron acceleration and ion scattering which result from Io's interaction with the jovian magnetosphere. According to my models, Io initially generates transient currents and an Alfvenic disturbance when it first encounters a jovian magnetic field line, and the interaction would eventually settle into a system of steady Birkeland currents as the field line is advected downstream past Io and into Io's wake. I derive a model of wave propagation and electron acceleration by the Alfvenic transient, due to electron inertial effects. My numerical calculations show that the power and particle energy of the resulting electron beam are consistent with observations of the Io-related auroral spot and of Jupiter's S-burst decametric emissions. In the case of the steady currents and Io's wake. I show that these currents would drive instabilities and argue that electrostatic double layers would form in the high latitudes of the Io/Io wake flux tubes. I examine the role of these double layers in producing energetic electrons and estimate the likely electron energies and power. This model agrees with observations of a long arc in the jovian aurora, extending away from the Io-related spot, the L-burst decametric radio emissions and electron beams observed by the Galileo spacecraft in Io's wake. Finally, I consider the Galileo observations of ion cyclotron waves near Io. I use the absence of waves near the S and O gyrofrequencies to place limits on the source rate of heavy ions near Io. For a sufficiently low source rate, the thermal core population prevents ion cyclotron instabilities and wave growth. I use these limits to constrain the neutral column density of Io's exosphere and amount of plasma produced within 2 to 10 body radii of Io.

  19. Io-related Jovian decametric arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, M.H.

    1989-09-01

    In this work an empirical modeling technique is used to analyze certain Io-caused emission (ICE) structures in the Jovian decametric radio spectrographic data. Taking into account that some of these ICE structures have the appearance of great arcs with internal arclike fine structure, a geometrical model is developed in which the observed emission is seen to result from conical emission beams emanating from source regions carried on corotating field lines which are excited only as they cross an excitation zone centered on the Io flux tube. The model is also applied to the analysis of a limited set of spectrograms of the traditional Io-related sources Io A, Io B, and Io D. In some of these spectra it was possible to identify multiple-ICE structures. The model results for these spectra are consistent with a physical model in which emission is occurring from multiple spaced flux tubes positioned ahead of and moving with Io, and lend credence to the multiple Alfven wave reflection hypothesis.

  20. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium in Hot Jovians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Mandell, Avi; Hébrard, Eric; Venot, Olivia; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that equilibrium chemistry is usually achieved deep in the atmosphere of hot Jovians where timescales are short (Line and Yung 2013). Thus, equilibrium chemistry has been used as a starting point (setting initial conditions) for evaluating disequilibrium processes. We explore parameters of setting these initial conditions including departures from solar metallicity, the number of species allowed in a system, the types of species allowed in a system, and different thermodynamic libraries in an attempt to create a standard for evaluating equilibrium chemistry. NASA's open source code Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) is used to calculate model planet abundances by varying the metallicity, in the pressure regime 0.1 to 1 bar. These results are compared to a variety of exoplanets(Teq between 600 and 2100K) qualitatively by color maps of the dayside with different temperature redistributions. Additionally, CEA (with an up-dated thermodynamic library) is compared with the thermochemical model presented in Venotet al. (2012) for HD 209458b and HD 189733b. This same analysis is then applied to the cooler planet HD 97658b. Spectra are generated and we compare both models' outputs using the open source codetransit (https://github.com/exosports/transit) using the opacities of 15 molecules. We make the updated CEA thermodyanamic library and supporting Python scripts to do the CEA analyses available open source. Thiswork was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G.

  1. DISCOVERY OF TWO ADDITIONAL JOVIAN IRREGULARS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersen, M.; Gladman, B.; Veillet, C.; Jacobson, R.; Brozovic, M.; Rousselot, P.

    2012-07-15

    We report on the discovery of two previously undetected irregular satellites of Jupiter (S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2) during recovery observations of other known satellites. S/2010 J 1 was discovered with the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope on September 7 UT of 2011, while S/2010 J 2 was discovered on September 8 with the 3.5 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The satellites have r-band magnitudes of 23.2 {+-} 0.3 and 24.0 {+-} 0.3, for S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2, respectively, indicating diameters of {approx}2-3 km. Both S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2 are on bound retrograde orbits. Time-averaged integrated orbits suggest the association to the Carme and Ananke groups, respectively. Given that the satellites were discovered within a small field during the routine observations of the previously known irregulars, their discovery agrees with predictions that other moons of similar sizes remain undetected in the Jovian Hill sphere.

  2. Photometric Study of Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda; Stephens, Robert; Henry, Todd; Chatelain, Joseph; Wasserman, Lawrence H.

    2012-08-01

    The Jovian Trojan asteroids appear to be fundamentally different from main belt asteroids. They formed further from the Sun, their composition is different, and their collisional history appears to be different. Lightcurve studies provide information about the distribution of rotation frequencies of a group of asteroids. For main belt asteroids larger than about 40 km in diameter, the distribution of rotation frequencies is Maxwellian (Pravec et al. 2000), suggesting that collisions determine their rotation properties. The Trojans larger than 100 km in diameter have been almost completely sampled, but lightcurves for small Trojans have been less well studied due to their low albedos and greater solar distances. Preliminary data (Molnar 2008; French et al. 2011) indicate that Trojans may have, on average, longer periods than main belt asteroids of the same size. We propose to investigate the rotation periods and lightcurve amplitudes of 4-5 Trojans in the 15-25 km size range. We will also obtain VRI colors, sufficient to determine the compositional type of the target objects.

  3. Rotation lightcurves of small jovian Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Sieben, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We present new lightcurve information for 19 Trojans ? 30 km in diameter, more than doubling the number of objects in this size range for which some rotation information is known. The minimum densities for objects with complete lightcurves are estimated and are found to be comparable to those measured for cometary nuclei. A significant fraction (?40%) of this observed small Trojan population rotates slowly (P > 24 h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner, B.D., Stephens, R.D. [2011]. Minor Planet Bull. 38, 110-111). The excess of slow rotators may be due to the YORP effect. Results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggest that the distribution of Trojan rotation rates is dissimilar to those of Main Belt Asteroids of the same size. Concerted observations of a large number of Trojans could establish the spin barrier (Warner, B.D., Harris, A.W., Pravec, P. [2009]. Icarus 202, 134-146), making it possible to estimate densities for objects near the critical period.

  4. Cassini and Wind Stereoscopic Observations of Jovian Non-Thermal Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Michael L.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Zarka, P.

    1999-01-01

    During two intervals in 1999, simultaneous observations of Jupiter's decametric and hectometric radio emissions were made with the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) and the radio and plasma wave instrument (WAVES) on the Wind spacecraft in Earth orbit. During January, the Jovian longitude difference between the two spacecraft was about 5 deg, whereas for the August-September Earth flyby of Cassini, the angle ranged from 0 deg to about 2.5 deg. With these separations, the instantaneous widths of the walls of the hollow conical radiation beams of some of the decametric arcs were measured suggesting that the typical width is approximately 2 deg. The conical beams seem to move at Io's revolution rate rather than with Jupiter's rotation rate. Additionally, some of the non-arc emissions have very narrow and quite peculiar beamwidths.

  5. ULF waves in the Io torus: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Naiguo; Kellogg, P. J.; Macdowell, R. J.; Mei, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Canu, P.; De Villedary, C.; Rezeau, L.; Balogh, L.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Io torus, Ulysses has observed intense ultralow frequency (ULF) wave activity in both electric and magnetic components. Such ULF waves have been previously suggested as the source of ion precipitation leading to Jovian aurorae. The peaks of the wave spectra are closely related to the ion cyclotron frequencies, which is evidence of the waves being ion cyclotron waves (ICWs). Analysis of the dispersion relation using a multicomponent density model shows that at high latitudes (approximately 30 deg), peak frequencies of the waves fall into L mode branches of guided or unguided ICWs. Near the equator, in addition to the ICWs below f(sub cO(2+)), there are strong signals at approximately 10 Hz which require an unexpectedly large energetic ion temperature anistropy to be explained by the excitation of either convective or nonconvective ion cyclotron instabilities. Their generation mechanism remains open for the future study. Evaluation of the Poynting vector and the dispersion relation analysis suggest that the waves near the equator had a small wave angle relative to the magnetic field, while those observed at high latitudes were more oblique. The polarization of the waves below f(sub cH(+)) is more random than that of the whistler mode waves, but left-hand-polarized components of the waves can still be seen. The intensity of the ICWs both near the equator and at high latitudes are strong enough to meet the requirement for producing strong pitch angle scattering of energetic ions.

  6. Analogies between Jovian magnetodisk and heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, Roman; Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi

    Recently due to the development of spatial missions the famous model by E. Parker [1] faced with some problems, such as the effect of magnetic flux excess and the existence of latitude component of magnetic field [2]. Thus the incomplete knowledge about large scale current system of heliospheric current sheet (HCS) motivated us to construct and investigate the self-consistent axisymmetric stationary MHD model of HCS and to compare it with earlier presented model of Jupiterian magnetodisk [3]. Both HCS and magnetodisk have inner plasma sources (i.e. the Sun in case of HCS and satellite Io in case of Jupiter); also they depend on the centrifugal force at small distances and on corotation processes. They both have strong radial component of current density, thin elongated structure etc. Thus in the frame of the MHD model we have calculated for HCS the parallel currents (analogous to Jovian Birkeland currents) and we obtained the latitude component of the magnetic field. The results of the model allowed us to explain the magnetic flux excess by the existence of the self-consistent HCS magnetic field. The decrease of radial magnetic field from the distance from the Sun as the power -5/3 obtained by numerical calculations is in good agreement with experimental data. Generally this model can be applied for the quiet period of the low solar activity when the perturbation of HCS structure named “ballerina skirt” does not play any role. References: 1. Parker E. N., Astrophys. J., V. 128, 664, pp. 664-676, 1958. 2. Khabarova O. V., ??????????????? ??????, V. 90, ?11, pp. 919-935, 2013. 3. Kislov R.A. et al., Bull. MSU, Physics and Astron., 2013

  7. Final report on the LLNL compact torus acceleration project

    SciTech Connect

    Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.; Hartman, C.; McLean, H.; Molvik, A.

    1995-03-19

    In this report, we summarize recent work at LLNL on the compact torus (CT) acceleration project. The CT accelerator is a novel technique for projecting plasmas to high velocities and reaching high energy density states. The accelerator exploits magnetic confinement in the CT to stably transport plasma over large distances and to directed kinetic energies large in comparison with the CT internal and magnetic energy. Applications range from heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices, generation of intense pulses of x-rays or neutrons for weapons effects and high energy-density fusion concepts.

  8. Ion emission spectra in the Jovian X-ray aurora V. Kharchenko,1

    E-print Network

    Stancil, Phillip C.

    Ion emission spectra in the Jovian X-ray aurora V. Kharchenko,1 A. Dalgarno,1 D. R. Schultz,2 and P-ray aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11105, doi:10.1029/2006GL026039. 1. Introduction [2] The first detected from the Jovian North and South poles; this emission defines the Jovian X-ray aurora [Waite et al

  9. Three dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Ray tracing studies of Jovian low frequency emissions were studied. A comprehensive three-dimensional ray tracing computer code for examination of model Jovian decametric (DAM) emission was developed. The improvements to the computer code are outlined and described. The results of the ray tracings of Jovian emissions will be presented in summary form.

  10. On the Origin of System III Asymmetries in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Delamere, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Io plasma torus exhibits several intriguing asymmetries which offer insights to the processes that transport mass and energy through the system. While these asymmetries are increasingly well described observationally, most still lack physical explanations. One important asymmetry is fixed in the coordinate system corotating with Jupiter's magnetic field. Space-based and ground-based observations have shown that torus ions are hotter and more highly ionized around System III 20 deg. Our simulations show that this type of torus asymmetry can be caused by enhanced pickup of fresh ions from Io's neutral clouds near these longitudes. The enhancement is caused primarily by the tilt and offset of the torus relative to the neutral clouds. We will report on the model parameters required to match the observed asymmetries, and offer predictions which will allow a test of this hypothesis.

  11. Response of the Jovian thermosphere to variations in solar EUV flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Achilleos, Nick; Kita, Hajime

    2014-05-01

    Examining the response to solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is an established diagnostic method used to understand the physics of planetary environments. In this study, we focus on the response of the Jovian thermosphere to variations in the solar EUV flux and discuss the consequences for the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. We use a model that simulates both the thermospheric dynamics and the magnetospheric plasma velocity distribution under conditions of angular momentum transport between these regions. The simulations show that when the EUV flux increases by ~100% and 200%, the thermospheric neutral wind velocity at ~45° latitude increases by 16% and 22%, respectively. The short-term variation over a few Earth days causes an increased velocity at middle latitudes which are magnetically conjugate to the Jovian radiation belt. Increased heating due to solar EUV contributes to this velocity change. The other contribution arises ~30 planetary rotations after the initial solar EUV flux increase. This second ("delayed") effect is due to propagation of momentum from high latitudes (the auroral region), where Joule heating is dominant, and is related to the behavior of the ionospheric conductance and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents. The modeled velocity enhancement is smaller than that required to explain the observed enhancement of the synchrotron emission by radial diffusion of the trapped energetic electrons. In this context, we discuss the sensitivity of the underlying thermosphere-ionosphere response to short-wavelength solar radiation and the ensuing three-dimensional wind fields.

  12. Discussing the processes constraining the Jovian synchrotron radio emission's features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.

    2008-03-01

    Our recent analysis and understanding of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission with a radiation-belt model is presented. In this work, the electron population is determined by solving the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation and considering different physical processes. The results of the modeling are first compared to in situ particle data, brightness distributions, radio spectrum, and beaming curves to verify the simulated particle distributions. The dynamics of high-energy electrons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere and their related radio emission are then examined. The results demonstrate that the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron emission's brightness distribution along the magnetic equator. Simulations show that moons and dust both control the transport toward the planet by significantly reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate, near the equator and inside 1.8 Jovian radii, the innermost region of the magnetosphere. Due to interactions with dust and synchrotron mechanism, radiation-belt electrons are moved along field lines, between Metis (1.79 Jovian radii) and Amalthea (2.54 Jovian radii), toward high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce measurable secondary radio emissions. Among all the phenomena acting in the inner magnetosphere, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the primary moderator for the radiation's intensity at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the characteristics of the total radio flux with longitude. The sweeping effect amplifies the 10-h modulation of the beaming curve's amplitude while energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to phenomena adjusting it to the right level. Interactions with dust do not significantly constrain radio spectrum features. Resonances near Amalthea and Thebe are responsible for the Jovian radio spectrum's particular slope.

  13. Brown dwarfs and Jovian planets: A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Hubbard, W. B.; Marley, M.

    1986-01-01

    The recent detection of a subluminous companion to the M dwarf star VB8 has renewed interest in the characteristics of objects spanning the mass range from Jupiter to hydrogen burning stars. Atmospheric and interior models were constructed for objects in this mass regime, up to 30 Jupiter masses, with emphasis on understanding the relationship of brown dwarfs such as the VB8 companion to the better-studied Jovian planets. The atmospheric model solves the equation of radiative transfer assuming frequency dependent molecular opacity sources H2, He, H2O, CO, and CH4 which are important by virtue of the high cosmic abundance of their constituent atoms. Condensation of cosmochemically important materials, iron and silicates, in the atmosphere is possible, and the effect of such grains as opacity sources is assessed. The luminosity of the object is presumed due to degenerate cooling following a collapse phase and possibly deuterium burning and an interior model is constructed using as an outer boundary condition the temperature and pressure level at which the atmosphere becomes convective. The interior model is analogous to Jupiter, with a large liquid metallic-hydrogen core and a thinner molecular-hydrogen envelope. The oxidation state of carbon in the outer envelope of a brown dwarf of similar age to Jupiter is a function of the object's mass. This makes the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric opacity sensitive to the carbon to oxygen ratio, since the abundance of the primary source of molecular opacity, H2O, decreases as more oxygen is tied up as CO.

  14. Lorentz resonances and the structure of the Jovian ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. A.; Schaffer, L. E.; Showalter, M. R.; Greenberg, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Charged dust orbiting through spatially periodic planetary magnetic fields will experience time-variable electromagnetic forces. When the forcing frequencies are nearly commensurate with the particle's orbital frequency, the particle undergoes large out-of-plane and radial excursions. Specific 'Lorentz' resonances, corresponding to particular spatial periodicities in the magnetic field, occur on either side of synchronous orbit. Lorentz resonance locations and strengths for the Jovian and Saturnian rings are described. The boundaries of the halo of the Jovian ring, and perhaps other ring structures, are near resonances.

  15. Analysis of Jovian decametric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiments (PRA) have produced the finest set of Jovian decametric radio emission data ever obtained. Jovian decametric L-burst and S-burst arcs were characterized and the data reconciled with models for the radio emission geometry and mechanisms. The first major results involve comparisons of the distribution of arc separations with longitudes. The identification and analyses of systematic variations in the PRA data have yielded interesting results, but only the most obvious features of the data were examined. Analyses of the PRA data were extended with the use of new 6-Sec formats that are more sensitive to the S-bursts.

  16. Analysis and Modeling of Jovian Radio Emissions Observed by Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    Our studies of Jovian radio emission have resulted in the publication of five papers in refereed journals, with three additional papers in progress. The topics of these papers include the study of narrow-band kilometric radio emission; the apparent control of radio emission by Callisto; quasi-periodic radio emission; hectometric attenuation lanes and their relationship to Io volcanic activity; and modeling of HOM attenuation lanes using ray tracing. A further study of the control of radio emission by Jovian satellites is currently in progress. Abstracts of each of these papers are contained in the Appendix. A list of the publication titles are also included.

  17. Physics Basis for a Spherical Torus Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; J. Menard; S.C. Jardin; T.K. Mau; et al

    1999-11-01

    The spherical torus, or low-aspect-ratio tokamak, is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. A special class of wall-stabilized high-beta high-bootstrap fraction low-aspect-ratio tokamak equilibrium are analyzed with respect to MHD stability, bootstrap current and external current drive, poloidal field system requirements, power and particle exhaust and plasma operating regime. Overall systems optimization leads to a choice of aspect ratio A = 1:6, plasma elongation kappa = 3:4, and triangularity delta = 0:64. The design value for the plasma toroidal beta is 50%, corresponding to beta N = 7:4, which is 10% below the ideal stability limit. The bootstrap fraction of 99% greatly alleviates the current drive requirements, which are met by tangential neutral beam injection. The design is such that 45% of the thermal power is radiated in the plasma by Bremsstrahlung and trace Krypton, with Neon in the scrapeoff layer radiating the remainder.

  18. New Capabilities and Results for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.M. Kaye, H. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, F.M. Levinton, R. Maingi, J.E. Menard, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, D. Stutman and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-02-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas with toroidal aspect ratio as low as 1.25, which can be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves and up to 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. Using new poloidal fields coils, plasmas with cross-section elongation up to 2.7, triangularity 0.8, plasma currents Ip up to 1.5 MA and normalized currents Ip/a?BT up to 7.5 MA/m?T have been achieved. A significant extension of the plasma pulse length, to 1.5 s at a plasma current of 0.7 MA, has been achieved by exploiting the bootstrap and NBI-driven currents to reduce the dissipation of poloidal flux. Inductive plasma startup has been supplemented by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and the production of persistent current on closed flux surfaces by CHI has now been demonstrated in NSTX. The plasma response to magnetic field perturbations with toroidal mode numbers n = 1 or 3 and the effects on the plasma rotation have been investigated using three pairs of coils outside the vacuum vessel. Recent studies of both MHD stability and of transport benefitted from improved diagnostics, including measurements of the internal poloidal field using the motional Stark effect (MSE). In plasmas with a region of reversed magnetic shear in the core, now confirmed by the MSE data, improved electron confinement has been observed.

  19. Analysis of Jovian decamteric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. N.; Hammerschlag, R.

    1986-01-01

    This research effort involved careful examination of Jovian radio emission data below 40 MHz, with emphasis on the informative observations of the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment (PRA) on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The work is divided into three sections, decametric arcs, decametric V bursts, and hectometric modulated spectral activity (MSA).

  20. Structure of the Jovian Magnetodisk Current Sheet: Initial Galileo Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Huddleston, D. E.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The ten-degree tilt of the Jovian magnetic dipole causes the magnetic equator to move back and forth across Jupiter's rotational equator and tile Galileo orbit that lies therein. Beyond about 24 Jovian radii, the equatorial current sheet thins and tile magnetic structure changes from quasi-dipolar into magnetodisk-like with two regions of nearly radial but antiparallel magnetic field separated by a strong current layer. The magnetic field at the center of the current sheet is very weak in this region. Herein we examine tile current sheet at radial distances from 24 55 Jovian radii. We find that the magnetic structure very much resembles tile structure seen at planetary magnetopause and tail current sheet crossings. Tile magnetic field variation is mainly linear with little rotation of the field direction, At times there is almost no small-scale structure present and the normal component of the magnetic field is almost constant through the current sheet. At other times there are strong small-scale structures present in both the southward and northward directions. This small-scale structure appears to grow with radial distance and may provide the seeds for tile explosive reconnection observed at even greater radial distances oil tile nightside. Beyond about 40 Jovian radii, the thin current sheet also appears to be almost constantly in oscillatory motion with periods of about 10 min. The amplitude of these oscillations also appears to grow with radial distance. The source of these fluctuations may be dynamical events in tile more distant magnetodisk.

  1. Optical-infrared flares and radio afterglows from the tidal disruption of Jovian planets by their host star

    E-print Network

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    When a Jovian planet gets sufficiently close to its host star to be tidally disrupted, its debris stream deposits energy on the star's surface, producing an expanding bubble of hot plasma. We study the radiation from the bubble and show that it includes optical-infrared prompt emission and a subsequent radio afterglow. The prompt emission from M31 and Large Magellanic Cloud is detectable by optical-near infrared transient surveys with a large field of view at an event rate of a few events per year. The subsequent radio afterglows are detectable for $10^{3-4}$~years.

  2. Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low-frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Gulkis, S.; Six, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian DAM emission has been performed utilizing the O-4 magnetic field model (Acuna and Ness, 1979) and a realistic plasma model. Minimal assumptions about the emission mechanism have been made that include radiation in the right-hand extraordinary mode, propagating nearly perpendicular to the field line at source points located just above the RX cutoff frequency along Io flux tubes. Ray tracing has been performed in the frequency range from 2-35 MHz from successive Io flux tubes separated by ten degrees of central meridian longitude for a full circumference of northern hemisphere sources. The results show unusual complexity in model arc spectra that is displayed in a constant Io phase format with many similarities to the Voyager PRA data. The results suggest much of the variation in observed DAM spectral features is a result of propagation effects rather than emission process differences.

  3. WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 ?m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 ?m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 ?m can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L 4), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L 5), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L 4/L 5 = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  4. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJAN POPULATION: TAXONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 {mu}m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 {mu}m can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L {sub 4}), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L {sub 5}), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L {sub 4}/L {sub 5} = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  5. Planetary processes Science Investigated Measurement Instrument A1) Composition of Io's plume, ash, and dust? A1a) Particulate size distribution A1a) SUSHI, ISPI

    E-print Network

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Planetary processes Science Investigated Measurement Instrument Geology A1) Composition of Io3a) INMS E) Plasma torus and interactions between Jovian magnetosphere/Io ionosphere E1) Mass pickup with the Jovian magnetosphere F1) Auroral variability, and links to Io volcanism F1a) Correlation of Jovian aurora

  6. ELMO Bumpy Torus data base

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, J.S.

    1981-03-01

    This document describes a set of computer programs developed to facilitate storage and retrieval of data generated by the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment. The data is stored in a collection of files which contain either raw or analyzed data from diagnostics connected to the experiment. An on-line index of steady-state machine conditions, diagnostic or analysis status information, and raw or analyzed data values unifies the file collection into a data base. The index is implemented under the System 1022 data base management system.

  7. Near-infrared brightness of the Galilean satellites eclipsed in Jovian shadow: A new technique to investigate Jovian upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, K.; Arimatsu, K.; Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Wada, T.; Egami, E.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Honda, C.; Kimura, J.; Kuramoto, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Surace, J.

    2014-07-10

    Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, we have discovered that Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are bright around 1.5 ?m even when not directly lit by sunlight. The observations were conducted with non-sidereal tracking on Jupiter outside of the field of view to reduce the stray light subtraction uncertainty due to the close proximity of Jupiter. Their eclipsed luminosity was 10{sup –6}-10{sup –7} of their uneclipsed brightness, which is low enough that this phenomenon has been undiscovered until now. In addition, Europa in eclipse was <1/10 of the others at 1.5 ?m, a potential clue to the origin of the source of luminosity. Likewise, Ganymede observations were attempted at 3.6 ?m by the Spitzer Space Telescope, but it was not detected, suggesting a significant wavelength dependence. It is still unknown why they are luminous even when in the Jovian shadow, but forward-scattered sunlight by hazes in the Jovian upper atmosphere is proposed as the most plausible candidate. If this is the case, observations of these Galilean satellites while eclipsed by the Jovian shadow provide us with a new technique to investigate the Jovian atmospheric composition. Investigating the transmission spectrum of Jupiter by this method is important for investigating the atmosphere of extrasolar giant planets by transit spectroscopy.

