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Sample records for jovian plasma torus

  1. A Multi-wavelength campaign to study the Jovian aurora and the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We request 2 40ks HRC-I observations of Jupiter to be made in Apr 2014 in support of the SPRINT-A mission to study the Jovian aurora and the Io plasma torus. SPRINT-A will make sensitive EUV spectroscopic measurements of the upper atmospheres and magnetospheres of planets in the Solar system. The coordinated multi-wavelength campaign to observe the Jovian auroras and the Io plasma torus will provide an unprecedented study of the plasma content of the Jovian magnetosphere. Our X-ray observations will monitor the flux and morphology of the tens to hundreds of eV thermal plasma in the aurora and magnetosphere, and our coordinated observations will determine whether outflows from Io or interaction with the Solar wind are responsible for creating this hot, X-ray emitting plasma.

  2. Numerical simulation of torus-driven plasma transport in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y. S.; Wolf, R. A.; Spiro, R. W.; Hill, T. W.; Dessler, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Rice convection model has been modified for application to the transport of Io-generated plasma through the Jovian magnetosphere. The new code, called the RCM-J, has been used for several ideal-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations to study how interchange instability causes an initially assumed torus configuration to break up. In simulations that start from a realistic torus configuration but include no energetic particles, the torus disintegrates too quickly (approximately 50 hours). By adding an impounding distribution of energetic particles to suppress the interchange instability, resonable lifetimes were obtained. For cases in which impoundment is insufficient to produce ideal-MHD stability, the torus breaks up predominantly into long fingers, unless the initial condition strongly favors some other geometrical form. If the initial torus has more mass on one side of the planet than the other, fingers form predominatly on the heavy side (which we associate with the active sector). Coriolis force bends the fingers to lag corotation. The simulation results are consistent with the idea that the fingers are formed with a longitudinal thickness that is roughly equal to the latitudinal distance over which the invariant density declines at the outer edges of the initial torus. Our calculations give an average longitudinal distance between plasma fingers of about 15 deg which corresponds to 20 to 30 minutes of rotation of the torus. We point to some Voyager and Ulysses data that are consistent with this scale of torus longitudinal irregularity.

  3. Plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere: An X-ray and EUV study of the aurora and the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Ralph

    2013-09-01

    We propose 4x40 ks Chandra/HRC-I and 2x40 ks XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus in conjunction with the Japanese SPRINT-A satellite. SPRINT-A will continuously observe Jupiter from Dec 2013 to Apr 2014, making sensitive EUV spectroscopic observations of the aurora and IPT. We will correlate variations in the X-ray flux from the aurora and IPT with changes in the EUV flux observed by SPRINT-A and with the properties of the solar wind. We will conclusively resolve the puzzle of the origin of the Jovian X-ray emission and determine if the precipitating particles originate from Io or from the solar wind.

  4. Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa: 3D hybrid kinetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    The hybrid kinetic model approach supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical to improved interpretation of the existing measurements for surface and atmospheric composition from previous missions and to planning of future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa [1,2]. The hybrid model allows us to take into account the finite gyroradius effect and to estimate correctly the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field in opposite the MHD simulation with the Maxwellian velocity distribution for background and pickup ions. The hybrid model also allows us to investigate the effects of the electron pressure on plasma wake structure that was already done for Jovian torus Io interaction [3]. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The background plasma contains only the ions with SO++ (Model A) [4] and O++ and S++ (Model B) [5]. The pickup ions were created from the atmosphere. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population [1]. The moon is modeled in this initial work as a weakly conducting body. Important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work. In this report we discuss the first results of the hybrid kinetic simulation of Europa's environment, namely, the global plasma structures, e.g., the formation of the magnetic barrier, Alfvén wing, pickup ion tail etc., and the computed map for the ion flux on the

  5. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  6. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R.; Kimura, T.; Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Gladstone, R.; Badman, S. V.; Ezoe, Y.; Murakami, G.; Murray, S. S.; Roediger, E.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  7. The Jovian SII torus - Its longitudinal asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The variations with Jovian magnetic longitude observed in the intensity of the S II emission from the plasma torus surrounding Jupiter near the orbit of Io are investigated. Spectrographic observations of S II emission from 2.1 to 8.3 Jupiter radii from the planet obtained from 1976 to 1979 were examined to determine emission intensities in relation to position. The detected emission is found to be sharply confined to a magnetic latitude within 12 deg of the equator and a region inside 6.7 Jupiter radii, just outside of Io's orbit, with maximum emission at a magnetic longitude of 60 deg. The region of maximum brightness is observed to include the active centers for the currents expected in the flux tubes connected with Io, support of the magnetic anomaly models of Dressler and Hill (1979). Electron temperatures between 10 to the 3.92 and 10 to the 4.80, and densities of 10 to the 4.2/cu cm and a S II column abundance of 1.5 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm are estimated for the brightness region near the ansa of the emission torus. An order of magnitude difference between S II column abundances obtained in the present investigation and found by Brown (1978) is attributed to a change in sulfur content, possibly related to Ionian volcanic activity, while electron temperatures and densities are found to remain fairly constant.

  8. The Jovian SII torus - Its longitudinal asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L.

    1980-04-01

    The variations with Jovian magnetic longitude observed in the intensity of the S II emission from the plasma torus surrounding Jupiter near the orbit of Io are investigated. Spectrographic observations of S II emission from 2.1 to 8.3 Jupiter radii from the planet obtained from 1976 to 1979 were examined to determine emission intensities in relation to position. The detected emission is found to be sharply confined to a magnetic latitude within 12 deg of the equator and a region inside 6.7 Jupiter radii, just outside of Io's orbit, with maximum emission at a magnetic longitude of 260 deg. The region of maximum brightness is observed to include the active centers for the currents expected in the flux tubes connected with Io, support of the magnetic anomaly models of Dressler and Hill (1979). Electron temperatures between 10 to the 3.92 and 10 to the 4.80, and densities of 10 to the 4.2/cu cm and a S II column abundance of 1.5 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm are estimated for the brightness region near the ansa of the emission torus. An order of magnitude difference between S II column abundances obtained in the present investigation and found by Brown (1978) is attributed to a change in sulfur content, possibly related to Ionian volcanic activity, while electron temperatures and densities are found to remain fairly constant.

  9. Jovian Plasmas Torus Interaction with Europa. Plasma Wake Structure and Effect of Inductive Magnetic Field: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to a variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions). Photoionization, electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider the models with Oþ þ and Sþ þ background plasma, and various betas for background ions and electrons, and pickup electrons. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population (Cassidy et al., 2007). In this paper, we discuss two tasks: (1) the plasma wake structure dependence on the parameters of the upstream plasma and Europa's atmosphere (model I, cases (a) and (b) with a homogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and high oceanic shell conductivity); and (2) estimation of the possible effect of an induced magnetic field arising from oceanic shell conductivity. This effect was estimated based on the difference between the observed and modeled magnetic fields (model II, case (c) with an inhomogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive

  10. Jovian's plasma torus interaction with Europa. E12 pass: 3D hybrid kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Paterson, W. R.; Hartle, R. E.

    2012-09-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moonmagnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flybymeasurements from Galileo orbital mission and for planning flyby and orbital measurements for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa [1, 2, 3]. The upstream parameters have been chosen from the plasma and magnetic field Galileo E12 observations, [4, 5]. In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along themagnetic field [6]. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also included into the generalized Ohm's law. The background plasma contains heavy (Mi/Qi = 16) and light (Mi/Qi = 1) ions [4]. In our modeling we take into account only O+ ions for magnetospheric plasma. The pickup ions were created from the atmosphere. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population [1]. The moon is modeled in this initial work as a weakly conducting body. The critical point of E12 pass is the extremely high density in upstream plasma, e.g. n0 = 70-571 cm-3 for ions with Mi/Qi ratio equals 16. This density results in to the superAlfvénic flow and it will change the physics of the interaction between Jovianmagnetosphere and Europa. The modeling show the formation of the Mach cone instead of the Alfv'en wing which was observed in hybrid modeling of E4 pass [6]. The modeling shows that the effective size of the

  11. Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

  12. Neutral gas-plasma interaction - The case of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, W.-H.

    Recent developments in the study of the gas-plasma interaction at Io and in the Io plasma torus are reviewed. It is suggested that the 'energy crisis' in the hot Io plasma torus may be partially resolved by a local energy generation mechanism such as the magnetic pumping process. It is also argued that the Jovian ring could act as an additional plasma source in injecting cold plasma component into the inner plasma torus, and that the formation of an ion wake may permit a much more extended electromagnetic coupling between Io and the Jovian ionosphere.

  13. Discontinuities in Jovian sulphur plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekler, Y.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The radial distribution of the Jovian sulfur plasma is discussed. Spectra of the ionized sulfur in the Jovian magnetosphere indicate a sharp discontinuity in visible sulfur emission at a radial distance of six Jupiter radii (Io orbit), outside of which emission is greatly reduced and the plasma is observed not to be in corotation with the planet. Possible explanations of this phenomenon include an effect of Io on the electron temperature outside its orbit, leading to the suppression of S II emission by second ionization, and a current system in Jupiter's ionosphere which prevents plasma from diffusing outward and decouples it from the corotation field. This discontinuity also requires reconciliation with Pioneer observations of the radial and pitch-angle diffusion of energetic charged particles.

  14. EUVE Io Plasma Torus Observations: Galileo Support and Variability Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    We propose a Large Observing Program (1000 ksec) to monitor and investigate EUV emissions from the Io plasma torus and Jupiter during the last four Galileo Europa Mission encounters. These encounters all occur in the last half of 1999 (on Aug. 12, Sept. 14, Oct. 11, and Nov. 26), and will provide a perhaps never-to-be-repeated opportunity for acquiring ground truth (i.e., in situ) measurements with which to calibrate remote sensing observations of the torus. With these new data, we will 1) monitor the global properties of the torus during the Galileo observation epoch, 2) resolve two important but closely spaced torus periodicities, 3) determine the torus stability time constants, 4) search for very faint localized emissions from the Galilean satellites, and 5) continue monitoring the Jovian dayglow. We feel that such a program will make excellent use of EUVEs capabilities, and will allow for a much deeper understanding of the physics of the Jovian system.

  15. Modeling the Europa plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreier, Ron; Eviatar, Aharon; Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.; Richardson, John D.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a torus of plasma generated by sputtering from Jupiter's satellite Europa has long been suspected but never yet convincingly demonstrated. Temperature profiles from Voyager plasma observations indicate the presence of hot, possibly freshly picked-up ions in the general vicinity of the orbit of Europa, which may be interpreted as evidence for a local plasma torus. Studies of ion partitioning in the outer regions of the Io torus reveal that the oxygen to sulfur mixing ratio varies with radial distance; this may indicates that oxygen-rich matter is injected from a non-Io source, most probably Europa. We have constructed a quantitative model of a plasma torus near the orbit of Europa which takes into account plasma input from the Io torus, sputtering from the surface of Europa, a great number of ionization and charge exchange processes, and plasma loss by diffusive transport. When the transport time is chosen so that the model's total number density in consistent with the observed total plasma density, the contribution from Europa is found to be significant although not dominant. The model predicts in detail the ion composition, charge states, and the relative fractions of hot Europa-generated and (presumed) cold Io-generated ions. The results are generally consistent with observations from Voyager and can in principle (subject to limitations of data coverage) be confirmed in more detail by Ulysses.

  16. Departure from corotation of the Io plasma torus - Local plasma production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.; Hill, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    The departure of the Jovian magnetosphere from rigid corotation is adequately explained by outward plasma transport at distances where L is greater than approximately 10. The departure of 5% observed in the Io plasma torus, however, is too large to be accounted for simply by plasma transport. Local plasma production is proposed as the main factor determining the corotation lag in the torus. The outward pick-up current provided by ionization of neutral atoms is calculated and related to the current produced in the ionosphere by the corotation lag. This leads to an expression giving the corotation lag of the torus as a function of radial distance. Charge transfer is found to be an important process, allowing the majority of the torus mass to be ejected from the magnetosphere in a neutral state. Thus, the mass loading rate is found to be several times that inferred from examination of the corotation lag associated with outward plasma transport.

  17. Plasma in the Jovian current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Van Allen, J. A.; Parish, J. L.; Schardt, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    A large body of spectral data for protons with energies greater than 200 keV has been analyzed. It is concluded that the main body of plasma in the Jovian current sheet observed by Pioneer 10 on its outbound pass probably has an energy well below the lowest threshold of the Pioneer 10 detectors. This premise is examined using a semiempirical model of the magnetic field in the magnetodisk and simple magnetohydrodynamic theory. Results indicate that the dominant contribution to the plasma pressure in the region from 25 to 65 Jovian radii is from as yet unobserved protons (ions) with energies of the order of 0.1 to 10 keV.

  18. The Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    Research on Jovian magnetospheric physics from 1979 through 1982 is surveyed, with a focus on the observations of Voyagers 1 and 2. Jovian fields and plasmas are characterized in the order of their distance from the planet, and special emphasis is given to the Io plasma torus (IPT) in the 4.9-8-Jovian-radius region and to the extended Jovian magnetotail. Topics reviewed include synchrotron radiation, magnetic-field models, Na and S emissions in the IPT, aurora, the magnetic-anomaly model, IPT plasma diffusion-convection, Io-generated Alfven wave, plasma configuration beyond the IPT, low-energy charged particles, cosmic-ray-energy particles, particle acceleration, magnetic configuration, tail current sheet and plasma disc, magnetopause and magnetosheath, interplanetary ions of Jovian origin, and the Jovian magnetosphere at Saturnian distances.

  19. Jovian plasma interaction with Ganymede's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Khurana, K. K.; Holmstrom, M.

    2015-12-01

    We use a three-dimensional hybrid plasma model to study the global aspects of Jovian plasma interaction with Ganymede. Ganymede, the largest moon of Jupiter, is a unique body for several reasons: (1) it is the only known moon that has its own intrinsic magnetic field, (2) its dipole magnetic moment is large enough to form an embedded magnetosphere within the magnetosphere of Jupiter, and (3) it has a bound neutral atmosphere and an ionosphere, mainly composed of molecular and atomic oxygen, that interact with the co-rotating plasma of Jupiter. Since Jupiter's magnetic dipole moment tilts nearly 10o from its rotation axis, Ganymede passes two distinct plasma environments on its orbit around Jupiter (which is slightly inclined to the Jovian equator): (1) the plasma sheet, where the plasma density is nearly 5 cm-3 and plasma beta is slightly larger than one, and (2) outside the plasma sheet where the plasma density is lower than that in the sheet and plasma beta is smaller than one. The sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, however, are both smaller than one in both of these regions. Thus, the formation of a bow shock upstream of Ganymede is not expected. The plasma interaction with Ganymede has been studied before using MHD simulations and the formation of a magnetopause, magnetotail, and Alfvén wings were examined. We use our three-dimensional hybrid model to compare the global effects of the two plasma regimes on the interaction with Ganymede. We compare our simulation results with Galileo flyby observations, and explain differences between our mode with MHD simulation results. We also provide a global map of plasma precipitation into the surface of Ganymede which has direct impact on Ganymede's atmosphere/exosphere formation.

