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Sample records for jovian plasma torus

  1. Interaction of Europa with Jovian Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnicek, Pavel M.; Sebek, Ondrej; Bale, Stuart D.; Hellinger, Petr; Halekas, Jasper

    2015-04-01

    We present results of a simulation study of the interaction of Europa with Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma compared to in situ observations of Galileo spacecraft. For simulations we use multi-species hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) three-dimensional model. We consider O++, S++ as the main constituents of the Jovian plasma torus at Europa while its neutral atmosphere is considered to be composed primarily of (neutral) O2 molecules. We consider ionization processes of the neutral O2 atmosphere which is then a source of dense population of pick-up ions at Europa. We examine global structure of the interaction and we compare the simulated results with in situ measurements of spacecraft Galileo. The plasma composed of pick-up ions represents an obstacle for the Jovian magnetic field resulting in the compression of the magnetic field lines which in return causes development of temperature anisotropies. We study the regions where the threshold of temperature anisotropy driven instabilities has been reached. We also focus on the refiling processes of the small cavity formed in the plasma downstream the relative plasma flow between Europa and the magnetospheric plasma. We acquire high resolution simulated data along virtual trajectories of Galileo spacecraft which allows us to directly compare simulation results to in situ observations.

  2. Remote sensing of the Io torus plasma ribbon using natural radio occultation of the Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Sawas, S.; Lammer, H.

    2014-09-01

    We study the Jovian hectometric (HOM) emissions recorded by the RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby. We analyze the attenuation band associated with the intensity extinction of HOM radiation. This phenomenon is interpreted as a refraction effect of the Jovian hectometric emission inside the Io plasma torus. This attenuation band was regularly observed during periods of more than 5 months, from the beginning of October 2000 to the end of March 2001. We estimate for this period the variation of the electron density versus the central meridian longitude (CML). We find a clear local time dependence. Hence the electron density was not higher than 5.0 × 104 cm-3 during 2 months, when the spacecraft approached the planet on the dayside. In the late afternoon and evening sectors, the electron density increases to 1.5 × 105 cm-3 and reach a higher value at some specific occasions. Additionally, we show that ultraviolet and hectometric wavelength observations have common features related to the morphology of the Io plasma torus. The maxima of enhancements/attenuations of UV/HOM observations occur close to the longitudes of the tip of the magnetic dipole in the southern hemisphere (20° CML) and in the northern hemisphere (200° CML), respectively. This is a significant indication about the importance of the Jovian magnetic field as a physical parameter in the coupling process between Jupiter and the Io satellite.

  3. Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa: 3D hybrid kinetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    The hybrid kinetic model approach supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical to improved interpretation of the existing measurements for surface and atmospheric composition from previous missions and to planning of future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa [1,2]. The hybrid model allows us to take into account the finite gyroradius effect and to estimate correctly the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field in opposite the MHD simulation with the Maxwellian velocity distribution for background and pickup ions. The hybrid model also allows us to investigate the effects of the electron pressure on plasma wake structure that was already done for Jovian torus Io interaction [3]. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The background plasma contains only the ions with SO++ (Model A) [4] and O++ and S++ (Model B) [5]. The pickup ions were created from the atmosphere. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population [1]. The moon is modeled in this initial work as a weakly conducting body. Important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work. In this report we discuss the first results of the hybrid kinetic simulation of Europa's environment, namely, the global plasma structures, e.g., the formation of the magnetic barrier, Alfvén wing, pickup ion tail etc., and the computed map for the ion flux on the surface of the moon. References [1] Cassidy, T.A., R.E. Johnson, M.A. McGrath, M.C. Wong, J.F. Cooper, The spatial morphology of Europa's near-surface O2 atmosphere, Icarus, 191, 755-764, 2007. [2] Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, J.F. Cooper, M.C. Wong, Surface-bounded atmosphere of Europa, Icarus, 173, 480-498, 2005. [3] Lipatov, A.S. and M.R. Combi, Effects of kinetic processes in shaping Io's global plasma environment: A 3D hybrid model, Icarus, 180, 412-427, 2006. [4] Kabin, K., et al., On Europa's magnetospheric interaction: A MHD simulation of the E4 Flyby, JGR, 104, 19983-19992, 1999. [5] Paterson, W.R. et al., Galileo plasma observations at Europa: Ion energy spectra and moments, JGR, 104, 22779-22791, 1999.

  4. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  5. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R.; Kimura, T.; Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Gladstone, R.; Badman, S. V.; Ezoe, Y.; Murakami, G.; Murray, S. S.; Roediger, E.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  6. Jovian VLF chorus and Io torus aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inan, U. S.

    1986-01-01

    A test particle model of the cyclotron resonance interaction of waves and trapped radiation belt particles is used to estimate the energetic electron fluxes precipitated by Jovian VLF chorus waves observed on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft near the Io torus. The precipitation fluxes induced by 1-s-long chorus wave packets at L = 7.6 and 8.6 are estimated to be bursts of 5s duration with a peak of 0.3-3 and 0.7-7 ergs/sq cm s that consist of electrons of 5-100 keV energy and that arrives at the ionosphere 15 s after the generation of the chorus wave at the equatorial plane. The effects in the Jovian ionosphere of the chorus-induced precipitation are estimated using existing ionospheric models. A possible experiment for measuring Jovian chorus-induced aurora is proposed and discussed.

  7. Jovian Plasmas Torus Interaction with Europa. Plasma Wake Structure and Effect of Inductive Magnetic Field: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to a variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions). Photoionization, electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider the models with Oþ þ and Sþ þ background plasma, and various betas for background ions and electrons, and pickup electrons. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population (Cassidy et al., 2007). In this paper, we discuss two tasks: (1) the plasma wake structure dependence on the parameters of the upstream plasma and Europa's atmosphere (model I, cases (a) and (b) with a homogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and high oceanic shell conductivity); and (2) estimation of the possible effect of an induced magnetic field arising from oceanic shell conductivity. This effect was estimated based on the difference between the observed and modeled magnetic fields (model II, case (c) with an inhomogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and low oceanic shell conductivity).

  8. Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa. E12 pass: 3D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Paterson, W. R.; Hartle, R. E.

    2012-09-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moonmagnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flybymeasurements from Galileo orbital mission and for planning flyby and orbital measurements for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa [1, 2, 3]. The upstream parameters have been chosen from the plasma and magnetic field Galileo E12 observations, [4, 5]. In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along themagnetic field [6]. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also included into the generalized Ohm's law. The background plasma contains heavy (Mi/Qi = 16) and light (Mi/Qi = 1) ions [4]. In our modeling we take into account only O+ ions for magnetospheric plasma. The pickup ions were created from the atmosphere. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population [1]. The moon is modeled in this initial work as a weakly conducting body. The critical point of E12 pass is the extremely high density in upstream plasma, e.g. n0 = 70-571 cm-3 for ions with Mi/Qi ratio equals 16. This density results in to the superAlfvénic flow and it will change the physics of the interaction between Jovianmagnetosphere and Europa. The modeling show the formation of the Mach cone instead of the Alfv'en wing which was observed in hybrid modeling of E4 pass [6]. The modeling shows that the effective size of the oxygen exosphere for E12 pass is smaller than it was observed in case of E4 pass due to much higher pressure in the upstream plasma. In this report we also discuss the magnetic effects of the ocean conduction in case of E12 and E4 passes.

  9. Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

  10. Convective transport of plasma in the inner Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. W.; Hill, T. W.

    1990-04-01

    The transport of plasma in the inner Jovian magnetosphere is investigated according to the corotating convection model of Hill et al. (1981), emphasizing mathematical aspects of the theory. A simplified but physically plausible boundary condition at the inner Io torus, representing a 5 percent density enhancement of S(+) ions in an 'active sector' that is fixed in Jovian (system III) longitude is employed. The convection electric field pattern resulting from this longitudinal mass anomaly alone is investigated, and then the theory to include the effects of Coriolis force and plasma acceleration is generalized. It is found that even a small (about 5 percent) longitudinal asymmetry of the inner torus produces a convection system capable of removing torus plasma from the magnetosphere on a time scale of order one month.

  11. Local time dependence of Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2012-04-01

    We study the frequency and time variations of the Jovian decametric (DAM) and hectometric (HOM) emissions recorded by the RPWS experiment onboard Cassini spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby. It is shown that the HOM radiations are principally subject to refraction effects caused by the Io plasma torus. We analyze the Jovian radio dynamic spectra recorded from the end of November 2000 to the second week of January 2001. During this period, the spacecraft approached Jupiter from a distance of more than 500 RJ to 137 RJ (closest approach on December 30, 2010) and back to about 250 RJ. We attempt in this study to investigate the local time (LT) dependence of the attenuation band due to refraction effects caused by the presence of the Io plasma torus. We analyze the spectral features of the attenuation band taking into consideration three local time intervals [10.0 LT, 13.2 LT], [13.6 LT, 16.5 LT], and [16.7 LT, 20 LT]. A statistical study leads us to characterize the spectral features of the attenuation band principally on the dayside and the late afternoon sector of the planet. This will allow us to discuss the LT variation of the electronic density of the Io plasma torus versus the central meridian longitude (CML) and the Jovian magnetic latitude.

  12. EUVE Io Plasma Torus Observations: Galileo Support and Variability Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    We propose a Large Observing Program (1000 ksec) to monitor and investigate EUV emissions from the Io plasma torus and Jupiter during the last four Galileo Europa Mission encounters. These encounters all occur in the last half of 1999 (on Aug. 12, Sept. 14, Oct. 11, and Nov. 26), and will provide a perhaps never-to-be-repeated opportunity for acquiring ground truth (i.e., in situ) measurements with which to calibrate remote sensing observations of the torus. With these new data, we will 1) monitor the global properties of the torus during the Galileo observation epoch, 2) resolve two important but closely spaced torus periodicities, 3) determine the torus stability time constants, 4) search for very faint localized emissions from the Galilean satellites, and 5) continue monitoring the Jovian dayglow. We feel that such a program will make excellent use of EUVEs capabilities, and will allow for a much deeper understanding of the physics of the Jovian system.

  13. Studies of Io's atmosphere and plasma torus

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Jupiter's hot and cold plasma tori and the atmosphere of Io, a jovian moon located in a nearly circular orbit at a distance of 5.9 jovian radii from the center of Jupiter are examined. For the hot torus the ion partitioning and energy balance are modeled by assuming that there are independent sources of neutral sulfur and oxygen atoms, that the thermal electrons have a density of 2000/cu cm and a temperature of 5 eV. In the model of energy and mass balance of the cold torus its primary source of plasma is considered a radial diffusion inward from the hot torus. The time scale for this process is assumed to be identical to that required for energetic electrons to supply the energy necessary to power the synchrotron radiation. Charge exchange between thermal ions and an extended neutral cloud of sulfur and oxygen produces fresh ions which are accelerated to corotation by the magnetic field of Jupiter. These fresh accelerated ions are the source of energy which powers the cold torus emissions. The main ion loss mechanism is a two-step process whereby charge exchange between ions and neutral molecules transforms ions into fast neutrals. Since it is generally agreed that the source of neutrals to the hot and cold tori is the atmosphere of Io, then in order to better understand torus processes the behavior of Io's atmosphere needs to be understood. Numerical gasdynamic SO2 models of sublimation and volcanic atmospheres of Io are developed by means of computer simulations. Using a fine computational grid and the computational capabilities of the Cray supercomputers, the relevant atmospheric properties such as pressure, density, temperature, and velocity are found. Day side and night side atmospheres were investigated. It was found that volcanoes form an extended atmosphere on Io. A sublimation H2S atmosphere was also investigated.

  14. Detection of Jovian whistler mode chorus; implications for the Io torus aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Coroniti, F.V.; Scarf, F.L.; Kennel, C.F.; Kurth, W.S.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Near the Io torus outer boundary (Lapprox. =8), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected high frequency (f) waves near one-half the electron cyclotron frequency f/sub c/. High resolution waveform measurements demonstrate that these fapprox. =F/sub c//2 signals are banded whistler mode chrous at f< or approx. =f/sub c//2 and half-cyclotron frequency emissions with f slightly above f/sub c//2. The high resolution spectral information, and the theory of whistler mode waves, permit us to estimate the density (approx.2.5 cm/sup -3/), energy (few keV), and omnidirectional energy flux (10/sup 2/ ergs/cm/sup 2/-sec) of the electrons resonant with the chorus. Chorus precipitates about 6 ergs/cm/sup 2/-sec of few keV electron energy to the Jovian ionosphere at L=8. Electrostatic emission, probably electron cyclotron half-harmonic modes, have also been detected near the magnetic equator in the Io torus region. At L=8, the multimode pitch-angle diffusion associated with the detected waves should produce a precipitation flux about a factor two below the 50 ergs/cm/sup 2/-sec required to generate the observed auroral emission; however, the flux could well be larger deeper within the torus.

  15. Observations of the Io Plasma Torus Using Exceed Onboard Hisaki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Kimura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kagitani, M.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    "HISAKI" the Japanese Earth orbiting satellite has been launched in September 2013 from the Uchinoura space center. The EUV spectroscope "EXCEED" on board the spacecraft is observing the planets in our solar system since the end of November 2013 [Yoshikawa et al. 2014]. The performance of the instrument (effective area, spectral and spatial resolutions, and etc.) are same as been expected before the launch [Yoshioka et al. 2013]. Using the EUV spectra of the Jovian inner magnetosphere (Io plasma torus) taken by the EXCEED, the plasma dynamics such as electron transportation or local heating process have been revealed. In this presentation, we will show the whole results of Io plasma torus observation through the EXCEED, and we will also explain the way of our approach for the Jovian plasma dynamics.

  16. Plasma properties in the deep jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Wilson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    New Horizons observed consistently and continuously the jovian magnetotail at distances up to ~2500 Jupiter Radii (Rj) during its Jupiter flyby in 2007. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) plasma instrument on New Horizons made in situ observations of plasma ions in the energy per charge range of ~21 eV to 7.8 keV. We analyze the SWAP plasma observations and derive the bulk properties of the plasma ions in the deep jovian magnetotail for 64 intervals from ~500 to 1700 Rj, just before the spacecraft start crossing the jovian magnetopause. There is no clear evolution of the plasma parameters over this distance range and we show that the plasma is very diverse over this entire range. There are significant changes in the plasma parameters and the flow direction over times as short as a few hours, showing evidence that boundaries between different plasma structures pass over the spacecraft rapidly. We discuss in detail a few subintervals where two species are observed within the instrument's energy per charge range and a set of subintervals where the plasma flow rotates ~20° over just six hours. We finally discuss the mass flux during the subintervals we study and the scenario of expanding plasmoids that propagate tailward and expand and interact to fill the magnetotail. This scenario is supported by the observed plasma diversity and flow characteristics.

  17. Departure from corotation of the Io plasma torus - Local plasma production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.; Hill, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    The departure of the Jovian magnetosphere from rigid corotation is adequately explained by outward plasma transport at distances where L is greater than approximately 10. The departure of 5% observed in the Io plasma torus, however, is too large to be accounted for simply by plasma transport. Local plasma production is proposed as the main factor determining the corotation lag in the torus. The outward pick-up current provided by ionization of neutral atoms is calculated and related to the current produced in the ionosphere by the corotation lag. This leads to an expression giving the corotation lag of the torus as a function of radial distance. Charge transfer is found to be an important process, allowing the majority of the torus mass to be ejected from the magnetosphere in a neutral state. Thus, the mass loading rate is found to be several times that inferred from examination of the corotation lag associated with outward plasma transport.

  18. Plasma waves in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Any waves which are influenced by the presence of a plasma are called plasma waves. In general, plasma waves can be classified as either electromagnetic, which have both electric and magnetic fields, or electrostatic, which have no magnetic field. The recent Voyager encounters provide the basis for the first comprehensive investigation of plasma waves in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The most striking feature of the Jovian plasma-wave observations is the very close similarity to the plasma-wave phenomena observed in the earth's magnetosphere. In a description of the plasma-wave results obtained with the aid of Voyager, the observed phenomena are discussed in several broad categories. Attention is given to the upstream waves and the bow shock, the trapped continuum radiation, upper hybrid and electron cyclotron waves, whistler-mode waves, and broadband electrostatic noise.

  19. Plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the plasma in Jupiter's ionosphere is collisionless above a certain level. In the outer magnetosphere, where the rotational force dominates the gravitational force, the collisionless plasma has a beam-like distribution and gives rise to a two-stream instability. This leads to trapping of plasma in the centrifugally dominated region of the magnetosphere. Plasma is lost by recombination. Equilibrium-trapped particle densities are calculated by requiring a balance between trapping by wave-particle interaction and loss by recombination. The results are compared with recent observations from Pioneer 10. It is suggested that the observations require an unexplained ion-heating mechanism. Some consequences of the model are discussed.

  20. Ground based observations of Io plasma torus variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho Magalhes, Fabola; Echer, Ezequiel; Demtrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; Lopes, Rosaly; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey; Echer, Mariza P. S.

    Jupiter is not only the largest planet in the Solar System, it also has the largest magnetosphere. Jupiter's innermost Galilean moon, Io, is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. This volcanic activity produces tenuous atmosphere which escapes, creating the Io plasma torus, a ring of charged particles encircling Jupiter. The Io plasma torus is composed mainly of sulfur and oxygen ions. It is most dense around Io's orbit (5.6 Rj). It's observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission and in the optical. EUV emission arise from interactions between torus superthermal ("hot") electrons and ions. Optical emission comes from interaction between thermal electrons and sulfur ions. The optical emission trace the densest part of the torus, the EUV trace the hottest part of the torus. In early December, 2013, we observed the Io plasma torus at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope using a specially designed coronagraph in support of the JAXA EXtrem ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExophEric Dynamics (EXCEED) mission. EXCEED is observing the Io plasma torus in the EUV in a manner similar to that of the landmark observations made by the Cassini UVIS instrument in 2000. Our ground-based [SII] 6731 angstrom images provide context for the EXCEED observations. The analysis of the 2013 [SII] data is important preparation for analysis of a much larger set of observations recorded between 1997 and 2008. This large set of over 1000 images were recorded during the Galileo tour, the Cassini flyby, and the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter. The images provide context for in-situ observations, EUV images, and several new measurements of the mysterious and variable Jovian magnetospheric "system IV" period. In this work, we'll be presenting a comparison between our results and EXCEED's and the methodology which will be used for the 1000 images.

  1. Chandra Observations of Io and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D. C.; Crary, F. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Ford, P.; Feigelson, E.; Garmire, G.; Whitaker, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Chandra observed the Jovian system for approximately 1 day with ACIS-S in Nov, 1999, and approximately 10 hours with HRC-I in Dec, 2000. Among the many results of great interest to planetary scientists are the detection of x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT) and, very faintly, associated with the Jovian moon Io itself. The IPT is an almost self-generating donut of S and O ions in Io's orbit that ultimately derive from volcanoes on the surface. While EUV and visible emissions from the IPT are relatively well understood to result from low charge state transitions of S and O and from electron impact, the x-ray emissions are too energetic to be explained this way and seem to require the presence of higher charge states of S and O. We present current ideas as to origins of these x-ray emissions.

  2. Plasma Parameters in Io's Torus: Measurements from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schneider, N. M.; Chaffin, M.; McNeil, E.; Chanover, N.; Oza, A.; Rugenski, S.; Thelen, A.; Johnson, R. E.; Bittle, L.; King, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Io plasma torus is an astrophysical nebula wrapped around Jupiter, originating from the intense volcanic activity of Jupiter's moon Io. The torus varies both spatially and temporally, driven by changes in volcanism and asymmetries in the Jovian magnetosphere. We report results from 9 nights of observation spanning November 2013 to February 2014 with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the ARC 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico. Emissions in these data include the [SII] doublets at 6716/6731A and 4069/4076A, [OII] at 3726/3729A, [SIII] at 3722A and 6312A, as well as resonantly scattered neutral [NaI] at 5890/5896A. Constraints on electron density, temperature and ion mixing rations can be obtained. Observations of both ansa during a 5 hour period characterize the complete longitudinal structure. Specifically, the intensity ratio of the collisionally excited [SII] doublet at 6716/6731A is a diagnostic for local electron density sampled at ~20 minute cadence. Absolute intensity can be derived directly from the reflectance of Jupiter's disc and standard calibrations are performed on the data such as bias subtraction, wavelength calibration and rectification. A unique background subtraction procedure is developed to disentangle scattered Jovian reflection and the torus. These observations were made in conjunction with JAXA's Hisaki mission, the HST auroral campaign and infrared monitoring of volcanism to better understand how mass and energy are transported throughout the system.

  3. Kinetic aspects of wave propagation in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, B. H.; Delamere, P. A.; Damiano, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Io's motion in the Jovian magnetosphere generates plasma waves that propagate through the plasma torus and into Jupiter's ionosphere, which in turn generates aurora. This interaction is important in auroral physics because the power generated by Io can be predicted and compared to the power output of the Io-induced aurora. Since the power output of the aurora is significantly less than the input power, it is important to understand the transport of energy from Io to Jupiter. We utilize a hybrid plasma simulation to explore the propagation of plasma waves in the Io plasma torus generated by mass loading the flow. Mass loading creates MHD waves (e.g. Alfven and fast mode waves) through the pickup of new ions as well as electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves driven by unstable ring beam distributions. We analyze the propagation of this composite wave field through the Io plasma torus with a density gradient along the magnetic field. We also investigate the propagation of small-scale kinetic Alfven waves by including the electron pressure term.

  4. Physics of Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2000-01-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the spherical torus (ST, or very low aspect ratio tokamaks) have recently emerged. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST magnetohydrodynamic equilibria more than a decade ago. Exciting data have been obtained from concept exploration level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm), making important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. The results have helped approval and construction of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful tokamak and advanced tokamak research, a wide range of new ST physics features has been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1 MA level with major radius up to similar to 80 cm in the new proof of principle devices National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, U.S.) [M. Peng , European Conf. Abst. 22C, 451 (1998); S. M. Kaye , Fusion Technol. 36, 16 (1999); M. Ono , "Exploration of Spherical Torus Physics in the NSTX Device," 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., paper IAEA-CN-69/ICP/01 (R), Yokohama, Japan (1998)], Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, U.K.) [A. C. Darke , Fusion Technol. 1, 799 (1995); Q. W. Morris , Proc. Int. Workshop on ST (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 290], and Globus-M (R.F.) [V. K. Gusev , European Conf. Abst. 22C, 576 (1998)], which have just started full experimental operation. New concept exploration experiments, such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) [R. Fonck and the PEGASUS Team, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 267 (1999)], Helicity Injected Tokamak-II (HIT-II, University of Washington) [T. R. Jarboe , Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998)], and Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) [M. Ono , Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Fusion Energy (IAEA, Vienna, 1997), Vol. 2, p. 71] and other experiments in Japan and Brazil, etc., present additional opportunities for important progress. This tutorial paper summarizes our understanding and projections of the physics of the ST plasmas, the investigation of which will hopefully bring new enthusiasm and advancements for fusion energy science research in the U.S. and the world. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S1070-664X(00)97905-9].

  5. Drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. S.; Hill, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    A linear normal mode analysis of the drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus was carried out on the basis of the Richmond (1973) and Huang et al. (1990) analyses of drift waves in the vicinity of the earth's plasmapause. Results indicate that the outer torus boundary is linearly unstable to the growth of electrostatic drift waves. It is shown that the linear growth rate is proportional to the ion drift frequency and to the ratio of the flux tube charge content to the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductance. It is also shown that various theoretical models of global radial transport in Jupiter's atmosphere (including corotating convection, interchange diffusion, and transient flux tube convection) can be understood as plausible nonlinear evolutions of electrostatic drift waves.

  6. Jovian plasma modeling for mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Kim, Wousik; Belland, Brent; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to address uncertainties in the plasma models at Jupiter responsible for surface charging and to update the jovian plasma models using the most recent data available. The updated plasma environment models were then used to evaluate two proposed Europa mission designs for spacecraft charging effects using the Nascap-2k code. The original Divine/Garrett jovian plasma model (or "DG1", T. N. Divine and H. B. Garrett, "Charged particle distributions in Jupiter's magnetosphere," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 88, pp. 6889-6903,1983) has not been updated in 30 years, and there are known errors in the model. As an example, the cold ion plasma temperatures between approx.5 and 10 Jupiter radii (Rj) were found by the experimenters who originally published the data to have been underestimated by approx.2 shortly after publication of the original DG1 model. As knowledge of the plasma environment is critical to any evaluation of the surface charging at Jupiter, the original DG1 model needed to be updated to correct for this and other changes in our interpretation of the data so that charging levels could beproperly estimated using the Nascap-2k charging code. As an additional task, the Nascap-2k spacecraft charging tool has been adapted to incorporate the so-called Kappa plasma distribution function--an important component of the plasma model necessary to compute the particle fluxes between approx.5 keV and 100 keV (at the outset of this study,Nascap-2k did not directly incorporate this common representation of the plasma thus limiting the accuracy of our charging estimates). The updating of the DG1 model and its integration into the Nascap-2k design tool means that charging concerns can now be more efficiently evaluated and mitigated. (We note that, given the subsequent decision by the Europa project to utilize solar arrays for its baseline design, surface charging effects have becomeeven more of an issue for its mission design). The modifications and results of those modifications to the DG1 model to produce the new DG2 model presented here and the steps taken to integrate the DG2 predictions into Nascap-2k are described in this report.

  7. Galileo Observations of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerney, E. G.; Bagenal, F.; Pryor, W. R.; Steffl, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a survey of conditions observed in the Io plasma torus throughout the Galileo mission (1995 to 2003). This Galileo epoch includes the time of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter (fall 2000 to spring 2001) when the UVIS instrument made extensive observations of the spatial and temporal variations of torus emissions (Steffl et al. 2004, 2006). We compare re-analyzed Galileo EUV observations of torus emissions with a physical chemistry model based on Delamere et al. (2004) to derive modest variations in torus model parameters (transport time, neutral source, population of hot electrons, ratio of neutral oxygen to sulfur atoms in the source) over the Galileo era. Torus plasma conditions derived from these emissions are also compared with in situ measurements by the Galileo PLS and PWS instruments as well as the Cassini UVIS observations and ground-based observations of torus emissions.

  8. Analytical model for the density distribution in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, YI; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran

    1995-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for the diffusive equilibrium plasma density distribution in the Io plasma torus. The model has been employed successfully to follow the ray path of plasma waves in the multi-ion Jovian magnetosphere; it would also be valuable for other studies of the Io torus that require a smooth and continuous description of the plasma density and its gradients. Validity of the analytical treatment requires that the temperature of thermal electrons be much lower than the ion temperature and that superthermal electrons be much less abundant than the thermal electrons; these two conditions are satisfied in the warm outer region of the Io torus from L = 6 to L = 10. The analytical solutions agree well with exact numerical calculations for the most dense portion of the Io torus within 30 deg of the equator.

  9. Long Term Monitoring of the Io Plasma Torus During the Galileo Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 1999, the Galileo spacecraft made four passes into the Io plasma torus, obtaining the best in situ measurements ever of the particle and field environment in this densest region of the Jovian magnetosphere. Supporting observations from the ground are vital for understanding the global and temporal context of the in situ observations. We conducted a three-month-long Io plasma torus monitoring campaign centered on the time of the Galileo plasma torus passes to support this aspect of the Galileo mission. The almost-daily plasma density and temperature measurements obtained from our campaign allow the much more sparse but also much more detailed Galileo data to be used to address the issues of the structure of the Io plasma torus, the stability mechanism of the Jovian magnetosphere, the transport of material from the source region near Io, and the nature and source of persistent longitudinal variations. Combining the ground-based monitoring data with the detailed in situ data offers the only possibility for answering some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of the Io plasma torus.

  10. The Encounter of P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with the Jovian Plasma and Extended Sodium Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niciejewski, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The encounter of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter during July, 1994, provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe any potential perturbations in the Jovian plasma torus and extended sodium cloud as the comet entered the planet's atmosphere. Though the most obvious affect of the encounter was the distinctive response of the visible disk to the impact of the cometary fragments, the potential disruptions to the extended Jovian atmosphere and the restoration of the system to equilibrium also provided a test for the current interpretation of the Jovian plasma torus and sodium magneto-nebula. The observations that were performed for this grant were made by a complementary group of researchers and could not have been made if the individuals worked singly. In a sense, the exciting opportunity provided by this astronomical event also provided a mechanism to test the potential of pooling limited resources from several sources to construct a state-of-the-art spectrally resolving instrument, to acquire the necessary time and resources from institutions that maintain world-class optical telescopes, to perform the observations with the assistance of students, and to analyze the data sets.

  11. Physics of Spherical Torus Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    1999-11-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the Spherical Torus (ST, or Very Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak) have emerged recently. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST MHD equilibria more than a decade ago [Peng and Strickler, Nucl. Fusion 26 (1986) 576.]. Exciting data have been obtained from Concept Exploration-level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm). These include START (U.K.), HIT-I and II (University of Washington), CDX-U (PPPL), HIST and TS-3 (Japan), etc., and made important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. These results have helped approval of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful Tokamak and Advanced Tokamak (AT) research, a wide range of new ST physics features have been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1-MA level (with major radii up to 80 cm) in the new Proof-of-Principle devices NSTX (U.S.), MAST (U.K.), and Globus-M (R.F.), which are scheduled to resume experiments before this APS meeting. New Concept Exploration tests such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) and others in Japan present additional opportunities for progress. This tutorial paper will summarize our understanding and projections of the physics of the ST plasmas, the investigation of which will hopefully bring new excitement and enthusiasm for fusion energy sciences research in the U.S. and the world. the address below:

  12. Ray tracing of Jovian kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of computer ray tracing of Jovian kilometric radiation from 56.2 kHz to 1 MHz in a model Jovian magnetosphere with an Io torus are presented. Ray tracing calculations indicate that the Io torus presents a propagation barrier to the radiation and that the Jovian kilometric radiation must be generated in the L-O mode from a source near Jupiter on field lines passing through the Io torus. One effect of the Io torus is to refract the rays away from the magnetic equator forming a shadow zone at radial distances beyond the torus. In general, at radial distances greater than 10 Jovian radii, as the wave frequency increases (greater than 200 kHz) so does the magnetic latitude of the shadow zone. These and other features of the ray tracing calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the observations from the plasma wave receiver and planetary radio astronomy experiment on board both Voyagers 1 and 2.

  13. Simulations of the Effects of Jupiter's Plasma Torus on Io's Pele Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.

    2014-11-01

    Ios plumes rise hundreds of kilometers above its surface and sublimation atmosphere, presenting large targets for incoming ions from Jupiters plasma torus. The direct simulation Monte Carlo method is used to model the gas plume at Pele and its interaction with the Jovian plasma torus. Chemical reactions resulting from ion impacts in a plume change its composition and energy from the impacts changes the plumes structure (asymmetrically). The presence of non-condensible daughter species in a warmer plume canopy produces a more diffuse deposition ring on Ios surface, compared to simulations without plasma. Energized molecules also escape from the plume, forming a diffuse cloud of fast particles above the plumes canopy, which may function to resupply the plasma torus and which suggests a mechanism for lofting other species to very high altitudes.

  14. Theoretical study on plasma wind and convection in Jovian magnetodisc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, H.; Aoyama, T.

    An outflow plasma model in the closed magnetic field configuration of the Jovian magnetodisk region is theoretically investigated. The plasma behavior is analyzed for a simple case of an aligned rotator model where the axis of the magnetic dipole coincides with the rotation axis of Jupiter. The results indicate that the plasma is flowing out due to the centrifugal force forming the disk wind that blows outward with supermagnetosonic velocity when the plasma approaches a critical region. The disk current expands as a result of the plasma outflow. The magnetic field is frozen in the flowing plasma in the disk plasma region; a transient region separates the magnetic lobe of the Jovian magnetosphere from the flowing disk plasma. The position of the magnetopause is compressed due to heating effects in the disk plasma when the solar wind pressure increases. The plasma flow then cannot exceed the magnetosonic velocity, and no disk wind is formed.

  15. The Io Plasma Torus With Cassini UVIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.

    2002-09-01

    We present results from the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observations of the Io plasma torus during the Jupiter encounter, October 2000-March 2001. The UVIS instrument consists of two independent spectrographs, an EUV channel and an FUV channel, covering a total wavelength range of 561-1912 Å with a spectral resolution of approximately 4 Å. At present, we have concentrated on data from January 14, 2001 that provide the highest spatial resolution of the torus. We present high signal-to-noise spectra from the torus in this wavelength range and identify all major features. A model, incorporating the atomic physics data contained in the CHIANTI (Dere et al., 1997, 2001) database, was used to generate synthetic spectra of the torus and then fit these spectra to the UVIS data. The effects of a non-thermal electron distribution were included in the model by using three Maxwellian electron populations to approximate a kappa distribution of electrons over the energy range of 7-100 eV. From this model we derive the densities of six ion species: O II, S III, S II, S IV, O III, and S V and the electron temperature as a function of distance from Jupiter. Using the same analysis procedure we model a Voyager 1 UVS spectrum of the torus and confirm that the Cassini-era composition is significantly different from the Voyager-era composition. The UVIS results are consistent with a neutral cloud theory model of the Io torus incorporating a low neutral atom source rate, a slow radial transport rate, a low sulfur to oxygen ratio, and a high fraction of hot electrons. We examine the time variability of the torus during the six-month observation period and find significant changes in both torus composition and total emitted power. However, we find no long-term variation with system III longitude.

  16. Detection of Jovian whistler mode chorus - Implications for the Io torus aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Near the Io torus outer boundary (L of about 8), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected high frequency (f) waves near one-half the electron cyclotron frequency fc. High resolution waveform measurements demonstrate that these signals (f approximately equal to fc/2) are banded whistler mode chorus at f not greater than fc/2 and half-cyclotron frequency emissions with f slightly above fc/2. The density (about 2.5 per cu cm), the energy (a few keV), and the omnidirectional energy flux (100 ergs/sq cm-sec), of the electrons resonant with the chorus were determined.

  17. Io Plasma Torus: Nature of the Iogenic Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, M. L.; Smyth, W. H.

    1996-09-01

    The primary source of plasma for Jupiter's magnetosphere is supplied internally by Io, the innermost Galilean satellite. The Iogenic plasma source is created by gases (e.g., Na, K, O, S, and SO_2) lost from Io as they undergo electron impact and charge exchange reactions in the plasma torus. This Iogenic plasma source provides mass, momentum, pick-up electrical conductivity, and energy to the plasma torus. The three-dimensional nature of the Iogenic plasma source is an important input quantity (1) in local studies to understand the plasma torus properties (density, composition, subcorotational motion, electric currents, and temperature) and the plasma torus near-Io MHD flow and atmosphere interactions, and (2) in more global studies to understand the spacetime structure of the outward transport dynamics of the plasma torus, such as in RCM-J (Rice Convection Model for Jupiter) calculations. To elucidate and quantify the nature of the Iogenic plasma source for such studies, we have undertaken simulations of it using the AER neutral cloud models. Calculations will be presented to illustrate the spacetime nature of the Iogenic plasma source and to estimate the net-mass, momentum and energy input rates to the plasma torus and the height-integrated electrical conductivity near Io and in Jupiter's ionosphere. These calculations show that the instantaneous Iogenic plasma source is highly peaked at Io's position in the plasma torus and that its rates vary significantly with Io System III longitude and also with Io phase angle because of the east-west electric field. For the lower-velocity escape of gases by incomplete collisional cascade processes (i.e., plasma torus ion sputtering), contributions to the instantaneous Iogenic plasma source are primarily confined to a broader (but still limited) spatial region in L-shell and System III longitude angle near Io. For the higher-velocity loss of gases by charge exchange, contributions to the Iogenic plasma source are more spatially concentrated at Io and produce a large pick-up electrical conductivity with large associated field-aligned currents in the vicinity of the satellite. The Iogenic source should therefore locally reduce both the magnetic field and the plasma flow velocity.

  18. Asymmetries in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    Using Ulysses radio wave data taken during the 1992 Jupiter encounter, we conclude that there are significant large and small spatial scale azimuthal asymmetries at high latitudes in the Io plasma torus. During a period of time near perijove when the spacecraft motion was predominantly in the azimuthal direction and was relatively fixed in both latitude and radial distance, inferred electron densities depart significantly from the common assumption of longitudinal symmetry. Specifically, electron plasma concentrations near 0 deg system III longitude (and 0400 LT) are greater than those near 180 deg (and 0000 LT). Superposed on this large-scale variation are regularly spaced density depletions, 30-50% in magnitude, and having a spatial periodicity of about 17 deg. Some of these depletions may drive various known radio and plasma wave sources by means of large B parallel electric potentials. The observations are compared with recent models and with the in-situ Voyager observations.

  19. Effects of Io's volcanos on the plasma torus and Jupiter's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F.

    1980-12-01

    Io's volcanism can have dominant effects on Jupiter's magnetosphere. A model is developed in which a neutral gas torus is formed at Io's orbit by volcanic SO/sub 2/ escaping from Io. Ionization and dissociation of volcanic SO/sub 2/ is shown to be the dominant source of plasma in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The failure of Voyager observations to confirm predictions of the magnetic anomaly model is naturally explained. A 30--50 KeV sulfur and oxygen ion plasma is formed in the outer magnetosphere, with density roughly equal to the proton density there, by ionization of sulfur and oxygen atoms on highly eccentric elliptical orbits around Jupiter. When these atoms are ionized in the outer magnetosphere, they are swept up by the Jovian magnetic field and achieve 30--50 keV energies. Such atoms are created by dissociative attachment of SO/sub 2/ by < or approx. =10 eV electrons. Substantial losses of radiation-belt charged particles result from passage through the neutral gas torus. Such losses can account for observed anomalies in charged particle depletions near Io; these could not be understood in terms of satellite sweeping alone. Substantial ionization energy loss occurs for < or approx. =1 MeV protons and < or approx. =100 keV electrons; losses of < or approx. =1 MeV protons are much greater than for comparable energy electrons. Losses of < or approx. =1 MeV per nucleon ions are also severe. Other consequences of the model include intrinsic time variability in the Jovian magnetosphere, on times > or approx. =10/sup 6/ s, caused by variations in Io's volcanic activity. Charged particle losses in the neutral gas torus tend to yield dumbbell-shaped pitch-angle distributions. Negative ions are predicted in the Io plasma torus.

  20. The physics of spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    2000-05-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the spherical torus (ST, or very low aspect ratio tokamaks) have recently emerged. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST magnetohydrodynamic equilibria more than a decade ago. Exciting data have been obtained from concept exploration level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm), making important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. The results have helped approval and construction of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful tokamak and advanced tokamak research, a wide range of new ST physics features has been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1 MA level with major radius up to ˜80 cm in the new proof of principle devices National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, U.S.) [M. Peng et al., European Conf. Abst. 22C, 451 (1998); S. M. Kaye et al., Fusion Technol. 36, 16 (1999); M. Ono et al., "Exploration of Spherical Torus Physics in the NSTX Device," 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., paper IAEA-CN-69/ICP/01 (R), Yokohama, Japan (1998)], Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, U.K.) [A. C. Darke et al., Fusion Technol. 1, 799 (1995); Q. W. Morris et al., Proc. Int. Workshop on ST (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 290], and Globus-M (R.F.) [V. K. Gusev et al., European Conf. Abst. 22C, 576 (1998)], which have just started full experimental operation. New concept exploration experiments, such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) [R. Fonck and the PEGASUS Team, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 267 (1999)], Helicity Injected Tokamak-II (HIT-II, University of Washington) [T. R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998)], and Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) [M. Ono et al., Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Fusion Energy (IAEA, Vienna, 1997), Vol. 2, p. 71] and other experiments in Japan and Brazil, etc., present additional opportunities for important progress. This tutorial paper summarizes our understanding and projections of the physics of the ST plasmas, the investigation of which will hopefully bring new enthusiasm and advancements for fusion energy science research in the U.S. and the world.

  1. Plasma Parameters in Io's Torus: Measurements from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Turner, Jake; Schmidt, Carl; Thelen, Michael; McNeil, Eric; Rugenski, Stacey; Chanover, Nancy; Oza, Apurva; Thelen, Alexander; Johnson, Robert E.; Bittle, Lauren; King, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    We report observations from nine nights of observations of the Io plasma torus made in conjunction with JAXA's Hisaki mission torus observations and the Hubble Space telescope auroral campaign. Groundbased remote sensing of forbidden line emissions yield measures of plasma density which cannot be made at UV wavelengths.

  2. Voyager 1 evidence for ion-cyclotron instability in the vicinity of the Io plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Scarf, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Voyager 1 traversal of the Io plasma torus was marked by pronounced enhancement in low frequency wave activity with especially strong wave intensification below the proton gyrofrequency, suggesting the excitation of ion-cyclotron waves over the same radial range in which the energetic ring current ions exhibit phase space density depletion due to strong pitch angle scattering loss to the atmosphere. If the more intense emissions observed intermittently by Voyager 1 are representative of waves in the high latitude source region, the resulting pitch angle scattering would be sufficiently rapid to explain the observed energetic ion losses and the excitation of intense Jovian auroral emissions of field lines passing through the torus.

  3. X-Ray Probes of Jupiter's Auroral Zones, Galilean Moons, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we review the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian system and describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing study for possible application to future missions to Jupiter such as JIMO. X-MIME has the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.

  4. Torus-Shaped Dust Clouds in Magnetized Anodic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, I.; Reichstein, T.; Greiner, F.; Piel, A.

    2008-09-07

    The generation of a torus-shaped dust cloud in an anodic plasma is decribed. The confined dust particles perfom a rotational motion around the torus major axis. The structure of the cloud in dependence of the external parameters are observed and the rotation velocity of the particles was measured and compared with a simple estimate.

  5. Io: IUE observations of its atmosphere and the plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballester, G. E.; Moos, H. W.; Feldman, P. D.; Strobel, D. F.; Skinner, T. E.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Festou, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the main components of the atmosphere of Io, neutral oxygen and sulfur, were detected with the IUE. Four observations yield brightnesses that are similar, regardless of whether the upstream or the downstream sides of the torus plasma flow around Io is observed. A simple model requires the emissions to be produced by the interaction of O and S columns in the exospheric range with 2 eV electrons. Cooling of the 5 eV torus electrons is required prior to their interaction with the atmosphere of Io. Inconsistencies in the characteristics of the spectra that cannot be accounted for in this model require further analysis with improved atomic data. The Io plasma torus was monitored with the IUE. The long-term stability of the warm torus is established. The observed brightnesses were analyzed using a model of the torus, and variations of less than 30 percent in the composition are observed, the quantitative results being model dependent.

  6. Ion Temperature Control of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Steffl, A. J.; Robbins, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on observational and theoretical studies of ion temperature in the Io plasma torus. Ion temperature is a critical factor for two reasons. First, ions are a major supplier of energy to the torus electrons which power the intense EUV emissions. Second, ion temperature determines the vertical extent of plasma along field lines. Higher temperatures spread plasma out, lowers the density and slows reaction rates. The combined effects can play a controlling role in torus energetics and chemistry. An unexpected tool for the study of ion temperature is the longitudinal structure in the plasma torus which often manifests itself as periodic brightness variations. Opposite sides of the torus (especially magnetic longitudes 20 and 200 degrees) have been observed on numerous occasions to have dramatically different brightness, density, composition, ionization state, electron temperature and ion temperature. These asymmetries must ultimately be driven by different energy flows on the opposite sides, presenting an opportunity to observe key torus processes operating under different conditions. The most comprehensive dataset for the study of longitudinal variations was obtained by the Cassini UVIS instrument during its Jupiter flyby. Steffl (Ph.D. thesis, 2005) identified longitudinal variations in all the quantities listed above wit the exception of ion temperature. We extend his work by undertaking the first search for such variation in the UVIS dataset. We also report on a 'square centimeter' model of the torus which extend the traditional 'cubic centimeter' models by including the controlling effects of ion temperature more completely.

  7. The low energy plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Bridge, H. S.; Goertz, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements below 6 keV from the plasma science experiment on the Voyager spacecraft show that positive ions with temperatures as low as 30 eV to several keV are observed to distances at least as great as 40 Jupiter radii in the dayside Jovian magnetosphere. When velocity determinations are possible between 10 and 40 Jupiter radii, the plasma velocity component along the rigid corotation direction is found to be consistently less than the full corotation speed. Positive ion measurements above 28 keV from the low energy charged particle experiment on Voyager demonstrate the existence of positive ions with temperatures of 20-30 keV at all distances greater than 30 Jupiter radii. Taken together, these observations suggest that the low energy plasma population from 30 to at least 40 Jupiter radii frequently contains both a cold and a hot component. A two-component plasma of this nature may indicate different sources, acceleration mechanisms, or time histories for the disparate components. It may also be indicative of a single acceleration mechanism which is highly energy dependent.

  8. On the energy crisis in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert A.; Bagenal, Fran; Cheng, Andrew F.; Strobel, Darrell

    1988-01-01

    Recent calculations of the energy balance of the Io plasma torus show that the observed UV and EUV radiation cannot be maintained solely via energy input by the ion pickup mechanism. Current theoretical models of the torus must be modified to include non-local energy input. It is argued that the required energy may be supplied by inward diffusion of energetic heavy ions with energies less than about 20 keV.

  9. The injection of energy into the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemansky, D. E.; Sandel, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager EUV observations of the Io plasma torus indicate the presence of an intensity modulation in the corotating reference frame of significant magnitude on a 10-hour time scale. The phenomenon has a persistence which suggests it is a permanent feature, and the magnitude is such that a substantial amount of energy is injected into the torus at a 10-hour periodic rate. An investigation is conducted regarding the nature of the energy enjection process as determined by the plasma parameters and the observed characteristics. Attention is given to excitation-relaxation relations, aspects of ion-electron relaxation, and electron-electron relaxation and energy transfer rates. The radial distribution of temperature at the eastern and western elongations is found to indicate that the energy input to the electrons is distributed over the width of the torus. The dominant mechanism of energy transport to the plasma appears to be electron-electron heating.

  10. Modeling Variability of Plasma Conditions in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2003-01-01

    Telescopic observations an in situ measurements of the Io plasma torus show the density, temperature and composition to vary over time, sometimes up to a factor of 2. While previous models of the physical and chemical processes in the Io plasma torus have reasonably modeled the conditions of the Voyager 1 era, their authors have not addressed the observed variability nor explored the sensitivity of torus conditions to input parameters. In this paper we present a homogeneous torus model parameterized by five variables (transport timescale, neutral source strength, ratio of oxygen sulfur to atoms in the source, fraction of superthermal electrons, temperature of these hot electrons). The model incorporates the most recent data for ionization, recombination, charge exchange and radiative energy losses for the major torus species (S, S(sup +), S(sup ++), S(sup +++), O, O(sup +), O(sup ++). We solve equations of conservation of mass and energy to find equilibrium conditions for a set of input parameters. We compare model plasma conditions with those observed by Voyager 1 Voyager 2, and Cassini. Furthermore, we explore the sensitivity of torus conditions to each parameter. We find that (1) torus conditions are distinctly different for the Voyager 1, Voyager 2 and Cassini eras, (2) unique torus input parameters for any given era are poorly constrained given the wide range of solution space that is consistent with the range of observed torus conditions, (3) ion composition is highly sensitive to the specification of a non-thermal electron distribution, (4) neutral O/S source ratio is highly variable with model values ranging between 1.7 for Cassini to 4.0 for Voyager 1 conditions, (5) transport times range between 23 days for Voyager 2 to 50 days for Voyager 1 and Cassini, (6) neutral source strengths range between 7 to 30 x 10(sup -4) cm (sup -3) s(sup -1) which corresponds to a net production of 0.4 to 1.3 tons/s for a torus volume of 1.4 x 10(sup 31) cm(sup 3), or 38 R(sub j)(sup 3).

  11. Ganymede's interaction with the jovian plasma from hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Leblanc, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ganymede is a unique object: it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field leading to the formation of a small magnetosphere. The magnetosphere of Ganymede being embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere, the environment of the Galilean moon presents the only known case of interaction between two magnetospheres (Kivelson et al. 1996). This peculiar interaction has been investigated by means of a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid model based on a CAM-CL algorithm (Mathews et al. 1994). This generic model has been largely used for other magnetized or unmagnetized bodies such as Mars (Modolo et al. 2005; 2006 and 2012), Titan (Modolo et al. 2007, Modolo and Chauteur 2008) or Mercury (Richer et al. 2012). IIn this formalism, ions have a kinetic description whereas electrons are considered as an inertialess fluid which ensure the neutrality of the plasma and contribute to the total current and electronic pressure. Maxwell's equations are solved to compute the temporal evolution of electromagnetic field. The hybrid simulation describes the dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma, composed of O+ and H+ ions, and Ganymede's ionospheric plasma (W+, H2+, H+). Similarly to Paty and Winglee (2004), a density profile with a scale height of 125km of the ionospheric plasma is loaded and feeded during the simulation. Charge exchange leading to H2+ and H+ are also computed. To represent Ganymede's magnetosphere a magnetic dipole is implemented at initialization with dipolar moments values taken from Kivelson et al, 2002. This dipole is progressively distorted and lead to the formal of the mini-magnetopshere. Simulation results also emphasize the presence of Alfvén wings and are in good agreement with other simulation results (Jia et al, 2008, Paty et al, 2008). Hybrid simulations are performed on a uniform cartesian grid with a spatial resolution of about 200 km. Simulations results are presented and compared to magnetometer and particle observations obtained during G1 and G2 Galileo flybys.

  12. Two Dimensional Physical Chemistry Model of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, M.; Delamere, P. A.; Steffl, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Io plasma torus can be characterized by sinusoidal longitudinal (system III and system IV modulation) variations and radial variations. Using the two dimensional model we will explore the sensitivity of radial and azimuthal variations in density, temperature, and composition. Model input parameters include radial transport, hot electron abundance, and iogenic neutral source rate. We will demonstrate how events, such as changes in neutral source due to volcanic eruption on Io, can effect the torus composition in the equatorial plane. These results will be paired with Cassini UVIS data to show what events can cause observed torus changes. In addition to explaining observed trends, the sensitivity study will allow us to predict possible future observations (from the EXCEED mission) and their causes.

  13. Radial and azimuthal dynamics of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, Matthew

    The moon Io orbits Jupiter emitting neutral particles from its volcanic surface. This emission is ionized and forms the Io plasma torus around Jupiter. The variation of conditions at Io and Jupiter lead to variations in the content of the plasma in the torus. Volcanoes on Io's surface erupt and change the rate of neutral input. Hot electrons (30--100 eV), whose abundances vary in azimuth, create highly ionized species. Radial variation in subcorotation velocities, velocities less than that of the motion of the dipole magnetic field, creates shears while maintaining coherent radial structure in the torus. Poorly understood changes in plasma density circulate through the torus creating the anomalous System IV behavior that has a period slightly longer than the rotation of Jupiter's magnetic field. This thesis summarizes the research that has produced a two-dimensional physical chemistry model, tested several existing theories about subcorotation velocities, System IV variation, and hot electrons, and adopted new methods of Io plasma torus analysis. In an attempt to understand important dynamics, the thesis modeled differing scenarios such as an initialized two-peak structure, a subcorotation profile dictated by mass loading and ionospheric conductivity, and a critical combination of two populations of hot electrons that accurately mimics the observed System IV phenomenon. This model was also used to solve the inverse problem of determining the best fit for the model parameters, neutral source input rate and radial transport rate, using observations of density, temperature, and composition. In addition the thesis shows the need for multi-dimensional modeling and the results from its groundbreaking two-dimensional model.

  14. The Jovian Plasma Dynamics and Composition Analyzer for the Particle Environment Package on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Stude, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The Jovian plasma Dynamics and Composition analyzer (JDC) is one of six sensors of Particle Environment Package (PEP) on ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter. JDC measures 3D distribution functions of positive and negative ions in the energy range 1eV per charge to 41keV per charge. The sensor measures simultaneously using a high sensitivity-low mass resolution and a lower sensitivity-high mass resolution channel and has the additional capability to measure electrons. Instrument mass constraints and the jovian radiation environment drive the design of the sensor: radiation shielding, detectors and coincidence systems are optimized for the plasma and radiation environment to be expected during the JUICE mission while keeping the sensor mass within allocated limits. We present the JDC sensor principle and design and its predicted performance in the jovian environment and compare to laboratory measurements from JDC sensor prototypes.