  8. Superradiance in a torus magnetosphere around a black hole

    PubMed

    van Putten MH

    1999-04-01

    The coalescence of a neutron star and a black hole in a binary system is believed to form a torus around a Kerr black hole. A similarly shaped magnetosphere then results from the remnant magnetic field of the neutron star. In the strong-field case, it contains a cavity for plasma waves located between the barrier of the gravitational potential and the surrounding torus. This cavity may be unstable to superradiance of electromagnetic waves. Superradiant amplification of such waves, initially excited by turbulence in the torus, should inflate into a bubble in a time as short as approximately 0.75 (1 percent/&cjs3539;epsilon&cjs3539;2)(M/7M middle dot in circle) seconds approximately 0.15 to 1.5 seconds, assuming an efficiency &cjs3539;epsilon&cjs3539;2 = 0.5 to 5 percent and a mass M = 7M middle dot in circle. These bubbles may burst and repeat, of possible relevance to intermittency in cosmological gamma-ray bursts. The model predicts gamma-ray bursts to be anticorrelated with their gravitational wave emissions. PMID:10102805

  9. Astronomical studies of the major planets, natural satellites and asteroids using the 2.24 m telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Ground based detection of east-west asymmetries in the Jovian torus, three dimensional models of the plasma conditions in the Jovian torus, rotational variations in methane band images of Neptune, Io's rapid flickering, thermophysical models, the diameters and albedos of the satellites of Uranus from radiometric observations, the diameters of Pluto and Triton, standard stars are discussed.

  10. A feasibility study for the spherical torus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1985-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes to build the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX), a very low aspect ratio toroidal confinement device. This proposal concentrates on tokamak operation of the experiment; however, it can in principle be operated as a pinch or reversed-field pinch as well. As a tokamak, the spherical torus confines a plasma that is characterized by high toroidal beta, low poloidal beta, large natural elongation, high plasma current for a given edge q, and strong paramagnetism. These features combine to offer the possibility of a compact, low-field fusion device. The figure below shows that when compared to a conventional tokamak the spherical torus represents a major change in geometry. The primary goals of the experiment will be to demonstrate a capability for high beta (20%) in the first stability regime, to extend our knowledge of tokamak confinement scaling, and to test oscillating-field current drive. The experiment will operate in the high-beta, collisionless regime, which is achieved in STX at low temperatures because of the geometry. At a minimum, operation of STX will help to resolve fundamental questions regarding the scaling of beta and confinement in tokamaks. Complete success in this program would have a significant impact on toroidal fusion research in that it would demonstrate solutions to the problems of beta and steady-state operation in the tokamak. The proposed device has a major radius of 0.45 m, a toroidai field of 0.5 T, a plasma current of 900 kA, and heating by neutral beam injection. We estimate 30 months for design, construction, and assembly. The budget estimate, including contingency and escalation, is $6.8 million.

  11. Torus elements used in effective shock absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, P.; Platus, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Energy absorbing device forces torus elements to revolve annularly between two concentric tubes when a load is applied to one tube. Interference forces can be varied by using torus elements of different thicknesses. The device operates repeatedly in compression or tension, and under problems of large onset rate tolerance or structural overload.

  12. Neutral cloud and heavy ion inner torus at Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Pospieszalska, M.K.; Sittler, E.C. Jr.; Cheng, A.F.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1989-02-01

    Voyager plasma data are used in conjunction with laboratory data on water molecule sputter-yields and energy distributions to calculate the morphology of the Saturn neutral water molecule and dissociated water molecule-product torus coexisting with the E-ring and icy satellites of this planet. Plasma production rates determined for this cloud exhibit a structure with distance from Saturn as well as from the orbit plane; this suggests a lack of equilibrium for the heavy ion plasma at less than 7 planet radii. Attention is given to the possibility that the Saturn E-ring may be a precipitate of the neutral cloud that is initiated by low-energy ion-molecule reactions. 61 references.

  13. The neutral cloud and heavy ion inner torus at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Pospieszalska, M. K.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cheng, A. F.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager plasma data are used in conjunction with laboratory data on water molecule sputter-yields and energy distributions to calculate the morphology of the Saturn neutral water molecule and dissociated water molecule-product torus coexisting with the E-ring and icy satellites of this planet. Plasma production rates determined for this cloud exhibit a structure with distance from Saturn as well as from the orbit plane; this suggests a lack of equilibrium for the heavy ion plasma at less than 7 planet radii. Attention is given to the possibility that the Saturn E-ring may be a precipitate of the neutral cloud that is initiated by low-energy ion-molecule reactions.

  14. Studies for the Europagenic Plasma Source in Jupiter's Inner Magnetosphere during the Galileo Europa Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in research to understand the three-dimensional nature of the Europagenic plasma torus is summarized. Efforts to improve the plasma torus description near Europa's orbit have included a better understanding of Europa's orbit and an improved description of the planetary magnetic field. New plasma torus chemistry for molecular and atomic species has been introduced and implemented in Europa neutral cloud models. Preliminary three-dimensional model calculations for Europa's neutral clouds and their plasma sources are presented.

  15. AGN torus properties with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Nenkova, Maia; Ivezi?, Željko; Hunt-Walker, Nicholas; Elitzur, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has scanned the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity in four infrared bands, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 ?m. The WISE Point Source Catalog contains more than 560 million objects, among them hundreds of thousands of galaxies with Active Nuclei (AGN). While type 1 AGN, owing to their bright and unobscured nature, are easy to detect and constitute a rather complete and unbiased sample, their type 2 counterparts, postulated by AGN unification, are not as straightforward to identify. Matching the WISE catalog with known QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we confirm previous identification of the type 1 locus in the WISE color space. Using a very large database of the popular Clumpy torus models, we find the colors of the putative type 2 counterparts, and also, for the first time, predict their number vs. flux relation that can be expected to be observed in any given WISE color range. This will allow us to put statistically very significant constraints on the torus parameters. Our results are a successful test of the AGN unification scheme.

  16. Tomographic imaging of resistive mode dynamics in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    activity in the tokamak might be useful to avoid central impurity accumulation and remove fusion ash in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991 . Soft.1063/1.2160519 I. INTRODUCTION Magnetohydrodynamic MHD instabilities in the core of magnetized fusion plasmas often

  17. Physics Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment M.G. Bell for the NSTX Research Team #

    E-print Network

    Physics Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment M.G. Bell for the NSTX Research Team permit operation with toroidal­b approaching 40% [1]. The plasmas will be heated by up to 6 MW High transiently. The plasma current is initiated in deuterium at a pressure of 8 -- 12 mPa by inducing a toroidal

  18. Application of an Externally Applied Rotating Magnetic Field for Control of MHD Relaxation Phenomena in the HIST Spherical Torus Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Nishioka, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Shotaro; Fukumoto, Naoyuki; Nagata, Masayoshi

    Application of an externally applied rotating magnetic field (RMF) for control of MHD relaxation phenomena driven by a coaxial helicity injection has been proposed in the HIST spherical torus device. In this letter, the plasma responses to the RMF evaluated by magnetic fields inside the plasma in HIST are shown.

  19. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of 7 km on 1) an ocean and 2) a layer of bedrock. Knowledge of the ionospheric contributions to the time delay of the low-frequency subsurface radar is shown to be important in obtaining accurate depth information.

  20. Relationship between Jovian Hectometric Attenuation Lanes And Io Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Within the Galileo plasma wave instrument data a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band is seen in the hectometric (HOM) emission that varies in frequency with system III longitude. This attenuation lane is believed to be the result of near-grazing incidence or coherent scattering of radio emission near the outer edge of the Io torus, i.e., when the ray path is nearly tangent to an L shell containing the Io flux tube. Such a process should, therefore, be enhanced when the Io volcanic activity is increased and the Io flux tube has enhanced density. We have performed a systematic study of the existing Galileo radio emission data in an effort to determine the phenomenology and frequency of occurrence of the attenuation lanes and the association, if any, with published volcanic activity of Io. Our results indicate that the attenuation lanes are present almost all of the time but are enhanced on occasion. The best examples of attenuation lanes occur when Galileo is within approximately 65 R(sub J) of Jupiter and thus are probably more apparent because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the radio receivers. The lack of continuous monitoring of Io activity and the lack of known activity on the anti-Earthward side of Io are problematic and make detailed correlation with radio emission very difficult at this time. Nevertheless, if the data are displayed for periods when the spacecraft is within 65 R(sub J) (i.e., for each perijove pass), then the highest-contrast lanes occur on most passes when the Io volcanic activity is also high for that pass. These results support our current understanding of attenuation lane formation and suggest that future efforts can be made to better understand the interaction of HOM emission with the Io flux tube.

  1. Formation of the oxygen torus in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosé, M.; Oimatsu, S.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Pascuale, S. De; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Nakano, S.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    We study the formation process of an oxygen torus during the 12-15 November 2012 magnetic storm, using the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by Van Allen Probes. We estimate the local plasma mass density (?L) and the local electron number density (neL) from the resonant frequencies of standing Alfvén waves and the upper hybrid resonance band. The average ion mass (M) can be calculated by M ˜ ?L/neL under the assumption of quasi-neutrality of plasma. During the storm recovery phase, both Probe A and Probe B observe the oxygen torus at L = 3.0-4.0 and L = 3.7-4.5, respectively, on the morning side. The oxygen torus has M = 4.5-8 amu and extends around the plasmapause that is identified at L˜3.2-3.9. We find that during the initial phase, M is 4-7 amu throughout the plasma trough and remains at ˜1 amu in the plasmasphere, implying that ionospheric O+ ions are supplied into the inner magnetosphere already in the initial phase of the magnetic storm. Numerical calculation under a decrease of the convection electric field reveals that some of thermal O+ ions distributed throughout the plasma trough are trapped within the expanded plasmasphere, whereas some of them drift around the plasmapause on the dawnside. This creates the oxygen torus spreading near the plasmapause, which is consistent with the Van Allen Probes observations. We conclude that the oxygen torus identified in this study favors the formation scenario of supplying O+ in the inner magnetosphere during the initial phase and subsequent drift during the recovery phase.

  2. Theoretical predictions of deuterium abundances in the Jovian planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.; MacFarlane, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Current concepts for the origin of the Jovian planets and current constraints on their interior structure are used to support the argument that the presence of large amounts of 'ice' (H2O, CH4, and NH3) in Uranus and Neptune indicates temperature low enough to condense these species at the time Uranus and Neptune formed. Such low temperatures, however, imply orders-of-magnitude fractionation effects for deuterium into the 'ice' component if isotopic equilibration can occur. The present models thus imply that Uranus and Neptune should have D/H ratio at least four times primordial, contrary to observation for Uranus. It is found that the Jovian and Saturnian D/H should be close to primordial regardless of formation scenario.

  3. Particles, environments, and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The possible existence of indigenous Jovian organisms is investigated by characterizing the relevant physical environment of Jupiter, discussing the chromophores responsible for the observed coloration of the planet, and analyzing some permissible ecological niches of hypothetical organisms. Values of the eddy diffusion coefficent are estimated separately for the convective troposphere and the more stable mesosphere, and equilibrium condensation is studied for compounds containing Na, Cl, or both. The photoproduction of chromophores and nonequilibrium organic molecules is analyzed, and the motion of hypothetical organisms is examined along with the diffusion of metabolites and the consequent growth of organisms. Four kinds of organisms are considered: primary photosynthetic autotrophs ('sinkers'), larger autotrophs or heterotrophs that actively maintain their pressure level ('floaters'), organisms that seek out others ('hunters'), and organisms that live at almost pyrolytic depths ('scavengers'). It is concluded that ecological niches for sinkers, floaters, and hunters appear to exist in the Jovian atmosphere.

  4. A CCD comparison of outer Jovian satellites and Trojan asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1991-01-01

    The eight small outer Jovian satellites are not as well known as the brighter, more illustrious Galilean satellites. They are divided into two groups, each containing four satellites; the inner group travels in prograde orbits while the outer group travels in retrograde orbits. From the distinct orbital characteristics of the two groups, most of the theories of their origin involve the capture and breakup of two planetesimals upon entry into the atmosphere of proto-Jupiter. Their proximity to the Trojans asteroids has led to conjectures of a link between them and the Trojans. However, Tholen and Zellner (1984) found no red spectrum among six of the satellites and postulated that they were all C-type objects; therefore, they were unlikely to be derivatives of the Trojan population. Charge-coupled device (CCD) photometry and spectroscopy of the eight outer Jovian satellites obtained from 1987 to 1989 and a comparison between these eight satellites and the Trojan asteroids are presented.

  5. The dynamics of a high-speed Jovian jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.

    1984-01-01

    New measurements of the velocity field in the neighborhood of the high-speed jet located at approximately 24 deg N latitude in the Jovian atmosphere are presented. The maximum zonal velocity is found to be 182 + or - 10 m/s, located at 23.7 + or - 0.2 deg N and representing the largest velocity measured on the planet. The distinctive cloud markings found close to this latitude are discussed and possible dynamical consequences presented.

  6. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune explains the transition from a prograde to a retrograde equatorial jet, while the broader jets are due to the deformation radius being a larger fraction of the planetary radius.

  7. A Nuclear Ramjet Flyer for Exploration of Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maise, G.; Powell, J.; Paniagua, J.; Lecat, R.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the design, operation, and data gathering possibilities of a nuclear-powered ramjet flyer in the Jovian atmosphere. The MITEE nuclear rocket engine can be modified to operate as a ramjet in planetary atmospheres. (Note: MITEE is a compact, ultra-light-weight thermal nuclear rocket which uses hydrogen as the propellant.) To operate as a ramjet, MITEE requires a suitable inlet and diffuser to substitute for the propellant that is pumped from the supply tanks in a nuclear rocket engine. Such a ramjet would fly in the upper Jovian atmosphere, mapping in detail temperatures, pressures, compositions, lightning activity, and wind speeds in the highly turbulent equatorial zone and the Great Red Spot. The nuclear ramjet could operate for months because: (1) the Jovian atmosphere has unlimited propellant, (2) the MITEE nuclear reactor is a (nearly) unlimited power source, and (3) with few moving parts, mechanical wear should be minimal. This paper presents a conceptual design of a ramjet flyer and its nuclear engine. The flyer incorporates a swept-wing design with instruments located in the twin wing-tip pods (away from the radiation source and readily shielded, if necessary). The vehicle is 2 m long with a 2 m wingspan. Its mass is 220 kg, and its nominal flight Mach number is 1.5. Based on combined neutronic and thermal/hydraulic analyses, we calculated that the ambient pressure range over which the flyer can operate to be from about 0.04 to 4 (terrestrial) atmospheres. This altitude range encompasses the three uppermost cloud layers in the Jovian atmosphere: (1) the entire uppermost visible NH3 ice cloud layer (where lightning has been observed), (2) the entire NH4HS ice cloud layer, and (3) the upper portion of the H2O ice cloud layer.

  8. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.

    2011-11-20

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than {approx}10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 {+-} 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 {+-} 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.2, lower than the 1.6 {+-} 0.1 value derived by Szabo et al.

  9. WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojans: Preliminary Results

    E-print Network

    Grav, T; Bauer, J; Masiero, J; Spahr, T; McMillan, R S; Walker, R; Cutri, R; Wright, E; Blauvelt, E; DeBaun, E; Elsbury, D; Gautier, T; Gomillion, S; Hand, E; Wilkins, A

    2011-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than $\\sim10$km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of $0.07\\pm0.03$. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of $0.88\\pm0.13$. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) $\\sim 1.4 \\pm 0.2$, lower than the $1.6...

  10. WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojans: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T., IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.

    2011-11-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than ~10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 ± 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 ± 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) ~ 1.4 ± 0.2, lower than the 1.6 ± 0.1 value derived by Szabó et al.

  11. Particles, environments and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The eddy diffusion coefficient is estimated as a function of altitude, separately for the Jovian troposphere and mesosphere. Complex organic molecules produced by the Ly alpha photolysis of methane may possibly be the absorbers in the lower mesosphere which account for the low reflectivity of Jupiter in the near ultraviolet. The optical frequency chromophores are localized at or just below the Jovian tropopause. Candidate chromophore molecules must satisfy the condition that they are produced sufficiently rapidly that convective pyrolysis maintains the observed chromophore optical depth. The condition is satisfied if complex organic chromophores are produced with high quantum yield by NH3 photolysis at less than 2,300 A. Jovian photoautotrophs in the upper troposphere satisfy this condition well, even with fast circulation, assuming only biochemical properties of comparable terrestrial organisms. An organism in the form of a thin, gas filled balloon can grow fast enough to replicate if (1) it can survive at the low mesospheric temperatures, or if (2) photosynthesis occurs in the troposphere.

  12. Long-term resonances between two Jovian exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horedt, G. P.

    2015-11-01

    Within the plane planetary problem we present two new approaches for the determination of purely resonant eccentricity and semimajor axis variations in terms of simple, closed algebraic relationships. We consider the motion of two Jovian exoplanets in 2:1, 3:1, and 7:4 resonance. Even with initial eccentricities of 0.05, we have found two numerical examples of purely resonant motion of two Jovian exoplanets in 2:1 and 3:1 resonance, fitting throughout the theoretical relationships for over 105 revolutions of the outer exoplanet. The maximum eccentricities of the two Jovian exoplanets are <0.15<0.15, if the initial ratio of semimajor axes is <0.6992<0.6992 and the initial eccentricities are ? 0.05. During intervals of negligible secular perturbations, the agreement between theoretical and numerical maximum resonant eccentricity variations is generally much better than within a factor of 2. The theoretical and calculated maximum eccentricity of a Plutino in 2:3 resonance with Neptune is >0.053>0.053.

  13. Temperature structure and emergent flux of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvaggio, P.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    Long path, low temperature, moderate resolution spectra of methane and ammonia, broadened by hydrogen and helium, are used to calculate non-gray model atmospheres for the four Jovian planets. The fundamental and first overtone of hydrogen contributes enough absorption to create a thermal inversion for each of the planets. The suite of emergent spectral fluxes and representative limb darkenings and brightenings are calculated for comparison with the Voyager infrared spectra. The temperature differences between Jovian belts and zones corresponds to a difference in the ammonia cirrus particle radii (1 to 3 micron in zones; 10 micron in belts). The Jovian tropopause is approximately at the 0.1 bar level. A thin ammonia cirrus haze should be distributed throughout the Saturnian troposphere; and NH3 gas must be slightly supersaturated or ammonia ice particles are carried upwards convectively in the upper troposphere of Saturn. Substantial methane clouds exist on both Uranus and Neptune. There is some evidence for almost isothermal structures in the deep atmospheres of these two planets.

  14. Dynamics of Charged Nano-Dust in the Jovian Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, W.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The main ring of Jupiter with an outer edge at 1.806 RJ is maintained by the small satellite, Adrastea. After passing the orbit of Metis at 1,798 RJ a ring halo begins to take shape characterizied by extended vertical structure. According to Burns, Schaffer, Greenberg and Showalter (1985), this feature is related to the motion of the charged sub-micron dust grains under the influence of the Lorentz force. For charge-to-mass (q/m) ratio exceeds a certain value, the small dust grains could be injected into the Jovian atmosphere after following trajectories alighned with the magnetic field. This is likely the cause of the cutoff of the inner Jovian rings at the orbital position which coincident with the 2:1 Lorentz resonance. Because the JUNO spacecraft will move through the gap between the Jovian upper atmosphere and the 2:1 LR location, it is interesting to investigate to what extent would the charged nano-dust be able to from a three-dimensional cocoon/envelope surrounding Jupiter just providing an important opportunity to study the ring material by in-situ measurements. The same consideration can be applied to the nano-dust in the D-ring of Saturn which will be investigated intensively by the Cassini spacecraft in its Proximal Orbits Phase in 2017 before the end of the Cassini-Huygens mission.

  15. Influence of azimuthal variations in the jovian magnetospheric field on global thermospheric energy inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N.; Yates, J. N.; Vogt, M. F.

    2013-09-01

    Jupiter's upper atmosphere is coupled to the magnetosphere via an electrical circuit in which current travels along the planetary magnetic field between these two regions, radially outwards in the magnetospheric equatorial plane, and equatorward through the ionosphere. Energy and momentum are communicated to the thermosphere by a combination of joule heating and ion drag. Together, these processes modify the local thermosphere, and produce a system of meridional and azimuthal winds, as well as localized heating. The driver for this current circuit is the radial transport of plasma outward through the planetary magnetosphere. Io ejects ~1000 kg/s neutral material, which then becomes partly ionized through electron impact and charge exchange, leaving ~500 kg/s plasma to be transported through the magnetosphere. As the remaining plasma moves outwards, it slows in its rotation to conserve angular momentum, bending back the planetary magnetic field lines that thread it. Field-aligned currents simultaneously develop to support this magnetic geometry, transporting angular momentum from the planet to the magnetospheric plasma. In the equatorial plane, a j x B force accelerates the plasma towards corotation with the planet. Axially symmetric models for the magnetic field and plasmasheet have been extensively applied to describe this process. Outside of ~20 RJ (jovian radii), however, the north-south component of the equatorial magnetic field varies significantly with azimuth (local time). Therefore, the magnitude of the current is also expected to change, in accordance with the corresponding variation in the radial profile of magnetospheric plasma angular velocity. Using the UCL JASMIN model, which describes the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system in 2.5 dimensions, we explore how these azimuthal variations in the equatorial magnetic field structure modify the ionospheric currents, and discuss the ensuing effects on the thermospheric heating and flows.

  16. Combinatorial quantisation of the Euclidean torus universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusburger, C.; Noui, K.

    2010-12-01

    We quantise the Euclidean torus universe via a combinatorial quantisation formalism based on its formulation as a Chern-Simons gauge theory and on the representation theory of the Drinfel'd double DSU(2). The resulting quantum algebra of observables is given by two commuting copies of the Heisenberg algebra, and the associated Hilbert space can be identified with the space of square integrable functions on the torus. We show that this Hilbert space carries a unitary representation of the modular group and discuss the role of modular invariance in the theory. We derive the classical limit of the theory and relate the quantum observables to the geometry of the torus universe.

  17. A Collective Scattering System for Measuring Electron Gyroscale Fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.

    2009-02-13

    A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.

  18. Jovian thundercloud observation with Jovian orbiter and ground-based telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Sato, Mitsuteru; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Yair, Yoav; Fischer, Georg; Aplin, Karen

    The latest observational and theoretical studies suggest that thunderstorms in Jupiter's at-mosphere are very important subject not only for understanding of meteorology, which may determine the large scale structures such as belt/zone and big ovals, but also for probing the water abundance of the deep atmosphere, which is crucial to constrain the behavior of volatiles in early solar system. Here we suggest a very simple high-speed imager on board Jovian orbiter, Optical Lightning Detector, OLD, optimized for detecting optical emissions from lightning dis-charge in Jupiter. OLD consists of radiation-tolerant CMOS sensors and two H Balmer Alpha line (656.3nm) filters. In normal sampling mode the frame intervals is 29ms with a full frame format of 512x512 pixels and in high-speed sampling mode the interval could be reduced down to 0.1ms by concentrating a limited area of 30x30 pixels. Weight, size and power consump-tion are about 1kg, 16x7x5.5 cm (sensor) and 16x12x4 cm (circuit), and 4W, respectively, though they can be reduced according to the spacecraft resources and required environmental tolerance. Also we plan to investigate the optical flashes using a ground-based middle-sized telescope, which will be built by Hokkaido University, with narrow-band high speed imaging unit using an EM-CCD camera. Observational strategy with these optical lightning detectors and spectral imagers, which enables us to estimate the horizontal motion and altitude of clouds, will be introduced.

  19. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  20. Figure 4: Asymmetries A'LT for normal torus polarity Figure 5: Asymmetries A'LT for reversed torus polarity

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    (Figure 1). CEBAF produces 6 GeV electron beams at velociHes close to the speedResults Figure 4: Asymmetries A'LT for normal torus polarity Figure 5: Asymmetries A'LT for reversed torus polarity Normal Torus Polarity Reversed Torus Polarity

  1. The Jovian magnetotail and its current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of Voyager magnetic field measurements have extended the understanding of the structural and temporal characteristics of Jupiter's magnetic tail. The magnitude of the magnetic field in the lobes of the tail is found to decrease with Jovicentric distance approximately as r to he-1.4, compared with the power law exponent of -1.7 found for the rate of decrease along the Pioneer 10 outbound trajectory. Voyager observations of magnetic field component variations with Jovicentric distance in the tail do not support the uniform radial plasma outflow model derived from Pioneer data. Voyager 2 has shown that the azimuthal current sheet which surrounds Jupiter in the inner and middle magnetosphere extends tailward (in the anti-Sun direction) to a distance of at least 100 R sub J. In the tail this current sheet consists of a plasma sheet and embedded neutral sheet. In the region of the tail where the sheet is observed, the variation of the magnetic field as a result of the sheet structure and its 10 hr periodic motion is the dominant variation seen.

  2. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    E-print Network

    Glenn J. White; C. W. M. Fridlund; P. Bergman; A. Beardsmore; Rene Liseau; R. R. Phillips

    2006-09-25

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray source. Any methanol released in such a cold environment will rapidly freeze again, spreading methanol throughout the circumbinary torus to nascent dust grains, planitesimals, and primitive bodies. These observations probe the initial chemical conditions of matter infalling onto the disk.