  20. Chandra Observations of Io and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D. C.; Crary, F. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Ford, P.; Feigelson, E.; Garmire, G.; Whitaker, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Chandra observed the Jovian system for approximately 1 day with ACIS-S in Nov, 1999, and approximately 10 hours with HRC-I in Dec, 2000. Among the many results of great interest to planetary scientists are the detection of x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT) and, very faintly, associated with the Jovian moon Io itself. The IPT is an almost self-generating donut of S and O ions in Io's orbit that ultimately derive from volcanoes on the surface. While EUV and visible emissions from the IPT are relatively well understood to result from low charge state transitions of S and O and from electron impact, the x-ray emissions are too energetic to be explained this way and seem to require the presence of higher charge states of S and O. We present current ideas as to origins of these x-ray emissions.

  1. Physics of Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2000-01-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the spherical torus (ST, or very low aspect ratio tokamaks) have recently emerged. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST magnetohydrodynamic equilibria more than a decade ago. Exciting data have been obtained from concept exploration level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm), making important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. The results have helped approval and construction of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful tokamak and advanced tokamak research, a wide range of new ST physics features has been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1 MA level with major radius up to similar to 80 cm in the new proof of principle devices National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, U.S.) [M. Peng , European Conf. Abst. 22C, 451 (1998); S. M. Kaye , Fusion Technol. 36, 16 (1999); M. Ono , "Exploration of Spherical Torus Physics in the NSTX Device," 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., paper IAEA-CN-69/ICP/01 (R), Yokohama, Japan (1998)], Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, U.K.) [A. C. Darke , Fusion Technol. 1, 799 (1995); Q. W. Morris , Proc. Int. Workshop on ST (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 290], and Globus-M (R.F.) [V. K. Gusev , European Conf. Abst. 22C, 576 (1998)], which have just started full experimental operation. New concept exploration experiments, such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) [R. Fonck and the PEGASUS Team, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 267 (1999)], Helicity Injected Tokamak-II (HIT-II, University of Washington) [T. R. Jarboe , Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998)], and Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX

  2. Drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. S.; Hill, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    A linear normal mode analysis of the drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus was carried out on the basis of the Richmond (1973) and Huang et al. (1990) analyses of drift waves in the vicinity of the earth's plasmapause. Results indicate that the outer torus boundary is linearly unstable to the growth of electrostatic drift waves. It is shown that the linear growth rate is proportional to the ion drift frequency and to the ratio of the flux tube charge content to the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductance. It is also shown that various theoretical models of global radial transport in Jupiter's atmosphere (including corotating convection, interchange diffusion, and transient flux tube convection) can be understood as plausible nonlinear evolutions of electrostatic drift waves.

  3. Analytical model for the density distribution in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, YI; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran

    1995-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for the diffusive equilibrium plasma density distribution in the Io plasma torus. The model has been employed successfully to follow the ray path of plasma waves in the multi-ion Jovian magnetosphere; it would also be valuable for other studies of the Io torus that require a smooth and continuous description of the plasma density and its gradients. Validity of the analytical treatment requires that the temperature of thermal electrons be much lower than the ion temperature and that superthermal electrons be much less abundant than the thermal electrons; these two conditions are satisfied in the warm outer region of the Io torus from L = 6 to L = 10. The analytical solutions agree well with exact numerical calculations for the most dense portion of the Io torus within 30 deg of the equator.

  4. Jovian plasma modeling for mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Kim, Wousik; Belland, Brent; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to address uncertainties in the plasma models at Jupiter responsible for surface charging and to update the jovian plasma models using the most recent data available. The updated plasma environment models were then used to evaluate two proposed Europa mission designs for spacecraft charging effects using the Nascap-2k code. The original Divine/Garrett jovian plasma model (or "DG1", T. N. Divine and H. B. Garrett, "Charged particle distributions in Jupiter's magnetosphere," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 88, pp. 6889-6903,1983) has not been updated in 30 years, and there are known errors in the model. As an example, the cold ion plasma temperatures between approx.5 and 10 Jupiter radii (Rj) were found by the experimenters who originally published the data to have been underestimated by approx.2 shortly after publication of the original DG1 model. As knowledge of the plasma environment is critical to any evaluation of the surface charging at Jupiter, the original DG1 model needed to be updated to correct for this and other changes in our interpretation of the data so that charging levels could beproperly estimated using the Nascap-2k charging code. As an additional task, the Nascap-2k spacecraft charging tool has been adapted to incorporate the so-called Kappa plasma distribution function--an important component of the plasma model necessary to compute the particle fluxes between approx.5 keV and 100 keV (at the outset of this study,Nascap-2k did not directly incorporate this common representation of the plasma thus limiting the accuracy of our charging estimates). The updating of the DG1 model and its integration into the Nascap-2k design tool means that charging concerns can now be more efficiently evaluated and mitigated. (We note that, given the subsequent decision by the Europa project to utilize solar arrays for its baseline design, surface charging effects have becomeeven more of an issue for its mission design). The modifications and

  5. Jovian Plasma Modeling for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Kim, Wousik; Belland, Brent; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to address uncertainties in the plasma models at Jupiter responsible for surface charging and to update the jovian plasma models using the most recent data available. The updated plasma environment models were then used to evaluate two proposed Europa mission designs for spacecraft charging effects using the Nascap-2k code. The original Divine/Garrett jovian plasma model (or "DG1", T. N. Divine and H. B. Garrett, "Charged particle distributions in Jupiter's magnetosphere," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 88, pp. 6889-6903,1983) has not been updated in 30 years, and there are known errors in the model. As an example, the cold ion plasma temperatures between approx.5 and 10 Jupiter radii (Rj) were found by the experimenters who originally published the data to have been underestimated by approx.2 shortly after publication of the original DG1 model. As knowledge of the plasma environment is critical to any evaluation of the surface charging at Jupiter, the original DG1 model needed to be updated to correct for this and other changes in our interpretation of the data so that charging levels could beproperly estimated using the Nascap-2k charging code. As an additional task, the Nascap-2k spacecraft charging tool has been adapted to incorporate the so-called Kappa plasma distribution function--an important component of the plasma model necessary to compute the particle fluxes between approx.5 keV and 100 keV (at the outset of this study,Nascap-2k did not directly incorporate this common representation of the plasma thus limiting the accuracy of our charging estimates). The updating of the DG1 model and its integration into the Nascap-2k design tool means that charging concerns can now be more efficiently evaluated and mitigated. (We note that, given the subsequent decision by the Europa project to utilize solar arrays for its baseline design, surface charging effects have becomeeven more of an issue for its mission design). The modifications and

  6. Observations of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; Moos, H. W.; Clarke, J. T.; Atreya, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The short wavelength spectrography on the IUE satellite was used to obtain spectra of the plasma torus near the orbit of Io about Jupiter. Three exposures of about 8 hours each taken in March and May 1979 show emission features due to SII, SIII, and OIII. The absence of features at other wavelengths permits upper limits to be other species in the torus.

  7. Long Term Monitoring of the Io Plasma Torus During the Galileo Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 1999, the Galileo spacecraft made four passes into the Io plasma torus, obtaining the best in situ measurements ever of the particle and field environment in this densest region of the Jovian magnetosphere. Supporting observations from the ground are vital for understanding the global and temporal context of the in situ observations. We conducted a three-month-long Io plasma torus monitoring campaign centered on the time of the Galileo plasma torus passes to support this aspect of the Galileo mission. The almost-daily plasma density and temperature measurements obtained from our campaign allow the much more sparse but also much more detailed Galileo data to be used to address the issues of the structure of the Io plasma torus, the stability mechanism of the Jovian magnetosphere, the transport of material from the source region near Io, and the nature and source of persistent longitudinal variations. Combining the ground-based monitoring data with the detailed in situ data offers the only possibility for answering some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of the Io plasma torus.

  8. The Transition from Plasma Torus to Plasma Sheet at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, W. R.; Frank, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    We review observations from the Galileo plasma analyzer (PLS) of thermal ions and suprathermal electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere for the range of radial distance approximately 10 - 40 RJ. Remote observations of the aurora have shown that the main ring of emission is conjugate to the equatorial plane at locations beyond the orbit of Ganymede at 15 RJ, and thus connects within this region of the magnetosphere. Intense field-aligned beams of hot electrons are observed beyond ˜17 RJ. These beams are direct evidence of auroral processes and their observation in the equatorial plane places constraints on possible driving mechanisms. This part of the magnetosphere also features the transition from torus to plasma sheet which is characterized by decreasing ion densities and increasing temperatures as functions of radial distance. Subcorotation of the plasma is observed, as are radial components of flow. The radial motion is outward in the evening sectors, but instances of inward flow occur between noon and dusk. On the dayside, it is confirmed that field-aligned motions of protons and heavy ions play an important role in the balance of stresses, a fact that was previously inferred on the basis of Voyager observations. The spacecraft samples the symmetry plane of the magnetosphere at just two diametrically opposed planetary longitudes due to the tilt of the magnetic dipole. However, systematic differences in the densities and temperatures of the thermal ions and in the intensities of the electron beams at those two longitudes are indications of System III periodicities.

  9. The Encounter of P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with the Jovian Plasma and Extended Sodium Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niciejewski, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The encounter of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter during July, 1994, provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe any potential perturbations in the Jovian plasma torus and extended sodium cloud as the comet entered the planet's atmosphere. Though the most obvious affect of the encounter was the distinctive response of the visible disk to the impact of the cometary fragments, the potential disruptions to the extended Jovian atmosphere and the restoration of the system to equilibrium also provided a test for the current interpretation of the Jovian plasma torus and sodium magneto-nebula. The observations that were performed for this grant were made by a complementary group of researchers and could not have been made if the individuals worked singly. In a sense, the exciting opportunity provided by this astronomical event also provided a mechanism to test the potential of pooling limited resources from several sources to construct a state-of-the-art spectrally resolving instrument, to acquire the necessary time and resources from institutions that maintain world-class optical telescopes, to perform the observations with the assistance of students, and to analyze the data sets.

  10. First evidence for a Europa plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.; Miller, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence from the Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer that plasma derived from Europa was present in the Jovian magnetosphere in December 1973 is summarized. Plasma detected between 1900 UT and 2100 UT on December 3, 1973, reveals a number of significant phenomena near the expected position of Europa's L shell. Mass addition to the magnetospheric plasma is indicated by a local increase in density apparently superimposed on the density gradient of Iogenic plasma. This increase in plasma density is unlike any phenomenon observed when the spacecraft is near a lunar L shell. The density shows fluctuations that make possible an estimate of the net outflow speed of magnetospheric ions per Jovian rotation. A radial flow speed in 1973 of 0.37 km/s from the Pioneer data is made, together with an estimate of 1 km/s in 1979 from Voyager 2 data, thus indicating a significant change.

  11. Io's volcanic influence on the Io plasma torus: HISAKI observation in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Yoneda, M.; Koga, R.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2015-12-01

    The satellite Io which has many active volcanos supplies volcanic gases to the Jovian magnetosphere with typical rate of 1 ton/sec and has been known be a primary source of plasmas in the magnetosphere. Change in the volcanic activity on Io should cause change of the supply rate and could affect structure of the magnetosphere and dynamics occurs in it. However, responses of the magnetosphere to the volcanic activity is still not fully understood; one of the reasons is lack of continuous and long term observations of Io' volcanic gas extended around Io, plasmas in the Io torus, and activity of the magnetosphere. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscope, EXCEED, onboard the HISAKI satellite has capability to measure ion and atomic emission lines in EUV range (55-145nm) and is dedicated to observing solar system planets. The satellite has been successfully launched on Sep. 2013 and 2nd campaign of Io plasma torus and Jovian northern EUV aurora observation has been done from the end of Nov. 2014 to middle of May 2015. On middle of Jan. 2015, HISAKI detected gradual increase in intensity of S+ emission lines and decrease of S3+ ones in the plasma torus. The S+ intensity showed a maximum around the end of Feb. and S++ and S3+ intensities also showed maxima subsequently. Simultaneous ground based observation of the sodium nebula showed increase of the emission intensity from the middle of Jan. to the beginning of Mar. These observations suggest that the volcanic activity began at the middle of Jan. and increase neutral atom and ion densities in the Io torus. The intensities of S+ and S2+ ions returned to the pre-increase level by the middle of May 2015. S3+ had still been in the decay phase at the end of the observation. Change in radial structure of the plasma torus was also found during the volcanic event. The intensity of S+ ion began to increase around the orbit of Io (6 Jovian radii). The brightened region propagated outward and reached at 8.5 Jovian radii from

  12. Stability of the Io plasma torus/atmosphere interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Mcgrath, Melissa

    1993-01-01

    The stability of the Io plasma torus-atmosphere interaction is examined. A simple plasma deflection model describes how transients in the plasma flux and the content of the atmosphere affect the ionospheric conductance, limiting the plasma bombardment and, hence, the supply of atmospheric species to the torus. The supply of the torus is seen to be determined by the thermal structure of the plasma, namely, the amount of low energy plasma producing atmospheric erosion vs. that which produces ionization, so that the torus supply rate is not simply proportional to the torus ion density.

  13. Modeling the Enceladus Plasma and Neutral Torus in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yingdong; Russell, C. T.; Khurana, K. K.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2010-10-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus, produces hundreds of kilograms of water vapor every second. These water molecules form a neutral torus which is comparable to the Io torus in the Jovian system. These molecules become ionized producing a plasma disk in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn which exchanges momentum with the "corotating” magnetospheric plasma. To balance the centripetal force of this plasma disk, Saturn's magnetic field is stretched in the radial direction and to accelerate the azimuthal speed to corotational values, the field is stretched in the azimuthal direction. At Enceladus the massive pickup of new ions from its plume slows down the corotating flow and breaks this force balance, causing plasma flows in the radial direction. Such radial flows in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are supported by Cassini observations using various particle and field instruments. In this study we develop a global model of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn in an attempt to reproduce such processes.