  15. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The wideband waveform data show considerable evidence of dust impacts at radial distances inside of about 3 RJ, at rates as high as a few impacts per second.

  16. The plasma physics of the Jovian decameter radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Eviatar, A.

    1972-01-01

    We have assumed that the decameter radiation from Jupiter is produced near the local electron gyrofrequency and is amplified as it propagates out of the Jovian magnetosphere. We have derived the growth rate for radiation that propagates almost perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. When the electrons are described by a loss-cone distribution function, the growth rate is large enough to lead to a large amplification factor over a source of 100-4000 km, depending on the choice of parameters. Because we expect low-energy electrons to be trapped in the Jovian dipole field regardless of the position of the satellite Io, we maintain that this model provides a plausible mechanism for the decametric radiation not associated with Io.

  17. Magnetic Fluctuations in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.

    2002-01-01

    The engine that drives the jovian magnetosphere is the mass added to the Io ion torus, accelerated to corotational velocities by field-aligned currents that couple the Io torus to the jovian ionosphere. The mass of the torus builds up to an amount that the magnetic forces cannot contain and the plasma, first slowly and then more rapidly, drifts outward. Numerous authors have treated this problem based first on the observations of the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys; then on Voyager 1 and 2, and Ulysses; and finally most recently the Galileo orbiter. The initial observations revealed the now familiar magnetodisk, in which the field above and below the magnetic equator became quite radial in orientation and much less dipolar. The Galileo observations show this transformation to occur on average at 24 RJ and to often be quite abrupt. These observations are consistent with outward transport of magnetized plasma that moves ever faster radially until about 50 RJ on the nightside where the field lines stretch to the breaking point, reconnection occurs, and plasma and field islands are transported down the tail ultimately removing the mass from the magnetosphere that Io had deposited deep in the inner torus. The reconnection process creates empty flux tubes connected to Jupiter that are buoyant and thought to float inward and replace the flux carried out with the torus plasma. As described above, the jovian magnetosphere could very well be in a state of steady laminar circulation, but indeed it is not. The process is very unsteady and the wave levels can be very intense. The existence of these waves in turn can lead to processes that compete with the radial circulation pattern in removing plasma from the system. These waves can scatter particles so that they precipitate into the ionosphere. This process should be important in the Io torus where the atmospheric loss cone is relatively large and becomes less important as the loss cone decreases in size with radial distance. However, the Io torus is relatively quiet compared to the region outside the torus and it is not obvious without studying this scattering carefully whether the loss in the torus or out of the torus is greater and whether it can act rapidly enough to compete with the radial transport of ions to the tail in the life cycle of the mass added at Io. Closer to Io the ion cyclotron waves are most intense and possibly are associated with the losses in the Io flux tube. The waves are also diagnostic of both the Io atmospheric composition and the size and strength of the massloading process.

  18. Fluctuation spectra in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, C. M.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Roth, J. R.; Hong, J. Y.; Powers, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The electrostatic potential fluctuation spectrum in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma was studied with capacitive probes in the low pressure (high impedance) mode and in the high pressure (low impedance) mode. Under different operating conditions, the plasma exhibited electrostatic potential fluctuations (1) at a set of discrete frequencies, (2) at a continuum of frequencies, and (3) as incoherent high-frequency turbulence. The frequencies and azimuthal wave numbers were determined from digitally implemented autopower and cross-power spectra. The azimuthal dispersion characteristics of the unstable waves were examined by varying the electrode voltage, the polarity of the voltage, and the neutral background density at a constant magnetic field strength.

  19. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34-5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail).

  20. Global ENA Imaging of the Jovian Magnetosphere: A Tool for Global Exploration of the Giant Accelerator of Energetic Particles and Their Interaction with the Torus Region and Moons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.

    2010-12-01

    The Europa-Jupiter System Mision (EJSM) has required a synergistic approach within the JGO-JEO constellation to unravel fundamental and universal magnetospheric processes, by using powerful combinations of in-situ and global imaging measurement. The Japanese Space Agency is also considering a possible Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO), enabling triple point measurements and multi-point imaging to ensure simultaneous and continuous observations - a key requirement for revealing how the magnetosphere couples to the ionosphere as well as to the plasma sources. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging is so far the only technique capable of obtaining global images of the magnetospheric energetic ion population in the ~3-300 keV range, which otherwise would have remained invisible. ENA cameras on Cassini and the terrestrial IMAGE mission have revealed global, explosive acceleration processes and their connection to the ionosphere, aurorae and radio emissions. Therefore, the technique is considered to be game-changing and one of the required measurement techniques in the payload definition for both JGO and JMO. In this presentation we discuss how ENA imaging can make use of the synergistic approach of EJSM to explore global acceleration, MI-coupling, relation to aurorae and radio emissions, transport, solar wind control, constrain torus neutral gas evolution and provide global context for moon-magnetosphere interactions in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use past measurements and a data-derived model to simulate ENA images through a realistic camera response function along the JGO orbit and explore the scientific value added by in-situ and imaging measurements from JMO. The presentation is concluded by summarizing the critical technical requirements of ENA cameras, such as energy and mass range, geometrical factor and background/foreground rejection that must be met in order to operate in the harsh Jovian environment while achieving the highest priority science objectives.

  1. Cassini-plasma interactions in the Enceladus torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Miloch, W. J.; Morfill, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    This study reports the results of the first simulations of spacecraft-plasma interactions within the proposed Enceladus torus, a radially narrow toroidal region surrounding Saturn that contains a high density of water-group neutrals. Charge exchange collisions scatter these neutrals and replace a fraction of the co-rotating ions with a new and slower-moving ion population. The newly-created ions are moving near the local Keplerian speed, slower than the co-rotation speed, and are ''picked-up'' by Saturn's magnetic field. These water-group ions are detected throughout the Enceladus torus including regions far from Enceladus [1,2]. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell self-consistent code is applied to find the potential and plasma distributions around the spherical model of Cassini in a complicated plasma environment of the Enceladus torus. The modeling includes two types of water group ions (co-rotating, and non-thermalized pick-up ions), plasma flows, photoemission due to solar UV radiation, and flyby geometry. As input data the parameters derived from the Cassini plasma spectrometer measurements obtained in 2005 on Oct. 11, and 29, Nov. 27, and Dec. 24 [1] are employed. The numerical simulations show that the pick-up ions significantly modify the spatial structure of the plasma perturbations, arising in the vicinity of the orbiter in comparison to that obtained for only co-rotating ions [3]. The plasma species produce a specific strongly inhomogeneous configuration with a self-consistent charge separation between the different plasma components in the electric field of the orbiter. The highly energetic co-rotating water group ions are mainly responsible for the configuration of the plasma wake. The region extending up to a few electron Debye lengths downstream of the spacecraft reveals negative potentials that are a significant fraction of the thermal electron energy. Arising wake electric fields capture the cold, pick-up ions and lead to a strong enhancement of their density in the direct vicinity of the orbiter downstream. Here the ratio of the trapped to primary ion density reaches values of 5. Simulations reveal also the existence of an extended region with extremely low density of the pick-up ions upstream of the spacecraft. The obtained results can be of importance for understanding the main physical processes occurring in Saturn's magnetosphere and for reliable interpretations of Cassini electric field and plasma measurements near the icy moon Enceladus. [1] R. L. Tokar et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14202 (2008). [2] R. L. Tokar et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13203 (2009). [3] V. V. Yaroshenko et al. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A12218 (2011)

  2. Latitudinal oscillations of plasma within the Io torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, W. D.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1980-05-01

    The equilibrium latitude and the period of oscillations about this equilibrium latitude are calculated for a plasma in a centrifugally dominated tilted dipole magnetic field representing Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. It is found that for a hot plasma the equilibrium latitude in the magnetic equator, for a cold plasma it is the centrifugal equator, and for a warm plasma it is somewhere in between. An illustrative model is adopted in which atoms are sputtered from the Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io and escape Io's gravity to be subsequently ionized some distance from Io. Finally, it is shown that ionization generally does not occur at the equilibrium altitude, and that the resulting latitudinal oscillations provide an explanation for the irregularities in electron concentration within the torus, as reported by the radioastronomy experiment aboard Voyager I.

  3. High Performance Plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J. Bialek; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; P. Bonoli; D. Darrow; P. Efthimion; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; L. Grisham; J. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S. Kaye; S. Kubota; H. Kugel; B. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; J. Manickam; T.K. Mau; R.J. Maqueda; E. Mazzucato; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Nelson; N. Nishino; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; Y-K.M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Raman; P. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; C.H. Skinner; D. Stutman; D. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson; W. Zhu; S. Zweben; A. Bers; M. Carter; B. Deng; C. Domier; E. Doyle; M. Finkenthal; K. Hill; T. Jarboe; S. Jardin; H. Ji; L. Lao; K.C. Lee; N. Luhmann; R. Majeski; H. Park; T. Peebles; R.I. Pinsker; G. Porter; A. Ram; M. Rensink; T. Rognlien; D. Stotler; B. Stratton; G. Taylor; W. Wampler; G.A. Wurden; X.Q. Xu; L. Zeng; and the NSTX Team

    2001-07-10

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced toroidal plasmas at low aspect ratio (A = R/a = 0.86 m/0.68 m approximately equal to 1.3, where R is the major radius and a is the minor radius of the torus) with plasma currents of 1.4 MA. The rapid development of the machine has led to very exciting physics results during the first full year of physics operation. Pulse lengths in excess of 0.5 sec have been obtained with inductive current drive. Up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating power has been applied with 6 MW planned. Using only 2 MW of HHFW heating power clear evidence of electron heating is seen with HHFW, as observed by the multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. A noninductive current drive concept known as Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has driven 260 kA of toroidal current. Neutral-beam heating power of 5 MW has been injected. Plasmas with beta toroidal (= 2 mu(subscript ''0'')

    /B(superscript ''2'') = a measure of magnetic confinement efficiency ) of 22% have been achieved, as calculated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. Beta-limiting phenomena have been observed, and the maximum beta toroidal scales with I(subscript ''p'')/aB(subscript ''t''). High frequency (>MHz) magnetic fluctuations have been observed. High-confinement mode plasmas are observed with confinement times of >100 msec. Beam-heated plasmas show energy confinement times in excess of those predicted by empirical scaling expressions. Ion temperatures in excess of 2.0 keV have been measured, and power balance suggests that the power loss from the ions to the electrons may exceed the calculated classical input power to the ions.

  4. Ring current impoundment of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Thorne, R. M.; Richardson, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Sullivan, J. D.; Eviatar, A.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered feature in the Io plasma formation that may be described as a ramp separating a high-density plasma ledge on its Jupiterward side from the lower-density radially distended Io plasma disc on its anti-Jupiterward side is observed to coincide with a marked inward decrease in the ring current population. The spatial congruency of the counter-directed maximal gradients in both plasma bodies reveals a profound coupling between them. The existence of the ramp requires a local order-of-magnitude reduction in the diffusion coefficient that governs radial mass transport. It is demonstrated that the diminished diffusive efficiency there is caused by strong pressure gradient inhibition of the interchange instability that underlies mass transport. The Io plasma torus, which is defined as the region of strong ultraviolet emissions, is identified as the plasma ledge. The plasma density in the ledge is high and, incidentally therefore, able to emit strongly because it is impounded against rapid, centrifugal expulsion by the inwardly directed pressure of the ring current at its inner edge.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Rotation-Driven Plasma Transport In the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    A Jupiter version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM-J) was developed with support of an earlier NASA SR&T grant. The conversion from Earth to Jupiter included adding currents driven by centrifugal force, reversing the planetary magnetic field, and rescaling various parameters. A series of informative runs was carried out, all of them solving initial value problems. The simulations followed an initial plasma torus configuration as it fell apart by interchange instability. Some conclusions from the simulations were the following: 1. We confirmed that, for conventional values of the torus density and ionospheric conductance, the torus disintegrates by interchange instability on a time scale of approx. one day, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than the best estimates of the average residence time of plasma in the torus. 2. In the model, the instability could be slowed to an arbitrary degree by the addition of sufficient impounding energetic particles, as suggested earlier by Siscoe et al (1981). However, the observed energetic particles do not seem sufficient to guarantee impoundment (e.g., Mauk et al., 1996). 3. Whether inhibited by impoundment or not, the interchange was found to proceed by the formation of long fingers, which get thinner as they get longer. This picture differed dramatically from the conventional radial-diffusion picture (e.g., Siscoe and Summers (1981)), more superficially with the outward-moving-blob picture (Pontius and Hill, 1989). The obvious limitation of the original RCM-J was that it could not represent a plasma source. We could represent the decay of a pre-existing torus, but we could not represent the way ionization of material from Io continually replenishes the plasma. We consequently were precluded from studying a whole set of fundamental issues of torus theory, including whether the system can come to a steady state.

  6. Coulomb thermal properties and stability of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.; Eviatar, A.

    1983-01-01

    Coulomb collisional energy exchange rates are computed for a model of the Io plasma torus consisting of newly created pickup ions, a background of thermally degraded intermediary ions, and a population of cooler electrons. The electrons are collisionally heated by both the pickup ions and background ions and are cooled by electron impact excitation of plasma ions which radiate in the EUV. It is found that a relative concentration of S III pickup ions forbidden S III/electrons = 0.1 with a temperature of 340 eV can deliver energy to the electrons at a rate of 3 x 10 to the -13th erg/cu cm per sec, sufficient to power the EUV emissions in the Io torus. The model predicts a background ion temperature Ti of about 53 eV and an electron temperature Te of about 5.5 eV on the basis of steady-state energy balance relations at Coulomb rates. The model also predicts electron temperature fluctuations at the 30 percent level on a time scale of less than 11 hours, consistent with recent observations of this phenomenon.

  7. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Research efforts in the second quarter have been focused upon a preliminary exploration of the likely impact of Europs's local atmospheres and neutral clouds on the plasma torus and the initiation of an assessment of the basic nature of the radial structure of the electron density in the plasma torus during the JO encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.

  8. Stability of hot electron plasma in the ELMO bumpy torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, K. T.; Cheng, C. Z.

    The stability of a hot electron plasma in the ELMO Bumpy Torus was investigated using two different models. In the first model, where the hot electron distribution function is assumed to be a delta function in the perpendicular velocity, a stability boundary in addition to those discussed by Nelson and by Van Dam and Lee is found. In the second model, where the hot electron distribution function is assumed to be a Maxwellian in the perpendicular velocity, stability boundaries significantly different from those of the first model are found. Coupling of the Nelson-Van Dam-Lee mode to the compressional Alfven mode is now possible. This leads to a higher permissible core plasma beta value for stable operation.

  9. Negative specific heat of a magnetically self-confined plasma torus

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Michael K.-H.; Neukirch, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the thermodynamic maximum-entropy principle predicts negative specific heat for a stationary, magnetically self-confined current-carrying plasma torus. Implications for the magnetic self-confinement of fusion plasma are considered. PMID:12576553

  10. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  11. Studies of burning plasma physics in the Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayoral, M.-L.; Buttery, R.; Jones, T. T. C.; Kiptily, V.; Sharapov, S.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Nguyen, F.; Borba, D. N.; Mück, A.; Pinches, S. D.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2004-05-01

    In burning plasma experiments, the very energetic alpha (α) particles resulting from a deuterium-tritium fusion reaction will be the dominant heating mechanism and will give rise to new physics issues. Recent experiments performed on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] and aiming to investigate burning plasma physics are reported in this paper. In the presence of very energetic particles, the magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas is affected. Sawteeth will be strongly stabilized and may lead to the onset of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), which are damaging for the plasma confinement. 4He ions injected at 120 keV by the neutral beam injection system and accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) waves to the MeV energy range have provided the necessary energetic particles to investigate these effects. New scenarios have been used in order to control the stability of the sawteeth even in the presence of fast particles and to prevent or delay the appearance of NTMs. Finally, in a plasma self-heated by α-particles, the thermal stability is a critical point and equilibrium will have to be maintained between the α-heating and the transport losses. Experiments have been performed where a fraction of the ICRF heating has been used to simulate the α-heating. A situation of thermal runaway has been demonstrated and successfully controlled.

  12. Empirical probability model of cold plasma environment in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Barabash, Stas; Roussos, Elias; Truscott, Pete

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the Galileo PLS dataset to produce a new cold plasma environment model for the Jovian magneto- sphere. Although there exist many sophisticated radiation models, treating energetic plasma (e.g. JOSE, GIRE, or Salammbo), only a limited number of simple models has been utilized for cold plasma environment. By extend- ing the existing cold plasma models toward the probability domain, we can predict the extreme periods of Jovian environment by specifying the percentile of the environmental parameters. The new model was produced in the following procedure. We first referred to the existing cold plasma models of Divine and Garrett, 1983 (DG83) or Bagenal and Delamere 2011 (BD11). These models are scaled to fit the statistical median of the parameters obtained from Galileo PLS data. The scaled model (also called as "mean model") indicates the median environment of Jovian magnetosphere. Then, assuming that the deviations in the Galileo PLS parameters are purely due to variations in the environment, we extended the mean model toward the percentile domain. The input parameter of the model is simply the position of the spacecraft (distance, magnetic longitude and lati- tude) and the specific percentile (e.g. 0.5 for the mean model). All the parameters in the model are described in mathematical forms; therefore the needed computational resources are quite low. The new model can be used for assessing the JUICE mission profile. The spatial extent of the model covers the main phase of the JUICE mission; namely from the Europa orbit to 40 Rj (where Rj is the radius of Jupiter). In addition, theoretical extensions toward the latitudinal direction are also included in the model to support the high latitude orbit of the JUICE spacecraft.

  13. Modeling and investigative studies of Jovian low frequency emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Six, N. F.; Gulkis, S.

    1986-09-01

    The Voyager data in a newly produced noise-reduced and recalibrated format has been received. New color spectrograms were developed on high resolution color terminals which display this data. The production of these new spectrograms utilizing the new format data is quite important, because it eliminates a serious problem of noise contamination and miscalibration in the old data set. In addition, a new Jovian plasma model was introduced, which includes the Io torus and accounts for 7 ionic species. The new plasma model is important in the ray tracing of hectometric (HOM) and kilometric (KOM) radiation which may be influenced by the Io torus.

  14. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io: the HISAKI observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Kagitani, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Nozawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in Io plasma torus (IPT) has been discovered by Voyager and show an evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, the amount of observation data is still limited to investigate its detail properties. In addition, the clear Io-correlated change has not been detected by EUVE and Cassini observations. Cause of the Io-correlated effect is still open issue. The HISAKI satellite was launched on Sep. 14, 2013 and started observation of IPT and Jovian aurora for more than two months since the end of Dec. 2013. EUV spectrograph onboard the HISAKI satellite covers wavelength range from 55 to 145 nm, a wide slit which had a field of view of 400 x 140 arc-second was chosen to measure radial distribution and time variation of IPT. Observation of IPT with HISAKI showed clear Io-correlated brightness change since the Voyager observation. The amplitude of the periodic variation associated with Io's orbital period was found. It also showed long-term variation during the HISAKI's observation period. Through the observation period, the amplitude was larger in the short wavelength than in long wavelength. The wavelength dependence suggests significant electron heating and/or hot electron production. The Io phase dependence shows that bright region is located just downstream of Io. These are evidence of local electron heating around/downstream of Io and consistent with the Voyager result. The brightness also depends on system-III longitude and has local maximum around 120 and 300 degrees. Based on an empirical model of IPT, electron density at Io also shows maxima around the same longitudes. This suggests that the electron heating process is related with plasma density at Io. Candidate mechanisms which are responsible for the electron heating will be discussed.

  15. Torus-shaped dust clouds trapped in a magnetized anodic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, Iris; Reichstein, Torben; Piel, Alexander

    2008-10-15

    Dust particles confined in a magnetized anodic plasma can form a torus-shaped cloud with a dust-free region (void) in the center. Most of the dust particles perform a rotational motion about the major axis of the torus. The torus-shaped dust cloud and the velocity of the particles are studied by varying the external plasma parameters like magnetic field strength and rf-power of the source plasma. Two-dimensional potential contours are measured with an emissive probe. The results are used to discuss the force balance between electric field force and ion drag acting on the dust particles that determines the void size.

  16. Amalthea's modulation of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-05-01

    Most modulation lanes in dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission (DAM) are formed by radiation scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. The positions and frequency drift of hundreds of lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from UFRO archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that some lanes are formed near the magnetic shell of the satellite Amalthea mainly at longitudes of 123°≤λ_III≤140° (north) and 284°≤λ_III≤305° (south). These disturbances coincide with regions of plasma compression by the rotating magnetic field of Jupiter. Such modulations are found at other longitudes too (189° to 236°) with higher sensitivity. Amalthea's plasma torus could be another argument for the ice nature of the satellite, which has a density less than that of water.

  17. Amalthea's modulation of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-08-01

    Most modulation lanes in dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission (DAM) are formed by radiation scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. The positions and frequency drift of hundreds of lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from UFRO archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that some lanes are formed near the magnetic shell of the satellite Amalthea mainly at longitudes of 123 to 140 deg. (north; III 1965 system) and 284 to 305 deg. (south). These disturbances coincide with regions of plasma compression by the rotating magnetic field of Jupiter. Such modulations are found at other longitudes too (189 to 236 deg.) with higher sensitivity. Amalthea's plasma torus could be another argument for the ice nature of the satellite, which has a density less than that of water.

  18. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Jovian system for about 24 hours on 25-26 Nov 1999 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), in support of the Galileo flyby of Io, and for about 10 hours on 18 Dec 2000 with the imaging array of the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), in support of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. Analysis of these data have revealed soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays is about an order of magnitude too weak even during flares from the active Sun to account for the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains both fall by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, we calculate that bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range accounts for roughly one third of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Extension of the far ultraviolet (FUV) IPT spectrum likely also contributes.

  19. Limit on rotational energy available to excite Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    There is a fundamental relationship between the power that is extracted from Jupiter's rotation to drive magnetospheric processes and the rate at which mass is injected into the Io plasma torus. Half of this power is consumed by bulk motion of the plasma and the other half represents an upper limit on the energy from rotation available for dissipation and in particular to excite the Jovian aurora. Since the rotation of the planet is the only plausible source of energy, the power inferred from the observed auroral intensities requires a plasma injection rate of 2.6 x 10 to the 29th AMU/sec or greater. This in turn leads to a residence time of a torus particle of 48 days or less. These results raise doubts about the applicability of equilibrium thermodynamics to the determination of plasma parameters in the Io torus.

  20. The Jovian magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The current understanding of the plasma, magnetic field, and plasma wave characteristics of the near and distant Jovian magnetotail is discussed. The properties of these two regions are compared, with particular emphasis given to the data on the distant tail obtained by Voyager 2. The Jovian tail has many unusual properties, such as the large scale sausage-string shape of its outer boundary, but some of its properties resemble those of the earth's magnetotail, such as its central current sheet and a surrounding region resembling a plasma sheet consisting of hot ions. Data are presented that support the view that plasma in the Jovian tail plasma sheet comes from Jupiter.

  1. Electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulation of turbulence in torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Maeyama, S.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Nakajima, N.

    2015-04-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations of electromagnetic turbulence in magnetically confined torus plasmas including tokamak and heliotron/stellarator are reviewed. Numerical simulation of turbulence in finite beta plasmas is an important task for predicting the performance of fusion reactors and a great challenge in computational science due to multiple spatio-temporal scales related to electromagnetic ion and electron dynamics. The simulation becomes further challenging in non-axisymmetric plasmas. In finite beta plasmas, magnetic perturbation appears and influences some key mechanisms of turbulent transport, which include linear instability and zonal flow production. Linear analysis shows that the ion-temperature gradient (ITG) instability, which is essentially an electrostatic instability, is unstable at low beta and its growth rate is reduced by magnetic field line bending at finite beta. On the other hand, the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM), which is an electromagnetic instability, is destabilized at high beta. In addition, trapped electron modes (TEMs), electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and micro-tearing modes (MTMs) can be destabilized. These instabilities are classified into two categories: ballooning parity and tearing parity modes. These parities are mixed by nonlinear interactions, so that, for instance, the ITG mode excites tearing parity modes. In the nonlinear evolution, the zonal flow shear acts to regulate the ITG driven turbulence at low beta. On the other hand, at finite beta, interplay between the turbulence and zonal flows becomes complicated because the production of zonal flow is influenced by the finite beta effects. When the zonal flows are too weak, turbulence continues to grow beyond a physically relevant level of saturation in finite-beta tokamaks. Nonlinear mode coupling to stable modes can play a role in the saturation of finite beta ITG mode and KBM. Since there is a quadratic conserved quantity, evaluating nonlinear transfer of the conserved quantity from unstable modes to stable modes is useful for understanding the saturation mechanism of turbulence.

  2. Modeling of Spherical Torus Plasmas for Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; S. Jardin; B. Jones; C. Kessel; R. Majeski; J. Spaleta; R. Woolley; L. Zakharo; B. Nelson; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-29

    Liquid metal walls have the potential to solve first-wall problems for fusion reactors, such as heat load and erosion of dry walls, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. In the near term, such walls can serve as the basis for schemes to stabilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Furthermore, the low recycling characteristics of lithium walls can be used for particle control. Liquid lithium experiments have already begun in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U). Plasmas limited with a toroidally localized limiter have been investigated, and experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter are in progress. A liquid surface module (LSM) has been proposed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this larger ST, plasma currents are in excess of 1 MA and a typical discharge radius is about 68 cm. The primary motivation for the LSM is particle control, and options for mounting it on the horizontal midplane or in the divertor region are under consideration. A key consideration is the magnitude of the eddy currents at the location of a liquid lithium surface. During plasma start up and disruptions, the force due to such currents and the magnetic field can force a conducting liquid off of the surface behind it. The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to estimate the magnitude of this effect. This program is a two dimensional, time dependent, free boundary simulation code that solves the MHD equations for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. From calculations that match actual ST equilibria, the eddy current densities can be determined at the locations of the liquid lithium. Initial results have shown that the effects could be significant, and ways of explicitly treating toroidally local structures are under investigation.

  3. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  4. Determination of the Structure of the Io Plasma Torus by Inversion of Earth-based Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Schneider, N. M.

    1998-09-01

    While ground-based imaging observations of the Io plasma torus have produced large data sets with excellent temporal coverage, the inversion of intensities to key plasma parameters is surprisingly difficult. The intensities of optical emissions from the Io plasma torus mainly depend on the densities of electrons and ions and ion temperatures. The determination of these parameters from ground-based images is complicated by line-of-sight integration. We report the results of optimized inversion of a large set of torus images from Catalina and Las Campanas observatories (e.g., N. Schneider and J. Trauger, ApJ 450, 450, 1995). The inversion technique combines a sophisticated ``forward model" which predicts torus emissions based on plasma conditions (CITEP, M. Taylor et al., JGR 100, 19541, 1995) with search algorithms which iteratively seek the best-fit plasma conditions. Recently developed forward models successfully predict emission intensity and structure of ground-based images for given Io torus conditions (N. Thomas, JGR 100, 7925, 1995; M. Taylor, Dissertation, 1996; M. Kuppers and N. Schneider, GRL 25, 2757, 1998). Taylor (1996) was the first first to reveal some torus structure from an inversion of a forward model. We improve on his method by using a genetic algorithm in combination with CITEP to determine the Io torus parameters that best fit ground-based images. >From the analysis of several years of ground-based data we are investigating the threedimensional structure of the Io plasma torus and its variation with time. The results will be used to constrain models of sources and loss processes for mass and energy in the torus. We thank D. L. Carroll for the permission to use his genetic algorithm. This work has been supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Astronomy programs.

  5. Microwave radiation measurements near the electron plasma frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.; Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Microwave emission near the electron plasma frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma has been observed, and its relation to the average electron density and the dc toroidal magnetic field was examined. The emission was detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50-ohm miniature coaxial probe. The radiation appeared as a broad amplitude peak that shifted in frequency as the plasma parameters were varied. The observed radiation scanned an average plasma density ranging from 20 billion to 800 billion per cu cm. A linear relation was observed between the density calculated from the emission frequency and the average plasma density measured with a microwave interferometer. With the aid of a relative density profile measurement of the plasma, it was determined that the emissions occurred from the outer periphery of the plasma.

  6. Momentum Transport in Electron-Dominated Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.; Wang, W.; Yuh, H.

    2009-02-24

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operates between 0.35 and 0.55 T, which, when coupled to up to 7 MW of neutral beam injection, leads to central rotation velocities in excess of 300 km/s and ExB shearing rates up to 1 MHz. This level of ExB shear can be up to a factor of five greater than typical linear growth rates of long-wavelength ion (e.g., ITG) modes, at least partially suppressing these instabilities. Evidence for this turbulence suppression is that the inferred diffusive ion thermal flux in NSTX H-modes is often at the neoclassical level, and thus these plasmas operate in an electron-dominated transport regime. Analysis of experiments using n=3 magnetic fields to change plasma rotation indicate that local rotation shear influences local transport coefficients, most notably the ion thermal diffusivity, in a manner consistent with suppression of the low-k turbulence by this rotation shear. The value of the effective momentum diffusivity, as inferred from steady-state momentum balance, is found to be larger than the neoclassical value. Results of perturbative experiments indicate inward pinch velocities up to 40 m/s and perturbative momentum diffusivities of up to 4 m2/s, which are larger by a factor of several than those values inferred from steady-state analysis. The inferred pinch velocity values are consistent with values based on theories in which low-k turbulence drives the inward momentum pinch. Thus, in Spherical Tori (STs), while the neoclassical ion energy transport effects can be relatively high and dominate the ion energy transport, the neoclassical momentum transport effects are near zero, meaning that transport of momentum is dominated by any low-k turbulence that exists.

  7. Low energy energetic neutral atom imaging in the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas

    2013-04-01

    We modeled low energy energetic neutral atoms fluxes originating from the interaction of Jovian magnetospheric plasma with the surface of Ganymede and from charge exchange reactions in the Io torus. We then calculated the instrument response of the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer instrument (JNA) to these fluxes. JNA is part of the proposed Particle Environment Package (PEP) for ESA's JUICE mission and is based on the Energetic Neutral Atom instrument (ENA) built for the BepiColombo Magnetospheric Orbiter. JNA is an imaging energetic neutral atom instrument for energies from 10eV to 3.3keV and it provides angular as well as mass resolution for major neutral species. Depending on magnetic field configuration magnetospheric plasma is able to precipitate onto the surface of Ganymede. The plasma surface interaction produces energetic neutral atoms by backscattering and/or sputtering that travel on ballistic trajectories. Imaging of the energetic neutral atoms fluxes allows to remotely study the precipitation pattern onto the surface, its dependence on magnetic field configuration and its evolution over time. Simulated JNA images are shown for typical conditions. Energetic neutral atoms are also generated by charge exchange reactions in the Io torus. Energetic neutral atoms allow us to study torus dynamics remotely. We show expected energetic neutral atoms fluxes and simulated JNA data from imaging the Io torus from a vantage point outside of Europa's orbit well reachable by the JUICE mission.

  8. Voyager observations of lower hybrid noise in the Io plasma torus and anomalous plasma heating rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of Voyager 1 electric field measurements obtained by the plasma wave instrument in the Io plasma torus has been carried out. A survey of the data has revealed the presence of persistent peaks in electric field spectra in the frequency range 100-600 Hz consistent with their identification as lower hybrid noise for a heavy-ion plasma of sulfur and oxygen. Typical wave intensities are 0.1 mV/m, and the spectra also show significant Doppler broadening, Delta omega/omega approximately 1. A theoretical analysis of lower hybrid wave generation by a bump-on-tail ring distribution of ions is given. The model is appropriate for plasmas with a superthermal pickup ion population present. A general methodology is used to demonstrate that the maximum plasma heating rate possible through anomalous wave-particle heat exchange is less than approximately 10 to the -14th ergs per cu cm per s. Although insufficient to meet the power requirement of the EUV-emitting warm torus, the heating rate is large enough to maintain a low-density (0.01-0.1 percent) superthermal electron population of keV electrons, which may lead to a small but significant anomalous ionization effect.

  9. X-ray Probes of Magnetospheric Interactions with Jupiter's Auroral zones, the Galilean Satellites, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed fiom Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission fiom the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties, as well as energetic ion flux models or measurements, required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We discuss the proposed scenarios leading to possible surface compositions. For Europa, the two most extreme are (1) a patina produced by exogenic processes such as meteoroid bombardment and ion implantation, and (2) upwelling of material fiom the subsurface ocean. We also describe the characteristics of X - m , an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIM0 mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  10. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts in the second quarterly period have been focused primarily upon reviewing and assessing the neutral-plasma reactions and the plasma-plasma reactions that are important in determining the production and loss rates for the primary heavy ion species S(+), S(++), S(+++), O(+), and O(++) in the plasma torus and in acquiring new and updating old cross sections for the important processes.

  11. Response of the Io plasma torus to comet Shoemaker-Levy 9.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M A; Hall, D T; Matheson, P L; Weaver, H A; Trauger, J T; Smith, T E; Thomas, N; Gladstone, R; Schneider, N M; Harris, W M

    1995-03-01

    Spectroscopic and imaging observations of the Io plasma torus were made in June and July 1994 in conjunction with the encounter of periodic comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. Characteristic emissions from sulfur and oxygen ions showed a decline of about 30 percent in the extreme ultraviolet and an increase of about 40 percent in the far ultraviolet relative to preimpact observations. Changes in the extreme ultraviolet may be indicative of small changes in the torus electron temperature as a result of quenching of electrons by dust associated with the comet passage. However, no new emission features indicative of fragment dust within the torus were detected. The characteristic torus morphology seen in ground-based imaging was typical of that observed in the past. PMID:7871429

  12. Ground-Based Observations of the Io Plasma Torus in Support of the EXCEED Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Kagitani, M.; Tsang, C.; Badman, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    We acquired spectra of the Io plasma torus in the 5330-7670 range on January 3-9, 2014 using the RC spectrograph on the Mayall 4m Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Our data contain emission lines from the two dominant ionization states of sulfur and oxygen (S2+and O+) as well as S+ and Na. From these, we derive the local electron density and the ratio of O+ to S2+ and S+ in the torus. Since these quantities are difficult or impossible for the JAXA EXCEED mission to measure directly, our data are quite complementary. In contrast to the FUV, the brightness of the optical wavelength emissions peaks in the "ribbon" region of the torus, a consequence of the factor of 5 lower photon energies. S+ also shows a secondary brightness peak in the cold inner torus region. Typical observed electron densities in the ribbon region are around 3000 cm-3.

  13. Ion heating and containment in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental observations have been made during steady-state operation of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment at input powers up to 150 kilowatts in deuterium and helium gas. A steady-state ion heating method utilizes a Modified Penning discharge operated in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. The bumpy torus plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. In a deuterium plasma, electron temperatures from 14 to 140 electron volts and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 electron volts were observed. At least two distinct operating regimes exist, each of which is associated with a characteristic range of background gas pressure and electron temperature. Experimental data show that the average ion residence time (ionization time) in the plasma is virtually independent of the magnetic field strength.

  14. Ion heating and containment in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental observations have been made during steady state operation of a torus experiment at input powers up to 150 kilowatts in deuterium and helium gas. The steady state ion heating method utilizes a modified Penning discharge operated in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. The bumpy torus plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. In a deuterium plasma, electron temperatures from 14 to 140 electron volts and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 electron volts were observed. At least two distinct operating regimes exist, each of which is associated with a characteristic range of background gas pressure and electron temperature. Experimental data show that the average ion residence time in the plasma is virtually independent of magnetic field strength.

  15. The impact of Callisto's atmosphere on its plasma interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lucas; Feyerabend, Moritz; Simon, Sven; Motschmann, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between Callisto's atmosphere and ionosphere with the surrounding magnetospheric environment is analyzed by applying a hybrid simulation code, in which the ions are treated as particles and the electrons are treated as a fluid. Callisto is unique among the Galilean satellites in its interaction with the ambient magnetospheric plasma as the gyroradii of the impinging plasma and pickup ions are large compared to the size of the moon. A kinetic representation of the ions is therefore mandatory to adequately describe the resulting asymmetries in the electromagnetic fields and the deflection of the plasma flow near Callisto. Multiple model runs are performed at various distances of the moon to the center of Jupiter's magnetospheric current sheet, with differing angles between the corotational plasma flow and the ionizing solar radiation. When Callisto is embedded in the Jovian current sheet, magnetic perturbations due to the plasma interaction are more than twice the strength of the background field and may therefore obscure any magnetic signal generated via induction in a subsurface ocean. The magnetic field perturbations generated by Callisto's ionospheric interaction are very similar at different orbital positions of the moon, demonstrating that local time is only of minor importance when disentangling magnetic signals generated by the magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction from those driven by induction. Our simulations also suggest that deflection of the magnetospheric plasma around the moon cannot alone explain the density enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude measured in Callisto's wake during Galileo flybys. However, through inclusion of an ionosphere surrounding Callisto, modeled densities in the wake are consistent with in situ measurements.

  16. Hybrid Simulation of the Interaction of Europa's Atmosphere with the Jovian Plasma: Multiprocessor Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dols, V. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Cassidy, T. A.; Crary, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    We model the interaction of Europa's tenuous atmosphere with the plasma of Jupiter's torus with an improved version of our hybrid plasma code. In a hybrid plasma code, the ions are treated as kinetic Macro-particles moving under the Lorentz force and the electrons as a fluid leading to a generalized formulation of Ohm's law. In this version, the spatial simulation domain is decomposed in 2 directions and is non-uniform in the plasma convection direction. The code is run on a multi-processor supercomputer that offers 16416 cores and 2GB Ram per core. This new version allows us to tap into the large memory of the supercomputer and simulate the full interaction volume (Reuropa=1561km) with a high spatial resolution (50km). Compared to Io, Europa's atmosphere is about 100 times more tenuous, the ambient magnetic field is weaker and the density of incident plasma is lower. Consequently, the electrodynamic interaction is also weaker and substantial fluxes of thermal torus ions might reach and sputter the icy surface. Molecular O2 is the dominant atmospheric product of this surface sputtering. Observations of oxygen UV emissions (specifically the ratio of OI 1356A / 1304A emissions) are roughly consistent with an atmosphere that is composed predominantely of O2 with a small amount of atomic O. Galileo observations along flybys close to Europa have revealed the existence of induced currents in a conducting ocean under the icy crust. They also showed that, from flyby to flyby, the plasma interaction is very variable. Asymmetries of the plasma density and temperature in the wake of Europa were also observed and still elude a clear explanation. Galileo mag data also detected ion cyclotron waves, which is an indication of heavy ion pickup close to the moon. We prescribe an O2 atmosphere with a vertical density column consistent with UV observations and model the plasma properties along several Galileo flybys of the moon. We compare our results with the magnetometer observations, PLS plasma measurements (ion density, temperature and bulk flow velocity) and PWS electron density measurements.

  17. Sounder stimulated D(sub n) resonances in Jupiter's Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Benson, R. F.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Macdowall, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    On February 8, 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft passed through Jupiter's Io plasma torus, where rich spectra of narrow-band resonances were stimulated by the relaxation sounder of the Ulysses unified radio and plasma wave (URAP) instrument. Since the gyrofrequency f(sub g) is comparable to the plasma frequency f(sub p) in the Io torus, it was predicted that the general classification of stimulated ionospheric D(sub n) resonances, developed for 1 is less than or equal to f(sub p)/f(sub g) is less than or equal to 8 in the Earth's topside ionosphere, should apply in the Io torus as well as the Earth's magnetosphere (Osherovich, 1989). The URAP plasmagrams (sounder spectra) in the portions of the Io torus satisfying these plasma conditions are dominated by the D(sub n) resonances for frequencies below f(sub p). On most of these plasmagrams the f(sub p) resonance is also present, but it is seldom the dominant resonance. Neither upper hybrid nor nf(sub g) resonances have been found on these plasmagrams. The identification of D(sub n) resonances has allowed both the electron density and the magnetic field amplitude to be calculated. The derived densities on the outbound pass agree well with a Voyager model of Bagenal (1992). The derived magnetic field values are close to the Goddard Space Flight Center O(sub 6) magnetic field model.

  18. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  19. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power-law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of the potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied include the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings (and hence the direction of the radial electric field), the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  20. Source characteristics of Jovian narrow-band kilometric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Manning, R.; Zarka, P.; Pedersen, B.-M.

    1993-01-01

    New observations of Jovian narrow-band kilometric (nKOM) radio emissions were made by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. These observations have demonstrated the unique capability of the URAP instrument for determining both the direction and polarization of nKOM radio sources. An important result is the discovery that nKOM radio emission originates from a number of distinct sources located at different Jovian longitudes and at the inner and outermost regions of the Io plasma torus. These sources have been tracked for several Jovian rotations, yielding their corotational lags, their spatial and temporal evolution, and their radiation characteristics at both low latitudes far from Jupiter and at high latitudes near the planet. Both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized nKOM sources were observed. The polarizations observed for sources in the outermost regions of the torus seem to favor extraordinary mode emission.

  1. Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

    2009-08-20

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  2. Discovery of an Io-correlated energy source for Io's hot plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandel, B. R.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Energy flowing into Io's hot plasma torus from a local-time correlated source and from an Io-related source are discussed, and a correlation of the brightness of the ansae of the torus with the apparent orbital phase of Io is reported. It is shown that the energy flows cause an azimuthal modulation of the brightness of the torus that is correlated with the position of Io, and the plasma downstream from Io is shown to be brighter in S III 685-A emission, which indicates a higher electron temperature. Differences in electron temperature inferred from spectral analyses account for all observed differences in brightness, implying that no change in the composition or density of the hot plasma occurs. The mechanism regulating the Io-related source is clearly distinct from the mechanism driving the local time source, although both draw on the same pool of energy, and the combination of the two sources is easily capable of supplying all the energy radiated by the torus.

  3. Radiative cooling efficiencies and predicted spectra of species of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the physical condition of the Io plasma torus have been made based on the recent Voyager EUV observations. The calculations represent an assumed thin plasma collisional ionization equilibrium among the states within each species. The observations of the torus are all consistent with this condition. The major energy loss mechanism is radiative cooling in discrete transitions. Calculations of radiative cooling efficiencies of the identified species leads to an estimated energy loss rate of at least 1.5 x 10 to the 12th watts. The mean electron temperature and density of the plasma are estimated to be 100,000 K and 2100/cu cm. The estimated number densities of S III, S IV, and O III are roughly 95, 80, and 190-740/cu cm. Upper limits have been placed on a number of other species based on the first published Voyager EUV spectrum of the torus. The assumption that energy is supplied to the torus through injection of neutral particles from Io leads to the conclusion that ion loss rates are controlled by diffusion, and relative species abundances consequently are not controlled by collisional ionization equilibrium.

  4. Discovery of an Io-correlated energy source for Io's hot plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandel, B. R.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1982-04-01

    Energy flowing into Io's hot plasma torus from a local-time correlated source and from an Io-related source are discussed, and a correlation of the brightness of the ansae of the torus with the apparent orbital phase of Io is reported. It is shown that the energy flows cause an azimuthal modulation of the brightness of the torus that is correlated with the position of Io, and the plasma downstream from Io is shown to be brighter in S III 685-A emission, which indicates a higher electron temperature. Differences in electron temperature inferred from spectral analyses account for all observed differences in brightness, implying that no change in the composition or density of the hot plasma occurs. The mechanism regulating the Io-related source is clearly distinct from the mechanism driving the local time source, although both draw on the same pool of energy, and the combination of the two sources is easily capable of supplying all the energy radiated by the torus.

  5. On the Radio Detection of Multiple-exomoon Systems due to Plasma Torus Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyola, J. P.; Satyal, S.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2016-04-01

    The idea of single exomoon detection due to the radio emissions caused by its interaction with the host exoplanet is extended to multiple-exomoon systems. The characteristic radio emissions are made possible in part by plasma from the exomoon’s own ionosphere. In this work, it is demonstrated that neighboring exomoons and the exoplanetary magnetosphere could also provide enough plasma to generate a detectable signal. In particular, the plasma-torus-sharing phenomenon is found to be particularly well suited to facilitate the radio detection of plasma-deficient exomoons. The efficiency of this process is evaluated, and the predicted power and frequency of the resulting radio signals are presented.

  6. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. 4; Modeling Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this fourth paper in a series, we present a model of the remarkable temporal and azimuthal variability of the Io plasma torus observed during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter. Over a period of three months, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed a dramatic variaton in the average torus composition. Superimposed on this long-term variation, is a 10.07-hour periodicity caused by azimuthal variation in plasma composition subcorotating relative to System III longitude. Quite surprisingly, the amplitude of the azimuthal variation appears to be modulated at the beat frequency between the System III period and the observed 10.07-hour period. Previously, we have successfully modeled the months-long compositional change by supposing a factor of three increase in the amount of material supplied to Io's extended neutral clouds. Here, we extend our torus chemistry model to include an azimuthal dimension. We postulate the existence of two azimuthal variations in the number of superthermal electrons in the torus: a primary variation that subcorotates with a period of 10.07 hours and a secondary variation that remains fixed in System III longitude. Using these two hot electron variations, our model can reproduce the observed temporal and azimuthal variations observed by Cassini UVIS.

  7. Sunlit Io Atmospheric [O I] 6300 A and the Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Scherb, Frank; Smyth, William H.; Freed, Melanie E.; Woodward, R. Carey, Jr.; Marcone, Maximus L.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Lupie, Olivia L.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A large database of sunlit Io [O I] 6300A emission, acquired over the period 1990-1999, with extensive coverage of Io orbital phase angle phi and System III longitude lambda(sub III), exhibits significant long-term and short-term variations in [O I] 6300A emission intensities. The long-term average intensity shows a clear dependence on lambda(sub III), which establishes conclusively that the emission is produced by the interaction between Io's atmosphere and the plasma torus. Two prominent average intensity maxima, 70 deg to 90 deg wide, are centered at lambda(sub III) about 130deg. and about 295 deg. A comparison of data from October 1998 with a three-dimensional plasma torus model, based upon electron impact excitation of atomic oxygen, suggests a basis for study of the torus interaction with Io's atmosphere. The observed short-term, erratic [O I] 6300A intensity variations fluctuate approximately 20% to 50% on time scale of tens of minutes with less frequent fluctuations of a factor of about 2. The most likely candidate to produce these fluctuations is a time-variable energy flux of field-aligned nonthermal electrons identified recently in Galileo PLS data. If true, the short-term [O I] intensity fluctuations may be related to variable field-aligned currents driven by inward and outward torus plasma transport and/or transient high-latitude, field-aligned potential drops. A correlation between the intensity and emission line width indicates molecular dissociation may contribute significantly to the [O I] 6300A emission. The nonthermal electron energy flux may produce O(1-D) by electron impact dissociation of SO2 and SO, with the excess energy going into excitation of O and its kinetic energy. The [O I] 6300A emission database establishes Io as a valuable probe of the torus, responding to local conditions at Io's position.

  8. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to investigate the roles of local and spatially extended plasma sources created by Io, plasma torus chemistry, and plasma convective and diffusive transport in producing the long-lived S(+), S(++) and O(+) radial ribbon structures of the plasma torus, their System III longitude and local-time asymmetries, their energy sources and their possible time variability. To accomplish this objective, two-dimensional [radial (L) and System III longitude] plasma transport equations for the flux-tube plasma content and energy content will be solved that include the convective motions for both the east-west electric field and co-rotational velocity-lag profile near Io s orbit, radial diffusion, and the spacetime dependent flux-tube production and loss created by both neutral-plasma and plasma-ion reaction chemistry in the plasma torus. For neutral-plasma chemistry, the project will for the first time undertake the calculation of realistic three-dimensional, spatially-extended, and time-varying contributions to the flux-tube ion-production and loss that are produced by Io's corona and extended neutral clouds. The unknown two-dimensional spatial nature of diffusion in the plasma transport will be isolated and better defined in the investigation by the collective consideration of the foregoing different physical processes. For energy transport, the energy flow from hot pickup ions (and a new electron source) to thermal ions and electrons will be included in investigating the System III longitude and local-time temperature asymmetries in the plasma torus. The research is central to the scope of the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Roadmap in Quest II Campaign 4 "Comparative Planetary Space Environments" by addressing key questions for understanding the magnetosphere of planets with high rotation rates and large internal plasma sources and, in addition, is of considerable importance to the NASA Solar System Exploration Science Theme. In this regard, Jupiter is the most extreme example with its rapid rotation and with its inner Galilean satellite Io providing the dominant plasma source for the magnetosphere.

  9. Narrow-band Jovian kilometric radiation - A new radio component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1980-05-01

    The paper describes a new component of Jupiter's radio spectrum. This component emits in a very narrow bandwidth (less than 40 kHz) near 100 kHz. Its waveform is a very smooth and gradual rise and subsequent fall in intensity over typically two hours. The emission is polarized with left-hand polarization associated with the Jovian northern magnetic hemisphere and righthand with the south. The most interesting feature of the emission is its deviation from a strict System III rotation period repetition rate. The emission source of this narrow-band component clearly rotates slower by 3-5% than all other forms of Jovian radio emission. Propagation considerations coupled with this observed lack of corotation point to a source region near the magnetic equatorial plane at the outer 'edge' of the Io plasma torus.

  10. Effect of anode ring arrangement on the spectroscopic characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The modified Penning discharge in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus is normally produced by an anode ring at high voltage in each of the 12 magnetic mirror midplanes. For this investigation, the plasma was run with 12, 6, 3, and 1 anode rings. When 3 anode rings were used, the spectroscopically determined relative electron density and mean ion residence time increased by factors of 10 and 5, respectively, in one mode of operation. The discharge is observed to uniformly fill all bumps around the torus regardless of the anode arrangement and number. A plasma density on axis of 100 billion per cu cm is estimated for the 3-anode case in one mode of operation based on an observed discharge current to ion loss rate correlation and a measured mean ion residence time of .5 msec.

  11. Effect of anode ring arrangement on the spectroscopic characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The modified Penning discharge in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus is normally produced by an anode ring at high voltage in each of the 12 magnetic mirror midplanes. For this investigation, the plasma was run with 12, 6, 3, and 1 anode rings. When 3 anode rings were used, the spectroscopically determined relative electron density and mean ion residence time increase by factors of 10 and 5, respectively, in one mode of operation. The discharge is observed to uniformly fill all bumps around the torus regardless of the anode arrangement and number. A plasma density on axis of 10 to the 11th power cm/3 is estimated for the 3 anode case in one mode of operation based on an observed discharge current to ion loss rate correlation and a measured mean ion residence time of .5 msec.

  12. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod'ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  13. Periodic Bursts of Jovian Non-Io Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H O.; Farrell, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have Recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period approx. = 1:5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300 deg. and 60 deg. (via 360 deg.). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every approx. 25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind.

  14. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission

    PubMed Central

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H.O.; Farrell, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000–2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period ≈1.5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every ∼25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  15. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, M; Rucker, H O; Farrell, W M

    2013-03-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period [Formula: see text] longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every [Formula: see text] days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  16. Gyrokinetic full-torus simulations of ohmic tokamak plasmas in circular limiter configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpilo, T.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Leerink, S.; Niskala, P.; Perevalov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The gyrokinetic full 5D particle distribution code ELMFIRE has been extended to simulate circular tokamak plasmas from the magnetic axis to the limiter scrape-off-layer. The predictive power of the code in the full-torus configuration is tested via its ability to reproduce experimental steady-state profiles in FT-2 ohmic L-mode plasmas. The results show that the experimental profile solution is not reproduced numerically due to the difficulty of obtaining global power balance. This is verified by cross-comparison of ELMFIRE code versions, which shows also the impact of boundary conditions and grid resolution on turbulent transport.