  3. Theory and observations of electrostatic ion waves in the cold Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the ELF plasma wave environment of the cold Io torus in Jupiter's magnetosphere is made. Voyager 1 data are presented which show three distinct types of electrostatic ion waves occurring there: the Buchsbaum ion-ion mode just below the proton cyclotron frequency f(cp), hydrogen Bernstein modes at (n + 1/2) f(cp), and lower hybrid waves near f(LHR). The presence of these waves at their characteristic frequencies is consistent with a predominantly heavy ion plasma composed of singly ionized sulfur and oxygen ions along with a small admixture of protons. The hydrogen Bernstein modes are tightly confined to the magnetic equator, occurring within + or - 4 deg of it, while the Buchsbaum mode is localized to the dense heavy ion plasma of the cold torus near the centrifugal equator. A general theory for excitation of the waves based on the ion pickup process is developed.

  4. Observations of whistler mode waves in the Jovian system and their consequences for the onboard processing within the RPWI instrument for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kolmasova, I.; Grison, B.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Bergmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    Evidence for a magnetosphere at Ganymede has been found in 1996 using measurements of plasma waves onboard the Galileo spacecraft (fig. 1). This discovery demonstrates the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons [1]. Galileo also observed whistler-mode waves in the magnetosphere of Ganymede similar to important classes of waves in the Earth magnetosphere: chorus and hiss [2]. Data from the Galileo spacecraft have therefore shown the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons, especially in the light of recent advances in analysis of whistler-mode waves in the Earth magnetosphere and their importance for acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Multicomponent measurements of the fluctuating magnetic and electric fields are needed for localization and characterization of source regions of these waves. Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) experiment will be implemented on the JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) spacecraft. RPWI is a highly integrated instrument package that provides a comprehensive set of plasma and fields measurements. Proposed measurement modes for the low frequency receiver subsystem of RPWI include onboard processing which will be suitable for analysis of whistler-mode waves: (1) Polarization and propagation analysis based on phase relations to identify wave modes and propagation directions (2) Poynting vector to determine source regions (3) Detailed frequency-time structure, polarization, wave vector directions to identify linear or nonlinear source mechanisms

  5. Flow profile measurement with multi-Mach probes on the HIST spherical torus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Nishioka, T.; Ando, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2008-11-01

    Role of plasma flow during MHD relaxation and magnetic reconnection processes is still underlying physics. The HIST spherical torus can generate various spherical torus (ST) configurations by changing the external toroidal magnetic field. Especially, the flipped ST (F-ST) configuration has been for the first time found in the HIST device [1]. In the present study, plasma flow measurements were performed by multi-Mach probes in the ST and the F-ST configurations. In addition, the measured plasma flow was compared with that evaluated by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) system and plasma images measured by a high-speed camera. As the result, it was shown that the toroidal plasma flow (˜ 20 km/s) at the location far from the plasma gun was clearly reversed after the transition from the ST to the F-ST. However, the direction of the toroidal flow was not changed near the plasma gun. Therefore, it can be considered that there are flipped and non-reversal regions in the plasma. The result agrees well with a magnetic configuration predicted by magnetic field measurements. The plasma images measured by the high-speed camera also indicated that a helically twisted structure appeared from the gun region, and it localized at the edge region. [1] M. Nagata et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, pp. 225001-225004 (2003).

  6. Evidence for a distant ( 8700 R sub J) Jovian magnetotail: Voyager 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Desch, M. D.; Klein, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    A correlative survey of magnetometer (MAG) and Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) 1.2 kHz continuum radiation measurements from Voyager 2 provide evidence for at least eight distant Jovian magnetotail sightings occurring about once a month over the first 2/3 of 1981 at distances of approximately 5,000 to 9,000 R sub J. The occurrences of these events are in good agreement with prior Plasma Wave Science and Plasma Science identifications. Observations of these distant magnetotail, or tail filament, encounters appear most prevalent in both MAC and PRA data sets when the spacecraft was closest to the Jupiter-Sun axis at approximately 6,500 R sub J from the planet; the PRA events are also most intense during those times. A specific tail encounter occurring in mid-February 1981 is analyzed and shown to possess a remarkably symmetric magnetic field signature and to have a bipolar field structure in the central region. The bipolarity is characteristic of most of the eight events.

  7. Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Stallard, Tom; Miller, Steve; Melin, Henrik; Lystrup, Makenzie; Cowley, Stan W H; Bunce, Emma J; Achilleos, Nicholas; Dougherty, Michele

    2008-06-19

    Planetary aurorae are formed by energetic charged particles streaming along the planet's magnetic field lines into the upper atmosphere from the surrounding space environment. Earth's main auroral oval is formed through interactions with the solar wind, whereas that at Jupiter is formed through interactions with plasma from the moon Io inside its magnetic field (although other processes form aurorae at both planets). At Saturn, only the main auroral oval has previously been observed and there remains much debate over its origin. Here we report the discovery of a secondary oval at Saturn that is approximately 25 per cent as bright as the main oval, and we show this to be caused by interaction with the middle magnetosphere around the planet. This is a weak equivalent of Jupiter's main oval, its relative dimness being due to the lack of as large a source of ions as Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. This result suggests that differences seen in the auroral emissions from Saturn and Jupiter are due to scaling differences in the conditions at each of these two planets, whereas the underlying formation processes are the same. PMID:18563160

  8. Overview of results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Brower, D.; Bush, C.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Carter, M.; Caughman, J.; Chang, C.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Efthimion, P.; Ejiri, A.; Ershov, N.; Evans, T.; Feibush, E.; Fenstermacher, M.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Funaba, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grisham, L.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Hosea, J.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Idehara, T.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ishida, A.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Ji, H.; Jung, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kawamori, E.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kimura, H.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Krstic, P.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mitarai, O.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, S.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nagayama, Y.; Nelson, B.; Nguyen, X.; Nishino, N.; Nishiura, M.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Pacella, D.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redd, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scott, S.; Shaing, K.; Sharpe, P.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, S.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Strait, T.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, R.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Ticos, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Turrnbull, A.; Tynan, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Utergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Welander, A.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Xu, X.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zweben, S.

    2009-10-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high ? operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of high harmonic fast-waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance li ~ 0.4 with strong shaping (? ~ 2.7, ? ~ 0.8) with ?N approaching the with-wall ?-limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction fNI ~ 71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfvénic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfvénic. Linear toroidal Alfvén eigenmode thresholds and appreciable fast ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared with theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is an important result for ITER. Resistive wall mode/resonant field amplification feedback combined with n = 3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with ? above the no-wall limit. Other highlights are results of lithium coating experiments, momentum confinement studies, scrape-off layer width scaling, demonstration of divertor heat load mitigation in strongly shaped plasmas and coupling of coaxial helicity injection plasmas to ohmic heating ramp-up. These results advance the ST towards next step fusion energy devices such as NHTX and ST-CTF.

  9. Overview of results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Biewer, T.M.; Bigelow, Tim S; Bush, C.E.; Canik, John; Carter, Mark Dwain; Caughman, John B; Hillis, D. L.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Maingi, Rajesh; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Rasmussen, David A; Ryan, Philip Michael; Sontag, Aaron C; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Wilgen, John B

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high beta operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of high harmonic fast-waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance l(i) similar to 0.4 with strong shaping (kappa similar to 2.7, delta similar to 0.8) with beta(N) approaching the with-wall beta-limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction f(NI) similar to 71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfvenic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfvenic. Linear toroidal Alfven eigenmode thresholds and appreciable fast ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared with theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is an important result for ITER. Resistive wall mode/resonant field amplification feedback combined with n = 3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with beta above the no-wall limit. Other highlights are results of lithium coating experiments, momentum confinement studies, scrape-off layer width scaling, demonstration of divertor heat load mitigation in strongly shaped plasmas and coupling of coaxial helicity injection plasmas to ohmic heating ramp-up. These results advance the ST towards next step fusion energy devices such as NHTX and ST-CTF.

  10. Clouds, aerosols, and photochemistry in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Strobel, D. F.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment is made of the development status of concepts for cloud and aerosol compositions, vertical and horizontal distributions, and microphysical properties, in the Jovian upper troposphere and stratosphere. Attention is given to several key photochemical species' relationships to aerosol formation as well as their transport process implications, treating photochemistry in the context of comparative planetology and noting differences and similarities among the outer planet atmospheres; since this approach emphasizes observational data, a variegated assortment of ground-based and spacecraft observations is assembled. Current views on the tropospheric distribution of clouds are challenged, and a rationale is presented for alternative accounts.

  11. Limb-darkening and the structure of the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    By observing the transit of various cloud features across the Jovian disk, limb-darkening curves were constructed for three regions in the 4.6 to 5.1 mu cm band. Several models currently employed in describing the radiative or dynamical properties of planetary atmospheres are here examined to understand their implications for limb-darkening. The statistical problem of fitting these models to the observed data is reviewed and methods for applying multiple regression analysis are discussed. Analysis of variance techniques are introduced to test the viability of a given physical process as a cause of the observed limb-darkening.

  12. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  13. Pioneer 11 observations of energetic particles in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Allen, J. A.; Randall, B. A.; Baker, D. N.; Goertz, C. K.; Sentman, D. D.; Thomsen, M. F.; Flindt, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of energetic electrons and protons observed with the University of Iowa instrument on Pioneer 11. A graph shows absolute, spin-averaged unidirectional intensities of electrons and protons as a function of time during traversal of the central magnetosphere. Another graph shows the effects of the Jovian satellites Io and Amalthea on particle intensities. It is pointed out that a full analysis of satellite effects is the most promising technique for understanding the physical dynamics of the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  14. First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S P; Canik, J M; Maingi, R; Bell, R; Gates, d; Goldston, R; Hawryluk, R; Le Blanc, B P; Menard, J; Sontag, A C; Sabbagh, S

    2010-07-15

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________

  15. Palatine torus in the Greenlandic Norse.

    PubMed

    Halffman, C M; Scott, G R; Pedersen, P O

    1992-06-01

    Physical anthropologists have long been intrigued by the distinctive oral tori expressed by the medieval Norse populations of Iceland and Greenland. To assess the temporal and spatial variation of one form of oral tori, palatine torus, observations were made on all available Greenlandic Norse skeletons, as well as on samples of medieval Icelanders and Norwegians. In terms of temporal variation, 12th to 14th century (medieval) Greenlanders from the Eastern and Western settlements exhibited higher frequencies and more pronounced expressions of palatine torus compared with early 11th century Greenlanders. The early Greenlandic sample closely approximated the medieval Icelandic and Norwegian samples for total torus frequency, although the Norwegians exhibited the trait to a less pronounced degree. As degree of expression is the most distinctive aspect of torus variation among the Norse, some combination of environmental factors, including increased masticatory stress and chronic undernutrition, probably accounts for most of the difference between settlement period and medieval Greenlanders. Although palatine torus may be hereditary in part, environmental factors play a significant role in the expression of this trait. PMID:1605314

  16. Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope determination of the Io torus electron temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. T.; Bednar, C. J.; Durrance, S. T.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcgrath, M. A.; Moos, H. W.; Strobel, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur ion emissions from the Io plasma torus observed by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) in 1990 December have been analyzed to determine the effective temperature of the exciting electrons. Spectra were obtained with a long slit that extended from 3.1 to 8.7 Jupiter radii R(sub J) on both dawn and dusk torus ansae. The average temperature of electrons exciting S(2+) emissions from the dawn ansa is (4800 +/- 2400) K lower than on the dusk ansa, a dawn-dusk asymmetry comparable in both sign and magnitude to that measured by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) experiment. Emissions from S(2+) ions are generated in a source region with electron temperatures in the range 32,000-56,000 K; S(3+) ion emissions are excited by electrons that average 20,000-40,000 K hotter. This distinct difference suggests that the S(3+) emission source region is spatially separate from the S(2+) source region. Estimated relative aperture filling factors suggest that the S(3+) emissions originate from a region more extended out of the centrifugal plane than the S(2+) emissions.

  17. Engineering design of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; J. Spitzer, J. Chrzanowski; et al

    2000-05-11

    NSTX is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at exploring the physics of the ``spherical torus'' (ST) configuration, which is predicted to exhibit more efficient magnetic confinement than conventional large aspect ratio tokamaks, amongst other advantages. The low aspect ratio (R/a, typically 1.2--2 in ST designs compared to 4--5 in conventional tokamaks) decreases the available cross sectional area through the center of the torus for toroidal and poloidal field coil conductors, vacuum vessel wall, plasma facing components, etc., thus increasing the need to deploy all components within the so-called ``center stack'' in the most efficient manner possible. Several unique design features have been developed for the NSTX center stack, and careful engineering of this region of the machine, utilizing materials up to their engineering allowables, has been key to meeting the desired objectives. The design and construction of the machine has been accomplished in a rapid and cost effective manner thanks to the availability of extensive facilities, a strong experience base from the TFTR era, and good cooperation between institutions.

  18. Performance of a 12-coil superconducting bumpy torus magnet facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Final shakedown tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The facility is now ready for use as a plasma physics research facility. A maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis of 3.23 teslas was held for a period of more than sixty minutes without a coil normalcy. The design field was 3.00 teslas. The steady-state liquid helium boil-off rate was 87 liters per hour of liquid helium without the coils charged. The coil array was stable when subjected to an impulsive loading, even with the magnets fully charged. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 teslas, the system was driven normal without damage.

  19. Plasma and magnetospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of programs for statistical analysis of boundary and structure type files based on surveys of Dynamics Explorere data. Programs being used for handling data on plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere, the structure of the plasmasphere, and the heavy ion torus may be useful for determining statistics on the warm plasma cloak and the auroral ion fountain. Data analysis and modeling; spacecraft sheath effects; and laboratory plasma flow studies are discussed.

  20. Fine-scale structure of the Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.

    1983-01-01

    During the outbound leg of its passage through the Jovian magnetosphere in the Voyager 2 spacecraft observed 50 traversals of the magnetotail current sheet during a 10 day period at distances between 30 and 130 R sub j. Analysis of these observations shown that the Jovian tail sheet tends to lie approximately parallel to the ecliptic plane and to oscillate about the tail axis with the 10 hour planetary rotation period. The magnetic structure near and within the current sheet was variable with time and distance from Jupiter, but generally corresponded to one of the following: (1) simple rotation of field across the sheet, with an approximately southward direction in the sheet (generally northward beyond a distance from Jupiter of approximately 84 R sub j; (2) field having a southward component in a broad region near the sheet, but northward in a restricted region at the sheet itself; or (3) a clear bipolar variation of the sheet normal field component as the sheet was crossed (i.e., the field became northward and then southward, or vice versa, in crossing the sheet).

  1. Jovian Ammonia Cloud Identification and Color Analyses from Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, N.; Voelz, D.; Simon-Miller, A.

    2008-09-01

    Narrowband visible and near-infrared images of Jupiter were acquired at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope from 26-27 June and 04 July 2007 with the New Mexico State University Acousto-optic Imaging Camera (NAIC) to study atmospheric spectral characteristics. Over 3000 images were collected and map-projected, yielding spectral image cubes that span 480-900 nm with 2 nm resolution (1 nm resolution after deconvolution) and spatially cover 85% of jovian longitudes. We report the detection of spectrally identifiable ammonia clouds (SIACs) through the ammonia absorption features centered at 647 nm and 790 nm, which may be the first identification of SIACs using narrowband visible imaging. The observed SIACs predominately reside in the range of 1° to 4° N latitude (planetographic) and are also found in the turbulent wake region northwest of the Great Red Spot (GRS), which is in agreement with the analysis of Galileo NIMS observations by Baines et al. (2002, Icarus 159, 74-94). SIAC size and spatial distributions and temporal evolution are discussed. Additionally, color analyses were conducted for a jovian chromophore investigation using principle component analysis and nonnegative matrix factorization. Results are compared to a color analysis of HST observations from May-July 2008 of the passage of the GRS and Oval BA (Simon-Miller, this meeting). This work is funded by NSF award AST0628919.

  2. SED Signatures of Jovian Planets Around White Dwarf Stars

    E-print Network

    R. Ignace

    2001-06-28

    The problem of detecting Jovian-sized planets orbiting White Dwarf stars is considered. Significant IR excesses result from warm Jupiters orbiting a White Dwarf of $T_{\\rm eff}=10000$ K at a distance of $\\sim 10^3$ White Dwarf radii (corresponding to $\\sim 10^2$ Jupiter radii or a few tenths of an AU) with an orbital period of $\\sim 100$ days. Such a planet will have a 10 micron flux density at its Wien peak that is comparable to the emission of the White Dwarf at that wavelength. Although the White Dwarf is much hotter than the planet, the planet will have peak brightness at the IR, well into the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the White Dwarf, plus Jovians are about 10 times larger than White Dwarfs, so there is a substantial gain in the planet to star brightness contrast as compared to planets around Main Sequence stars. In the solar neighborhood, there are 51 White Dwarf stars within 13 pc of the Sun. At 10 pc, the IR flux density of ``warm'' Jupiters (a few hundred Kelvin) will fall in the range 10--100 micro-Jansky which should be observable with {\\it SIRTF}.

  3. Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids: An Excess of Slow Rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We discuss the rotation properties of Jovian Trojan asteroids less than 30 km in diameter. Approximately half of the objects discussed here were studied using densely sampled lightcurves (French et al. 2015a, b); Stephens et al. 2015), and the other half were sparse lightcurves obtained by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Waszcazk et al. 2015). A significant fraction (~40%) of the objects in the ground-based sample rotate slowly (P > 24h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner and Stephens 2011). The PTF data show a similar excess of slow rotators. Only 5 objects in the combined data set have rotation periods of less than six hours. Three of these fast rotators were contained in the data set of French et al. these three had a geometric mean rotation period of 5.29 hours. A prolate spheroid held together by gravity rotating with this period would have a critical density of 0.43 gm/cm3, a density similar to that of comets (Lamy et al. 2004). Harris et al. (2012) and Warner et al. (2011) have explored the possible effects on asteroid rotational statistics with the results from wide-field surveys. We will examine Trojan rotation statistics with and without the results from the PTF.

  4. A 3D Convective Model for the Jovian Wind Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we proposed that Jupiter's alternating wind bands are a manifestation of the global interaction between rotation and convection in a shallow layer. The model, however, was obtained from linearization of the 2D equations of motions. At HKUST/Hong Kong, we are now trying to study this problem by rigorous numerical simulation. Using a three-dimensional spectral numerical code, we compute models for the outermost layer of Jupiter's convective envelope. Two cases have been studied. In one the atmospheric pressure varies from 1 to 23 bar, and in the other from 1 to 115 bar. The physical parameters (internal energy flux, rotation rate) are chosen to be close to those expected, but solar heating, chemistry, as well as dynamical influences from deeper layers are ignored. The models generate wind field patterns that contain alternating jet streams with resemblance to the Jovian bands. Instantaneous values of the mean zonal flow at the equator reach 80 m/sec. Yet the mean meridional flows are less than 1% of such value. The meridional temperature profile at the cloud top level also shows a double hump structure of a few degrees (as observed) in the subtropics. Though there is not complete quantitative agreement (caused perhaps by neglected effects like solar radiation), these models demonstrate, in principle, the feasibility of generating a Jovian type wind pattern through the interaction of fast rotation and convection in a thin shell.

  5. Ducks on the torus: existence and uniqueness

    E-print Network

    Schurov, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    We show that there exist generic slow-fast systems with only one (time-scaling) parameter on the two-torus, which have canard cycles for arbitrary small values of this parameter. This is in drastic contrast with the planar case, where canards usually occur in two-parametric families. Here we treat systems with a convex slow curve. In this case there is a set of parameter values accumulating to zero for which the system has exactly one attracting and one repelling canard cycle. The basin of the attracting cycle is almost the whole torus.

  6. IAEACN69/ICP/01(R)EX4/1(R) EXPLORATION OF SPHERICAL TORUS PHYSICS IN THE NSTX DEVICE*

    E-print Network

    IAEA­CN­69/ICP/01(R)­EX4/1(R) 1 EXPLORATION OF SPHERICAL TORUS PHYSICS IN THE NSTX DEVICE* M. Ono. Gates, R. Hatcher, R. Majeski, T. Jarboe 2 , S. Jardin, D. Johnson, M. Kalish, R. Kaita, C. Kessel, H. Williams, J.R. Wilson, and the NSTX Team. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA 1

  7. The Composition and Physical Structure of the Io Torus and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Generally speaking the goal of the research was to provide detailed spectral analysis of a Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope EUV/FUV spectrum of the Io plasma torus. The specific research tasks outlined to achieve this goal were: Line identifications and brightnesses. Verify line identifications with independent data sets. Simple physical modeling to derive ne, ni, Te. Determine neutral source rates. Determine implications of minor species abundances for Io processes. Determine spatial structure from HUT data.

  8. Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

    1990-05-01

    The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

  9. Energetic Ion Behavior in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-06-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral beam injection (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Typical NSTX parameters are R(sub)0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(sub)p less than or equal to 1.5 MA, B(sub)T = 0.3-0.6 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral beam sources have injected P(sub)NB less than or equal to 6.2 MW at energies E(sub)b less than or equal to 100 keV. HHFW heating has delivered up to P(sub)RF approximately equal to 6 MW to deuterium and helium plasmas.

  10. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder

    2010-06-04

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  11. An Unusual Rotationally Modulated Attenuation Band in the Jovian Hectometric Radio Emission Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Persoon, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A well-defined attenuation band modulated by the rotation of Jupiter has been found in the spectrum of Jovian hectometric radiation using data from the Galileo plasma wave instrument. The center frequency of this band usually occurs in the frequency range from about 1 to 3 MHz and the bandwidth is about 10 to 20 percent. The center frequency varies systematically with the rotation of Jupiter and has two peaks per rotation, the first at a system III longitude of about 50 deg, and the second at about 185 deg. It is now believed that the attenuation occurs as the ray path from a high-latitude cyclotron maser source passes approximately parallel to the magnetic field near the northern or southern edges of the Io L-shell. The peak at 50 deg system 3 longitude is attributed to radiation from a southern hemisphere source and the peak at 185 deg is from a northern hemisphere source. The attenuation is thought to be caused by coherent scattering or shallow angle reflection from field-aligned density irregularities near the Io L-shell. The narrow bandwidth indicates that the density irregularities are confined to a very narrow range of L values (Delta L = 0.2 to 0.4) near the Io L-shell.

  12. Further observational support for the limited-latitude magnetodisc model of the outer Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Goertz, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    A distinction is made between the solar-wind-influenced limited-latitude magnetodisk and magnetic anomaly models of the outer Jovian magnetosphere, and an observational comparison of the two models is presented based on Pioneer and Voyager measurements. Predictions of the two models concerning the location of the current sheet as a function of Jovigraphic latitude, System III longitude and radial distance are contrasted, and it is shown that both models can satisfactorily explain the merging of the current sheep crossings by Voyager 1 and 2. Variations in the energetic particle intensities observed on the outbound pass of Voyager 1 and 2 are observed to correspond to scale heights for energetic particle latitudinal confinement consistent with MHD calculations and Pioneer 10 and Voyager magnetic observations only when the scale heights are calculated on the basis of the limited-latitude magnetodisk model. It is thus suggested that the solar wind must have a greater influence on magnetosphere structure than internal longitudinal plasma asymmetry.

  13. A convected kappa distribution model for hot ions in the Jovian magnetodisc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, M.; Mauk, B. H.; Keath, E. P.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Hot ion angular anisotropies measured by the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument during the Voyager 2 encounter with the Jovian dayside outer magnetosphere (60-30 RJ) have been fitted to a 2 species convected kappa distribution function using a nonlinear least squares technique. The resulting parameters are well constrained by the data. The heavy ion species was assumed to be either sulfur or oxygen of unknown charge. The light species was assumed to be protons. The bulk flow speeds deduced from the model were found, contrary to some theories, to increase with increasing radial distance from Jupiter within the radial region addressed, remaining a substantial fraction (0.6) of the rigid corotation speed. Agreement with the averaged Voyager Plasma Science results was obtained near 30 RJ. The core Maxwellian temperature of the heavy ion distribution functions (30-100 keV) increased with increasing radial distance, following the trend anticipated from the corotation pickup of heavy ions. The proton temperature (20 keV) remained nearly constant.

  14. Modeling Jovian hectometric attenuation lanes during the Cassini flyby of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Masafumi; Lecacheux, Alain; Moncuquet, Michel; Bagenal, Fran; Higgins, Charles A.; Imai, Kazumasa; Thieman, James R.