  14. Io Plasma Torus: Nature of the Iogenic Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, M. L.; Smyth, W. H.

    1996-09-01

    The primary source of plasma for Jupiter's magnetosphere is supplied internally by Io, the innermost Galilean satellite. The Iogenic plasma source is created by gases (e.g., Na, K, O, S, and SO_2) lost from Io as they undergo electron impact and charge exchange reactions in the plasma torus. This Iogenic plasma source provides mass, momentum, pick-up electrical conductivity, and energy to the plasma torus. The three-dimensional nature of the Iogenic plasma source is an important input quantity (1) in local studies to understand the plasma torus properties (density, composition, subcorotational motion, electric currents, and temperature) and the plasma torus near-Io MHD flow and atmosphere interactions, and (2) in more global studies to understand the spacetime structure of the outward transport dynamics of the plasma torus, such as in RCM-J (Rice Convection Model for Jupiter) calculations. To elucidate and quantify the nature of the Iogenic plasma source for such studies, we have undertaken simulations of it using the AER neutral cloud models. Calculations will be presented to illustrate the spacetime nature of the Iogenic plasma source and to estimate the net-mass, momentum and energy input rates to the plasma torus and the height-integrated electrical conductivity near Io and in Jupiter's ionosphere. These calculations show that the instantaneous Iogenic plasma source is highly peaked at Io's position in the plasma torus and that its rates vary significantly with Io System III longitude and also with Io phase angle because of the east-west electric field. For the lower-velocity escape of gases by incomplete collisional cascade processes (i.e., plasma torus ion sputtering), contributions to the instantaneous Iogenic plasma source are primarily confined to a broader (but still limited) spatial region in L-shell and System III longitude angle near Io. For the higher-velocity loss of gases by charge exchange, contributions to the Iogenic plasma source are more

  15. Io's Interaction with the Plasma Torus: Multi-Species Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šebek, Ondřej; Trávníček, Pavel; Walker, Raymond; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-04-01

    We present analysis of global 3-dimensional multi-species hybrid simulations of Io's interaction with Jovian magnetospheric plasma. In the multi-species simulations we assume five species, plasma torus is composed of O+, S+ and S++ ions and ions of SO+, SO2+ are created around Io by ionization of its neutral atmosphere. We consider several ionization processes, namely, charge exchange ionization and photoionization/electron impact ionization. We compare our results to data acquired in situ by the Galileo spacecraft. Our results are in a good qualitative agreement with the in situ magnetic field measurements made during Galileo's flybys around Io.

  16. Standing hydromagnetic waves in the Io plasma torus: Voyager 1 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Glassmeier, K.H.; Neubauer, F.M. ); Ness, N.F. ); Acuna, M.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Geomagnetic pulsations are one of the dominant features of the dynamics of the Earth's solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system. Whether such ultralow-frequency waves are also excited within the Jovian magnetosphere has been the subject of a close inspection of Voyager 1 magnetic field observations during its close encounter with Jupiter. These observations clearly indicate the existence and an increase of ultralow-frequency wave activity and indicate that the activity becomes more regular as soon as Voyager 1 entered the Io plasma torus at around 0700 spacecraft event time on March 5, 1979. In particular, periodic transverse and compressional magnetic field fluctuations with periods of about 1200 s and 800 s, respectively, are observed with the different periods pointing toward a decoupling between these two different types of oscillations. The coincidence between the increase in wave activity and the entry into the Io plasma torus is in support of treating the torus as a low Alfven velocity region and thus as a hydromagnetic waveguide. A first theoretical treatment of hydromagnetic wave propagation within the torus suggests that decoupling of toroidal and poloidal type oscillations can occur under the condition of axisymmetry of the wave field. Numerical calculation of the fundamental mode toroidal and first harmonic poloidal eigenperiods for a model Jovian magnetosphere gives values quite in accord with the observed periods. The authors thus conclude that nearly axisymmetric, decoupled toroidal and poloidal mode eigenoscillations of the Io plasma torus are observed, indicating a large-scale source mechanism for the magnetic field fluctuations detected.

  17. Io Plasma Torus : Structure and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, W. H.; Marconi, M. L.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.

    1996-09-01

    In the Jupiter system, the complex plasma torus structures that emerge from the Iogenic plasma source and magnetospheric transport processes are extraordinary, although not well understood. Two of the most interesting and unexplained of these structures, organized near Io's orbit, are (1) the radial distribution of the plasma density clearly observed in both the optical S(+) (6716 Angstroms, 6731 Angstroms) and ultraviolet S(++) (685 Angstroms) emission lines and (2) the System III longitude asymmetry of the ion temperature observed in the S(+) optical emission lines. The so-called plasma ``ribbon,'' the brightest portion of the radial structure, is located just within Io's orbit and has a planetocentric distance that varies with both east-west location about Jupiter and System III longitude. The ion temperature exhibits a minimum in the so-called ``active sector'' located near 200(deg) System III longitude. To study the east-west and System III longitude asymmetries of the ribbon structure, we have developed a time-dependent, two-dimensional plasma transport model (L-shell and System III longitude angle) containing an Io plasma source that moves about Jupiter in the plasma torus described by an offset tilted dipole magnetic field in the presence of an east-west electric field. Preliminary calculations to be presented show that the plasma density evolves in time and produces, as it approaches steady state, a maximum just within Io's orbit. To study the System III asymmetry of the torus, we have undertaken preliminary transport calculations using the Rice Convection Model for Jupiter (RCM-J) and have included a System III longitudinally dependent Pedersen conductivity in the planetary ionosphere. The Pedersen conductivity in the ionosphere near Io's flux tube has a minimum in the active sector because of local maxima of the magnetic field. These RCM-J calculations show that the outward plasma transport rate exhibits a System III longitude dependence. The

  18. Observation of mass loading in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-based high-resolution spectra of emission from the Io plasma torus obtained during 53 nights of observation over a seven month period are used to measure the torus rotation speed and discern regions of the torus that are slowed by mass loading of newly ionized materials. The amount of torus slowing implies that between 2000 and 3000 kg/sec are being ionized by the torus. The slowing is spread azimuthally throughout the orbit of Io, suggesting that neutral materials emanating from Io are distributed around Jupiter much more uniformly than currently believed.

  19. Asymmetries in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    Using Ulysses radio wave data taken during the 1992 Jupiter encounter, we conclude that there are significant large and small spatial scale azimuthal asymmetries at high latitudes in the Io plasma torus. During a period of time near perijove when the spacecraft motion was predominantly in the azimuthal direction and was relatively fixed in both latitude and radial distance, inferred electron densities depart significantly from the common assumption of longitudinal symmetry. Specifically, electron plasma concentrations near 0 deg system III longitude (and 0400 LT) are greater than those near 180 deg (and 0000 LT). Superposed on this large-scale variation are regularly spaced density depletions, 30-50% in magnitude, and having a spatial periodicity of about 17 deg. Some of these depletions may drive various known radio and plasma wave sources by means of large B parallel electric potentials. The observations are compared with recent models and with the in-situ Voyager observations.

  20. Effects of Io's volcanos on the plasma torus and Jupiter's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F.

    1980-12-01

    Io's volcanism can have dominant effects on Jupiter's magnetosphere. A model is developed in which a neutral gas torus is formed at Io's orbit by volcanic SO/sub 2/ escaping from Io. Ionization and dissociation of volcanic SO/sub 2/ is shown to be the dominant source of plasma in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The failure of Voyager observations to confirm predictions of the magnetic anomaly model is naturally explained. A 30--50 KeV sulfur and oxygen ion plasma is formed in the outer magnetosphere, with density roughly equal to the proton density there, by ionization of sulfur and oxygen atoms on highly eccentric elliptical orbits around Jupiter. When these atoms are ionized in the outer magnetosphere, they are swept up by the Jovian magnetic field and achieve 30--50 keV energies. Such atoms are created by dissociative attachment of SO/sub 2/ by < or approx. =10 eV electrons. Substantial losses of radiation-belt charged particles result from passage through the neutral gas torus. Such losses can account for observed anomalies in charged particle depletions near Io; these could not be understood in terms of satellite sweeping alone. Substantial ionization energy loss occurs for < or approx. =1 MeV protons and < or approx. =100 keV electrons; losses of < or approx. =1 MeV protons are much greater than for comparable energy electrons. Losses of < or approx. =1 MeV per nucleon ions are also severe. Other consequences of the model include intrinsic time variability in the Jovian magnetosphere, on times > or approx. =10/sup 6/ s, caused by variations in Io's volcanic activity. Charged particle losses in the neutral gas torus tend to yield dumbbell-shaped pitch-angle distributions. Negative ions are predicted in the Io plasma torus.

  1. Plasma Parameters in Io's Torus: Measurements from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Turner, Jake; Schmidt, Carl; Thelen, Michael; McNeil, Eric; Rugenski, Stacey; Chanover, Nancy; Oza, Apurva; Thelen, Alexander; Johnson, Robert E.; Bittle, Lauren; King, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    We report observations from nine nights of observations of the Io plasma torus made in conjunction with JAXA's Hisaki mission torus observations and the Hubble Space telescope auroral campaign. Groundbased remote sensing of forbidden line emissions yield measures of plasma density which cannot be made at UV wavelengths.

  2. The physics of spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    2000-05-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the spherical torus (ST, or very low aspect ratio tokamaks) have recently emerged. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST magnetohydrodynamic equilibria more than a decade ago. Exciting data have been obtained from concept exploration level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm), making important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. The results have helped approval and construction of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful tokamak and advanced tokamak research, a wide range of new ST physics features has been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1 MA level with major radius up to ˜80 cm in the new proof of principle devices National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, U.S.) [M. Peng et al., European Conf. Abst. 22C, 451 (1998); S. M. Kaye et al., Fusion Technol. 36, 16 (1999); M. Ono et al., "Exploration of Spherical Torus Physics in the NSTX Device," 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., paper IAEA-CN-69/ICP/01 (R), Yokohama, Japan (1998)], Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, U.K.) [A. C. Darke et al., Fusion Technol. 1, 799 (1995); Q. W. Morris et al., Proc. Int. Workshop on ST (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 290], and Globus-M (R.F.) [V. K. Gusev et al., European Conf. Abst. 22C, 576 (1998)], which have just started full experimental operation. New concept exploration experiments, such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) [R. Fonck and the PEGASUS Team, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 267 (1999)], Helicity Injected Tokamak-II (HIT-II, University of Washington) [T. R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998)], and Current

  3. The transmission of Alfven waves through the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of Alfven wave propagation through the Io plasma torus was investigated using a one-dimensional model with uniform magnetic field and an exponential density decrease to a constant value. The solution was interpreted in terms of a wave that is incident upon the torus, a reflected wave, and a wave that is transmitted through the torus. The results obtained indicate that Io's Alfven waves may not propagate completely through the plasma torus, and, thus, the WKB theory and ray tracing may not provide meaningful estimates of the energy transport.

  4. Using a 2D Model of the Io Plasma Torus to Investigate the Effects of Density Variations on the Morphology and Intensity of the Io Footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payan, A. P.; Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Bonfond, B.; Crary, F.

    2012-12-01

    Io is the primary source of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere, continuously releasing approximately 1 ton/s of SO2 from volcanic eruptions. The interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetosphere is strongly influenced by the density structure of the resulting plasma torus and the position of Io relative to the center of the torus [Bonfond et al. 2008]. This unusual interaction produces a complex auroral feature on Jupiter's ionosphere known as the Io footprint. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter's far-UV aurora during spring 2007 showed an increased number of isolated auroral blobs along with a continuous expansion of Jupiter's main auroral oval over a few months. These blobs were associated with several large injections of hot plasma between 9 and 27 Jovian radii. These events coincided with a large volcanic eruption of the Tvashtar Paterae on Io, as observed by the New Horizons spacecraft [Spencer et al., 2007]. This, in turn, may have resulted in a significant increase in the plasma torus density. Besides, on June 7th, 2007, the Io footprint momentarily became so faint that it disappeared under a diffuse patch of emission remaining from an injection blob [Bonfond et al., 2012]. The goal of the present study is to examine the relationship between the increased density of the plasma torus and the dimming of the Io footprint. We implement a 2D model of the Io plasma torus that treats the variable-density torus as being composed of discrete layers of uniform density. As the co-rotating plasma in the plasma torus impinges on Io, Alfvén waves are launched at a pushback angle obtained from Gurnett and Goertz [1981]. The waves propagate inside the plasma torus through reflection and refraction at density discontinuities where they lose some of their initial energy. Using the above model, we can track the Alfvén wave fronts in the plasma torus and determine the longitude at which they exit the torus along with the corresponding remaining energy. Since

  5. The dynamic expansion and contraction of the Jovian plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Observations suggesting the sequential expansion and compression of the Jovian plasma sheet are reported. Plasma flow in the vicinity of Jupiter was monitored by the four modulated-grid Faraday cups on board each of the Voyager spacecraft at times of closest Jupiter approach. Sensor measurements reveal the flow of magnetospheric plasma to be directed away from the equatorial current sheet near local noon and to be directed towards the sheet in the dusk to midnight sector. The observed flow patterns are interpreted in terms of short-time-scale perturbations of magnetic flux tubes due to the compression of the dayside magnetosphere by the solar wind. It is noted that such a dynamic motion is quite different from what would be expected of slower, quasi-static equilibrium plasma sheet expansion and contraction.

  6. X-Ray Probes of Jupiter's Auroral Zones, Galilean Moons, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we review the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian system and describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing study for possible application to future missions to Jupiter such as JIMO. X-MIME has the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.

  7. Torus-Shaped Dust Clouds in Magnetized Anodic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, I.; Reichstein, T.; Greiner, F.; Piel, A.

    2008-09-07

    The generation of a torus-shaped dust cloud in an anodic plasma is decribed. The confined dust particles perfom a rotational motion around the torus major axis. The structure of the cloud in dependence of the external parameters are observed and the rotation velocity of the particles was measured and compared with a simple estimate.

  8. Io: IUE observations of its atmosphere and the plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballester, G. E.; Moos, H. W.; Feldman, P. D.; Strobel, D. F.; Skinner, T. E.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Festou, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the main components of the atmosphere of Io, neutral oxygen and sulfur, were detected with the IUE. Four observations yield brightnesses that are similar, regardless of whether the upstream or the downstream sides of the torus plasma flow around Io is observed. A simple model requires the emissions to be produced by the interaction of O and S columns in the exospheric range with 2 eV electrons. Cooling of the 5 eV torus electrons is required prior to their interaction with the atmosphere of Io. Inconsistencies in the characteristics of the spectra that cannot be accounted for in this model require further analysis with improved atomic data. The Io plasma torus was monitored with the IUE. The long-term stability of the warm torus is established. The observed brightnesses were analyzed using a model of the torus, and variations of less than 30 percent in the composition are observed, the quantitative results being model dependent.