  17. Periodic intensity variations in sulfur emissions from the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. Carey, Jr.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1994-01-01

    In November and December 1988, we acquired 157 spectra of (S II) lambda 6731 emissions from the Io plasma torus with a Fabry-Perot interferometer at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope facility on Kitt Peak. A major goal of this experiment was to extend our earlier studies of intensity variations in the plasma torus. Our earlier analysis (F. L. Roesler, F. Scherb, and R. J. Oliversen, 1984, of (S III) lambda 9531 emission spectra acquired in April 1982 had shown that the intensity of torus emissions varied periodically with a period of 10.20 +/- 0.06 hr (1-sigma uncertainty level), slightly longer than Jupiter's System 3 rotational period of 9.925 hr. We present here an reanalysis of our 1982 data revealing, in addition to the 10.20-hr period, a clear secondary periodicity at 9.95 +/- 0.906 hr. By constrast, we show that our new (S II) lambda 6731 data have a single period of 10.14 +/- 0.03 hr. which is neither the System 3 period nor the proposed 'System 4' period of 10.224 hr.

  18. Investigation of possible lower hybrid emission from the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.; Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency emission detected near the lower hybrid frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma is studied, using a simple detection system that consists of a spectrum analyzer and a 50-ohm miniature co-axial antenna concentrically located in a re-entrant quartz tube. The frequency shift of a broad emission peak is monitored as a function of the background pressure, electrode voltage, and the strength of the dc magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of the average plasma density are made with a polarization diplexing microwave interferometer. Information from the experiment is discussed with particular reference to the role of atomic or molecular species of deuterium in the emissions, the strength of the dc magnetic field in the emitting region, the geometric location of the emitting region of the plasma, the lower hybrid plasma density as compared with the average plasma density, and the relation of the ion spoke geometry to the lower hybrid emission.

  19. Investigation of possible lower hybrid emission from the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.; Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency emission has been detected near the power hybrid frequency of a bumpy torus plasma by using a responsive detection system that consists of a spectrum analyzer and a 50 ohm miniature coaxial antenna concentrically located in a re-entrant quartz tube. The frequency shift of a broad emission peak was monitored as a function of background pressure, electrode voltage, and the strength of the dc magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of the average plasma density were made with a polarization diplexing microwave interferometer. The information derived from the experiment is discussed with particular reference to the following: (1) whether the emissions are dominated by atomic or molecular species of deuterium; (2) the strength of the dc magnetic field in the emitting region; (3) the geometric location of the emitting region of the plasma; (4) comparison of the lower hybrid plasma density with the average plasma density; and (5) relation of ion spoke geometry to lower hybrid emission.

  20. Characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma generated with positive applied potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.; Richardson, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental observations were made during steady-state operation of a bumpy-torus plasma at input powers up to 150 kW in deuterium and helium gas and with positive potentials applied to the midplane electrodes. In this steady-state ion heating method a modified Penning discharge is operated such that the plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. Experimental investigation of a deuterium plasma revealed electron temperatures from 14 to 140 eV and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 eV. At least two distinct modes of operation exist. Experimental data shows that the average ion residence time in the plasma is virtually independent of the magnetic field strength. Data was taken when all 12 anode rings were at high voltage, and in other symmetric configurations in which the toroidal plasma was generated by applying positive potentials to six anode rings, three anode rings, and a single anode ring.

  1. Decametric modulation lanes as a probe for inner jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Rucker, Helmut O.

    2013-11-01

    We use the specific scintillations of jovian decametric radio sources (modulation lanes), which are produced by plasma inhomogeneities in the vicinity of that planet, to probe the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The positions and frequency drift of 1762 lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for space localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. As a result, the main regions of the lane formation are found: the Io plasma torus; the magnetic shell of the Gossamer Ring at Thebe and Amalthea orbits; and the region above the magnetic anomaly in the northern magnetosphere. It is shown that modulation lanes reveal the depleted magnetic tubes in practically unvisited, innermost regions of the jovian magnetosphere. The local and probably temporal plasma enhancement is found at the magnetic shell of Thebe satellite. Hence, the modulation lanes are a valuable instrument for remote sensing of those parts of jovian magnetosphere, which are not studied yet in situ.

  2. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. 3; Observations of Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this third paper in a series presenting observations by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) of the Io plasma torus, we show remarkable, though subtle, spatio-temporal variations in torus properties. The Io torus is found to exhibit significant, near sinusoidal variations in ion composition as a functions of azimuthal position. The azimuthal variation in composition is such that the mixing ratio of S II us strongly correlated with the mixing ratio of S III and the equatorial electron density and strongly anti-correlated with the mixing ratios of both S IV and O II and the equatorial electron temperature. Surprisingly, the azimuthal variation in ion composition is observed to have a period of 10.07 h -- 1.5% longer than the System III rotation period of Jupiter, yet 1.3% shorter than the System UV period defined by [Brown, M. E., 1995. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 21683-21696]. Although the amplitude of the azimuthal variation of S III and O II remained in the range of 2-5%, the amplitude of the S II and S IV compositional variation ranged between 5 and 25% during the UVIS observations. Furthermore, the amplitude of the azimuthal variations of S II and S IV appears to be modulated by its location in System III longitude, such that when the region of maximum S II mixing ration (minimum S IV mixing ratio) is aligned with a System III longitude of 200 deg +/-, the amplitude is a factor of 4 greater than when the variation is anti-aligned. This behavior can explain numerous, often apparently contradictory, observations of variations in the properties of the Io plasma torus with the System III and System IV coordinate systems.

  3. Aperiodic ion temperature variations in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eviatar, A.; Mekler, Y.

    1984-03-01

    The observed aperiodic variations of S III temperature reported by ground-based observers, which take place on time scales short in comparison with the radiation and electron collision relaxation times, are considered. It is suggested that ion-ion charge exchange processes are responsible for the heating and ion-atom collisions are the source of the cooling. The fluctuations are attributed to random strong variations in the output of neutral matter from the volcanoes and surface of Io. Freshly ionized sulfur that will have near full corotation gyro-energy will undergo charge exchange with thermal doubly ionized sulfur and oxygen, thus producing hot S III. Newly injected neutral atoms can cool the ambient hot plasma by collisions on a time scale comparable to their lifetime against ionization processes. Analytic solutions of the temperature rate equations, including the time variation of the neutral and ionized matter density are found to reproduce the observed fluctuations for reasonable values of initial densities.

  4. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.; Ebrahimi, F.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-09-01

    The generation of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), including flux surface closure, is studied using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations with plasma flows, currents, ohmic heating and anisotropic thermal conduction. An injection-voltage pulse shape is used that separates the injection and closure phases allowing elucidation of the physics. The formation of an X-point near the helicity-injection gap is triggered as the injector voltage drops to zero. Near the forming X-point, magnetic pressure due to toroidal field entrained in the E × B plasma flow from the helicity-injection gap drops, allowing resistive magnetic reconnection even though the total injected current is almost constant. Where appropriate, the simulations are compared with Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments in the NSTX spherical tokamak, which have demonstrated the formation of a promising candidate for non-inductive startup plasmas [Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075005 (2003)].

  5. The proton concentration in the vicinity of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Bagenal, F.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of lightning-generated whistlers conducted with the aid of the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument during the March, 1979 encounter of Jupiter have been employed in numerous studies involving Jupiters's inner magnetosphere. In an investigation carried out by Tokar et al. (1982), the Voyager whistler observations were combined with heavy ion charged particle measurements in the Io torus to determine the light ion charge concentration along the whistler propagation paths. In the investigation, simple models were used for the plasma distribution along the propagation paths. In the present study, an improved model is used for the plasma distribution in the inner magnetosphere. The adopted model treats a plasma in diffusive equilibrium under the action of gravitational, centrifugal, and ambipolar electric field forces.

  6. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.; Ebrahimi, F.; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 ; Menard, J. E.

    2013-09-15

    The generation of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), including flux surface closure, is studied using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations with plasma flows, currents, ohmic heating and anisotropic thermal conduction. An injection-voltage pulse shape is used that separates the injection and closure phases allowing elucidation of the physics. The formation of an X-point near the helicity-injection gap is triggered as the injector voltage drops to zero. Near the forming X-point, magnetic pressure due to toroidal field entrained in the E × B plasma flow from the helicity-injection gap drops, allowing resistive magnetic reconnection even though the total injected current is almost constant. Where appropriate, the simulations are compared with Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments in the NSTX spherical tokamak, which have demonstrated the formation of a promising candidate for non-inductive startup plasmas [Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075005 (2003)].

  7. Modeling Temporal Variability of Plasma Conditions in the Io Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Steffl, A.; Bagenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of ultraviolet (UV) emissions from the major ion species (S(sup +), S(sup ++), S(sup +++), O(sup +), O(sup ++) of the Io Plasma torus made during the Cassini flyby (October 2000 to March 2001) have revealed significant time variability. Using a homogenoeus model for mass and energy flow in the torus parameterized by five input variables (transport timescale, neutral source strength, ratio of oxygen to sulfur atoms in the source, fraction of superthermal electrons, and temperature of the hot electrons), we have investigated the time variability of the torus properties (density, composition, and temperature) during the Cassini era. In order to match the changes in emissions, the model suggests that a significant change in the neutral source occurred near the beginning of the observing period, decreasing from more than 1.8 tons/s to 0.7 tons/s. The changes in the neutral source appear to coincide with the declining phase of a dramatic (i.e., 2-3 order of magnitude) peak in iogenic dust emissions observed by Galileo prior to the Cassini era.

  8. Mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Limits to the mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates of ions in the Io plasma torus have been calculated on the assumption that observed optical emissions are controlled by electron-ion collisions. Calculations of the yield of emission from the vicinity of Io limit the mass-loading rate to the order of 10 to the 27th per s for S II or O II, on the grounds that electron-excited emissions associated with the location of Io have not been observed in the optical spectrum. This mass-loading limit is dependent on the assumptions that Io is the source of torus particles and that most of the neutral atoms are converted to ions within 1 R(J) of Io. According to the calculations presented below, the observed partitioning of sulfur ion species in the hot torus at the time of Voyager 1 encounter indicates that the diffusion-loss time of the ions is of the order of 1/D = 100 days. The two results limiting the mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates are compatible and suggest that the energy required to maintain the observed radiated power cannot be supplied by acceleration of ions formed at Io in Jupiter's rotating magnetic field.

  9. Jovian magnetospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goertz, C.K.

    1986-06-30

    Jupiter's rotational energy (6 x 10/sup 34/ J) powers a large number of processes such as auroral UV emission, radio waves, and charged particle energization. We describe how the rotational energy may be dissipated by injection of plasma, magnetic pumping and field aligned electric fields. In addition, we describe energization by radial diffusion and plasma wave absorption. We also describe the generation of Alfven waves by the moon Io and their relation to the emission of the Jovian decametric (DAM) radio waves.

  10. Characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma generated with high positive or negative applied potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The toroidal ring of plasma contained in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus superconducting magnet facility may be biased to positive or negative potentials approaching 50 kilovolts by applying direct-current voltages of the respective polarity to 12 or fewer of the midplane electrode rings. The electric fields which are responsible for heating the ions by E/B drift then point radially outward or inward. The low-frequency fluctuations below the ion cyclotron frequency appeared to be dominated by rotating spokes.

  11. Ulysses radio occultation observations of the Io plasma torus during the Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, M. K.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Edenhofer, P.; Funke, O.; Paetzold, M.; Volland, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radio signals from Ulysses were used to probe the Io plasma torus (IPT) shortly after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The frequencies of the two downlinks at S-band (2.3 gigahertz) and X-band (8.4 gigahertz) were recorded, differenced, and integrated in order to derive the columnar electron density of the IPT. The measurements agree qualitatively with contemporary models of the IPT based on Voyager data, but significant differences are apparent as well. The overall level of the IPT electron density is approximately the same as the prediction, implying that the amount of gas (or plasma) injected from Io is similar to that observed during the Voyager era. On the other hand, the IPT seems to be less extended out of the centrifugal equator, implying a smaller plasma temperature than predicted.

  12. Ulysses Radio Occultation Observations of the lo Plasma Torus During the Jupiter Encounter.

    PubMed

    Bird, M K; Asmar, S W; Brenkle, J P; Edenhofer, P; Funke, O; Pätzold, M; Volland, H

    1992-09-11

    Radio signals from Ulysses were used to probe the lo plasma torus (IPT) shortly after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The frequencies of the two downlinks at S-band (2.3 gigahertz) and X-band (8.4 gigahertz) were recorded, differenced, and integrated in order to derive the columnar electron density of the IPT. The measurements agree qualitatively with contemporary models of the IPT based on Voyager data, but significant differences are apparent as well. The overall level of the IPT electron density is approximately the same as the prediction, implying that the amount of gas (or plasma) injected from lo is similar to that observed during the Voyager era. On the other hand, the IPT seems to be less extended out of the centrifugal equator, implying a smaller plasma temperature than predicted. PMID:17776163

  13. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-08-05

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans.

  14. Radial Variations in the Io Plasma Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Steffl, A.

    2005-01-01

    A radial scan through the midnight sector of the Io plasma torus was made by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on 14 January 2001, shortly after closest approach to Jupiter. From these data, Steffl et al. (2004a) derived electron temperature, plasma composition (ion mixing ratios), and electron column density as a function of radius from L = 6 to 0 as well as the total luminosity. We have advanced our homogeneous model of torus physical chemistry (Delamere and Bagenal, 2003) to include latitudinal and radial variations in a manner similar to the two-dimensional model by Schreier et al. (1998). The model variables include: (1) neutral source rate, (2) radial transport coefficient, (3) the hot electron fraction, (4) hot electron temperature, and (5) the neutral O/S ratio. The radial variation of parameters 1-4 are described by simple power laws, making a total of nine parameters. We have explored the sensitivity of the model results to variations in these parameters and compared the best fit with previous Voyager era models (schreier et al., 1998), galileo data (Crary et al., 1998), and Cassini observations (steffl et al., 2004a). We find that radial variations during the Cassini era are consistent with a neutral source rate of 700-1200 kg/s, an integrated transport time from L = 6 to 9 of 100-200 days, and that the core electron temperature is largely determined by a spatially and temporally varying superthermal electron population.

  15. Energy branching in the Io plasma torus - The failure of neutral cloud theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1988-03-01

    The energy branching of the hot Io plasma torus using model calculations which include all of the significant physical chemistry that affects the system has been examined in order to study energy source characteristics. Most theoretical discussions of the energetics of the torus assume that the system is maintained against radiative and other losses by the interaction of the plasma with neutral atomic clouds. The energy in this theory is derived from the kinetic energy acquired by ions created in the rotating planetary magnetic field. Coulomb collisions with the electron gas control the flow of energy to the ionizing and radiative processes. The energetics of this theoretical system is defined by fixing the electron density, the diffusive loss time, and the relative volumetric rates of injection of the major neutral constituents, oxygen and sulfur. On the basis of calculations of this kind in comparison with the characteristics of the observed system, the conclusion has been drawn that neutral cloud theory is qualitatively inadequate. Two possibilities for energy sources involving a particular interaction with an Io atmosphere and a heterogeneous source of energetic electrons are discussed.

  16. Modeling of Jovian Hectometric Radiation Source Locations: Ulysses Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Reiner, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on Ulysses has provided unique high latitude measurements of Jovian hectometric radiation (HOM) during its encounter with Jupiter in February 1992. URAP was the first radio instrument in the Jovian environment with radio direction-finding capability, which was previously used to determine the HOM source locations in the Jovian magnetosphere. These initial source location determinations were based on several assumptions, including the neglect of refractive effects, which may be tested. We have, for the first time, combined the measured incident ray-direction at the spacecraft with a model magnetosphere to directly trace the rays back to the HOM source. We concentrate on the observations of HOM from high northern latitudes when Ulysses was at distances less than 15 R(sub j). The three- dimensional ray-tracing calculations presented here indicate that the HOM sources probably lie on L shells in the range 3 less than or approximately equal to L less than 7 (tilted dipole magnetic field model) consistent with previous determinations that ignored the effects of refraction. The ray-tracing results, however, indicate that wave refraction due to the Io torus and the magnetic field can significantly influence the precise source location. We show that constraints on the locations imposed by the gyroemission mechanism suggest that the lo torus density may have experienced temporal and/or spatial fluctuations during the Ulysses observations of HOM. Finally, in the cold plasma approximation we demonstrate that even if the emission were nearly linearly polarized near the source region, almost circular polarization will be observed at Ulysses, in agreement with observations.

  17. The emission of narrow-band Jovian kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, S. F.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1987-01-01

    A model based on the nonlinear coupling of electrostatic plasma waves is proposed to explain the emission of the narrow-band Jovian kilometric radiation (nKOM) observed by the Voyager spacecraft. It is shown that upper-hybrid branch electrostatic waves propagating through the inhomogeneities in the outer periphery of the Io plasma torus can attain the proper geometry for localized upconversion interactions leading to pump depletion. Plasma waves propagating into a weak density gradient and reflected at the critical layer interact with the incident waves leading to the electromagnetic emission, which is beamed at large angles with respect to the background magnetic field. In general, both L-O and R-X mode waves can be generated. The observed power and net polarization (L-O) are consistent with pump depletion of electrostatic waves at a level of about 10 mV/m. A possible excitation mechanism for the electrostatic waves is also discussed.

  18. Plasma Shape Control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) using Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron; M. Bell; T. Gibney; R. Johnson; R.J. Marsala; D. Mastrovito; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Penaflor; S.A. Sabbagh; T. Stevenson

    2005-04-15

    Plasma shape control using real-time equilibrium reconstruction has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The rtEFIT code originally developed for use on DIII-D was adapted for use on NSTX. The real-time equilibria provide calculations of the flux at points on the plasma boundary, which is used as input to a shape control algorithm known as isoflux control. The flux at the desired boundary location is compared to a reference flux value, and this flux error is used as the basic feedback quantity for the poloidal-field coils on NSTX. The hardware that comprises the control system is described, as well as the software infrastructure. Examples of precise boundary control are also presented.

  19. Ground-based observations of comets, the Jupiter plasma Torus, and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of cometary and magnetospheric physics were investigated by means of ground-based astronomical spectroscopy. High-throughput, dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometers were used to obtain very high resolution spectra of atomic, molecular, and ionic emission lines from the diffuse gases and plasmas associated with comets and the Jupiter plasma torus. The Fabry-Perot spectrometers were also used with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to obtain images of these extended emission sources in individual spectral lines at high spectral resolution. A new program using the McMath solar-stellar spectrograph to observe emission lines from Io was recently initiated. The McMath spectrograph has a high resolution mode which allows the detection of narrow, relatively faint emission lines superimposed on Io's reflected solar spectrum.

  20. Plasma transport in the Io torus - The importance of microscopic diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, YI; Thorne, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether the distribution of mass in the Io plasma torus is consistent with the concept of interchange eddy transport. Specifically, the flux tube content exhibits a gradual decrease with increasing radial distance from the source near Io without any evidence for substantial density irregularity associated with the plasma source or loss. Using a simple one-dimensional numerical model to simulate macroscopic interchange eddy transport, it is demonstrated that this smooth equilibrium distribution of mass can occur but only with the inclusion of a minimal level of small scale microscopic mixing at a rate approaching Bohm diffusion. Otherwise, the system exhibits a chaotic appearance which never approaches an equilibrium distribution. Various physical mechanisms for the microscopic diffusion process which is required to provide a sufficiently rapid mixing of material between the macroscopic eddies are discussed.

  1. Acceleration of compact torus plasma rings in a coaxial rail-gun

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.

    1985-05-16

    We discuss here theoretical studies of magnetic acceleration of Compact Torus plasma rings in a coaxial, rail-gun accelerator. The rings are formed using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and are accelerated by injection of B/sub theta/ flux from an accelerator bank. After acceleration, the rings enter a focusing cone where the ring is decelerated and reduced in radius. As the ring radius decreases, the ring magnetic energy increases until it equals the entering kinetic energy and the ring stagnates. Scaling laws and numerical calculations of acceleration using a O-D numerical code are presented. 2-D, MHD simulations are shown which demonstrate ring formation, acceleration, and focusing. Finally, 3-D calculations are discussed which determine the ideal MHD stability of the accelerated ring.

  2. Study of local time dependence of the attenuation band associated to the Jovian hectometric emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2011-10-01

    We study the phenomenological spectral features of the Jovian hectometric (HOM) emission recorded during the Jupiter flyby by the RPWS experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The capability of this experiment allowed a frequency coverage from a few hertz to 16 MHz with a large dynamic range of about 80 dB. HOM emission was regularly observed several weeks before and after the closest approach of the planet. We analyze the Jovian radio dynamic spectra recorded from the end of November 2000 to the second week of January 2001. During this period, the spacecraft approached Jupiter from a distance of more than 500 RJ to 137 RJ (closest approach on December 30, 2010) and back to about 250 RJ. We attempt in this study to investigate the local time (LT) dependence of the attenuation band due to refraction effects caused by the presence of the Io plasma torus. We analyze the spectral features of the attenuation band taking into consideration three local time intervals [10.0 LT, 13.2 LT], [13.6 LT, 16.5 LT], and [16.7 LT, 20 LT]. A statistical study leads us to characterize the spectral features of the attenuation band principally on the day-side and the late afternoon sector of the planet. This will allow us to discuss the LT variation of the electronic density of the Io plasma torus versus the central meridian longitude (CML) and the Jovian magnetic latitude.

  3. Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer observations of Jovian UV emission in 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, F. M.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Judge, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 ultraviolet measurements obtained during the Jupiter encounter in 1973 have been further examined by using improved data handling and analysis techniques. The Pioneer 10 observations of Jupiter and its satellites during the encounter have been carefully reviewed in order to improve our understanding of the morphology of the Io plasma torus and Jupiter's upper atmosphere and to investigate the possible existence of other emission source such as Europa. In addition, the morphology of Io's bimodal torus observed during the Pioneer 10 encounter has been compared with the Voyager observations obtained approximately 6 years after the Pioneer 10 flyby and significant differences in the torus characteristics are found. The Io torus in 1973 was more similar to the 1992 Ulysses observations of a longitudinally asymmetric ring than to the complete ring observed by Voyager. Pioneer 10 observed a significantly dimmer Io torus and Jupiter upper atmosphere in the EUV compared to the Voyager observations. Apart from the torus and Jupiter, Pioneer 10 observed additional emissions which have been attributed to Io itself. Three distinct possibilities have been discussed to explain these additional emissions. The most likely is that Pioneer 10 observed volcanism on Io. There is also evidence of Pioneer 10 observing emissions from Europa. The present analysis clearly shows that the Jovian system in 1973 was significantly different from that observed in 1979.

  4. Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

    2002-01-18

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

  5. Final Technical Report on DOE Grant for Modeling of Plasma Rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2009-07-09

    This is the final technical report on the Modeling of Plasma Rotation in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-02ER54679. The research subjects, technical abstracts, and publications where details of the research results can be found are reported here.

  6. Rocket FUV Observations of the Io Plasma Torus During the Shoemaker-Levy/9 Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Slater, D.; Cash, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Green, J.; Gladstone, R.

    1995-01-01

    We observed the Io torus from 820-1140 A on universal time (UT) 20.25 July 1994 from a sounding rocket telescope/spectrograph. These observations serve as only the fourth published spectrum of the torus in this wavelength range, and the only far ultraviolet (FUV) data documenting the state of the torus during the Shoemaker Levy 9 Impacts.

  7. Surface Treatment of a Lithium Limiter for Spherical Torus Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.; Antar, G.; Timberlake, J.; Spaleta, J.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Kugel, H.; Taylor, G.; Stutman, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Molesa, S.; Efthimion, P.; Menard, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Luckhardt, S.

    2001-03-20

    The concept of a flowing lithium first wall for a fusion reactor may lead to a significant advance in reactor design, since it could virtually eliminate the concerns with power density and erosion, tritium retention, and cooling associated with solid walls. As part of investigations to determine the feasibility of this approach, plasma interaction questions in a toroidal plasma geometry are being addressed in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) spherical torus (ST). The first experiments involved a toroidally local lithium limiter (L3). Measurements of pumpout rates indicated that deuterium pumping was greater for the L3 compared to conventional boron carbide limiters. The difference in the pumpout rates between the two limiter types decreased with plasma exposure, but argon glow discharge cleaning was able to restore the pumping effectiveness of the L3. At no point, however, was the extremely low recycling regime reported in previous lithium experiments achieved. This may be due to the much larger lithium surfaces that were exposed to the plasma in the earlier work. The possibility will be studied in the next set of CDX-U experiments, which are to be conducted with a large area, fully toroidal lithium limiter.

  8. Radio frequency studies in the NASA Lewis Bumay Torus. [plasma potential fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdin, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The fluctuations in potential of the plasma in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus were observed using capacitive probes over frequencies from 1 kHz to 25 MHz and a wide range of operating conditions. The spectra were found to differ greatly above and below a background gas pressure of 3.0.000034 torr deuterium. Above this pressure the spectrum was dominated by the ion spoke frequency and a spectral index was defined. Below this pressure the spectrum below 200 kHz was lower in lower in amplitude by a factor of ten and no spectral index could be defined. At these lower pressures, fluctuations that appeared to be ion spokes were observed, but had a dependence of frequency on operating conditions which was previously unreported.

  9. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission From Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25 - 2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fall to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  10. Amalthea's Modulation of Jovian Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.

    2006-08-01

    Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine Amalthea is the largest body after Galilean satellites near Jupiter. An anomaly in Jovian synchrotron radiation has been found just on the Amalthea magnetic shell (de Pater, Schulz & Brecht 1997). It has been suggested that Amalthea's motion through Jupiter's magnetic field induces Alfvén or whistler wings or electrostatic high-frequency waves which lead to the pitch angle scattering. It is reasonable to search for another effect of these processes: magnetospheric inhomogeneities which could be found via scattering of Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). Such scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus is known as "modulation lanes" in DAM dynamic spectra. To search for analogous Amalthea's modulation, the positions and frequency drift of about 600 lanes are measured on the UFRO spectra of DAM. The special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that about 4% of the lanes are clustered near Amalthea's magnetic shell. There are two such clusters near longitudes of 123°≤λ[III]≤140° and 284°≤λ[III]≤305°, which coincide with the regions of maximum compression of fresh plasma due to rotating magnetic field of Jupiter (where ∂(B^2)/∂λ[III]) is maximal). The Amalthea modulation could explain the enigmatic "hf-lanes" (Genova, Aubier & Lecacheux 1981). The found magnetospheric formations are a new argument for the ice nature of Amalthea which has the density less than that of water (Anderson et al. 2005). Anderson J.D. et al. 2005, Science, 308, 5726, pp. 1291-1293. de Pater I., Schulz M., Brecht S.H. 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 102, A10, pp. 22043-22064. Genova F., Aubier M.G., Lecacheux A. 1981, Astron. and Astrophys. 104, 2, pp. 229-239.

  11. Long Pulse High Performance Plasma Scenario Development for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Bell, R.E.; Bell, M.G.; Gates, D.A.; Harvey, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion, 44, 452 (2004)] is targeting long pulse high performance, noninductive sustained operations at low aspect ratio, and the demonstration of nonsolenoidal startup and current rampup. The modeling of these plasmas provides a framework for experimental planning and identifies the tools to access these regimes. Simulations based on neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated plasmas are made to understand the impact of various modifications and identify the requirements for (1) high elongation and triangularity, (2) density control to optimize the current drive, (3) plasma rotation and/or feedback stabilization to operate above the no-wall limit, and (4) electron Bernstein waves (EBW) for off-axis heating/current drive (H/CD). Integrated scenarios are constructed to provide the transport evolution and H/CD source modeling, supported by rf and stability analyses. Important factors include the energy confinement, Zeff, early heating/H mode, broadening of the NBI-driven current profile, and maintaining q(0) and qmin>1.0. Simulations show that noninductive sustained plasmas can be reached at IP=800 kA, BT=0.5 T, 2.5, N5, 15%, fNI=92%, and q(0)>1.0 with NBI H/CD, density control, and similar global energy confinement to experiments. The noninductive sustained high plasmas can be reached at IP=1.0 MA, BT=0.35 T, 2.5, N9, 43%, fNI=100%, and q(0)>1.5 with NBI H/CD and 3.0 MW of EBW H/CD, density control, and 25% higher global energy confinement than experiments. A scenario for nonsolenoidal plasma current rampup is developed using high harmonic fast wave H/CD in the early low IP and low Te phase, followed by NBI H/CD to continue the current ramp, reaching a maximum of 480 kA after 3.4 s.

  12. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-12-17

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.

  13. An interpretation of the broadband VLF waves near the Io torus as observed by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Macdowell, R. J.; Hess, R. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for the Ulysses trajectory to attain high ecliptic latitudes using a Jovian gravitational assist resulted in a fortuitous passage through the Io torus region. Specifically, the spacecraft spent many hours at latitudes just above the torus. During this time the low-frequency cutoff of an ordinary mode (O mode) emission allowed a determination of the local electron plasma frequency (i.e., electron density) along the northern flank of the torus. Also, near a Jovian System III longitude of 100 deg, the spacecraft flew past a set of active field lines that have been previously identified to be associated with the hectometric generation region. During the passage, Ulysses observed a newly discovered O mode component and a whistler mode emission similar to that observed by Voyager 1 13 years previously. All of the broadband VLF emissions imply the presence of a particular population of electrons. We suggest that broadband VLF emissions can be used as a `particle detector' to qualitatively measure the electron plasma conditions in the torus region and identify active regions.

  14. Dust in the Jovian System: Streams, Clouds and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Gruen, E.

    2003-04-01

    Spacecraft investigations during the last ten years have vastly improved our knowledge about dust in the Jovian system. All Galilean satellites, and probably all smaller satellites as well, are sources of dust in the Jovian system. In-situ measurements with the dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have for the first time demonstrated the electromagnetic interaction of charged dust grains with the interplanetary magnetic field and with a planetary magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a giant mass-velocity spectrometer for charged 10-nanometer dust grains. These grains are released from Jupiter's moon Io with a typical rate of ˜ 1 kg s-1. The seven-year long record of Galileo in-situ dust measurements revealed significant variations of the fluxes of the dust stream particles with Jovian local time which are caused by the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus. The streams probe the plasma conditions in the torus, and they can be used as a potential monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity. The joint Galileo-Cassini dust measurements at Jupiter imply stream particle speeds up to 400 km s-1. All Galilean satellites are surrounded by tenuous impact-generated clouds of mostly sub-micrometer ejecta grains. Jovian rings not only exist in the well-known region of the main and gossamer rings but also much farther out. Very tenuous rings composed of mostly micron-sized grains have been detected in-situ in the region between the Galilean moons and further beyond out to ˜ 250 R_J from the planet. The dust densities there are much too low to allow detection with imaging techniques. The measurements have demonstrated that impact-ejecta derived from hypervelocity impacts onto satellites are the major constituent of dusty planetary rings. On 5 November 2002 Galileo traversed Jupiter's gossamer rings for the first time and had a close flyby at Amalthea. Several hundred dust impacts have been detected during this passage with the dust detector on board. The in-situ dust measurements provide information about the physical properties of the dust population not accessible with imaging techniques. They directly provide dust spatial densities, grain sizes and impact speeds, this way allowing one to constrain the forces dominating grain dynamics in the ring. We review the in-situ dust measurements at Jupiter and present first results from Galileo's gossamer ring passage.

  15. Microwave radiation measurements near the electron plasma frequency of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.; Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Microwave emission near the electron plasma frequency was observed, and its relation to the average electron density and the dc toroidal magnetic field was examined. The emission was detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50 omega miniature coaxial probe. The radiation appeared as a broad amplitude peak that shifted in frequency as the plasma parameters were varied. The observed radiation scanned an average plasma density ranging from 10 million/cu cm to 8 hundred million/cu cm. A linear relation was observed betweeen the density calculated from the emission frequency and the average plasma density measured with a microwave interferometer. With the aid of a relative density profile measurement of the plasma, it was determined that the emissions occurred from the outer periphery of the plasma.

  16. Solar wind influence on the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus observed by HISAKI/EXCEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kagitani, M.; Tao, C.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    The dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus has been seen by several observations [e.g., Sandel and Broadfoot, 1982; Steffl et al., 2004]. Ip and Goertz [1983] explained this asymmetry can be caused by a dawn-to-dusk electric field in the Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. However, the question what physical process can impose such an electric field deep inside the strong magnetosphere still remains. The long-term monitoring of the Io plasma torus is a key observation to answer this question. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer EXCEED onboard the HISAKI satellite was launched in 2013 and observed the Io plasma torus from December 2013 to March 2014 (75 days). We investigated the temporal variation of the dawn/dusk ratio of EUV brightness. Then we compared it to the solar wind dynamic pressure extrapolated from that observed around Earth by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. As a result we found clear responses of the dawn-dusk asymmetry to rapid increases of the solar wind dynamic pressure. We will present the initial results of this study.

  17. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Khodak, A.; Kaita, R.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments.

  18. Recent results from EUVE observations of the Io plasma torus and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall; Hall, Doyle T.

    1998-09-01

    Between 1993 and 1996 the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite has observed Jupiter and the Io plasma torus (IPT) for a total of over 380 hours. The data consist of time-tagged photons at wavelengths in the 7-76 nm range. By using appropriate ephemerides for Jupiter and EUVE, these data can be made into spectral images, or ``overlappograms,'' of the IPT. Most of the emissions from the IPT appear in the bandpass of the long-wavelength (LW) spectrograph (28-76 nm), which has 0.2 nm spectral resolution and spatial resolutions of 60 arc sec full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the dispersion direction and 24 arc sec FWHM in the direction perpendicular to dispersion. Presented here is a subset of the EUVE data, comprising 83 consecutive orbits during June 19-24, 1996. The dusk (west on the sky) half of the IPT is, on average, ~25-30% brighter than the dawn half of the IPT, in the most prominent EUV emission features. In addition, there is no noticeable correlation of total IPT brightness with Io orbital phase during this time period. On Jupiter, the brightness of the reflected HeI 58.4 nm emission was measured in June 1996 to be 1.3+/-0.5R. This level is substantially less than the 4-5 R measured during the Voyager flybys and is attributed to solar cycle variability of the Sun's HeI 58.4 nm emission.

  19. Fabry-Perot ground-based observations of comets and the Jupiter plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    The Wisconsin 150 mm dual etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer is a powerful instrument for the study of diffuse emission sources such as cometary atmospheres, the Jupiter plasma torus, and various emission nebulae. Since 1985, researchers have concentrated their efforts on extensive observations of Comet Halley and the analysis of the data. Images of Comet Halley in (OI)6300 Angstrom emission were analyzed to obtain the spatial distribution of O(1D) in the cometary atmosphere. The narrow spectral bandpass of the Fabry-Perot (0.2 Angstrom) eliminated contamination from terrestrial airglow (OI)6300 and cometary NH2 lines in the nearby spectrum. The results were modelled to provide photodestruction lifetimes of cometary Water abd OH, the predominant parents of O(1D). The Fabry-Perot was also used in the scanning mode to obtain measurements of (OI)6300 and Balmer alpha emissions which were used to determine the H, O(1D) and water production rates as a function of heliocentric distance, both pre-perihelion and post-perihelion. Researchers also analyzed high resolution spectra of the NH2 (0,8,0) band in the 6300 Angstrom region to obtain preliminary values of the NH2 production rate. Assuming NH3 is the major parent of NH2, researchers found that the abundance ratio NH3/water is about (0.12 plus or minus 0.04 percent), assuming thermal equilibrium for the level populations of NH2.

  20. Magnetic Equilibrium and Stability Simulations of the National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, F.; Sabbagh, S.; Garofalo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Hatcher, R.; Lao, L.; Lazarus, E.; Turnbull, A.

    1997-11-01

    The numerical code EFIT(L. Lao, et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985).) has been modified to accommodate the geometry of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Equilibrium solutions are calculated for both fixed and free boundary conditions to determine the operational space of NSTX plasmas. The p(ψ) and ff'(ψ) equilibrium profiles are chosen either generically or from time dependent experimentally produced profiles, measured in various operational regimes (L-mode, H-mode, etc.) of the DIII-D tokamak. Results supporting the design of the external magnetic diagnostics are shown. Particular attention is given to assess sufficient coverage of the diagnostic setup, since the main future use of the code will be for equilibrium reconstruction. The stability codes GATO(L. Bernard,Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 377 (1981).) and PEST(R. Grimm, et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 16, 253 (1976).) will be used, in conjunction with EFIT, to study the effects of configuration and location of the passive plates on the stability of the various equilibria.

  1. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Paterson ,W.; Christian, E.; Mahaffy, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Lipatov, A.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter s magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keV, wide field-ofview (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter s magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for Io. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from Io to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We show that Europa's exospheric ionosphere is dominated by pickup ions with energies of 100-1000 eV. We also expect field aligned polar ion outflows driven by ionospheric electrons via the polarization electric field at Europa; the IMS will observe such outflows and thus sample the ionosphere below spacecraft orbit altitude approximately 100 km. Based on previous Ganymede studies, we also comment on IMS applications to a Ganymede orbiter. The IMS and the Europa interaction model are respectively being developed with support from NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development (ASTID) and Outer Planets Research (OPR) programs.

  2. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P R.; Paschalidis, N.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keY, wide field-of-view (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for 10. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from 10 to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We show that Europa's exospheric ionosphere is dominated by pickup ions with energies of 100-1000 eV. We also expect field aligned polar ion outflows driven by ionospheric electrons via the polarization electric field at Europa; the IMS will observe such outflows and thus sample the ionosphere below spacecraft orbit altitude approximately 100 km. Based on previous Ganymede studies, we also comment on IMS applications to a Ganymede orbiter. The IMS and the Europa interaction model are respectively being developed with support from NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development (ASTID) and Outer Planets Research (OPR) programs.

  3. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io from HISAKI satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Kimura, Tomoki; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in the Io plasma torus (IPT) was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft, showing evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, its detailed properties and the cause of electron heating are still open issues. The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph on board the HISAKI satellite continuously observed the IPT from the end of December 2013 to the middle of January 2014. The variation in the IPT brightness showed that clear periodicity associated with Io's orbital period (42 h) and that the bright region was located downstream of Io. The amplitude of the periodic variation was larger at short wavelengths than at long wavelengths. From spectral analyses, we found that Io-correlated brightening is caused by the increase in the hot electron population in the region downstream of Io. We also found that the brightness depends on the system III longitude and found primary and secondary peaks in the longitude ranges of 100-130° and 250-340°, respectively. Io's orbit crosses the center of the IPT around these longitudes. This longitude dependence suggests that the electron heating process is related to the plasma density around Io. The total radiated power from the IPT in January 2014 was estimated to be 1.4 TW in the wavelength range from 60 to 145 nm. The Io-correlated component produced 10% of this total radiated power. The interaction between Io and the IPT continuously produces a large amount of energy around Io, and 140 GW of that energy is immediately converted to hot electron production in the IPT.

  4. The bumpy-torus

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, M.; Shiina, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Institute of Plasma Physics at Nagoya University and the College of Science and Technology at Nihon University discuss plasma confinement in the Nagoya Bumpy Torus. Empirical scaling laws for ring parameters are obtained from experiments of various mirror devices, EBT-1/S and NBT-1/M, as shown in figures. Confinement of the main toroidal core plasma is considered to be governed by neoclassical transport greatly improved by a radial electric field. Alternative approaches to reach reactor-grade Bumpy Torus plasmas are presented. Figures show the increase in ion temperature by high-power ion-cyclotron heating. Bumpy Torus concept development is discussed, along with device parameters and results of the modified Bumpy Torus.

  5. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M.; Betti, R.

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  6. A coordinated X-ray and EUV study of the Jovian aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randall; Badman, Sarah; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen; Rodiger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    We present results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument and twice by XMM-Newton for roughly 12 hours per observation. The goal of this campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  7. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  8. Development of a Multi-Grids Approach into a Parallelized Hybrid Model to Describe Ganymede's Interaction with the Jovian Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S. L.; Andre, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ganymede is the only satellite which has its own magnetosphere, which is embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere (Kivelson et al. 1996). This peculiar interaction has been investigated by means of a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid model based on a CAM-CL algorithm (Mathews et al. 1994). In this formalism, ions have a kinetic description whereas electrons are considered as an inertialess fluid which ensures the neutrality of the plasma and contributes to the total current and electronic pressure. Maxwell's equations are solved to compute the temporal evolution of electromagnetic field. Hybrid simulations are performed on a uniform cartesian grid with a spatial resolution of about 240 km. Our results are globally consistent with other models and Galileo measurements. Nevertheless, our description of the magnetopause and the ionosphere is not satisfying enough due to the low spatial resolution. Indeed, we want to describe scale heights of 125 km in the ionosphere whereas the best spatial resolution that we are allowed to use is about 240 km. Therefore, in order to obtain more efficient and relevant results, it is necessary to improve the size of the grid. In this optic, we are introducing a multi-grids approach in order to refine the spatial resolution by a factor 2 (~120km) near Ganymede. The creation of a finer mesh in the simulation grid leads to make some peculiar computations at the interfaces between the two different grids, whether for the calculation of moments, such as charge density or current, or the computation of electromagnetic fields. Moreover, the parallelization of the code, based on domain decomposition methods, imposes us to take care of boundary conditions. In the hybrid model, macroparticules, which represent a kind of cloud of physical particles, have a volume equal to that of a grid cell. Then, the macroparticules entering into the higher spatial resolution region are splited into smaller macroparticules whose the volume corresponds to the volume of a cell of the finer mesh. The improvement of the spatial resolution in the hybrid model will also allow us to relevantly couple the results of this model with those of our 3D multi-species exospheric model (Turc et al. 2014), into a test-particle model that describes the ionosphere of Ganymede. Basic tests and validation results of the multi-grids approach are presented.

  9. Jovian Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The knots of light which have been circled in yellow in this false color picture probably represent lightning in Jupiter's atmosphere. The picture was taken at 5 hours 3 minutes Universal Time on November 9, 1996 through the clear filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The largest of the circled spots is over 500 kilometers across, comparable in size to the lightning events seen by NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979, but much larger than the single lightning flashes seen by Voyager 1. Thus each of the larger circled spots represents either multiple flashes within a large lightning storm, or a single flash illuminating a much higher cloud.

    The planetocentric latitude lines imposed on this image indicate that the circled events lie at about 44 degrees North latitude, just below a westward moving jet at 46 degrees North. Almost all of the Jovian lightning seen by Voyager similarly occurred near the latitude of a westward moving jet. Moreover, the circled events occurred in Jupiter's most atmospherically active high latitude region (between 36 and 46 degrees North), which is one of the zones where lightning is most likely.

    In order to detect lightning the camera was scanned horizontally across the darkside of Jupiter, starting just inside the eastern edge of the planet and ending just inside its western edge. The scanning motion was employed both to cover the largest possible longitude range, and to help separate lightning strokes emanating from the same storm.

    Several of the circled spots are relatively elongated in the east-west direction, perhaps due to the scanning motion of the camera (and/or to a foreshortening in the north-south direction caused by the curvature of the planet). The circled events appear well separated in space, and any apparent separation in latitude is real. Because of the scanning motion of the camera, however, these events may not have been truly separated in longitude. It is even possible that they all came from the same localized storm, and were separated principally in time.

    Diffuse light covers much of this picture, and is particularly bright in the bottom righthand corner. Some of this emission may be moonlit clouds, but much of it is likely sunlight scattered into the camera by the atmosphere along Jupiter's edge.

    At the time of this observation Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32 Jovian radii) from the planet.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  10. On the nature of S II emission from Jupiter's hot plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    An effective electron temperature T(e) of 80,000 K is indicated by the Voyager 1 encounter Jupiter hot torus emission rates in the 6731, 1256, 911 and reclassified 765 A transitions of S II. A set of 53 measurements of the S II red line doublet obtained at 5.9 Jupiter radii shows strong, irregular fluctuations in intensity, but no variation in the line ratio. At this distance from Jupiter, the torus is found to be longitudinally uniform in density; this is consonant with Voyager UVS findings, but contrary to magnetic anomaly model predictions. It is suggested that presently unidentified ion-ion and/or iron-atom reactions are responsible for the S II component irregular variations, in view of the fact that electron properties are regular and variable only over a small range in the hot torus at 5.9 Jupiter radii.

  11. A 12-coil superconducting 'bumpy torus' magnet facility for plasma research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    A retrospective summary is presented of the performance of the two-coil superconducting pilot rig which preceded the NASA Lewis bumpy torus. The NASA Lewis bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each with a 19 cm i.d. and capable of producing magnetic field strengths of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The magnets are equally spaced around a major circumference 1.52 m in diameter, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.59 m in diameter. The design value of maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis (3.0 T) has been reached and exceeded.

  12. Effect of the Interaction of Jovian Magnetosphere with Europa's Exosphere on Pick-up Ion Population and Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikov, D.; Tenishev, V.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    With hypothesized liquid water ocean beneath its crust and observed large amount of oxygen in its exosphere, Europa is one of the potentially habitable locations of Solar system. This made the satellite the object of high scientific interest, the primary goal of Clipper mission drafted by NASA in particular. As of today, certain amount of data is already available (e.g. from Galileo spacecraft), yet more is awaited from Juno spacecraft, which is on its way to Jupiter. Europa's exosphere should be studied with connection with Jovian magnetosphere, as the two form together a complex system. They are tightly coupled through the processes of the magnetospheric ion sputtering, photolytic and electron reactions. Successful investigation of coupled system requires a simultaneous simulation of both its components. Previous approaches studied this system in a piece-wise manner. Our efforts presented here are aimed at developing of a more global approach that would combine the exosphere and magnetosphere into a single model. This approach is more complete as it accounts for mutual influence of Jovian magnetosphere and Europa's exosphere and allows us to study their time dependent interaction. We employed coupled MHD (Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme) and Monte-Carlo (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator) codes. Among the properties studied are distributions of pick-up ions (spatial, energy, pitch angle) and mass-loading of the magnetosphere in the vicinity of the satellite. A brief comparison of these properties with those resulted from previous works on the problem (Lipatov et al., 2010; Ip et al., 1998) and analysis of how introduced interaction of the satellite's atmosphere with Jovian magnitosphere changes the results are provided.

  13. Chandra X-Ray Observations of the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F.; Majeed, T.; Gladstone, G. R.; Lewis, W. S.; Ford, P. G.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Bhardwaj, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    High-spatial resolution Chandra x-ray observations have demonstrated that most of Jupiter's northern auroral x-rays come from a hot spot located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. This hot spot appears fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and coincides with a region exhibiting anomalous ultraviolet and infrared emissions. The hot spot also exhibited approximately 45 minute quasi-periodic oscillations, a period similar to those reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft. These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral x-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the x-rays appear to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths. The Chandra observations also revealed for the first time x-ray emission (about 0.1 GW) from the Io Plasma Torus, as well as very faint x-ray emission (about 1-2 MW) from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is almost certainly due to Kalpha emission of surface atoms (and possibly impact atoms) excited by the impact of highly energetic protons, oxygen, and sulfur atoms and ions from the Torus. The Torus emission is less well understood at present, although bremsstrahlung from the non-thermal tail of the electron distribution may provide a significant fraction. In any case, further observations, already accepted and in the process of being planned, with Chandra, some with the moderate energy resolution of the CCD camera, together with simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope observations and hopefully ground-based IRTF observations should soon provide greater insight into these various processes.

  14. Characteristics and performance of a superconducting bumpy-torus magnet facility for plasma research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Lewis bumpy-torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 T on its axis. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m; they are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The design value of the maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis, 3.0 T, was reached and exceeded. A maximum magnetic field of 3.23 T was held for a period of 60 minutes. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 T, the coil system went normal without apparent damage or degradation of performance.

  15. A 12 coil superconducting bumpy torus magnet facility for plasma research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of the performance of the two-coil superconducting pilot rig which preceded the NASA Lewis bumpy torus. This pilot rig was operated for 550 experimental runs over a period of 7 years. The NASA Lewis bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each with a 19 cm in diameter and capable of producing magnetic field strengths of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The magnets are equally spaced around a major circumference 1.52 m in diameter, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.59 m in diameter. The design value of maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis (3.0 teslas) was reached and exceeded. A maximum magnetic field of 3.23 teslas was held for a period of 60 minutes, and the coils did not go to normal. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 teslas, the coil system was driven normal without damage to the facility.

  16. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus are discussed. It is found that the waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency; they are Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. It is noted that the observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency but that the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A detailed discussion of the observations is given. Also included is a refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the upper hybrid resonant frequency line.

  17. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field measurements for direct detection of electron Bernstein waves in a torus plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Kinjo, Kiyotake; Morikawa, Junji; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2009-02-15

    To identify the mode-converted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in a torus plasma directly, we have developed an interferometry system, in which a diagnostic microwave injected outside of the plasma column was directly detected with the probing antenna inserted into the plasma. In this work, plasma production and heating are achieved with 2.45 GHz, 2.5 kW electron cyclotron heating (ECH), whereas diagnostics are carried out with a lower power (10 W) separate frequency (1-2.1 GHz) microwave. Three components, i.e., two electromagnetic (toroidal and poloidal directions) and an electrostatic (if refractive index is sufficiently higher than unity, it corresponds to radial component), of ECRF electric field are simultaneously measured with three probing antennas, which are inserted into plasma. Selectivities of each component signal were checked experimentally. Excitation antennas have quite high selectivity of direction of linear polarization. As probing antennas for detecting electromagnetic components, we employed a monopole antenna with a length of 35 mm, and the separation of the poloidal (O-wave) and toroidal (X-wave) components of ECRF electric field could be available with this antenna. To detect EBW, which is an electrostatic wave, a small tip (1 mm) antenna was used. As the preliminary results, we detected signals that have three characteristics of EBW, i.e., short wavelength, backward propagation, and electrostatic.

  18. The Jovian aurora: Electron or ion precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Clarke, J. T.; Cravens, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora at UV wavelengths obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory (including the brightest Jovian aurora observed to date) set strigent upper limits for sulfur and oxygen emissions, which would be associated with the precipitation of energetic heavy ions in the upper Jovian atmosphere if they were solely responsible for Jovian auroral processes. Model calculations of heavy ion precipitation and corresponding estimates of the associated sulfur and oxygen UV emissions previously carried out suggest emission values for 1304 A OI emission that are at least 30 times larger than the upper limit values set by the IUE observations reported. On the other hand the observed (feature of SII at 1256 A of 2 kR) is quite comparable to the theoretically predicted emission intensity. Taken together these observations and calculations suggest that electron as well as ion precipitation play a role in Jovian auroral processes. In light of earlier X-ray observations and in-situ plasma observations that suggest energetic heavy ion precipitation in the Jovian auroral zone, a scenario is suggested where heavy ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause. Electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions since they deposit their energy above the methane absorbing layer defined by the homopause.

  19. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm(3)), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented. PMID:24593595

  20. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  1. Mass and Energy Flow Through the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    We a simple model of the flow of mass and energy through the jovian magnetosphere based on Voyager, Galileo and Cassini data. Combining the observed distribution of mass with conservation of the ~500 kg/s flux of Iogenic material we derive net radial flows that reach the local Alfven speed around 50-60 Rj. Estimates of mass ejected down the magnetotail in plasmoids only add up to a few percent of the source, suggesting most of the material must either be lost as a steady drizzle down the tail or leak out of the magnetopause. Approximately 230 tons of solar wind protons bombard the magnetopause each second. Thus, only a few percent leaking into the magnetosphere would swamp the mass source at Io. The dominance of sulfur and oxygen ions in the inner and middle magnetosphere indicate that little of such a solar wind source penetrates far into the magnetosphere. But mixing of iogenic and solar wind plasma (such as via Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) may be prevalent in the outer regions. The flow of energy through the system is not so clear to understand. Models of the physical chemistry of the Io plasma torus are consistent with a substantial source of energy from ion pick-up. But additional energy must also be pumped into the population of hot electrons (perhaps via plasma waves or as a dissipative by-product of fluxtube interchange motions). Most of the power going into the torus is radiated as UV line emission (1.2-2.5 TW) with only a little being carried by the outwardly diffusing plasma. As the plasma expands out into the large volumes of the middle and outer magnetosphere one would expect the plasma to cool. But the plasma temperature is observed to increase with distance and one of the major unresolved mysteries of the magnetosphere is how the plasma is in fact heated as it moves outwards. Approximately 0.6-3 TW of kinetic energy and 2.7-15 TW of thermal energy must be added to the plasma in the plasma disk. The ultimate source of this energy is likely Jupiter's rotation (coupled to the magnetodisk via the magnetic field) but some of the 2 x 10^4 TW of kinetic energy of the solar wind impinging on the magnetotail is likely tapped in the outer magnetosphere.