    2015-03-01

    The Jupiter encounter by the Cassini spacecraft in late 2000 and early 2001 unveiled persistent properties of Jupiter's hectometric (HOM) radiation originating along auroral magnetic field lines in the polar regions. One of the unique properties of the HOM dynamic spectrum, known as attenuation lanes, appears as rotationally modulated, well-defined regions of lowered intensity, flanked by regions of enhancement. These lanes seem to be the result of refraction of radio waves in a high-density medium-either caused by Case (i) enhanced density in the magnetic L-shell connected to Io's orbit or Case (ii) in the Io plasma torus itself or both. In this paper, we investigate the HOM ray paths of 0.5-3.0 MHz emissions with various cone half-angles in the continuous radio longitudes generating at the magnetic L-value equal to 30. We use bi-kappa particle distributions to derive diffusive equilibrium distributions of density in the Io plasma torus. The enhanced density irregularities along the Io flux shell "ribbon" region can be described with a Gaussian density distribution of a maximum density n0 and breadth (half-width of the distribution across the flux shell) ?. As a result, we found that the interpretation of Case (i) can be accounted for by the attenuation lanes which appear for all cone half-angles, and the reasonable flux shell density n0 is, on top of specific latitude-dependent density from the diffusive equilibrium model, estimated as 100 cm-3 with the half-width ? = 5.0 Io radii.

  15. Indirect evidences for a gas/dust torus along the Phobos orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, E.M.; Lundin, R.; Pissarenko, N.F.; Barabash, S.V.; Zakharov, A.V.; Koskinen, H.; Schwingenshuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye.G. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsink Austrian Space Research Institute, Graz Institute of Terrestrial Magnetizm, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Moscow )

    1990-05-01

    Observations from the PHOBOS-2 space-craft of plasma and magnetic field effects in the solar wind near Mars suggest that a neutral gas (dust )torus/ring resides along the orbit of the Martian satellite Phobos. Magnetic cavities (strong decreases of the magnetic field strength) coincident with strong plasma density increases (up to a factor of ten) are observed during the first elliptic transition orbits when the spacecraft approached the Phobos orbits. The characteristic transverse dimension of the structures along the spacecraft orbit is in the range 100-1,000 km. Torus effects also have characteristics similar to the formation of a bow shock with increases of plasma density and ion temperature, and a characteristic deflection of the ion flow. This suggests a rather strong interaction between the solar wind plasma and plasma near Phobos orbit. The interaction appears quite similar to that of the solar wind with a comet. The outgassing of matter from Phobos (and Deimos) is also suggested by plasma observations in the wake/tail of the Martian satellites. Altogether, the authors observations imply that a neutral gas cloud - possibly also associated with a faint dust ring - exists along the Phobos orbit.

  16. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1993-04-03

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement has been improved by reduction of magnetic field errors with correction coils in the primary circuit and reduction of impurities using boronization; high densities have been achieved with hydrogen pellet injection. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5--7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occuring during strong MHD relaxation. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. Initial profile control experiments have begun using insertable biased probes and plasma guns. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer, 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  17. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  18. Astrometry of the inner Jovian moons Thebe, Amalthea, and Metis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, I.

    2008-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the astrometric observations of the inner Jovian satellites Thebe, Amalthea, and Metis obtained with 2-m Zeiss RCC Telescope located at Peak Terskol Observatory. The 268 inter-satellite positions were gathered during the five-year period between 1998 and 2002. Comparison of the observed positions with those of JPL JUP203 ephemerides demonstrates high quality of the collected observations. The RMS errors of the differences between the observed and the theoretical positions are about 0.10, 0.15, and 0.30 arcsec for Amalthea, Thebe, and Metis, respectively. Thebe and Amalthea's mean residuals are about zero. The dispertion of the mean residuals derived from the data sets obtained in the different years does not exceed 0.04 arcsec. The brief description of the technique for the scattered light subtraction may be useful as an experience of the image processing of a faint object near the bright planet.

  19. Nonequilibrium viscous flow over Jovian entry probes at high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Szema, K. Y.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    The viscous chemical nonequilibrium flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated at high altitudes using two different methods. First method is only for the stagnation region and integrates the full Navier-Stokes equations from the body surface to the freestream. The second method uses viscous shock layer equations between the body surface and the shock. Due to low Reynolds numbers, both methods use surface slip boundary conditions and the second method also uses shock slip boundary conditions. The results of the two methods are compared at the stagnation point. It is found that the entire shock layer is under chemical nonequilibrium at higher altitudes and that the slip boundary conditions are important at these altitudes.

  20. Nonequilibrium radiative heating of a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer on radiative and convective heating of a Jovian entry body is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous, and in chemical equilibrium. The chemical species considered for the collisional deactivation processes are H2, H, H+. The NLTE radiative transfer equations are derived for multilevel energy transitions. The rotational and vibrational energy modes are assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that higher-level energy transitions have little influence on the overall NLTE results. The NLTE results, however, are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distributions in the shock layer. The convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced significantly because of the NLTE conditions; the reduction in convective heating, however, is relatively small. The influence of NLTE is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes.

  1. Why Is a Titan-generated Nitrogen Torus Not Observed In Saturn's Magnetosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Johnson, R. E.; Rymer, A. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Coates, A.; Lewis, G.; Young, D. T.

    2012-10-01

    Prior to Cassini's arrival at Saturn, Titan-generated nitrogen ions were thought to dominate heavy plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere. Therefore, the presence of a Titan nitrogen torus was anticipated. However, it is now known water-group ions dominate Saturn's heavy ion magnetospheric plasma. While nitrogen ions have been detected beyond the orbit of Rhea, these ions appear to be primarily originating from the Enceladus plumes with little nitrogen plasma detected in the magnetosphere near Titan's orbit. In fact, pick-up oxygen ions from Enceladus are much more abundant than nitrogen in Titan’s orbit. These results appear inconsistent with the expectation that Titan's dense relatively unprotected atmosphere should provide a significant source of heavy particles to Saturn's magnetosphere. This inconsistency suggests that the plasma environment at Titan's orbit is much more complex than originally anticipated. In this talk, we expand on our previous research that categorizes the plasma environments near Titan to include all locations along Titan's orbit. Using these categories, we develop characteristic plasma spectra of each type of environment, update ionization lifetimes for each region and apply these results in a 3D Monte Carlo model to more accurately examine the fate of nitrogen and methane escaping Titan's atmosphere to support the possible presence of a Titan torus despite the lack of observations. We also present preliminary Cassini data analysis that is focused on regions where such a torus could be detected. This work is supported by the NASA Cassini Data Analysis Program and NASA JPL contract 1243218 for Cassini MIMI and CAPS investigation.

  2. Conjecture on the Appearance of the Galileo Probe's Entry and Descent in to the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Arnold, J. O.; Green, M.; Witkowski, A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives the technical background for depiction of the Galileo Probes appearance during jovian entry. A clip from the planetarium show "Dark Universe" will be shown during the opening. session.

  3. Jovian electron propagation in three dimensions of the heliosphere: The Ulysses investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Smith, D. A.; Zhang, M.

    1993-01-01

    We report investigations of Jovian relativistic electrons in the interplanetary medium that provide new insights into both the physical processes by which the Jovian magnetosphere releases its trapped, relativistic electrons into the interplanetary medium, and the modes of their interplanetary propagation. These studies were dependent on the unique postencounter trajectory for Ulysses. The spacecraft remained close to the radial distance of Jupiter (approximately 5.2 AU) and moved southward on the duskside by only approximately 12 deg in heliographic latitude and less than 8 deg in the heliographic azimuth relative to Jupiter for the period of approximately 100 deg days of this study. During this period the nominal Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field with its alternating polarities sector structure established direct magnetic field line connections frequently between Jupiter and the spacecraft. These unique conditions made it possible to investigate in detail, for approximately four solar rotations, both the Jovian electron burst phenomenon and the continuous, diffusive interplanetary propagation of Jovian electrons.

  4. Low Energy Particle Oscillations and Correlations with Hydromagnetic Waves in the Jovian Magnetosphere: Ulysses Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupp, N.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    We report on measurements of energetic particle modulations observed by the HI-SCALE instrument aboard the Ulysses Spacecraft that were associated with the only hydromagnetic wave event measured inside the Jovian magnetosphere by the Ulysses magnetometer investigation.

  5. PROBING THE LARGE-SCALE TOPOLOGY OF THE HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD USING JOVIAN ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, M. J.; Horbury, T. S.; Arge, C. N.

    2010-05-10

    Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a point source of near-relativistic electrons within the heliosphere. In this study, three solar cycles of Jovian electron data in near-Earth space are examined. Jovian electron intensity is found to peak for an ideal Parker spiral connection, but with considerable spread about this point. Assuming the peak in Jovian electron counts indicates the best magnetic connection to Jupiter, we find a clear trend for fast and slow solar wind to be over- and under-wound with respect to the ideal Parker spiral, respectively. This is shown to be well explained in terms of solar wind stream interactions. Thus, modulation of Jovian electrons by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) may primarily be the result of changing magnetic connection, rather than CIRs acting as barriers to cross-field diffusion. By using Jovian electrons to remote sensing magnetic connectivity with Jupiter's magnetosphere, we suggest that they provide a means to validate solar wind models between 1 and 5 AU, even when suitable in situ solar wind observations are not available. Furthermore, using Jovian electron observations as probes of heliospheric magnetic topology could provide insight into heliospheric magnetic field braiding and turbulence, as well as any systematic under-winding of the heliospheric magnetic field relative to the Parker spiral from footpoint motion of the magnetic field.

  6. Outer satellite atmospheres: Their extended nature and planetary interactions. [sodium cloud of Io, hydrogen torus of Titan, and comet atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Highly developed numerical models are applied to interpret extended-atmosphere data for the sodium cloud of Io and the hydrogen torus of Titan. Solar radiation pressure was identified and verified by model calculations as the mechanism to explain two different east-west asymmetries observed in the sodium cloud. Analysis of sodium line profile data, suggesting that a Jupiter magnetospheric wind may be responsible for high speed sodium atoms emitted from Io, and preliminary modeling of the interaction of the Io plasma torus and Io's sodium cloud are also reported. Models presented for Titan's hydrogen torus are consistent both with the recent Pioneer 11 measurements and earlier Earth-orbiting observations by the Copernicus satellite. Progress is reported on developing models for extended gas and dust atmospheres of comets.

  7. Advanced tokamak reactors based on the spherical torus (ATR/ST). Preliminary design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Copenhaver, C.; Schnurr, N.M.; Engelhardt, A.G.; Seed, T.J.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary design results relating to an advanced magnetic fusion reactor concept based on the high-beta, low-aspect-ratio, spherical-torus tokamak are summarized. The concept includes resistive (demountable) toroidal-field coils, magnetic-divertor impurity control, oscillating-field current drive, and a flowing liquid-metal breeding blanket. Results of parametric tradeoff studies, plasma engineering modeling, fusion-power-core mechanical design, neutronics analyses, and blanket thermalhydraulics studies are described. The approach, models, and interim results described here provide a basis for a more detailed design. Key issues quantified for the spherical-torus reactor center on the need for an efficient drive for this high-current (approx.40 MA) device as well as the economic desirability to increase the net electrical power from the nominal 500-MWe(net) value adopted for the baseline system. Although a direct extension of present tokamak scaling, the stablity and transport of this high-beta (approx.0.3) plasma is a key unknown that is resoluble only by experiment. The spherical torus generally provides a route to improved tokamak reactors as measured by considerably simplified coil technology in a configuration that allows a realistic magnetic divertor design, both leading to increased mass power density and reduced cost.

  8. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  9. Experimental demonstration of compact torus compression and acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hartman, C.W.; McLean, H.S.; Molvik, A.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Tests of compact torus (CT) compression on the RACE device (Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 61}, 2843 (1988)) have successfully demonstrated stable compression by a factor of 2 in radius, field amplification by factors of 2--3 to 20 kG, and compressed densities exceeding 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}. The results are in good agreement with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the CT dynamics. The CT is formed between a pair of coaxial conical conductors that serve as both a flux conserver for stable, symmetric formation and as electrodes for the compression and acceleration phases. The CT is compressed by {ital J}{times}{ital B} forces (poloidal current, toroidal field) when a 120 kV, 260 kJ capacitor bank is discharged across the electrodes. The CT reaches two-fold compression to a radius of 8 cm and a length of 20--30 cm near the time of peak current, 10 {mu}sec (many Alfven times) after the accelerator fire time, and is subsequently accelerated in a 150 cm straight coaxial section to velocities in the range 1.5--6.5{times}10{sup 7} cm/sec. A new set of acceleration/focusing electrodes 740 cm in length are projected to give an additional factor of 3 in radial compression with final velocities of 1--3{times}10{sup 8} cm/sec (similar to previously achieved on RACE) and incident power densities of a few {times}10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}. Compact torus accelerators scaled to multimegajoules have the potential to achieve unprecedented plasma velocities and power densities with many applications in high-energy-density physics.

  10. TORUS: Radiation transport and hydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Tim

    2014-04-01

    TORUS is a flexible radiation transfer and radiation-hydrodynamics code. The code has a basic infrastructure that includes the AMR mesh scheme that is used by several physics modules including atomic line transfer in a moving medium, molecular line transfer, photoionization, radiation hydrodynamics and radiative equilibrium. TORUS is useful for a variety of problems, including magnetospheric accretion onto T Tauri stars, spiral nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars, discs around Herbig AeBe stars, structured winds of O supergiants and Raman-scattered line formation in symbiotic binaries, and dust emission and molecular line formation in star forming clusters. The code is written in Fortran 2003 and is compiled using a standard Gnu makefile. The code is parallelized using both MPI and OMP, and can use these parallel sections either separately or in a hybrid mode.

  11. Q torus in N=2 supersymmetric QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bolognesi, S.; Shifman, M.

    2007-12-15

    We construct 'flying saucer' solitons in supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory, which is known to support Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield domain walls with a U(1) gauge field localized on its worldvolume. We demonstrate that this model supports exotic particlelike solitons with the shape of a torus. Q tori, and also similar solitons of higher genera, are obtained by folding the domain wall into an appropriate surface. Nontrivial cycles on the domain wall worldvolume (handles) are stabilized by crossed electric and magnetic fields inside the folded domain wall. Three distinct frameworks are used to prove the existence of these flying saucer solitons and study their properties: the worldvolume description (including the Dirac-Born-Infeld action), the bulk-theory description in the sigma-model limit, and the bulk-theory description in the thin-edge approximation. In the sigma-model framework the Q torus is shown to be related to the Hopf Skyrmion studied previously.

  12. The ''ring killer'' experiment: Electron confinement in the ELMO Bumpy Torus without the influence of hot-electron rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, D.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Cobble, J.A.; Davis, W.A.; Hiroe, S.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Uckan, T.; Jaeger, E.F.; Hankins, O.E.

    1986-11-01

    The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) (Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1975), Vol. II, p. 141) normally has an energetic electron ring in each of its 24 mirror sectors. The original intention of using this hot-electron population was to provide an average local minimum in the magnetic field (through its diamagnetism) to stabilize the simple interchange and flute modes, which otherwise are theoretically inherent in a closed-field-line bumpy torus. To study the confinement properties of a bumpy torus without the influence of hot-electron rings, a water-cooled stainless steel limiter in each mirror sector was extended into the plasma to the ring location; this eliminated the hot-electron ring population. These limiters were aptly named ''ring killers.'' Electron temperature, density, space potential, and plasma fluctuations have been measured during the ring killer experiment and are compared to standard EBT operation. The results of these experiments indicate that the hot-electron rings in EBT do enhance the core plasma properties of EBT and do, in fact, reduce plasma fluctuations; however, these improvements are not large in magnitude. These measurements and recent theoretical models suggest that simple interchange/flute modes are stabilized, or fluctuation levels reduced, well before that condition is obtained for average minimum-B stabilization. Several possible mechanisms for this stabilization are discussed.

  13. Electron confinement in a bumpy torus without the influence of hot-electron rings: ''Ring killer'' experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, D.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Cobble, J.A.; Davis, W.A.; Hiroe, S.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Uckan, T.; Jaeger, E.F.; Hankins, O.E.

    1985-09-01

    The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) (Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (IAEA, Vienna, 1975), Vol. II, p. 141) normally has an energetic electron ring in each of its 24 mirror sectors. The original intention of using this hot-electron population was to provide an average local minimum in the magnetic field (through its diamagnetism) to stabilize the simple interchange and flute modes, which otherwise are theoretically inherent in a closed-field-line bumpy torus. To study the confinement properties of a bumpy torus without the influence of hot-electron rings, a water-cooled stainless steel limiter in each mirror sector was extended into the plasma to the ring location; this eliminated the hot-electron ring population. These limiters were aptly named ''ring killers.'' Electron temperature, density, space potential, and plasma fluctuations have been measured during the ring killer experiment and are compared to standard EBT operation. The results of these experiments indicate that the hot-electron rings in EBT do enhance the core plasma properties of EBT and do, in fact, reduce plasma fluctuations; however, these improvements are not large in magnitude. These measurements and recent theoretical models suggest that simple interchange/flute modes are stabilized, or fluctuation levels reduced, well before that condition is obtained for average minimum-B stabilization.

  14. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.

  15. Transport theory for potato orbits in an axisymmetric torus with finite toroidal flow speed

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2004-01-01

    Transport theory for potato orbits in the region near the magnetic axis in an axisymmetric torus such as tokamaks and spherical tori is extended to the situation where the toroidal flow speed is of the order of the sonic speed as observed in National Spherical Torus Experiment [E. J. Synakowski, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1653 (2003)]. It is found that transport fluxes such as ion radial heat flux, and bootstrap current density are modified by a factor of the order of the square of the toroidal Mach number. The consequences of the orbit squeezing are also presented. The theory is developed for parabolic (in radius r) plasma profiles. A method to apply the results of the theory for the transport modeling is discussed.

  16. Detection of Disruptions in the High-? Spherical Torus NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B P; Menard, J E; Mueller, D; Roquemore, A L; Sabbagh, S A

    2013-01-16

    This paper describes the prediction of disruptions based on diagnostic data in the high-? spherical torus NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40 , 557 (2000)]. The disruptive threshold values on many signals are examined. In some cases, raw diagnostic data can be used as a signal for disruption prediction. In others, the deviations of the plasma data from simple models provides the signal used to determine the proximity to disruption. However, no single signal and threshold value can form the basis for disruption prediction in NSTX; thresholds that produce an acceptable false positive rate have too large a missed or late warning rate, while combinations that produce an acceptable rate of missed or late warnings have an unacceptable false positive rate. To solve this problem, a novel means of combining multiple threshold tests has been developed. After being properly tuned, this algorithm can produce a false positive rate of 2.8%, with a late warning rate of 3.7% when applied to a database of ~2000 disruptions collected from three run campaigns. Furthermore, many of these false positives are triggered by near-disruptive MHD events that might indeed be disruptive in larger plasmas with more stored energy. However, the algorithm is less efficient at detecting the MHD event that prompts the disruption process.

  17. Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence Simulations of the NSTX Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. Luc; Hammett, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D.; Kaye, S.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R.; Leblanc, B.; Yuh, H.; Smith, D.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Belli, E. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Kinsey, J.

    2010-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment provides a unique environment for the study of electron turbulence and transport. We present nonlinear GYROootnotetextJ. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003). simulations of microturbulence in NSTX discharges and make comparisons between numerically simulated and experimentally measured levels of electron-scale turbulence. In particular we examine the effects of magnetic shear, ExB shearing and collisionality on turbulence driven by the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode, while paying attention to the roles of electromagnetic fluctuations, kinetic ions and realistic experimental NSTX parameters. We also investigate the interplay between electron turbulence and transport using the TGYROootnotetextJ. Candy et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 060704 (2009). simulation suite. This work is supported by the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and used the resources of the National Center for Computational Sciences at ORNL, under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  18. The Madison Symmetric Torus - Heavy Ion Beam Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, D. R.; Connor, K. A.; Lei, J.; Schoch, P. M.; Shah, U.

    2000-10-01

    The Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) - Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) is operational and acquiring data. The signal-to-noise ratio of acquired data is sufficient during portions of most plasma discharges, but prohibitively low during sawtooth crashes. Obtaining data during saw teeth and improving all measurements requires increased ion current and lower analyzer noise; detected noise is due primarily to UV. Another challenge is an incompletely defined equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic field. The fields play a significant role in determining ion trajectories and are thus crucial to all measurements. Detection of secondary signal for sets of plasma conditions may be used to refine predicted equilibrium fields by iteratively comparing elements of calculated beam trajectories with estimates from modeling codes. Measurements also show what appears to be beam modulation due to magnetic modes. Correlation of these measurements with those made by coils at the wall will help to extend the knowledge of fluctuating fields within a reversed field pinch (RFP). Broadband magnetic fluctuations are much larger on MST than those encountered in previous HIBP applications. We thus have an excellent opportunity to develop the HIBP as a magnetic diagnostic and provide information on the equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields, which is of significant interest to the RFP community.

  19. Recent Results from the HIST Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, M.; Goto, K.; Gu, P.; Yagi, N.; Yuasa, N.; Fukumoto, N.; Uyama, T.

    1998-11-01

    In the HIST (R=0.30 m, a =0.24 m, A=1.25) spherical torus (ST) experiments, the internal magnetic configurations and MHD activity of helicity-driven ST plasmas with peak toroidal plasma currents of about 100 kA have been investigated in the tokamak/spheromak hybrid operation regime. As the magnetic configuration approaches from a spheromak to a high q ST, the flux amplification rate and the ratio of closed poloidal flux to total flux decrease, although the total toroidal current increases substantially, because the n=1 fluctuations concerning current drive mechanism of the spheromak are stabilized by the external toroidal field. The intermittent increase in the toroidal current has been observed at the magnetic axis in the tokamak operation. The toroidal current may be driven through axisymmetric merging processes by the repetitive injection of tokamak-like plasmoid accelerated from the gun. The other interesting result is that the current density changes from a hollow profile to a peaked profile during the sustainment. The generation of this peaked profile can be explained by the OH transformer effect of the central open flux. In order to test the current profile control by combination of inductive current drive and helicity injection, we are installing an OH coil inside the center conductor, removing the flux conserver.

  20. Laboratory Studies of Ammonia Ices Relevant to the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meharchand, R. T.; Boulter, J. E.; Baer, C. E.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Ammonia ice condensation and cloud formation microphysics are topics of relevance for understanding the atmospheres of the giant planets. Ammonia ices are also considered important components of the icy satellites found in the outer solar system, and are thought to play an important role in their geological activity. Although observational evidence and thermochemical models suggest ammonia clouds in the Jovian atmosphere should be ubiquitous, less than only 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere appears covered by spectrally identifiable ammonia clouds, with a clear preference in turbulent regions.1,2 The paradox of the rather scarce spectroscopic signatures of ammonia clouds and their appearance in turbulent regions suggests that the nascent ammonia clouds may undergo processing that modifies their spectroscopic properties. No relevant laboratory experimental results are available to resolve this problem. Two possible sources of processing that have been suggested in the literature include photochemical solid-state modification (''tanning'') and coating of ammonia particles by other substances present in the stratospheric haze.2,3 We are performing laboratory investigations with the objective to provide information on the photophysical and chemical processes that control the optical properties of the Jovian ammonia clouds. In the experiments, thin ice films of ammonia are coated with organic molecules, such as saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Preliminary results indicate suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 2.7 ? m by a thin layer of hydrocarbons. The implications for the spectral signatures of ammonia clouds in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn will be discussed. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Rhiannon Meharchand and Christina Baer was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya and A.-S. Wong, Eos. Trans. 84(46), Fall. Meet. Suppl., Abstract A12A-0072 (2003), and references therein. 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  1. Progress towards Steady State at Low Aspect Ratio on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates, J. Menard, R. Maingi, S. Kaye, S.A. Sabbagh, S. Diem, J.R.Wilson, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, J. Ferron, E.D. Fredrickson, C.E. Kessel, B.P. LeBlanc, F. Levinton, J. Manickam, D. Mueller, R. Raman, T. Stevenson, D. Stutman, G. Taylor, K. Tritz, H. Yu, and the NSTX Research Team

    2007-11-08

    Modifications to the plasma control capabilities and poloidal field coils of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have enabled a significant enhancement in shaping capability which has led to the transient achievement of a record shape factor (S ? q95 (I?? ???)) of ?41 (MA m?1 ??1) simultaneous with a record plasma elongation of ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. This result was obtained using isoflux control and real-time equilibrium reconstruction. Achieving high shape factor together with tolerable divertor loading is an important result for future ST burning plasma experiments as exemplified by studies for future ST reactor concepts, as well as neutron producing devices, which rely on achieving high shape factors in order to achieve steady state operation while maintaining MHD stability. Statistical evidence is presented which demonstrates the expected correlation between increased shaping and improved plasma performance.

  2. A collective scattering system for measuring electron gyroscale fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2008-12-15

    A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. The system measures fluctuations with k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub e} < or approx. 0.6 and k{sub perpendicular} < or approx. 20 cm{sup -1}. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.

  3. Overview of Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D. A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; D’Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Efthimion, P.; Ejiri, A.; Ershov, N.; Evans, T.; Feibush, E.; Fenstermacher, M.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Funaba, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grisham, L.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Idehara, T.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ishida, A.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Ji, H.; Jung, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kawamori, E.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kimura, H.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Krstic, P.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, Jr., N.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mitarai, O.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, S.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nagayama, Y.; Nelson, B.; Nguyen, X.; Nishino, N.; Nishiura, M.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Pacella, D.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redd, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rewo, G.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scott, S.; Shaing, K.; Sharpe, P.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, S.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Strait, T.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, R.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Ticos, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Turrnbull, A.; Tynan, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Utergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Welander, A.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Xu, X.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zweben, S.