  9. Connecting Io's volcanic activity to the Io plasma torus: comparison of Galileo/NIMS volcanic and ground-based torus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes, F. P.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Rathbun, J. A.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Echer, E.; Echer, M. P. D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Io, the innermost of the Jupiter's four Galilean moons, is a remarkable object in the Solar System, due to its intense and energetic volcanic activity. The volcanic sulfur and oxygen in Io's tenuous atmosphere escapes forming an extended neutral cloud around Io and Jupiter. Subsequently, by ionization and pickup ions, a ring of charged particles encircling Jupiter is created, forming the Io plasma torus. Considering this scenario, it is reasonable to expect that the Io plasma torus should be affected by changes in Io's volcanism. Interactions between Io and the Jovian environment is unique and yet not very well understood. Here we present two sets of observations. One from the Galileo Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (NIMS) instrument, which obtained spectral image cubes between 0.7 and 5.2 microns. The other dataset is from ground-based observations of the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines from the Io plasma torus, obtained at McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, at Kitt Peak. Our dataset from the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines cover more years than the one from the NIMS data. The years presented in this work for a comparative study are from 1998 through 2001. Using the NIMS instrument we were able to identify which volcanoes were active and measure their level of activity. From the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines we were able to trace the densest part of the torus and also the brightness of both ansa. By comparing the results from the Galileo instrument and the ground-based observations, we are exploring how the Io plasma torus responds to large eruptions from Io. We aim with this study to help improve our understanding of this complex coupled system, Jupiter-Io.

  10. Ion Temperature Control of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Steffl, A. J.; Robbins, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on observational and theoretical studies of ion temperature in the Io plasma torus. Ion temperature is a critical factor for two reasons. First, ions are a major supplier of energy to the torus electrons which power the intense EUV emissions. Second, ion temperature determines the vertical extent of plasma along field lines. Higher temperatures spread plasma out, lowers the density and slows reaction rates. The combined effects can play a controlling role in torus energetics and chemistry. An unexpected tool for the study of ion temperature is the longitudinal structure in the plasma torus which often manifests itself as periodic brightness variations. Opposite sides of the torus (especially magnetic longitudes 20 and 200 degrees) have been observed on numerous occasions to have dramatically different brightness, density, composition, ionization state, electron temperature and ion temperature. These asymmetries must ultimately be driven by different energy flows on the opposite sides, presenting an opportunity to observe key torus processes operating under different conditions. The most comprehensive dataset for the study of longitudinal variations was obtained by the Cassini UVIS instrument during its Jupiter flyby. Steffl (Ph.D. thesis, 2005) identified longitudinal variations in all the quantities listed above wit the exception of ion temperature. We extend his work by undertaking the first search for such variation in the UVIS dataset. We also report on a 'square centimeter' model of the torus which extend the traditional 'cubic centimeter' models by including the controlling effects of ion temperature more completely.

  11. Numerical simulation of plasma transport driven by the Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y. S.; Wolf, R. A.; Spiro, R. W.; Dessler, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Rice convection model (RCM) has been modified to a form suitable for Jupiter (RCM-J) to study plasma interchange motion in and near the Io plasma torus. The net result of the interchange is that flux tubes, heavily loaded with torus plasma, are transported outward, to be replaced by tubes containing little low-energy (less than 1 keV) plasma. The process is numerically simulated in terms of time evolution from an initial torus that is longitudinally asymmetric and with gradually decreasing density outward from Io's orbit. In the simulations, the nonlinear stage of the instability characteristically exhibits outreaching fingers of heavily-loaded flux tubes that lengthen at an accelerating rate. The principal finding is that the primary geometrical form of outward transport of torus plasma in Jupiter's magnetosphere is through long, outward-moving fingers of plasma. In the simulations, the fingers mainly form in the active sector of the Io torus (the heavier side of the asymmetric torus), and they are spaced longitudinally roughly 20 deg apart.

  12. The injection of energy into the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemansky, D. E.; Sandel, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager EUV observations of the Io plasma torus indicate the presence of an intensity modulation in the corotating reference frame of significant magnitude on a 10-hour time scale. The phenomenon has a persistence which suggests it is a permanent feature, and the magnitude is such that a substantial amount of energy is injected into the torus at a 10-hour periodic rate. An investigation is conducted regarding the nature of the energy enjection process as determined by the plasma parameters and the observed characteristics. Attention is given to excitation-relaxation relations, aspects of ion-electron relaxation, and electron-electron relaxation and energy transfer rates. The radial distribution of temperature at the eastern and western elongations is found to indicate that the energy input to the electrons is distributed over the width of the torus. The dominant mechanism of energy transport to the plasma appears to be electron-electron heating.

  13. Modeling Variability of Plasma Conditions in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2003-01-01

    Telescopic observations an in situ measurements of the Io plasma torus show the density, temperature and composition to vary over time, sometimes up to a factor of 2. While previous models of the physical and chemical processes in the Io plasma torus have reasonably modeled the conditions of the Voyager 1 era, their authors have not addressed the observed variability nor explored the sensitivity of torus conditions to input parameters. In this paper we present a homogeneous torus model parameterized by five variables (transport timescale, neutral source strength, ratio of oxygen sulfur to atoms in the source, fraction of superthermal electrons, temperature of these hot electrons). The model incorporates the most recent data for ionization, recombination, charge exchange and radiative energy losses for the major torus species (S, S(sup +), S(sup ++), S(sup +++), O, O(sup +), O(sup ++). We solve equations of conservation of mass and energy to find equilibrium conditions for a set of input parameters. We compare model plasma conditions with those observed by Voyager 1 Voyager 2, and Cassini. Furthermore, we explore the sensitivity of torus conditions to each parameter. We find that (1) torus conditions are distinctly different for the Voyager 1, Voyager 2 and Cassini eras, (2) unique torus input parameters for any given era are poorly constrained given the wide range of solution space that is consistent with the range of observed torus conditions, (3) ion composition is highly sensitive to the specification of a non-thermal electron distribution, (4) neutral O/S source ratio is highly variable with model values ranging between 1.7 for Cassini to 4.0 for Voyager 1 conditions, (5) transport times range between 23 days for Voyager 2 to 50 days for Voyager 1 and Cassini, (6) neutral source strengths range between 7 to 30 x 10(sup -4) cm (sup -3) s(sup -1) which corresponds to a net production of 0.4 to 1.3 tons/s for a torus volume of 1.4 x 10(sup 31) cm(sup 3), or 38 R

  14. Ganymede's interaction with the jovian plasma from hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Leblanc, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ganymede is a unique object: it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field leading to the formation of a small magnetosphere. The magnetosphere of Ganymede being embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere, the environment of the Galilean moon presents the only known case of interaction between two magnetospheres (Kivelson et al. 1996). This peculiar interaction has been investigated by means of a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid model based on a CAM-CL algorithm (Mathews et al. 1994). This generic model has been largely used for other magnetized or unmagnetized bodies such as Mars (Modolo et al. 2005; 2006 and 2012), Titan (Modolo et al. 2007, Modolo and Chauteur 2008) or Mercury (Richer et al. 2012). IIn this formalism, ions have a kinetic description whereas electrons are considered as an inertialess fluid which ensure the neutrality of the plasma and contribute to the total current and electronic pressure. Maxwell's equations are solved to compute the temporal evolution of electromagnetic field. The hybrid simulation describes the dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma, composed of O+ and H+ ions, and Ganymede's ionospheric plasma (W+, H2+, H+). Similarly to Paty and Winglee (2004), a density profile with a scale height of 125km of the ionospheric plasma is loaded and feeded during the simulation. Charge exchange leading to H2+ and H+ are also computed. To represent Ganymede's magnetosphere a magnetic dipole is implemented at initialization with dipolar moments values taken from Kivelson et al, 2002. This dipole is progressively distorted and lead to the formal of the mini-magnetopshere. Simulation results also emphasize the presence of Alfvén wings and are in good agreement with other simulation results (Jia et al, 2008, Paty et al, 2008). Hybrid simulations are performed on a uniform cartesian grid with a spatial resolution of about 200 km. Simulations results are presented and compared to magnetometer

  15. A deficiency of O III in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Shemansky, D. E.; Johnson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence for a deficiency of O III ions in the Io plasma torus is reported and implications of this deficiency for the physical processes controlling the plasma are considered. Observations of the O III 5007-A as well as Cl III and S III emissions from the Io plasma torus were made by a ground-based echelle spectrograph and intensified Reticon detector in February and May, 1981. The O III observations allow an upper limit of 4/cu cm to be placed on torus O III abundance, which is inconsistent with expectations for a low density plasma controlled by electron collisions. The inclusion of ion-ion and ion-atom charge exchange reactions and a depleted high energy electron component in the model is found to suppress O III levels, however observed limiting values are only achieved if it is assumed that the O III is kinetically hot. In addition, the charge-exchange model developed is inconsistent with previous observations of the kinetics of the S II-S III system. The present observations also establish upper limits of 2 R on 5518-A and 5538-A Cl III emission, and an emission rate of 58 + or - 40 R for the S III 6312-A line in the hot torus.

  16. The Jovian nebula - A post-Voyager perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager 1 carried a diverse collection of magnetospheric probes through the inner Jovian magnetosphere in March 1979. The ensuing data analysis and theoretical investigation provided a comprehensive description of the Jovian nebula, a luminous torus populated with newly released heavy ions drawn from Io's surface. Recent refinements in earth-based imaging instrumentation are used to extend the Voyager in situ picture in temporal and spatial coverage. An analysis of S III and S II forbidden-line optical emissions observed during the Jovian apparitions of 1981 through 1983 reveals three distinct torus components. Regularities have been identified in the ion partitioning and ion densities in the hot outer and inner tori, sharply defined radial structure is found in the plasma near Io, and the relative permanence of the cool inner torus is inferred. An extended cloud of neutral material is required as a source of fresh ions in the nebula.

  17. On Io's control of Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Io's control of Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM) has been attributed to Io distorting the electron distribution in the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Observations of Faraday rotation in DAM are used to determine the properties of the electron distribution before and after its interaction with Io. It is shown that there is an enhancement in the density of the energetic component in the Io plasma torus correlated with certain Jovian longitude. Io's interaction with this energetic component can produce heating of this component. The Io-controlled emission is attributed to enhanced emission from the heated electrons moving down the field lines to Jupiter.

  18. On the structure of the plasma disk in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Davydenko, S. S.

    1994-07-01

    We have determined the structure of the low-energy plasma disk in the middle Jovian magnetosphere. First, the shape of the dense plasma structures have been described analytically. We have investigated a distribution of the background plasma along the arbitrary magnetic flux tube in the frame of diffuse equilibrium taking into account the action of centrifugal and gravitational forces. Using the results of this investigation we have shown that background plasma density reaches the maximum on the surface, consisting of the warped disk between the magnetic and centrifugal equators outside Io's orbit and two mirror symmetrical 'petals' in the region of the polar cusps. Second, the radial profile of plasma density in the disk has been studied. We have considered the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the low-latitude dense plasma disk formed under the action of centrifugal force. The equilibrium radial distribution of the plasma was found for the plasma disk at the threshold of the instability with respect to small-scale MHD perturbations. The effect of the finite ion Larmor radius at the threshold of plasma instability was taken into account. We have estimated the influence of the inhomogeneity of the plasma perturbations along the magnetic field on the radial density profile bearing in mind the finite conductivity of the Jovian ionosphere. A relationship between the thickness of the plasma disk and the radial plasma distribution has been pointed out. The results obtained were compared with the known experimental data for the Jovian plasma sheet.

  19. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The

  20. Ground-based observations of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.

    A series of ground-based 1-D spatially resolved, high resolution spectra (in SII, SIII, and OII) of the Io plasma torus were acquired in October 1999, around the time of the Galileo I24 passage through the IPT. In a previous paper (Thomas et al., JGR, 106, 26277, 2001), we have presented the initial results from these observations. In this presentation, we will describe recent more detailed analysis which seems to be lending further insight into the structure of the IPT. In particular, we have used an "onion-peeling" technique to remove line of sight effects from the observations. The resulting profiles, show the so-called ribbon region (5.7 RJ) being clearly separated from the cold torus (5.3 RJ) by a region of lower SII emission. SIII emission is now shown to be almost completely absent in the cold torus. The ratio of these two species is seen to rise systematically and almost linearly with jovicentric distance from the cold torus through to the warm torus (beyond 6.0 RJ). Models can be used to interpret this behaviour in terms of changing electron temperature with distance. We compare our results with the only other measurement of this property which was based on Voyager 1 PLS observations. We further show that the peak of OII emission is not centred at the, what we now call, the sulphur ribbon. We attempt to derive the relative composition of the three major species in the torus as a function of jovicentric distance using our data.

  1. The Jovian Plasma Dynamics and Composition Analyzer for the Particle Environment Package on JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Stude, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The Jovian plasma Dynamics and Composition analyzer (JDC) is one of six sensors of Particle Environment Package (PEP) on ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter. JDC measures 3D distribution functions of positive and negative ions in the energy range 1eV per charge to 41keV per charge. The sensor measures simultaneously using a high sensitivity-low mass resolution and a lower sensitivity-high mass resolution channel and has the additional capability to measure electrons. Instrument mass constraints and the jovian radiation environment drive the design of the sensor: radiation shielding, detectors and coincidence systems are optimized for the plasma and radiation environment to be expected during the JUICE mission while keeping the sensor mass within allocated limits. We present the JDC sensor principle and design and its predicted performance in the jovian environment and compare to laboratory measurements from JDC sensor prototypes.

  2. Io's neutral clouds: From the atmosphere to the plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Matthew Howard

    2003-10-01

    Since the discovery of sodium thirty years ago, observations of Io's neutral features have provided essential insight into understanding the relationship between the Io's atmosphere and the Io torus, a ring of plasma encircling Jupiter. In this thesis I use observations and models of lo's corona, extended neutral clouds, and fast sodium jet to probe the interactions between the atmosphere, torus, and neutral clouds. A corona and neutral cloud model, based on the model of Wilson and Schneider (1999), has been developed to study neutral loss from Io. Neutrals are ejected from Io's exobase and their trajectories followed under the influence of gravity until lost into the plasma torus. I also developed description of the plasma torus based on Voyager and ground-based observations to accurately determine neutral lifetimes. Mutual eclipsing events between Galilean satellites were used to measure the shape of lo's sodium corona, revealing a corona that is only approximately spherically symmetric around Io. I discovered a previously undetected asymmetry: the sub-Jupiter corona is denser than the anti-Jupiter corona. Modeling implies that sodium source from the sub-Jupiter hemisphere must be twice as large as from the anti-Jupiter hemisphere. The Galileo spacecraft has imaged a remarkable atmospheric escape process occurring in Io's ionosphere. Electrodynamic consequences of Io's motion through Jupiter's magnetosphere drive mega-amp currents through lo's ionosphere; some sodium ions carrying this current are neutralized as they leave the atmosphere. The Galileo images show that the resulting fast sodium jet removes ˜5 × 1025 atoms sec-1 from Io's atmosphere. The source region of the jet is much smaller than Io itself implying that the ionosphere is densest near Io's equator. A model-based comparison of the neutral oxygen and sodium clouds details differences in the morphologies and spatial extent of each: sodium extends only 1/4 the way around Jupiter while oxygen forms a

  3. Hybrid simulation of wave propagation in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, B. H.; Delamere, P. A.; Damiano, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The transmission of waves between Jupiter and Io is an excellent case study of magnetosphere/ionosphere (MI) coupling because the power generated by the interaction at Io and the auroral power emitted at Jupiter can be reasonably estimated. Wave formation begins with mass loading as Io passes through the plasma torus. A ring beam distribution of pickup ions and perturbation of the local flow by the conducting satellite generate electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and Alfven waves. We investigate wave propagation through the torus and to higher latitudes using a hybrid plasma simulation with a physically realistic density gradient, assessing the transmission of Poynting flux and wave dispersion. We also analyze the propagation of kinetic Alfven waves through a density gradient in two dimensions.