  2. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow bandpass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). The diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented.

  3. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-12-15

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow bandpass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). The diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented.

  4. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Scotti, F; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2015-12-01

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow bandpass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). The diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented. PMID:26724002

  5. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D; Menard, J; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, R E; Bush, C; Kaita, R

    2008-09-22

    Experiments conducted in high-performance 1.0-1.2 MA 6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with a high flux expansion radiative divertor in NSTX demonstrate that significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and access to detachment may be facilitated naturally in a highly-shaped spherical torus (ST) configuration. Improved plasma performance with high {beta}{sub p} = 15-25%, a high bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} = 45-50%, longer plasma pulses, and an H-mode regime with smaller ELMs has been achieved in the lower single null configuration with higher-end elongation 2.2-2.4 and triangularity 0.6-0.8. Divertor peak heat fluxes were reduced from 6-12 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5-2 MW/m{sup 2} in ELMy H-mode discharges using high magnetic flux expansion and partial detachment of the outer strike point at several D{sub 2} injection rates, while good core confinement and pedestal characteristics were maintained. The partially detached divertor regime was characterized by a 30-60% increase in divertor plasma radiation, a peak heat flux reduction by up to 70%, measured in a 10 cm radial zone, a five-fold increase in divertor neutral pressure, and a significant volume recombination rate increase.

  6. The Io Plasma Torus: Motivation for Abandoning the "Active Sector" Concept in Favor of System IV Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, J. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Marconi, M.; Woodward, R. C., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We use an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 1000 observations of Io in [OI] 6300A, presented by Oliversen et al. (2001), narrow-band images of the torus in [SII] 6731A, and HST/STIS EUV observations of Io and its environs to confirm that the Io [OI] flux is an excellent proxy for the electron density in the Io plasma to torus (IPT). Furthermore, we find: (1) A careful statistical analysis of short-term variations in this dataset (20 min to 1 hour), previously suspected to be from flux tube interchange (Oliversen et al. 2001, Morgenthaler et al. 2012) are, in fact, consistent with the expected statistical variation of the parent population of observations. (2) The semi-empirical IPT model developed by W. Smyth (Oliversen et al. 2001; Smyth, Peterson, & Marconi 2011) fits the overall trends in the data reasonably well, with notable exceptions. (3) There may be a link between what was previously known the "active sector" at system III longitudes of 170 ~ 230 degrees and the modulation in IPT plasma density caused by the beating between system III and system IV, predicted by Hess et al. (2011). Conclusion: a simple modification to the W. Smyth semi-empirical torus model to incorporate a system IV-controlled density enhancement, rather than a fixed "active sector" in system III, should enable the model to "lock in" more readily to our extensive set of [OI] 6300A observations recorded between 1990 and 2008. This will provide detailed information about the flow of mass and energy in the IPT during the Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, and New Horizons missions. Additional observations are planned during NASA's upcoming Juno mission. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Research Program RTOP 344-32-40 to GSFC and grants NAGW-3319 and NAG5-6787 to the University of Wisconsin--Madison, STIS contract NAS5-30131 to the University of Wisconsin--Madison and NASA Outer Planets Research Program grant NNX11AM43G to PSI.

  7. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  8. The source location of certain Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence is presented which supports the concept that certain of the Jovian decametric radio waves originate as northern hemisphere extraordinary mode cyclotron emissions. The wave signals received by Voyager 1 near 10 MHz shortly after the closest approach to Jupiter were found to exhibit cusps in the fringe pattern which can be attributed to Faraday rotation in the Io plasma torus. At nearly the same time, the wave polarization near 1 MHz was found to exhibit a sudden reversal of its rotation sense, indicating that the wave path for those frequencies had also become perpendicular to the magnetic field at the spacecraft. It was determined that the waves came from the northern hemisphere at progressively lower altitudes with increasing frequency, and if the source is assumed to be associated with an L = 6 field line, the emission appears to have occurred near the source cyclotron frequency somewhere in the local midnight sector. The evidence indicates that the source is at the Io flux tube and that the emitted wave mode must have been extraordinary. In addition, the emitted wave polarization must have been substantially noncircular which would require a low plasma density near the source, much like that which occurs with auroral kilometric radiation at the earth.

  9. Processes and properties of edge-localised instabilities in 2T 2MA plasmas in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, A. J. Webster, S. J.

    2014-11-15

    During July 2012, 150 almost identical H-mode plasmas were consecutively created in the Joint European Torus, providing a combined total of approximately 8 minutes of steady-state plasma with 15 000 Edge Localised Modes (ELMs). In principle, each of those 15 000 ELMs are statistically equivalent. Here, the changes in edge density and plasma energy associated with those ELMs are explored, using the spikes in Beryllium II (527 nm) radiation as an indicator for the onset of an ELM. Clearly different timescales are observed during the ELM process. Edge temperature falls over a 2 ms timescale, edge density and pressure fall over a 5 ms timescale, and there is an additional 10 ms timescale that is consistent with a resistive relaxation of the plasma's edge. The statistical properties of the energy and density losses due to the ELMs are explored. For these plasmas the ELM energy (δE) is found to be approximately independent of the time between ELMs, despite the average ELM energy (〈δE〉) and average ELM frequency (f) being consistent with the scaling of 〈δE〉∝1/f. Instead, beyond the first 0.02 s of waiting time between ELMs, the energy losses due to individual ELMs are found to be statistically the same. Surprisingly no correlation is found between the energies of consecutive ELMs either. A weak link is found between the density drop and the ELM waiting time. Consequences of these results for ELM control and modelling are discussed.

  10. The JET (Joint European Torus) multipellet launcher and fueling of JET plasmas by multipellet injection

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Jernigan, T.C.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Houlberg, W.A.; Schissel, D.; Colestock, P.; Hammett, G.; Zarnstorff, M.; Kupschus, P.; Cheetham, A.; Denne, B.; Gadeberg, M.; Gowers, C.; Gondhalekar, A.; Tubbing, B.

    1988-01-01

    A new multipellet long-pulse plasma fueling system is in operation on JET. In the initial experimental phase, a variety of plasma density profile shapes have been produced with peak to average values ranging up to 2.5 and peak plasma density up to 1.2 )times) 10/sup 20/m/sup )minus/3). 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  12. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  13. Radio emission observed by Galileo in the inner Jovian magnetosphere during orbit A-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas; Gurnett, Donald A.; Groene, Joseph B.

    2005-10-01

    The Galileo spacecraft encountered the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter on its way to a flyby of Amalthea on November 5, 2002. During this encounter, the spacecraft observed distinct spin modulation of plasma wave emissions. The modulations occurred in the frequency range from a few hundred hertz to a few hundred kilohertz and probably include at least two distinct wave modes. Assuming transverse EM radiation, we have used the swept-frequency receivers of the electric dipole antenna to determine the direction to the source of these emissions. Additionally, with knowledge of the magnetic field some constraints are placed on the wave mode of the emission based on a comparative analysis of the wave power versus spin phase of the different emissions. The emission appears in several bands separated by attenuation lanes. The analysis indicates that the lanes are probably due to blockage of the freely propagating emission by high density regions of the Io torus near the magnetic equator. Radio emission at lower frequencies (<40 kHz) appears to emanate from sources at high latitude and is not attenuated. Emission at f>80kHz is consistent with O-mode and Z-mode. Lower frequency emissions could be a mixture of O-mode, Z-mode and whistler mode. Emission for f<5kHz shows bands that are similar to upper hybrid resonance bands observed near the terrestrial plasmapause, and also elsewhere in Jovian magnetosphere. Based on the observations and knowledge of similar terrestrial emissions, we hypothesize that radio emission results from mode conversion near the strong density gradient of the inner radius of the cold plasma torus, similar to the generation of nKOM and continuum emission observed in the outer Jovian magnetosphere and in the terrestrial magnetosphere from source regions near the plasmapause.

  14. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as ? e , ?e ? , the MHD ? parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when ?e and ?e ? were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both ?e and ?e ? increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k? mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k?, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  15. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  16. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  17. Beta-limiting MHD Instabilities in Improved-performance NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson D.A. Gates: S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; C.E. Bush; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; F. Paoletti; S.F Paul; M. Ono; Y.-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; the NSTX Research Team

    2003-05-29

    Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during normal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) {beta}{sub t} = 35%, {beta}{sub N} = 6.4, <{beta}{sub N}> = 4.5, {beta}{sub N}/l{sub i} = 10, and {beta}{sub P} = 1.4. High {beta}{sub P} operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of {beta}{sub N} {approx} 6 above the ideal no-wall limit and near the with-wall limit. Details of the {beta} limit scalings and {beta}-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described.

  18. Integrated simulations of saturated neoclassical tearing modes in DIII-D, Joint European Torus, and ITER plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Federico D.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2006-06-15

    A revised version of the ISLAND module [C. N. Nguyen et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 3604 (2004)] is used in the BALDUR code [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1988)] to carry out integrated modeling simulations of DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)], and ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)] tokamak discharges in order to investigate the adverse effects of multiple saturated magnetic islands driven by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). Simulations are carried out with a predictive model for the temperature and density pedestal at the edge of the high confinement mode (H-mode) plasma and with core transport described using the Multi-Mode model. The ISLAND module, which is used to compute magnetic island widths, includes the effects of an arbitrary aspect ratio and plasma cross sectional shape, the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, and the effect of the distortion in the shape of each magnetic island caused by the radial variation of the perturbed magnetic field. Radial transport is enhanced across the width of each magnetic island within the BALDUR integrated modeling simulations in order to produce a self-consistent local flattening of the plasma profiles. It is found that the main consequence of the NTM magnetic islands is a decrease in the central plasma temperature and total energy. For the DIII-D and JET discharges, it is found that inclusion of the NTMs typically results in a decrease in total energy of the order of 15%. In simulations of ITER, it is found that the saturated magnetic island widths normalized by the plasma minor radius, for the lowest order individual tearing modes, are approximately 24% for the 2/1 mode and 12% for the 3/2 mode. As a result, the ratio of ITER fusion power to heating power (fusion Q) is reduced from Q=10.6 in simulations with no NTM islands to Q=2.6 in simulations with fully saturated NTM islands.

  19. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; G. Gettelfinger; T. Gray; D. Hoffman; S. Jardin; H. Kugel; P. Marfuta; T. Munsat; C. Neumeyer; S. Raftopoulos; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; L. Delgado-Aparicio; R.P. Seraydarian; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; M. Baldwin; R.W. Conn; R. Maingi; M. Menon; R. Causey; D. Buchenauer; M. Ulrickson; B. Jones; D. Rodgers

    2004-06-07

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter.

  20. Progress in Understanding Error-field Physics in NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    E. Menard, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.P. Gerhardt, J.-K. Park, S.A. Sabbagh, J.W. Berkery, A. Egan, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, Y.Q. Liu, A. Sontag, D. Swanson, H. Yuh, W. Zhu and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-05-19

    The low aspect ratio, low magnetic field, and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyze error fields, to measure error field amplification, and to detect resistive wall modes in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field, and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favorable error field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n=1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n=1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n=3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n=1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E × B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.

  1. The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Floyd

    1994-01-01

    By the time of the impact of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter, the freshly-broken surfaces of the accompanying rubble will have been outgassing for about two years, and will have produced an expanding and co-moving cloud of gas hundreds of R(sub J) across. Much of this gas, escaping from the cometary fragments at low (equal to or less than 1 km/s) speed, will arrive in the Jovian magnetopshere contemporaneously with the comet and drift through the magnetosphere. This gas, as it is photoionized, will be picked up primarily in the outer magnetosphere and the resulting high-energy ions should intensify magnetospheric processes, such as Io plasma torus and auroral emissions, that are thought to be powered by outer magnetospheric mass loading. If the composition of the comet is similar to that of P/Halley, the power available from mass loading should be comparable to that driving the aurora (10(exp 14) W) and at least an order of magnitude larger than that exciting the plasma torus for several weeks or months. Measurement of these emissions during and after the cometary encounter may constrain the mechanisms for energization of magnetospheric charged particle populations and magnetospheric transport processes.

  2. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Losing the Io plasma: Local time variations of magnetospheric structure and the development of the Jovian outer magnetospheric maelstrom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In comparisons of planetary magnetospheres, the dominant contribution of rotational stresses at Jupiter as contrasted with the dominant role of solar wind-driven interactions at Earth has been stressed repeatedly. Discussions of the outward transport of the plasma delivered at a rate of a ton per second to the magnetosphere of Jupiter from a source at Io, deep within the magnetosphere, have focused on interchange and diffusion. Here we consider the mechanisms of plasma transport from the middle magnetospheric plasmasheet to the outer portions of Jupiter's magnetosphere, invoking a different mechanism. We base our analysis on data acquired by Galileo and by previous spacecraft over a range of dayside local times between dawn and dusk, emphasizing in particular the dawn-dusk asymmetry that distinguishes Jupiter's rotation-dominated magnetosphere from Earth's. As the outer part of the plasmasheet rotates from dawn to noon, it moves radially inward and centrifugal stresses become increasingly effective in destabilizing the outermost flux tubes. Cloudlets of plasma enclosed in magnetic bubbles, sometimes observed as magnetic "nulls", break off to serve as a source of plasma for the outer magnetospheric flux tubes in the "cushion" region. Once trapped on a flux tube of the outer magnetosphere, a bubble is compressed by magnetic pressure and plasma moves along the field direction to fill a large volume. The cross section of the filled flux tube decreases and eventually can no longer confine the plasma which then expands into a much larger volume of the outer magnetosphere. The outer magnetospheric flux tubes lose their Iogenic plasma as they rotate through the magnetotail from which the plasma must return to the solar wind. Emphasizing the role of centrifugal stresses on the plasmasheet and the outer magnetospheric plasma, we also interpret the local time asymmetry of the thickness of the plasmasheet and account for the presence of auroral activity in high latitude regions of Jupiter's ionosphere where rotational effects generate currents in the afternoon outer magnetosphere.

  4. Edge transport and turbulence reduction with lithium coated plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Kubota, S.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Callen, J. D.; Osborne, T. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2011-05-15

    The coating of plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium improves energy confinement and eliminates ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, the latter due to a relaxation of the density and pressure profiles that reduces the drive for peeling-ballooning modes. 2-D interpretive transport modeling of discharges without and with lithium shows that a reduction in the PFC recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.90 is required to match the drop in D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings. A broadening of the edge barrier region showing reduced transport coefficients is observed, with a {approx}75% drop of the D and {chi}{sub e} from 0.8 < {psi}{sub N} < 0.93 needed to match the profile relaxation with lithium coatings. Turbulence measurements using an edge reflectometry system as well as high-k microwave scattering show a decrease in density fluctuations with lithium coatings. These transport changes allow the realization of very wide pedestals, with a {approx}100% width increase relative to the reference discharges.

  5. Edge transport and turbulence reduction with lithium coated plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Kubota, S.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Callen, J. D.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Osborne, T. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2011-05-01

    The coating of plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium improves energy confinement and eliminates ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, the latter due to a relaxation of the density and pressure profiles that reduces the drive for peeling-ballooning modes. 2-D interpretive transport modeling of discharges without and with lithium shows that a reduction in the PFC recycling coefficient from R ˜ 0.98 to R ˜ 0.90 is required to match the drop in Dα emission with lithium coatings. A broadening of the edge barrier region showing reduced transport coefficients is observed, with a ˜75% drop of the D and χe from 0.8 < ψN < 0.93 needed to match the profile relaxation with lithium coatings. Turbulence measurements using an edge reflectometry system as well as high-k microwave scattering show a decrease in density fluctuations with lithium coatings. These transport changes allow the realization of very wide pedestals, with a ˜100% width increase relative to the reference discharges.

  6. Observations of plasma rotation in the high-beta Tokamak Torus 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostek, C.; Marshall, T. C.

    Toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation are measured in a high Beta Tokamak device by studying the Doppler sift of the 4686 A He II line. The toroidal flow motion is in the same direction as the plasma current at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10(6) cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10(6) cm/sec. The toroidal flow is compared with the predictions of neoclassical transport theory in the collisional regime. Mechanisms for the time evolution of the rotation are also examined.

  7. High-harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive Results for Deuterium H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor, P.T. Bonoli, R.W. Harvey, J.C. hosea, E.F. Jaeger, B.P. LeBlanc, C.K. Phillisp, P.M. Ryan, E.J. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, J.C. Wright, and the NSTX Team

    2012-07-25

    A critical research goal for the spherical torus (ST) program is to initiate, ramp-up, and sustain a discharge without using the central solenoid. Simulations of non-solenoidal plasma scenarios in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [1] predict that high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) [2] can play an important roll in enabling fully non-inductive (fNI {approx} 1) ST operation. The NSTX fNI {approx} 1 strategy requires 5-6 MW of HHFW power (PRF) to be coupled into a non-inductively generated discharge [3] with a plasma current, Ip {approx} 250-350 kA, driving the plasma into an HHFW H-mode with Ip {approx} 500 kA, a level where 90 keV deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) can heat the plasma and provide additional CD. The initial approach on NSTX has been to heat Ip {approx} 300 kA, inductively heated, deuterium plasmas with CD phased HHFW power [2], in order to drive the plasma into an H-mode with fNI {approx} 1.

  8. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as βe, ν*e, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when βe and ν*e were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both βe and ν*e increased, microtearing became the dominant low-κθ mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-κθ, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  9. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M. Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-15

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as β{sub e}, ν{sub e}{sup ∗}, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of T{sub e}, T{sub i}, and n{sub e} were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k{sub θ} mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k{sub θ}, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting T{sub e} for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  10. Observers requested for Jovian Extinction Events (JEE2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-07-01

    Scotty Degenhardt (Santa Fe, NM), a pioneer in the use of video for timing eclipses of solar system and stellar objects and a research member of the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA), and colleagues are working on modeling the Jovian dust field, moon atmospheres, and Io's Torus through Jovian Extinction Events (JEE). He has invited AAVSO observers to participate by observing these events and reporting their observations. He writes: "The next Jovian Mutual Event season (JME) is still almost two years away. But the interaction of the Jovian moons is upon us. In July and August there are multiple opportunities to record dimmings of Jovian moons via extinction of their light by the atmospheres of other moons and/or by the dust and gas material in the Torus of Io...Europa's atmosphere is documented to extend out to about 25 Europa radii from its surface. There will be numerous conjunctions, or close misses of Europa with Io and Ganymede over the next several months. Our previous study of JMEs and JEEs have shown that the source of dimming in these events is the moon that is behind the moon possessing a known tenuous atmosphere. The upcoming conjunction JEEs provide the best opportunity to document this extinction phenomenon and give rise to the possibility of inverting the light curve to produce a 3D model of the dust and gasses in the Jovian system...JEE2012 is a great opportunity for amateur and professional astronomers to work together to accomplish something no one thought was possible. That is to actually detect and measure the tenuous atmospheres surrounding some of the moons of Jupiter as well as this same material that is captured in a torus ring around Jupiter, called the Torus of Io. A complete current prediction kit through Aug 2102 is available here: http://scottysmightymini.com./JEE/JEE2012_Jun_Aug.zip. A summary table of upcoming events is here: http://scottysmightymini.com/JEE/JEE2012_Jun_Aug_Table.htm. A FAQ ! file describing the JEE2012 Program is here: http://scottysmightymini. com/JEE/JEE2012_FAQ.htm. It is important to note that we have developed a better prediction method which gives one a predicted light curve so one has a basis to know when and how long to observe. BVR observations are preferred, if possible; spectroscopy is also requested. Details of the observation procedure are given in the prediction kit, as are individual ephemerides for each extinction event. Once you have obtained data, please contact Scotty Degenhardt regarding data reduction.

  11. The Jovian Aurora: Implications of Multiwavelength Auroral Spectra for Auroral Particle Identity and Auroral Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. H.; Gladstone, G. R.; Bolton, S. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Gerard, J.-C.; Lewis, W. S.; Trafton, L. M.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    1998-09-01

    Remote sensing of Jupiter's aurora from x-ray to radio wavelengths has revealed much about the nature of the jovian aurora and about the impact of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling on Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Both energetic heavy ions and electrons energized in the outer magnetosphere contribute to the auroral excitation, as indicated by the combination of x-ray and ultraviolet observations. Imaging with the HST in the ultraviolet and with the IRTF at infrared wavelengths reveals several distinct regions of interaction: 1) a dusk sector where turbulent auroral patterns extend well into the polar cap; 2) a morning sector generally characterized by a single spatially confined auroral arc originating in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter; 3) diffuse emissions associated with the Io plasma torus; and 4) a distinct region associated with the Io Flux Tube footprint. Ultraviolet spectroscopy has provided important information about the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere and altitude distribution of the auroral particle energy deposition, while Lyman alpha line profiles offer clues to the nature of thermospheric dynamical effects. Galileo observations at visible wavelengths on the nightside have provided a new view of the jovian aurora with unprecedented spatial information. Infrared observations have added much to the understanding of thermal structure and morphology and may hold the key to understanding the role of Joule heating. Radio observations imply that energetic particle precipitation extends to low latitudes, a result that has been corroborated at x-ray wavelengths. Multispectral observations of jovian auroral emissions will be discussed within a theoretical/modeling framework that serves to provide some insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and its effect on the upper atmosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on the use of auroral spectra to identify incident energetic particles and their energy spectra as a means of elucidating the microphysics of auroral processes.

  12. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfusa, M.; Gaudio, P.; Peluso, E.; Murari, A.; Baruzzo, M.; Lupelli, I.; Hawkes, N.; Brix, M.; Drozdov, V.; Meigs, A.; Romanelli, M.; Schmuck, S.; Sieglin, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of properly validating the results of the codes with independent measurements.

  13. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Hawkes, N.; Gaudio, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Brix, M.; Craciunescu, T.; Drozdov, V.; Meigs, A.; Peluso, E.; Romanelli, M.; Schmuck, S.; Sieglin, B.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-01

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of properly validating the results of the codes with independent measurements.

  14. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus.

    PubMed

    Gelfusa, M; Murari, A; Lupelli, I; Hawkes, N; Gaudio, P; Baruzzo, M; Brix, M; Craciunescu, T; Drozdov, V; Meigs, A; Peluso, E; Romanelli, M; Schmuck, S; Sieglin, B

    2013-10-01

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of properly validating the results of the codes with independent measurements. PMID:24188275

  15. A multi-instrument study of a Jovian magnetospheric disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarn, P.; Mauk, B. H.; Kivelson, M. G.; Kurth, W. S.; Roux, A.; Zimmer, C.; Gurnett, D. A.; Williams, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    Using observations from different Galileo experiments (plasma wave system, magnetometer and energetic particle detector), we analyze a strong magnetospheric disturbance that occurs on day 311 of 1996 as Galileo was close to Jupiter (less than 15 Jovian radii). This perturbation is characterized by multiple injections of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere and has been described as a possible analog of the terrestrial magnetic storm by Mauk et al. [1999]. We show here that it also corresponds to a large-scale magnetospheric perturbation similar to the ``energetic events'' described by Louarn et al., [1998, 2000]. It is associated with the development of a particular magnetic activity in the outermost part of the Io torus, over periods of 2-4 hours and in sectors of longitude with a typical 30°-80° longitudinal extension. At distances ranging from 10 to 13Rj, the activity itself is characterized by the generation of low-frequency magnetic oscillations (18 min periodicity in the present case) that correlate with dispersionless energetic electron injections and modulations of the auroral radio flux. When they are observed a few hours after their formation, these injections present a weak energy-time dispersion and are still periodic. They then progressively mix and finally define a region of limited longitudinal extension where the density of energetic particles is particularly large. We show that this region corresponds to the source of the narrowband kilometric radiation (n-KOM). By combining remote sensing radio observations, in situ particle, and magnetic field measurements, we show that the active zone where the large scale disturbance initially develops most probably does not corotate and would even be almost fixed in local time. In the present case, the magnetospheric event is the consequence of two activations separated by a few hours. They occur in two separated longitude sectors and give rise to two different n-KOM sources. During the event, some 1012W are transferred to the electron population. It is proposed that this set of phenomena is the manifestation of a sporadic dissipation of a part of the Io torus rotational energy and would be thus associated with the development of a large-scale instability in the external part of the Io torus.

  16. The Jupiter hot plasma torus - Observed electron temperature and energy flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the optical emission /O I/ 6300 A (8 + or - 4 R) and /S III/ 6312 A (48 + or - 5 R) is reported. It is noted that these emissions are indicators of the ion source morphology and the plasma physical state and that the S III emitters have a kinetic temperature of approximately 10 to the 6th K. When combined with observations of UV lines from the same species, the optical measurements separately imply effective electron temperatures for radiative processes that are mutually consistent (approximately 50,000 K).

  17. Jovian satellite nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of the history of Jovian satellite nomenclature is given to indicate the background for the names proposed for the numbered satellites. The new names are consistent with established tradition and should cause minimal confusion with other named objects in the solar system.

  18. Current systems in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriguchi, Tadanori; Nakamizo, Aoi; Tanaka, Takashi; Obara, Takahiro; Shimazu, Hironori

    2008-05-01

    The plasma dynamics in the Jovian magnetosphere is characterized by rapid rotation of the planet. In this paper, a new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation scheme is developed to precisely calculate the current systems in the Jovian magnetosphere and to relate them with the plasma dynamics. A field-aligned current (FAC) pattern that is expected for the ionosphere to drive the corotation is reproduced in the present simulation result with current away from the ionosphere at lower latitudes and current toward the ionosphere at higher latitudes. In the magnetospheric region, a thin equatorial current sheet with eastward current flowing around Jupiter (ring current) dominates in the middle magnetosphere. By tracing current lines, it is found that the upward FAC on the low-latitude side in the ionosphere is first connected to the ring current and then to the Chapman-Ferraro current through the plasma sheet current. Downward FAC in the high-latitude ionosphere is spirally connected to the tail lobe. From the distribution of JE, the places of dynamo and energy consumption region are investigated to understand the energy balance associated with the corotation by magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) current system. From these analyses, the FAC, ring current, the Chapman-Ferraro current and plasma distribution in the Jovian magnetosphere are understood as a self-consistently organized structure through corotation and confinement. In addition, some interesting field-line structures and plasmoid formation are found by tracing the magnetic field line.

  19. Current systems in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamizo, Aoi; Moriguchi, Tadanori; Tanaka, Takashi

    The plasma dynamics in the Jovian magnetosphere is characterized by rapid rotation of the planet. In this paper, a new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation scheme is developed to precisely calculate the current systems in the Jovian magnetosphere and to relate them with the plasma dynamics. A field-aligned current (FAC) pattern that is expected for the ionosphere to drive the co-rotation is reproduced in the present simulation result with current away from the ionosphere at lower latitudes and current toward the ionosphere at higher latitudes. In the magnetospheric region, a thin equatorial current sheet with eastward current flowing around Jupiter (ring current) dominates in the middle magnetosphere. By tracing current lines, it is found that the upward FAC on the low-latitude side in the ionosphere is first connects to the ring current and then to the Chapman-Ferraro current through the plasma sheet current. Downward FAC in the high-latitude ionosphere is spirally connected to the tail lobe. From the distribution of J*E, the places of dynamo and energy consumption region are investigated to understand the energy balance associated with the co-rotation by magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) current system. From these analyses, the FAC, ring current, the Chapman-Ferraro current and plasma distribution in the Jovian magnetosphere are understood as a self-consistently organized structure through co-rotation and confinement. In addition, some interesting fieldline structures and plasmoid formation are found by tracing the magnetic field line.

  20. Observation of dust torus with poloidal rotation in direct current glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manjit; Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Sharma, Devendra; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2015-03-01

    Observation of dust cloud rotation in parallel-plate DC glow discharge plasma is reported here. The experiments are carried out at high pressures (130 Pa) with a metallic ring placed on the lower electrode (cathode). The dust cloud rotates poloidally in the vertical plane near the cathode surface. This structure is continuous toroidally. Absence of magnetic field rules out the possibility of E B induced ion flow as the cause of dust rotation. The dust rotational structures exist even with water cooled cathode. Therefore, temperature gradient driven mechanisms, such as thermophoretic force, thermal creep flow, and free convection cannot be causing the observed dust rotation. Langmuir probe measurement reveals the existence of a sharp density gradient near the location of the rotating dust cloud. The gradient in the density, giving rise to a gradient in the ion drag force, has been identified as the principal cause behind the rotation of dust particles.

  1. Observation of dust torus with poloidal rotation in direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manjit Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K. Sharma, Devendra; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2015-03-15

    Observation of dust cloud rotation in parallel-plate DC glow discharge plasma is reported here. The experiments are carried out at high pressures (∼130 Pa) with a metallic ring placed on the lower electrode (cathode). The dust cloud rotates poloidally in the vertical plane near the cathode surface. This structure is continuous toroidally. Absence of magnetic field rules out the possibility of E × B induced ion flow as the cause of dust rotation. The dust rotational structures exist even with water cooled cathode. Therefore, temperature gradient driven mechanisms, such as thermophoretic force, thermal creep flow, and free convection cannot be causing the observed dust rotation. Langmuir probe measurement reveals the existence of a sharp density gradient near the location of the rotating dust cloud. The gradient in the density, giving rise to a gradient in the ion drag force, has been identified as the principal cause behind the rotation of dust particles.

  2. Zebra spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rošker, S.; Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H. O.; Brazhenko, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radiation in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of complicated interactions between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moon Io. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from a few MHz up to 40 MHz. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAM exhibits different complex spectral structures. Recent observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) enabled the detection of fine spectral structures, specifically zebra stripe-like patterns, never reported before in the Jovian decametric wavelength regime (Figure 1). In this presentation we describe and analyse these new observations by investigating the characteristics of the Jovian decametric zebra patterns. On basis of these findings the possible mechanism of wave generation is discussed and in particular the value of the determination of local plasma densities within the Jovian magnetosphere by remote radio sensing is emphasized.

  3. Direct observation of transition to electron Bernstein waves from electromagnetic mode by three mode-conversion scenarios in the dipole confinement torus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchijima, K.; Takemoto, T.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Direct measurement experiments on the mode conversion to the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) have been conducted in dipole confinement torus plasmas for three excitation scenarios; i.e. perpendicular injections of an eXtraordinary mode (X-mode) from the low- and high-magnetic-field sides, and the oblique injection of an Ordinary mode (O-mode) from the low-magnetic-field side. By inserting probe antennas into plasmas, wave propagation has been directly measured. At plasma conditions for the EBW excitation, several characteristics which indicate the mode conversion to the EBWs have been observed; i.e. a short wavelength wave, an electrostatic and longitudinal mode, backward propagation at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region. Meanwhile, the wavelengths experimentally observed might be slightly longer than those of theoretical prediction. In the case of the oblique injection of the O-mode, it has been identified that the window of the injection angle for the excitation of the EBW would be quite limited, and the optimum angle seems to be roughly in agreement with theory. These experimental results might support that the electromagnetic waves injected outside of torus plasmas reach to the UHR region and convert wave characteristics to the EBWs for three excitation scenarios.

  4. Gaussian beams for a linearized cold plasma confined in a torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinali, A.; Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Klevin, A.; Tirozzi, B.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a system of linear pde describing a cold plasma in a toroidal region in three-dimensional space. This system simulates the passage of a laser beam through the TOKAMAK, it consists of 9 equations for the electric field and the velocities of electrons and ions in a given magnetic field. Asymptotic solutions describing high-frequency Gaussian beams are constructed using the theory of Maslov complex germ in a fairly effective form. The solutions of the system are localized in the neighborhood of the beam passing through the toroidal domain (the camera). The equations for a ray take into account the density of particles in the camera and don't ``feel'' the presence of the magnetic field because of the high frequency of the Gaussian beam; the dependence on the magnetic field is contained in the amplitude of the electric field. Before the TOKAMAK camera the amplitude of the Gaussian beam is the same as in free space, but after the camera the amplitude vector rotates under the influence of the magnetic field. The formula for the angle of rotation is given explicitly. An analytical-numerical algorithm based on the asymptotic solutions is used to analyze the parameters of the magnetic field in the TOKAMAK.

  5. Micrometeorite erosion of the man rings as a source of plasma in the inner Saturnian plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pospieszalska, M. K.; Johnson, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Micrometeorite bombardment is presently suggested to be a source of water molecules and molecular ions in the region between the outer edge of the main rings of Saturn and Encedalus, adding to those neutrals and plasma that are generated by the sputtering of icy satellites. In view of uncertainties concerning the magnitude and distribution of the ring source, an examination is conducted of limiting cases. The implications of such cases for the Cassini division are calculated, and a discussion of their possible relevance to the region's neutral and plasma cloud is presented.

  6. Studies of plasma flow past Jupiter's satellite Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite, with the Io plasma torus. The interaction of Io with the plasma surrounding it has been a subject of interest for almost 30 years, dating from the discovery by Bigg (1964) that radio emissions from the Jovian magnetosphere are controlled by Io's position. Since that time, both ground-based and spacecraft observations have shown that Io is a unique satellite that influences the Jovian magnetosphere in important ways. In particular, material from Io is a major source of plasma for the magnetosphere, and the energy that this plasma harnesses from Jupiter's co-rotating magnetic field is an important power source for the magnetosphere. It is apparent that the local interaction of the torus plasma with Io plays a key role in the formation, composition, and energetics of the Io torus; the interaction is also highly nonlinear. We have modeled this interaction using time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. During this past year, we have used NASA support to develop a new MHD code to study the interaction. As part of the Galileo spacecraft's recent successful insertion into orbit around Jupiter, the spacecraft passed within 900 km of Io's surface. Our calculations have focused on using Galileo particles and fields data to examine a question that was not resolved by the Voyager observations: Does Io have an intrinsic magnetic field? In this progress summary, we describe our efforts on this problem to date.

  7. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  8. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McNutt, R L; Haggerty, D K; Hill, M E; Krimigis, S M; Livi, S; Ho, G C; Gurnee, R S; Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C; McComas, D J; Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Brown, L E; Kusterer, M; Vandegriff, J; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Spencer, J R; Moore, J M

    2007-10-12

    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the jovian magnetotail to >2500 jovian radii (RJ; 1 RJ identical with 71,400 kilometers), observing a high-temperature, multispecies population of energetic particles. Velocity dispersions, anisotropies, and compositional variation seen in the deep-tail (greater, similar 500 RJ) with a approximately 3-day periodicity are similar to variations seen closer to Jupiter in Galileo data. The signatures suggest plasma streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region (approximately 200 to 400 RJ) that could be related to magnetic reconnection events. The tail structure remains coherent at least until it reaches the magnetosheath at 1655 RJ. PMID:17932283

  9. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S.; Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2013-10-15

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  10. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Firman, Taylor; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Prager, James R.; Victor, Brian S.; Wrobel, Jonathan S.; Ziemba, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2-3) × 1019 m-3 to 1 × 1019 m-3. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 1018 m-3. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  11. Spectroscopic results in helium from the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma. [ion heating by Penning discharge in confinement geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements were carried out on the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment in which a steady state ion heating method based on the modified Penning discharge is applied in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. Electron temperatures in pure helium are measured from the ratio of spectral line intensities. Measured electron temperatures range from 10 to 100 eV. Relative electron densities are also measured over the range of operating conditions. Radial profiles of temperature and relative density are measured in the two basic modes of operation of the device called the low and high pressure modes. The electron temperatures are used to estimate particle confinement times based on a steady state particle balance.

  12. Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S. (Editor); West, Robert A. (Editor); Rahe, Jurgen (Editor); Pereyda, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    The current state of knowledge of dynamic processes in the Jovian system is assessed and summaries are provided of both theoretical and observational foundations upon which future research might be based. There are three sections: satellite phenomena and rings; magnetospheric phenomena, Io's torus, and aurorae; and atmospheric phenomena. Each chapter discusses time dependent theoretical framework for understanding and interpreting what is observed; others describe the evidence and nature of observed changes or their absence. A few chapters provide historical perspective and attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge.

  13. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program has supported a vigorous three-year program of groundbased observations and detailed analysis of the Jupiter/Io system. Our work focused on Io's escaping atmosphere and the plasma torus that it creates.

  14. Feasibility study for the Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Borowski, S.K.; Brown, R.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Chipley, K.K.; Dalton, G.R.; Fowler, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    The design of the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) is discussed. The physics of the plasma are given in a magnetohydrodynamic model. The structural aspects and instrumentation of the device are described. 19 refs., 103 figs. (WRF)

  15. Plasma waves and continuum radiation in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of whistler and Bernstein waves at the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are discussed, as well as nonthermal continuum radiation which is common to the magnetospheres of these planets. Whistler mode waves and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions are examined in detail, with the purpose of understanding the interaction of these waves with the dynamics of the plasma electrons. Emphasis is placed on the occurrence and characteristics of the Jovian whistler mode chorus and the interactions with the plasma in and near the Io torus.

  16. International Jupiter Watch - A program to study the time variability of the Jovian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Caldwell, J. J.; De Pater, I.; Goguen, J.; Klein, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Jupiter Watch is a program for the encouragement and coordination of the study of temporal variations in the Jovian system. It consists of six discipline working groups concerned with: the Io torus under N. Schneider; the Jovian atmosphere under R. West; the magnetosphere and radio emissions under I. de Peter and M. Klein; aurora under J. Caldwell; the Galilean satellites under W. Sinton and J. Goguen; and laboratory measurement and theory under B. Lutz. To date the IJW has held two workshops and selected several Jupiter Watch periods for coordinated observations. The next Jupiter Watch workshop is tentatively scheduled for 1990 in association with the next COSPAR meeting.

  17. Models of the Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Results of calculations are given for three-dimensional models of the Io torus, to analyze the spectroscopic data reported by Morgan (1985). The calculations included variations in the torus plasma properties with longitude, latitude, and distance from Jupiter. The spectroscopic data are compared with the Oliversen's (S II) images and with the in situ measurements made by Voyager 1. The hypothesis is tested that the optical east-west variations reported in Morgan (1985) are consistent with the convective motions suggested by Barbosa and Kivelson (1983) and Ip and Goertz (1983). It is shown that the optical intensity asymmetry can be explained as a natural consequence of the suggested convective motions.

  18. Development of fully non-inductive plasmas heated by medium and high-harmonic fast waves in the national spherical torus experiment upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Poli, F.; Bertelli, N.; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Mueller, D.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Raman, R.

    2015-12-01

    A major challenge for spherical tokamak development is to start-up and ramp-up the plasma current (Ip) without using a central solenoid. Experiments in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) demonstrated that 1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power could generate an Ip = 300 kA H-mode discharge with a non-inductive Ip fraction, fNI ˜ 0.7. The discharge had an axial toroidal magnetic field (BT(0)) of 0.55 T, the maximum BT(0) available on NSTX. NSTX has undergone a major upgrade (NSTX-U), that will eventually allow the generation of BT(0) ≤ 1 T and Ip ≤ 2 MA plasmas. Full wave simulations of 30 MHz HHFW and medium harmonic fast wave (MHFW) heating in NSTX-U predict significantly reduced FW power loss in the plasma edge at the higher BT(0) achievable in NSTX-U. HHFW experiments will aim to generate stable, fNI ˜ 1, Ip = 300 kA H-mode plasmas and to ramp Ip from 250 to 400 kA with FW power. Time-dependent TRANSP simulations are used to develop non-inductive Ip ramp-up and sustainment using 30 MHz FW power. This paper presents results from these RF simulations and plans for developing non-inductive plasmas heated by FW power.

  19. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  20. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  1. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions Due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in Joint European Torus Shear Optimized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; A. Gondhalekar; A.A. Korotkov; S.E. Sharapov; D. Testa; and Contributors to the EFDA-JET Workprogramme

    2002-01-18

    Internal radial redistribution of MeV energy ICRF-driven hydrogen minority ions was inferred from neutral particle analyzer measurements during large amplitude MHD activity leading to internal reconnection in Shear Optimized plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET). A theory is developed for energetic ion redistribution during a reconnection driven by an m=2/n=1 internal kink mode. Plasma motion during reconnection generates an electric field which can change the energy and radial position of the energetic ions. The magnitude of ion energy change depends on the value of the safety factor at the plasma core from which the energetic ions are redistributed. A relation is found for corresponding change in canonical momentum. P(subscript phi), which leads to radial displacement of the ions. The model yields distinctive new features of energetic ion redistribution under such conditions. Predicted characteristics of ion redistribution are compared with the NPA measurements, and good correlation is found. Sometimes fast ions were transported to the plasma edge due to interaction with a long-lived magnetic island which developed after the reconnection and had chirping frequency in the laboratory frame. Convection of resonant ions trapped in a radially moving phase-space island is modeled to understand the physics of such events.

  2. Modeling the Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Jovian aurora is the most powerful aurora in the solar system, over 100 times more powerful than the Earth's aurora. These magnificent visual displays can provide important information about the planetary magnetosphere which is responsible for the acceleration of energetic particles that produce aurora at any planet. Similarities and differences in planetary auroral emissions are thus a viable means of classifying and studying both comparative atmospheric and magnetospheric processes. For instance, at Earth the solar wind is the primary source of auroral power while at Jupiter it is conjectured that the rotation of the planet is the major source of magnetospheric and auroral power. The purpose of this IR project was to develop a model: (1) for use in interpreting the existing set of multispectral observations of Jupiter's aurora; and (2) to design new experiments based on the findings to improve understanding of the underlying auroral processes.

  3. The Jovian meteoroid environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Meteoroid fluxes in interplanetary space at 5 AU and near Jupiter have been measured with the penetration detectors on Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. The data suggest that the size distribution of meteoroids at 5 AU is the same as that at 1 AU. Furthermore, the high flux observed near Jupiter appears due to meteoroids in orbit about the sun being gravitationally focused toward the planet. There is no indication of a large population of particles in orbit around Jupiter. Calculations show that the mass influx of meteoroids on Jupiter is 170 times that on the earth, but this does not have a significant effect on the energy balance of Jupiter. The high speed with which meteoroids enter the Jovian atmosphere causes them to be brighter than those on earth so that the number of visible meteors is 5800 times the number in the earth's atmosphere.

  4. A theory of the Io phase asymmetry of the Jovian decametric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    An explanation of an asymmetry in the occurrence probability of the Io-dependent Jovian decametric radiation is proposed. Io generates stronger Alfven waves toward the south when it is in the northern part of the torus. This wave then generates decametric radiation in the northern ionosphere after it reflects in the southern ionosphere. The asymmetry then results from computing the propagation time of the alfven wave along this trajectory. The ray paths of the decameter radiation are calculated using a three dimensional ray tracing program in the Jovian ionosphere. Variations in the expected probability plots are computer for two models of the Jovian ionosphere and global magnetic field, as well as for several choices of the ratio of the radiated frequency to the X-mode cutoff frequency.

  5. Pasma Wave Characteristics of the Jovian Magnetopause Boundary Layer: Can Wave-Particle Interactions Cause the Jovian Aurora?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Arballo, J. K.; Goldstein, B. E.; Ho, C.; Smith, E. J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Prange, R.; Lin, N.; Phillips, J. R.; Balogh, A.; Krupp, N.; Kane, M.

    1996-01-01

    The full Jovian magnetopause boundary layer (BL) plasma wave spectra from 10(sup -3) to 10(sup 3) Hz, have been measured for the first time...The B'/E' ration does not have a f(sup -1) dependency, so it was suggested that the waves are a mixture of whistler mode electromagnetic emissions and electrostatic waves.

  6. Torus instability.

    PubMed

    Kliem, B; Trk, T

    2006-06-30

    The expansion instability of a toroidal current ring in low-beta magnetized plasma is investigated. Qualitative agreement is obtained with experiments on spheromak expansion and with essential properties of solar coronal mass ejections, unifying the two apparently disparate classes of fast and slow coronal mass ejections. PMID:16907312

  7. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; G. Barnes; J.H. Chrzanowski; P. Heitzenroeder; et al

    1999-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions between the PFC's and the vacuum vessel on which supports are attached. This paper will provide a brief review of the issues associated with the design, fabrication and assembly of the NSTX Torus system including those outlined above.

  8. A narrow-band splitting at the Jovian decametric cutoff frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Rubio, M.

    1982-07-01

    The narrow-band splitting in the Jovian decametric emission was first described by Riihimaa (1968) when observed in the range of 21-23 MHz. In this paper, the properties of the splitting as observed on the dynamic spectra in a wide range of frequencies (20-40) MHz are analyzed. The splitting is observed either at the upper frequency of S-bursts or at the cut off frequency of the broadband continuum emission. The ratio of its bandwidth over the frequency of occurrence is equal to about 0.01. It is shown that it occurs mainly in a small area of the Io-B region in the Io-CML diagram. Over two years of observations the probability of occurrence in this small area is about 50%. It is also observed, but much less often, in Io-C events and in events not controlled by Io. The arc model which predicts this narrow-band splitting (in this model Io-plasma torus and propagation effects are involved) is considered, and it is shown that modifications are required to account for this phenomenon. It is concluded that the origin of the splitting is not yet understood.

  9. Compact torus studies: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    The compact torus (CT) device has been proposed for use in some applications which are of interest in Laboratory programs in the areas of pulsed power and inertial confinement fusion. These applications involve compression and acceleration of CT plasmas. The RACE (Ring Accelerator Experiment) experimental program at Livermore has been initiated to study these applications. The work reported here involves studies of plasma physics and other aspects of these compact torus applications. The studies conducted identify specific problem areas associated with the CT device and examine these areas in some detail. This report contains studies of three particular problem areas of the CT applications. These three areas are: the general nonlinear properties of the CT as a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium, particle simulation of the compression of the CT, with a focus on the non-MHD effects, and nonlinear RF interaction problems in the CT.

  10. Investigation of Jovian satellites and the origin of Jovian system by LAPLACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yamaji, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kimura, Jun; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hussmann, Hauke; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    LAPLACE (ESA-JAXA joint mission for the Jovian system) was selected as one of future ESA scientific missions Cosmic Vision in October 2007. LAPLACE is a mission with three spacecrafts aiming at coordinated observations of Jovian satellites and the magnetosphere, atmosphere and interior of Jupiter. An orbiter around Europa or Ganymede is involved. There is a possibility that JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner. Japanese scientists working on the origin and evolution of Jupiter, satellite evolution, and astrobiology have been participating in the LAPLACE working group in Japan. Detailed observation of Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and Io as well as smaller satellites such as Amalthea would be important also for the study of the origin of Jovian system. Resurfacing processes on Europa and Ganymede should be studied to know the properties of the internal oceans. The processes can be investigated by infrared observation for salt minerals and amorphous/crystal ices. Not only the thickness of icy crust of Europa but also thickness of the ocean and its bottom topography should be important targets, which would be investigated by gravity and magnetism measurements. For both Europa and Ganymede, the surface layering and structure of icy crust should be an interesting geological target, which will be clarified by subsurface radar. In Japan, KAGUYA is observing the Moon, and Venus remote sensing mission (PLANET-C) and Mercury mission Bepi Colombo will be launched in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Several instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, a laser altimeter, a radar, a magnetometer, plasma instruments, and a dust detector should come from the heritage of instruments on board KAGUYA, PLANET-C, and BepiColombo.

  11. Influence of vacuum toroidal field on two-fluid flowing equilibria of helicity-driven spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2006-07-15

    Two-fluid flowing equilibrium configurations of a helicity-driven spherical torus (HD-ST) in the realistic confinement region, including a flux conserver and a coaxial helicity source, are numerically determined by means of the combination of the finite difference and the boundary element methods. It is found from the numerical results that electron fluid near the central conductor is tied to a vacuum toroidal field and ion fluid is not. The magnetic configurations change from the high-q HD-ST (safety factor, q>1) with a paramagnetic toroidal field and low-{beta} (volume average {beta} value, <{beta}>{approx_equal}2%) through the helicity-driven spheromak and reversed-field pinch to the ultra-low-q HD-ST (0{approx_equal}18%) as the vacuum toroidal field at the inner edge regions decreases and reverses the sign. The two-fluid effects are more significant in this equilibrium transition when the ion diamagnetic drift has the same direction as the ExB one.

  12. The Io sulfur torus in 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1986-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot spectrometer was used to obtain images of the Io torus in emission lines of S II (wavelength 6716 and 6731) and S III (wavelength 9531) in February and March 1981, on the 2.1 meter telescope at KPNO. The S II and S III images showed a large variation in brightness and radial extent. There is an indication the S II and S III emissions in the warm torus are correlated. The S II and S III emissions in the warm torus also have similar scale heights along the magnetic field lines of approximately 0.6 to 0.72 R sub J. The east-west asymmetry in the S II images taken at similar magnetic longitudes, but 2.5 Jovian rotations apart, supports the theory of convective motions suggested by others. In addition to the images, simultaneous measurements of the S II (6731 wavelength) line profile were also made on one night using a Fabry-Perot scanning spectrometer on the 4 meter at KPNO. The S II spectral scans implied ion temperatures of 52 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 3rd at 5.2 to 5.6 R sub J from Jupiter and a minimum temperature of at least 3 x 10 to the 5th K at 6 R sub J from Jupiter.

  13. Characteristics of Jovian ionospheric Alfvén resonator observed by using wave modulations of L-burst emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshida, Tomonori; Shibata, Takashi F.; Taguchi, Satoshi; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2010-05-01

    On June 4, 2008 UT, we observed Jovian decametric radio emissions at Iitate Observatory, Tohoku University, Japan, by using a waveform receiver developed by us. The observation frequency was between 21 and 23 MHz, and the Io-CML phase was the so-called "Io-A" phase. The waveform receiver used a digital down-converter chip; therefore, it could carry out continuous observations over a 12-h period. We detected negative spectra of quenched background L-burst emissions with a negative drift rate of approximately -5 MHz/s. We called these phenomena slow-drift shadow (SDS) events. Between 1859:18 and 1859:30 UT, sudden drift rate changes occurred in the leading and trailing edges of the SDS events. Such SDS slope changes occurred once or twice at a frequency between 21.4 and 22.1 MHz [Koshida et al., JGR, 2010]. Between 1938 and 2000 UT, the background L-burst emissions exhibited wave modulations (WMs). SDS-like phenomena were intermittently observed in this observation period; however, the WMs were observed four times every 7 min at 1938, 1945, 1952, and 1959 UT. The duration of each WM ranged from 3 to 10 s. We analyzed the modulation frequencies of the WMs by using Fourier transformation and the spectra of the WMs that were partially extracted from their dynamic spectra with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and durations of 3.4 or 6.8 s. The three-dimensional least squares method was used to stabilize the base power of the Fourier transformed spectra, and the applied frequencies ranged from 2 to 40 Hz. We defined the 98% significance level of the stabilized spectra according to the statistical distribution by using a method introduced in Arkhypov and Rucker [A&A, 2006]. We could detect the fundamental frequencies of the WMs, and their 1st harmonics; we could also detect some 2nd harmonics whose frequencies were odd multiples of the fundamental frequencies. The observations of decametric radio emissions have shown that the most frequent modulation period of the emissions is 7 min; in addition, the simulations of the Alfvén waves traveling along the Io flux tube have shown that the modulation period is equivalent to the round-trip period of Alfvén waves between the Jovian north polar region and the boundary of the Io plasma torus. Su et al. [JGR, 2006] estimated the characteristic frequencies of a Jovian ionospheric Alfvén resonator for varied scale heights and plasma densities. If the scale height and plasma density of the Jovian ionosphere are higher than a certain level in our observation period, the calculated characteristic frequencies are similar to our observational results. If the scale height is less than 1000 km, unrealistic dense plasmas are required. Therefore, the cyclotron maser instability must be damped. This gives rise to the question of the generation mechanism of Jovian L-burst radio emissions.