    2009-03-24

    The mission of NSTX is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high ? operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale-length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of High Harmonic Fast-Waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance li ~0.4 with strong shaping (? ~ 2.7, ? ~ 0.8) with ?N approaching the with-wall beta limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction fNI ~71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfv´enic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfv´enic. Linear TAE thresholds and appreciable fast-ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared to theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is a important result for ITER. RWM/RFA feedback combined with n=3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with ? above the no-wall limit. Other highlights are: results of lithium coating experiments, momentum confinement studies, scrape-off layer width scaling, demonstration of divertor heat load mitigation in strongly shaped plasmas, and coupling of CHI plasmas to OH ramp-up. These results advance the ST towards next step fusion energy devices such as NHTX and ST-CTF

  4. Plasma sheet crossings at Jupiter: Energetic particle observations with the Galileo spacecraft

    E-print Network

    1 Plasma sheet crossings at Jupiter: Energetic particle observations with the Galileo spacecraft L in the outer Jovian magnetosphere by the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) onboard the Galileo space- craft conditions are a more likely explanation of their origin. Keywords: Plasma sheet; Galileo; Jupiter

  5. The icy Jovian satellites after the Galileo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The icy satellites of Jupiter, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Amalthea have diverse and remarkable characteristics. Their initial compositions were determined by conditions in the circum-Jovian nebula, just as the planets' initial properties were governed by their formation within the circumsolar nebula. The satellites subsequently evolved under the complex interplay of orbital and geophysical processes, especially the effects of orbital resonances, tides, internal differentiation and heat. The history and character of the satellites can be inferred from consideration of the formation of planets and the satellites, from studies of their plausible orbital evolution, from measurements of geophysical properties, especially gravitational and magnetic fields, from observations of the compositions and geological structure of their surfaces and from theoretical modeling of the processes that connect these lines of evidence. The three large icy satellites probably contain significant liquid water: Europa has a deep liquid water ocean under a thin surface layer of ice; Ganymede and Callisto likely have relatively thin liquid water layers deep below their surfaces. Models of formation are challenged by the surprising properties of the outermost and innermost of the group: Callisto is partially differentiated, with rock and ice mixed through much of its interior; and tiny Amalthea also appears to be largely composed of ice. Each of the four moons is fascinating in its own right, and the ensemble provides a powerful set of constraints on the processes that led to their formation and evolution.

  6. A normal-mode approach to Jovian atmospheric dynamic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achterberg, Richard K.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    A nonlinear, quasi-geostrophic, baroclinic model of Jovian atmospheric dynamics is proposed, in which vertical variations of velocity are represented by a truncated sum over a complete set of orthogonal functions obtained by a separation of variables of the linearized quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity equation. A set of equations for the time variation of the mode amplitudes in the nonlinear case is then derived. It is shown that, for a planet with a neutrally stable, fluid interior instead of a solid lower boundary, the barotropic mode represents motions in the interior, and is not affected by the baroclinic modes. One consequence of this is that a normal-mode model with one baroclinic mode is dynamically equivalent to a one-layer model with solid lower topography. It is also shown that, for motions in Jupiter's cloudy lower troposphere, the stratosphere behaves nearly as a rigid lid, so that the normal-mode is applicable to Jupiter. The accuracy of the normal-mode model for Jupiter is tested using the following simple problems: (1) forced, vertically propagating Rossby waves, using two and three baroclinic modes, and (2) baroclinic instability, using two baroclinic modes. It is found that the normal-mode model provides qualitatively correct results, even with only a very limited number of vertical degrees of freedom.

  7. Planetary spin period acceleration of particles in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    A four-step mechanism is proposed for the acceleration of energetic protons and relativistic electrons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. According to this mechanism, photoelectrons and ions from the Jovian ionosphere are: (1) ejected along magnetic-field lines toward the equator by the centrifugal force of corotation; (2) accelerated by magnetic-field annihiliation in the magnetotail, which process is modulated at Jupiter's rotational frequency; (3) trapped on closed field lines in the reconnection process, convected inward toward Jupiter from the merging region, and subjected to adiabatic compression; and (4) diffused inward by the conventional radial-diffusion process through a violation of the third adiabatic invariant. It is shown that the proposed mechanism produces magnetic moments much larger than those available from inward diffusion of solar-wind particles or motional emf acceleration at the Galilean satellites, provides a natural explanation for the 10-hr periodicity of the energetic particle fluxes observed inside the magnetosphere by the Pioneer spacecraft, and also produces a 10-hr periodicity in the energetic particle flux from the magnetosphere into interplanetary space in such a way that the phase of interplanetary flux variations is locked to the rotational phase of Jupiter

  8. A Troop of Trojans: Photometry of 24 Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.; Stephens, R. D.; Coley, D. R.; Wasserman, L. H.; La Rocca, D.; Vilas, F.

    2013-10-01

    Because of their greater distance from the Sun, the Jovian Trojans have been less studied than main belt asteroids. Although they are numerous (nearly 6000 have well determined orbits as of July 2013), the Trojans remain mysterious in many ways. Their spectra are unlike those of any meteorites in terrestrial collections. The spectra and the low albedos of Trojans, however, bear a strong resemblance to those of cometary nuclei (Abell et al. 2005; Fornasier et al. 2007; Emery et al. 2011). The Nice Model (Morbidelli et al. 2005; 2009) predicts that the Trojans may well be objects that originated with today's Kuiper Belt Objects. The rotation of asteroids larger than ~50 km in diameter seems to be determined largely by collisions, while that of smaller bodies is shaped primarily by YORP forces and torques (Pravec et al. 2008). We are surveying the rotation properties of Trojans to see whether similar trends are present. We find an abundance of slow rotators, including the first documented tumbler among the Trojans. We present 24 new Trojan lightcurves, mostly from objects ranging from 30-50 km in diameter. We also discuss observations of five sub-20 km Trojans, whose rotation properties are consistent with cometary densities. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-1212115, by NASA Grant NNX-08AO29G, and by an American Astronomical Society Small Research Grant.

  9. Jovian auroral ovals inferred from infrared H3(+) images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Sang, J.; Stuewe, J. A.; Caldwell, John; Herbst, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed analyses have been carried out of infrared H3(+) images of Jupiter's polar regions observed with the ProtoCam camera on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on March 3-6, 1992. The images were obtained at 3.5 microns, where H3(+) emission is strong and the jovian disk is dark. By carefully examining the H3(+) emission over the limb of the polar regions, we find that the H3(+) emission extended significantly above Jupiter's limb in the north polar region and to a lesser degree in the south polar region. This could be due to either a highly extended thermosphere or a broad energy spectrum of precipitating particles in the auroral regions. After we applied a new technique to the H3(+) images to remove limb brightening, we found auroral ovals in both polar regions. The northern oval appears to be close to the L = 30 footprint in the magnetospheric spot locations derived from previous analyses. One intrinsically bright area is found in the northern oval approximately at 150 deg longitude (System III) and 70 deg latitude, where the oval is also wider than elsewhere. The intensity of the bright area varies with a time scale as short as 50 min. The southern oval seems to occur at latitudes higer by a few degrees than the L = 30 footprint, although L = 30 is within the uncertainty of latitude determination. One or two localized intensity maxima are found in the southern oval between 0 deg and 70 deg longitude.

  10. WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy

    E-print Network

    Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James M; Masiero, Joe R; Nugent, Carrie R

    2012-01-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and $4.6\\mu$m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P- and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at $3.4\\mu$m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4$\\mu$m can be thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10%, and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud ($L_4$), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud ($L_5$), with a fraction of 71-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of of these large objects, $L_4/L_5...

  11. JOVIAN EARLY BOMBARDMENT: PLANETESIMAL EROSION IN THE INNER ASTEROID BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Turrini, D.; Coradini, A.; Magni, G.

    2012-05-01

    The asteroid belt is an open window on the history of the solar system, as it preserves records of both its formation process and its secular evolution. The progenitors of the present-day asteroids formed in the Solar Nebula almost contemporary to the giant planets. The actual process producing the first generation of asteroids is uncertain, strongly depending on the physical characteristics of the Solar Nebula, and the different scenarios produce very diverse initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs). In this work, we investigate the implications of the formation of Jupiter, plausibly the first giant planet to form, on the evolution of the primordial asteroid belt. The formation of Jupiter triggered a short but intense period of primordial bombardment, previously unaccounted for, which caused an early phase of enhanced collisional evolution in the asteroid belt. Our results indicate that this Jovian Early Bombardment caused the erosion or the disruption of bodies smaller than a threshold size, which strongly depends on the SFD of the primordial planetesimals. If the asteroid belt was dominated by planetesimals less than 100 km in diameter, the primordial bombardment would have caused the erosion of bodies smaller than 200 km in diameter. If the asteroid belt was instead dominated by larger planetesimals, the bombardment would have resulted in the destruction of bodies as big as 500 km.

  12. Excitation of Jovian seismic waves by the Shoemaker-Levy 9 cometary impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P.; Mosser, B.; Dahlen, F. A.

    1994-08-01

    The kinetic energy released by the collision of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter is expected to be between 1020 J and 1023 J. This energy will excite seismic waves, which will propagate within Jupiter. These seismic waves are computed by summing normal modes of degree l up to 1400 and frequency nu up to 10 mHz. The excitation amplitudes are obtained using a model of the blast wave induced by the explosion of the comet. Keeping in mind the possible detection of the waves with an IR camera, we examine the thermal signature of the global modes and transient waves excited by the impact. We show that the excitation of surface waves and normal modes will produce a directly observable signal for strong impacts only. An impact with an energy greater than 2.8 x 1021 J will produce a 10-mHz frequency P wave with associated peak-to-peak temperature fluctuations greater than 0.01 K at the antipode. Surface waves with frequencies less than 3 mHz will give rise to fluctuations everywhere in excess of 0.01 K for impacts greater than 9 x 1022 J. Lower energy impacts will not be directly detectable, the signal-to-noise ratio on a single pixel of the camera being too low. Stacking methods might enable the detection of P waves generated by impacts with energies as low as 7.25 x 1020 J at Delta = 90 deg and of surface waves generated by impacts as low as 1.4 x 1021 J. High-frequency monitoring of the temperature in the jovian troposphere during at least 2 hr after each impact, and low-frequency monitoring during the remaining observation time may provide unique information on the inner structure of Jupiter, including the core and the discontinuity due to the possible plasma phase transition of hydrogen.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Effects of the Solar Wind on the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.; Ogino, Tatsuki; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    2001-01-01

    We have used a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between the solar wind and a rapidly rotating magnetosphere to study the effects of the solar wind dynamic pressure and the interplanetary magnetic field IMF on the configuration of the Jovian magnetosphere. Both the solar wind dynamic pressure and the IMF can cause substantial changes in the magnetosphere. On the dayside when the pressure increases the bow shock and magnetopause move toward Jupiter and the equatorial magnetic field in the middle magnetosphere becomes more dipole-like. When the pressure decreases the boundaries move farther from Jupiter and the dayside magnetic field becomes stretched out into a more tail-like configuration. For northward IMF the boundaries move toward Jupiter but the field becomes more tail-like. Finally, for southward IMF the boundaries move away and the field becomes more dipole-like. These changes are qualitatively consistent with those observed on spacecraft passing through the dayside magnetosphere. However, we were not always able to get quantitative agreement. In particular the model does not reproduce the extremely tail-like magnetic field observed during the Pioneer 10 and Ulysses inbound passes. The solar wind and IMF also influence the configuration of the middle magnetosphere in the magnetotail. Tailward flows were found in the nightside equatorial plasma sheet for most IMF orientations. Both inertial effects and the IMF influence reconnection in the tail. The only time the tailward flow in the magnetotail stopped was during prolonged intervals with southward IMF. Then reconnection in the polar cusp caused the flow to move out of the equatorial plane.

  14. Resonant-like behaviour during edge-localised mode cycles in the Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J.; Morris, J.; Todd, T. N.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, P.; Likonen, J.; Rubel, M.

    2015-08-01

    A unique sequence of 120 almost identical plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) recently provided two orders of magnitude more statistically equivalent data than ever previously available. The purpose was to study movement of eroded plasma-facing material from JET's new Beryllium wall, but it has allowed the statistical detection of otherwise unobservable phenomenon. This includes a sequence of resonant-like waiting times between edge-localised plasma instabilities (ELMs), instabilities that must be mitigated or avoided in large magnetically confined plasmas such as those planned for ITER. Here, we investigate the cause of this phenomenon, using the unprecedented quantity of data to produce a detailed picture of the plasma's behaviour. After combining the data, oscillations are clearly observable in the plasma's vertical position, in edge losses of ions, and in Beryllium II (527 nm) light emissions. The oscillations are unexpected, are not obvious in data from a single pulse alone, and are all clearly correlated with each other. They are likely to be caused by a small vertical oscillation that the plasma control system is not reacting to prevent, but a more complex explanation is possible. The clearly observable but unexpected link between small changes in the plasma's position and changes to edge-plasma transport and stability suggest that these characteristics cannot always be studied in isolation. It also suggests new opportunities for ELM mitigation and control that may exist.

  15. New observations from Cassini and Ulysses of Jovian VLF radio M. L. Kaiser and W. M. Farrell

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    New observations from Cassini and Ulysses of Jovian VLF radio emissions M. L. Kaiser and W. M observations of Jupiter's so-called reradiated VLF radio emission by the Cassini and Ulysses spacecraft confirm. Hospodarsky, and D. A. Gurnett (2004), New observations from Cassini and Ulysses of Jovian VLF radio emissions

  16. The interaction of Io's Alfven waves with the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.

    1987-09-01

    A numerical solution for the propagation of the Alfven waves produced by Io is presented. The waves are shown to interact strongly with the torus and magnetic-field inhomogeneities. Substantial reflection occurs from the magnetospheric medium, and only about a quarter of the wave power will reach the ionosphere on its first pass. It is concluded that both WKB and ray-tracing arguments are inappropriate, contrary to previous studies. A more realistic picture may be that of a whole field line or L shell resonating in an eigenmode. The Alfven structure behind Io and some possible features that it may exhibit are discussed. In particular, it may be possible to produce decametric arcs that are more closely spaced than ray tracing permits by exciting higher-harmonic eigenmodes of Io's L shell.

  17. Umbilical torus bifurcations in Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broer, Henk W.; Hanßmann, Heinz; You, Jiangong

    We consider perturbations of integrable Hamiltonian systems in the neighbourhood of normally umbilic invariant tori. These lower dimensional tori do not satisfy the usual non-degeneracy conditions that would yield persistence by an adaption of KAM theory, and there are indeed regions in parameter space with no surviving torus. We assume appropriate transversality conditions to hold so that the tori in the unperturbed system bifurcate according to a (generalised) umbilical catastrophe. Combining techniques of KAM theory and singularity theory we show that such bifurcation scenarios of invariant tori survive the perturbation on large Cantor sets. Applications to gyrostat dynamics are pointed out.

  18. Radii and albedos of four Trojan asteroids and Jovian satellites 6 and 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for radiometric measurements of broadband 20-micron fluxes from the Trojan asteroids 617 Patroclus, 624 Hektor (for which the broadband 10-micron flux was also measured), 1172 Aeneas, and 1173 Anchises as well as from the outer Jovian satellites Himalia (J6) and Elara (J7). Geometric albedos and radii for the six objects are derived from the corrected monochromatic fluxes and visual magnitudes. It is found that all the objects have exceedingly low geometric albedos, indicating that the Trojans and possibly the outer Jovian satellites constitute a distinct class of small solar-system bodies. The composition of the Trojan asteroids is considered on the basis of available sizes, albedos, and shapes. Revised tables of the albedos and radii of all the Jovian satellites are presented. It is concluded that the Trojans are not composed primarily of ice and that an asteroidal origin for the comets of the Jupiter group is unlikely.

  19. ORIGIN OF THE DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURES OF THE JOVIAN AND SATURNIAN SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Ida, S.; Stewart, G. R. E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.j

    2010-05-10

    The Jovian regular satellite system mainly consists of four Galilean satellites that have similar masses and are trapped in mutual mean-motion resonances except for the outer satellite, Callisto. On the other hand, the Saturnian regular satellite system has only one big icy body, Titan, and a population of much smaller icy moons. We have investigated the origin of these major differences between the Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems by semi-analytically simulating the growth and orbital migration of proto-satellites in an accreting proto-satellite disk. We set up two different disk evolution/structure models that correspond to Jovian and Saturnian systems, by building upon previously developed models of an actively supplied proto-satellite disk, the formation of gas giants, and observations of young stars. Our simulations extend previous models by including the (1) different termination timescales of gas infall onto the proto-satellite disk and (2) different evolution of a cavity in the disk, between the Jovian and Saturnian systems. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations and have shown that in the case of the Jovian systems, four to five similar-mass satellites are likely to remain trapped in mean-motion resonances. This orbital configuration is formed by type I migration, temporal stopping of the migration near the disk inner edge, and quick truncation of gas infall caused by Jupiter opening a gap in the solar nebula. The Saturnian systems tend to end up with one dominant body in the outer regions caused by the slower decay of gas infall associated with global depletion of the solar nebula. The total mass and compositional zoning of the predicted Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems are consistent with the observed satellite systems.

  20. Chandra ACIS Observations of Jovian X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, Gordon; Elsner, Ronald; Feigelson, Eric; Ford, Peter; Gladstone, G. Randall; Hurley, Kevin; Metzger, Albert; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On November 25 and 26, 1999, the Chandra X-ray spacecraft conducted a set of four 19,000 sec observations of Jupiter. The ACIS-S instrument configuration was used for its good low energy efficiency and spatial resolution. An anomalous response was obtained which was subsequently attributed to strong jovian infrared radiation penetrating the detector and piling up spurious events across the entire X-ray range. However, the pre-observation establishment of an offsetting bias field has allowed the recovery of data from that portion of Jupiter's disc which remained within the elevated portion of the bias field during the observation. This ranges from fewer than 3000 sec to the entire observing time for about 10% of the planet. Auroral emission is seen near both poles in each observation. The northern aurora ia overall more intense than the southern, consistent with prior Einstein and ROSAT Observatory results. The southern aurora shows more modulation with Jupiter's rotation than the northern. Spatial resolution has been improved by at least a factor of two over prior measurements but convincing evidence of structure has not been seen. Lower latitude emission, first observed by ROSAT, is confirmed with flux levels averaging more than a factor of five below peak auroral values. Pronounced variation in the observed emission has occurred over the observing period. The spectral response extends from 0.24 keV, below which noise dominates, to about 1.2 keV. For all four observations the spectrum is clearly enhanced between 0.45 and 0.85 keV. This is apparently unequivocal evidence that Jupiter's X-ray emission is the result of oxygen and perhaps sulfur ions precipitating into the planet's atmosphere, where they undergo charge exchange interactions. The identification of specific transitions lines in the spectrum is among the ongoing efforts. A bremsstrahlung component has not yet been identified.

  1. Jovian thundercloud research with ground-based telescope and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Ko-Ichiro; Sato, Mitsuteru; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Sato, Soga; Yair, Yoav; Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2010-05-01

    The latest observational and theoretical studies suggest that thunderstorms, i.e., strong moist convective clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere are very important not only as an essential ingredient of meteorology of Jupiter, which determines the large scale structures such as belt/zone and big ovals, but also as a potentially very useful tool for probing the water abundance of the deep atmosphere, which is crucial to constrain the behavior of volatiles in early solar system. Here we suggest a very simple high-speed imaging unit onboard Jovian orbiter, Optical Lightning Detector, OLD, optimized for detecting optical emissions from lightning discharge in Jupiter. OLD consists of radiation-tolerant CMOS sensors and two H Balmer Alpha line (656.3nm) filters. In normal sampling mode the frame intervals is 29ms with a full frame format of 512x512 pixels and in high-speed sampling mode the interval could be reduced down to 0.1ms by concentrating a limited area of 30x30 pixels. Weight, size and power consumption are about 1kg, 16x7x5.5 cm (sensor) and 16x12x4 cm (circuit), and 4W, respectively, though they can be reduced according to the spacecraft resources. Also we plan to investigate the optical flashes using a ground-based middle-sized telescope, which will be built by Hokkaido University, with narrow-band high speed imaging unit. Observational strategy with such optical lightning detectors and spectral imagers, which enable us to estimate the horizontal motion and altitude of clouds, will be introduced.

  2. Retrievals of Jovian Tropospheric Phosphine from Cassini/CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Parrish, P.; Fouchet, T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Nixon, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    On December 30th 2000, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft reached the perijove milestone on its continuing journey to the Saturnian system. During an extended six-month encounter, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) returned spectra of the Jovian atmosphere, rings and satellites from 10-1400 cm(exp -1) (1000-7 microns) at a programmable spectral resolution of 0.5 to 15 cm(exp -1). The improved spectral resolution of CIRS over previous IR instrument-missions to Jupiter, the extended spectral range, and higher signal-to-noise performance provide significant advantages over previous data sets. CIRS global observations of the mid-infrared spectrum of Jupiter at medium resolution (2.5 cm(exp -1)) have been analysed both with a radiance differencing scheme and an optimal estimation retrieval model to retrieve the spatial variation of phosphine and ammonia fractional scale height in the troposphere between 60 deg S and 60 deg N at a spatial resolution of 6 deg. The ammonia fractional scale height appears to be high over the Equatorial Zone (EZ) but low over the North Equatorial Belt (NEB) and South Equatorial Belt (SEB) indicating rapid uplift or strong vertical mixing in the EZ. The abundance of phosphine shows a similar strong latitudinal variation which generally matches that of the ammonia fractional scale height. However while the ammonia fractional scale height distribution is to a first order symmetric in latitude, the phosphine distribution shows a North/South asymmetry at mid latitudes with higher amounts detected at 40 deg N than 40 deg S. In addition the data show that while the ammonia fractional scale height at this spatial resolution appears to be low over the Great Red Spot (GRS), indicating reduced vertical mixing above the approx. 500 mb level, the abundance of phosphine at deeper levels may be enhanced at the northern edge of the GRS indicating upwelling.

  3. RADON TRANSFORM ON THE TORUS AHMED ABOUELAZ AND FRANOIS ROUVIRE

    E-print Network

    Vallette, Bruno

    RADON TRANSFORM ON THE TORUS AHMED ABOUELAZ AND FRANÇOIS ROUVIÈRE Abstract. We consider the Radon-Ricci spaces etc. We consider here the n-dimensional (at) torus Tn = Rn=Zn and the Radon transform de will thus enter the picture, as in the case of Radon transforms on Zn already studied by the ...rst author

  4. Identification of photoelectron energy peaks in Saturn's inner neutral torus

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Identification of photoelectron energy peaks in Saturn's inner neutral torus P. Schippers,1,2,3 N by the solar EUV photoionization of the extended cloud of neutral gas observed in these regions. We use pitch. Young (2009), Identification of photoelectron energy peaks in Saturn's inner neutral torus, J. Geophys

  5. High-spin torus isomers and their precession motions

    E-print Network

    Ichikawa, T; Maruhn, J A; Itagaki, N

    2014-01-01

    We systematically investigate the existence of exotic torus isomers and their precession motions for a series of $N=Z$ even-even nuclei from $^{28}$Si to $^{56}$Ni. We analyze the microscopic shell structure of the torus isomer and discuss why the torus shape is generated beyond the limit of large oblate deformation. We use the cranked three-dimensional Hartree-Fock (HF) method with various Skyrme interactions in a systematic search for high-spin torus isomers. We use the three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method for describing the precession motion of the torus isomer. We obtain high-spin torus isomers in $^{36}$Ar, $^{40}$Ca, $^{44}$Ti, $^{48}$Cr, and $^{52}$Fe. The emergence of the torus isomers is associated with the alignments of single-particle angular momenta, which is the same mechanism as found in $^{40}$Ca. It is found that all the obtained torus isomers execute the precession motion at least two rotational periods. The moment of inertia about a perpendicular axis, which characteri...

  6. Comparison of poloidal velocity measurements to neoclassical theory on the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Andre, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kolesnikov, R. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W. X.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of poloidal velocity is necessary for the determination of the radial electric field, which along with its gradient is linked to turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation. Recent measurements of poloidal flow on conventional tokamaks have been reported to be an order of magnitude larger than expected from neoclassical theory. In contrast, poloidal velocity measurements on the NSTX spherical torus [Kaye et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 1977 (2001)] are near or below neoclassical estimates. A novel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic is used, which features active and passive sets of up/down symmetric views to produce line-integrated poloidal velocity measurements that do not need atomic physics corrections. Inversions are used to extract local profiles from line-integrated active and background measurements. Poloidal velocity measurements are compared with neoclassical values computed with the codes NCLASS [Houlberg et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 3230 (1997)] and GTC-NEO [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 082501 (2006)].

  7. Performance of a pneumatic hydrogen-pellet injection system on the Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, S. K.; Jernigan, T. C.; Baylor, L. R.; Milora, S. L.; Foust, C. R.; Kupschus, P.; Gadeberg, M.; Bailey, W.