  4. The plasma physics of the Jovian decameter radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Eviatar, A.

    1972-01-01

    We have assumed that the decameter radiation from Jupiter is produced near the local electron gyrofrequency and is amplified as it propagates out of the Jovian magnetosphere. We have derived the growth rate for radiation that propagates almost perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. When the electrons are described by a loss-cone distribution function, the growth rate is large enough to lead to a large amplification factor over a source of 100-4000 km, depending on the choice of parameters. Because we expect low-energy electrons to be trapped in the Jovian dipole field regardless of the position of the satellite Io, we maintain that this model provides a plausible mechanism for the decametric radiation not associated with Io.

  5. Charge exchange cross sections for the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.

    1989-03-01

    An impact parameter method for calculating cross sections as a function of incident ion energy is used in conjunction with an improved exchange energy formulation to update several of the charge exchange cross sections currently used in Io plasma torus modeling. New cross sections for S(+) + S(2+) yielding S(2+) + S(+) and Na(+) on neutral targets, useful in analyzing the fast Na jets observed at Io, are also calculated.

  6. Magnetic Fluctuations in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Christopher T.

    2002-01-01

    The engine that drives the jovian magnetosphere is the mass added to the Io ion torus, accelerated to corotational velocities by field-aligned currents that couple the Io torus to the jovian ionosphere. The mass of the torus builds up to an amount that the magnetic forces cannot contain and the plasma, first slowly and then more rapidly, drifts outward. Numerous authors have treated this problem based first on the observations of the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys; then on Voyager 1 and 2, and Ulysses; and finally most recently the Galileo orbiter. The initial observations revealed the now familiar magnetodisk, in which the field above and below the magnetic equator became quite radial in orientation and much less dipolar. The Galileo observations show this transformation to occur on average at 24 R(sub J) and to often be quite abrupt. These observations are consistent with outward transport of magnetized plasma that moves ever faster radially until about 50 R(sub J) on the nightside where the field lines stretch to the breaking point, reconnection occurs, and plasma and field islands are transported down the tail ultimately removing the mass from the magnetosphere that Io had deposited deep in the inner torus. The reconnection process creates empty flux tubes connected to Jupiter that are buoyant and thought to float inward and replace the flux carried out with the torus plasma. As described above, the jovian magnetosphere could very well be in a state of steady laminar circulation, but indeed it is not. The process is very unsteady and the wave levels can be very intense. The existence of these waves in turn can lead to processes that compete with the radial circulation pattern in removing plasma from the system. These waves can scatter particles so that they precipitate into the ionosphere. This process should be important in the Io torus where the atmospheric loss cone is relatively large and becomes less important as the loss cone decreases in size with radial

  7. Magnetic Fluctuations in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.

    2002-01-01

    The engine that drives the jovian magnetosphere is the mass added to the Io ion torus, accelerated to corotational velocities by field-aligned currents that couple the Io torus to the jovian ionosphere. The mass of the torus builds up to an amount that the magnetic forces cannot contain and the plasma, first slowly and then more rapidly, drifts outward. Numerous authors have treated this problem based first on the observations of the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys; then on Voyager 1 and 2, and Ulysses; and finally most recently the Galileo orbiter. The initial observations revealed the now familiar magnetodisk, in which the field above and below the magnetic equator became quite radial in orientation and much less dipolar. The Galileo observations show this transformation to occur on average at 24 RJ and to often be quite abrupt. These observations are consistent with outward transport of magnetized plasma that moves ever faster radially until about 50 RJ on the nightside where the field lines stretch to the breaking point, reconnection occurs, and plasma and field islands are transported down the tail ultimately removing the mass from the magnetosphere that Io had deposited deep in the inner torus. The reconnection process creates empty flux tubes connected to Jupiter that are buoyant and thought to float inward and replace the flux carried out with the torus plasma. As described above, the jovian magnetosphere could very well be in a state of steady laminar circulation, but indeed it is not. The process is very unsteady and the wave levels can be very intense. The existence of these waves in turn can lead to processes that compete with the radial circulation pattern in removing plasma from the system. These waves can scatter particles so that they precipitate into the ionosphere. This process should be important in the Io torus where the atmospheric loss cone is relatively large and becomes less important as the loss cone decreases in size with radial distance. However

  8. Electron Bernstein waves in spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, A. N.

    2006-11-30

    Propagation and absorption of the electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) in spherical tokamaks (STs) have been intensively discussed in recent years because the EBWs coupled with an externally launched electromagnetic beam seem to be the only opportunity for microwave plasma heating and current drive in the electron cyclotron (EC) frequency range in the STs. The whole problem of the electron Bernstein heating and current drive (EBWHCD) in spherical plasmas is naturally divided into three major parts: coupling of incident electromagnetic waves (EMWs) to the EBWs near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) surface, propagation and absorption of the EBWs in the plasma interior and generation of noninductive current driven by the EBWs. The present paper is a brief survey of the most important theoretical and numerical results on the issue of EBWs.

  9. Fluctuation spectra in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, C. M.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Roth, J. R.; Hong, J. Y.; Powers, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The electrostatic potential fluctuation spectrum in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma was studied with capacitive probes in the low pressure (high impedance) mode and in the high pressure (low impedance) mode. Under different operating conditions, the plasma exhibited electrostatic potential fluctuations (1) at a set of discrete frequencies, (2) at a continuum of frequencies, and (3) as incoherent high-frequency turbulence. The frequencies and azimuthal wave numbers were determined from digitally implemented autopower and cross-power spectra. The azimuthal dispersion characteristics of the unstable waves were examined by varying the electrode voltage, the polarity of the voltage, and the neutral background density at a constant magnetic field strength.

  10. Latitudinal oscillations of plasma within the Io torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, W. D.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1980-05-01

    The equilibrium latitude and the period of oscillations about this equilibrium latitude are calculated for a plasma in a centrifugally dominated tilted dipole magnetic field representing Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. It is found that for a hot plasma the equilibrium latitude in the magnetic equator, for a cold plasma it is the centrifugal equator, and for a warm plasma it is somewhere in between. An illustrative model is adopted in which atoms are sputtered from the Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io and escape Io's gravity to be subsequently ionized some distance from Io. Finally, it is shown that ionization generally does not occur at the equilibrium altitude, and that the resulting latitudinal oscillations provide an explanation for the irregularities in electron concentration within the torus, as reported by the radioastronomy experiment aboard Voyager I.

  11. Io's Sodium Clouds and Plasma Torus: Three Quiet Apparitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jody; Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.

    2007-10-01

    Ground-based observations of Io's sodium clouds from February 2005 to June 2007 indicate that Io was in an unusually quiet state of atmospheric escape. Simultaneous observations of the sulfur-ion plasma torus in that same period indicate that the torus has been gradually dimming, which is also consistent with below-average atmospheric escape rates from Io. The S+ torus was essentially undetectable in May 2007. Our goal in this 3-year project was to compare variability in the clouds and torus with observations of Io's volcanic infrared ``hot spots'' (e.g., Marchis et al. 2005) in order to track the flow of mass from Io's volcanoes into Jupiter's magnetosphere. Of particular interest was the 18-month cycle of Io's large volcano Loki (Rathbun et al. 2002, Mendillo et al. 2004), however it seems that Loki has settled into an unusually long-term quiescent state (Rathbun and Spencer, 2006). Thus, although we have been unable to monitor the month-to-month effects of the Loki cycle, we nonetheless have indirect evidence for Loki's long-term effects on Io's atmosphere and Jupiter's magnetosphere by observing their weak states when Loki is not actively contributing. This research is funded in part by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program. Marchis et al., Keck AO survey of Io global volcanic activity between 2 and 5 microns, Icarus, 176, 96-122, 2005. Mendillo et al., Io's volcanic control of Jupiter's extended neutral clouds, Icarus, 170, 430-442, 2004. Rathbun, J.A. et al., Loki, Io: A periodic volcano, Geophysical Research Letters, 29, Issue 10, pp. 84-1, 2002. Rathbun, J.A. and J.R. Spencer, Loki, Io: New ground-based observations and a model describing the change from periodic overturn, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, Issue 17, 2006.

  12. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Research efforts in the second quarter have been focused upon a preliminary exploration of the likely impact of Europs's local atmospheres and neutral clouds on the plasma torus and the initiation of an assessment of the basic nature of the radial structure of the electron density in the plasma torus during the JO encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.

  13. High Performance Plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J. Bialek; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; P. Bonoli; D. Darrow; P. Efthimion; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; L. Grisham; J. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S. Kaye; S. Kubota; H. Kugel; B. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; J. Manickam; T.K. Mau; R.J. Maqueda; E. Mazzucato; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Nelson; N. Nishino; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; Y-K.M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Raman; P. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; C.H. Skinner; D. Stutman; D. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson; W. Zhu; S. Zweben; A. Bers; M. Carter; B. Deng; C. Domier; E. Doyle; M. Finkenthal; K. Hill; T. Jarboe; S. Jardin; H. Ji; L. Lao; K.C. Lee; N. Luhmann; R. Majeski; H. Park; T. Peebles; R.I. Pinsker; G. Porter; A. Ram; M. Rensink; T. Rognlien; D. Stotler; B. Stratton; G. Taylor; W. Wampler; G.A. Wurden; X.Q. Xu; L. Zeng; and the NSTX Team

    2001-07-10

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced toroidal plasmas at low aspect ratio (A = R/a = 0.86 m/0.68 m approximately equal to 1.3, where R is the major radius and a is the minor radius of the torus) with plasma currents of 1.4 MA. The rapid development of the machine has led to very exciting physics results during the first full year of physics operation. Pulse lengths in excess of 0.5 sec have been obtained with inductive current drive. Up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating power has been applied with 6 MW planned. Using only 2 MW of HHFW heating power clear evidence of electron heating is seen with HHFW, as observed by the multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. A noninductive current drive concept known as Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has driven 260 kA of toroidal current. Neutral-beam heating power of 5 MW has been injected. Plasmas with beta toroidal (= 2 mu(subscript ''0'')

    /B(superscript ''2'') = a measure of magnetic confinement efficiency ) of 22% have been achieved, as calculated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. Beta-limiting phenomena have been observed, and the maximum beta toroidal scales with I(subscript ''p'')/aB(subscript ''t''). High frequency (>MHz) magnetic fluctuations have been observed. High-confinement mode plasmas are observed with confinement times of >100 msec. Beam-heated plasmas show energy confinement times in excess of those predicted by empirical scaling expressions. Ion temperatures in excess of 2.0 keV have been measured, and power balance suggests that the power loss from the ions to the electrons may exceed the calculated classical input power to the ions.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Rotation-Driven Plasma Transport In the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    A Jupiter version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM-J) was developed with support of an earlier NASA SR&T grant. The conversion from Earth to Jupiter included adding currents driven by centrifugal force, reversing the planetary magnetic field, and rescaling various parameters. A series of informative runs was carried out, all of them solving initial value problems. The simulations followed an initial plasma torus configuration as it fell apart by interchange instability. Some conclusions from the simulations were the following: 1. We confirmed that, for conventional values of the torus density and ionospheric conductance, the torus disintegrates by interchange instability on a time scale of approx. one day, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than the best estimates of the average residence time of plasma in the torus. 2. In the model, the instability could be slowed to an arbitrary degree by the addition of sufficient impounding energetic particles, as suggested earlier by Siscoe et al (1981). However, the observed energetic particles do not seem sufficient to guarantee impoundment (e.g., Mauk et al., 1996). 3. Whether inhibited by impoundment or not, the interchange was found to proceed by the formation of long fingers, which get thinner as they get longer. This picture differed dramatically from the conventional radial-diffusion picture (e.g., Siscoe and Summers (1981)), more superficially with the outward-moving-blob picture (Pontius and Hill, 1989). The obvious limitation of the original RCM-J was that it could not represent a plasma source. We could represent the decay of a pre-existing torus, but we could not represent the way ionization of material from Io continually replenishes the plasma. We consequently were precluded from studying a whole set of fundamental issues of torus theory, including whether the system can come to a steady state.

  15. Fluctuations and turbulence in an electric field Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, J. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Fluctuation characteristics of plasma number density and electrostatic potential below the ion plasma and ion cyclotron frequencies in an electric field Bumpy Torus plasma were investigated experimentally, using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques. The toroidal plasma was biased to high potentials by applying positive or negative voltage to electrodes located in the midplanes of two sectors of the toroidal array. The plasma was observed to be biased to 80 or 90% of the potential on the midplane electrodes, regardless of polarity. The radial electric field exceeded 1 kV/cm at the plasma boundary and penetrated inward to at least one-half of the plasma radius. When the imposed radial electric fields reached values characteristic of the experiment, the E/B drift velocities were comparable to the particle thermal velocities. The amplitude statistics of both the density and the potential fluctuations were found to be Gaussian for the most part, with near-zero skewness and a kurtosis of about 3.0. The spectral index of the density and potential fluctuations ranged from 2 to 6. The higher frequency components were found to propagate faster than the E/B drift velocity, which is the characteristic speed of the lower-frequency components.

  16. The Jovian magnetosphere - A post-Voyager view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of observational and theoretical work presented at the Rice University Conference on the Physics of the Jovian Magnetosphere (February 27-29, 1980) are summarized and used to elucidate the post-Voyager status of the understanding of Jovian magnetosphere dynamics. Works considered treat earth-based and Voyager observations of the Io torus, decametric and kilometric radio emissions, corotation of magnetospheric plasma with the magnetic field, and theoretical studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration, diffusion and loss in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space. Issues remaining to be resolved by future research are also indicated, particularly questions of the discrepancy between plasma flow measurements obtained on the two plasma experiments on each Voyager spacecraft, and the localization of the source of torus plasma.

  17. Negative specific heat of a magnetically self-confined plasma torus

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Michael K.-H.; Neukirch, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the thermodynamic maximum-entropy principle predicts negative specific heat for a stationary, magnetically self-confined current-carrying plasma torus. Implications for the magnetic self-confinement of fusion plasma are considered. PMID:12576553

  18. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  19. Modeling and investigative studies of Jovian low frequency emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Six, N. F.; Gulkis, S.