  14. Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 2000 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Bindschadler, D.; Dermott, S. F.; Graps, A. L.; Grün, E.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hanner, M. S.; Horányi, M.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Moissl, R.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Roy, M.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was the first man-made satellite of Jupiter, orbiting the planet between December 1995 and September 2003. The spacecraft was equipped with a highly sensitive dust detector that monitored the jovian dust environment between approximately 2 and 370 RJ (jovian radius RJ=71 492 km). The Galileo dust detector was a twin of the one flying on board the Ulysses spacecraft. This is the tenth in a series of papers dedicated to presenting Galileo and Ulysses dust data. Here we present data from the Galileo dust instrument for the period January 2000 to September 2003 until Galileo was destroyed in a planned impact with Jupiter. The previous Galileo dust data set contains data of 2883 particles detected during Galileo's interplanetary cruise and 12 978 particles detected in the jovian system between 1996 and 1999. In this paper we report on the data of additional 5389 particles measured between 2000 and the end of the mission in 2003. The majority of the 21 250 particles for which the full set of measured impact parameters (impact time, impact direction, charge rise times, charge amplitudes, etc.) was transmitted to Earth were tiny grains (about 10 nm in radius), most of them originating from Jupiter's innermost Galilean moon Io. They were detected throughout the jovian system and the impact rates frequently exceeded 10 min -1. Surprisingly large impact rates up to 100 min -1 occurred in August/September 2000 when Galileo was far away (≈280RJ) from Jupiter, implying dust ejection rates in excess of 100 kg s -1. This peak in dust emission appears to coincide with strong changes in the release of neutral gas from the Io torus. Strong variability in the Io dust flux was measured on timescales of days to weeks, indicating large variations in the dust release from Io or the Io torus or both on such short timescales. Galileo has detected a large number of bigger micron-sized particles mostly in the region between the Galilean moons. A surprisingly large number of such bigger grains was measured in March 2003 within a four-day interval when Galileo was outside Jupiter's magnetosphere at approximately 350 RJ jovicentric distance. Two passages of Jupiter's gossamer rings in 2002 and 2003 provided the first actual comparison of in-situ dust data from a planetary ring with the results inferred from inverting optical images. Strong electronics degradation of the dust instrument due to the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter led to increased calibration uncertainties of the dust data.

  15. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  16. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-03-14

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics.

  17. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  18. Parametric mechanism for the formation of Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Korobkov, S. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Kostrov, A. V.; Gushchin, M. E.; Litvinenko, G. V.

    2011-03-01

    We develop a theory of formation of a fine structure in the dynamic spectra of the Jovian decametric radio emission. Main attention is paid to the formation of narrowband (NB) emission and quasiperiodic trains of short (S) bursts. Our model is based on the effects of occurrence of the amplitude-frequency modulation and extension of the frequency spectrum of a signal during propagation of radiation in a medium with time-varied parameters. It is shown that nonstationary disturbances of the planetary magnetic field and strong frequency dispersion of the plasma at frequencies close to the cutoff frequency of the extraordinary wave in the Jovian ionosphere play a crucial role in the formation of NB emission and quasiperiodic trains of S bursts. As a result of the numerical experiments, it was concluded that the amplitude-frequency characteristics of an initially continuous signal can drastically vary as a functions of the form of the magnetic field disturbance in the Jovian ionosphere. Structures similar to those observed in the real experiments, ranging from NB emission and quasiperiodic trains of S bursts to more complex structures, arise in the dynamic spectrum. Time variation in the conditions of generation and propagation of decametric radiation in the Jovian ionosphere is reflected in the dynamic spectrum as a time variation in the fine structure of the radiation. For example, a structure of the NB emission type is replaced by a quasiperiodic train of S bursts and vice versa.

  19. Whistler mode waves in the Jovian magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Naiguo; Kellogg, P. J.; Thiessen, J. P.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Phillips, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    During the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter in February 1992, the spacecraft traversed the Jovian magnetosheath for a few hours during the inbound pass and for aa few days during the outbound pass. Burstlike electomagnetic waves at frequencies of approximately 0.1-0.4 of the local electron cyclotron frequency have been observed by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiement. The waves were more often observed in the regions which were probably the outer or the middle magnetosheath, especially near the bow shock, and rarely seen in the magnetosphere/magnetosheath boundary layer. The propagation angles of the waves are estimated by comparing the measurements of the wave electric and magnetic fields in the spacecraft spin plane with the corresponding values calculated using the cold plasma dispersion relation under local field and plasma conditions. It is found that the waves propagate obliquely with wave angles between approximately 30 deg and 50 deg. These waves are likely to be the whistler mode waves which are excited by suprathermal electrons with a few hundred eV and a slight anisotropy (T(sub perp)/T(sub parallel) approximately 1.1-1.5). They are probably similar in nature to the lion roars observed in the Earth's magnetosheath. Signature of coupling between the mirror and the whistler mode have also been observed. The plasma conditions which favor the excitation of the whistler mode instability during the wave events exists as observed by the plasma experiement of Ulysses.

  20. Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction and Isoflux Control of Plasma Shape and Position in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; D.A. Gates; J.E. Menard; J.R. Ferron; S.A. Sabbagh

    2004-08-11

    The implementation of the rtEFIT-isoflux algorithm in the digital control system for NSTX has led to improved ability to control the plasma shape. In particular, it has been essential for good gap control for radio-frequency experiments, for control of drsep in H-mode studies, and for X-point height control and {kappa} control in a variety of experiments.

  1. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 2³S-2³P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ogane, S; Shikama, T; Zushi, H; Hasuo, M

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2(3)S-2(3)P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet. PMID:26520955

  2. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 23S-23P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogane, S.; Shikama, T.; Zushi, H.; Hasuo, M.

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 23S-23P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.

  3. Low-frequency fluctuation spectra and associated particle transport in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, C. M.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Roth, J. R.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.; Powers, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The strong radial electric field associated with the Penning discharge and the strong toroidal magnetic field give rise to a diversity of E/B phenomena, such as rotating waves and spokes, which in turn manifest themselves as space-time fluctuations of the plasma density and potential. Work is done to further understand the nature and origin of the fluctuations and their connection with fluctuation-induced transport. The approach is to monitor the density and potential fluctuations; to digitize the data; and to generate, with the aid of a computer, various spectral properties by means of the fast fourier transform. Of particular interest is the computer-generated transport spectrum that indicates in a quantitative way which fluctuation spectral components contribute to transport and which do not. All experimental measurements of the spectral characteristics of the plasma are given in absolute units rather than as relative values. Preliminary measurements of the transport spectrum of the ion population are given, and it is shown that the fluctuation-induced transport is in order-of-magnitude agreement with that inferred from the steady state current flowing to the electrodes that generate the plasma.

  4. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Masayuki Ono

    2000-04-22

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. Physics outcome of the NSTX research program is relevant to near-term applications such as the Volume Neutron Source (VNS) and burning plasmas, and future applications such as the pilot and power plants. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current was successfully ramped up to the design value of 1 million amperes (MA) on December 14, 1999. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments have also started. Stable CHI discharges of up to 133 kA and 130-msec duration have been produced using 20 kA of injected current. Using eight antennas connected to two transmitters, up to 2 MW of HHFW power was successfully coupled to the plasma. The Neutral-beam Injection (NBI) heating system and associated NBI-based diagnostics such as the Charge-exchange Recombination Spectrometer (CHERS) will be operational in October 2000.

  5. Jovian magnetospheric neutral wind and auroral precipitation flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Barbosa, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model of the Jovian magnetosphere is used to describe the mechanism by which energy is transported from Jupiter's rotation into heavy ions precipitating into the atmosphere, and resulting in intense ultraviolet aurora. The flow and magnetic field configurations used in the model are drawn from data collected by the Voyager orbiter. It is shown that the observed Jovian auroral radiation power is supplied by the precipitation of heavy ions of Iogenic origin. The ions are created by a charge exchange between the Io torus and fly as neutrals to the outer magnetosphere. A small fraction of the ions are photoionized in the outer magnetosphere where they acquire a magnetic moment determined by the local corotation electric field and planetary magnetic field. As the ions diffuse inward they are energized adiabatically. A schematic drawing illustrating the evolution of this process is provided. It is also shown that Jupiter may be a significant source of heavy ions for the solar wind by means of photoionization of a neutral wind. Secondary charge exchange in the outer magnetosphere could supply a flux of minimum energy neutral atoms that may have been measured by the Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle detector (LECP).

  6. Flow and shear behavior in the edge and scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D.; Zweben, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as observed by the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic are studied. Calculation of local, time resolved velocity maps using the Hybrid Optical Flow and Pattern Matching Velocimetry (HOP-V) code enables analysis of turbulent flow and shear behavior. Periodic reversals in the direction of the poloidal flow near the separatrix are observed. Also, poloidal velocities and their radial shearing rate are found to be well correlated with the fraction of Dα light contained in the SOL, which acts as a measure of turbulentmore » bursts. The spectra of GPI intensity and poloidal velocity both have a strong feature near 3 kHz, which appears to correspond with turbulent bursts. This mode exhibits a poloidal structure with poloidal wavenumber of 7.7 m-1 for GPI intensity and 3.4 m-1 for poloidal velocity, and the poloidal velocity fluctuations near 3 kHz remain coherent over length scales in excess of the turbulent scales. Furthermore, recent SOL Turbulence (SOLT) simulations find a parameter regime that exhibits periodic bursty transport and shares many qualitative similarities with the experimental data. Strong correlations between the shearing rate and the turbulent bursts are observed for time periods of ~ 2 ms, but the relationship is complicated by several factors. Finally, measurements of the radial profiles of the Reynolds shear stresses are reported. These radial profiles exhibit many similarities for several shots, and a region with positive radial gradient is seen to be coincident with local flow shear.« less

  7. Flow and shear behavior in the edge and scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D.; Zweben, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as observed by the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic are studied. Calculation of local, time resolved velocity maps using the Hybrid Optical Flow and Pattern Matching Velocimetry (HOP-V) code enables analysis of turbulent flow and shear behavior. Periodic reversals in the direction of the poloidal flow near the separatrix are observed. Also, poloidal velocities and their radial shearing rate are found to be well correlated with the fraction of Dα light contained in the SOL, which acts as a measure of turbulent bursts. The spectra of GPI intensity and poloidal velocity both have a strong feature near 3 kHz, which appears to correspond with turbulent bursts. This mode exhibits a poloidal structure with poloidal wavenumber of 7.7 m-1 for GPI intensity and 3.4 m-1 for poloidal velocity, and the poloidal velocity fluctuations near 3 kHz remain coherent over length scales in excess of the turbulent scales. Furthermore, recent SOL Turbulence (SOLT) simulations find a parameter regime that exhibits periodic bursty transport and shares many qualitative similarities with the experimental data. Strong correlations between the shearing rate and the turbulent bursts are observed for time periods of ~ 2 ms, but the relationship is complicated by several factors. Finally, measurements of the radial profiles of the Reynolds shear stresses are reported. These radial profiles exhibit many similarities for several shots, and a region with positive radial gradient is seen to be coincident with local flow shear.

  8. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the plasma analyzer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer detected the 10 plasma torus. Evidence was found of corotating ions which appear to be primarily S (++) and O (++) in the Pioneer 10 plasma data as the spacecraft moved inward from 6.9 to 5.4 R sub J. The Pioneer plasma analyzer was effective in obtaining information on the heavy ion populations in the Jovian magnetosphere. Interplanetary solar wind plasma shocks can trap energetic particles (cosmic rays) for weeks and out to distances of 17 AU. Energetic particles (o.5 MeV to 20 MeV) were confined between two plasma shocks from solar flares as the shocks propagated outward in the solar system.

  9. Pallene dust torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiss, M.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Sun, K. L.; Seiler, M.; Sachse, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Spahn, F.

    2014-12-01

    The tiny moon Pallene (diameter < 5 km, semi-major axis 212,000 km) orbits between Saturn's moons Mimas and Enceladus. The ISS cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft have detected a faint dust torus along its inclined orbit (Hedman, 2009). The source of the torus is believed to be the moon itself, where dust particles are ejected from the surface by micrometeoroid bombardment. Here we present in-situ dust measurements of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on-board the spacecraft Cassini which confirm a dust torus of micrometer-sized particles along the orbit of Pallene. The cross-section of the torus has been modeled with a double-Gaussian distribution, resulting in a radial and vertical full width at half maximum of 2300 km and 270 km and a maximum particle density of n = 2.7 10-3 m-3. Additionally, the data show an enhancement of larger particle in the torus in comparison to the background E-ring size distribution. The radial mean position of the torus is radially shifted outwards by around 1200 km in all flybys. This could point to a systematic larger semi-major axes of the dust particles (in comparison to Pallene) or a possible heliotropic appearance of the torus (all flybys in anti-solar direction).

  10. Plasma waves and continuum radiation in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager data on whistler mode waves and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions are analyzed to understand the interaction of the waves with the dynamics of the electrons. The occurrence and characteristics of Jovian whistler mode chorus and the interactions with the plasma in and near the Io torus are emphasized. Bernstein waves, especially those near the upper hybrid or plasma frequency are discussed to provide insight into an important plasma diagnostic tool and to compare the relevant portions of the electron distribution function at Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. The nonthermal continuum radiation common to the magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn is considered. Because of the very low frequency of these radio waves and their close association with upper hybrid resonance emissions, continuum radiation is often associated more closely with the plasma wave spectrum of a planetary magnetosphere than with the planet's radio spectrum.

  11. Research support for plasma diagnostics on Elmo Bumpy Torus: investigation of diamagnetic diagnostics for the electron rings

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H.

    1981-02-01

    Diamagnetic diagnostics for the EBT electron rings are fundamental to the experiment. The diamagnetic flux pickup loops on each cavity output signals proportional to ring perpendicular energy. A data analysis technique is described, which in its simplest form is subtracting 1/4 the signal from each neighboring cavity pickup loop from the central one's, which provides a signal proportional to the energy in a single ring. The calibration factor relating absolute perpendicular energy to diamagnetic signal depends weakly on the geometrical model for the ring. Calculations with a bumpy cylinder MHD equilibrium code give calibration factors in reasonable agreement (20%) to the values obtained using a simple, concentric cylindrical current sheet model. The cylindrical current sheet model is used to show that diamagnetic field components measured external to the plasma require high precision or correlation with other diagnostics in order to fix model parameters. A computer simulation shows an assumption of constant ring thickness and energy density with increasing length (and energy) is compatible to diamagnetic field observations on NBT.

  12. Long-term study of longitudinal dependence in primary particle precipitation in the north Jovian aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Strobel, D. F.; Moos, H. W.

    1990-07-01

    The wavelength-dependent absorption apparent in IUE spectra of the north Jovian aurora is analyzed to determine the column density of hydrocarbons above the altitude of the FUV auroral emission. Both the magnetotail and torus auroral zone models are considered in estimating zenith angles, with very similar results obtained for both models. It is found that the hydrocarbon column density above the FUV emission displays a consistent dependence on magnetic longitude, with the peak density occurring approximately coincident with the peak in the observed auroral intensity. Two distinct scenarios for the longitude dependence of the column density are discussed. In one, the Jovian upper atmosphere is longitudinally homogeneous, and the variation in optical depth is due to a variation in penetration, and thus energy, of the primary particles. In the other, the energy of the primaries is longitudinally homogeneous, and it is aeronomic properties which change, probably due to auroral heating.

  13. Models of Jovian decametric radiation. [astronomical models of decametric waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of theoretical models of Jovian decametric radiation, with particular emphasis on the Io-modulated emission. The problem is divided into three broad aspects: (1) the mechanism coupling Io's orbital motion to the inner exosphere, (2) the consequent instability mechanism by which electromagnetic waves are amplified, and (3) the subsequent propagation of the waves in the source region and the Jovian plasmasphere. At present there exists no comprehensive theory that treats all of these aspects quantitatively within a single framework. Acceleration of particles by plasma sheaths near Io is proposed as an explanation for the coupling mechanism, while most of the properties of the emission may be explained in the context of cyclotron instability of a highly anisotropic distribution of streaming particles.

  14. Titan's hydrogen torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A model of Titan's hydrogen torus, capable of describing its time evolution under the influence of the gravitational fields of both the satellite and the planet, is presented. Estimated lifetimes for hydrogen atoms near Titan's orbit of the order of 10 to the 7th s, based on recent Pioneer 11 measurements, suggest that the torus completely encircles Saturn and is angularly unsymmetric, having an enhanced gas density near the satellite. New model calculations confirm this and provide an explanation for the torus detected by the Copernicus satellite and the UV instrument of Pioneer 11. Agreement between calculated and observed Lyman alpha intensities suggests a hydrogen escape flux between 1 x 10 to the 9th/sq cm-s and 3 x 10 to the 9th/sq cm-s should be operative at Titan. This produces a torus containing some 10 to the 34th hydrogen atoms.

  15. Fine spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emission observed by ground-based radio telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.

    2014-04-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radio emission in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of a complicated interaction between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying the free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from few MHz up to 40 MHz. This emission is generated via cyclotron maser mechanism in sources located along Jovian magnetic field lines. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAMexhibits different complex spectral structures. We present the observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN- 2 (Poltava, Ukraine) operated in the decametric frequency range. This telescope is one of the largest low frequency telescopes in Europe equipped with high performance digital radio spectrometers. The antenna array of URAN-2 consists of 512 crossed dipoles with an effective area of 28 000m2 and beam pattern size of 3.5 x 7 deg. (at 25 MHz). The instrument enables continuous observations of the Jovian radio during long period of times. Jovian DAM was observed continuously since Sep. 2012 (depending on Jupiter visibility) with relatively high time-frequency resolution (4 kHz - 100ms) in the broad frequency range (8-32MHz). We have detected a big amount of the fine spectral structures in the dynamic spectra of DAM such as trains of S-bursts, quasi-continuous narrowband emission, narrow-band splitting events and zebra stripe-like patterns. We analyzed mainly the fine structures associated with non-Io controlled DAM. We discuss how the observed narrowband structures which most probably are related to the propagation of the decametric radiation in the Jupiter's ionosphere can be used to study the plasma parameters in the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  16. Simultaneous Analysis of Recurrent Jovian Electron Increases and Galactic Cosmic Ray Decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, P.; Dresing, N.; Dunzlaff, P.; Fichtner, H.; Gieseler, J.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Kleimann, J.; Kopp, A.; Potgieter, M. S.; Scherer, K.; Strauss, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1970's the magnetosphere of Jupiter is known to be a strong source of relativistic electrons. These Jovian electrons are released quasi-continuously from the magnetosphere. Due to Jupiter's favorable orbit, they offer a unique opportunity for studies of the transport of energetic particles in the heliosphere, in which the Jovian magnetosphere acts as a source of "quit time" electron increase. Of central importance for the propagation of Jovian electrons is the solar wind flow and the structure of the embedded heliospheric magnetic field. The solar wind defines the transport environment for the particles as soon as they have left the Jovian magnetosphere. They enter the solar wind flow close to the ecliptic plane and are immediately subject to the processes of spatial diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind plasma. On the time-scale of a solar rotation, especially during the rising and declining phases of the solar cycle the variability is caused mainly by corotating interaction regions. Due to the changing propagation conditions in the intermediate heliosphere, corotating interaction regions, however, can cause recurrent galactic cosmic ray modulation. A detailed analysis of recurrent Jovian electron events and galactic cosmic ray decreases measured by SOHO EPHIN is presented here, clearly showing a change of phase between both phenomena during a year. This phase shift has been analyzed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the galactic component and the Jovian electrons. Furthermore, the data can be ordered such that the 27-day Jovian electron variation vanishes in the sector which does not connect the Earth with Jupiter using observed solar wind speeds.; Electron intensity dependent on the longitudinal angle between SOHO and Jupiter. Jovian electron increases can only be observed in regions, which are magnetically connected to Jupiter via observed solar wind speeds.

  17. Low-energy energetic neutral atom imaging of Io plasma and neutral tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wieser, Martin; Wieser, Gabriella S.; Wurz, Peter; Krupp, Norbert; Brandt, Pontus C.:son

    2015-04-01

    Io's plasma and neutral tori play significant roles in the Jovian magnetosphere. We present feasibility studies of measuring low-energy energetic neutral atoms (LENAs) generated from the Io tori. We calculate the LENA flux between 10 eV and 3 keV. The energy range includes the corotational plasma flow energy. The expected differential flux at Ganymede distance is typically 103-105 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1 near the energy of the corotation. It is above the detection level of the planned LENA sensor that is to be flown to the Jupiter system with integration times of 0.01-1 s. The flux has strong asymmetry with respective to the Io phase. The observations will exhibit periodicities, which can be attributed to the Jovian magnetosphere rotation and the rotation of Io around Jupiter. The energy spectra will exhibit dispersion signatures, because of the non-negligible flight time of the LENAs from Io to the satellite. In 2030, the Jupiter exploration mission JUICE will conduct a LENA measurement with a LENA instrument, the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer (JNA). From the LENA observations collected by JNA, we will be able to derive characteristic quantities, such as the density, velocity, velocity distribution function, and composition of plasma-torus particles. We also discuss the possible physics to be explored by JNA in addition to the constraints for operating the sensor and analyzing the obtained dataset.

  18. Development of Jovian Impactor Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, Csaba J.; Korycansky, D. G.; Harrington, J.; Gabriel, T.

    2010-10-01

    We have simulated the entry of cometary nuclei into Jupiter (Korycansky et al. 2006 ApJ 646. 642-652) and now extend our 3D hydrodynamic models to plume formation and blowout. We investigate the physics that control plume behavior, including why and where plumes "pinch off", separating from the descending cometary remains, and what determines how much cometary material is in a plume. We also examine the effects of impactor size, composition, velocity, and impact angle, and the corresponding changes in visible and infrared observations, with application to the Shoemaker-Levy 9, 2009, and 2010 Jovian impacts. We adapted the ZEUS-MP/2 hydrodynamic model (Hayes et al. 2006 ApJ.SS. 165. 188-228), using a grid aligned and moving with the impactor and containing a tilted Jovian atmosphere. The grid is large enough to contain both the impact and blowout phases to avoid the need for ad hoc initial conditions. We present details on the ejection mechanism, velocity and mass distribution within the plume, and the shock waves generated by the expanding plume. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grants AST-0813194 and AST-0964078 and NASA Science Mission Directorate Grant NNG04GQ35G.

  19. Low frequency radio emissions from Jupiter - Jovian kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Barbosa, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Poynter, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A new component of the Jovian radio spectrum has been observed by the plasma wave instruments on Voyager 1 and 2 at frequencies ranging from about 10 to 56 kHz or higher. This Jovian kilometric radiation is characterized by storms of emissions lasting typically 45 minutes at 56.2 kHz, however some events persist for as long as four hours. The storms usually exhibit impulsive bursts with time scales of a few seconds to several minutes, although some events show smoothly varying intensities as a function of time. High resolution frequency-time spectrograms reveal a continuum-like background with more intense, narrowband features superimposed. The narrowband, or discrete, features tend to decrease in frequency with increasing time, falling about 1 kHz in 5 to 60 seconds. The maximum power emitted assuming an isotropic radiator near Jupiter and a bandwidth for the most intense bursts of about 10 kHz is about 10 to the 19th watts. The Jovian kilometric radiation is most likely observed within + or - 45 deg of 200 deg System III longitude, lambda III, although there is a secondary maximum near lambda III = 25 deg.

  20. Energetic oxygen and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of 1 to 20 MeV/nuc oxygen, sodium, and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere are reported. Measurements made by the cosmic ray subsystem on Voyager 1 and 2 were used to calculate abundances and energy spectra in the region from 5 to 20 Jovian radii. The phase space density of the oxygen ions calculated from the spectra has a positive radial gradient between 6 and 17 Jovian radii, indicating an inward diffusive flow. The diffusion coefficient upper limit at 9 Jovian radii is approximately 10 to the -5 power/s. This limit, combined with the analysis of Voyager plasma observations by Siscoe et al.1981, implies an upper limit to the mass loading rate near Io of approximately 10 to the 28th power ions/s. The energetic oxygen lifetime is within an order of magnitude of the strong pitch-angle diffusion lifetime in this region, with the largest total number of particles lost between 7.5 and 12.5 Jovian radii. It is shown that the losses are not due to geometric absorption by Io, absorption by dust grains, or energy loss in the plasma of the inner magnetosphere, and it is therefore postulated that the primary loss mechanism is pitch-angle scattering into the loss cone.

  1. Jupiter Torus Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of Jupiter's space environment shows magnetically trapped radiation ions (in red), the neutral gas torus of the volcanic moon Io (green) and the newly discovered neutral gas torus of the moon Europa (blue). The white lines represent magnetic field lines.

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENA) are emitted from the Europa torus regions because of the interaction between the trapped ions and the neutral gases. The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument on NASA's Cassini spacecraft imaged those energetic neutral atoms in early 2001 during Cassini's flyby of Jupiter. Energetic neutral atoms also come from Jupiter when radiation ions impinge onto Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  2. MPI Multicore Torus Communication Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-02-05

    The MPI Multicore Torus Communications Benchmark (TorusTest) measues the aggegate bandwidth across all six links from/to any multicore node in a logical torus. It can run in wo modi: using a static or a random mapping of tasks to torus locations. The former can be used to achieve optimal mappings and aggregate bandwidths that can be achieved with varying node mappings.

  3. Dust torus around Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Antal; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).

  4. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  5. Wake flowfields for Jovian probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

  6. ALBEDOS OF SMALL JOVIAN TROJANS

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Yanga R.; Jewitt, David; Ziffer, Julie E.

    2009-07-15

    We present thermal observations of 44 Jovian Trojan asteroids with diameters D ranging from 5 to 24 km. All objects were observed at a wavelength of 24 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Measurements of the thermal emission and of scattered optical light, mostly from the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope, together allow us to constrain the diameter and geometric albedo of each body. We find that the median R-band albedo of these small Jovian Trojans is about 0.12, much higher than that of 'large' Trojans with D>57 km (0.04). Also the range of albedos among the small Trojans is wider. The small Trojans' higher albedos are also glaringly different from those of cometary nuclei, which match our sample Trojans in diameter, however, they roughly match the spread of albedos among (much larger) Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects. We attribute the Trojan albedos to an evolutionary effect: the small Trojans are more likely to be collisional fragments and so their surfaces would be younger. A younger surface means less cumulative exposure to the space environment, which suggests that their surfaces would not be as dark as those of the large, primordial Trojans. In support of this hypothesis is a statistically significant correlation of higher albedo with smaller diameter in our sample alone and in a sample that includes the larger Trojans. This correlation of albedo and radius implies that the true size distribution of small Trojans is shallower than the visible magnitude distribution alone would suggest, and that there are approximately half the Trojans with D>1 km than previously estimated.

  7. Radiation chemistry in the Jovian stratosphere - Laboratory simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The results of the present low-pressure/continuous-flow laboratory simulations of H2/He/CH4/NH3 atmospheres' plasma-induced chemistry indicate radiation yields of both hydrocarbon and N2-containing organic compounds which increase with decreasing pressure. On the basis of these findings, upper limits of 1 million-1 billion molecules/sq cm/sec are established for production rates of major auroral-chemistry species in the Jovian stratosphere. It is noted that auroral processes may account for 10-100 percent of the total abundances of most of the observed polar-region organic species.

  8. Jupiter's magnetosphere: Plasma description from the Ulysses flyby

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gisler, G.R.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Thomsen, M.F. ); Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M. )

    1992-09-11

    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and Io torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  9. A Jovian Trojan-Satellite Population Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, T. N.

    2003-07-01

    In Special Session 1, Recent Progress in Planetary Exploration, Monash University's Andrew Prentice discusses the possible origin of Jovian satellite Amalthea as a captured Trojan asteroid. Galileo spacecraft data gives a low bulk density (~1 g/cc) for Amalthea, more consistent with a captured minor body, rather than one formed in-situ. Its 83 km radius is within the size range of the known Jovian Trojans, less than that of Trojan 624 Hektor, for example.

  10. Variable opening angle of emission cone of Jovian decameter radiation generated by cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galopeau, P. H. M.; Boudjada, M. Y.; Rucker, H. O.

    2015-10-01

    A recent study of the Io-controlled Jovian decameter radiation revealed that the radio emission is beamed in a hollow cone which presents a flattening in a specific direction linked to the local magnetic field in the source. We investigate some reasons for the existence of such a flattening. The Jovian decameter radiation, like the other auroral radio emissions emanating from the magnetized planets in the solar system, is known to be produced by the cyclotron maser instability (CMI). This mechanism allows the direct amplification of the waves through a resonant coupling between the electron population of the plasma and the electromagnetic.

  11. The Jovian ionospheric E region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Fox, J. L.

    1991-02-01

    A model of the Jovian ionosphere was constructed, that includes direct photoionization of hydrocarbon molecules. A high-resolution solar spectrum was synthesized from Hinteregger's solar maximum spectrum (F79050N), and high-resolution cross sections for photoabsorption by H2 bands in the range 842 to 1116 A were constructed. Two strong solar lines and about 30 percent of the continuum flux between 912 and 1116 A penetrate below the methane homopause despite strong absorption by CH4 and H2. It is found that hydrocarbons (mainly C2H2 are ionized at a maximum rate of 55/cu cm per sec at 320 km above the ammonia cloud tops. The hydrocarbon ions produced are quickly converted to more complex hydrocarbon ions through reactions with CH4, C2H2, C2H6, and C2H4. It is found that a hydrocarbon ion layer is formed near 320 km that is about 50 km wide with a peak density in excess of 10,000/cu cm.

  12. HST Spectra of the Jovian Ultraviolet Aurora: Search for Heavy Ion Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L. M.; Dols, V.; Grard, J.-C.; Waite, J. H.; Gladstone, G. R.; Munhoven, G.

    1998-11-01

    Ultraviolet spectra using Hubble Space Telescope sampled between 1250 and 1680 at spectral resolution <=0.57 are reported for characteristically bright regions of Jupiter's morning and afternoon northern aurora. Several observed spectra exhibit sharply enhanced resolution. We interpret this as bright auroral emission foreshortened on the morning limb with a maximum intensity at least as high as 2000 kR. We have searched for evidence that the primary precipitating particles exciting the aurora include the heavy ions known to exist in Jupiter's plasma torus and magnetosphere. We have also searched for such ambient heavy ions and neutrals at rest in the auroral ionosphere, the end products of previous precipitation, excited by the auroral cascade. We argue that primary emission would be characterized by a dramatically Doppler-broadened (~10-15 ) and redshifted line profile resulting from the cascade process and the angle between the line of sight and the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. In contrast, ambient emission would be distinguished by narrow emission lines. We have modeled the theoretical sulfur and oxygen line shapes for ion precipitation and conclude that electron precipitation is responsible for most of the H2 emissions. O ions contributed <13% of the precipitating energy flux, and S ions contributed <50%. This dominance suggests that field-aligned magnetospheric currents are more important than energetization of energetic ions and subsequent scattering by plasma waves as a mechanism for generating the Jovian aurora. We set an upper limit over our spectra of 35-43 R to the emission from ambient oxygen and sulfur ions and their neutrals, except that for the S II 1256 triplet, the upper limit for the nominally brightest line, at 1260 , is 74 R. Hence, we find no evidence for the accumulation of sulfur in the auroral ionosphere. A single narrow emission line from an unidentified ambient specie near 1254 may be detected at the 4 ? level, introducing the possibility of complex auroral aeronomy. Differences were observed in the auroral spectral hydrocarbon absorption at different locations, which cannot be interpreted without ambiguity between auroral and atmospheric structural causes. We have found that the brighter emission in an auroral sector consistently shows more spectral hydrocarbon absorption than the dimmer emission. We suggest two alternative physical explanations for this phenomenon. Based on observations with the NASA ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

  13. The Jovian boundary layer as formed by magnetic-anomaly effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A model is presented in which a plasma boundary layer of Jupiter is formed from plasma of internal origin. It is proposed that, unlike the Earth's boundary layer, which is thought to consist principally of solar wind plasma, Jupiter's boundary layer consists principally of sulphur and oxygen from the Io plasma torus, plus a small component of hydrogen from Jupiter's ionosphere. Fresh plasma is supplied to the boundary layer once each planetary rotation period by a convection pattern that rotates with Jupiter.

  14. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy in the Jovian System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Esposito, L. W.; Pryor, W. R.; Stewart, I.; McClintock, W. E.; Hansen, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important tool for further understanding of the icy galilean satellites, in addition to Jupiter, Io and the Io torus. In this presen-tation, we explore the past accomplishments using UV spectroscopy in the jovian system, and future meas-urements to be made to increase our knowledge of this exciting environment. The icy Galilean satellites are known to have tenu-ous atmospheres of H, O, O2 and CO2, among other species. A hydrogen corona (121.6 nm) has been de-tected around Ganymede and Callisto. An O2 atmos-phere has been inferred at Europa as a result of HST measurements of oxygen emission features. Observa-tions using an orbiter need to be performed to map out these atmospheric species spatially and temporally to better understand their sources. A very sensitive UV instrument is needed to do limb measurements to de-tect outgassing (particularly at Europa). It is not clear whether the primary source of the tenuous atmospheres is sputtering of the surface ice, sputtering of subli-mated gases, or photolysis. A UV spectrograph on JIMO will be able to map out the atmosphere and cor-relations can be made between abundances of atmos-pheric species and the varying types of sputtering of the surface by charged particles. How thick are the atmospheres, and do they vary across the surface? Is Ganymede's atmosphere relatively thin due to magne-tospheric shielding? Auroral activity has been detected on Ganymede using HST, where the polar regions appear to glow with oxygen emission lines at 130.4 and 135.6 nm. Longitudinal asymmetries appear, however, in the HST data, as do latitudinal and temporal variations that are not understood. The icy satellites of Jupiter are embedded within the magnetosphere and as such, are constantly bom-barded by the charged particles that populate it. The bombardment results in the formation of species that are detectable exclusively at NUV wavelengths (e.g., O3, H2O2, SO2). As such, by imaging these bombard-ment-produced species at UV wavelengths, we can essentially map out the environmental effects on the icy surfaces. Furthermore, UV spectra complement observations from longer wavelengths and have been used to confirm the existence of species detectable in both wavelength ranges. An example is the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on Europa. An absorp-tion feature at 3.25 mm measured by the Galileo NIMS was confirmed to be due to H2O2 only after the perox-ide feature was also seen in the UV spectra. The H2O2 UV feature has also been measured on Ganymede and Callisto. Furthermore, ozone (O3), which absorbs at 260 nm, has been detected on Ganymede primarily in the polar regions, suggesting that the source is bom-bardment by electrons travelling along the field lines and impacting the polar ice. The SO2-like UV absorp-tion feature that appears on Europa's trailing hemi-sphere is likely correlated with dark material in re-cently active areas that also causes absorptions in IR spectra [9], and is likely the result of a combination of exogenic and endogenic activities.

  15. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions.

  16. Location and shape of the Jovian magnetopause and bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Russell, C. T.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Bennett, L.

    1998-09-01

    Following Galileo's arrival at Jupiter in fall 1995, a total of six spacecraft have now sampled the Jovian magnetosphere. Using these data sets to investigate the average location and shape of the Jovian boundaries, we fit ellipse profiles to the observations, allowing for the disk-like shape of the magnetosphere and taking account of variable solar wind pressure. We find that the subsolar magnetopause location varies with solar wind dynamic pressure to power between -1/5 and -1/4, in contrast to the terrestrial -1/6 power; this is a well-known difference attributed to the presence of hot plasma and centrifugal stretching in the Jovian magnetodisk that lessens the pressure gradients in the outer magnetosphere, resulting in its unusual responsiveness to compression. The magnetopause is less flared than the bow shock as expected, and the magnetopause shape is especially streamlined (least flared and more bullet-like) during the higher solar wind dynamic pressure conditions encountered. The average subsolar shock-to-magnetopause standoff ratio is approximately 6/5, while at low incident solar wind dynamic pressure the ratio rises to around 4/3 suggesting a blunter Earth-type magnetopause shape under these conditions. In particular, our analysis confirms that the magnetopause boundary shape is influenced by the radially inflated magnetodisk, as has been previously inferred from the stretched magnetic field lines seen within the magnetosphere. Our fits to the observations reveal that the average magnetopause boundary is indeed contracted on the north-south axis about the magnetic equator. The bow shock is not found to be so asymmetric in shape, suggesting that there is little effect of external magnetic field direction, and supporting our conclusion that the internal magnetodisk shape is the cause of the magnetopause polar flattening.

  17. Radiation from Electron Phase Space Holes as a Possible Source of Jovian S-bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, K. A.; Ergun, R. E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio-frequency short burst emissions (10-40 MHz), known as Jovian S-bursts, have been observed from the Jovian aurora for over fifty years. These emissions, associated with Io’s motion, have a rapidly declining frequency and an exceptionally narrow bandwidth. While it is widely believed that S-bursts are generated by the electron cyclotron maser instability, the mechanism responsible for the rapidly declining frequency and narrow bandwidth currently is not well established. We explore a hypothesis that electron phase space holes radiate or stimulate radiation in the Jovian aurora plasma environment as a possible source of S-burst emissions. Electron phase-space holes (EHs) are ubiquitous in an auroral environment and travel at the implied speeds (˜20,000 km s-1) of the structures creating the Jovian S-bursts. Furthermore, EHs have the proper physical size to create the observed bandwidth, have sufficient energy content, and can create an environment whereby X mode emissions can be excited. If verified, these findings imply that EHs may be an important source of radiation from strongly magnetized or relativistic astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Intrinsic luminosities of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Available data and theories on the size and nature of interior power sources in the four Jovian planets are reviewed. These four planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Various models, ranging from simple cooling to gravitational layering to radioactivity, are discussed. The evidence and interpretations presented in the discussion seem to indicate that (1) all four Jovian planets were once more luminous and are presently cooling to a state of equilibrium with sunlight; and (2) the thermal evolution of the Jovian planets is predominantly controlled by their photospheres and does not depend on interior conductivity. Both conclusions are consistent with either the simple adiabatic cooling model or with more complicated gravitational unmixing models of the type discussed by Stevenson and Salpeter (1977).

  19. Renormalization on noncommutative torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ascanio, D.; Pisani, P.; Vassilevich, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    We study a self-interacting scalar \\varphi ^4 theory on the d-dimensional noncommutative torus. We determine, for the particular cases d=2 and d=4, the counterterms required by one-loop renormalization. We discuss higher loops in two dimensions and two-loop contributions to the self-energy in four dimensions. Our analysis points toward the absence of any problems related to the ultraviolet/infrared mixing and thus to renormalizability of the theory. However, we find another potentially troubling phenomenon which is a wild behavior of the two-point amplitude as a function of the noncommutativity matrix θ.

  20. Lower hybrid emission diagnostics on the NASA Lewis bumpy torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using RF emission near the lower hybrid frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma for diagnostic purposes is examined. The emission is detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50 omega miniature coaxial antenna that is sensitive to the polarization of the incoming signal. The frequency shift of the lower hybrid emission peak is monitored as a function of the background pressure, electrode voltage, electrode ring configuration and the strength of the toroidal dc magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of the average plasma density are made with a polarization diplexing microwave interferometer. Data derived from the experiment are discussed with reference to the following: (1) the strength of the dc magnetic field in the emitting region; (2) comparison of the lower hybrid plasma density with the average plasma density; and (3) validity of the cold plasma lower hybrid resonance formula in the high density operating regime of the bumpy torus plasma.

  1. Simulation of Plasma Interaction with Io's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Chris H.; Deng, Hao; Goldstein, David B.; Levin, Deborah; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.; Stewart, Bénédicte D.; Walker, Andrew C.

    2011-05-01

    One dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations are used to examine the interaction of the jovian plasma torus with Io's sublimation atmosphere. The hot plasma sweeps past Io at ˜57 km/s due to the external Jovian magnetic and corotational electric fields and the resultant energetic collisions both heat and dissociate the neutral gas creating an inflated, mixed atmosphere of SO2 and its daughter products. The vertical structure and composition of the atmosphere is important for understanding Io's mass loading of the plasma torus, electron excited aurora, and Io's global gas dynamics. Our 1D simulations above a fixed location on the surface of Io allows the O+ and S+ ions to drift down into the domain where they then undergo elastic and charge exchange collisions with the neutral gas. Each electron's position is determined by the motion of a corresponding ion; however, the electrons retain their own velocity components which are then used during elastic, ionization, and excitation collisions with the neutral gas. Charge exchange creates fast neutral O and S atoms. Molecular Dynamic/Quasi-Classical Trajectory (MD/QCT) calculations are used to generate total and reaction cross sections for energetic O+SO2 collisions [1] as well as for O+O2 collisions. In addition, the model accounts for photo-dissociation assuming the atmosphere is optically thin. Our previous plasma heating model (without chemistry) agrees well with the vertical structure of the current model at lower altitudes where the gas is collisional; however, at high altitudes (>100 km) significant differences among the models appear. The current model's constant E and B fields results in reacceleration of the ions and electrons to a constant E×B drift velocity towards the surface after collisions with the neutral gas and, while the results are an upper limit on the plasma interaction strength, the results indicate that joule heating is significant, causing large changes in the vertical structure of the atmosphere. Plasma heating of, not momentum transfer to, the atmosphere dominates even for radially inward plasma flows resulting in a hot, inflated atmosphere. The scale heights for the various species were found to be a competition between the hydrodynamic scale height based on the gas constant (for the mixture if collisional) and the production rate from dissociation of SO2 which depends on the local SO2 density and available plasma energy at that altitude.

  2. Acceleration of compact toruses and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Logan, B.G.; McLean, H.S.; Molvik, A.W.

    1990-10-11

    The Compact Torus (Spheromak-type) is a near ideal plasma confinement configuration for acceleration. The fields are mostly generated by internal plasma currents, plasma confinement is toroidal, and the compact torus exhibits resiliency and stability in virtue of the ``rugged`` helicity invariant. Based on these considerations we are developing a coaxial rail-gun type Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA). In the CTA, the CT ring is formed between coaxial electrodes using a magnetized Marshall gun, it is quasistatically ``precompressed`` in a conical electrode section for inductive energy storage, it is accelerated in a straight-coaxial electrode section as in a conventional rail-gun, and it is focused to small size and high energy and power density in a final ``focus`` cone section. The dynamics of slow precompression and acceleration have been demonstrated experimentally in the RACE device with results in good agreement with 2-D MHD code calculations. CT plasma rings with 100 {micro}gms mass have been accelerated to 40 Kj kinetic energy at 20% efficiency with final velocity = 1 X 10{sup 8} cm/s (= 5 KeV/H{sup +}). Preliminary focus tests exhibi dynamics of radius compression, deceleration, and bouncing. Compression ratios of 2-3 have been achieved. A scaled-up 10-100 MJ CTA is predicted to achieve a focus radius of several cm to deliver = 30 MJ ring kinetic energy in 5-10 nsec. This is sufficient energy, power, and power density to enable the CTA to act as a high efficiency, low cost ICF driver. Alternatively, the focused CT can form the basis for an magnetically insulated, inertial confinement fusion (MICF) system. Preliminary calculations of these fusion systems will be discussed.

  3. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-18

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device.

  4. Detectability of Torus Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Ophélia; Prunet, Simon; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The global shape, or topology, of the universe is not constrained by the equations of General Relativity, which only describe the local universe. As a consequence, the boundaries of space are not fixed and topologies different from the trivial infinite Euclidean space are possible. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the most efficient tool to study topology and test alternative models. Multi-connected topologies, such as the 3-torus, are of great interest because they are anisotropic and allow us to test a possible violation of isotropy in CMB data. We show that the correlation function of the coefficients of the expansion of the temperature and polarization anisotropies in spherical harmonics encodes a topological signature. This signature can be used to distinguish an infinite space from a multi-connected space on sizes larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface (D LSS ). With the help of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, we set the size of the edge of the biggest distinguishable torus with CMB temperature fluctuations and E-modes of polarization to 1.15 D LSS . CMB temperature fluctuations allow us to detect universes bigger than the observable universe, whereas E-modes are efficient to detect universes smaller than the observable universe.

  5. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-11-08

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program.

  6. Centrifugal instability of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The outer regions (r greater than 2.3 Jupiter radii) of the magnetosphere of Jupiter will systematically accumulate plasma. If sufficient plasma accumulates, the field lines must open to allow the plasma to escape. Available energy sources appear able to supply plasma at a high enough rate to keep the field lines constantly open beyond about 60 Jupiter radii. It is suggested that the solar wind interaction with Jupiter may be essentially different from that with the earth, with the Jovian magnetosphere opening up to form a planetary wind.

  7. An alternative to the compact torus ICF driver

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1992-11-01

    Plasma guns have been used in the Controlled Thermonuclear Reaction (CTR) Program to inject energetic deuterium-tritium plasma into a magnetic confinement machine, also for dense-plasma-focus devices to achieve fusion utilizing Z-pinches. In this report we propose another CTR application of a plasma gun: accelerating the plasma in a coaxial geometry to a speed in the neighborhood of a centimeter per shake with a total kinetic energy of about 20 MJ. The kinetic energy is efficiently converted to x-rays in a time of about a shake, and the x-ray pulse is used to implode an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As far as we know the plasma gun application we are proposing has not been explored before, but we observe that the LLNL Compact Torus Program hopes to accelerate a compact-torus-plasma to a comparable speed and energy and, in one of its applications, to generate x-rays for ICF purposes. In fact, the only difference between the LLNL Compact Torus Program and what we are proposing is that our plasma does not rely on imbedded magnetic fields and currents to minimize instabilities. We minimize instabilities by snowplowing the plasma to its required speed in a single shock. Which approach is better requires additional investigation.

  8. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamoto, T.; Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ≳ 7 km s{sup –1} at 1 AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup –1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup –1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5 AU and 3.5 AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  9. PAMELA observational capabilities of Jovian electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Felice, V.; Casolino, M.; de Simone, N.; Picozza, P.

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that has been launched on June 15th, 2006. It is designed to make long duration measurements of cosmic radiation over an extended energy range. Specifically, PAMELA is able to measure the cosmic ray antiproton and positron spectra over the largest energy range ever achieved and will search for antinuclei with unprecedented sensitivity. Furthermore, it will measure the light nuclear component of cosmic rays and investigate phenomena connected with solar and earth physics. The apparatus consists of: a time of flight system, a magnetic spectrometer, an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter, a shower tail catcher scintillator, a neutron detector and an anticoincidence system. In this work a study of the PAMELA capabilities to detect electrons is presented. The Jovian magnetosphere is a powerful accelerator of electrons up to several tens of MeV as observed at first by Pioneer 10 spacecraft (1973). The propagation of Jovian electrons to Earth is affected by modulation due to Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR). Their flux at Earth is, moreover, modulated because every ˜13 months Earth and Jupiter are aligned along the average direction of the Parker spiral of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. PAMELA will be able to measure the high energy tail of the Jovian electrons in the energy range from 50 up to 130 MeV. Moreover, it will be possible to extract the Jovian component reaccelerated at the solar wind termination shock (above 130 MeV up to 2 GeV) from the galactic flux.

  10. Spectra of the Jovian ring and Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements made between 0.887 and 2.4 microns demonstrate that the Jovian ring and Amalthea have similar reflection spectra. The spectra, in particular the ratio of the 0.9- to 2.2-micron reflectivities, are inconsistent with those expected from water, ammonia, or methane frosts, but are consistent with reflection from large rock bodies.

  11. A Global Magnetohydrodynamic Model of Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond J.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a new global magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with the solar wind. Observations from 28 orbits of Jupiter by Galileo along with those from previous spacecraft at Jupiter, Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and 2 and Ulysses, have revealed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a vast, complicated system. The Jovian aurora also has been monitored for several years. Like auroral observations at Earth, these measurements provide us with a global picture of magnetospheric dynamics. Despite this wide range of observations, we have limited quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and how it interacts with the solar wind. For the past several years we have been working toward a quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind by employing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the magnetosphere. Our model has been an explicit MHD code (previously used to model the Earth's magnetosphere) to study Jupiter's magnetosphere. We continue to obtain important insights with this code, but it suffers from some severe limitations. In particular with this code we are limited to considering the region outside of 15RJ, with cell sizes of about 1.5RJ. The problem arises because of the presence of widely separated time scales throughout the magnetosphere. The numerical stability criterion for explicit MHD codes is the CFL limit and is given by Cmax)(Delta)t/(Deltax less than 1 where Cmax is the maximum group velocity in a given cell, (Delta)x is the grid spacing and (Delta)t is the time step. If the maximum wave velocity is Cw and the flow speed is Cf, Cmax = Cw + Cf. Near Jupiter the Alfven wave speed becomes very large (it approaches the speed of light at one Jovian radius). Operating with this time step makes the calculation essentially intractable. Therefore under this funding we have been designing a new MHD model that will be able to compute solutions in the wide parameter regime of the Jovian magnetosphere.

  12. A Global Magnetohydrodynamic Model of Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a new global magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with the solar wind. Observations from 28 orbits of Jupiter by Galileo along with those from previous spacecraft at Jupiter, Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and 2 and Ulysses, have revealed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a vast, complicated system. The Jovian aurora also has been monitored for several years. Like auroral observations at Earth, these measurements provide us with a global picture of magnetospheric dynamics. Despite this wide range of observations, we have limited quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and how it interacts with the solar wind. For the past several years we have been working toward a quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind by employing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the magnetosphere. Our model has been an explicit MHD code (previously used to model the Earth's magnetosphere) to study Jupiter's magnetosphere. We continue to obtain important insights with this code, but it suffers from some severe limitations. In particular with this code we are limited to considering the region outside of 15RJ, with cell sizes of about 1.5R(sub J). The problem arises because of the presence of widely separated time scales throughout the magnetosphere. The numerical stability criterion for explicit MHD codes is the CFL limit and is given by C(sub max)(Delta)t/(Delta)x less than 1 where C(sub max) is the maximum group velocity in a given cell, (Delta)x is the grid spacing and (Delta)t is the time step. If the maximum wave velocity is C(sub w) and the flow speed is C(sub f), C(sub max) = C(sub w) + C(sub f). Near Jupiter the Alfven wave speed becomes very large (it approaches the speed of light at one Jovian radius). Operating with this time step makes the calculation essentially intractable. Therefore under this funding we have been designing a new MHD model that will be able to compute solutions in the wide parameter regime of the Jovian magnetosphere.

  13. Pamela observational capabilities of Jovian electrons component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Felice, V.; PAMELA Collaboration

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that will be launched in the first half of 2006 It will make long duration measurements of cosmic radiation over an extended energy range 80Mev to 200 GeV Specifically PAMELA will measure the cosmic-ray antiproton and positron spectra over the largest energy range ever achieved 80MeV -- 190 GeV and will search for antinuclei with unprecedented sensitivity Furthermore it will measure the light nuclear component of cosmic rays and investigate phenomena connected with solar and earth physics The apparatus consists of a time of flight system a magnetic spectrometer an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter a shower tail catcher scintillator a neutron detector and an anticoincidence system In this work a study of the PAMELA capabilities to detect Jovian electrons is presented The Jovian magnetosphere is a powerful accelerator of electrons to several tens of MeV as observed at first by Pioneer 10 spacecraft 1973 The propagation of Jovian electrons to Earth is affected by modulation due to Corotating Interaction Regions CIR Their flux at Earth is moreover modulated because every sim 13 months Earth and Jupiter are aligned along the average direction of the Parker spiral of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field PAMELA will be able to measure the high energy tail of the Jovian electrons in the energy range from 50 MeV up to 130 MeV Moreover it will be possible to extract the Jovian component reaccelated at the solar wind termination shock above 130 MeV up to 2 GeV from the galactic flux

  14. Tether radiation in Juno-type and circular-equatorial Jovian orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Torres, A.; Sanmartin, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Wave radiation by a conductor carrying a steady current in both a polar, highly eccentric, low perijove orbit, as in NASA's planned Juno mission, and an equatorial low Jovian orbit (LJO) mission below the intense radiation belts, is considered. Both missions will need electric power generation for scientific instruments and communication systems. Tethers generate power more efficiently than solar panels or radioisotope power systems (RPS). The radiation impedance is required to determine the current in the overall tether circuit. In a cold plasma model, radiation occurs mainly in the Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes, exhibiting a large refraction index. The radiation impedance of insulated tethers is determined for both modes and either mission. Unlike the Earth ionospheric case, the low-density, highly magnetized Jovian plasma makes the electron gyrofrequency much larger than the plasma frequency; this substantially modifies the power spectrum for either mode by increasing the Alfvén velocity. Finally, an estimation of the radiation impedance of bare tethers is considered. In LJO, a spacecraft orbiting in a slow downward spiral under the radiation belts would allow determining magnetic field structure and atmospheric composition for understanding the formation, evolution, and structure of Jupiter. Additionally, if the cathodic contactor is switched off, a tether floats electrically, allowing e-beam emission that generate auroras. On/off switching produces bias/current pulses and signal emission, which might be used for Jovian plasma diagnostics.