    1989-08-01

    A pneumatic-based, hydrogen isotope pellet injector that was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in recent plasma fueling experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET). The injector consists of three independent machine-gun-like mechanisms (nominal pellet sizes of 2.7, 4.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter) and features repetitive operation (1-5 Hz) for quasi-steady-state conditions (>10 s). An extensive set of injector diagnostics permits evaluation of parameters for each pellet shot, including speed, mass, and integrity. Pellet speeds range from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s. Over 3700 pellets have been fired with the equipment at JET, with about 1500 pellets shot for plasma fueling experiments. In recent experiments, the system performance has been outstanding, including excellent reproducibility in pellet speed and mass, and a reliability of >98% in delivery of pellets to the plasma.

  8. The Galilean satellites as a source of CO in the Jovian upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Yung, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    Material from the Galilean satellites of Jupiter ejected by energetic particles in the Jovian magnetosphere may provide large sources of oxygen to the parent planet. Formation of a CO molecule is the ultimate fate of an oxygen atom in the upper Jovian atmosphere. This high-altitude source of CO supports Beer and Taylor's (1978) observations and analysis, provided that the globally averaged O atom input flux is about 10 million per sq cm/sec and the eddy diffusion coefficient at the tropopause is around 1000 sq cm/sec. Implications for the possible presence of other atoms and molecules derived from the satellites are discussed.

  9. Organic synthesis in a simulated Jovian atmosphere. III - Synthesis of aminonitriles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, P. M.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    The products from spark and semicorona discharges through mixtures simulating the Jovian atmosphere were analyzed by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. When the reaction was performed at -80 C, 3-ethylaminopropionitrile and a number of higher homologs were formed. On the other hand, at +20 C, higher molecular-weight material appeared which yielded aminonitrile-derived fragments on mass spectrometry. Although the spectra were not identical, there were notable similarities between these and the mass spectra of some compounds present in the Murray and Orgeuil meteorites. Aminonitriles may occur as minor constituents of the Jovian atmosphere and perhaps by cyclization may produce pyrimidines.

  10. Ion flow measurements during the MHD relaxation processes in the HIST spherical torus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Ando, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2008-11-01

    Plasma flow is one of the key roles in self-organization and magnetic reconnection processes of helicity-driven spherical torus (ST) and spheromak. The HIST spherical torus can form the standard ST and the flipped ST plasmas by utilizing the variation of the external toroidal field coil current. The flipped ST plasma can be generated by changing the polarity of the toroidal magnetic field during the standard ST discharge [1]. We have developed an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) system using a compact 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) in order to measure the spatial profile of ion temperature and rotation velocity in the HIST device. The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1 m-spectrometer and the PMT detector. As the results, it was observed that ion velocity was about 10 km/s in the same direction as the toroidal current and ExB direction in the standard ST discharge. The observed ion velocity agrees with Mach probe measurements. During the transition from the standard ST to the flipped ST state, the ion temperature was fluctuated and increased. The result implies an ion heating during magnetic reconnections. In addition, the toroidal direction of the ion flow was reversed. The detail physics of the observed phenomenon will be shown. [1] M. Nagata et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 90, pp. 225001-225004 (2003).

  11. Non-axisymmetric Electrostatic Helicity Injection into the HIST Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, M.; Akamatsu, T.; Kagei, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Uyama, T.

    2000-10-01

    Studies of helicity injection physics including the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo and self-organizing phenomena are very important in the spherical torus (ST) and spheromak research. In the HIST experiment, we have found that the intermittent generation of plasma current on ST by coaxial helicity injection (CHI) is responsible for repetitive plasmoid injection from the coaxial gun. We have verified that helicity balance is satisfied during the axisymmetric plasmoid injection process. In order to investigate furthermore the important role of helicity by varying the topology of the system, i.e. symmetry breaking, we perform non-axisymmetric electrostatic helicity injection experiments on FACT and HIST using Compact Torus (CT) injector. CT injector can inject the spheromak with both particle and helicity into the ST plasma from the outboard side. A long-lived spheromak tends to relax to the m=1 helical state in the entrance/drift tube of the CT injector. If we can maintain the m=1 helical configuration there in a steady state, so helicity is continuously transported from the injector toward the outer edge of ST, resulting in current drive through MHD relaxation. In the FACT-ST experiment, we observed that the toroidal current is amplified during spheromak injection, and also investigated the behavoir of the spheromak injected in the ST plasma.

  12. Arithmetic functions in torus and tree networks

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan (Princeton, NJ); Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2007-12-25

    Methods and systems for performing arithmetic functions. In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, methods and apparatus are provided, working in conjunction of software algorithms and hardware implementation of class network routing, to achieve a very significant reduction in the time required for global arithmetic operation on the torus. Therefore, it leads to greater scalability of applications running on large parallel machines. The invention involves three steps in improving the efficiency and accuracy of global operations: (1) Ensuring, when necessary, that all the nodes do the global operation on the data in the same order and so obtain a unique answer, independent of roundoff error; (2) Using the topology of the torus to minimize the number of hops and the bidirectional capabilities of the network to reduce the number of time steps in the data transfer operation to an absolute minimum; and (3) Using class function routing to reduce latency in the data transfer. With the method of this invention, every single element is injected into the network only once and it will be stored and forwarded without any further software overhead. In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, methods and systems are provided to efficiently implement global arithmetic operations on a network that supports the global combining operations. The latency of doing such global operations are greatly reduced by using these methods.

  13. Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations

    E-print Network

    T. G. Budd; R. Loll

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large-scale features of the emergent quantum geometry in numerical simulations with a classical minisuperspace formulation, we find partial agreement. By measuring the correlation matrix of volume fluctuations we succeed in reconstructing the effective action for the scale factor directly from the simulation data. Apart from setting the stage for the analysis of shape dynamics on the torus, the new set-up highlights the role of nontrivial boundaries and topology.

  14. Short-Scale Turbulent Fluctuations Driven by the Electron-Temperature Gradient in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.; Smith, D. R.; Bell, R. E.; Kaye, S.; Davis, W.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Yuh, H.; Lee, W.; Park, H.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements with coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves in plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment indicate the existence of turbulent fluctuations in the range of wave numbers k?e 0:1 0:4, corresponding to a turbulence scale length nearly equal to the collisionless skin depth. Experimental observations and agreement with numerical results from a linear gyrokinetic stability code support the conjecture that the observed turbulence is driven by the electron-temperature gradient.

  15. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium in a non-symmetric topological torus

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzner, Harold

    2014-02-15

    An alternative representation of an ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is developed. The representation is a variation of one given by A. Salat, Phys. Plasmas 2, 1652 (1995). The system of equations is used to study the possibility of non-symmetric equilibria in a topological torus, here an approximate rectangular parallelopiped, with periodicity in two of the three rectangular coordinates. An expansion is carried out in the deviation of pressure surfaces from planes. Resonances are manifest in the process. Nonetheless, provided the magnetic shear is small, it is shown that it is possible to select the magnetic fields and flux surfaces in such a manner that no singularities appear on resonant surfaces. One boundary surface of the parallelopiped is not arbitrary but is dependent on the equilibrium in question. A comparison of the solution sets of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric equilibria suggests that the latter have a wider class of possible boundary shapes but more restrictive rotational transform profiles. No proof of convergence of the series is given.

  16. Overview of recent physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C. E.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N. A.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Domier, C. W.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gibney, T.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R. P.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; von Halle, A.; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L. E.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Finkenthal, M.; Fredd, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Glasser, A.; Goldston, R. J.; Greenough, N. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Gorelenkov, N.; Guazzotto, L.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hogan, J.; Houlberg, W.; Humphreys, D.; Jaeger, F.; Kalish, M.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lao, L. L.; Lawrence, J.; Leuer, J.; Liu, D.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Schaffer, M.; Semenov, I.; Shaing, K. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Sichta, P.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.

    2007-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has made considerable progress in advancing the scientific understanding of high performance long-pulse plasmas needed for future spherical torus (ST) devices and ITER. Plasma durations up to 1.6 s (five current redistribution times) have been achieved at plasma currents of 0.7 MA with non-inductive current fractions above 65% while simultaneously achieving ?T and ?N values of 17% and 5.7 (%m T MA-1), respectively. A newly available motional Stark effect diagnostic has enabled validation of current-drive sources and improved the understanding of NSTX 'hybrid'-like scenarios. In MHD research, ex-vessel radial field coils have been utilized to infer and correct intrinsic EFs, provide rotation control and actively stabilize the n = 1 resistive wall mode at ITER-relevant low plasma rotation values. In transport and turbulence research, the low aspect ratio and a wide range of achievable ? in the NSTX provide unique data for confinement scaling studies, and a new microwave scattering diagnostic is being used to investigate turbulent density fluctuations with wavenumbers extending from ion to electron gyro-scales. In energetic particle research, cyclic neutron rate drops have been associated with the destabilization of multiple large toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) analogous to the 'sea-of-TAE' modes predicted for ITER, and three-wave coupling processes have been observed for the first time. In boundary physics research, advanced shape control has enabled studies of the role of magnetic balance in H-mode access and edge localized mode stability. Peak divertor heat flux has been reduced by a factor of 5 using an H-mode-compatible radiative divertor, and lithium conditioning has demonstrated particle pumping and results in improved thermal confinement. Finally, non-solenoidal plasma start-up experiments have achieved plasma currents of 160 kA on closed magnetic flux surfaces utilizing coaxial helicity injection.

  17. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to test the method up to Ip {approx} 500 kA. In parallel, start-up using radio-frequency current drive and only external poloidal field coils are being developed on NSTX. The area of power and particle handling is expected to be challenging because of the higher power density expected in the ST relative to that in conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks. Due to its promise for power and particle handling, liquid lithium is being studied in CDX-U as a potential plasma-facing surface for a fusion reactor.

  18. Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D. S.; Diem, S. J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Garstka, G. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L. R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J. H.; Kissick, M. W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T. K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C. N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P. H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R. J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Sontag, A. C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K. L.; Unterberg, E. A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Carter, M. D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S. C.; Hosea, J. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.

    2003-12-01

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (bgr), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bgrT of up to 35% with a near unity central bgrT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bgrT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction (~60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to test the method up to Ip ~ 500 kA. In parallel, start-up using a RF current drive and only external poloidal field coils are being developed on NSTX. The area of power and particle handling is expected to be challenging because of the higher power density expected in the ST relative to that in conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks. Due to its promise for power and particle handling, liquid lithium is being studied in CDX-U as a potential plasma-facing surface for a fusion reactor.

  19. Benchmark experiments on neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall penetrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistoni, P.; Conroy, S.; Lilley, S.; Naish, J.; Obryk, B.; Popovichev, S.; Stamatelatos, I.; Syme, B.; Vasilopoulou, T.; contributors, JET

    2015-05-01

    Neutronics experiments are performed at JET for validating in a real fusion environment the neutronics codes and nuclear data applied in ITER nuclear analyses. In particular, the neutron fluence through the penetrations of the JET torus hall is measured and compared with calculations to assess the capability of state-of-art numerical tools to correctly predict the radiation streaming in the ITER biological shield penetrations up to large distances from the neutron source, in large and complex geometries. Neutron streaming experiments started in 2012 when several hundreds of very sensitive thermo-luminescence detectors (TLDs), enriched to different levels in 6LiF/7LiF, were used to measure the neutron and gamma dose separately. Lessons learnt from this first experiment led to significant improvements in the experimental arrangements to reduce the effects due to directional neutron source and self-shielding of TLDs. Here we report the results of measurements performed during the 2013-2014 JET campaign. Data from new positions, at further locations in the South West labyrinth and down to the Torus Hall basement through the air duct chimney, were obtained up to about a 40 m distance from the plasma neutron source. In order to avoid interference between TLDs due to self-shielding effects, only TLDs containing natural Lithium and 99.97% 7Li were used. All TLDs were located in the centre of large polyethylene (PE) moderators, with natLi and 7Li crystals evenly arranged within two PE containers, one in horizontal and the other in vertical orientation, to investigate the shadowing effect in the directional neutron field. All TLDs were calibrated in the quantities of air kerma and neutron fluence. This improved experimental arrangement led to reduced statistical spread in the experimental data. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to calculate the air kerma due to neutrons and the neutron fluence at detector positions, using a JET model validated up to the magnetic limbs. JET biological shield and penetrations, the PE moderators and TLDs were modelled in detail. Different tallying methods were used in the calculations, which are routinely used in ITER nuclear analyses: the mesh tally and the track length estimator with multiple steps calculations using the surface source write/read capability available in MCNP. In both cases, the calculated neutron fluence (C) was compared to the measured fluence (E) and hence C/E comparisons have been obtained and are discussed. These results provide a validation of neutronics numerical tools, codes and nuclear data, used for ITER design.

  20. A Megawatt-level 28z GHz Heating System For The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Gary

    2014-04-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will operate at axial toroidal fields of < 1 T and plasma currents, Ip < 2 MA. The development of non-inductive (NI) plasmas is a major long-term research goal for NSTX-U. Time dependent numerical simulations of 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating of low density NI start-up plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) in NSTX-U predict a significant and rapid increase of the central electron temperature (Te(0)) before the plasma becomes overdense. The increased Te(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is planned for heating NI start-up plasmas in NSTX-U. In addition to EC heating of CHI start-up discharges, this system will be used for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) plasma start-up, and eventually for EBW heating and current drive during the Ip flattop.

  1. Radiation testing for the Jovian environment: in the laboratory and on CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, B.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.

    2015-10-01

    The harsh Jovian radiation environment is one of the main drivers for the design of instruments to be flown to Jupiter. Radiation testing of the instruments in the relevant environment is crucial, but challenging. We introduce RATEX-J, a radiation test setup dedicated for the JUICE mission that focuses on active radiation mitigation approaches and employs ground based and spaceborne testing platforms.

  2. High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study Keywords: Io Remote sensing Instruments a b s t r a c t We present modeled images of Io at a variety objectives that could be achieved from missions engaged in long range remote-sensing of Io during

  3. Planetary and Space Science 54 (2006) 879910 Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 19971999

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary and Space Science 54 (2006) 879­910 Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 1997­1999 H; accepted 25 April 2006 Available online 27 June 2006 Abstract The dust detector system on board the Galileo. This is the eighth in a series of papers dedicated to presenting Galileo and Ulysses dust data. We present data from

  4. Detection of the high energy component of Jovian electrons at 1 AU with the PAMELA experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, M.; PAMELA Collaboration

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that will be launched in the first half of 2006 It will make long duration measurements of cosmic radiation over an extended energy range 80Mev to 200 GeV Specifically PAMELA will measure the cosmic-ray antiproton and positron spectra over the largest energy range ever achieved 80MeV - 190 GeV and will search for antinuclei with unprecedented sensitivity Furthermore it will measure the light nuclear component of cosmic rays and investigate phenomena connected with solar and earth physics The apparatus consists of a time of flight system a magnetic spectrometer an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter a shower tail catcher scintillator a neutron detector and an anticoincidence system The Jovian magnetosphere is a powerful accelerator of electrons to several tens of MeV as observed at first by Pioneer 10 spacecraft 1973 The propagation of Jovian electrons to Earth is affected by modulation due to Corotating Interaction Regions CIR Their flux at Earth is moreover modulated because every 13 months Earth and Jupiter are aligned along the average direction of the Parker spiral of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field For its characteristics PAMELA will be able to measure the high energy tail of the Jovian electrons in the energy range from 50 MeV up to 130 MeV With long term observation it will also be possible to detect the Jovian component reaccelated at the solar wind termination shock from the galactic flux

  5. A torus bifurcation theorem with symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangils, S. A.; Golubitsky, M.

    1989-01-01

    Hopf bifurcation in the presence of symmetry, in situations where the normal form equations decouple into phase/amplitude equations is described. A theorem showing that in general such degeneracies are expected to lead to secondary torus bifurcations is proved. By applying this theorem to the case of degenerate Hopf bifurcation with triangular symmetry it is proved that in codimension two there exist regions of parameter space where two branches of asymptotically stable two-tori coexist but where no stable periodic solutions are present. Although a theory was not derived for degenerate Hopf bifurcations in the presence of symmetry, examples are presented that would have to be accounted for by any such general theory.

  6. Torus CLAS12-Superconducting Magnet Quench Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V S; Elouadhiri, L; Ghoshal, P K; Kashy, D; Makarov, A; Pastor, O; Quettier, L; Velev, G; Wiseman, M

    2014-06-01

    The JLAB Torus magnet system consists of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration. These coils are wound with SSC-36 Nb-Ti superconductor and have the peak magnetic field of 3.6 T. The first coil manufacturing based on the JLAB design began at FNAL. The large magnet system dimensions (8 m diameter and 14 MJ of stored energy) dictate the need for quench protection. Each coil is placed in an aluminum case mounted inside a cryostat and cooled by 4.6 K supercritical helium gas flowing through a copper tube attached to the coil ID. The large coil dimensions and small cryostat thickness drove the design to challenging technical solutions, suggesting that Lorentz forces due to transport currents and eddy currents during quench and various failure scenarios are analyzed. The paper covers the magnet system quench analysis using the OPERA3d Quench code.

  7. Theoretical estimation of the radiative cooling rate in the Jovian troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuto; Hashimoto, George L.; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Onishi, Masanori; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Jupiter exhibits characteristic cloud activities but their physical mechanism remains poorly understood. Recently, Sugiyama et al. (2014) demonstrated that the Jovian cloud convection may have a significant intermittency in the generation of cumulonimbus clouds with the typical interval length controlled by the radiative cooling rate in the upper troposphere. In spite of such importance as a controlling factor of cloud activity, the tropospheric radiative cooling rate profile has never been systematically quantified for the Jovian system. In the Jovian troposphere, condensable species (NH3, H2S, H2O) and their condensates might significantly contribute to radiative transfer.Here we show numerical estimates of radiative cooling rate profile under Jovian troposphere condition by using our non-gray radiative transfer model that contains optical properties of gas species (H2, He, H2O, CH4, NH3, H2S, and PH3) and cloud layers made of H2O, NH4SH, and NH3 ice particles. The temperature profile is determined by the radiative-convective equilibrium state satisfying an observed potential temperature of Jovian troposphere. The mean vertical distributions of gas and cloud are given on the basis of the latest hydrodynamic simulation of Jovian cloud convection (Sugiyama et al., 2014) and cosmochemical consideration.The modeled atmosphere has the tropopause at ~0.38 bar level. The radiative cooling rate reaches the maximum 15 x 10-3 K/Jovian day at ~0.5 bar level, then decreases with depth and approaches zero below 5 bar level. This profile is largely determined by the thermal absorption and emission due to gaseous NH3 and H2 with a slight modification by solar heating due to CH4. The cloud layers are found to have only a weak effect on either radiative cooling or heating because their opacities in the longwave radiation are estimated to be very small, which agrees with the observed 5-micron spectrum with high brightness temperatures. The uncertainty in H2O abundance in deep troposphere would not affect the radiative cooling because H2O mostly condenses out in the deep region with large optical depths for longwave radiation.

  8. Optimal multicast communication in wormhole-routed torus networks

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.F.; McKinley, P.K.; Cheng, B.H.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents efficient algorithms that implement one-to-many, or multicast, communication in wormhole-routed torus networks. By exploiting the properties of the switching technology and the use of virtual channels, a minimum-time multicast algorithm is presented for n-dimensional torus networks that use deterministic, dimension-ordered routing of unicast messages. The algorithm can deliver a multicast message to m-1 destinations in [log{sub 2}m] message-passing steps, while avoiding contention among the constituent unicast messages. Performance results of a simulation study on torus networks are also given.

  9. Jovian decametric arcs - An estimate of the required wave normal angles from three-dimensional ray tracing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Gulkis, S.; Six, N. F.

    1984-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing is applied to an analysis of variable radio wave normal angle effects on the associated decametric (DAM) arc structures in the Jovian magnetosphere. The analysis is bed on 1-40 MHz radio signature recorded during Voyage 1 and 2 passages. The frequencies considered are above the R-X cut-off, and several ratios of the emission frequency/source frequency. The ray tracing code is based on a cold plasma formula and integration of the Hasselgrove (1955) equations. It is assumed that the emission is in the R-X mode, the source lies at the foot of an Io flux tube, and the emission cone is hollow. Attention is focused on data for two intense, vertex-late, high curvature DAM arc. A possible source for the arcs is found to be doppler-shifted gyroemission from a beam of electrons with an energy of 10 keV. A value of 1.1 is set as the limit of the doppler shift of the DAM emissions.

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  11. Development of rotating magnetic field coil system in the HIST spherical torus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Yamada, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishioka, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2007-11-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) is one of most attractive methods to achieve non-inductive current drive in spherical torus devices. The current drive mechanism of CHI relies on MHD relaxation process of rotating kink behavior [1], so that there is a possibility to control the CHI by using an externally applied rotating magnetic field (RMF). We have recently started to develop a RMF coil system in the HIST spherical torus device. Eight coils are located above and below the midplane at four toroidal locations so that the RMF is resonant with n = 1 rotating kink mode driven by the CHI. In addition, the RMF coil set is installed inside a flux conserver of 5 mm thickness (cut-off frequency ˜ 170 Hz) so that the RMF penetrates into the plasma. The coil winding is made of 20 turns of enameled copper circular wires (1.5 mm^2 conductor cross section), covered with a thin stainless steal case of 0.5 mm thickness (cut-off frequency ˜ 710 kHz). The RMF system is driven by an IGBT inverter power supply (nominal current: 1 kA, nominal voltage: 1 kV) with an operating frequency band from 10 kHz to 30 kHz. The estimated amplitude of RMF neglecting effects of image current at the flux conserver is a few tens Gauss at around the magnetic axis. A preliminary experimental result will be shown in the conference. [1] M. Nagata, et al., Physics of Plasmas 10, 2932 (2003).

  12. Study of Turbulent Fluctuations Driven by the Electron Temperature Gradient in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R. E.; Ethier, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, W. W.; Ryan, P. M.; Smith, D. R.; Wang, W. X.; Wilson, J. R.

    2009-03-26

    Various theories and numerical simulations support the conjecture that the ubiquitous problem of anomalous electron transport in tokamaks may arise from a short-scale turbulence driven by the electron temperature gradient. To check whether this turbulence is present in plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), measurements of turbulent fluctuations were performed with coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves. Results from plasmas heated by high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) show the existence of density fluctuations in the range of wave numbers k??e=0.1-0.4, corresponding to a turbulence scale length of the order of the collisionless skin depth. Experimental observations and agreement with numerical results from the linear gyro-kinetic GS2 code indicate that the observed turbulence is driven by the electron temperature gradient. These turbulent fluctuations were not observed at the location of an internal transport barrier driven by a negative magnetic shear.

  13. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  14. Spherical torus equilibria reconstructed by a two-fluid, low-collisionality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Akio; Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2012-10-01

    The two-fluid, low-collisionality equilibrium model [Ishida et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 122507 (2010)] was applied to reconstruct the high-performance National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) [Bell et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 082507 (2010)]. Profiles of the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal flow, the density, and the magnetic field pitch angle of the reconstructed equilibrium fit well the measured profiles of NSTX shot 132484 at 0.7 s. The reconstructed equilibrium shows that (1) the global two-fluid effect is fairly large; (2) the perpendicular flow of both species differs significantly from the ExB drift; (3) local gradient scale lengths can be smaller than the ion inertial length especially on the outboard side; (4) the electrostatic potential varies along a given magnetic flux by as much as several percent of the electron temperature in the core region.

  15. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  16. Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong

    2014-12-15

    The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes.

  17. Zero-{beta} modeling of coaxial helicity injection in the HIT-II spherical torus

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, R. A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Redd, A. J.

    2011-09-15

    Coaxial helicity injection in the HIT-II [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] spherical torus is modeled with time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamics computations run to steady state for conditions without strong relaxation. Laboratory and computed results on injector current and plasma current agree reasonably well as toroidal magnetic field and injector flux are scaled. The scalings are consistent with a dimensional estimate from the Grad-Shafranov equation that provides a new perspective on a previously published model based on a current-sheet equilibrium and the magnetic pressure required for the ''bubble-burst'' criterion. Numerical solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation with an assumed current profile also indicate large qualitative changes as the predicted criterion is crossed.

  18. The search continues for a Titan-generated Nitrogen Torus in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.; Rymer, A. M.; Lewis, G.; Coates, A. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Young, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, possesses a dense relatively unprotected nitrogen rich atmosphere with no detected intrinsic magnetic field. Therefore, despite the inability of pre-Cassini observations to detect nitrogen in Saturn's magnetosphere , it was logically assumed that nitrogen particles from Titan's atmosphere would form a large toriodal gas cloud. However, Cassini observations have confirmed water-group ions dominate Saturn's heavy ion magnetospheric plasma. While nitrogen ions have been detected beyond the orbit of Rhea, these ions appear to be primarily originating from the Enceladus plumes with little nitrogen plasma detected in the magnetosphere near Titan's orbit. In fact, pick-up oxygen ions from Enceladus are much more abundant than nitrogen in Titan's orbit. These results appear inconsistent with the expectation that Titan's dense relatively unprotected atmosphere should provide a significant source of heavy particles to Saturn's magnetosphere. Resolving this inconsistency could provide import insight into atmospheric loss. In this talk, we expand on our previous research that categorizes the plasma environments near Titan to include all locations along Titan's orbit. Using these categories, we develop characteristic plasma spectra of each type of environment, update ionization lifetimes for each region and apply these results in a 3D Monte Carlo model to more accurately examine the fate of nitrogen and methane escaping Titan's atmosphere to support the possible presence of a Titan torus despite the lack of observations. We also present preliminary Cassini data analysis that looks for the presence of a nitrogen torus as well as the relative ion composition at increasing distances from Titan. This work is supported by the NASA Cassini Data Analysis Program and NASA JPL contract 1243218 for Cassini MIMI and CAPS investigation.