    1986-09-01

    The Voyager data in a newly produced noise-reduced and recalibrated format has been received. New color spectrograms were developed on high resolution color terminals which display this data. The production of these new spectrograms utilizing the new format data is quite important, because it eliminates a serious problem of noise contamination and miscalibration in the old data set. In addition, a new Jovian plasma model was introduced, which includes the Io torus and accounts for 7 ionic species. The new plasma model is important in the ray tracing of hectometric (HOM) and kilometric (KOM) radiation which may be influenced by the Io torus.

  20. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io: the HISAKI observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Kagitani, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Nozawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in Io plasma torus (IPT) has been discovered by Voyager and show an evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, the amount of observation data is still limited to investigate its detail properties. In addition, the clear Io-correlated change has not been detected by EUVE and Cassini observations. Cause of the Io-correlated effect is still open issue. The HISAKI satellite was launched on Sep. 14, 2013 and started observation of IPT and Jovian aurora for more than two months since the end of Dec. 2013. EUV spectrograph onboard the HISAKI satellite covers wavelength range from 55 to 145 nm, a wide slit which had a field of view of 400 x 140 arc-second was chosen to measure radial distribution and time variation of IPT. Observation of IPT with HISAKI showed clear Io-correlated brightness change since the Voyager observation. The amplitude of the periodic variation associated with Io's orbital period was found. It also showed long-term variation during the HISAKI's observation period. Through the observation period, the amplitude was larger in the short wavelength than in long wavelength. The wavelength dependence suggests significant electron heating and/or hot electron production. The Io phase dependence shows that bright region is located just downstream of Io. These are evidence of local electron heating around/downstream of Io and consistent with the Voyager result. The brightness also depends on system-III longitude and has local maximum around 120 and 300 degrees. Based on an empirical model of IPT, electron density at Io also shows maxima around the same longitudes. This suggests that the electron heating process is related with plasma density at Io. Candidate mechanisms which are responsible for the electron heating will be discussed.

  1. Empirical probability model of cold plasma environment in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Barabash, Stas; Roussos, Elias; Truscott, Pete

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the Galileo PLS dataset to produce a new cold plasma environment model for the Jovian magneto- sphere. Although there exist many sophisticated radiation models, treating energetic plasma (e.g. JOSE, GIRE, or Salammbo), only a limited number of simple models has been utilized for cold plasma environment. By extend- ing the existing cold plasma models toward the probability domain, we can predict the extreme periods of Jovian environment by specifying the percentile of the environmental parameters. The new model was produced in the following procedure. We first referred to the existing cold plasma models of Divine and Garrett, 1983 (DG83) or Bagenal and Delamere 2011 (BD11). These models are scaled to fit the statistical median of the parameters obtained from Galileo PLS data. The scaled model (also called as "mean model") indicates the median environment of Jovian magnetosphere. Then, assuming that the deviations in the Galileo PLS parameters are purely due to variations in the environment, we extended the mean model toward the percentile domain. The input parameter of the model is simply the position of the spacecraft (distance, magnetic longitude and lati- tude) and the specific percentile (e.g. 0.5 for the mean model). All the parameters in the model are described in mathematical forms; therefore the needed computational resources are quite low. The new model can be used for assessing the JUICE mission profile. The spatial extent of the model covers the main phase of the JUICE mission; namely from the Europa orbit to 40 Rj (where Rj is the radius of Jupiter). In addition, theoretical extensions toward the latitudinal direction are also included in the model to support the high latitude orbit of the JUICE spacecraft.

  2. Torus-shaped dust clouds trapped in a magnetized anodic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, Iris; Reichstein, Torben; Piel, Alexander

    2008-10-15

    Dust particles confined in a magnetized anodic plasma can form a torus-shaped cloud with a dust-free region (void) in the center. Most of the dust particles perform a rotational motion about the major axis of the torus. The torus-shaped dust cloud and the velocity of the particles are studied by varying the external plasma parameters like magnetic field strength and rf-power of the source plasma. Two-dimensional potential contours are measured with an emissive probe. The results are used to discuss the force balance between electric field force and ion drag acting on the dust particles that determines the void size.

  3. Amalthea's modulation of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-05-01

    Most modulation lanes in dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission (DAM) are formed by radiation scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. The positions and frequency drift of hundreds of lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from UFRO archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that some lanes are formed near the magnetic shell of the satellite Amalthea mainly at longitudes of 123°≤λ_III≤140° (north) and 284°≤λ_III≤305° (south). These disturbances coincide with regions of plasma compression by the rotating magnetic field of Jupiter. Such modulations are found at other longitudes too (189° to 236°) with higher sensitivity. Amalthea's plasma torus could be another argument for the ice nature of the satellite, which has a density less than that of water.

  4. Amalthea's modulation of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, O. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-08-01

    Most modulation lanes in dynamic spectra of Jovian decametric emission (DAM) are formed by radiation scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. The positions and frequency drift of hundreds of lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from UFRO archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that some lanes are formed near the magnetic shell of the satellite Amalthea mainly at longitudes of 123 to 140 deg. (north; III 1965 system) and 284 to 305 deg. (south). These disturbances coincide with regions of plasma compression by the rotating magnetic field of Jupiter. Such modulations are found at other longitudes too (189 to 236 deg.) with higher sensitivity. Amalthea's plasma torus could be another argument for the ice nature of the satellite, which has a density less than that of water.

  5. Limit on rotational energy available to excite Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    There is a fundamental relationship between the power that is extracted from Jupiter's rotation to drive magnetospheric processes and the rate at which mass is injected into the Io plasma torus. Half of this power is consumed by bulk motion of the plasma and the other half represents an upper limit on the energy from rotation available for dissipation and in particular to excite the Jovian aurora. Since the rotation of the planet is the only plausible source of energy, the power inferred from the observed auroral intensities requires a plasma injection rate of 2.6 x 10 to the 29th AMU/sec or greater. This in turn leads to a residence time of a torus particle of 48 days or less. These results raise doubts about the applicability of equilibrium thermodynamics to the determination of plasma parameters in the Io torus.

  6. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Jovian system for about 24 hours on 25-26 Nov 1999 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), in support of the Galileo flyby of Io, and for about 10 hours on 18 Dec 2000 with the imaging array of the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), in support of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. Analysis of these data have revealed soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays is about an order of magnitude too weak even during flares from the active Sun to account for the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains both fall by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, we calculate that bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range accounts for roughly one third of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Extension of the far ultraviolet (FUV) IPT spectrum likely also contributes.

  7. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  8. Modeling of Spherical Torus Plasmas for Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; S. Jardin; B. Jones; C. Kessel; R. Majeski; J. Spaleta; R. Woolley; L. Zakharo; B. Nelson; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-29

    Liquid metal walls have the potential to solve first-wall problems for fusion reactors, such as heat load and erosion of dry walls, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. In the near term, such walls can serve as the basis for schemes to stabilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Furthermore, the low recycling characteristics of lithium walls can be used for particle control. Liquid lithium experiments have already begun in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U). Plasmas limited with a toroidally localized limiter have been investigated, and experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter are in progress. A liquid surface module (LSM) has been proposed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this larger ST, plasma currents are in excess of 1 MA and a typical discharge radius is about 68 cm. The primary motivation for the LSM is particle control, and options for mounting it on the horizontal midplane or in the divertor region are under consideration. A key consideration is the magnitude of the eddy currents at the location of a liquid lithium surface. During plasma start up and disruptions, the force due to such currents and the magnetic field can force a conducting liquid off of the surface behind it. The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to estimate the magnitude of this effect. This program is a two dimensional, time dependent, free boundary simulation code that solves the MHD equations for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. From calculations that match actual ST equilibria, the eddy current densities can be determined at the locations of the liquid lithium. Initial results have shown that the effects could be significant, and ways of explicitly treating toroidally local structures are under investigation.

  9. The Jovian magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The current understanding of the plasma, magnetic field, and plasma wave characteristics of the near and distant Jovian magnetotail is discussed. The properties of these two regions are compared, with particular emphasis given to the data on the distant tail obtained by Voyager 2. The Jovian tail has many unusual properties, such as the large scale sausage-string shape of its outer boundary, but some of its properties resemble those of the earth's magnetotail, such as its central current sheet and a surrounding region resembling a plasma sheet consisting of hot ions. Data are presented that support the view that plasma in the Jovian tail plasma sheet comes from Jupiter.

  10. Extreme ultraviolet explorer satellite observation of Jupiter's Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. T; Gladstone, G. R.; Moos, H. W.; Bagenal, F.; Clarke, J. T.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcgrath, M. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Shemansky, D. E.; Strobel, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observation of the Jupiter system, obtained during the 2 day period 1993 March 30 through April 1, which shows a rich emission-line spectrum from the Io plasma torus spanning wavelengths 370 to 735 A. The emission features correspond primarily to known multiplets of oxygen and sulfur ions, but a blended feature near 372 A is a plausible Na II transition. The summed detected energy flux of (7.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -11) ergs/sq cm(s) corresponds to a radiated power of approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 11) W in this spectral range. All ansa emissions show a distinct dawn-dusk brightness asymmetry and the measured dusk/dawn ratio of the bright S III lambda-680 feature is 2.3 +/- 0.3, significantly larger than the ratio measured by the Voyager spacecraft ultraviolet (UV) instruments. A preliminary estimate of ion partitioning indicates that the oxygen/sulfur ion ratio is approximately equal to 2, compared to the value approximately equal to 1.3 measured by Voyager, and that (Na(+))/(e) greater than 0.01.

  11. Charging of small grains in a space plasma: Application to Jovian stream particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhanoev, A. R.; Schmidt, J.; Liu, X.; Spahn, F.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Most theoretical investigations of dust charging processes in space have treated the current balance condition as independent of grain size. However, for small grains, since they are often observed in space environments, a dependence on grain size is expected owing to secondary electron emission (SEE). Here, by the term "small" we mean a particle size comparable to the typical penetration depth for given primary electron energy. The results are relevant for the dynamics of small, charged dust particles emitted by the volcanic moon Io, which forms the Jovian dust streams. Aims: We revise the theory of charging of small (submicron sized) micrometeoroids to take into account a high production of secondary electrons for small grains immersed in an isotropic flux of electrons. We apply our model to obtain an improved estimate for the charge of the dust streams leaving the Jovian system, detected by several spacecraft. Methods: We apply a continuum model to describe the penetration of primary electrons in a grain and the emission of secondary electrons along the path. Averaging over an isotropic flux of primaries, we derive a new expression for the secondary electron yield, which can be used to express the secondary electron current on a grain. Results: For the Jupiter plasma environment we derive the surface potential of grains composed of NaCl (believed to be the major constituent of Jovian dust stream particles) or silicates. For small particles, the potential depends on grain size and the secondary electron current induces a sensitivity to material properties. As a result of the small particle effect, the estimates for the charging times and for the fractional charge fluctuations of NaCl grains obtained using our general approach to SEE give results qualitatively different from the analogous estimates derived from the traditional approach to SEE. We find that for the charging environment considered in this paper field emission does not limit the charging of

  12. Momentum Transport in Electron-Dominated Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.; Wang, W.; Yuh, H.

    2009-02-24

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operates between 0.35 and 0.55 T, which, when coupled to up to 7 MW of neutral beam injection, leads to central rotation velocities in excess of 300 km/s and ExB shearing rates up to 1 MHz. This level of ExB shear can be up to a factor of five greater than typical linear growth rates of long-wavelength ion (e.g., ITG) modes, at least partially suppressing these instabilities. Evidence for this turbulence suppression is that the inferred diffusive ion thermal flux in NSTX H-modes is often at the neoclassical level, and thus these plasmas operate in an electron-dominated transport regime. Analysis of experiments using n=3 magnetic fields to change plasma rotation indicate that local rotation shear influences local transport coefficients, most notably the ion thermal diffusivity, in a manner consistent with suppression of the low-k turbulence by this rotation shear. The value of the effective momentum diffusivity, as inferred from steady-state momentum balance, is found to be larger than the neoclassical value. Results of perturbative experiments indicate inward pinch velocities up to 40 m/s and perturbative momentum diffusivities of up to 4 m2/s, which are larger by a factor of several than those values inferred from steady-state analysis. The inferred pinch velocity values are consistent with values based on theories in which low-k turbulence drives the inward momentum pinch. Thus, in Spherical Tori (STs), while the neoclassical ion energy transport effects can be relatively high and dominate the ion energy transport, the neoclassical momentum transport effects are near zero, meaning that transport of momentum is dominated by any low-k turbulence that exists.

  13. Observed departure of the Io plasma torus from rigid corotation with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of forbidden S II red doublet spectra indicates that the Io plasma torus at 5.9 Jupiter radii does not corotate rigidly with Jupiter. The lag is found to be 6 percent + or 4 percent, where the variability range, not the uncertainty, is indicated. Comparison with existing models indicates the lag may be due primarily to ion creation in the Io torus.

  14. Low energy energetic neutral atom imaging in the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas

    2013-04-01

    We modeled low energy energetic neutral atoms fluxes originating from the interaction of Jovian magnetospheric plasma with the surface of Ganymede and from charge exchange reactions in the Io torus. We then calculated the instrument response of the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer instrument (JNA) to these fluxes. JNA is part of the proposed Particle Environment Package (PEP) for ESA's JUICE mission and is based on the Energetic Neutral Atom instrument (ENA) built for the BepiColombo Magnetospheric Orbiter. JNA is an imaging energetic neutral atom instrument for energies from 10eV to 3.3keV and it provides angular as well as mass resolution for major neutral species. Depending on magnetic field configuration magnetospheric plasma is able to precipitate onto the surface of Ganymede. The plasma surface interaction produces energetic neutral atoms by backscattering and/or sputtering that travel on ballistic trajectories. Imaging of the energetic neutral atoms fluxes allows to remotely study the precipitation pattern onto the surface, its dependence on magnetic field configuration and its evolution over time. Simulated JNA images are shown for typical conditions. Energetic neutral atoms are also generated by charge exchange reactions in the Io torus. Energetic neutral atoms allow us to study torus dynamics remotely. We show expected energetic neutral atoms fluxes and simulated JNA data from imaging the Io torus from a vantage point outside of Europa's orbit well reachable by the JUICE mission.

  15. Fluid properties of the distant Jovian magnetotail plasma using New Horizons Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument's observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument onboard New Horizons (NH), obtained in situ measurements of low energy plasma ions (35 eV to 7.5 keV) in the distant Jovian magnetosphere during its 2007 flyby. 16 magnetopause crossings were observed between 1654 and 2429 RJ (1 RJ = 1 Jovian Radii) that were identified by transitions between magnetotail, boundary layer and magnetosheath plasma. We have developed a forward model of SWAP instrument in order to derive the fluid properties of the plasma ions in the Jovian magnetosheath where the plasma flux seems to be invariable for relatively long period of time and much higher than it is inside the magnetotail. We present the magnetosheath plasma fluid properties as derived using our preliminary model. Our results can explain the observed magnetopause crossings due to the magnetotail movement and compression. In addition, a correlation between plasma density and temperature was found. Since the statistical noise is much higher in the magnetotail dataset we explain what modifications are needed in our model and technique in order to derive the fluid properties of plasma ions in this region. Among others, we demonstrate how we can estimate the statistical noise of the data and we explore how this noise can affect the estimation of different plasma parameters.