  15. Summary of US compact torus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.

    1981-03-11

    During the past several years a rapid increase has occurred in compact torus (CT) research in the United States, reflecting renewed interest in this simplified reactor consequences of this configuration. This paper reviews early approaches to CT formation and results and summarizes present experimental studies. Recent experiments have demonstrated a number of macroscopic aspects of the CT, including the conditions under which a macroscopically stable CT can be formed and maintained. Scaling experiments and more detailed studies of plasma transport in progress are discussed along with experiments under construction.

  16. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  17. Overview of the Helicity Injected Torus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Hamp, W. T.; Izzo, V. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Redd, A. J.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.

    2004-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) spheromak experiment (HIT-SI) [Jarboe, Fus. Tech., (36)1, p.85, 1999] addresses critical issues for spheromaks, including current drive, operation at high beta, and confinement. HIT-SI features an optimal high-beta plasma shape and current profile, steady-state operation, minimal plasma-wall interaction, and injected power always flowing into the plasma. HIT-SI has a ``bow-tie'' shaped 1 cm thick Cu flux conserver with major radius R = 0.33 m and axial extent of 0.57 m. A half torus helicity injector at each end of the flux conserver produces conjugate sinusoidal flux (4 MW peak) and loop voltages (20 MW peak) at 5 kHz by IGBT-based switching power amplifiers. Injector flux and loop voltages are phase controlled to maintain power flow always inward. Insulating breaks for the oscillating flux and loop voltage are provided by a novel double viton o-ring system. HIT-SI uses the diagnostic suite previously used by the HIT-II experiment, (presented in an accompanying poster.) Results and 3D MHD simulations will be presented.

  18. Plasma current start-up by the outer ohmic heating coils in the Saskatchewan TORus Modified (STOR-M) iron core tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, O.; Xiao, C.; McColl, D.; Dreval, M.; Hirose, A.; Peng, M.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma current up to 15 kA has been driven with outer ohmic heating (OH) coils in the STOR-M iron core tokamak. Even when the inner OH coil is disconnected, the outer OH coils alone can induce the plasma current as primary windings and initial breakdown are even easier in this coil layout. This result suggests a possibility to use an iron core in a spherical tokamak to start up the plasma current without a central solenoid. The effect of the iron core saturation on the extension of the discharge pulse length has been estimated for further experiments in the STOR-M tokamak.

  19. Plasma current start-up by the outer ohmic heating coils in the Saskatchewan TORus Modified (STOR-M) iron core tokamak.

    PubMed

    Mitarai, O; Xiao, C; McColl, D; Dreval, M; Hirose, A; Peng, M

    2015-03-01

    A plasma current up to 15 kA has been driven with outer ohmic heating (OH) coils in the STOR-M iron core tokamak. Even when the inner OH coil is disconnected, the outer OH coils alone can induce the plasma current as primary windings and initial breakdown are even easier in this coil layout. This result suggests a possibility to use an iron core in a spherical tokamak to start up the plasma current without a central solenoid. The effect of the iron core saturation on the extension of the discharge pulse length has been estimated for further experiments in the STOR-M tokamak. PMID:25832230

  20. Spherical torus (ST) concept and its reactor implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lazarus, E.A.; Miller, R.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Seed, T.J.; Zubrin, R.M.; Schnurr, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    A brief description of the spherical torus design is given. The design concept includes resistive demountable toroidal field coils, poloidal divertor for impurity control, oscillating-field current maintenance, RF initiation and ramp-up of the plasma current, and flowing liquid-metal breeding blanket. 4 refs., 6 figs. (WRF)

  1. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions. PMID:26871067

  2. International workshop on Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; West, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the scientifically interesting phenomena that occur in the Jovian system are strongly time variable. Some are episodic (e.g., Io volcanism); some are periodic (wave transport in Jupiters atmosphere); and some are exceedingly complex (magnetosphere - Io - Torus-Auroral interactions) and possibly unstable. To investigate this class of phenomena utilizing Voyager data and, in the future, Galileo results, a coherent program of ground based and earth-orbital observations, and of theory that spans the time between the missions, is required. To stimulate and help define the basis of such a scientific program researchers organized an International Workshop on the subject with the intent of publishing the proceedings which would represent the state of knowledge in 1987.

  3. Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; D. Mueller; D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron

    1999-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma {beta} ( = 2{micro}{sub 0}

    /B{sup 2} a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable {beta} is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented.

  4. Io control of Jovian radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of Io controlling Jovian decametric radio emission, particularly in the region below 22 MHz, is discussed. Results of a two-year survey at 26.3 at 26.3 MHz are presented which demonstrate the control of Io over a high-intensity storm component of the radio emission and the independence of a weak radio component from the phase of Io, as was observed at lower frequencies. It is thus hypothesized that Io control is a flux-dependent rather than a frequency-dependent phenomenon, and results of analyses at 18 and 10 MHz which support this hypothesis are presented. The apparent correlation between frequency and Io control is thus shown to result from a selection effect due to the increase of non-Io emission with decreasing frequency and relative antenna detection threshold. This result implies a contiguous Io-controlled source region extending out several Jovian radii along the Io flux tube.

  5. On dust emissions from the jovian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, H. A.; Gruen, E.; Baguhl, M.; Balogh, A.; Bame, S. J.; Fechtig, H.; Forsyth, R.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.

    1993-01-01

    As described by Gruen et al., the dust impact detector on the Ulysses spacecraft detected a totally unexpected series of dust streams in the outer solar system near the orbit of Jupiter. Five considerations lead us to believe that the dust streams emanate from the jovian system itself: the dust streams only occur within about 1 AU of the jovian system, with the strongest stream being the one closest to Jupiter (about 550 R(sub J) away); the direction from which they arrive is never far from the line-of-sight direction to Jupiter; the time period between streams is about 28 (+/- 3) days; the impact velocities are very high--mostly around 40 km/s; and we can think of no cometary, asteroidal, or interstellar source that could give rise to the above four phenomena (such streams have never before been detected).

  6. Forward and inverse modeling for jovian seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, Jason; Nettelmann, Nadine; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    Jupiter is expected to pulsate in a spectrum of acoustic modes and recent re-analysis of a spectroscopic time series has identified a regular pattern in the spacing of the frequencies (Gaulme, P., Schmider, F.-X., Gay, J., Guillot, T., Jacob, C. [2011]. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A104). This exciting result can provide constraints on gross jovian properties and warrants a more in-depth theoretical study of the seismic structure of Jupiter. With current instrumentation, such as the SYMPA instrument (Schmider, F.X. [2007]. Astron. Astrophys. 474, 1073-1080) used for the Gaulme et al. (Gaulme, P., Schmider, F.-X., Gay, J., Guillot, T., Jacob, C. [2011]. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A104) analysis, we assume that, at minimum, a set of global frequencies extending up to angular degree ℓ=25 could be observed. In order to identify which modes would best constraining models of Jupiter's interior and thus help motivate the next generation of observations, we explore the sensitivity of derived parameters to this mode set. Three different models of the jovian interior are computed and the theoretical pulsation spectrum from these models for ℓ⩽25 is obtained. We compute sensitivity kernels and perform linear inversions to infer details of the expected discontinuities in the profiles in the jovian interior. We find that the amplitude of the sound-speed jump of a few percent in the inner/outer envelope boundary seen in two of the applied models should be reasonably inferred with these particular modes. Near the core boundary where models predict large density discontinuities, the location of such features can be accurately measured, while their amplitudes have more uncertainty. These results suggest that this mode set would be sufficient to infer the radial location and strength of expected discontinuities in Jupiter's interior, and place strong constraints on the core size and mass. We encourage new observations to detect these jovian oscillations.

  7. New periodicity in Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H. O.; Kaiser, M. L.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Goetz, K.; Bale, S. D.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the finding of a new periodicity in the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). Periodic bursts of non-Io component of DAM which recur with a period 1.5% longer than the Jupiter rotation (System III) have been found in the dynamic radio spectra acquired by STEREO/WAVES, Wind/WAVES and Cassini/RPWS during the years 2002-2008. Typically, the bursts appear very periodically over several Jovian days with a decreasing intensity and they display a negative frequency drift. All the bursts were detected within the same sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude (III), between 300° and 60° (via 360°) of CML (III), close to the region of the non-Io-C source. No correlation has been found with the position of Io. Considering the simultaneous stereoscopic observations onboard STEREO-A and STEREO-B, as well as Wind and Cassini we can conclude that the sources of the periodic bursts most probably sub-corotate with Jupiter.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope and New-Horizons simultaneous observations: Evidence of particle acceleration in the Jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Hill, M.; Gérard, J.-C.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2008-09-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed periodic isolated spots on the Jovian aurora, during the HST-ACS (Advanced Camera of Surveys) 2007 campaign. The auroral spots occurwith 2- to 3- day quasi-periodicity (Figure 1), and they magnetically map to the dawn sector of the magnetosphere. Because of their periodic cycle and observed location, it had been suggested that the polar dawn spots are related to the precipitated, heated plasma during reconnection process taking place in the Jovian magnetotail [1]. The New-Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the Jovian magnetotail to > 2500 RJ in early 2007. The spacecraft's PEPSSI (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation) instrumentmeasured velocity dispersions, anisotropies and compositional variations in the Jovian magnetotail (> 500 RJ ) with a ˜ 3 day periodicity. They reported signatures of energetic particle streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region, possibly associated with magnetic reconnection events [2]. In the present study we compare a set of simultaneous HST and New-Horizons observations. During this period HST observes isolated auroral dawn spots and New- Horizons detects energetic ions exhibiting velocity dispersion streaming away from the planet on the same day, evidence of particle acceleration in the Jovian magnetotail. Based on this unique set of simultaneous observations we examine to what extent the Jovian ionosphere is supplied with accelerated plasma from the magnetotail and discuss the properties of the process. References [1] Radioti, A., D. Grodent, J.-C. Ǵerard, B. Bonfond and J.T. Clarke (2008), GRL, 35, L03104, doi:10.1029/2007GL032460. [2] McNutt R. L., Jr. , et al. (2007), Science, 318, 220.

  9. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Peng; C. Kessel; C. Neumeyer; J. Schmidt; J. Chrzanowski; D. Darrow; L. Grisham; P. Heitzenroeder; T. Jarboe; C. Jun; S. Kaye; J. Menard; R. Raman; T. Stevenson; M. Viola; J. Wilson; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2003-10-27

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction.

  10. Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-15

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation.

  11. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not readily observable.

  12. The Influence of The Galilean Satellites on Radio Emissions From The Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Galilean satellites influence radio emissions from the Jovian system in a variety of ways. The best and most familiar example of these is the Io control of decametric radiation discovered in 1964 by Bigg. Voyager observations of broadband kilometric radiation revealed a low-latitude shadow zone cast by the Io torus at frequencies between a few tens of kHz and about 1 MHz. Voyager also discovered narrowband kilometric radio emissions emanating from the outer edge of the torus. In this paper we will discuss expansions in the suite of satellite influences based on new observations by Galileo. These include the discovery of Ganymede's magnetosphere and evidence of radio emissions generated via mode conversion from upper hybrid waves in the frequency range of about 20 - 100 kHz. There is evidence that Ganymede may control some of the hectometric or low-frequency decametric radio emissions based on occultation measurements and statistical studies of radio emission occurrence as a function of Ganymede phase. Direction-finding measurements in the vicinity of Io suggest that a portion of the hectometric emissions may be generated near the lo L-shell. A rotationally modulated attenuation band in the hectometric emission appears to be the result of scattering at or near the Io L-shell where the waves propagate nearly parallel to the magnetic field. There is even a tantalizing hint of a Europa connection to the source of narrowband kilometric radiation.

  13. Two-dimensional MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, R. A.; Malova, H. V.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-09-01

    A self-consistent stationary axially symmetric MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk is constructed. This model is a generalization of the models of plane current sheets that have been proposed earlier in order to describe the structure of the current sheet in the magnetotail of the Earth [1, 2]. The model takes centrifugal force, which is induced by the corotation electric field, and the azimuthal magnetic field into account. The configurations of the magnetic field lines for the isothermic (plasma temperature assumed to be constant) and the isentropic (plasma entropy assumed to be constant) models of the magnetodisk are determined. The dependence of the thickness of the magnetodisk on the distance to Jupiter is obtained. The thickness of the magnetodisk and the magnetic field distribution in the isothermic and isentropic models are similar. The inclusion of a low background plasma pressure results in a considerable reduction in the thickness of the magnetodisk. This effect may be attributed to the fact that centrifugal force prevails over the pressure gradient at large distances from the planet. The mechanism of unipolar induction and the related large-scale current system are analyzed. The direct and return Birkeland currents are determined in the approximation of a weak azimuthal magnetic field. The modeling results agree with theoretical estimates from other studies and experimental data.

  14. A dawn to dusk electric field in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Ip, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that if Io-injected plasma is lost via a planetary wind-fixed Birkeland current system may result. This is due to the fact that the azimuthal centrifugal current flows across a density gradient produced by the loss of plasma through the planetary wind in the tail. The divergent centrifugal current is connected to field-aligned Birkeland currents which flow into the ionosphere at dawn and out of it at dusk. The closure currents in the ionosphere require a dawn to dusk electric field which at the orbit of Io is estimated to have a strength of 0.2 mV/m. However, the values of crucial parameters are not well known and the field at Io's orbit may well be significantly larger. Independent estimates derived from the local time asymmetry of the torus UV emission indicate a field of 1.5 mV/m.

  15. Evidence for global electron transportation into the jovian inner magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M

    2014-09-26

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic electrons in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot electrons (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, electron transportation in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward transport of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot electron fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot electrons responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves. PMID:25258073

  16. Evidence for global electron transportation into the jovian inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kimura, T.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Uemizu, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2014-09-01

    Jupiters magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic electrons in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot electrons (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, electron transportation in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward transport of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot electron fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot electrons responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves.

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Io's Atmosphere and Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    1999-01-01

    This final report describes the results of our NASA/Planetary Atmospheres program studying the atmosphere of Jupiter's moon Io and the plasma torus which it creates. Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not so readily observable.

  18. The global morphology of the Europa neutral torus from Cassini Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) observations and implications for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mauk, B.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Barabash, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini spacecraft imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) that are created when singly charged ions charge exchange with neutral gas atoms or molecules. The INCA observations were obtained from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. We present underlying neutral torus gas morphologies by simulating INCA images using an empirical ion distribution model and a range of theoretical gas model distributions. Just like Mauk et al. (2003), who used a different analysis technique, we find that the INCA images are consistent with a neutral torus at the orbital distance of Europa (9.5 RJ). However, within the limitations of instrument resolution, we present also possible solutions of a longitudinally asymmetric torus distribution and its implication for neutral gas release and loss rates from Europa. The Jovian Energetic Neutral and Ions (JENI) camera is the second generation ENA camera based on INCA and was selected for the science payload of the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission, planned for launch around 2022 and orbit insertion around Jupiter in 2030. Using the same forward simulation technique as above, we use the INCA observations to demonstrate what we expect the JENI camera to observe in orbit around Jupiter and Ganymede.

  19. The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Alexander, N.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Beebe, C.; Clark, G.; Crary, F.; Desai, M. I.; De Los Santos, A.; Demkee, D.; Dickinson, J.; Everett, D.; Finley, T.; Gribanova, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kofoed, C.; Loeffler, C.; Louarn, P.; Maple, M.; Mills, W.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Rodriguez, B.; Rouzaud, J.; Santos-Costa, D.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R. J.; White, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on Juno provides the critical in situ measurements of electrons and ions needed to understand the plasma energy particles and processes that fill the Jovian magnetosphere and ultimately produce its strong aurora. JADE is an instrument suite that includes three essentially identical electron sensors (JADE-Es), a single ion sensor (JADE-I), and a highly capable Electronics Box (EBox) that resides in the Juno Radiation Vault and provides all necessary control, low and high voltages, and computing support for the four sensors. The three JADE-Es are arrayed 120∘ apart around the Juno spacecraft to measure complete electron distributions from ˜0.1 to 100 keV and provide detailed electron pitch-angle distributions at a 1 s cadence, independent of spacecraft spin phase. JADE-I measures ions from ˜5 eV to ˜50 keV over an instantaneous field of view of 270∘×90∘ in 4 s and makes observations over all directions in space each 30 s rotation of the Juno spacecraft. JADE-I also provides ion composition measurements from 1 to 50 amu with m/Δm˜2.5, which is sufficient to separate the heavy and light ions, as well as O+ vs S+, in the Jovian magnetosphere. All four sensors were extensively tested and calibrated in specialized facilities, ensuring excellent on-orbit observations at Jupiter. This paper documents the JADE design, construction, calibration, and planned science operations, data processing, and data products. Finally, the Appendix describes the Southwest Research Institute [SwRI] electron calibration facility, which was developed and used for all JADE-E calibrations. Collectively, JADE provides remarkably broad and detailed measurements of the Jovian auroral region and magnetospheric plasmas, which will surely revolutionize our understanding of these important and complex regions.

  20. Jovian Magnetospheric Interactions with Io, Amalthea, and the Planetary Rings: Current and Expected Results from the Galileo Orbiter Heavy Ion Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    The energetic (keV to MeV) heavy ion population in the inner jovian magnetosphere, out to Io's orbit, originates mostly from acceleration of Io plasma torus ions and contributes to erosion of satellite surfaces and ring particles by sputtering. Photo- and plasma-ionization of iogenic neutrals, magnetospheric pickup of the resultant ions, and magnetospheric acceleration processes produce high fluxes of oxygen and sulfur ions at total energies above 40 MeV which are measured by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) instrument on the Galileo Orbiter. Directional measurements during the spacecraft's 20-second spin period allow determination of local anisotropy distributions with respect to magnetic pitch angles of magnetospheric ions and to absorption by satellite surfaces approached during close flybys. Numerical modeling of anisotropy data from these flybys allows limits to be set on the ion charge states and on models for the magnetic environments including possible presence of internal field sources. The Io phase of the Galileo satellite tour has concluded with successful HIC and magnetometer data return from five of seven flybys, including two passes (I31 and I32) over Io's poles. The absorption signatures from the polar passes are very different from the more equatorial ones (J0, I24, I27) and modeling is in progress to determine best-fit configurations of Io's global magnetic environment. Due to high electronic thresholds for the heavy ion measurements, HIC has been insensitive to magnetospheric electron and proton backgrounds during these flybys and is expected to return good data for the upcoming Amalthea flyby on Nov. 5, 2002. This assumes that spacecraft systems will survive the return to perijove (2.0 Rj) just outside Jupiter's main ring (1.8 Rj), first traversed by Pioneer 11 in Dec. 1974 and again by the Galileo Probe twenty-one years later. Detectors on both of these latter spacecraft resolved the cutoff of magnetospheric ion flux by interaction with the jovian ring particles and/or the shepard satellites, and part of this interaction region within the gossamer ring zone extending outwards from the main ring will also be accessible to HIC. It would be highly desirable from engineering (e.g., radiation effects on electronics) and magnetospheric science perspectives if real-time telemetry from HIC and other durable systems could be returned as long as possible for the final plunge through the ring system and the innermost ion radiation belt, first discovered by Galileo Probe. One of the first reports on post-launch science data from Galileo Orbiter concerned measurements of solar flare ions by HIC, and it seems appropriate that the final science and engineering data could also returned by that instrument. Particular acknowledgement of encouragement and support is given to the late Dr. Thomas L. Garrard of the HIC group at Caltech. Deep thanks are due to Dr. Edward C. Stone, the HIC Principal Investigator, and to Dr. Christina M. S. Cohen, for continuous support of HIC science data processing at Caltech. The local support at GSFC of Dr. Neil Gehrels, HIC Co-Investigator, has been deeply appreciated. Funding through Raytheon ITSS is gratefully acknowledged for contract NASW-99029 from NASA's Jovian System Data Analysis Program and for NAS5-98156 from the Space Science Data Operations Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  1. Characteristics of Energy Transport of Li-conditioned and non-Li-conditioned Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, S.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Paul, S.; Wan, B.

    2009-10-21

    The transport properties of NSTX plasmas obtained during the 2008 experimental cam- paign have been studied and are reported here. Transport trends and dependences have been isolated, and it is found that both electron and ion energy transport coefficients have strong dependences on local values of nΔT, which in turn is strongly dependent on local current density profile. Without identifying this dependence, it is difficult to identify others, such as the dependence of transport coefficients on Bp (or q), Ip and Pheat. In addition, a comparison between discharges with and without Lithium wall conditioning has been made. While the trends in the two sets of data are similar, the thermal transport loss, especially in the electron channel, is found to strongly depend on the amount of Lithium deposited, decreasing by up to 50% of its no-Lithium value.

  2. Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the “embryology” of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings.

  3. Physical Analysis of the Jovian Synchrotron Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Thorne, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of our recent investigation of the Jovian synchrotron emission based on a particle transport code. The features of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves are correlated to the different phenomena driven the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. The adiabatic invariant theory was used for performing this analysis work. The theoretical approach first enabled us to describe the electron radiation belts by modeling the interactions between high-energy trapped particles and plasmas, neutrals, moons, dust and magnetic field. Then radio observations were used to discuss the computed particle distributions in the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The simulated brightness mappings were compared with VLA observations made at two wavelengths (20 and 6 cm). The beaming curve comparisons at 13-cm wavelength were performed for different epochs in order to evaluate the dependence of the model to the geometric factor De. The computed radio spectra were discussed with measurements made in the [0.5-20] GHz radio band. The simulation results match the different remote observations very well and thus allowed us to study the phenomenology of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission. The analysis of the Jovian synchrotron emission demonstrates that during the inward particle transport, local losses associated with the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron radiation along the magnetic equator. Close to the planet, trapped electrons suffer from the interactions with dust and magnetic field, resulting in the transport of particles toward the high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce the measurable secondary radio emissions. The simulations show that the moon sweeping effect controls both the transport toward the planet and at high latitudes by reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate the regions out of the equator. Among the phenomena taken into consideration in our model, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the moderator for the intensity of the radiation emitted at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the amplitude of the double- peaked beaming curve. The sweeping effect amplifies its intrinsic amplitude while the energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to the phenomena setting it to the right level. The results from our modeling conclude that the interactions with dust do not cause significant changes on the characteristics of the radio spectrum. The effect of the interactions of the trapped particles with the magnetic field are only noticeable at high frequencies. The general features of the radio spectrum are driven by the moon sweeping effect. The absorption by Amalthea affects its shape for frequencies beyond 0.7 GHz more than Thebe does. But the resonances occurring near Thebe's orbit prominently modulate the shape of the radio spectrum. Nevertheless, the resonances taking place near Amalthea and Thebe are both responsible of the slope of the radio spectrum. The effect of the radial transport on the characteristics of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves will be discussed based on our ongoing work.

  4. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-15

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R{sub 0}/a) reduced to A ∼ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ∼ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  5. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ˜ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ˜ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  6. Vertical Ripples in the Jovian Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Hedman, M. M.; Burns, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    Galileo spacecraft images from 1996 revealed a pattern of vertical "ripples" or corrugations in the main Jovian ring. The pattern appeared clearly in a set of three images, but was never reported again. Later ring images from Galileo in 2000-2001 and from New Horizons in 2007 were similar to the 1996 data set in terms of viewing geometry, resolution and sensitivity, but they did not show any ripples with comparable wavelength and amplitude. We revisit these data sets in light of the Cassini ISS result that corrugations in Saturn's rings are a spiral pattern that winds tighter due to differential nodal regression. A more detailed re-analysis of the 1996 images reveals that the Jovian pattern is a superposition of two sinusoidal corrugations. The stronger pattern has a wavelength of 1700 km and a vertical amplitude of 3 km. The weaker one has a wavelength of 600 km and an amplitude of 0.6 km. We now find these same corrugations in Galileo images from 2000, at shorter wavelengths of 700 km and 500 km. The reduced wavelengths are consistent with the differential nodal regression rate expected for Jupiter's gravity field; the wavenumber of corrugations in the Jovian ring is predicted to increase linearly by 1/(4000 km) per year. The wavelengths should be 200-300 km during the New Horizons flyby, too short to be detected in that data set. With two patterns now detected in Jupiter's ring and one in Saturn's, vertical corrugations appear to be more common features of planetary rings than had been previously suspected. We investigate the nature of the events that might initiate these features.

  7. Millimeter-wave spectra of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is critical for understanding the subcloud atmospheric structure of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). This research utilizes a combination of laboratory measurements, computer modeling, and radio astronomical observation in order to obtain a better understanding of the millimeter-wave spectra of the Jovian planets. The pressure broadened absorption from gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was measured in the laboratory under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmospheres. Researchers developed new formalisms for computing the absorptivity of gaseous NH3 and H2S based on their laboratory measurements. They developed a radiative transfer and thermochemical model to predict the abundance and distribution of absorbing constituents in the Jovian atmospheres. They used the model to compute the millimeter wave emission from the Jovian planets.

  8. A heavy ion beam probe for the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, U.; Connor, K. A.; Lei, J.; Schoch, P. M.; Crowley, T. P.; Schatz, J. G.; Dong, Y.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) is being developed for application on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It will be used to make measurements of the plasma space potential Φ(r), fluctuations in potential Φ˜(r), the electron density ne(r), fluctuating electron density ñe(r), and radial electric field Er(r) from the core to the edge region of the plasma in MST. While information on these quantities can and has been obtained with probes inserted in the surface region, none of the above measurements have been made in the core of a hot reversed field pinch. Measurements of Φ(r), Er(r), and ne(r) have been well established in previous HIBP systems on tokamaks such as Impurities Studies Experiment, Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT), and TEXT Upgrade, stellarators such as Advanced Toroidal Facility and Compact Helical System and Bumpy Tori such as Elmo Bumpy Torus and Nagoya Bumpy Torus. Less well developed in terms of HIBP measurements are equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields. Because the confining field on MST is determined by plasma conditions, some effort has been made in the design of the MST beam probe to make it possible to characterize B before, during, and after the plasma discharge.

  9. General circulation of the Jovian stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexander S.; Sethunadh, Jisesh; Hartogh, Paul

    The stratosphere of Jupiter is a convectively stable and coldest layer that extends for about 350 km above the tropopause. The dynamics of stratospheres of fast rotating gas giants differ from that of terrestrial-like planets, their modeling is more challenging, and is still little known despite a growing number of observations. We present results of simulations with a newly developed Jovian general circulation model, which covers the altitudes between one bar and one microbar. The results demonstrate a high sensitivity of the circulation to variations of eddy diffusion, which, in turn, depends on the model resolution and assumed background viscosity. In the lower stratosphere, the multiple circulation cells associated with the tropospheric alternating jets dominate. Higher, a weak two-cell equator-to-pole transport forms due to the influence of smaller-scale eddies. The strength and extent of this circulation are defined by the momentum supplied by shallow and vertically propagating waves, and are consistent with observations of the Shoemaker-Levi 9 comet traces. We will also discuss the dynamical implications of our recent finding that radiative forcing exponentially increases with height, rather than approximately constant throughout the Jovian stratosphere, as was thought before (see presentation of T. Kuroda at B0.3 session).

  10. Consideration of the Jovian S-bursts and NB-emission Based on the Parametric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Kostrov, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Korobkov, S. V.; Gushchin, M. E.; Litvinenko, G. V.

    The new mechanism for the formation of a fine structure in the dynamic spectra of the Jovian decametric radio emission is proposed. The main attention is paid to the formation of narrow-band (NB) emission and quasiperiodic trains of S-bursts. Our model is based on the effects of occurrence of the amplitude-frequency modulation and extension of the frequency spectrum of a signal during propagation of the radiation in a medium with time-varied parameters. It is shown that non-stationary disturbances of the planetary magnetic field and strong frequency dispersion of the plasma at frequencies close to the cutoff frequency of the extraordinary wave in the Jovian ionosphere can play a crucial role in the formation of NB emission and quasiperiodic trains of S-bursts. As a result of the numerical experiments, it was concluded that the amplitude-frequency characteristics of an initially continuous signal can drastically vary as functions of the form of the magnetic-field disturbance in the Jovian ionosphere. Structures similar to those observed in the real experiments, ranging from NB emission and quasiperiodic trains of S-bursts to more complex structures, arise in the dynamic spectrum.

  11. Jovian modulation of interplanetary electrons as observed with Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The release of magnetospheric electrons from Jupiter into interplanetary space is modulated by the Jovian rotation period. The Voyager 1 and 2 observations showed that the modulation period agrees on the average with the synodic period of Jupiter (9h 55m 33.12s), but over intervals of weeks it can differ from the synodic period by several minutes. The lack of exact synchronization is attributed to changes of the plasma population in the Jovian magnetosphere. The Jovian modulation appears to be a persistent feature of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and the disappearance of the modulation away from Jupiter is attributed to interplanetary propagation conditions. This leads to the following limits on the diffuse coefficient for interplanetary electrons: kappa perpendicular is or = 8 x 10 to the 19th power sq cm/s and kappa parallel is or = 10 to the 21st power sq cm/s. Modulation was still detectable at 3.8 A.U. behind Jupiter in the far magnetotail. This requires a mean free path in the tail 0.75 A.U. and good field connection along the tail to Jupiter.

  12. Linear pinch driven by a moving compact torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.

    1984-04-25

    In principle, a Z-pinch of sufficiently large aspect ratio can provide arbitrarily high magnetic field intensity for the confinement of plasma. In practice, however, achievable field intensities and timescales are limited by parasitic inductances, pulse driver power, current, voltage, and voltage standoff of nearby insulating surfaces or surrounding gas. Further, instabilities may dominate to prevent high fields (kink mode) or enhance them (sausage mode) but in a nonuniform and uncontrollable way. In this paper we discuss an approach to producing a high-field-intensity pinch using a moving compact torus. The moving torus can serve as a very high power driver and may be used to compress a pre-established pinch field, switch on an accelerating pinch field, or may itself be reconfigured to form an intense pinch. In any case, the high energy, high energy density, and high velocity possible with an accelerated compact torus can provide extremely high power to overcome, by a number of orders of magnitude, the limitations to pinch formation described earlier. In this paper we will consider in detail pinches formed by reconfiguration of the compact torus.

  13. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede’s intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter’s magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons’ interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

  14. Field-aligned Currents in Io's Plasma Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuxin

    2008-09-01

    Since the discovery of Io-controlled decametric radio emissions, the interaction between Io and Jovian magnetosphere has been studied intensively. Two types of interaction have been proposed so far. One is electric circuit model, in which the induced currents flow between Io and the Jovian ionosphere along the magnetic flux tube threading Io. The other is Alfvén wing model. A wing forms in the perturbed magnetic field lines behind Io, the Alfvénic currents develop in the wing rather than along the magnetic flux tubes. More recently, auroral emission associated with Io's footprint and its trailing emission were observed. Such auroral arc may extend longitudinally westward for more than 100 degrees. This trail of aurora is brightest near Io and dims with increasing downstream distance. There is no clear theoretical understanding of the physics that generates this downstream aurora. However it is generally believed that Io's plasma wake is associated with this phenomenon and field-aligned currents lead to downstream emissions. Along with the above two types of the interaction between Io and its surrounding medium, there are also two theoretical frameworks in which these downstream emissions can be interpreted. The first one is corotational lag. When an Io-perturbed (mass loading and/or Io's conductivity) magnetic flux tube moves slowly relative to Jovian magnetosphere, an electric field would be induced at the equatorial plane of the flux tube, which in turn causes a current perpendicular to the field lines that is connected by field-aligned currents. The Lorentz force due to the perpendicular current would play the role of bring the lagged plasma up to corotation. The second is Alfvén wave, in which the Io-perturbed Alfvén wave is reflected between the Jovian ionosphere and the torus edge, driving particles into loss cone. Our present study attempts to use a MHD method to solve the above problem. MHD simulations of Io-Jupiter interaction has been carried out by several groups and yielded some suggestive results, but these studies concentrated primarily on the vicinity of Io and did not treat the Jovian ionospheric effect realistically. To investigate the mechanism for emissions in the trailing tail, a model extending longitudinally more than 100 degrees and latitudinally from the southern Jovian ionosphere to the northern ionosphere is needed. In particular, such a model should reflect both the non-uniform magnetic field and the non-uniform plasma distributions together with realistic boundary conditions. To tackle this problem with available computer resources, we provide instead an equivalent approach "theory of thin filament motion". Our model is indeed a one-dimensional MHD simulation that satisfies all the above requirements and has the advantage of using much less computer resources than the earlier MHD models, which in turn allows us to try various physical conditions within limited computing time. We assume Io's plasma wake can be regarded as a tail of thin magnetic flux tubes perturbed by Io successively. In this assumption, a flux tube is considered as thin if the pressure variations across the flux tube are negligible compared to the total external pressure (gas plus magnetic pressure) representing the effects of the enveloping magnetized plasma (Jovian magnetosphere). Furthermore we assume that in Io's reference frame the variations of the physical quantities along the downstream distance do not change with time. After converting to the corotating frame, the study of Io's plasma wake can be simplified to investigate the evolution of a magnetic flux tube in Io's wake with appropriate initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that the mechanism for producing wake aurora could not be explained by either Alfvén wave or electric circuit alone, rather, the underlying physics possesses the characteristics typical for both Alfvén wave and corotational lag models. An upstream-coming flux tube must be in contact with Io for approximately 500 seconds, until a tilt angle of about 4 degrees has been developed, before it is released downstream. A magnetic field depression forms downstream as a result of the continual departure of the flux tubes from Io, which in turn has significant influence on the motion of a flux tube. A perturbed flux tube would undergo a subcorotational motion in Io's plasma wake. This motion is inevitably modulated by Alfvén wave bouncing back and forth inside the Io plasma torus. The scale of the subcorotation region is in the order of 1 Jovian radius. The distribution of the simulated field-aligned currents downstream is consistent with the observed wake aurora brightness profile; in particular, the periodic structure in the current distribution is in agreement with recent infrared and FUV observations showing the presence of secondary spots in the auroral emissions. It is noteworthy to point out that the most important quantities are the spacing between the spots, since they are the product of Alfvén wave bouncing time and the speed a flux tube escaping from Io. That sole quantity will tell us all the story.

  15. Lower hybrid emission diagnostics on the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using RF emission near the lower-hybrid frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma for diagnostic purposes is examined. The emission is detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50-ohm miniature coaxial antenna that is sensitive to the polarization of the incoming signal. The frequency shift of the lower-hybrid emission peak is monitored as a function of the background pressure, electrode voltage, electrode ring configuration, and the strength of the toroidal dc magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of the average plasma density are made with a polarization diplexing microwave interferometer. The experimental results extend previous work to include negative electrode voltages and plasma densities up to 1 trillion per cu cm. The information derived from the experiment is discussed with reference to: (1) the strength of the dc magnetic field in the emitting region, (2) a comparison of the lower-hybrid plasma density with the average plasma density, and (3) the validity of the cold-plasma lower-hybrid resonance formula in the high-density operating regime of the bumpy-torus plasma.

  16. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, V. K.; Husein, A.; Mishra, N.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, size, shape, and location of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM), and to assess their sex-related and age-related differences in the Malay population. Sixty-five subjects were assessed for the presence of both tori at the School of Dental Sciences University Sains Malaysia. The prevalence of TP was 38–63% and that of TM was 1–10%. TP was frequently more common in females than males (90.9% versus 9.1%; P < 0.05) and was frequently found in medium sizes, spindle shaped, and was often located at the combined premolar to molar areas. The prevalence of TM was not significantly different in males and females (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.523), occurred most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and was often located at the canine to premolar area. PMID:24478956

  17. Jovian narrow-band as generator of the Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.

    2000-11-01

    We report on the narrow-band emissions observed in the dynamic spectra of the Jovian decametric radio emissions. Such narrow-band emissions are infrequent phenomena and are related to the Jovian millisecond radio bursts (S-bursts). From the Riihimaa catalogue (Riihimaa 1991) we select narrow-band events observed in Oulu (Finland) with an acousto-optic spectrograph (AOS) with a high time resolution of about 7 ms. The AOS receiver gives the possibility to study the relationship between the S-bursts and the Jovian narrow-band emissions. For this we use the Riihimaa classification which shows sketches of millisecond radio bursts as they appear on the dynamic spectra and allows to distinguish one S-burst from another. The analysis of the temporal evolution of the Jovian narrow-band leads to a new interpretation of the Riihimaa structures. We show that each individual structure could be decomposed in one, two or three components and related to the narrow-band. It appears that the temporal evolution of the narrow-band involves the presence of fine structures, i.e. S-bursts, with a short time duration of about few tens of milliseconds. The individual S-burst duration and the short time scale of the gap in the narrow-band account for a mechanism totally intrinsic to the radio source. Taking into consideration our new results, we show that two models, the feedback model (Calvert 1982) and filamentary model (Louarn 1997) could explain part but not the global observed features of the narrow-band. According to the previous models the drift rate of the individual S-bursts seems to associate the combined effect of the source width with the refractive index or the geometry of the source relatively to the observer.

  18. Jovian probe wake flowfield. [For the Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The base heating problem in the Jovian probe was examined. The entire wake flowfield is defined to calculate the radiative heating to the base region of the Jovian probe. Engineering tools for calculating the probe's wake flowfield are developed. The near and far viscous and inviscid flowfields for three entry conditions are calculated. The flowfields include pressure, temperature, and species concentration for radiation analysis. A mathematical model used in the calculations is described. The results obtained indicate that temperatures in the Jovian probe range from 4,000 to 10,00 K and pressures range from 10 to 1,000 times the free stream value.

  19. Ion phase space densities in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Cheng, A. F.; Mauk, B. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1990-01-01

    The Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle ion data from the Jovian magnetosphere were analyzed to determine the phase-space densities of particles in the region between 5 and 80 Jupiter radii. Data from the Jovian current sheet crossings for locally mirroring particles were used. These are the first calculations of phase-space densities in the nondipolar field region containing the Jovian magnetodisk current sheet. The profiles are consistent with lossy inward radial transport and a source in the outer magnetosphere. The inferred loss rate in a radial diffusion model measuring how quickly particles are scattered out of the neutral sheet exceeds the usual strong diffusion loss rate.

  20. Jovian Chromophore Characteristics from Multispectral HST Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The chromophores responsible for coloring the jovian atmosphere are embedded within Jupiter's vertical aerosol structure. Sunlight propagates through this vertical distribution of aerosol particles, whose colors are defined by omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda), and we remotely observe the culmination of the radiative transfer as I/F(lambda). In this study, we employed a radiative transfer code to retrieve omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) for particles in Jupiter's tropospheric haze at seven wavelengths in the near-UV and visible regimes. The data consisted of images of the 2008 passage of Oval BA to the south of the Great Red Spot obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present derived particle colors for locations that were selected from 14 weather regions, which spanned a large range of observed colors. All omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves were absorbing in the blue, and omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) increased monotonically to approximately unity as wavelength increased. We found accurate fits to all omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves using an empirically derived functional form: omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) = 1 A exp(-B lambda). The best-fit parameters for the mean omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curve were A = 25.4 and B = 0.0149 for lambda in units of nm. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on our omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) results and found that one or two independent chromophores were sufficient to produce the variations in omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda). A PCA of I/F(lambda) for the same jovian locations resulted in principal components (PCs) with roughly the same variances as the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA, but they did not result in a one-to-one mapping of PC amplitudes between the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA and I/F(lambda) PCA. We suggest that statistical analyses performed on I/ F(lambda) image cubes have limited applicability to the characterization of chromophores in the jovian atmosphere due to the sensitivity of 1/ F(lambda) to horizontal variations in the vertical aerosol distribution.

  1. The Orbits of the Regular Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R.

    2014-04-01

    At the conclusion of the Galileo Mission we produced ephemerides for the Galilean and four inner Jovian satellites, Amalthea, Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis [1]. The satellite orbits were determined by fitting a data set that included Earthbased astrometry through 2001 and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, and Galileo spacecraft. The spacecraft tracking data provided additional information on the Jovian system gravity parameters. In preparation for the Juno mission currently enroute to Jupiter, we have been developing new ephemerides from updated satellite orbits. As before, the orbits are determined through a comprehensive data fit which also redetermines the gravity parameters and spacecraft trajectories to be consistent with the revised satellite orbits. Our standard model for the orbits, both satellite and spacecraft, is a numerical integration of their equations of motion. We include the gravitational effects of the point mass mutual interactions of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, and Amalthea (Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis are assumed to be massless), the effects of an oblate Jupiter, and perturbations from the Sun and planets. For our new orbits we also take into account the effects of tides raised on Jupiter by the satellites. Lainey et al. [4] have pointed out the importance of the tidal accelerations. The spacecraft are also affected by nongravitational forces, e.g., solar radiation pressure, trajectory correction maneuvers. These forces are discussed by several authors [2, 3, 5]. Our current data set is an expansion of that used previously. We have extended the Galilean satellite Earthbased astrometry back to 1891 and forward to 2013 and the inner satellite astrometry back to 1892 and forward to 2002. We added the Galilean satellite mutual events from 2003 and 2009, the Galilean satellite eclipse timings from 1878 to 2013, and the Earthbased radar ranges to Ganymede and Callisto measured in 1992. We also augmented our spacecraft data set with imaging acquired by the New Horizons spacecraft when it flew through the Jovian system in February 2007. In this paper we present the results of our latest determination of the satellite orbits and associated gravity parameters. We compare the orbits and gravity parameters to those that we found previously and our tidal parameters to those of Lainey et al.. We comment on possible future modifications and enhancements before our ephemeris delivery to the Juno Project for orbital operations.

  2. High-energy particles. [in Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the magnetosphere of Jupiter is in many respects quite different from that of the earth. The energy required to drive the Jovian magnetosphere is apparently extracted from Jupiter's rotational energy rather than from the solar wind. Jupiter is a strong source of energetic charged particles which can be detected as far away as the orbit of Mercury. The structure and dynamics of the energetic particle distribution in the inner magnetosphere is discussed, taking into account observations, transport and losses in the inner magnetosphere, satellite interactions, and electron synchrotron radiation. The subsolar hemisphere is considered, giving attention to particle fluxes in the subsolar magnetosphere, conditions in the middle magnetosphere, and the characteristics of the outer magnetosphere. A description of the predawn magnetosphere is also provided.

  3. Vesta, Ceres and the Jovian Early Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.; Coradini, A.; Magni, G.

    2011-10-01

    Vesta and Ceres are among the oldest objects that formed in the Solar System, likely predating the formation of the giant planets. Through their histories, the surfaces of the two targets of the Dawn mission would have suffered several periods of intense bombardment which shaped their present morphologies. Here we report the results of our investigation of the collisional histories of Vesta and Ceres at the time of the formation of Jupiter. The formation of the giant planet caused in fact an intense early bombardment in the asteroid belt. In those scenarios where they survived, both asteroids had their surfaces saturated by craters as big as 150 km and a few as big as 200 - 300 km. In the case of Vesta, such Jovian early bombardment would have significantly eroded the crust, likely exposing the upper mantle or causing effusive phenomena similar to lunar maria.

  4. Energetic particles in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Teegarden, B. J.; Webber, W. R.; Roelof, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed account of the Pioneer 10 encounter with Jupiter is presented. Flux time histories of electrons and protons are given over a wide energy band. Proton and electron energy spectra are given at various Jovicentric distances. Proton spectra are shown to transform from a power law with indices in the 3-4.2 range to more nearly exponential forms in the inner regions. Extensive data are presented on the angular distributions of protons and electrons at various locations in the Jovicentric magnetosphere. In addition, a harmonic analysis of 1-2 MeV proton angular distributions was performed. Alpha/proton ratios are given as a function of Jovian radius and are compared to the earth and solar wind values.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Under this grant we have undertaken a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation and data analysis studies to help better understand the configuration and dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere. We approached our studies of Jupiter's magnetosphere in two ways. First we carried out a number of studies using our existing MHD code. We carried out simulation studies of Jupiter s magnetospheric boundaries and their dependence on solar wind parameters, we studied the current systems which give the Jovian magnetosphere its unique configuration and we modeled the dynamics of Jupiter s magnetosphere following a northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Second we worked to develop a new simulation code for studies of outer planet magnetospheres.

  6. A beaming model of the Io-independent Jovian decameter radiation based on multipole models of the Jovian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Eviatar, A.

    1979-01-01

    A geometrical model is presented in which the apparent source locations of the Io-independent decameter radiation are computed. The calculations assume that the radiation is produced by stably trapped electrons radiating near the local electron gyrofrequency and that the emission is then beamed onto a conical surface. The maximum occurrence probability of noise storms is associated with regions in the Jovian magnetosphere where the axis of the emission cone is most inclined toward the Jovian equatorial plane. The calculations utilize and compare two of the octopole spherical harmonic expansions of the Jovian magnetic field constructed from data accumulated by the fluxgate and vector helium magnetometers on board Pioneer 11.

  7. A beaming model of the Io-independent Jovian decameter radiation based on multipole models of the Jovian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Eviatar, A.; Thieman, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A geometrical model is presented in which the apparent source locations of the Io-independent decameter radiation are computed. The calculations assume that the radiation is produced by stably trapped electrons radiating near the electron gyrofrequency and that the emission is then beamed onto a conical surface. The maximum occurrence probability of noise storms is associated with regions in the Jovian magnetosphere where the axis of the emission cone is most inclined toward the Jovian equatorial plane. The calculations utilize and compare two of the octupole spherical harmonic expansions of the Jovian magnetic field constructed from data accumulated by the fluxgate and vector helium magnetometers on board Pioneer 11.

  8. Jovian Chromophore Characteristics from Multispectral HST Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, N. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Banfield, D.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2010-10-01

    Characterizing the chromophores responsible for coloring the Jovian atmosphere remains a challenging problem. In this study, we used radiative transfer models to derive spectral shapes of chromophore particles at seven wavelengths in the visible regime from HST WFPC2 data. The observations we selected are from 15 May, 28 June, and 08 July 2008, covering a passage of Oval BA and the Great Red Spot, and include nine filters: F255W, F343N, F375N, F390N, F410M, F437N, F469N, F502N, and F673N. We employed a forward-modeling approach using an adding-doubling radiative transfer code developed to analyze Galileo SSI data (Simon-Miller et al. 2001, Icarus 154, 459). We adopted a model atmosphere with three aerosol layers: a stratospheric haze, upper tropospheric haze, and tropospheric cloud. We parametrized each aerosol layer by a base pressure, optical depth, particle radius, and particle color (a single scattering albedo at each wavelength). For filters F375N-F673N, we assumed the chromophore (non-white) component resides solely in the upper tropospheric haze. We present derived particle colors for Jovian locations with a large variation in observed color and a discussion of the number of independent chromophores necessary to produce the variations in derived particle color. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program through grant number NNX08AF53A. This work is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #GO/DD11498.

  9. Processes of Neutral Winds in the Jovian Thermospehere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, T.; Waite, J. H.; Bougher, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; Bell, J.

    2012-09-01

    Recent analysis of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the Jovian aurora indicates the presence of highspeed neutral winds in Jupiter's thermosphere. While existing 1-D models are useful for understanding global averages of the Jovian thermosphere, 3-D models can provide significant insight into the regional importance of various dynamical processes. We use our fully coupled 3-D Jupiter Thermosphere General Circulation Model (JTGCM) to quantify wind processes that are responsible for generating neutral winds in the auroral thermosphere from 20 μbar to 10-4 nbar self-consistently with the thermal structure and compositions (ion and neutral). The heat sources in the JTGCM that drive the global neutral flow are high-latitude joule heating, resulting from frictional motion of ions relative to neutrals, and charge particle heating from auroral particle impact. These sources of high-latitude heating in the JTGCM are strongly related to the current system in the outer magnetosphere that allows plasma to flow in and out of the Jovian ionosphere. Due to Jupiter's rapid rotation, the mapping of this flow at ionospheric heights gives rise to an ion drag process in addition to Coriolis torque that appears to dominate the neutral momentum forcing near the altitude of the ionospheric peak. We find that for a rapidly rotating Jupiter, ion drag and joule heating inputs in the JTGCM significantly intensify the underlying global thermospheric dynamics and develop strong pressure gradients in the auroral oval regions, thereby affecting zonal and meridional winds. The zonal flow of neutral winds in the auroral ovals of both hemispheres is primarily driven by competition between the magnitudes of accelerations resulting from Coriolis forcing and ion drag processes near the ionospheric peak. However, above the ionospheric peak (<0.01 μbar), the acceleration of neutral flow due to pressure gradients in the upper thermosphere is found to be the most effective source of zonal winds, with minor acceleration contributions from curvature and hydrodynamic advection in the south and viscosity and Coriolis forcing in the north. The meridional flow of neutral winds in both ovals in the JTGCM is determined by competition between meridional accelerations due to Coriolis forcing and pressure gradients. The meridional flow, combined with upwelling and downwelling motions of the neutral atmosphere, has been shown to be an important process for transporting significant amounts of auroral heat to non-auroral latitudes. We find that meridional flow in the lower thermosphere, near the peak of the auroral ionosphere, is poleward, with peak wind speeds of ~0.6 km s-1 and ~0.1 km s-1 in the southern and northern oval, respectively. The corresponding subsiding flow of neutral motion of ~5 m s-1 in the southern oval and ~2 m s-1 in the northern oval is expected to provide more dynamical heating in the south than in the north. We also find that the strength of meridional flow in both auroral ovals is gradually weakened and turned equatorward near 0.08 μbar with meridional wind speeds up to ~250 m s-1 (southern oval) and ~100 m s-1 (northern oval). The corresponding neutral motion in this region is upward, with wind speeds up to 5 m s-1 in both ovals. Clearly, the upper thermosphere of auroral regions is expected to cool off due to dynamical cooling provided by the adiabatic expansion and hydrodynamic advection processes, as investigated recently by Majeed et al. [2009; see also Bougher et al., 2005; Majeed et al., 2005].

  10. On the Origin of System III Asymmetries in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Delamere, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Io plasma torus exhibits several intriguing asymmetries which offer insights to the processes that transport mass and energy through the system. While these asymmetries are increasingly well described observationally, most still lack physical explanations. One important asymmetry is fixed in the coordinate system corotating with Jupiter's magnetic field. Space-based and ground-based observations have shown that torus ions are hotter and more highly ionized around System III 20 deg. Our simulations show that this type of torus asymmetry can be caused by enhanced pickup of fresh ions from Io's neutral clouds near these longitudes. The enhancement is caused primarily by the tilt and offset of the torus relative to the neutral clouds. We will report on the model parameters required to match the observed asymmetries, and offer predictions which will allow a test of this hypothesis.

  11. Reading of the Jovian decametric radio-storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2011-10-01

    Based on the 2D-correlation analysis of synthetic and real dynamic spectra of Jovian narrowband emissions at decametric wavelengths, the methods are created for a measurement of the dispersion of radio emission and an estimate of the parameters of Alfvén wave in the jovian low magnetosphere. We apply these methods to extract the valuable data from the tangled pattern of highly sporadic emissions in the dynamic spectrum of August 2, 2002.

  12. Final report on the LLNL compact torus acceleration project

    SciTech Connect

    Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.; Hartman, C.; McLean, H.; Molvik, A.

    1995-03-19

    In this report, we summarize recent work at LLNL on the compact torus (CT) acceleration project. The CT accelerator is a novel technique for projecting plasmas to high velocities and reaching high energy density states. The accelerator exploits magnetic confinement in the CT to stably transport plasma over large distances and to directed kinetic energies large in comparison with the CT internal and magnetic energy. Applications range from heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices, generation of intense pulses of x-rays or neutrons for weapons effects and high energy-density fusion concepts.

  13. Radial guiding-center drifts and omnigenity in bumpy-torus confinement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Catto, P. J.

    1982-07-01

    Collisional transport of a high temperature plasma across the confining field of a bumpy torus magnetic confinement system which depends sensitively upon the functional form of the radial quiding center drift, and thus upon details of the confinement geometry is discussed. A general and relatively explicit formula for the radial drift is derived, using the large aspect-ratio results of a previous equilibrium study. Allowance is made for: (1) arbitrary toroidal variation of the confining field; (2) field distortion due to plasma currents; (3) noncircular deformation of the toroidal field coils. The analysis pertains only to the plasma core, and not to the high beta annuli (electron rings) which are usually present in experiments. The question of bumpy torus omnigenity whether any bumpy torus field configuration is consistent with a vanishing, or nearly vanishing, radial drift, is also investigated. It is found that omnigenity does not occur in the vicinity of the magnetic axis.