  19. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  20. Suppressing electron turbulence and triggering internal transport barriers with reversed magnetic shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Bell, R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Candy, J.; Smith, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.

    2012-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.

  1. Suppressing electron turbulence and triggering internal transport barriers with reversed magnetic shear in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. L.; Bell, R.; Candy, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Smith, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.

    2012-05-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.

  2. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  3. Topological Entropy of Braids on the Torus

    E-print Network

    Matthew D. Finn; Jean-Luc Thiffeault

    2006-05-11

    A fast method is presented for computing the topological entropy of braids on the torus. This work is motivated by the need to analyze large braids when studying two-dimensional flows via the braiding of a large number of particle trajectories. Our approach is a generalization of Moussafir's technique for braids on the sphere. Previous methods for computing topological entropies include the Bestvina--Handel train-track algorithm and matrix representations of the braid group. However, the Bestvina--Handel algorithm quickly becomes computationally intractable for large braid words, and matrix methods give only lower bounds, which are often poor for large braids. Our method is computationally fast and appears to give exponential convergence towards the exact entropy. As an illustration we apply our approach to the braiding of both periodic and aperiodic trajectories in the sine flow. The efficiency of the method allows us to explore how much extra information about flow entropy is encoded in the braid as the number of trajectories becomes large.

  4. Biaxial torus around nematic point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, S.; Virga, E. G.; Žumer, S.

    1999-08-01

    We study the biaxial structure of both line and point defects in a nematic liquid crystal confined within a capillary tube whose lateral boundary enforces homeotropic anchoring. According to Landau-de Gennes theory the local order in the material is described by a second-order tensor Q, which encompasses both uniaxial and biaxial states. Our study is both analytical and numerical. We show that the core of a line defect with topological charge M=1 is uniaxial in the axial direction. At the lateral boundary, the uniaxial ordering along the radial direction is reached in two qualitatively different ways, depending on the sign of the order parameter on the axis. The point defects with charge M=+/-1 exhibit a uniaxial ring in the plane orthogonal to the cylinder axis. This ring is in turn surrounded by a torus on which the degree of biaxiality attains its maximum. The typical lengths that characterize the structure of these defects depend both on the cylinder radius and the biaxial correlation length. It seems that the core of the point defect does not depend on the far nematic director field in the bulk limit.

  5. The HIT-II Spherical Torus: Physics and Key Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, A. J.; Hamp, W. T.; Izzo, V. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.

    2004-11-01

    Discharges in the HIT-II spherical torus device [Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] can be driven by either Ohmic or Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) current drive. A new CHI operating regime has been explored, with toroidal plasma currents of up to 350 kA, I_p/I_TF ratios of up to 1.2, and internal probing data which may demonstrate the formation of a closed-flux core. The key to acheiving these results is the magnetic field shear in the CHI injector region, with a minimum shear necessary for current build-up. Ohmic plasma performance has also improved, with peak currents up to 300 kA, with and without transient CHI startup. The CHI startup technique [Raman et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2565 (2004)] provides more robust discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds, than unassisted Ohmic. Finally, CHI can be used to enhance an Ohmic plasma current without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT--II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings and applicable parametric operating spaces.

  6. Dynamical Evolution of Pedestal Parameters in ELMy H-mode in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, A; Kubota, S; Sontag, A; Osborne, T; Podesta, M; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B P; Menard, J

    2011-07-27

    Characterizations of the pedestal parameter dynamics throughout the edge localized modes(ELM) cycles are performed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]). A clear buildup of the pedestal height is observed between ELMs for three di erent plasma currents, which tends to saturate prior to the onset of ELM at low and medium plasma current. Similarly, the pedestal width increases with no clear evidence of saturation during an ELM cycle. The maximum pedestal gradient increases as a function of plasma current, reaches a nominal value after the ELM crash, and remains constant until the end of the ELM cycle. The pedestal height just prior to the onset of ELM is shown to increase quadratically with plasma current. The pedestal width ? is proportional to the square-root of the poloidal ? at the top of the pedestal. Coherent density uctuations strongly increasing at the plasma edge are observed to be maximum after the ELM crash and to decay during the rest of the ELM cycle. Finally, the pedestal parameters evolution during the ELM cycle as well as the scaling with Ip of the pedestal pressure prior to the onset ELM are found to be qualitatively consistent with the peeling ballooning theory.

  7. Internal Magnetic Field Structures during Helicity Injection in the HIST Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Haruoka, Masaki; Kano, Shingo; Keishi, Kuramoto; Fukumoto, Naoyuki; Uyama, Tadao

    1996-11-01

    DC or Coaxial helicity injection (CHI) using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun presents an attractive method for driving toroidal plasma currents of spherical torus plasmas. So far, plasma current maintenance by CHI has been successfully demonstrated in the spheromak experiments. It can be said in those experiments that significant fluctuations concerning the MHD relaxations or the dynamo process are required for driving plasma currents and also the magnetic fluctuations during helicity injection process affect inevitably the closed magnetic flux surfaces. Application of CHI to a spherical tokamak is believed to be no longer requires such a large amplitude of fluctuations or global current conversion, but it has not been proved yet. In order to make this issue clear, we have been studying the equilibrium configuration of the helicity-driven spherical tokamak by means of internal magnetic probe arrays. This experiment focuses on the following points: Verification of the formation of ordered closed flux surfaces, (2) Does the spherical tokamak relax to the minimum energy states ? (3) Identifications of the safety factor q profile and the current density profile. (4) The effect of external toroidal field on the current amplification. The dynamics of internal magnetic field structures in the helicity injection process will be presented.

  8. Electron precipitation and related aeronomy of the Jovian thermosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cravens, T. E.; Kozyra, J.; Nagy, A. F.; Atreya, S. K.; Chen, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model of both the auroral and nonauroral atmosphere and ionosphere of Jupiter is presented and used to study particle precipitation effects in the Jovian upper atmosphere, both at middle and high latitudes. The sources of energy in the model include extreme ultraviolet radiation and energetic electrons. The precipitation of monoenergetic beams of both one and ten keV electrons at high Jovian latitudes are treated in detail, and the effects of higher energy electrons and soft electrons at middle and low latitudes are considered. The effects of this precipitation, such as airglow excitation, ionization, dissociation, and heating are examined. Calculations of the densities of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and the important ions as well as the temperatures of the neutral, electron, and ion species are included.

  9. The role of proton precipitation in Jovian aurora: Theory and observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Curran, D. B.; Cravens, T. E.; Clarke, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    It was proposed that the Jovian auroral emissions observed by Voyager spacecraft could be explained by energetic protons precipitating into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. Such precipitation of energetic protons results in Doppler-shifted Lyman alpha emission that can be quantitatively analyzed to determine the energy flux and energy distribution of the incoming particle beam. Modeling of the expected emission from a reasonably chosen Voyager energetic proton spectrum can be used in conjunction with International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations, which show a relative lack of red-shifted Lyman alpha emission, to set upper limits on the amount of proton precipitation taking place in the Jovian aurora. Such calculations indicate that less than 10 percent of the ultraviolet auroral emissions at Jupiter can be explained by proton precipitation.

  10. Large amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock: Reinterpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wong, H. K.; Vinas, A. F.; Smith, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock were previously interpreted as arising from a resonant electromagnetic ion beam instability. That interpretation was based on the conclusion that the observed fluctuations were predominantly right elliptically polarized in the solar wind rest frame. Because it was noted that the fluctuations are, in fact, left elliptically polarized, a reanalysis of the observations was necessary. Several mechanisms for producing left hand polarized MHD waves in the observed frequency range were investigated. Instabilities excited by protons appear unlikely to account for the observations. A resonant instability excited by relativistic electrons escaping from the Jovian magnetosphere is a likely source of free energy consistent with the observations. Evidence for the existence of such a population of electrons was found in both the Low Energy Charged Particle experiments and Cosmic Ray experiments on Voyager 2.

  11. Ray tracing of Jovian decametric radiation from Southern and Northern Hemisphere sources - Comparison with Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas; Green, James L.; Six, N. Frank; Gulkis, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy observations of Io-dependent decametric (DAM) radiation originating from the Southern Hemisphere of Jupiter were compared with the results of three-dimensional model ray tracing calculations of the DAM radiation. The ray trajectories for sources located at constant sub-Io longitudes of 260 and 300 deg were computed for both the Northern and the Southern Jovian Hemisphere sources. The model results of wave propagation agree with the Voyager observations obtained with Io located at 260 and 300 deg in Jovian system III longitude. The agreement between the Voyager observations and the model ray tracings allows identification of the origin of several of the emission components.

  12. Significance of radiation models in investigating the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    Formulation is presented to demonstrate the significance of a simplified radiation model in investigating the flow-phenomena in the viscous radiating shock layer of a Jovian entry body. For this, a nongray absorption model for hydrogen-helium gas is developed which consists of 30 steps over the spectral range of 0-20 eV. By employing this model results were obtained for temperature, pressure, density, and radiative flux in the shock layer and along the body surface. These are compared with results of two sophisticated radiative transport models available in the literature. Use of the present radiation model results in significant reduction in computational time. Results of this model are found to be in general agreement with results of other models. It is concluded that use of the present model is justified in investigating the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body because it is relatively simple, computationally fast, and yields fairly accurate results.

  13. Clumps and Temporal Changes in the Jovian Ring System as Viewed by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Cheng, A. F.; Weaver, H. A.; Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Throop, H.; Birath, E. M.; Rose, D.; Moore, J. M.

    2007-10-01

    New Horizons obtained 400 ring images of the Jovian ring system using the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). This camera has a broad bandpass spanning wavelengths ? = 0.35 to 0.85 µm. The ring was imaged at phase angles 7°-159°. In addition, one sequence of near-IR spectra (? = 1.25 to 2.5 µm) was obtained by the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) for compositional studies. Two ring rotation movies during Jupiter approach were used to search for small moons embedded within the system. These bodies might serve as source bodies for the prevalent ring dust. No moons were detected down to a threshold of 500 m radius, suggesting a sharp cutoff in the population of inner Jovian moons below 8-km Adrastea. Although this search focused on the main Jovian ring, any 1-km moons from orbital radius r = 100,000 km to beyond the orbit of Amalthea (r = 181,000 km) should have been detected multiple times. More surprisingly, the ring revealed two clusters of tiny clumps, one pair and one set of three. These are definitively not moons because they have longitudinal extents of a few tenths of a degree. Separations between clumps are 2 to 4° but are not uniform. These clump families both orbit within a brightness peak just interior to the orbit of Adrastea, at r = 128,740 km. Their origin is unknown. They are not visible at high phase angles, indicating that they are composed primarily of larger "parent” bodies, not dust. They are definitely not related to a clump detected in Cassini images of the Jovian ring from December 2000, indicating that at least some ring clumps are transient. The large quadrant asymmetries reported in earlier images from Voyager and Galileo are completely absent in the new data.

  14. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Cravens, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ford, P.

    2004-11-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" X-ray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk. The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SEE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over the Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magnetic field strength is visible. Also, unlike the 40±20-min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton X-ray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar-driven process.

  15. Effects of precursor heating on chemical and radiation nonequilibrium viscous flow around a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of precursor heating on viscous chemical nonequilibrium radiating flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated. Results obtained for a 45-degree hyperboloid blunt body entering Jupiter's nominal atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicate that the nonequilibrium radiative heating rate is significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursor heating, in general, increases the radiative and convective heating to the body, and this increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.

  16. Effects of precursor heating on chemical and radiative nonequilibrium viscous flow around a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of precursor heating on viscous chemical nonequilibrium radiating flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated. Results obtained for a 45 deg hyperboloid blunt body entering the Jupiter's nominal atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicate that the nonequilibrium radiative heating rate is significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursors heating, in general, increases the radiative and convective heating to the body and this increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.

  17. MODELING THE MODULATION OF GALACTIC AND JOVIAN ELECTRONS BY STOCHASTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.; Buesching, I.; Kopp, A.

    2011-07-10

    We present a newly developed numerical modulation model to study the transport of galactic and Jovian electrons in the heliosphere. The model employs stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to solve the corresponding transport equation in five dimensions (time, energy, and three spatial dimensions) which is difficult to accomplish with the numerical schemes used in finite difference models. Modeled energy spectra for galactic electrons are compared for the two drift cycles to observations at Earth. Energy spectra and radial intensity profiles of galactic and Jovian electrons are compared successfully to results from previous studies. In line with general drift considerations, it is found that most 100 MeV electrons observed at Earth enter the heliosphere near the equatorial regions in the A > 0 cycle, while they enter mainly over the polar regions in the A < 0 cycle. Our results indicate that 100 MeV electrons observed at Earth originate at the heliopause with {approx}600 MeV undergoing adiabatic cooling during their transport to Earth. The mean propagation time of these particles varies between {approx}180 and 300 days, depending on the drift cycle. For 10 MeV Jovian electrons observed at Earth, a mean propagation time of {approx}40 days is obtained. During this time, the azimuthal position of the Jovian magnetosphere varies by {approx}1{sup 0}. At a 50 AU observational point, the mean propagation time of these electrons increases to {approx}370 days with an azimuthal position change of Jupiter of {approx}20{sup 0}. The SDE approach is very effective in calculating these propagation times.

  18. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  19. Influence of nonequilibrium radiation on heating of an ablating Jovian entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer on the entire shock-layer flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be viscous, axisymmetric, laminar, and in chemical equilibrium. The entry body considered is a 35-deg hyperboloid and the results have been obtained for the peak heating entry conditions. The results indicate that the radiative heating of the entry body is significantly higher under NLTE conditions.

  20. Water Ice Lines and the Formation of Giant Moons around Super-Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René; Pudritz, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Most of the exoplanets with known masses at Earth-like distances to Sun-like stars are heavier than Jupiter, which raises the question of whether such planets are accompanied by detectable, possibly habitable moons. Here we simulate the accretion disks around super-Jovian planets and find that giant moons with masses similar to Mars can form. Our results suggest that the Galilean moons formed during the final stages of accretion onto Jupiter, when the circumjovian disk was sufficiently cool. In contrast to other studies, with our assumptions, we show that Jupiter was still feeding from the circumsolar disk and that its principal moons cannot have formed after the complete photoevaporation of the circumsolar nebula. To counteract the steady loss of moons into the planet due to type I migration, we propose that the water ice line around Jupiter and super-Jovian exoplanets acted as a migration trap for moons. Heat transitions, however, cross the disk during the gap opening within ?104 years, which makes them inefficient as moon traps and indicates a fundamental difference between planet and moon formation. We find that icy moons larger than the smallest known exoplanet can form at about 15-30 Jupiter radii around super-Jovian planets. Their size implies detectability by the Kepler and PLATO space telescopes as well as by the European Extremely Large Telescope. Observations of such giant exomoons would be a novel gateway to understanding planet formation, as moons carry information about the accretion history of their planets.

  1. On the dynamics of the jovian ionosphere and thermosphere.. IV. Ion-neutral coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, George; Miller, Steve; Stallard, Tom; Achilleos, Nick; Aylward, Alan D.

    2005-01-01

    We use the fully coupled, three-dimensional, global circulation Jovian Ionospheric Model (JIM) to calculate the coupling between ions in the jovian auroral ovals and the co-existing neutral atmosphere. The model shows that ions subject to drift motion around the auroral oval, as a result of the E×B coupling between a meridional, equatorward electric field and the jovian magnetic field, generate neutral winds in the planetary frame of reference. Unconstrained by the magnetic field, these neutral winds have a greater latitudinal extent than the corresponding ion drifts. Values of the coupling coefficient, k(h), are presented as a function of altitude and cross-auroral electric field strength, for different incoming electron fluxes and energies. The results show that, with ion velocities of several hundred metres per second to over 1 km s -1, k(h) can attain values greater than 0.5 at the ion production peak. This parameter is key to calculating the effective conductivities required to model magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling correctly. The extent to which angular momentum (and therefore energy) is transported vertically in JIM is much more limited than earlier, one-dimensional, studies have predicted.

  2. The morphology of the north Jovian ultraviolet aurora observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, Jean-Claude; Dols, Vincent; Prange, Renee; Paresce, Francesco

    1994-01-01

    A series of six images covering a complete rotation of the north polar region of Jupiter were obtained in February 1993 with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These images provide the first global picture of the morphology of the Jovian ultraviolet aurora observed from Earth orbit. The camera passband was centered near 153 nm, a region dominated by the H2 Lyman bands and continuum. The successive exposures, taken approximately 90 min apart, are used to construct a polar view of the auroral zone. It is found that the auroral emissions do not exactly follow the footprint of a constant L-shell although the size of the oval and its location agree best with the footprints of the approximately equal to 30 R(sub J) field line in the GSFC O6 model of the Jovian magnetic field. The displacement between the observed auroral zone and the theoretical oval may indicate a possible distortion of the Jovian magnetic field lines near the surface. A comparison with two images at the same wavelength obtained 8 months earlier shows that the main morphological features are persistent, in spite of changes in the detailed emission distribution. Small scale features with characteristic sizes of approximately 1000 km are observed along the auroral oval. The change of morphology observed as a function of the System 3 longitude appears as a persistent characteristic of the morphology of the north polar aurora.

  3. Measurement of the Rotation Rate of Jovian Planets with Doppler Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Piper

    2013-06-01

    Jupiter and Saturn are the two gas giants in our solar system. These huge planets rotate very quickly and are composed of gas with no rock or ice surface like many of the other planets in our solar system. Determining the rotational velocity of these planets is of interest to scientists as this information can help in the understanding of the origins of these gas giants and the formation of our solar system. With an amateur astronomer’s telescope in a backyard observatory, is it possible to determine the speed of rotation of Jupiter and Saturn by measuring the Doppler shift of the Hydrogen-? emission lines from each side of the planet? Two Jovian planets, Jupiter and Saturn were studied. The rotational velocity was calculated by aligning the spectroscope slit with the equatorial axis of the Jovian planet and capturing a spectrum that shows tilt in the characteristic emission lines then analyzing the tilt of the emission lines and calculating the amount of Doppler shift implied by this spectral shift. By careful use of consumer grade astronomical equipment it is possible for an amateur astronomer to determine the rotational velocity of the Jovian planets from a backyard home observatory in a suburban setting.

  4. NEOWISE: The Physical and Dynamical Properties of the Cybele, Hilda and Jovian Trojan Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Masiero, Joseph; Nugent, Carolyn; Sonnett, Sarah; Cutri, Roc Michael; Kramer, Emily

    2015-08-01

    The solar-system portion of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, known as NEOWISE, has collected more than 2 million observations of more than 160,000 asteroids (Wright et al. 2010; Mainzer et al. 2010, 2012, 2014). The dataset is by far the most comprehensive set of thermal observations of asteroids and comets to date and allows for an unprecedented opportunity to derive the true, de-biased size- and albedo-frequencies of the large primitive asteroids in our Solar System. The distribution of the primitive asteroids found in the Cybele, Hilda and Jovian Trojan population are key in understanding and testing the current theories of early solar system formation and evolution.NEOWISE provided observations of more than 1200 asteroids in the Cybele population, more than 1000 in the Hilda population, and more than 1700 Jovian Trojans (Grav et al. 2011, 2012a). Through thermal modeling and de-biasing of the observed population we derive the true size and albedo distributions for these populations down to 3, 6 and 10km for the Cybele, Hilda and Jovian Trojan populations, respectively. Through an innovative method of analysis of the reflective albedo in the shortest WISE band we are able to determine the taxonomic distribution of more than 100 of the largest objects in each population (Grav et al, 2012b). We will present updated and refined de-biased models for these three populations and discuss their relationship, origins and evolutions.

  5. Jovian Trojan Exploration and Deep Space Cruising Sciences by the Solar Power Sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Jovian Trojan asteroids are as one of a few remaining final frontiers within our Solar System, which may hold fundamental clues of the Solar System formation and revolution. Their genesis is discussed by two competing hypotheses between the classic model and the more recent Nice model. The former suggests that Trojan asteroids are mainly survivors of building blocks of the Jupiter system, while the latter claims that they must be intruders from outer regions after the planetary migration of gas planets settled. In previous years, scientific investigations of these dark, distant asteroid reservoirs were largely depended upon ground observations by large optical and spectroscopic telescopes, while few D-type asteroid analog meteorites were collected on the earth with an exception of Tagish Lake meteorites. However, thanks to recent development of observational technologies such as adaptive optics, statistical studies of asteroids in Jovian L4 and L5 regions have been made possible and raised new questions about their compositions far beyond the current snow line and internal structures implied by binary system measurements. This presentation discusses major scientific objectives of an exploration mission to Jovian Trojans for the first time in the history, its mission design and spacecraft system using solar power sail, a hybrid propulsion system of electric propulsion and photon sail, which inherited from the IKAROS deep space solar sail spacecraft, together with major engineering challenges, in-situ observation instruments and operational options.

  6. Efficient Subtorus Processor Allocation in a Multi-Dimensional Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Weizhen Mao; Jie Chen; William Watson

    2005-11-30

    Processor allocation in a mesh or torus connected multicomputer system with up to three dimensions is a hard problem that has received some research attention in the past decade. With the recent deployment of multicomputer systems with a torus topology of dimensions higher than three, which are used to solve complex problems arising in scientific computing, it becomes imminent to study the problem of allocating processors of the configuration of a torus in a multi-dimensional torus connected system. In this paper, we first define the concept of a semitorus. We present two partition schemes, the Equal Partition (EP) and the Non-Equal Partition (NEP), that partition a multi-dimensional semitorus into a set of sub-semitori. We then propose two processor allocation algorithms based on these partition schemes. We evaluate our algorithms by incorporating them in commonly used FCFS and backfilling scheduling policies and conducting simulation using workload traces from the Parallel Workloads Archive. Specifically, our simulation experiments compare four algorithm combinations, FCFS/EP, FCFS/NEP, backfilling/EP, and backfilling/NEP, for two existing multi-dimensional torus connected systems. The simulation results show that our algorithms (especially the backfilling/NEP combination) are capable of producing schedules with system utilization and mean job bounded slowdowns comparable to those in a fully connected multicomputer.

  7. Multilayer mirror and foil filter AXUV diode arrays on CDX-U spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stutman, D.; Iovea, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.; Munsat, T.; Jones, B.; Hoffman, D.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent upgrades to CDX-U spherical torus diagnostics include two 10-channel AXUV diode arrays. The multilayer mirror (MLM) array measures the ?150 O VI brightness profile in the poloidal plane using the Mo/B4C synthetic multilayer structures as dispersive elements. The foil filter array has a tangential view and is equipped with interchangeable clear aperture, beryllium and titanium filters. This allows measurements of radiated power, O VI or C V radial distributions, respectively. The O VI and C V emissivity and the radiated power profiles are highly peaked. A Neoclassical impurity accumulation mechanism is considered as an explanation. For radiated power measurements in the Te?100 eV plasmas, photon energy dependent corrections must be used in order to account for nonlinear AXUV sensitivity in the range Ephot?20 eV. The arrays are also used for characterization of resistive MHD phenomena, such as the low m modes, saw-tooth oscillations and internal reconnection events. Based on the successful operation of the diagnostics, a new ultra soft x-ray multilayer mirror diode AXUV diode array monitoring the 34 Å emissivity distribution of C VI will be built and installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

  8. Voids in Jovian magnetosphere revisited - Evidence of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.; Walker, R. J.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Plasma Science Instrument (PLS) measuring cold plasma number density observed about a dozen 'voids', lasting from a few minutes to 20 min, in the vicinity of the Ganymede-orbit crossing, when the low-energy ion and electron fluxes recorded fell to very low levels. Original interpretations associated these 'voids' with Ganymede wake effects. In the present study, the PLS data are reexamined, in conjunction with data from the magnetic field experiment and the low-energy charged particle (LECP) experiment. The LECP data showed that the PLS voids were accompanied by large enhancements of the flux of energetic electrons and ions, while the magnetic data exhibited no systematic signatures. It is suggested that increased energetic electron fluxes in the void regions intermittently charged the spacecraft negatively to values between a few kV and a few tens of kV, and that spacecraft charging could have produce dropouts in the measured cold ion and electron fluxes and enhancements in the measured fluxes of hot particles consistent with the observations.