  16. Voyager observations of lower hybrid noise in the Io plasma torus and anomalous plasma heating rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of Voyager 1 electric field measurements obtained by the plasma wave instrument in the Io plasma torus has been carried out. A survey of the data has revealed the presence of persistent peaks in electric field spectra in the frequency range 100-600 Hz consistent with their identification as lower hybrid noise for a heavy-ion plasma of sulfur and oxygen. Typical wave intensities are 0.1 mV/m, and the spectra also show significant Doppler broadening, Delta omega/omega approximately 1. A theoretical analysis of lower hybrid wave generation by a bump-on-tail ring distribution of ions is given. The model is appropriate for plasmas with a superthermal pickup ion population present. A general methodology is used to demonstrate that the maximum plasma heating rate possible through anomalous wave-particle heat exchange is less than approximately 10 to the -14th ergs per cu cm per s. Although insufficient to meet the power requirement of the EUV-emitting warm torus, the heating rate is large enough to maintain a low-density (0.01-0.1 percent) superthermal electron population of keV electrons, which may lead to a small but significant anomalous ionization effect.

  17. Energy branching in the Io plasma torus - The failure of neutral cloud theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Model calculations are used to explore the energy source characteristics of the energy branching of the hot Io plasma torus. It is assumed that the energy is derived from the kinetic energy acquired by ions created in the rotating planetary magnetic field, and that Coulomb collisions with the electron gas control the flow of energy to the ionizing and radiative processes. The results show that neutral cloud theory is qualitatively inadequate. It is shown that neutral cloud theory can only support a dominantly singly ionized system (at the measured electron densities in the plasma torus) and that it fails to predict observed plasma properties relative to variations in number density.

  18. X-ray Probes of Magnetospheric Interactions with Jupiter's Auroral zones, the Galilean Satellites, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed fiom Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission fiom the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties, as well as energetic ion flux models or measurements, required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We discuss the proposed scenarios leading to possible surface compositions. For Europa, the two most extreme are (1) a patina produced by exogenic processes such as meteoroid bombardment and ion implantation, and (2) upwelling of material fiom the subsurface ocean. We also describe the characteristics of X - m , an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIM0 mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  19. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts in the second quarterly period have been focused primarily upon reviewing and assessing the neutral-plasma reactions and the plasma-plasma reactions that are important in determining the production and loss rates for the primary heavy ion species S(+), S(++), S(+++), O(+), and O(++) in the plasma torus and in acquiring new and updating old cross sections for the important processes.

  20. Hybrid Simulation of the Interaction of Europa's Atmosphere with the Jovian Plasma: Multiprocessor Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dols, V. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Cassidy, T. A.; Crary, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    We model the interaction of Europa's tenuous atmosphere with the plasma of Jupiter's torus with an improved version of our hybrid plasma code. In a hybrid plasma code, the ions are treated as kinetic Macro-particles moving under the Lorentz force and the electrons as a fluid leading to a generalized formulation of Ohm's law. In this version, the spatial simulation domain is decomposed in 2 directions and is non-uniform in the plasma convection direction. The code is run on a multi-processor supercomputer that offers 16416 cores and 2GB Ram per core. This new version allows us to tap into the large memory of the supercomputer and simulate the full interaction volume (Reuropa=1561km) with a high spatial resolution (50km). Compared to Io, Europa's atmosphere is about 100 times more tenuous, the ambient magnetic field is weaker and the density of incident plasma is lower. Consequently, the electrodynamic interaction is also weaker and substantial fluxes of thermal torus ions might reach and sputter the icy surface. Molecular O2 is the dominant atmospheric product of this surface sputtering. Observations of oxygen UV emissions (specifically the ratio of OI 1356A / 1304A emissions) are roughly consistent with an atmosphere that is composed predominantely of O2 with a small amount of atomic O. Galileo observations along flybys close to Europa have revealed the existence of induced currents in a conducting ocean under the icy crust. They also showed that, from flyby to flyby, the plasma interaction is very variable. Asymmetries of the plasma density and temperature in the wake of Europa were also observed and still elude a clear explanation. Galileo mag data also detected ion cyclotron waves, which is an indication of heavy ion pickup close to the moon. We prescribe an O2 atmosphere with a vertical density column consistent with UV observations and model the plasma properties along several Galileo flybys of the moon. We compare our results with the magnetometer

  1. The impact of Callisto's atmosphere on its plasma interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, Lucas; Feyerabend, Moritz; Simon, Sven; Motschmann, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between Callisto's atmosphere and ionosphere with the surrounding magnetospheric environment is analyzed by applying a hybrid simulation code, in which the ions are treated as particles and the electrons are treated as a fluid. Callisto is unique among the Galilean satellites in its interaction with the ambient magnetospheric plasma as the gyroradii of the impinging plasma and pickup ions are large compared to the size of the moon. A kinetic representation of the ions is therefore mandatory to adequately describe the resulting asymmetries in the electromagnetic fields and the deflection of the plasma flow near Callisto. Multiple model runs are performed at various distances of the moon to the center of Jupiter's magnetospheric current sheet, with differing angles between the corotational plasma flow and the ionizing solar radiation. When Callisto is embedded in the Jovian current sheet, magnetic perturbations due to the plasma interaction are more than twice the strength of the background field and may therefore obscure any magnetic signal generated via induction in a subsurface ocean. The magnetic field perturbations generated by Callisto's ionospheric interaction are very similar at different orbital positions of the moon, demonstrating that local time is only of minor importance when disentangling magnetic signals generated by the magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction from those driven by induction. Our simulations also suggest that deflection of the magnetospheric plasma around the moon cannot alone explain the density enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude measured in Callisto's wake during Galileo flybys. However, through inclusion of an ionosphere surrounding Callisto, modeled densities in the wake are consistent with in situ measurements.

  2. The magnetic-anomaly model of the Jovian magnetosphere - A post-Voyager assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasyliunas, V. M.; Dessler, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Predictions previously put forth (Dessler and Vasyliunas, 1979) as tests for the magnetic-anomaly model (in which the anomalously weak magnetic field region in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter influences the outer Jovian magnetosphere by one or more plasma interaction processes) are reexamined in the light of Voyager and other recent observations. With regard to the prediction of a restricted longitude range of enhanced interaction between Io and Jupiter's ionosphere, the longitudinal asymmetries seen both in ground-based observations of sulfur emissions from the Io torus and in Voyager observations of Jovian auroral emissions are found to agree well with the predicted asymmetries.

  3. Sounder stimulated D(sub n) resonances in Jupiter's Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Benson, R. F.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Macdowall, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    On February 8, 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft passed through Jupiter's Io plasma torus, where rich spectra of narrow-band resonances were stimulated by the relaxation sounder of the Ulysses unified radio and plasma wave (URAP) instrument. Since the gyrofrequency f(sub g) is comparable to the plasma frequency f(sub p) in the Io torus, it was predicted that the general classification of stimulated ionospheric D(sub n) resonances, developed for 1 is less than or equal to f(sub p)/f(sub g) is less than or equal to 8 in the Earth's topside ionosphere, should apply in the Io torus as well as the Earth's magnetosphere (Osherovich, 1989). The URAP plasmagrams (sounder spectra) in the portions of the Io torus satisfying these plasma conditions are dominated by the D(sub n) resonances for frequencies below f(sub p). On most of these plasmagrams the f(sub p) resonance is also present, but it is seldom the dominant resonance. Neither upper hybrid nor nf(sub g) resonances have been found on these plasmagrams. The identification of D(sub n) resonances has allowed both the electron density and the magnetic field amplitude to be calculated. The derived densities on the outbound pass agree well with a Voyager model of Bagenal (1992). The derived magnetic field values are close to the Goddard Space Flight Center O(sub 6) magnetic field model.

  4. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power-law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of the potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied include the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings (and hence the direction of the radial electric field), the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  5. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  6. Resonant instability near the two-ion crossover frequency in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Moses, J. J.

    1985-07-01

    Thorne and Scarf (1984) have presented evidence for the existence of intense low-frequency fluctuating electric fields in the Io plasma torus. Two distinct mechanisms have been proposed for this phenomenon, namely, ion cyclotron instability which occurs at intermediate latitude, and whistler instability near the equator. The present investigation is concerned with a quantitative appraisal of each of these mechanisms, taking into account an evaluation of the net convective growth rate of waves along ray paths which traverse the Io torus. Aspects of wave propagation near the crossover frequency are considered along with questions regarding the resonant interaction with energetic particles.

  7. Space and ground-based multi-wavelength observing campaign of Jupiter's aurora and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Yoshikawa, I.; Badman, S.

    2013-09-01

    The EXCEED EUV spectrograph (55 - 145 nm) on-board the Japanese mission Sprint-A, due for launch into low Earth orbit in August 2013, will be dedicated to the study of the tenuous plasma surrounding planets in our solar system. A target of special interest will be Jupiter and its environment, and the emission from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT) in particular. A systematic campaign of observations of Jupiter and the IPT is planned over the period Oct. 2013 - March 2014. This is a unique opportunity to explore the possible links between the IPT emission distribution, the strength and character of Jupiter's auroral emissions and the conditions of the solar wind. Hence, concurrently with the EXCEED observations, a large multi-wavelength campaign has been organised to exploit this unique opportunity of gathering important diagnostic data on the complex array of physical processes taking place in Jupiter's environment. This campaign includes (this is by no means a complete list) approved FUV imaging and spectroscopy of Jupiter's Northern aurora with HSTSTIS (PI: Sarah Badman), Kitt Peak 4m visible spectroscopy of the IPT (PI: Sarah Badman), Gemini observations of Jupiter H3+ (4 µm) aurora (PI: Melin), submitted proposals for HST-STIS FUV observations of Jupiter's Southern aurora, Io and Ganymede's footprints (PI: Bonfond), Chandra and XMM-Newton pointings of Jupiter and the IPT (PI: Kraft), Suzaku observations of diffuse X-rays from the Jovian inner magnetosphere (PI: Ezoe); in addition, ground based observations with IRTF, Subaru and other facilities are planned. This talk will review the motivation for this vaste coordinated observing campaign, and the science that we expect to draw from it: essentially a better understanding of how the Jupiter's system works.

  8. Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

    2009-08-20

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  9. Source characteristics of Jovian narrow-band kilometric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Manning, R.; Zarka, P.; Pedersen, B.-M.

    1993-07-01

    New observations of Jovian narrow-band kilometric (nKOM) radio emissions were made by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. These observations have demonstrated the unique capability of the URAP instrument for determining both the direction and polarization of nKOM radio sources. An important result is the discovery that nKOM radio emission originates from a number of distinct sources located at different Jovian longitudes and at the inner and outermost regions of the Io plasma torus. These sources have been tracked for several Jovian rotations, yielding their corotational lags, their spatial and temporal evolution, and their radiation characteristics at both low latitudes far from Jupiter and at high latitudes near the planet. Both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized nKOM sources were observed. The polarizations observed for sources in the outermost regions of the torus seem to favor extraordinary mode emission.

  10. Radiative cooling efficiencies and predicted spectra of species of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the physical condition of the Io plasma torus have been made based on the recent Voyager EUV observations. The calculations represent an assumed thin plasma collisional ionization equilibrium among the states within each species. The observations of the torus are all consistent with this condition. The major energy loss mechanism is radiative cooling in discrete transitions. Calculations of radiative cooling efficiencies of the identified species leads to an estimated energy loss rate of at least 1.5 x 10 to the 12th watts. The mean electron temperature and density of the plasma are estimated to be 100,000 K and 2100/cu cm. The estimated number densities of S III, S IV, and O III are roughly 95, 80, and 190-740/cu cm. Upper limits have been placed on a number of other species based on the first published Voyager EUV spectrum of the torus. The assumption that energy is supplied to the torus through injection of neutral particles from Io leads to the conclusion that ion loss rates are controlled by diffusion, and relative species abundances consequently are not controlled by collisional ionization equilibrium.

  11. Discovery of an Io-correlated energy source for Io's hot plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandel, B. R.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1982-04-01

    Energy flowing into Io's hot plasma torus from a local-time correlated source and from an Io-related source are discussed, and a correlation of the brightness of the ansae of the torus with the apparent orbital phase of Io is reported. It is shown that the energy flows cause an azimuthal modulation of the brightness of the torus that is correlated with the position of Io, and the plasma downstream from Io is shown to be brighter in S III 685-A emission, which indicates a higher electron temperature. Differences in electron temperature inferred from spectral analyses account for all observed differences in brightness, implying that no change in the composition or density of the hot plasma occurs. The mechanism regulating the Io-related source is clearly distinct from the mechanism driving the local time source, although both draw on the same pool of energy, and the combination of the two sources is easily capable of supplying all the energy radiated by the torus.

  12. On modulation lanes in spectra of the Jovian decametric radio emission: frequency drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, A. V.

    2003-04-01

    K. Imai et al. (1992--2002) interpret the Jovian modulation lanes in terms of radiation scattering produced by field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus. However, the lanes with opposite (with respect to the Io torus rotation) drifts in frequency remained an enigma. We show that field-aligned inhomogeneities of the magnetospheric plasma at low altitudes above the Jovian ionosphere generate just the opposite drifts of modulation lanes. A new, more correct, algorithm is used for the comprehensive interpretation of J. J. Riihimaa's (1979) empirical diagram of frequency-time drift rates of the lanes. It is found that all the point clusters of the diagram are explicable in the framework of the proposed model, and the cone half-angle of the decametric radiation is about 700.

  13. On the Radio Detection of Multiple-exomoon Systems due to Plasma Torus Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyola, J. P.; Satyal, S.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2016-04-01

    The idea of single exomoon detection due to the radio emissions caused by its interaction with the host exoplanet is extended to multiple-exomoon systems. The characteristic radio emissions are made possible in part by plasma from the exomoon’s own ionosphere. In this work, it is demonstrated that neighboring exomoons and the exoplanetary magnetosphere could also provide enough plasma to generate a detectable signal. In particular, the plasma-torus-sharing phenomenon is found to be particularly well suited to facilitate the radio detection of plasma-deficient exomoons. The efficiency of this process is evaluated, and the predicted power and frequency of the resulting radio signals are presented.