  14. Correlating east-west asymmetries in the Jovian magnetosphere and the Io sodium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Three east-west intensity asymmetries in the Jupiter system that would appear to an earth observer in optical S+, extreme ultraviolet S++ and optical Na emissions are reviewed. The three asymmetries imply that some combination of the plasma torus number densities and electron temperature is, on the long-term average, larger west of Jupiter than east of Jupiter. A small east-to-west electric field, previously proposed to explain the ion intensity asymmetries, is also shown to provide a natural explanation for the sodium intensity asymmetry. A long-term average east-to-west electric field of about 3 mV/m and a corresponding west-to-east offset of about 0.16 Jupiter radii for the plasma torus at Io's orbital distance are implied. On a shorter time scale, the east-west electric field appears to be time variable and may be readily monitored from earth by observations of the sodium cloud.

  15. Temporal and spatial variations in the Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of lines from both forbidden S II and forbidden O II in the Io torus taken on 15 nights spread over four months in 1981 are presented and discussed. An east-west asymmetry was observed in the optical emissions, showing larger western intensities and a more diffuse and radially extensive nebula to the east. Two configurations of forbidden S II longitudinal asymmetry were stable over at least four days. Longitudinal structure was not detected in either the forbidden O II intensity or the plasma density as measured by the forbidden O II and S II doublet ratios. A radial variation in the ratio of O II/S II was observed, with the ratio being largest near Io's orbit. Monthly variability was detected in both the intensity and density of the torus.

  16. Performance of a 12-coil superconducting 'bumpy torus' magnet facility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis 'bumpy torus' facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm ID and capable of 3.0 tesla on their axes. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Final shakedown tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The facility is now ready for use as a plasma physics research facility. A maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis of 3.23 teslas has been held for a period of more than sixty minutes without a coil normalcy.

  17. Jovian Cusp Processes: Implications for the Polar Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2003-12-01

    Jupiter's polar emissions, which include all auroral emission lying poleward of the main auroral oval, are ordered by magnetic local time, indicating external control by the solar wind interaction with the jovian magnetosphere. The main auroral oval itself appears fixed with respect to the planet, an indication of planetary control, and is understood to be associated with magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and the transfer of angular momentum from the ionosphere to the middle magnetosphere plasma. We have recently considered the flows present in Jupiter's ionosphere in terms of three different regimes: the sub-corotational flows associated with the main auroral oval, the Vasyliunas cycle associated with the down-tail loss of plasmoids (predominantly a feature of the dusk-side magnetosphere), and the Dungey-cycle flows which are associated with the interaction of the solar wind and embedded interplanetary magnetic field with the magnetosphere, principally via reconnection. Motivated by this picture, we consider from a theoretical standpoint what the effects of pulsed dayside magnetic reconnection will be at Jupiter. This will generate a twin-vortical flow pattern in the ionosphere across the open-closed field line boundary, associated with a bi-polar (i.e. upward and downward) field-aligned current pair. These currents will be of order ˜1-2 MA, representing <10% of the magnetopause current, flowing in a region ~1000 km across at ionospheric heights, such that the field-aligned current densities peak at ˜1 μ A m-2. Here we investigate the conditions under which such currents may be carried in either magnetospheric or cusp plasmas, and consider the consequences for auroral emissions at UV and X-ray wavelengths.

  18. Dispersive Doppler measurement of the electron content of the torus of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G. S.; Green, D. W.; Royden, H. N.; Wood, G. E.; Tyler, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    As Voyager 1 made its swing-by of Io, it passed through and behind the satellite's plasma torus. The phase paths of the coherent 13 cm and 3.6-cm wavelength signals transmitted from the spacecraft were shortened differentially by the plasma, resulting in the observation of a dispersive Doppler signature in the signals received at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (deep space network) stations. Ray path integration through three different models of the electron distribution of the torus of Io (Warwick et al. 1979; Birmingham et al. 1981; Bagenal et al., 1981) have been performed. The results of the integrations are compared with the dispersive Doppler data.

  19. ELMO Bumpy Torus data base

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, J.S.

    1981-03-01

    This document describes a set of computer programs developed to facilitate storage and retrieval of data generated by the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment. The data is stored in a collection of files which contain either raw or analyzed data from diagnostics connected to the experiment. An on-line index of steady-state machine conditions, diagnostic or analysis status information, and raw or analyzed data values unifies the file collection into a data base. The index is implemented under the System 1022 data base management system.

  20. Photochemical Model Sensitivity Analysis for Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. P.; Huestis, D. L.; Nash, D.

    2003-05-01

    A direct box model sensitivity analysis technique was applied to locations in a one-dimensional photochemical model of Jupiter's atmosphere to determine quantitatively the specific kinetic and photolysis steps that control various species concentrations. This procedure links measurements to the relevant chemistry, identifies rate parameters needing improved precision, suggests observations providing the most sensitive tests of the mechanism, and furnishes estimates for kinetic modeling errors. Results for all species, reactions, and locations are generated, and any chemical feedbacks or effects on precursors are automatically included. More observations of diacetylene are identified, for example, as a good test of the photochemical mechanism from its many large output sensitivities. Altitude plots of H atom sensitivities illustrate the various photochemical regions. We also compare how the addition of rapid C atom reactions alters its sensitivities. Our results also point out sets of competitive reactions or reaction product ratios that are important in determining certain species concentrations. Many hydrogen atom addition reactions in hydrocarbons systems for example have addition, abstraction, and scission product channels to smaller fragments. The necessity of incorporating the proper pressure dependence of these rates is illustrated, including various recommendations derived from theoretical constructs. Support provided by NSF Planetary Astronomy and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Programs. D. Nash participated in an NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program at SRI. Thanks to Dr. Julianne Moses for providing the outputs and mechanism from her recent simulation of the Jovian atmosphere.

  1. Rotation lightcurves of small jovian Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Sieben, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We present new lightcurve information for 19 Trojans ≲ 30 km in diameter, more than doubling the number of objects in this size range for which some rotation information is known. The minimum densities for objects with complete lightcurves are estimated and are found to be comparable to those measured for cometary nuclei. A significant fraction (∼40%) of this observed small Trojan population rotates slowly (P > 24 h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner, B.D., Stephens, R.D. [2011]. Minor Planet Bull. 38, 110-111). The excess of slow rotators may be due to the YORP effect. Results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggest that the distribution of Trojan rotation rates is dissimilar to those of Main Belt Asteroids of the same size. Concerted observations of a large number of Trojans could establish the spin barrier (Warner, B.D., Harris, A.W., Pravec, P. [2009]. Icarus 202, 134-146), making it possible to estimate densities for objects near the critical period.

  2. Chemistry and spectroscopy of the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Owen, T.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the chemistry and spectroscopic studies of the Jovian atmosphere. Thermochemical equilibrium models for determining atmospheric composition are considered along with possible disequilibrating processes, and studies of the photochemistry of H2, CH4, NH3, H2S, and PH3 using the modeling methods are summarized. It is shown that photodissociation and advection are the major disequilibrating processes in Jupiter's atmosphere, that lightning and charged-particle bombardment are relatively minor factors in the planet's bulk chemistry, and that the existence of living organisms on the planet is highly improbable. Spectroscopic investigations of Jupiter are discussed, emphasizing recent observations of absorption bands due to CH4, NH3, H2, He, and D. Spectroscopic abundance determinations are examined for H2, HD, CH4, CH3D, NH3, C2H6, C2H2, and PH3. Upper limits are given for the abundances of several unobserved gases in the visible atmosphere, including H2S, HCl, SiH4, benzene, purines, pyrimidines, and their derivatives.

  3. DISCOVERY OF TWO ADDITIONAL JOVIAN IRREGULARS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersen, M.; Gladman, B.; Veillet, C.; Jacobson, R.; Brozovic, M.; Rousselot, P.

    2012-07-15

    We report on the discovery of two previously undetected irregular satellites of Jupiter (S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2) during recovery observations of other known satellites. S/2010 J 1 was discovered with the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope on September 7 UT of 2011, while S/2010 J 2 was discovered on September 8 with the 3.5 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The satellites have r-band magnitudes of 23.2 {+-} 0.3 and 24.0 {+-} 0.3, for S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2, respectively, indicating diameters of {approx}2-3 km. Both S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2 are on bound retrograde orbits. Time-averaged integrated orbits suggest the association to the Carme and Ananke groups, respectively. Given that the satellites were discovered within a small field during the routine observations of the previously known irregulars, their discovery agrees with predictions that other moons of similar sizes remain undetected in the Jovian Hill sphere.

  4. Water in the Jovian Trojan Asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin

    2007-05-01

    Water, as a major constituent of the solar nebula, is believed to have played an important role in shaping the Solar System. In the terrestrial region, the concentration of water vapor is expected to determine the local oxidation state and chemical structure. Beyond 5 AU, water ice makes up nearly 50% of the mass of the solids and may have strongly influenced the formation of the giant planets. In addition, liquid water is thought to be necessary for life, as we know it, to form and survive. Jovian Trojan asteroids are orbiting the Sun at nearly the same heliocentric distance as Jupiter. Since these objects are located far from the Sun , they could contain significant amounts of volatile materials (e.g. water ice). We have obtained near-IR spectroscopic data of Trojan asteroids at H and K-band (from 1.4 - 2.5 micron) using the UKIRT, IRTF and Subaru telescopes on Mauna Kea. Our goal is to look for evidence of water ice, hydrated minerals and hydrocarbon features in order to determine compositions of Trojan asteroids and their possible origin. We will present the near-IR spectroscopic data and discuss the analysis and implications of these observations.

  5. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium in Hot Jovians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Mandell, Avi; Hébrard, Eric; Venot, Olivia; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that equilibrium chemistry is usually achieved deep in the atmosphere of hot Jovians where timescales are short (Line and Yung 2013). Thus, equilibrium chemistry has been used as a starting point (setting initial conditions) for evaluating disequilibrium processes. We explore parameters of setting these initial conditions including departures from solar metallicity, the number of species allowed in a system, the types of species allowed in a system, and different thermodynamic libraries in an attempt to create a standard for evaluating equilibrium chemistry. NASA's open source code Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) is used to calculate model planet abundances by varying the metallicity, in the pressure regime 0.1 to 1 bar. These results are compared to a variety of exoplanets(Teq between 600 and 2100K) qualitatively by color maps of the dayside with different temperature redistributions. Additionally, CEA (with an up-dated thermodynamic library) is compared with the thermochemical model presented in Venotet al. (2012) for HD 209458b and HD 189733b. This same analysis is then applied to the cooler planet HD 97658b. Spectra are generated and we compare both models' outputs using the open source codetransit (https://github.com/exosports/transit) using the opacities of 15 molecules. We make the updated CEA thermodyanamic library and supporting Python scripts to do the CEA analyses available open source. Thiswork was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G.

  6. Torus elements used in effective shock absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, P.; Platus, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Energy absorbing device forces torus elements to revolve annularly between two concentric tubes when a load is applied to one tube. Interference forces can be varied by using torus elements of different thicknesses. The device operates repeatedly in compression or tension, and under problems of large onset rate tolerance or structural overload.

  7. Alfvén modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Breizman, B. N.; Zheng, L. J.; Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a theoretical and computational analysis of core-localized energetic particle driven modes observed near the magnetic axis in the Madison Symmetric Torus [L. Lin, W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 030701 (2013)]. Using measured safety factor and plasma pressure profiles as input, the linear ideal MHD code Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution (AEGIS) [L. J. Zheng and M. Kotschenreuther, J. Comput. Phys. 211, 748 (2006)] reveals Alfvénic modes close to the measured frequencies. The AEGIS results together with a reduced analytical model demonstrate that the modes are essentially "cylindrical" and dominated by a single poloidal component (m = 1). The modes are localized at the plasma core where the magnetic shear is weak and continuum damping is minimal. Detailed analysis establishes constraints on the safety factor and plasma pressure, under which two modes can exist simultaneously.

  8. Plasmadynamic hypervelocity dust injector for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, Catalin M.; Wang Zhehui; Dorf, Leonid A.; Wurden, Glen A.

    2006-10-15

    The design and construction of a plasmadynamic device to accelerate dust to hypervelocities is presented. High speed dust will be used to measure magnetic field lines in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The plasma gun produces a high density (n{sub e}{approx_equal}10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) and low temperature (a few eV) deuterium plasma, ejected by JxB forces which provide drag on the dust particles in its path. The dust will be entrained by the plasma to velocities of 1-30 km/s, depending on the dust mass. Carbon dust particles will be used, with diameters from 1 to 50 {mu}m. The key components of the plasmadynamic accelerator are a coaxial plasma gun operated at 10 kV (with an estimated discharge current of 200 kA), a dust dispenser activated by a piezoelectric transducer, and power and remote-control systems.

  9. AGN torus properties with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Nenkova, Maia; Ivezi?, eljko; Hunt-Walker, Nicholas; Elitzur, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has scanned the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity in four infrared bands, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 ?m. The WISE Point Source Catalog contains more than 560 million objects, among them hundreds of thousands of galaxies with Active Nuclei (AGN). While type 1 AGN, owing to their bright and unobscured nature, are easy to detect and constitute a rather complete and unbiased sample, their type 2 counterparts, postulated by AGN unification, are not as straightforward to identify. Matching the WISE catalog with known QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we confirm previous identification of the type 1 locus in the WISE color space. Using a very large database of the popular Clumpy torus models, we find the colors of the putative type 2 counterparts, and also, for the first time, predict their number vs. flux relation that can be expected to be observed in any given WISE color range. This will allow us to put statistically very significant constraints on the torus parameters. Our results are a successful test of the AGN unification scheme.

  10. Terrestrial versus Jovian VLF chorus - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inan, U. S.; Helliwell, R. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The relevant parameters of the magnetospheres of Jupiter and earth are investigated based on the wave-particle resonant interactions that are believed to be responsible for the generation of VLF chorus emissions observed on Voyager 1. Expressions are derived for the wave-particle interaction length and the nonlinearity parameter, and the values of these parameters are compared with those calculated for the earth's magnetosphere. It is determined that the typical interaction lengths are at least 2-5 times larger in the Jovian than in the terrestrial magnetosphere, and that the wave intensity necessary to reach the threshold of nonlinearity in the Jovian magnetosphere is 5-100 times lower. Measurements by Voyager 1 show that the inferred wave magnetic field intensities of the Jovian chorus are in the range of reported intensities for terrestrial chorus, probably due to the fact that the fluxes of few keV resonant particles found in the Jovian magnetosphere were typically two orders of magnitude higher. Growth rate measurements on Voyager 1 broadband wave data are employed to confirm that the temporal growth rates of Jovian chorus bursts are higher than for the earth.

  11. Analogies between Jovian magnetodisk and heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, Roman; Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi

    Recently due to the development of spatial missions the famous model by E. Parker [1] faced with some problems, such as the effect of magnetic flux excess and the existence of latitude component of magnetic field [2]. Thus the incomplete knowledge about large scale current system of heliospheric current sheet (HCS) motivated us to construct and investigate the self-consistent axisymmetric stationary MHD model of HCS and to compare it with earlier presented model of Jupiterian magnetodisk [3]. Both HCS and magnetodisk have inner plasma sources (i.e. the Sun in case of HCS and satellite Io in case of Jupiter); also they depend on the centrifugal force at small distances and on corotation processes. They both have strong radial component of current density, thin elongated structure etc. Thus in the frame of the MHD model we have calculated for HCS the parallel currents (analogous to Jovian Birkeland currents) and we obtained the latitude component of the magnetic field. The results of the model allowed us to explain the magnetic flux excess by the existence of the self-consistent HCS magnetic field. The decrease of radial magnetic field from the distance from the Sun as the power -5/3 obtained by numerical calculations is in good agreement with experimental data. Generally this model can be applied for the quiet period of the low solar activity when the perturbation of HCS structure named “ballerina skirt” does not play any role. References: 1. Parker E. N., Astrophys. J., V. 128, 664, pp. 664-676, 1958. 2. Khabarova O. V., Астрономический журнал, V. 90, №11, pp. 919-935, 2013. 3. Kislov R.A. et al., Bull. MSU, Physics and Astron., 2013

  12. An Ancient Storm in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been prepared for presentation by the Hubble Heritage Team.

  13. Multispectral observations of the Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The upper atmospheres of the Earth and the outer planets form a screen on which precipitating charged particles, like the electron beam in a television, trace fleeting, but revealing patterns of visible, ultraviolet, infrared, and x ray emissions that offer valuable clues to processes occurring within the planetary magnetospheres. At Earth, years of in situ measurements, as well as ground based observations, have yielded a picture (still fuzzy) where the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere of the Earth provides a complex path for the storage and release of energy during magnetic substorms; the ultimate manifestation of terrestrial auroral processes. More recent global imaging of substorm events from high above the Earth (greater than 3.5 R(sub e)) by Dynamics Explorer have made a unique contribution towards understanding the global and temporal evolution of such auroral events by providing a morphological perspective and by providing the crucial observational link that allows the separation of spatial and temporal variations inherent in the interpretation of in situ data. A similar role was played by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the recent encounter of Ulysses with Jupiter in helping to define a new paradigm in Jovian auroral physics. The old paradigm portrayed Jupiter's magnetosphere as totally dominated by internal processes (i.e. Io related tori, heavy ions, etc.) where energetic heavy ion precipitation in the inner magnetosphere was solely responsible for the observed auroral phenomena. Ulysses and HST portray a more Earth-like paradigm where electron acceleration in the outer magnetosphere near the boundary with the solar wind plays a distinct role in the formation of auroral hot spots, yet energetic heavy ions also enter into the picture (similar to the role of the energetic ions from the terrestrial ring current during magnetic substorms). These heavy ions as a result of excitation during their transit through the atmosphere produce the x ray emissions observed in Roentgensatellit (ROSAT) x ray energy spectra.

  14. Wormholes in chemical space connecting torus knot and torus link pi-electron density topologies.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Henry S

    2009-03-01

    Möbius aromaticities can be considered as deriving from cyclic delocalized pi-electron densities rho(r)(pi) which have the topological form of either a two-component torus link or a single-component torus knot. These two topological forms are distinguished by their (non-zero) linking number L(k), which describes how many times the two components of a torus link cross each other or the single component of a torus knot crosses with itself. The special case of Hückel or benzenoid aromaticity is associated with a pi-electron density that takes the form of a two-component torus link for which the linking number is zero. A class of molecule has been identified which here is termed a Janus aromatic, and which bears the characteristics of both a two-component torus link and a single-component torus knot in the topology of the pi-electron density. This is achieved by the formation of one (or more) wormholes or throats in the pi-electron density connecting the two torus forms, which can impart a Janus-like dual personality to the aromaticity of the system. The impact of such wormholes on the overall pi-delocalized aromaticity of such molecules is approximately estimated using a NICS(rcp) index, and subdivides into two types; those where the forms of aromaticity associated with a torus link and a torus knot cooperate and those where they oppose. PMID:19224034

  15. Three dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Ray tracing studies of Jovian low frequency emissions were studied. A comprehensive three-dimensional ray tracing computer code for examination of model Jovian decametric (DAM) emission was developed. The improvements to the computer code are outlined and described. The results of the ray tracings of Jovian emissions will be presented in summary form.

  16. A feasibility study for the spherical torus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1985-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes to build the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX), a very low aspect ratio toroidal confinement device. This proposal concentrates on tokamak operation of the experiment; however, it can in principle be operated as a pinch or reversed-field pinch as well. As a tokamak, the spherical torus confines a plasma that is characterized by high toroidal beta, low poloidal beta, large natural elongation, high plasma current for a given edge q, and strong paramagnetism. These features combine to offer the possibility of a compact, low-field fusion device. The figure below shows that when compared to a conventional tokamak the spherical torus represents a major change in geometry. The primary goals of the experiment will be to demonstrate a capability for high beta (20%) in the first stability regime, to extend our knowledge of tokamak confinement scaling, and to test oscillating-field current drive. The experiment will operate in the high-beta, collisionless regime, which is achieved in STX at low temperatures because of the geometry. At a minimum, operation of STX will help to resolve fundamental questions regarding the scaling of beta and confinement in tokamaks. Complete success in this program would have a significant impact on toroidal fusion research in that it would demonstrate solutions to the problems of beta and steady-state operation in the tokamak. The proposed device has a major radius of 0.45 m, a toroidai field of 0.5 T, a plasma current of 900 kA, and heating by neutral beam injection. We estimate 30 months for design, construction, and assembly. The budget estimate, including contingency and escalation, is $6.8 million.

  17. Voyager 2 - Energetic ions and electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, R. E.; Cummings, A. C.; Garrard, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Stone, E. C.; Trainor, J. H.; Schardt, A. W.; Conlon, T. F.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1979-01-01

    The passage of Voyager 2 through the Jovian magnetosphere demonstrated that this magnetosphere is highly variable, even as close as 10 Jupiter radii from the planet. The cosmic-ray subsystem measured the flux, elemental composition, and anisotropy of energetic particles. Its high sensitivity was particularly valuable during the long passage through the magnetotail, where particle fluxes were orders of magnitude less than in the inner magnetosphere and approached interplanetary values. The new data confirm earlier observations that the Jovian magnetosphere is a giant accelerator of particles - electrons, protons, and heavy ions, including sulfur. Both spatial and temporal changes are observed in the magnetosphere as compared to prior observations with Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1. It is suggested that the 10-hr modulation of interplanetary Jovian electrons may be associated with the arrival at the dawn magnetopause of a rarefaction region each planetary rotation.

  18. Cassini and Wind Stereoscopic Observations of Jovian Non-Thermal Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Michael L.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Zarka, P.

    1999-01-01

    During two intervals in 1999, simultaneous observations of Jupiter's decametric and hectometric radio emissions were made with the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) and the radio and plasma wave instrument (WAVES) on the Wind spacecraft in Earth orbit. During January, the Jovian longitude difference between the two spacecraft was about 5 deg, whereas for the August-September Earth flyby of Cassini, the angle ranged from 0 deg to about 2.5 deg. With these separations, the instantaneous widths of the walls of the hollow conical radiation beams of some of the decametric arcs were measured suggesting that the typical width is approximately 2 deg. The conical beams seem to move at Io's revolution rate rather than with Jupiter's rotation rate. Additionally, some of the non-arc emissions have very narrow and quite peculiar beamwidths.

  19. High-order magnetic multipoles as a source of gross asymmetry in the distant Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The longitudinal asymmetry of the surface magnetic-field strength at Jupiter causes a longitudinal asymmetry in the equatorial plasma mass density within the Jovian magnetosphere. The rotation of these density variations with the planet causes a diurnal variation of the radial distance on the night side at which the centrifugal stress of the magnetospheric plasma exceeds the local magnetic-field tension. This is approximately the distance at which the magnetic field opens to interplanetary space; we estimate that the opening distance can vary by as much as 14% as a result of the observed surface field asymmetry. Such a diurnal variation of the boundary of the particle trapping region can account for the observed ten-hour modulation of relativistic electrons emitted from Jupiter into interplanetary space.

  20. New Capabilities and Results for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.M. Kaye, H. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, F.M. Levinton, R. Maingi, J.E. Menard, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, D. Stutman and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-02-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas with toroidal aspect ratio as low as 1.25, which can be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves and up to 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. Using new poloidal fields coils, plasmas with cross-section elongation up to 2.7, triangularity 0.8, plasma currents Ip up to 1.5 MA and normalized currents Ip/a·BT up to 7.5 MA/m·T have been achieved. A significant extension of the plasma pulse length, to 1.5 s at a plasma current of 0.7 MA, has been achieved by exploiting the bootstrap and NBI-driven currents to reduce the dissipation of poloidal flux. Inductive plasma startup has been supplemented by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and the production of persistent current on closed flux surfaces by CHI has now been demonstrated in NSTX. The plasma response to magnetic field perturbations with toroidal mode numbers n = 1 or 3 and the effects on the plasma rotation have been investigated using three pairs of coils outside the vacuum vessel. Recent studies of both MHD stability and of transport benefitted from improved diagnostics, including measurements of the internal poloidal field using the motional Stark effect (MSE). In plasmas with a region of reversed magnetic shear in the core, now confirmed by the MSE data, improved electron confinement has been observed.

  1. Discussing the processes constraining the Jovian synchrotron radio emission's features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.

    2008-03-01

    Our recent analysis and understanding of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission with a radiation-belt model is presented. In this work, the electron population is determined by solving the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation and considering different physical processes. The results of the modeling are first compared to in situ particle data, brightness distributions, radio spectrum, and beaming curves to verify the simulated particle distributions. The dynamics of high-energy electrons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere and their related radio emission are then examined. The results demonstrate that the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron emission's brightness distribution along the magnetic equator. Simulations show that moons and dust both control the transport toward the planet by significantly reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate, near the equator and inside 1.8 Jovian radii, the innermost region of the magnetosphere. Due to interactions with dust and synchrotron mechanism, radiation-belt electrons are moved along field lines, between Metis (1.79 Jovian radii) and Amalthea (2.54 Jovian radii), toward high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce measurable secondary radio emissions. Among all the phenomena acting in the inner magnetosphere, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the primary moderator for the radiation's intensity at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the characteristics of the total radio flux with longitude. The sweeping effect amplifies the 10-h modulation of the beaming curve's amplitude while energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to phenomena adjusting it to the right level. Interactions with dust do not significantly constrain radio spectrum features. Resonances near Amalthea and Thebe are responsible for the Jovian radio spectrum's particular slope.

  2. US-Japan bumpy torus workshop. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A US-Japan ELMO Bumpy Torus Workshop was held on November 1 and 2, 1985 in Encinitas, California. The workshop focused on recent results from the Nagoya Bumpy Torus, EBT-1/S, and the proposed EBS program. The major results presented at the Workshop included extensive theoretical analyses of diamagnetic well formation by hot-electron rings in SM-1, a comprehensive review of recent experiments in NBT, and divertor concepts for EBS. Ikegami and Fujiwara summarized work on ring- and core-plasma properties, including conditions for stable ring operation, measurements of ring beta and the scaling of stored energy with heating power. Fujiwara reported a number of exciting results on ambipolar potential control in NBT. The successful outcome of ICRF experiments using twelve antennas was particularly striking. In operating regimes characterized by positive ambipolar potentials, the plasma density reached values in excess of 10/sup 13/cm/sup -3/ with ion temperatures in the 200 to 400 eV range. The plasma potential decayed with a time constant approach 0.1 sec after the ICRF pulse ended. These results appeared to be similar to predictions made over the past several years of greatly improved particle confinement in the positive ambipolar potential state.

  3. Initial Physics Operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment- Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Dennis; NSTX-U Team

    2015-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is an experiment designed to study the physics of Spherical Torus (ST) at about twice the toroidal field and neutral beam injection (NBI) power as NSTX for 5 s. at full parameters. In its initial operational period NSTX-U will limit operation to BT <= .75 T but the full complement of 6 neutral beam (NB) sources will be available. Three NB sources added during the upgrade inject more tangentially and will be essential to investigate the physics of neutral beam current drive. In NSTX-U, use of a digital real-time plasma control system and the application of wall conditioning techniques will be used to achieve routine operation with good confinement. The wall conditioning techniques include bakeout to over 300°C, helium glow discharge cleaning, boronization of the plasma facing surfaces using deuterated trimethylboron gas in a helium glow discharge and lithium evaporation onto the walls. Auxiliary heating by up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Waves will be available. The operational experience during the plasma commissioning phase will be discussed. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Analysis and Modeling of Jovian Radio Emissions Observed by Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    Our studies of Jovian radio emission have resulted in the publication of five papers in refereed journals, with three additional papers in progress. The topics of these papers include the study of narrow-band kilometric radio emission; the apparent control of radio emission by Callisto; quasi-periodic radio emission; hectometric attenuation lanes and their relationship to Io volcanic activity; and modeling of HOM attenuation lanes using ray tracing. A further study of the control of radio emission by Jovian satellites is currently in progress. Abstracts of each of these papers are contained in the Appendix. A list of the publication titles are also included.

  5. Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection. PMID:27005472

  6. Io-phase motion and jovian decametre source locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A second-order effect in the relationship between jovian decameter storms and the departure of Io from superior geocentric conjunction is explained on the basis of latitudinal variations in the earth-Jupiter viewing geometry. These variations are defined by the 12-year cycle in the jovicentric declination of the earth. In addition, it is found that the emission of the jovian decameter storm source Io-B (Io-C) is beamed from the northern (southern) magnetic latitudes. These conclusions are compatible with source positions derived from polarimetry and from considerations of planetary-limb shadowing.

  7. The Propagation of Jovian Electrons in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternal, O.; Heber, B.; Fichtner, H.; Burger, A.

    2009-04-01

    The propagation of energetic particles in the heliosphere is described by the Parker transport equation including the physical processes of diffusion, drift, convection and adiabatic energy changes. For the inner heliosphere the Jovian magnetosphere appears to be the dominant source of energetic electrons. Therefore the so-called Jovian electrons are nearly perfect test particles to study transport theories. In this contribution we present model calculations of the electron flux in Parker- and Fisk-type heliospheric magnetic field configurations and compare our results to spacecraft data.

  8. Channel and physical models of the Jovian subnebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    A semiempirical physical model of the Jovian subnebula was developed by analogy with the primitive solar nebula itself. The chemical aspects of this model are developed according to the principles developed in the study of the thermochemistry and gas kinetic behavior of the solar nebula, but with important modifications to take into account the higher pressures and densities in the Jovian subnebula. The bulk compositions and densities of the inner satellites of Jupiter are calculated. It is proposed that Europa differs from Io chiefly in that in has suffered a less severe thermal history. The general features of this model are applicable with minor modification to the systems of Saturn and Uranus.

  9. On the proposed triggering of Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1985-09-01

    Calvert (1985) has proposed that solar type III radio bursts can trigger the onset of certain Jovian hectometer wavelength emissions. The authors show, using the data obtained by the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment, that this triggering hypothesis is not supported statistically. Furthermore, the authors question the causality of this proposed triggering because much of the Jovian hectometer emission is due to a quasi-continuous radio source rotating, in lighthouse fashion, with Jupiter. Thus, an observed "onset" of emission is simply a function of the observer's position in local time around Jupiter.

  10. Eclipses by an elliptical torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effects of eclipses by a torus, including both the outer horizon and the inner or hole horizon, was developed. The procedure can be used for any of the simple figures of revolution encountered in binary-star models. That is, the thickness can be made negligible to produce a thin ring, the hole radius can be set to zero to yield a thin disk, the radius to the center of the elliptical meridian section can be brought to zero to give an ellipsoid of revolution, or the equatorial axis of the elliptical meridian section can be made to equal zero to produce a section of a right circular cylinder.

  11. The neutral cloud and heavy ion inner torus at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Pospieszalska, M. K.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cheng, A. F.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager plasma data are used in conjunction with laboratory data on water molecule sputter-yields and energy distributions to calculate the morphology of the Saturn neutral water molecule and dissociated water molecule-product torus coexisting with the E-ring and icy satellites of this planet. Plasma production rates determined for this cloud exhibit a structure with distance from Saturn as well as from the orbit plane; this suggests a lack of equilibrium for the heavy ion plasma at less than 7 planet radii. Attention is given to the possibility that the Saturn E-ring may be a precipitate of the neutral cloud that is initiated by low-energy ion-molecule reactions.

  12. Neutral cloud and heavy ion inner torus at Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Pospieszalska, M.K.; Sittler, E.C. Jr.; Cheng, A.F.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1989-02-01

    Voyager plasma data are used in conjunction with laboratory data on water molecule sputter-yields and energy distributions to calculate the morphology of the Saturn neutral water molecule and dissociated water molecule-product torus coexisting with the E-ring and icy satellites of this planet. Plasma production rates determined for this cloud exhibit a structure with distance from Saturn as well as from the orbit plane; this suggests a lack of equilibrium for the heavy ion plasma at less than 7 planet radii. Attention is given to the possibility that the Saturn E-ring may be a precipitate of the neutral cloud that is initiated by low-energy ion-molecule reactions. 61 references.

  13. Physics Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell for the NSTX Research Team

    2004-07-08

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas with aspect ratio A {triple_bond} R/a = 0.85m/0.68m {approx} 1.25, at plasma currents up to 1.5 MA with vacuum toroidal magnetic field up to 0.6 T on axis. The plasmas are heated by up to 6 MW of High-Harmonic Fast Waves (HHFW) at a frequency 30 MHz and by 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) at an energy up to 100 keV. Since January 2004, NSTX has been operating, routinely at toroidal fields up to 0.45 T, with a new central conductor bundle in the toroidal field coil.

  14. PINCHED PLASMA REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.A.; Suydam, R.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-07-01

    BS>A plasma confining and heating reactor is described which has the form of a torus with a B/sub 2/ producing winding on the outside of the torus and a helical winding of insulated overlapping tunns on the inside of the torus. The inner helical winding performs the double function of shielding the plasma from the vitreous container and generating a second B/sub z/ field in the opposite direction to the first B/sub z/ field after the pinch is established.

  15. Formation of the oxygen torus in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nos, M.; Oimatsu, S.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Pascuale, S. De; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Nakano, S.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    We study the formation process of an oxygen torus during the 12-15 November 2012 magnetic storm, using the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by Van Allen Probes. We estimate the local plasma mass density (?L) and the local electron number density (neL) from the resonant frequencies of standing Alfvn waves and the upper hybrid resonance band. The average ion mass (M) can be calculated by M ?L/neL under the assumption of quasi-neutrality of plasma. During the storm recovery phase, both Probe A and Probe B observe the oxygen torus at L = 3.0-4.0 and L = 3.7-4.5, respectively, on the morning side. The oxygen torus has M = 4.5-8 amu and extends around the plasmapause that is identified at L3.2-3.9. We find that during the initial phase, M is 4-7 amu throughout the plasma trough and remains at 1 amu in the plasmasphere, implying that ionospheric O+ ions are supplied into the inner magnetosphere already in the initial phase of the magnetic storm. Numerical calculation under a decrease of the convection electric field reveals that some of thermal O+ ions distributed throughout the plasma trough are trapped within the expanded plasmasphere, whereas some of them drift around the plasmapause on the dawnside. This creates the oxygen torus spreading near the plasmapause, which is consistent with the Van Allen Probes observations. We conclude that the oxygen torus identified in this study favors the formation scenario of supplying O+ in the inner magnetosphere during the initial phase and subsequent drift during the recovery phase.

  16. Structure of the Jovian Magnetodisk Current Sheet: Initial Galileo Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Huddleston, D. E.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The ten-degree tilt of the Jovian magnetic dipole causes the magnetic equator to move back and forth across Jupiter's rotational equator and tile Galileo orbit that lies therein. Beyond about 24 Jovian radii, the equatorial current sheet thins and tile magnetic structure changes from quasi-dipolar into magnetodisk-like with two regions of nearly radial but antiparallel magnetic field separated by a strong current layer. The magnetic field at the center of the current sheet is very weak in this region. Herein we examine tile current sheet at radial distances from 24 55 Jovian radii. We find that the magnetic structure very much resembles tile structure seen at planetary magnetopause and tail current sheet crossings. Tile magnetic field variation is mainly linear with little rotation of the field direction, At times there is almost no small-scale structure present and the normal component of the magnetic field is almost constant through the current sheet. At other times there are strong small-scale structures present in both the southward and northward directions. This small-scale structure appears to grow with radial distance and may provide the seeds for tile explosive reconnection observed at even greater radial distances oil tile nightside. Beyond about 40 Jovian radii, the thin current sheet also appears to be almost constantly in oscillatory motion with periods of about 10 min. The amplitude of these oscillations also appears to grow with radial distance. The source of these fluctuations may be dynamical events in tile more distant magnetodisk.

  17. Analysis of Jovian decamteric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. N.; Hammerschlag, R.

    1986-01-01

    This research effort involved careful examination of Jovian radio emission data below 40 MHz, with emphasis on the informative observations of the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment (PRA) on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The work is divided into three sections, decametric arcs, decametric V bursts, and hectometric modulated spectral activity (MSA).

  18. Confinement of Neutral Beam Ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg

    2001-12-18

    The loss of neutral-beam ions to the wall has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by means of thermocouples, an infrared (IR) camera, and a Faraday cup probe. The losses tend to exhibit the expected dependences on plasma current, tangency radius of the injector, and plasma outer gap. However, the thermocouples and the Faraday cups indicate substantially different levels of loss and this difference has yet to be understood.

  19. Ion partitioning in the hot Io torus - The influence of S2 outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, M. A.; Newman, W. I.; Kivelson, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative time-independent model of the ion partitioning in the hot Io torus is proposed which introduces the ratio of sulfur to oxygen in the neutral source as a free parameter. Measurements of the ion abundances in the torus plasma are presented and discussed, noting some ambiguities and identifying the features that are well established. Physical processes important to the understanding of the ion partitioning calculation are reviewed. The results of the model are discussed in the context of observational constraints, and spectroscopic constraints are discussed. It is concluded that a bimodal source model, together with a small percentage of hot electrons and a relatively short diffusion time scale, can account for the principal observational features without invoking significant time variability. In particular, the O III deficiency observed in 1981 can be obtained in a model that produces other aspects of the torus ion partitioning measured during the Voyager 1 encounter.

  20. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJAN POPULATION: TAXONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 {mu}m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 {mu}m can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L {sub 4}), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L {sub 5}), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L {sub 4}/L {sub 5} = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  1. Electron distributions in the inner Jovian magnetosphere: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, G.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1993-12-01

    Using several improvements in the analysis of the observations of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1, electron phase space densities in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (5 - 10 RJ were first calculated at constant first and second invariants (represented by mu and K, respectively), based on the LECP measurements. The calculated electron phase space density profiles show that in the inner Jovian magnetosphere there exist evident time and longitude variations, energetic electron injections, and present radial transport and distributed losses. To study the radial and pitch angle diffusions of Jovian electrons, we have calculated the phase space densities in the K-L space. It is found that the electron population in the inner Jovian magnetosphere seems to consist of two components: electrons radially diffusing from a main external source and electrons generated from local sources. The radially diffusing electrons have a relatively time stationary and isotropic distribution, while the locally created electrons mainly concentrate around the equatorial plane and have relatively lower energies, in comparison with the inward diffusing electrons. Consequently, the sources of precipitation losses to the ionosphere must be primarily electrons transported from outer sources, and the major precipitations occur in the inner magnetosphere (L less than 7.5 RJ. In the inner Jovian magnetosphere (L = 5 to approximately 10 RJ) it is estimated that for electrons with magnetic moment mu = 300 MeV/G, the diffusion coefficient D is roughly 10-8 to approximately 10-6 R2J/s, and the lifetime against the diffusion losses is of the order of 104 to approximately 106 s.

  2. Engineering Overview of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C. Author

    1997-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project will provide a national facility for the study of plasma confinement, heating, and current drive in a low-aspect-ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration. The ST configuration is an alternate confinement concept which is characterized by high beta, high elongation, high bootstrap fraction, and low toroidal magnetic field compared to conventional tokamaks. The NSTX is the next-step ST experiment following smaller experiments such as the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory CDX-U (Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade), the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) at Culham Laboratory, UK, and the HIT (Helicity Injected Tokamak) at the University of Washington, and it is smaller in scale to the MAST (Meg-Amp Spherical Tokamak) machine now under construction at Culham.This paper provides a description of the NSTX mission and gives an overview of the main engineering features of the design of the machine and facility and discusses some of the key design solutions.

  3. Near-infrared brightness of the Galilean satellites eclipsed in Jovian shadow: A new technique to investigate Jovian upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, K.; Arimatsu, K.; Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Wada, T.; Egami, E.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Honda, C.; Kimura, J.; Kuramoto, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Surace, J.

    2014-07-10

    Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, we have discovered that Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are bright around 1.5 μm even when not directly lit by sunlight. The observations were conducted with non-sidereal tracking on Jupiter outside of the field of view to reduce the stray light subtraction uncertainty due to the close proximity of Jupiter. Their eclipsed luminosity was 10{sup –6}-10{sup –7} of their uneclipsed brightness, which is low enough that this phenomenon has been undiscovered until now. In addition, Europa in eclipse was <1/10 of the others at 1.5 μm, a potential clue to the origin of the source of luminosity. Likewise, Ganymede observations were attempted at 3.6 μm by the Spitzer Space Telescope, but it was not detected, suggesting a significant wavelength dependence. It is still unknown why they are luminous even when in the Jovian shadow, but forward-scattered sunlight by hazes in the Jovian upper atmosphere is proposed as the most plausible candidate. If this is the case, observations of these Galilean satellites while eclipsed by the Jovian shadow provide us with a new technique to investigate the Jovian atmospheric composition. Investigating the transmission spectrum of Jupiter by this method is important for investigating the atmosphere of extrasolar giant planets by transit spectroscopy.

  4. Astronomical studies of the major planets, natural satellites and asteroids using the 2.24 m telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Ground based detection of east-west asymmetries in the Jovian torus, three dimensional models of the plasma conditions in the Jovian torus, rotational variations in methane band images of Neptune, Io's rapid flickering, thermophysical models, the diameters and albedos of the satellites of Uranus from radiometric observations, the diameters of Pluto and Triton, standard stars are discussed.

  5. S-burst storms of jovian decametric emission as a test of hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Rucker, Helmut O.

    2012-07-01

    The two-dimensional correlation analysis is applied to the study of hidden patterns in the broadband S-burst storms of jovian decametric emission. It was found that the phenomenon of S-bursts is much more complex than generally assumed. Thus, there are clear “fingerprints” of the low-altitude acceleration of the radio-sources in the standing dispersive Alfvén wave. This implies that the S-burst emission, like AKR near the Earth, is generated inside depleted cavities with tenuous and hot plasma. In addition, the correlation patterns of radio storms revealed the considerable dispersion (-17.3±1.4 MHz/s at 25 MHz) of S-burst emission. These finds are new ingredients for the dominating theory of S-bursts.

  6. Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low-frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Gulkis, S.; Six, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian DAM emission has been performed utilizing the O-4 magnetic field model (Acuna and Ness, 1979) and a realistic plasma model. Minimal assumptions about the emission mechanism have been made that include radiation in the right-hand extraordinary mode, propagating nearly perpendicular to the field line at source points located just above the RX cutoff frequency along Io flux tubes. Ray tracing has been performed in the frequency range from 2-35 MHz from successive Io flux tubes separated by ten degrees of central meridian longitude for a full circumference of northern hemisphere sources. The results show unusual complexity in model arc spectra that is displayed in a constant Io phase format with many similarities to the Voyager PRA data. The results suggest much of the variation in observed DAM spectral features is a result of propagation effects rather than emission process differences.

  7. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  8. A Collective Scattering System for Measuring Electron Gyroscale Fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.

    2009-02-13

    A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.

  9. Spoke wavenumbers and mode transitions in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdin, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Waveforms of fluctuations of plasma potential, resulting from rotating electron and ion charge concentrations, were observed in a bumpy torus. Since these fluctuations were thought to be spoke rotations in the direction of the ExB drift, measuring the direction of spoke rotation should determine the direction of the electric fields over much of the plasma surface. A Langmuir probe was inserted into the plasma to measure the floating potential of the plasma, hence the direction of the electric field could be checked another way.

  10. Relationship between Jovian Hectometric Attenuation Lanes And Io Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Within the Galileo plasma wave instrument data a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band is seen in the hectometric (HOM) emission that varies in frequency with system III longitude. This attenuation lane is believed to be the result of near-grazing incidence or coherent scattering of radio emission near the outer edge of the Io torus, i.e., when the ray path is nearly tangent to an L shell containing the Io flux tube. Such a process should, therefore, be enhanced when the Io volcanic activity is increased and the Io flux tube has enhanced density. We have performed a systematic study of the existing Galileo radio emission data in an effort to determine the phenomenology and frequency of occurrence of the attenuation lanes and the association, if any, with published volcanic activity of Io. Our results indicate that the attenuation lanes are present almost all of the time but are enhanced on occasion. The best examples of attenuation lanes occur when Galileo is within approximately 65 R(sub J) of Jupiter and thus are probably more apparent because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the radio receivers. The lack of continuous monitoring of Io activity and the lack of known activity on the anti-Earthward side of Io are problematic and make detailed correlation with radio emission very difficult at this time. Nevertheless, if the data are displayed for periods when the spacecraft is within 65 R(sub J) (i.e., for each perijove pass), then the highest-contrast lanes occur on most passes when the Io volcanic activity is also high for that pass. These results support our current understanding of attenuation lane formation and suggest that future efforts can be made to better understand the interaction of HOM emission with the Io flux tube.

  11. Studies for the Europagenic Plasma Source in Jupiter's Inner Magnetosphere during the Galileo Europa Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in research to understand the three-dimensional nature of the Europagenic plasma torus is summarized. Efforts to improve the plasma torus description near Europa's orbit have included a better understanding of Europa's orbit and an improved description of the planetary magnetic field. New plasma torus chemistry for molecular and atomic species has been introduced and implemented in Europa neutral cloud models. Preliminary three-dimensional model calculations for Europa's neutral clouds and their plasma sources are presented.

  12. BVR Color Survey of the Jovian Irregular Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettig, T. W.; Walsh, K.

    2002-09-01

    BVR colors and magnitudes are presented for four Jovian irregular prograde satellites (Himalia J6, Elara J7, Lysithea J10 and Leda J13) and four irregular retrograde satellites (Pasiphae J8, Sinope J9, Carme J11 and Ananke J12). All eight have generally `solar' colors but the retrograde group has slightly redder and more diverse colors. The strikingly similar colors of the four prograde satellites suggests the parent planetesimal was likely very homogeneous. The four retrograde satellites show diversity in color that suggests a heterogeneous progenitor and thus, variations in pre-capture formation history. The absolute magnitudes and revised diameters are presented. We also report new colors and diameters for two Uranian irregular satellites (Caliban (S/1997 U1) and Sycorax (S/1997 U2)). The Uranian satellite colors are slightly redder than the eight Jovian satellites studied.

  13. A BVR Colors of Eight Jovian Irregular Satellites -- Evolutionary Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettig, T. W.; Walsh, K.

    2001-11-01

    We present BVR colors and magnitudes for four Jovian irregular prograde satellites (Himalia J6, Elara J7, Lysithea J10 and Leda J13) and four irregular retrograde satellites (Pasiphae J8, Sinope J9, Carme J11 and Ananke J12). All eight have generally `solar' colors but the retrograde group has slightly redder and more diverse colors. The strikingly similar colors of the four prograde satellites suggests the parent planetesimal was likely very homogeneous. The four retrograde satellites show diversity in color that suggests a heterogeneous progenitor and thus, variations in pre-capture formation history. The absolute magnitudes and revised diameters are presented. We also report new colors and diameters for two Uranian irregular satellites (Caliban (S/1997 U1) and Sycorax (S/1997 U2)) that are slightly redder than any of these Jovian satellites.

  14. A CCD comparison of outer Jovian satellites and Trojan asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1991-01-01

    The eight small outer Jovian satellites are not as well known as the brighter, more illustrious Galilean satellites. They are divided into two groups, each containing four satellites; the inner group travels in prograde orbits while the outer group travels in retrograde orbits. From the distinct orbital characteristics of the two groups, most of the theories of their origin involve the capture and breakup of two planetesimals upon entry into the atmosphere of proto-Jupiter. Their proximity to the Trojans asteroids has led to conjectures of a link between them and the Trojans. However, Tholen and Zellner (1984) found no red spectrum among six of the satellites and postulated that they were all C-type objects; therefore, they were unlikely to be derivatives of the Trojan population. Charge-coupled device (CCD) photometry and spectroscopy of the eight outer Jovian satellites obtained from 1987 to 1989 and a comparison between these eight satellites and the Trojan asteroids are presented.

  15. Io as a source of the jovian dust streams

    PubMed

    Graps; Grun; Svedhem; Kruger; Horanyl; Heck; Lammers

    2000-05-01

    Streams of dust emerging from the direction of Jupiter were discovered in 1992 during the flyby of the Ulysses spacecraft, but their precise origin within the jovian system remained unclear. Further data collected by the Galileo spacecraft, which has been orbiting Jupiter since December 1995, identified the possible sources of dust as Jupiter's main ring, its gossamer ring, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (ref. 8) and Io. All but Jupiter's gossamer ring and Io have since been ruled out. Here we find that the dominant source of the jovian dust streams is Io, on the basis of periodicities in the dust impact signal. Io's volcanoes, rather than impact ejecta, are the dust sources. PMID:10811212

  16. Particles, environments, and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The possible existence of indigenous Jovian organisms is investigated by characterizing the relevant physical environment of Jupiter, discussing the chromophores responsible for the observed coloration of the planet, and analyzing some permissible ecological niches of hypothetical organisms. Values of the eddy diffusion coefficent are estimated separately for the convective troposphere and the more stable mesosphere, and equilibrium condensation is studied for compounds containing Na, Cl, or both. The photoproduction of chromophores and nonequilibrium organic molecules is analyzed, and the motion of hypothetical organisms is examined along with the diffusion of metabolites and the consequent growth of organisms. Four kinds of organisms are considered: primary photosynthetic autotrophs ('sinkers'), larger autotrophs or heterotrophs that actively maintain their pressure level ('floaters'), organisms that seek out others ('hunters'), and organisms that live at almost pyrolytic depths ('scavengers'). It is concluded that ecological niches for sinkers, floaters, and hunters appear to exist in the Jovian atmosphere.

  17. Theoretical predictions of deuterium abundances in the Jovian planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.; MacFarlane, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Current concepts for the origin of the Jovian planets and current constraints on their interior structure are used to support the argument that the presence of large amounts of 'ice' (H2O, CH4, and NH3) in Uranus and Neptune indicates temperature low enough to condense these species at the time Uranus and Neptune formed. Such low temperatures, however, imply orders-of-magnitude fractionation effects for deuterium into the 'ice' component if isotopic equilibration can occur. The present models thus imply that Uranus and Neptune should have D/H ratio at least four times primordial, contrary to observation for Uranus. It is found that the Jovian and Saturnian D/H should be close to primordial regardless of formation scenario.

  18. The Jovian hectometric radiation - an overview after the Voyager mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladreiter, H. P.; Leblanc, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The main characteristics and the inferred properties of the hectometric (HOM) radiation which was observed by IMP-6, RAE-1 and Voyager spacecraft are reviewed. This includes the occurrence of HOM in Jovian longitude, the strong beaming in latitude, the polarization properties, the local time effect, and the solar wind control of the emission. Like many radio emissions observed at the other magnetized planets, the hectometric components is likely to be generated in the R-X mode from sources in the northern and southern auroral zones. The emission is beamed along the surface of hollow cones and is possibly produced by the cyclotron maser mechanism. The HOM sources extend up to 7 R(J) (Jovian radii) along field lines near L = 20 in the auroral zone; they are distinct from the Io-controlled decametric (DAM) sources but are probably the extension of the non-Io DAM sources.

  19. The dynamics of a high-speed Jovian jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.

    1984-01-01

    New measurements of the velocity field in the neighborhood of the high-speed jet located at approximately 24 deg N latitude in the Jovian atmosphere are presented. The maximum zonal velocity is found to be 182 + or - 10 m/s, located at 23.7 + or - 0.2 deg N and representing the largest velocity measured on the planet. The distinctive cloud markings found close to this latitude are discussed and possible dynamical consequences presented.

  20. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune explains the transition from a prograde to a retrograde equatorial jet, while the broader jets are due to the deformation radius being a larger fraction of the planetary radius.