  9. Studies of improved electron confinement in low density L-mode National Spherical Torus Experiment discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Redi, M. H.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Hill, K. W.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J. E.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W. X.; Synakowski, E. J.; Levinton, F.; Kubota, S.; Bourdelle, C.; Dorland, W.; The NSTX Team

    2006-09-15

    Electron transport is rapid in most National Spherical Torus Experiment, M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000) beam heated plasmas. A regime of improved electron confinement is nevertheless observed in low density L-mode (''low-confinement'') discharges heated by early beam injection. Experiments were performed in this regime to study the role of the current profile on thermal transport. Variations in the magnetic shear profile were produced by changing the current ramp rate and onset of neutral beam heating. An increased electron temperature gradient and local minimum in the electron thermal diffusivity were observed at early times in plasmas with the fastest current ramp and earliest beam injection. In addition, an increased ion temperature gradient associated with a region of reduced ion transport is observed at slightly larger radii. Ultrasoft x-ray measurements of double-tearing magnetohydrodynamic activity, together with current diffusion calculations, point to the existence of negative magnetic shear in the core of these plasmas. Discharges with slower current ramp and delayed beam onset, which are estimated to have more monotonic q-profiles, do not exhibit regions of reduced transport. The results are discussed in the light of the initial linear microstability assessment of these plasmas, which suggests that the growth rate of all instabilities, including microtearing modes, can be reduced by negative or low magnetic shear in the temperature gradient region. Several puzzles arising from the present experiments are also highlighted.

  10. MHD simulation of relaxation transition to a flipped relaxed state in spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro

    2008-11-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated in the HIST device that in spite of the violation of the Kruskal-Shafranov stability condition, a normal spherical torus (ST) plasma has relaxed to a flipped ST state through a transient reversed-field pinch-like state when the vacuum toroidal field is decreased and its direction is reversed [1]. It has been also observed during this relaxation transition process that not only the toroidal field but also the poloidal field reverses polarity spontaneously and that the ion flow velocity is strongly fluctuated and abruptly increased up to > 50 km/s. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the plasma flows and the relevant MHD relaxation phenomena to elucidate this transition mechanism by using three-dimensional MHD simulations [2]. It is found from the numerical results that the magnetic reconnection between the open and closed field lines occurs due to the non-linear growth of the n=1 kink instability of the central open flux, generating the toroidal flow ˜ 60 km/s in the direction of the toroidal current. The n=1 kink instability and the plasma flows driven by the magnetic reconnection are consider to be responsible for the self-reversal of the magnetic fields. [1] M. Nagata el al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 225001 (2003). [2] Y. Kagei el al., Plasma. Phys. Control. Fusion 45, L17 (2003).

  11. Operation and reliability of a pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection system on the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Jernigan, T.C.; Baylor, L.R.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Kupschus, P.; Gadeberg, M.; Bailey, W.; Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon . JET Joint Undertaking)

    1989-01-01

    A pneumatic-based, hydrogen isotope pellet injector that was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the plasma fueling application on the Joint European Torus (JET) was described at the last Symposium on Fusion Engineering (1987). The injector was installed on JET during 1987 and has since been used in plasma fueling experiments. The injector consists of three independent machine-gun-like mechanisms (nominal pellet sizes of 2.7, 4.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter), and it features repetitive operation (1-5 Hz) for quasi-steady-state conditions (>10 s). An extensive set of injector diagnostics permits evaluation of parameters for each pellet shot, including speed, mass, and integrity. Pellet speeds can be varied but typically range from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s. Over 5000 pellets have been fired with the equipment at JET, including about 2000 pellets shot for plasma fueling experiments. In recent experiments, the system performance has been outstanding, including excellent reproducibility in pellet speed and mass and a reliability of >98% in delivery of pellets to the plasma. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Physics design of a 28 GHz electron heating system for the National Spherical Torus experiment upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Ellis, R. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J. C.; Poli, F.; Harvey, R. W.; Raman, R.; Smirnov, A. P.

    2014-02-12

    A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is being designed to support non-inductive (NI) plasma current (I{sub p}) start-up and local heating and current drive (CD) in H-mode discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The development of fully NI I{sub p} start-up and ramp-up is an important goal of the NSTXU research program. 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating is predicted to rapidly increase the central electron temperature (T{sub e}(0)) of low density NI plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI). The increased T{sub e}(0) will significantly reduce the I{sub p} decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. Also 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating and CD can be used during the I{sub p} flat top in NSTX-U discharges when the plasma is overdense. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck numerical simulation codes have been used to model EC and EBW heating and CD in NSTX-U. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the 28 GHz heating system and some of the results from the numerical simulations.

  13. Physics Design of a 28 GHz Electron Heating System for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-09

    A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is being designed to support non-inductive (NI) plasma current (I{sub p}) start-up and local heating and current drive (CD) in H-mode discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The development of fully NI I{sub p} start-up and ramp-up is an important goal of the NSTX-U research program. 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating is predicted to rapidly increase the central electron temperature (T{sub e}(0)) of low density NI plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI). The increased T{sub e}(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. Also 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating and CD can be used during the I{sub p} flat top in NSTX-U discharges when the plasma is overdense. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck numerical simulation codes have been used to model EC and EBW heating and CD in NSTX-U. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the 28 GHz heating system and some of the results from the numerical simulations.

  14. GALILEO RADIO AND PLASMA WAVE OBSERVATIONS AT JUPITER: AN INVITED

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    GALILEO RADIO AND PLASMA WAVE OBSERVATIONS AT JUPITER: AN INVITED OVERVIEW D. A. Gurnett , W. S. Kurth , A. Roux , C. F. Kennel and S. J. Bolton§ On 7 December 1995 the Galileo spacecraft made a close of the immediate vicinity of Io. The Galileo plasma wave investigation found that the torus was a factor of two

  15. The magnetospheres of the outer planets

    SciTech Connect

    Mcnutt, R.L., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on the magnetospheres of all of the outer planets including Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto is reviewed for the 1987-1990 time period. Particular attention is given to magnetospheric structure, plasma transport, Jovian aurora, Io and the plasma torus, Titan and its magnetospheric interactions, rings and dusty plasmas, magnetospheric convection, and satellite interactions.

  16. Dust in the torus of the AGN unified model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Rachel E.

    2015-10-01

    In these proceedings I briefly summarize our current understanding of the dusty torus of the AGN unified model: its structure, composition, and ideas about its origin and evolution. The paper is based on an invited review talk at the 7th Meeting on Cosmic Dust, which covered dust-related topics in areas from comets to debris disks and high-redshift galaxies. This is therefore intended to be an accessible, introductory overview of the torus with some emphasis on the solid-state spectral features observed.

  17. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  18. Statistical analysis of variations in impurity ion heating at reconnection events in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Cartolano, M. S.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706

    2014-01-15

    The connection between impurity ion heating and other physical processes in the plasma is evaluated by studying variations in the amount of ion heating at reconnection events in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). Correlation of the change in ion temperature with individual tearing mode amplitudes indicates that the edge-resonant modes are better predictors for the amount of global ion heating than the core-resonant modes. There is also a strong correlation between ion heating and current profile relaxation. Simultaneous measurements of the ion temperature at different toroidal locations reveal, for the first time, a toroidal asymmetry to the ion heating in MST. These results present challenges for existing heating theories and suggest a stronger connection between edge-resonant tearing modes, current profile relaxation, and ion heating than has been previously thought.

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of blob dynamics in a simple magnetized torus

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Federico D. Cardellini, Annalisa; Ricci, Paolo; Jolliet, Sébastien; Loizu, Joaquim; Mosetto, Annamaria

    2014-02-15

    The propagation of blobs, structures of localized enhanced plasma pressure, is studied in global three-dimensional simulations of a simple magnetized torus. In particular, we carry out single-seeded blob simulations to explore the dependence of the blob velocity with respect to its size. It is found that the velocity scaling for two-dimensional blobs is satisfied in the parameter space where polarization currents are the dominant damping mechanism. On the other hand, three-dimensional blobs propagate faster than their two-dimensional counterparts in the parallel current damping regime. A detailed analysis of the charge and current balance reveals that, in fact, the difference in speed is due to an overestimation of the strength of the sheath current term in the two-dimensional model compared to the self-consistent three-dimensional model.

  20. Ohmic Flux Consumption During Initial Operation of the NSTX Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    J. Menard; B. LeBlanc; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Bell; R. Bell; E. Fredrickson; D. Gates; S. Jardin; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; R. Maingi; R. Maqueda; D. Mueller; M. Ono; S.Paul; C.H. Skinner; D. Stutman; and the NSTX Research Team.

    2000-10-05

    The spherical tokamak (ST), because of its slender central column, has very limited volt-second capability relative to a standard aspect ratio tokamak of similar plasma cross-section. Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have begun to quantify and optimize the ohmic current drive efficiency in a MA-class ST device. Sustainable ramp-rates in excess of 5MA/sec during the current rise phase have been achieved on NSTX, while faster ramps generate significant MHD activity. Discharges with Ip exceeding 1MA have been achieved in NSTX with nominal parameters: aspect ratio A=1.3--1.4, elongation k=2--2.2, triangularity d=0.4, internal inductance li=0.6, and Ejima coefficient CE=0.35. Flux consumption efficiency results, performance improvements associated with first boronization, and comparisons to neoclassical resistivity are described.

  1. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; D.S. Darrow; D. Liu; A.L. Roquemore

    2005-03-25

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I{sub p} {approx} 0.5 MA) and electron density (n{sub e} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented.

  2. Plasmoids Formation During Simulations of Coaxial Helicity Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, F; Raman, R

    2015-05-22

    The formation of an elongated Sweet-Parker current sheet and a transition to plasmoid instability has for the first time been predicted by simulations in a large-scale toroidal fusion plasma in the absence of any preexisting instability. Plasmoid instability is demonstrated through resistive MHD simulations of transient coaxial helicity injection experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Consistent with the theory, fundamental characteristics of the plasmoid instability, including fast reconnection rate, have been observed in these realistic simulations. Motivated by the simulations, experimental camera images have been revisited and suggest the existence of reconnecting plasmoids in NSTX. Global, system-size plasmoid formation observed here should also have strong implications for astrophysical reconnection, such as rapid eruptive solar events. PMID:26047235

  3. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; White, S.; Patton, B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering of several vehicles designed for a crewed mission to the Jovian satellite Callisto. Each subsystem is discussed in detail. Mission and trajectory analysis for each mission concept is described. Crew support components are also described. Vehicles were developed using both fission powered magneto plasma dynamic (MPD) thrusters and magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion systems. Conclusions were drawn regarding the usefulness of these propulsion systems for crewed exploration of the outer solar system.

  4. Density and beta limits in the Madison Symmetric Torus Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspary, Kyle Jonathan

    Operational limits and the underlying physics are explored on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) using deuterium pellet fueling. The injection of a fast pellet provides a large source of fuel in the plasma edge upon impact with the vessel wall, capable of triggering density limit terminations for the full range of plasma current, up to 600 kA. As the pellet size and plasma density increase, approaching the empirical Greenwald limit, plasma degradation is observed in the form of current decay, increased magnetic activity in the edge and core, increased radiation and plasma cooling. The complete termination of the plasma is consistent with the Greenwald limit; however, a slightly smaller maximum density is observed in discharges without toroidal field reversal. The plasma beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the confining magnetic pressure. Beta limits are known to constrain other magnetic confinement devices, but no beta limit has yet been established on the RFP. On MST, the highest beta values are obtained in improved confinement discharges with pellet fueling. By using pellet injection to scan the plasma density during PPCD, we also achieve a scan of Ohmic input power due to the increase in plasma resistivity. We observe a factor of 3 or more increase in Ohmic power as we increase the density from 1*1019 to 3*10 19 m-3. Despite this increased Ohmic power, the electron contribution to beta is constant, suggesting a confinement limited beta for the RFP. The electrons and ions are classically well coupled in these cold, dense pellet fueled plasmas, so the increase in total beta at higher density is primarily due to the increased ion contribution. The interaction of pellet fueling and NBI heating is explored. Modeling of MST's neutral heating beam suggests an optimal density for beam power deposition of 2-3*1019 m-3. Low current, NBI heated discharges show evidence of an increased electron beta in this density range. Additionally, the fast ion population can enhance ablation as well as cause pellet deflection. Other exploratory experiments with the pellet injection system explore additional injection scenarios and expand the injector capabilities.

  5. PPPL-3454 PPPL-3454 Operational Limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    E-print Network

    PPPL-3454 PPPL-3454 UC-70 Operational Limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment by S in the National Spherical Torus Experiment S.M. Kaye1 , M. G. Bell1 , R. E. Bell1 , D. Gates1 , R. Maingi2 , E.S.A I) Introduction The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle scale device

  6. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-76CH03073. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Mode on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) G. Taylor, P.C. Efthimion, B.P. LeBlanc, M on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) G. Taylor, P.C. Efthimion, B.P. LeBlanc Princeton Plasma Physics

  7. Recursive representation of the torus 1-point conformal block

    E-print Network

    Leszek Hadasz; Zbigniew Jaskolski; Paulina Suchanek

    2009-11-22

    The recursive relation for the 1-point conformal block on a torus is derived and used to prove the identities between conformal blocks recently conjectured by R. Poghossian. As an illustration of the efficiency of the recurrence method the modular invariance of the 1-point Liouville correlation function is numerically analyzed.

  8. Modular differential equations for torus one-point functions

    E-print Network

    Matthias R Gaberdiel; Samuel Lang

    2008-11-17

    It is shown that in a rational conformal field theory every torus one-point function of a given highest weight state satisfies a modular differential equation. We derive and solve these differential equations explicitly for some Virasoro minimal models. In general, however, the resulting amplitudes do not seem to be expressible in terms of standard transcendental functions.

  9. Convergence and divergence of Kleinian punctured torus groups

    E-print Network

    Ito, Kentaro

    punctured torus groups is ob- tained by the method due to Anderson and Canary (Invent. Math. 1996). Thus we by Anderson and Canary [AC] (see also [BH]): here we say that D(S) self-bumps if there is a point developed by Anderson and Canary [AC]. To describe our results, we review the basic setting. 1 #12;Let T (S

  10. Minimum congestion spanning trees of grids and discrete toruses

    E-print Network

    Ostrovskii, Mikhail

    Mathematics I Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering (ETSIT) Universidad de Vigo Lagoas graph, discrete torus. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 05C05; Secondary: 05C35. 1 of a tree T. If we delete all edges incident with u from T, we get a forest. The maximal number of vertices

  11. The noncommutative torus and Dirac calculus November 14, 2010

    E-print Network

    Zilber, Boris

    . In the same manner as the structure of a Lie algebra can replace the structure of a corresponding Lie group the noncommutative torus T2 q for q a root of unity, and in [5] for generic q, which we showed to be approximated, under certain assumptions, by the structures at roots of unity. Using the idea of structural

  12. Umbilical Torus Bifurcations in Hamiltonian Systems Henk W. Broer

    E-print Network

    Umbilical Torus Bifurcations in Hamiltonian Systems Henk W. Broer Instituut voor Wiskunde en appropriate transversality conditions to hold so that the tori in the unperturbed system bifurcate according to a (generalized) umbilical catastrophe. Combining techniques of KAM theory and singularity theory we show

  13. Algebraic Quantization on the Torus and Modular Invariance

    E-print Network

    J. Guerrero; V. Aldaya; M. Calixto

    1997-01-31

    New features of systems with non-trivial topology such as fractional quantum numbers, inequivalent quantizations, good operators, topological anomalies, etc. are described in the framework of an algebraic quantization procedure on a group. Modular invariance naturally appears as a subgroup of good operators in the particular case of the torus.

  14. Preliminary Design of JLAB Clas12 Large Superconducting Torus Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B; Taylor, C; Zbasnik, J; Dell' Orco, D; Ross, J; Chen, J; Xu, L; Chen, H; Wagner, B; McMullin, J; Pong, R; Juang, T; Wang, M; Carter, C; Quettier, L; Burkert, V; Elouadrhiri, L; Kashy, D; Leung, E

    2011-06-01

    Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB) will need a 6-coil Torus producing a required integral of B-dl for an upgrade 12 GeV beam. In Sept. 2009, Wang NMR was awarded a contract to design, fabricate, assemble, deliver, and test at JLAB this ex citing magnet. The preliminary design review was completed by Dec. 2009 and intermediate design review will be completed by July 2010. Proto type coil construction, production of soldered conductor with SSC cable and final design review will be completed in 2010. We shall describe preliminary design and intermediate design for coil/cryostat, Torus central cylinder (hub), 48 cold mass suspensions, two intercoil support rings, cryocontrol tower, and adapter to Torus coil, magnet quench protection, and charge/ discharge con trol, and the two parallel path cooling design using supercritical helium. Because of coil in-plane and out-of-plane EM forces over these huge thin coils in addition to vacuum load, gravity load, and cool down thermal stress, we shall present the finite element analyses (FEA) on coil structure, 48 cold mass supports, intercoil cold rings, coil/ cryostat vacuum vessel, cryotower cryostat, and Torus hub. Finally, we shall shows that all pressure/ vacuum vessels and its weldment has satisfied ASME code.

  15. The Properties of Jovian Trojan Asteroids Listed in SDSS Moving Object Catalog 3

    E-print Network

    Gy. M. Szabo; Z. Ivezic; M. Juric; R. Lupton

    2007-03-01

    We analyze 1187 observations of about 860 unique candidate Jovian Trojan asteroids listed in the 3rd release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalog. The sample is complete at the faint end to r=21.2 mag (apparent brightness) and H=13.8 (absolute brightness, approximately corresponding to 10 km diameter). A subset of 297 detections of previously known Trojans were used to design and optimize a selection method based on observed angular velocity that resulted in the remaining objects. Using a sample of objects with known orbits, we estimate that the candidate sample contamination is about 3%. The well-controlled selection effects, the sample size, depth and accurate five-band UV-IR photometry enabled several new findings and the placement of older results on a firmer statistical footing. We find that there are significantly more asteroids in the leading swarm (L4) than in the trailing swarm (L5): N(L4)/N(L5)=1.6$\\pm$0.1, independently of limiting object's size. The overall counts normalization suggests that there are about as many Jovians Trojans as there are main-belt asteroids down to the same size limit, in agreement with earlier estimates. We find that Trojan asteroids have a remarkably narrow color distribution (root-mean-scatter of only $\\sim$0.05 mag) that is significantly different from the color distribution of the main-belt asteroids. The color of Trojan asteroids is correlated with their orbital inclination, in a similar way for both swarms, but appears uncorrelated with the object's size. We extrapolate the results presented here and estimate that Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will determine orbits, accurate colors and measure light curves in six photometric bandpasses for about 100,000 Jovian Trojan asteroids.

  16. Modeling Spectra of the North and South Jovian X-ray Auroras

    SciTech Connect

    Kharchenko, Vasili A; Bhardwaj, Anil; Dalgarno, A.; Schultz, David Robert; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2008-08-01

    Spectra of Jovian X-ray auroras observed from the North and South poles with the Chandra X-ray telescope are analyzed and compared with predicted spectra of the charge-exchange mechanism. To determine the theoretical spectra of Jovian X-ray auroras, we model numerically the collisionally induced evolution of energy and charge distributions of Oq+ and Sq+ ions, precipitating into the Jovian atmosphere. Monte Carlo simulations of the energy and charge relaxation of the precipitating ions are carried out with updated cross-sections of the ion stripping, electron capture, and gas-ionization collisions. X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of cascading radiation induced by individual energetic sulfur and oxygen ions are calculated, and relative intensities of X-ray emission lines are determined. Synthetic spectra of X-ray and EUV photons are computed at different initial kinetic energies and compositions of ion-precipitating fluxes. Theoretical spectra with adjustable initial energies and relative fraction of sulfur and oxygen ions are shown to be in good agreement with the spectra of X rays detected from the South and North polar regions. The abundances and initial energies of the precipitating ions are inferred by comparing synthetic and observed X-ray spectra. Comparisons are performed independently for the North and South pole emissions. Abundances of the precipitating sulfur ions are found to be four to five times smaller than those of oxygen ions, and averaged ion energies are determined to lie between 1 and 2 MeV/amu. Slightly different ion flux compositions are found to describe the observed spectra of X-ray emission from the North and South poles.

  17. New Laboratory Measurements of the Centimeter-Wavelength Properties of Ammonia Under Deep Jovian Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Kiruthika; Steffes, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    Over 800 measurements of the opacity of ammonia have been made in the 5-20 cm wavelength range at pressures ranging from 0.05-96 bars, temperatures from 330-450K, and mixing ratios from 0.05-100% in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere using an ultra-high pressure system. An ammonia absorptivity model that is accurate under very high pressure conditions is necessary for the Juno microwave radiometer (MWR) to successfully retrieve the deep abundance profile of Jupiter. Current and future measurements of the opacity of ammonia under simulated deep jovian conditions, and an estimation of compressibility of ammonia under the same conditions will be used to create a new model that more accurately characterizes the centimeter-wavelength properties of ammonia in support of the Juno MWR. Furthermore, at least one laboratory measurement study indicates that water vapor can efficiently broaden the 572 GHz rotational transition of ammonia (Belov et al., 1983), and this could be true for the inversion transitions of ammonia as well. Future work will involve laboratory measurements of the opacity of mixtures of ammonia and water vapor under simulated jovian conditions using the ultra-high pressure system. These measurements will directly improve our understanding of centimeter-wavelength absorption by ammonia in the jovian planets, and improve retrievals from the Juno MWR at Jupiter. This work was supported by NASA Contract NNM06AA75C from the Marshall Space Flight Center supporting the Juno Mission Science Team, under Subcontract 699054X from the South-west Research Institute

  18. Degradation and hydrogen and oxygen release via electron bombardment of icy Jovian satellite surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, T. M.; Grieves, G.; Alexandrov, A.; Paty, C.

    2006-12-01

    We have studied the low-energy (5-100 eV) electron-induced degradation of low temperature ice characteristic of icy Jovian satellite surfaces. Specifically, we examined the yields and energy distributions of the primary neutral and cationic fragments leaving the surface as a function of impinging electron energy, ice phase and surface temperature. We find a large proton yield and formation and desorption of H (2S) and H2 (^{1}?g+). These neutrals were detected using laser resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization. The threshold electron energy is 6.5 eV and the energy distributions of the desorption products are non-thermal indicating surface exciton decay. Proton production and release has a threshold energy of 22 eV and involves two-hole states which Coulomb explode. Other desorption products include O (3P), O (1D) and O2. The formation of O2 is enhanced in porous media and involves a molecular precursor. The overall cross sections for producing the above mentioned products, particularly O2, increase as the ice temperature rises from 90 to 150 K. This is due to the increased excited state lifetimes associated with the disrupted hydrogen bonding network at elevated temperatures and enhanced precursor formation at temperatures above 120 K. In general, the yields of protons are high enough to provide a significant source of ions to the near space environments of Jupiter's icy moons and potentially to the Jovian magnetosphere. In the case of direct proton ejection, this source term may be as effective as hydrogen atom emission followed by gas-phase ionization. No oxygen ions are emitted from the ice due to the high solvation forces. These results, in conjunction with modeling studies of Ganymede's magnetospheric interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere, indicate that oxygen ions are likely present in Ganymede's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  19. The Growth & Migration of Jovian Planets in Evolving Protostellar Disks with Dead Zones

    E-print Network

    Soko Matsumura; Ralph E. Pudritz; Edward W. Thommes

    2008-09-22

    The growth of Jovian mass planets during migration in their protoplanetary disks is one of the most important problems that needs to be solved in light of observations of the exosolar planets. Studies of the migration of planets in standard gas disk models routinely show that migration is too fast to form Jovian planets, and that such migrating planetary cores generally plunge into the central stars in less than a Myr. In previous work, we have shown that a poorly ionized, less viscous region in a protoplanetary disk called a dead zone slows down the migration of fixed-mass planets. In this paper, we extend our numerical calculations to include dead zone evolution along with the disk, as well as planet formation via accretion of rocky and gaseous materials. Using our symplectic-integrator-gas dynamics code, we find that dead zones, even in evolving disks wherein migrating planets grow by accretion, still play a fundamental role in saving planetary systems. We demonstrate that Jovian planets form within 2.5 Myr for disks that are ten times more massive than a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) with an opacity reduction and without slowing down migration artificially. Our simulations indicate that protoplanetary disks with an initial mass comparable to the MMSN only produce Neptunian mass planets. We also find that planet migration does not help core accretion as much in the oligarchic planetesimal accretion scenario as it was expected in the runaway accretion scenario. Therefore we expect that an opacity reduction (or some other mechanisms) is needed to solve the formation timescale problem even for migrating protoplanets, as long as we consider the oligarchic growth. We also point out a possible role of a dead zone in explaining long-lived, strongly accreting gas disks.

  20. EUV spectra from highly charged terbium ions in optically thin and thick plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Long, E.; Sheil, J.; White, E.; O'Reilly, F.; Sokell, E.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from terbium (Tb) ions in optically thin and thick plasmas for a comparative study. The experimental spectra are recorded in optically thin, magnetically confined torus plasmas and dense laser-produced plasmas (LPPs). The main feature of the spectra is quasicontinuum emission with a peak around 6.5-6.6 nm, the bandwidth of which is narrower in the torus plasmas than in the LPPs. A comparison between the two types of spectra also suggests strong opacity effects in the LPPs. A comparison with the calculated line strength distributions gives a qualitative interpretation of the observed spectra.