  1. A Nuclear Ramjet Flyer for Exploration of Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maise, G.; Powell, J.; Paniagua, J.; Lecat, R.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the design, operation, and data gathering possibilities of a nuclear-powered ramjet flyer in the Jovian atmosphere. The MITEE nuclear rocket engine can be modified to operate as a ramjet in planetary atmospheres. (Note: MITEE is a compact, ultra-light-weight thermal nuclear rocket which uses hydrogen as the propellant.) To operate as a ramjet, MITEE requires a suitable inlet and diffuser to substitute for the propellant that is pumped from the supply tanks in a nuclear rocket engine. Such a ramjet would fly in the upper Jovian atmosphere, mapping in detail temperatures, pressures, compositions, lightning activity, and wind speeds in the highly turbulent equatorial zone and the Great Red Spot. The nuclear ramjet could operate for months because: (1) the Jovian atmosphere has unlimited propellant, (2) the MITEE nuclear reactor is a (nearly) unlimited power source, and (3) with few moving parts, mechanical wear should be minimal. This paper presents a conceptual design of a ramjet flyer and its nuclear engine. The flyer incorporates a swept-wing design with instruments located in the twin wing-tip pods (away from the radiation source and readily shielded, if necessary). The vehicle is 2 m long with a 2 m wingspan. Its mass is 220 kg, and its nominal flight Mach number is 1.5. Based on combined neutronic and thermal/hydraulic analyses, we calculated that the ambient pressure range over which the flyer can operate to be from about 0.04 to 4 (terrestrial) atmospheres. This altitude range encompasses the three uppermost cloud layers in the Jovian atmosphere: (1) the entire uppermost visible NH3 ice cloud layer (where lightning has been observed), (2) the entire NH4HS ice cloud layer, and (3) the upper portion of the H2O ice cloud layer.

  2. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.

    2011-11-20

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than {approx}10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 {+-} 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 {+-} 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.2, lower than the 1.6 {+-} 0.1 value derived by Szabo et al.

  3. Long-term resonances between two Jovian exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horedt, G. P.

    2015-11-01

    Within the plane planetary problem we present two new approaches for the determination of purely resonant eccentricity and semimajor axis variations in terms of simple, closed algebraic relationships. We consider the motion of two Jovian exoplanets in 2:1, 3:1, and 7:4 resonance. Even with initial eccentricities of 0.05, we have found two numerical examples of purely resonant motion of two Jovian exoplanets in 2:1 and 3:1 resonance, fitting throughout the theoretical relationships for over 10^5 revolutions of the outer exoplanet. The maximum eccentricities of the two Jovian exoplanets are <0.15<0.15, if the initial ratio of semimajor axes is <0.6992<0.6992 and the initial eccentricities are ≤0.05. During intervals of negligible secular perturbations, the agreement between theoretical and numerical maximum resonant eccentricity variations is generally much better than within a factor of 2. The theoretical and calculated maximum eccentricity of a Plutino in 2:3 resonance with Neptune is >0.053.

  4. Particles, environments and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The eddy diffusion coefficient is estimated as a function of altitude, separately for the Jovian troposphere and mesosphere. Complex organic molecules produced by the Ly alpha photolysis of methane may possibly be the absorbers in the lower mesosphere which account for the low reflectivity of Jupiter in the near ultraviolet. The optical frequency chromophores are localized at or just below the Jovian tropopause. Candidate chromophore molecules must satisfy the condition that they are produced sufficiently rapidly that convective pyrolysis maintains the observed chromophore optical depth. The condition is satisfied if complex organic chromophores are produced with high quantum yield by NH3 photolysis at less than 2,300 A. Jovian photoautotrophs in the upper troposphere satisfy this condition well, even with fast circulation, assuming only biochemical properties of comparable terrestrial organisms. An organism in the form of a thin, gas filled balloon can grow fast enough to replicate if (1) it can survive at the low mesospheric temperatures, or if (2) photosynthesis occurs in the troposphere.

  5. Temperature structure and emergent flux of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvaggio, P.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    Long path, low temperature, moderate resolution spectra of methane and ammonia, broadened by hydrogen and helium, are used to calculate non-gray model atmospheres for the four Jovian planets. The fundamental and first overtone of hydrogen contributes enough absorption to create a thermal inversion for each of the planets. The suite of emergent spectral fluxes and representative limb darkenings and brightenings are calculated for comparison with the Voyager infrared spectra. The temperature differences between Jovian belts and zones corresponds to a difference in the ammonia cirrus particle radii (1 to 3 micron in zones; 10 micron in belts). The Jovian tropopause is approximately at the 0.1 bar level. A thin ammonia cirrus haze should be distributed throughout the Saturnian troposphere; and NH3 gas must be slightly supersaturated or ammonia ice particles are carried upwards convectively in the upper troposphere of Saturn. Substantial methane clouds exist on both Uranus and Neptune. There is some evidence for almost isothermal structures in the deep atmospheres of these two planets.

  6. Engineering design of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; J. Spitzer, J. Chrzanowski; et al

    2000-05-11

    NSTX is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at exploring the physics of the ``spherical torus'' (ST) configuration, which is predicted to exhibit more efficient magnetic confinement than conventional large aspect ratio tokamaks, amongst other advantages. The low aspect ratio (R/a, typically 1.2--2 in ST designs compared to 4--5 in conventional tokamaks) decreases the available cross sectional area through the center of the torus for toroidal and poloidal field coil conductors, vacuum vessel wall, plasma facing components, etc., thus increasing the need to deploy all components within the so-called ``center stack'' in the most efficient manner possible. Several unique design features have been developed for the NSTX center stack, and careful engineering of this region of the machine, utilizing materials up to their engineering allowables, has been key to meeting the desired objectives. The design and construction of the machine has been accomplished in a rapid and cost effective manner thanks to the availability of extensive facilities, a strong experience base from the TFTR era, and good cooperation between institutions.

  7. Performance of a 12-coil superconducting bumpy torus magnet facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Final shakedown tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The facility is now ready for use as a plasma physics research facility. A maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis of 3.23 teslas was held for a period of more than sixty minutes without a coil normalcy. The design field was 3.00 teslas. The steady-state liquid helium boil-off rate was 87 liters per hour of liquid helium without the coils charged. The coil array was stable when subjected to an impulsive loading, even with the magnets fully charged. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 teslas, the system was driven normal without damage.

  8. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of 7 km on 1) an ocean and 2) a layer of bedrock. Knowledge of the ionospheric contributions to the time delay of the low-frequency subsurface radar is shown to be important in obtaining accurate depth information.

  9. Jovian thundercloud observation with Jovian orbiter and ground-based telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Sato, Mitsuteru; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Yair, Yoav; Fischer, Georg; Aplin, Karen

    The latest observational and theoretical studies suggest that thunderstorms in Jupiter's at-mosphere are very important subject not only for understanding of meteorology, which may determine the large scale structures such as belt/zone and big ovals, but also for probing the water abundance of the deep atmosphere, which is crucial to constrain the behavior of volatiles in early solar system. Here we suggest a very simple high-speed imager on board Jovian orbiter, Optical Lightning Detector, OLD, optimized for detecting optical emissions from lightning dis-charge in Jupiter. OLD consists of radiation-tolerant CMOS sensors and two H Balmer Alpha line (656.3nm) filters. In normal sampling mode the frame intervals is 29ms with a full frame format of 512x512 pixels and in high-speed sampling mode the interval could be reduced down to 0.1ms by concentrating a limited area of 30x30 pixels. Weight, size and power consump-tion are about 1kg, 16x7x5.5 cm (sensor) and 16x12x4 cm (circuit), and 4W, respectively, though they can be reduced according to the spacecraft resources and required environmental tolerance. Also we plan to investigate the optical flashes using a ground-based middle-sized telescope, which will be built by Hokkaido University, with narrow-band high speed imaging unit using an EM-CCD camera. Observational strategy with these optical lightning detectors and spectral imagers, which enables us to estimate the horizontal motion and altitude of clouds, will be introduced.

  10. Plasma pressure in the environment of Jupiter, inferred from voyager 1 magnetometer observations

    SciTech Connect

    Caudal, G.; Connerney, J.E.P. )

    1989-11-01

    A spherical harmonic model of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field is combined with a self-consistent model of the Jovian magnetodisc. Assuming that the pressure P in the middle (and outer) magnetosphere is related to the unit flux tube volume V through PV{sup {gamma}} = const, the fit yields a value of 0.88 for {gamma}. If the hot (30 keV) plasma is transported adiabatically inward under the interchange instability triggered by the centrifugal force of the heavy torus ions, losses are not sufficient to account for such a low value of {gamma} beyond L = 10. Closer to the planet, as the outer edge of the Io plasma torus is approached (at distances between 7 and 9 R{sub j} from Jupiter), PV{sup {gamma}} is found to decrease inward, as expected from the particle measurements, which identified an inner boundary of the particle fluxes in that region. At the magnetic equator, the pressure estimates were compared with the ones obtained from direct particle measurements (low-energy charged particle (LECP) experiment). Assuming a mixture of O{sup +} and H{sup +} at the same temperature (or with the same power law exponent), consistency between those two independent determinations of the pressure would require that the pressure produced by H{sup +} constitute 18-36% (at most) of the total pressure, at distances between 13 and 21 R{sub J}. Finally, as concerns the internal field coefficients, despite an overall consistency, a slight variability is found between the present estimates and previous ones derived from the same data set, which puts some limitations on the accuracy with which internal coefficients can be determined from the Voyager 1 encounter alone.

  11. Overview of results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Brower, D.; Bush, C.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Carter, M.; Caughman, J.; Chang, C.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Efthimion, P.; Ejiri, A.; Ershov, N.; Evans, T.; Feibush, E.; Fenstermacher, M.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Funaba, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grisham, L.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Hosea, J.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Idehara, T.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ishida, A.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Ji, H.; Jung, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kawamori, E.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kimura, H.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Krstic, P.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mitarai, O.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, S.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nagayama, Y.; Nelson, B.; Nguyen, X.; Nishino, N.; Nishiura, M.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Pacella, D.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redd, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scott, S.; Shaing, K.; Sharpe, P.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, S.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Strait, T.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, R.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Ticos, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Turrnbull, A.; Tynan, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Utergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Welander, A.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Xu, X.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zweben, S.

    2009-10-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high β operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of high harmonic fast-waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance li ~ 0.4 with strong shaping (κ ~ 2.7, δ ~ 0.8) with βN approaching the with-wall β-limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction fNI ~ 71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfvénic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfvénic. Linear toroidal Alfvén eigenmode thresholds and appreciable fast ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared with theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is an important result for ITER. Resistive wall mode/resonant field amplification feedback combined with n = 3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with β above the no-wall limit. Other highlights are results of lithium coating experiments, momentum confinement studies, scrape-off layer width scaling, demonstration of divertor heat load mitigation in strongly shaped plasmas and coupling of coaxial helicity injection plasmas to ohmic heating ramp-up. These results advance the ST towards next step fusion energy devices such as NHTX and ST-CTF.

  12. Magnetic Topology of the Deep Jovian Magnetotail Probed with Measurements and Modeling of Energetic Particles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. E.; Chollet, E. E.; McNutt, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    We have strong observational evidence that the magnetic field lines of Jupiter are oriented nearly radially along the Sun-Jupiter line, contrary to many expectations. But some contemporaneous observations have led to a plasmoid interpretation, and these two views are not simple to reconcile. In 2007 a gravitational assist sent the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft almost directly down the Jovian magnetotail, fortuitously permitting the half-year campaign to ~2500 Jovian radii. The PEPSSI (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation) instrument on New Horizons detects ions above ~2 keV/nucleon and below about 1 MeV, and observed sulfur rich energetic particle bursts with a quasi-periodicity of 3-4 days. In an event studied in detail the pattern of wavy magnetic field filaments, while actively filling with particles from a burst, passed over New Horizons, allowing estimates of the field curvature and limits on the sharpness of the filament boundaries. Taken together with several other events, the direct magnetic connection and common source region led to the radial field interpretation; and the rich PEPSSI dataset has heretofore only partially been employed. We have expanded the investigation further by first setting up a numerical model of a time-varying, self-consistent magnetic field and plasma flow to simulate a pattern of wavy filaments. We then injected a spectrum of particles that transport down the tail and are observed by a virtual spacecraft. Comparison between model and observational data provides a more rigorous tool to understand the enigmatic magnetotail of Jupiter.

  13. Jovian S emission: Model of radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, B. P.

    1994-04-01

    A physical model of the radiation source and an excitation mechanism have been suggested for the S component in Jupiter's sporadic radio emission. The model provides a unique explanation for most of the interrelated phenomena observed, allowing a consistent interpretation of the emission cone structure, behavior of the integrated radio spectrum, occurrence probability of S bursts, location and size of the radiation source, and fine structure of the dynamic spectra. The mechanism responsible for the S bursts is also discussed in connection with the L type emission. Relations are traced between parameters of the radio emission and geometry of the Io flux tube. Fluctuations in the current amplitude through the tube are estimated, along with the refractive index value and mass density of the plasma near the radiation source.

  14. A dawn-to-dusk electric field in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Goertz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that if Io-injected plasma is lost via a planetary wind a sun-fixed Birkeland current system may result. This is due to the fact that a current flows across a density gradient produced by the loss of plasma through the planetary wind in the tail. The divergent current is connected to field-aligned Birkeland currents which flow into the ionosphere at dawn and out of it at dusk. The closure currents in the ionosphere require a dawn-to-dusk electric field which at the orbit of Io is estimated to have a strength of a few mV/m. Independent estimates derived from the local time asymmetry of the torus u.v. emission indicate a field of 1.5 mV/m.

  15. Characterization and parametric dependencies of low wavenumber pedestal turbulence in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2013-05-15

    The spherical torus edge region is among the most challenging regimes for plasma turbulence simulations. Here, we measure the spatial and temporal properties of ion-scale turbulence in the steep gradient region of H-mode pedestals during edge localized mode-free, MHD quiescent periods in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 ρ{sub i}, and decorrelation times are about 5 a/c{sub s}. Next, we introduce a model aggregation technique to identify parametric dependencies among turbulence quantities and transport-relevant plasma parameters. The parametric dependencies show the most agreement with transport driven by trapped-electron mode, kinetic ballooning mode, and microtearing mode turbulence, and the least agreement with ion temperature gradient turbulence. In addition, the parametric dependencies are consistent with turbulence regulation by flow shear and the empirical relationship between wider pedestals and larger turbulent structures.

  16. EBW Heating Experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.

    2005-10-01

    A heating and current drive system based on the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is being constructed on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The EBW may facilitate auxiliary heating and current drive in the overdense RFP plasma where ECCD is inaccessible, and may improve stability to tearing modes by supplying the appropriate parallel current. The first step in the experiment is operational and supplies a 10 msec, 120 kW pulse of 3.6 GHz rf power to the plasma edge. Measurements of reflected power can be as low as 20%, in agreement with coupling measurements made at low power for this antenna. Successful operation at this level validates the technical design for a higher power (300 kW) system based on the same type of antenna (S-band waveguide grill), vacuum windows, and rf sources (75 kW traveling wave tube amplifiers). It has been empirically determined that a dielectric antenna cover is necessary for high power operation. With no cover, plasma from the turbulent edge travels into the antenna resulting in poor coupling and transmission line failure. Experiments show that power handling of the antenna is sensitive to the antenna position, edge plasma conditions, and specific features of the dielectric antenna cover. Although not expected to have a significant effect at this power level (PEBW<< Pφ), data from x-ray and other distribution function diagnostics may show faint signs of heating and are compared to predictions from Fokker-Planck computations.

  17. Energetic Ion Behavior in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-06-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral beam injection (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Typical NSTX parameters are R(sub)0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(sub)p less than or equal to 1.5 MA, B(sub)T = 0.3-0.6 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral beam sources have injected P(sub)NB less than or equal to 6.2 MW at energies E(sub)b less than or equal to 100 keV. HHFW heating has delivered up to P(sub)RF approximately equal to 6 MW to deuterium and helium plasmas.

  18. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder

    2010-06-04

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  19. Comparison of plasma results in EBT-1 and NBT-1M

    SciTech Connect

    Colchin, R.J.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    Plasma results from the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT-1) and Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT-1M) experiments are compared. Both devices have 24 mirror field coils arranged to form a torus, and both use 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating power. The main difference is that NBT-1M is somewhat (approx. 30%) smaller than EBT-1. However, when plasma results are scaled to eliminate this size discrepancy, plasma results are found to be nearly equivalent in both bumpy tori.

  20. The Composition and Physical Structure of the Io Torus and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Generally speaking the goal of the research was to provide detailed spectral analysis of a Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope EUV/FUV spectrum of the Io plasma torus. The specific research tasks outlined to achieve this goal were: Line identifications and brightnesses. Verify line identifications with independent data sets. Simple physical modeling to derive ne, ni, Te. Determine neutral source rates. Determine implications of minor species abundances for Io processes. Determine spatial structure from HUT data.

  1. Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

    1990-05-01

    The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

  2. Observations of the He+ pickup ion torus velocity distribution function with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taut, Andreas; Berger, Lars; Bochsler, Peter; Drews, Christian; Klecker, Berndt; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    Interstellar PickUp Ions (PUIs) are created from neutrals coming from the interstellar medium that get ionized inside the heliosphere. Once ionized, the freshly created ions are injected into the magnetized solar wind plasma with a highly anisotropic torus-shaped Velocity Distribution Function (VDF). It has been commonly assumed that wave-particle interactions rapidly destroy this torus by isotropizing the distribution in one hemisphere of velocity space. However, recent observations of a He+ torus distribution using PLASTIC on STEREO showed that the assumption of a rapid isotropization is oversimplified. The aim of this work is to complement these studies. Using He+ data from the Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) sensor of the Charge, ELement, and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on-board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and magnetic field data from the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) magnetometer of the WIND spacecraft, we derive the projected 1-D VDF of He+ for different magnetic field configurations. Depending on the magnetic field direction, the initial torus VDF lies inside CTOF's aperture or not. By comparing the VDFs derived under different magnetic field directions with each other we reveal an anisotropic signature of the He+ VDF.

  3. Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Stallard, Tom; Miller, Steve; Melin, Henrik; Lystrup, Makenzie; Cowley, Stan W H; Bunce, Emma J; Achilleos, Nicholas; Dougherty, Michele

    2008-06-19

    Planetary aurorae are formed by energetic charged particles streaming along the planet's magnetic field lines into the upper atmosphere from the surrounding space environment. Earth's main auroral oval is formed through interactions with the solar wind, whereas that at Jupiter is formed through interactions with plasma from the moon Io inside its magnetic field (although other processes form aurorae at both planets). At Saturn, only the main auroral oval has previously been observed and there remains much debate over its origin. Here we report the discovery of a secondary oval at Saturn that is approximately 25 per cent as bright as the main oval, and we show this to be caused by interaction with the middle magnetosphere around the planet. This is a weak equivalent of Jupiter's main oval, its relative dimness being due to the lack of as large a source of ions as Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. This result suggests that differences seen in the auroral emissions from Saturn and Jupiter are due to scaling differences in the conditions at each of these two planets, whereas the underlying formation processes are the same. PMID:18563160

  4. Methane absorption in the Jovian atmosphere. II - Absorption line formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstralh, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    Observational tests of three models for line formation in the Jovian atmosphere have recently been completed by Bergstralh (1972). The observational material is described and the results of the tests are reported. The characteristics of a reflecting-layer model (RLM) are discussed, giving attention to the rotational temperature and methane abundance. The properties of scattering models are also examined, taking into account a homogeneous scattering layer model and an inhomogeneous scattering layer model. It is found that the RLM is quite satisfactory in some respects for interpreting molecular absorption bands in the spectrum of Jupiter.

  5. Clouds, aerosols, and photochemistry in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. A.; Strobel, D. F.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1986-03-01

    An assessment is made of the development status of concepts for cloud and aerosol compositions, vertical and horizontal distributions, and microphysical properties, in the Jovian upper troposphere and stratosphere. Attention is given to several key photochemical species' relationships to aerosol formation as well as their transport process implications, treating photochemistry in the context of comparative planetology and noting differences and similarities among the outer planet atmospheres; since this approach emphasizes observational data, a variegated assortment of ground-based and spacecraft observations is assembled. Current views on the tropospheric distribution of clouds are challenged, and a rationale is presented for alternative accounts.

  6. S/NB-events of Jovian Decametric Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    Narrow-band (NB) events in dynamic spectra and their relation with short (S-)bursts are an unresolved enigma of the Jovian decametric emission. This paper is focused on the /NB-structure with timescales between 0.03 s and 0.3 s. We show that the main S/NB-phenomenology can be reduced to three main ingredients which are: the dispersion delay of the radio emission, the motion of emitting electrons in the parallel electric field of the standing Alfven wave, and the shadow effect.

  7. Clouds, aerosols, and photochemistry in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Strobel, D. F.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment is made of the development status of concepts for cloud and aerosol compositions, vertical and horizontal distributions, and microphysical properties, in the Jovian upper troposphere and stratosphere. Attention is given to several key photochemical species' relationships to aerosol formation as well as their transport process implications, treating photochemistry in the context of comparative planetology and noting differences and similarities among the outer planet atmospheres; since this approach emphasizes observational data, a variegated assortment of ground-based and spacecraft observations is assembled. Current views on the tropospheric distribution of clouds are challenged, and a rationale is presented for alternative accounts.

  8. Capture of interplanetary and interstellar dust by the jovian magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Colwell, J E; Horányi, M; Grün, E

    1998-04-01

    Interplanetary and interstellar dust grains entering Jupiter's magnetosphere form a detectable diffuse faint ring of exogenic material. This ring is composed of particles in the size range of 0. 5 to 1.5 micrometers on retrograde and prograde orbits in a 4:1 ratio, with semimajor axes 3 < a < 20 jovian radii, eccentricities 0. 1 < e < 0.3, and inclinations i less, similar 20 degrees or i greater, similar 160 degrees. The size range and the orbital characteristics are consistent with in situ detections of micrometer-sized grains by the Galileo dust detector, and the measured rates match the number densities predicted from numerical trajectory integrations. PMID:9525863

  9. Solar wind magnetic field bending of Jovian dust trajectories.

    PubMed

    Zook, H A; Grün, E; Baguhl, M; Hamilton, D P; Linkert, G; Liou, J; Forsyth, R; Phillips, J L

    1996-11-29

    From September 1991 to October 1992, the cosmic dust detector on the Ulysses spacecraft recorded 11 short bursts, or streams, of dust. These dust grains emanated from the jovian system, and their trajectories were strongly affected by solar wind magnetic field forces. Analyses of the on-board measurements of these fields, and of stream approach directions, show that stream-associated dust grain masses are of the order of 10(-18) gram and dust grain velocities exceed 200 kilometers per second. These masses and velocities are, respectively, about 10(3) times less massive and 5 to 10 times faster than earlier reported. PMID:8929405

  10. Limb-darkening and the structure of the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    By observing the transit of various cloud features across the Jovian disk, limb-darkening curves were constructed for three regions in the 4.6 to 5.1 mu cm band. Several models currently employed in describing the radiative or dynamical properties of planetary atmospheres are here examined to understand their implications for limb-darkening. The statistical problem of fitting these models to the observed data is reviewed and methods for applying multiple regression analysis are discussed. Analysis of variance techniques are introduced to test the viability of a given physical process as a cause of the observed limb-darkening.

  11. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  12. Pioneer 11 observations of energetic particles in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Allen, J. A.; Randall, B. A.; Baker, D. N.; Goertz, C. K.; Sentman, D. D.; Thomsen, M. F.; Flindt, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of energetic electrons and protons observed with the University of Iowa instrument on Pioneer 11. A graph shows absolute, spin-averaged unidirectional intensities of electrons and protons as a function of time during traversal of the central magnetosphere. Another graph shows the effects of the Jovian satellites Io and Amalthea on particle intensities. It is pointed out that a full analysis of satellite effects is the most promising technique for understanding the physical dynamics of the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  13. Dead Zones and the Formation of Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, R. E.; Matsumura, S.

    2004-12-01

    Planets may complete their accretion when they become massive enough to open gaps in the face of disk viscosity. The prediction that gap-opening mass is related to disk viscosity implies that planetary masses are sensitive to the degree of ionization of the disk in the expected situation that viscosity is driven by magneto-turbulence by the well-known MRI instability. We show that in dead zones - poorly ionized regions wherein the MRI instability is unable to develop - only planets of terrestrial mass can form while Jovian planets form outside such regions. Dead zones extend out to 5-20 AU depending upon the disk column density.

  14. Operational Regimes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; M. Bitter; T. Bigelow; P. Bonoli; M. Carter; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; D. Gates; L. Grisham; J.C. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; H. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; R. Maqueda; J. Menard; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; R. Raman; S.A. Sabbagh; C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; D. Swain; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson; G.A. Wurden; S. Zweben

    2002-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST), i.e., low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. Important issues for ST research are whether the high-eta stability and reduced transport theoretically predicted for this configuration can be realized experimentally. In NSTX, the commissioning of a digital real-time plasma control system, the provision of flexible heating systems, and the application of wall conditioning techniques were instrumental in achieving routine operation with good confinement. NSTX has produced plasmas with R/a {approx} 0.85 m/0.68 m, A {approx} 1.25, Ip * 1.1 MA, BT = 0.3-0.45 T, k * 2.2, d * 0.5, with auxiliary heating by up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Waves, and 5 MW of 80 keV D0 Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The energy confinement time in plasmas heated by NBI has exceeded 100 ms and a toroidal beta (bT = 2m0

    /BT02, where BT0 is the central vacuum toroidal magnetic field) up to 22% has be en achieved. HHFW power of 2.3 MW has increased the electron temperature from an initial 0.4 keV to 0.9 keV both with and without producing a significant density rise in the plasma. The early application of both NBI and HHFW heating has slowed the penetration of the inductively produced plasma current, modifying the current profile and, thereby, the observed MHD stability.

  15. Electron Bernstein Wave Experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. K.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; Seltzman, A. H.

    2009-11-26

    A system to heat electrons and possibly drive off-axis field-aligned current is under development on the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP. Staged experiments have reached an input power of 150 kW at 3.6G Hz and have produced a localized increase in SXR emission during rf injection. This measured emission is consistent with modeling in its location, energy spectrum and dependence on radial diffusion within the plasma. The emission is strongest in the region where ray tracing predicts deposition of the injected power. The multi-chord SXR camera used is sensitive to 4-7 keV photons. Enhanced emission in this energy range is consistent with Fokker-Plank modeling of EBW injection. The enhanced SXR emission vanishes quickly when radial diffusion in the plasma is high (as indicated by m = 0 magnetic activity); this is also consistent with Fokker-Plank modeling. An increase of boron emission (and presumably boron within the plasma) is also observed during EBW injection. This presents an alternative explanation to the enhanced SXR emission. Subsequent experiments with a different antenna at 100 kW input showed a small increase in SXR emission near 3 keV. A higher frequency experiment (5.5 GHz) with more input power available is currently under construction. Initial tests are centered on a circular waveguide launcher which requires only a 5 cm circular port in the vacuum vessel and has a target launch power of 400 kW.

  16. Initial Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gates; J. Hosea; M. Ono; M. Peng; S.M. Kaye

    1999-06-01

    With a small, high-power density, and compact fusion core, Spherical Tori (ST) can provide an attractive path to a reactor or a volumetric neutron source. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle experiment that will explore the physics of low aspect ratio in scientifically interesting and aggressive regimes. To accomplish this mission, NSTX is designed to produce plasmas with R/a = 0.85 m/0.68 m {approximately} 1.25, I{sub p} = 1 MA, B{sub T} {le} 0.6 T, {kappa} {le} 2.2, {delta} {le} 0.5, heating powers of up to 11 MW (6 MW High Harmonic Fast Waves, 5 MW, 80 keV, D{sup 0} Neutral Beam Injection), and operation over a wide range of shapes and configurations. The OH solenoid and PF coils on NSTX are capable of producing approximately 1 V-sec of inductive flux, which, alone, is sufficient for plasma breakdown and for increasing the plasma current to the MA level. Breakdown, however, will be assisted by EC preionization. Co-axial Helicity Injection (CHI){sup 4} provides the opportunity for V-sec savings during breakdown as well as for completely non-inductive startup to about 500 kA.

  17. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic equilibria in a torus

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.; Bates, J.W.; Lewis, H.R.

    1997-04-01

    It was recently demonstrated that static, resistive, magnetohydrodynamic equilibria, in the presence of spatially uniform electrical conductivity, do not exist in a torus under a standard set of assumed symmetries and boundary conditions. The difficulty, which goes away in the {open_quotes}periodic straight cylinder approximation,{close_quotes} is associated with the necessarily non-vanishing character of the curl of the Lorentz force, {bold j{times}B}. Here, we ask if there exists a spatial profile of electrical conductivity that permits the existence of zero-flow, axisymmetric resistive equilibria in a torus, and answer the question in the affirmative. However, the physical properties of the conductivity profile are unusual (the conductivity cannot be constant on a magnetic surface, for example) and whether such equilibria are to be considered physically possible remains an open question. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Q torus in N=2 supersymmetric QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Shifman, M.

    2007-12-01

    We construct “flying saucer” solitons in supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory, which is known to support Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield domain walls with a U(1) gauge field localized on its worldvolume. We demonstrate that this model supports exotic particlelike solitons with the shape of a torus. Q tori, and also similar solitons of higher genera, are obtained by folding the domain wall into an appropriate surface. Nontrivial cycles on the domain wall worldvolume (handles) are stabilized by crossed electric and magnetic fields inside the folded domain wall. Three distinct frameworks are used to prove the existence of these flying saucer solitons and study their properties: the worldvolume description (including the Dirac-Born-Infeld action), the bulk-theory description in the sigma-model limit, and the bulk-theory description in the thin-edge approximation. In the sigma-model framework the Q torus is shown to be related to the Hopf Skyrmion studied previously.

  19. Observations of whistler mode waves in the Jovian system and their consequences for the onboard processing within the RPWI instrument for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kolmasova, I.; Grison, B.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Bergmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    Evidence for a magnetosphere at Ganymede has been found in 1996 using measurements of plasma waves onboard the Galileo spacecraft (fig. 1). This discovery demonstrates the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons [1]. Galileo also observed whistler-mode waves in the magnetosphere of Ganymede similar to important classes of waves in the Earth magnetosphere: chorus and hiss [2]. Data from the Galileo spacecraft have therefore shown the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons, especially in the light of recent advances in analysis of whistler-mode waves in the Earth magnetosphere and their importance for acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Multicomponent measurements of the fluctuating magnetic and electric fields are needed for localization and characterization of source regions of these waves. Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) experiment will be implemented on the JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) spacecraft. RPWI is a highly integrated instrument package that provides a comprehensive set of plasma and fields measurements. Proposed measurement modes for the low frequency receiver subsystem of RPWI include onboard processing which will be suitable for analysis of whistler-mode waves: (1) Polarization and propagation analysis based on phase relations to identify wave modes and propagation directions (2) Poynting vector to determine source regions (3) Detailed frequency-time structure, polarization, wave vector directions to identify linear or nonlinear source mechanisms

  20. Bifurcation scenarios for a 3D torus and torus-doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Naohikio; Sekikawa, Munehisa; Shinotsuka, Yoshimasa; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Fujimoto, Ken'ichi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Endo, Tetsuro

    2014-02-01

    Bifurcation transitions between a 1D invariant closed curve (ICC), corresponding to a 2D torus in vector fields, and a 2D invariant torus (IT), corresponding to a 3D torus in vector fields, have been the subjects of intensive research in recent years. An existing hypothesis involves the bifurcation boundary between a region generating an ICC and a region generating an IT. It asserts that an IT would be generated from a stable fixed point as a consequence of two Hopf (or two Neimark-Sacker) bifurcations. We assume that this hypothesis may puzzle many researchers because it is difficult to assess its validity, although it seems to be a reasonable bifurcation scenario at first glance. To verify this hypothesis, we conduct a detailed Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map that can generate an IT, and indicate that this hypothesis does not hold according to numerical results. Furthermore, we show that a saddle-node bifurcation of unstable periodic points does not coincide with the bifurcation boundary between an ICC and an IT. In addition, the bifurcation boundaries of torus doubling do not coincide with a period-doubling bifurcation of unstable periodic points. To conclude, torus bifurcations have no relation with the bifurcations of unstable periodic points. Additionally, we exactly derive a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation boundary introducing a double Poincaré map.

  1. Indirect evidences for a gas/dust torus along the Phobos orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, E.M.; Lundin, R.; Pissarenko, N.F.; Barabash, S.V.; Zakharov, A.V.; Koskinen, H.; Schwingenshuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye.G. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsink Austrian Space Research Institute, Graz Institute of Terrestrial Magnetizm, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Moscow )

    1990-05-01

    Observations from the PHOBOS-2 space-craft of plasma and magnetic field effects in the solar wind near Mars suggest that a neutral gas (dust )torus/ring resides along the orbit of the Martian satellite Phobos. Magnetic cavities (strong decreases of the magnetic field strength) coincident with strong plasma density increases (up to a factor of ten) are observed during the first elliptic transition orbits when the spacecraft approached the Phobos orbits. The characteristic transverse dimension of the structures along the spacecraft orbit is in the range 100-1,000 km. Torus effects also have characteristics similar to the formation of a bow shock with increases of plasma density and ion temperature, and a characteristic deflection of the ion flow. This suggests a rather strong interaction between the solar wind plasma and plasma near Phobos orbit. The interaction appears quite similar to that of the solar wind with a comet. The outgassing of matter from Phobos (and Deimos) is also suggested by plasma observations in the wake/tail of the Martian satellites. Altogether, the authors observations imply that a neutral gas cloud - possibly also associated with a faint dust ring - exists along the Phobos orbit.

  2. Outer satellite atmospheres: Their extended nature and planetary interactions. [sodium cloud of Io, hydrogen torus of Titan, and comet atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Highly developed numerical models are applied to interpret extended-atmosphere data for the sodium cloud of Io and the hydrogen torus of Titan. Solar radiation pressure was identified and verified by model calculations as the mechanism to explain two different east-west asymmetries observed in the sodium cloud. Analysis of sodium line profile data, suggesting that a Jupiter magnetospheric wind may be responsible for high speed sodium atoms emitted from Io, and preliminary modeling of the interaction of the Io plasma torus and Io's sodium cloud are also reported. Models presented for Titan's hydrogen torus are consistent both with the recent Pioneer 11 measurements and earlier Earth-orbiting observations by the Copernicus satellite. Progress is reported on developing models for extended gas and dust atmospheres of comets.

  3. Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids: An Excess of Slow Rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We discuss the rotation properties of Jovian Trojan asteroids less than 30 km in diameter. Approximately half of the objects discussed here were studied using densely sampled lightcurves (French et al. 2015a, b); Stephens et al. 2015), and the other half were sparse lightcurves obtained by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Waszcazk et al. 2015). A significant fraction (~40%) of the objects in the ground-based sample rotate slowly (P > 24h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner and Stephens 2011). The PTF data show a similar excess of slow rotators. Only 5 objects in the combined data set have rotation periods of less than six hours. Three of these fast rotators were contained in the data set of French et al. these three had a geometric mean rotation period of 5.29 hours. A prolate spheroid held together by gravity rotating with this period would have a critical density of 0.43 gm/cm3, a density similar to that of comets (Lamy et al. 2004). Harris et al. (2012) and Warner et al. (2011) have explored the possible effects on asteroid rotational statistics with the results from wide-field surveys. We will examine Trojan rotation statistics with and without the results from the PTF.

  4. Observations and Numerical Modeling of the Jovian Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, R. G.; Simon, A.; Morales-Juberias, R.; Sayanagi, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple wavelength observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope in early 2007 show the presence of a wavy, high-contrast feature in Jupiter's atmosphere near 30 degrees North. The "Jovian Ribbon," best seen at 410 nanometers, irregularly undulates in latitude and is time-variable in appearance. A meridional intensity gradient algorithm was applied to the observations to track the Ribbon's contour. Spectral analysis of the contour revealed that the Ribbon's structure is a combination of several wavenumbers ranging from k equals 8-40. The Ribbon is a dynamic structure that has been observed to have spectral power for dominant wavenumbers which vary over a time period of one month. The presence of the Ribbon correlates with periods when the velocity of the westward jet at the same location is highest. We conducted numerical simulations to investigate the stability of westward jets of varying speed, vertical shear, and background static stability to different perturbations. A Ribbon-like morphology was best reproduced with a 35 per millisecond westward jet that decreases in amplitude for pressures greater than 700 hectopascals and a background static stability of N equals 0.005 per second perturbed by heat pulses constrained to latitudes south of 30 degrees North. Additionally, the simulated feature had wavenumbers that qualitatively matched observations and evolved throughout the simulation reproducing the Jovian Ribbon's dynamic structure.

  5. A 3D Convective Model for the Jovian Wind Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we proposed that Jupiter's alternating wind bands are a manifestation of the global interaction between rotation and convection in a shallow layer. The model, however, was obtained from linearization of the 2D equations of motions. At HKUST/Hong Kong, we are now trying to study this problem by rigorous numerical simulation. Using a three-dimensional spectral numerical code, we compute models for the outermost layer of Jupiter's convective envelope. Two cases have been studied. In one the atmospheric pressure varies from 1 to 23 bar, and in the other from 1 to 115 bar. The physical parameters (internal energy flux, rotation rate) are chosen to be close to those expected, but solar heating, chemistry, as well as dynamical influences from deeper layers are ignored. The models generate wind field patterns that contain alternating jet streams with resemblance to the Jovian bands. Instantaneous values of the mean zonal flow at the equator reach 80 m/sec. Yet the mean meridional flows are less than 1% of such value. The meridional temperature profile at the cloud top level also shows a double hump structure of a few degrees (as observed) in the subtropics. Though there is not complete quantitative agreement (caused perhaps by neglected effects like solar radiation), these models demonstrate, in principle, the feasibility of generating a Jovian type wind pattern through the interaction of fast rotation and convection in a thin shell.

  6. Advanced tokamak reactors based on the spherical torus (ATR/ST). Preliminary design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Copenhaver, C.; Schnurr, N.M.; Engelhardt, A.G.; Seed, T.J.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary design results relating to an advanced magnetic fusion reactor concept based on the high-beta, low-aspect-ratio, spherical-torus tokamak are summarized. The concept includes resistive (demountable) toroidal-field coils, magnetic-divertor impurity control, oscillating-field current drive, and a flowing liquid-metal breeding blanket. Results of parametric tradeoff studies, plasma engineering modeling, fusion-power-core mechanical design, neutronics analyses, and blanket thermalhydraulics studies are described. The approach, models, and interim results described here provide a basis for a more detailed design. Key issues quantified for the spherical-torus reactor center on the need for an efficient drive for this high-current (approx.40 MA) device as well as the economic desirability to increase the net electrical power from the nominal 500-MWe(net) value adopted for the baseline system. Although a direct extension of present tokamak scaling, the stablity and transport of this high-beta (approx.0.3) plasma is a key unknown that is resoluble only by experiment. The spherical torus generally provides a route to improved tokamak reactors as measured by considerably simplified coil technology in a configuration that allows a realistic magnetic divertor design, both leading to increased mass power density and reduced cost.

  7. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.

  8. Transport theory for potato orbits in an axisymmetric torus with finite toroidal flow speed

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2004-01-01

    Transport theory for potato orbits in the region near the magnetic axis in an axisymmetric torus such as tokamaks and spherical tori is extended to the situation where the toroidal flow speed is of the order of the sonic speed as observed in National Spherical Torus Experiment [E. J. Synakowski, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1653 (2003)]. It is found that transport fluxes such as ion radial heat flux, and bootstrap current density are modified by a factor of the order of the square of the toroidal Mach number. The consequences of the orbit squeezing are also presented. The theory is developed for parabolic (in radius r) plasma profiles. A method to apply the results of the theory for the transport modeling is discussed.

  9. Symmetry groups associated with tilings on a flat torus.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Mark L; De Las Peñas, Ma Louise Antonette N; Estrada, Grace M; Santoso, Eko Budi

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates symmetry and color symmetry properties of Kepler, Heesch and Laves tilings embedded on a flat torus and their geometric realizations as tilings on a round torus in Euclidean 3-space. The symmetry group of the tiling on the round torus is determined by analyzing relevant symmetries of the planar tiling that are transformed to axial symmetries of the three-dimensional tiling. The focus on studying tilings on a round torus is motivated by applications in the geometric modeling of nanotori and the determination of their symmetry groups. PMID:25537393

  10. Exploration of High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Wilson; R.E. Bell; S. Bernabei; M. Bitter; P. Bonoli; D. Gates; J. Hosea; B. LeBlanc; T.K. Mau; S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; M. Ono; C.K. Phillips; R.I. Pinsker; R. Raman; A. Rosenberg; P. Ryan; S. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; D. Swain; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; the NSTX Team

    2003-02-11

    High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating has been proposed as a particularly attractive means for plasma heating and current drive in the high-beta plasmas that are achievable in spherical torus (ST) devices. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono, M., Kaye, S.M., Neumeyer, S., et al., Proceedings, 18th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, Albuquerque, 1999, (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (1999), p. 53.)] is such a device. An radio-frequency (rf) heating system has been installed on NSTX to explore the physics of HHFW heating, current drive via rf waves and for use as a tool to demonstrate the attractiveness of the ST concept as a fusion device. To date, experiments have demonstrated many of the theoretical predictions for HHFW. In particular, strong wave absorption on electrons over a wide range of plasma parameters and wave parallel phase velocities, wave acceleration of energetic ions, and indications of current drive for directed wave spectra have been observed. In addition HHFW heating has been used to explore the energy transport properties of NSTX plasmas, to create H-mode (high-confinement mode) discharges with a large fraction of bootstrap current and to control the plasma current profile during the early stages of the discharge.

  11. Wave-clouds coupling in the Jovian troposphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulme, P.; Mosser, B.

    2003-05-01

    First studies about Jovian oscillations are due to Vorontsov et al. (1976). Attempts to observe them started in the late 1980's (Deming et al. 1989, Mosser et al. 1991). The micro-satellite Jovis and ground-based observations campaign such as SŸMPA (e.g Baglin et al. 1999) account for an accurate analysis of the cloud response to an acoustic wave. Therefore, the propagation of sound or gravity waves in the Jovian troposphere is revisited, in order to estimate their effect on the highest clouds layer. From basic thermodynamics, the troposphere should be stratified in three major ice clouds layers: water-ammonia, ammonium-hydrosulfide and ammonia ice for the highest. The presence of ammonia ice clouds has been inferred from Kuiper in 1952, and was predicted to dominate the Jovian skies. However, they had been observed spectroscopically over less than one percent of the surface. This absence of spectral proof could come from a coating of ammonia particles from other substances (Baines et al. 2002). In this work, we study the behaviour of a cloud submitted to a periodic pressure perturbation. We suppose a vertical wave propagating in a plane parallel atmosphere including an ammonia ice cloud layer. We determine the relation between the Lagrangian pressure perturbation and the variation of the fraction of solid ammonia. The linearized equations governing the evolution of the Eulerian pressure and density perturbed terms allows us to study how the propagation is altered by the clouds and how the clouds move with the wave. Finally, because a pressure perturbation modifies the fraction of solid ammonia, we estimate how much an ammonia crystal should grow or decrease and how the clouds albedo could change with the wave. Baglin et al. 1999. BAAS 31, 813. Baines et al. 2002. Icarus 159, 74. Deming et al. 1989. Icarus 21, 943. Kuiper 1952.The atmospheres of the Earth and Planets pp. 306-405. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago. Mosser et al. 1991. A&A 251, 356. Vorontsov et al. 1976. Icarus 27, 109.

  12. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor; A. Bers; T.S. Bigelow; M.D. Carter; J.B. Caughman; J. Decker; S. Diem; P.C. Efthimion; N.M. Ershov; E. Fredd; R.W. Harvey; J. Hosea; F. Jaeger; J. Preinhaelter; A.K. Ram; D.A. Rasmussen; A.P. Smirnov; J.B. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson

    2005-04-21

    Off-axis electron Bernstein wave current drive (EBWCD) may be critical for sustaining noninductive high-beta National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas. Numerical modeling results predict that the {approx}100 kA of off-axis current needed to stabilize a solenoid-free high-beta NSTX plasma could be generated via Ohkawa current drive with 3 MW of 28 GHz EBW power. In addition, synergy between EBWCD and bootstrap current may result in a 10% enhancement in current-drive efficiency with 4 MW of EBW power. Recent dual-polarization EBW radiometry measurements on NSTX confirm that efficient coupling to EBWs can be readily accomplished by launching elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves oblique to the confining magnetic field, in agreement with numerical modeling. Plans are being developed for implementing a 1 MW, 28 GHz proof-of-principle EBWCD system on NSTX to test the EBW coupling, heating and current-drive physics at high radio-frequency power densities.

  13. D-He-3 spherical torus fusion reactor system study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macon, William A., Jr.

    1992-04-01

    This system study extrapolates present physics knowledge and technology to predict the anticipated characteristics of D-He3 spherical torus fusion reactors and their sensitivity to uncertainties in important parameters. Reference cases for steady-state 1000 MWe reactors operating in H-mode in both the 1st stability regime and the 2nd stability regime were developed and assessed quantitatively. These devices would a very small aspect ratio (A=1,2), a major radius of about 2.0 m, an on-axis magnetic field less than 2 T, a large plasma current (80-120 MA) dominated by the bootstrap effect, and high plasma beta (greater than O.6). The estimated cost of electricity is in the range of 60-90 mills/kW-hr, assuming the use of a direct energy conversion system. The inherent safety and environmental advantages of D-He3 fusion indicate that this reactor concept could be competitive with advanced fission breeder reactors and large-scale solar electric plants by the end of the 21st century if research and development can produce the anticipated physics and technology advances.

  14. Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence Simulations of the NSTX Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. Luc; Hammett, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D.; Kaye, S.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R.; Leblanc, B.; Yuh, H.; Smith, D.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Belli, E. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Kinsey, J.

    2010-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment provides a unique environment for the study of electron turbulence and transport. We present nonlinear GYROootnotetextJ. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003). simulations of microturbulence in NSTX discharges and make comparisons between numerically simulated and experimentally measured levels of electron-scale turbulence. In particular we examine the effects of magnetic shear, ExB shearing and collisionality on turbulence driven by the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode, while paying attention to the roles of electromagnetic fluctuations, kinetic ions and realistic experimental NSTX parameters. We also investigate the interplay between electron turbulence and transport using the TGYROootnotetextJ. Candy et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 060704 (2009). simulation suite. This work is supported by the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and used the resources of the National Center for Computational Sciences at ORNL, under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  15. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  16. A Convected Kappa Distribution Model for Hot Ions in the Outer Jovian Magnetosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The hot ion angular anisotropies measured by the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument on the Voyager 2 spacecraft during the encounter with the Jovian magnetosphere have been fitted to a 2 species convected kappa distribution using a least squares non-linear inversion technique. The coverage was from 30 keV-5 MeV in energy and from 60-30 R_{rm J} (inbound) and 70-130 R_{rm J} (outbound). Each species is allowed to have an individual temperature, density, and spectral index, but was required to share a common bulk flow velocity. The model distributions were fit to 8 non-compositional and 3 compositional channels of the LECP detector. Each channel has 7 usable angular look directions. Some of the resulting intensity distributions were found to contain primarily protons at low energy (30-200 keV) and heavy ions at high energy (200 keV-5 MeV). The bulk flow speeds were found to be generally sub-corotational and in agreement with the Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) results near 30 R _{rm J} on the dayside. The temperature of the heavy ions was found to increase with the corotation energy of heavy ions during the dayside encounter. The proton temperature was found to be constant for the same period. The energization of hot heavy ions to the local corotation energy fits naturally into the framework of a neutral wind model of radial plasma transport of heavy ions, producing a pickup ion source in the outer magnetosphere. A corotating convection pattern predicted by the magnetic anomaly model could not be found. In fact, the results presented herein, along with the PLS results, show that the plasma convection is not consistent with a simple inertial mass loading model of a corotating magnetosphere.

  17. Er:YAG Laser: A New Technical Approach to Remove Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, J. P.; Raybaud, H.; Merigo, E.; Vescovi, P.; Fornaini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove by excision torus mandibularis and to smooth torus palatinus exostosis. Materials and Methods. Torus mandibularis (TM) and torus palatinus (TP) were surgically eliminated via the Er:YAG laser using the following parameters: TM: output power ranging from 500 to 1000 mJ, frequency from 20 to 30 Hz, sapphire tips (diameter 0.8 mm), air-water spray (ratio 5/5), pulse duration 150 μsec, fluence ranging from 99592 J/cm2 to 199044,586 J/cm2. TP: a peeling technique was used to eliminate TP, as excision by slicing being impossible here. Results. TM: excision was obtained after 12730 pulses. TP: smoothing technique took more time compared with excision. Once peeling was considered to be accomplished, the use of a surgical rasp was necessary to eliminate bone spicules that could delay the wound to heal in good conditions. Conclusion. Er:YAG excision (TM) or Er:YAG peeling (TP) are safe clinical techniques easy to practice even if the time required for excision or surface smoothing is more than the time required with bony burs and high speed instruments. PMID:22792500

  18. Investigating the origins of the Jovian decimetric emission's variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Thorne, R. M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Levin, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    The long-term variability of the Jovian radiation observed at 13-cm wavelength over 30 years is investigated using a physical model of the radiation belts. The model enables us to quantify the effect of the geometric parameter DE on the synchrotron emission. When a full Jupiter rotation is taken into account in the computations, the variability of the total radio flux with DE is only ≃1% of that measured. Such a dependence is not detectable. In contrast, radio fluctuations observed at a central meridian longitude (CML) and caused by DE changes can be very important, up to 10% of that measured. This strong dependence of the total radio flux on the geometric factor can result in difficulties for examining the origins of the Jovian synchrotron emission's fluctuations during periods where times of observation are not covering large CML range values. The numerical computations reveal that the variability either of the populations injected near the outer boundary of our simulations (Io's orbit) or the inward radial transport can, independently or in combined action, conduct variability in the decimetric emission. The theoretical fluctuations required in our computations for reproducing the radio measurements do not confirm any direct correlation between the long-term changes in the radio data and the radial transport driven by solar wind conditions or solar radio fluxes. Nevertheless, a linear relationship between the total radio flux and solar wind ram pressure for the period of 1970 to 2002 is established. The maximum correlation is reached when the Psw data are shifted by ≃2.7 years prior to the radio observations. Using this time-lag in the computations, the simulation results show that (Psw)γ can be associated with the variations of the particle injections and the radial transport. The correlation coefficient, associated with the fit between radio data and simulated radio flux densities, is 0.59 for the period of 1971-2002, 0.93 for the period of 1971-1972, and 0.83 for the periods of 1975-1989 and 1992-1995. The index γ is set to 0.35 when only particle injections are fluctuating with time, to 0.50 when temporal variations are driving the radial transport, and to 0.15-0.20 when the particles injected in the inner magnetosphere and their transport are simultaneously following the variations of the solar wind ram pressure. The model suggests that the solar wind ram pressure fluctuations can be related to variations of the Jovian decimetric emission on timescales of months, particularly to the enhancements in total radio flux observed in 1987, 1988, 1990 and 1994. Our results thus support the idea that the increase in radio emission in July 1994 was due to the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into Jupiter, in addition to the response of the Jovian magnetosphere to steep changes in solar wind conditions. The divergence between observations and simulations indicates that mechanisms other than those discussed in the modeling must govern the radiation belts dynamics for the periods of 1972-1975 and 1996-2002.

  19. Nonequilibrium viscous flow over Jovian entry probes at high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Szema, K. Y.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    The viscous chemical nonequilibrium flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated at high altitudes using two different methods. First method is only for the stagnation region and integrates the full Navier-Stokes equations from the body surface to the freestream. The second method uses viscous shock layer equations between the body surface and the shock. Due to low Reynolds numbers, both methods use surface slip boundary conditions and the second method also uses shock slip boundary conditions. The results of the two methods are compared at the stagnation point. It is found that the entire shock layer is under chemical nonequilibrium at higher altitudes and that the slip boundary conditions are important at these altitudes.

  20. Analysis of Voyager 2 images of Jovian lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Magalhaes, Julio A.

    1992-01-01

    Magalhaes and Borucki (1991) reported that Voyager-2 images of Jupiter contained bright spots due to lightning activity that was confined to two narrow altitude bands centered at 49 deg N and 13.5 deg N latitude and to a single region near 60 deg N latitude. This paper describes the Voyager 2 imaging observations in detail and associates the positions of the lightning features in the images with particular cloud features. The energetics of the lightning storms on Jupiter is examined. It is found that the ratio of the energy dissipated by Jovian lightning to the thermal flux available to drive convection motions is about 3 decades larger than the terrestrial ratio.