  14. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. 4; Modeling Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this fourth paper in a series, we present a model of the remarkable temporal and azimuthal variability of the Io plasma torus observed during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter. Over a period of three months, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed a dramatic variaton in the average torus composition. Superimposed on this long-term variation, is a 10.07-hour periodicity caused by azimuthal variation in plasma composition subcorotating relative to System III longitude. Quite surprisingly, the amplitude of the azimuthal variation appears to be modulated at the beat frequency between the System III period and the observed 10.07-hour period. Previously, we have successfully modeled the months-long compositional change by supposing a factor of three increase in the amount of material supplied to Io's extended neutral clouds. Here, we extend our torus chemistry model to include an azimuthal dimension. We postulate the existence of two azimuthal variations in the number of superthermal electrons in the torus: a primary variation that subcorotates with a period of 10.07 hours and a secondary variation that remains fixed in System III longitude. Using these two hot electron variations, our model can reproduce the observed temporal and azimuthal variations observed by Cassini UVIS.

  15. Sunlit Io Atmospheric [O I] 6300 A and the Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Scherb, Frank; Smyth, William H.; Freed, Melanie E.; Woodward, R. Carey, Jr.; Marcone, Maximus L.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Lupie, Olivia L.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A large database of sunlit Io [O I] 6300A emission, acquired over the period 1990-1999, with extensive coverage of Io orbital phase angle phi and System III longitude lambda(sub III), exhibits significant long-term and short-term variations in [O I] 6300A emission intensities. The long-term average intensity shows a clear dependence on lambda(sub III), which establishes conclusively that the emission is produced by the interaction between Io's atmosphere and the plasma torus. Two prominent average intensity maxima, 70 deg to 90 deg wide, are centered at lambda(sub III) about 130deg. and about 295 deg. A comparison of data from October 1998 with a three-dimensional plasma torus model, based upon electron impact excitation of atomic oxygen, suggests a basis for study of the torus interaction with Io's atmosphere. The observed short-term, erratic [O I] 6300A intensity variations fluctuate approximately 20% to 50% on time scale of tens of minutes with less frequent fluctuations of a factor of about 2. The most likely candidate to produce these fluctuations is a time-variable energy flux of field-aligned nonthermal electrons identified recently in Galileo PLS data. If true, the short-term [O I] intensity fluctuations may be related to variable field-aligned currents driven by inward and outward torus plasma transport and/or transient high-latitude, field-aligned potential drops. A correlation between the intensity and emission line width indicates molecular dissociation may contribute significantly to the [O I] 6300A emission. The nonthermal electron energy flux may produce O(1-D) by electron impact dissociation of SO2 and SO, with the excess energy going into excitation of O and its kinetic energy. The [O I] 6300A emission database establishes Io as a valuable probe of the torus, responding to local conditions at Io's position.

  16. Two-Dimensional Transport Studies for the Composition and Structure of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to investigate the roles of local and spatially extended plasma sources created by Io, plasma torus chemistry, and plasma convective and diffusive transport in producing the long-lived S(+), S(++) and O(+) radial ribbon structures of the plasma torus, their System III longitude and local-time asymmetries, their energy sources and their possible time variability. To accomplish this objective, two-dimensional [radial (L) and System III longitude] plasma transport equations for the flux-tube plasma content and energy content will be solved that include the convective motions for both the east-west electric field and co-rotational velocity-lag profile near Io s orbit, radial diffusion, and the spacetime dependent flux-tube production and loss created by both neutral-plasma and plasma-ion reaction chemistry in the plasma torus. For neutral-plasma chemistry, the project will for the first time undertake the calculation of realistic three-dimensional, spatially-extended, and time-varying contributions to the flux-tube ion-production and loss that are produced by Io's corona and extended neutral clouds. The unknown two-dimensional spatial nature of diffusion in the plasma transport will be isolated and better defined in the investigation by the collective consideration of the foregoing different physical processes. For energy transport, the energy flow from hot pickup ions (and a new electron source) to thermal ions and electrons will be included in investigating the System III longitude and local-time temperature asymmetries in the plasma torus. The research is central to the scope of the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Roadmap in Quest II Campaign 4 "Comparative Planetary Space Environments" by addressing key questions for understanding the magnetosphere of planets with high rotation rates and large internal plasma sources and, in addition, is of considerable importance to the NASA Solar System Exploration Science Theme. In this regard

  17. Polarization of "modulation lanes" as a probe for diffractive models of Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Litvinenko, G. V.

    We consider of polarization features of modulation lanes of Jovian decametric radio emission which are result of Jovian DAM emission propagation through the interference screen deposited in the Io plasma torus The point is that in the Io plasma torus the elliptically polarized Jovian radiation propagate as two independent coherent modes ordinary o-mode and extraordinary e-mode with approximately equivalent intensities So two waves with the circular polarization and the different plane-of-polarization rotation and refraction indexes fall to the interference screen In according to the diffraction theory the intensity of ordinary and extraordinary wave passing through the diffraction screen has the maximum in the different directions Therefore the modulation lanes with the opposite polarization are evidently shifted relatively each other Our estimation shows that the value of the shift can reach about 10 8 cm at the distance of Earth s orbit Observation of polarization fine structure of the modulation lanes will allow to identify the left and right polarization lanes and as result to evaluate the parameters of an interference screen in Io s plasma torus

  18. The source of Jovian auroral hiss observed by Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bagenal, F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of auroral hiss obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed. The Jovian auroral hiss was observed near the inner boundary of the warm Io torus and has a low-frequency cutoff caused by propagation near the resonance cone. A simple ray tracing procedure using an offset tilted dipole of the Jovian magnetic field is used to determine possible source locations. The results obtained are consistent with two sources located symmetrically with respect to the centrifugal equator along an L shell (L approximately = 5.59) that is coincident with the boundary between the hot and cold regions of the Io torus and is located just inward of the ribbon feature observed from Earth. The distance of the sources from the centrifugal equator is approximately 0.58 +/- 0.01 R(sub J). Based on the similarity to terrestrial auroral hiss, the Jovian is auroral hiss is believed to be generated by beams of low energy (approximately tens to thousands of eV) electrons. The low-frequency cutoff of the auroral hiss suggests that the electrons are accelerated near the inferred source region, possibly by parallel electric fields similar to those existing in the terrestrial auroral regions. A field-aligned current is inferred to exist at L shells just inward of the plasma ribbon. A possible mechanism for driving this current is discussed.

  19. Plasma response to lithium-coated plasma-facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M. G.; Kugel, H.; Kaita, R.; Zakharov, L. E.; Schneider, H; LaBlanc, B. P.; Mansfield, D.K.; Bell, R. E.; Maingi, R.; Ding, S.; Kaye, S.; Paul, S.F.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Canik, John; Hosea, J.; Taylor, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment ( NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbon-fiber-composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor toward the lower divertor. In neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods of up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off-layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off-layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but

  20. Electron Gyro-scale Fluctuation Measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D R; Lee, W; Mazzucato, E; Park, H K; Bell, R E; Domier, C W; LeBlanc, B P; Levinton, F M; Luhmann, N C; Menard, J E

    2009-08-10

    A collective scattering system has measured electron gyro-scale fluctuations in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-mode plasmas to investigate electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. Observations and results pertaining to fluctuation measurements in ETGstable regimes, the toroidal field scaling of fluctuation amplitudes, the relation between between fluctuation amplitudes and transport quantities, and fluctuation magnitudes and k-spectra are presented. Collectively, the measurements provide insight and guidance for understanding ETG turbulence and anomalous electron thermal transport.

  1. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod'ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  2. Study of plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus with a heavy-ion beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is generally strongly dependent on an ambipolar electric field. Spatially resolved measurements of the resulting electric space potential phi/sub sp/ have been made in a single plasma cross section by the heavy-ion beam probe. This diagnostic injects a 4-60-keV beam of (usually) Cs/sup +/ ions into the plasma. Measurement of the energy of Cs/sup 2 +/ secondary ions leaving the plasma gives a continuous monitor of the local space potential. In addition, the total detected Cs/sup 2 +/ ion current is proportional to the product of the local electron density and the ionization rate, which, in turn, is a function of the electron temperature. This signal, nf(T/sub e/), is sensitive to all three electron distributions found in EBT - those of the cold surface plasma, the warm core plasma, and the hot electron ring.

  3. Effects of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma is studied. The plasma, magnetic field, and ion heating mechanism are operated in steady state. Ion kinetic temperature is more than a factor of ten higher than electron temperature. The electric fields raise the ions to energies on the order of kilovolts and then point radially inward or outward. Plasma number density profiles are flat or triangular across the plasma diameter. It is suggested that the radial transport processes are nondiffusional and dominated by strong radial electric fields. These characteristics are caused by the absence of a second derivative in the density profile and the flat electron temperature profiles. If the electric field acting on the minor radius of the toroidal plasma points inward, plasma number density and confinement time are increased.

  4. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, M; Rucker, H O; Farrell, W M

    2013-03-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period [Formula: see text] longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every [Formula: see text] days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  5. Periodic Bursts of Jovian Non-Io Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H O.; Farrell, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have Recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period approx. = 1:5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300 deg. and 60 deg. (via 360 deg.). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every approx. 25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind.

  6. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission

    PubMed Central

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H.O.; Farrell, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000–2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period ≈1.5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every ∼25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  7. Gyrokinetic full-torus simulations of ohmic tokamak plasmas in circular limiter configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpilo, T.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Leerink, S.; Niskala, P.; Perevalov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The gyrokinetic full 5D particle distribution code ELMFIRE has been extended to simulate circular tokamak plasmas from the magnetic axis to the limiter scrape-off-layer. The predictive power of the code in the full-torus configuration is tested via its ability to reproduce experimental steady-state profiles in FT-2 ohmic L-mode plasmas. The results show that the experimental profile solution is not reproduced numerically due to the difficulty of obtaining global power balance. This is verified by cross-comparison of ELMFIRE code versions, which shows also the impact of boundary conditions and grid resolution on turbulent transport.

  8. System III variations in apparent distance of Io plasma torus from Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.; Sandel, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    System III variations in apparent distance of the Io plasma torus from Jupiter are examined on the basis of data obtained from UVS scans across Jupiter's satellite system. The displacement of the dawn and dusk ansae are found to be unexpectedly complex. The displacements are unequal and both ansae are in motion with the motion of the approaching ansa being the lesser of the two. The radial motions, as measured from either the center of Jupiter or the offset-tilted dipole, are of unequal magnitude and have the System III periodicity. It is concluded that the cross-tail electric field that causes these torus motions is concentrated on the dusk ansa, varied with the System III period, and shows magnetic-anomaly phase control. It is found that the dawn-dust asymmetry in brightness is not explained simply by the cross-tail electric field. It is concluded that there is a heating mechanism that causes the dusk side of the Io plasma torus to be brighter than the dawn side.

  9. Periodic intensity variations in sulfur emissions from the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. Carey, Jr.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1994-01-01

    In November and December 1988, we acquired 157 spectra of (S II) lambda 6731 emissions from the Io plasma torus with a Fabry-Perot interferometer at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope facility on Kitt Peak. A major goal of this experiment was to extend our earlier studies of intensity variations in the plasma torus. Our earlier analysis (F. L. Roesler, F. Scherb, and R. J. Oliversen, 1984, of (S III) lambda 9531 emission spectra acquired in April 1982 had shown that the intensity of torus emissions varied periodically with a period of 10.20 +/- 0.06 hr (1-sigma uncertainty level), slightly longer than Jupiter's System 3 rotational period of 9.925 hr. We present here an reanalysis of our 1982 data revealing, in addition to the 10.20-hr period, a clear secondary periodicity at 9.95 +/- 0.906 hr. By constrast, we show that our new (S II) lambda 6731 data have a single period of 10.14 +/- 0.03 hr. which is neither the System 3 period nor the proposed 'System 4' period of 10.224 hr.

  10. Characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma generated with positive applied potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.; Richardson, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental observations were made during steady-state operation of a bumpy-torus plasma at input powers up to 150 kW in deuterium and helium gas and with positive potentials applied to the midplane electrodes. In this steady-state ion heating method a modified Penning discharge is operated such that the plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. Experimental investigation of a deuterium plasma revealed electron temperatures from 14 to 140 eV and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 eV. At least two distinct modes of operation exist. Experimental data shows that the average ion residence time in the plasma is virtually independent of the magnetic field strength. Data was taken when all 12 anode rings were at high voltage, and in other symmetric configurations in which the toroidal plasma was generated by applying positive potentials to six anode rings, three anode rings, and a single anode ring.

  11. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. 3; Observations of Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffl, A. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this third paper in a series presenting observations by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) of the Io plasma torus, we show remarkable, though subtle, spatio-temporal variations in torus properties. The Io torus is found to exhibit significant, near sinusoidal variations in ion composition as a functions of azimuthal position. The azimuthal variation in composition is such that the mixing ratio of S II us strongly correlated with the mixing ratio of S III and the equatorial electron density and strongly anti-correlated with the mixing ratios of both S IV and O II and the equatorial electron temperature. Surprisingly, the azimuthal variation in ion composition is observed to have a period of 10.07 h -- 1.5% longer than the System III rotation period of Jupiter, yet 1.3% shorter than the System UV period defined by [Brown, M. E., 1995. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 21683-21696]. Although the amplitude of the azimuthal variation of S III and O II remained in the range of 2-5%, the amplitude of the S II and S IV compositional variation ranged between 5 and 25% during the UVIS observations. Furthermore, the amplitude of the azimuthal variations of S II and S IV appears to be modulated by its location in System III longitude, such that when the region of maximum S II mixing ration (minimum S IV mixing ratio) is aligned with a System III longitude of 200 deg +/-, the amplitude is a factor of 4 greater than when the variation is anti-aligned. This behavior can explain numerous, often apparently contradictory, observations of variations in the properties of the Io plasma torus with the System III and System IV coordinate systems.

  12. Decametric modulation lanes as a probe for inner jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Rucker, Helmut O.

    2013-11-01

    We use the specific scintillations of jovian decametric radio sources (modulation lanes), which are produced by plasma inhomogeneities in the vicinity of that planet, to probe the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The positions and frequency drift of 1762 lanes have been measured on the DAM spectra from archives. A special 3D algorithm is used for space localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. As a result, the main regions of the lane formation are found: the Io plasma torus; the magnetic shell of the Gossamer Ring at Thebe and Amalthea orbits; and the region above the magnetic anomaly in the northern magnetosphere. It is shown that modulation lanes reveal the depleted magnetic tubes in practically unvisited, innermost regions of the jovian magnetosphere. The local and probably temporal plasma enhancement is found at the magnetic shell of Thebe satellite. Hence, the modulation lanes are a valuable instrument for remote sensing of those parts of jovian magnetosphere, which are not studied yet in situ.

  13. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.; Ebrahimi, F.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-09-15

    The generation of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), including flux surface closure, is studied using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations with plasma flows, currents, ohmic heating and anisotropic thermal conduction. An injection-voltage pulse shape is used that separates the injection and closure phases allowing elucidation of the physics. The formation of an X-point near the helicity-injection gap is triggered as the injector voltage drops to zero. Near the forming X-point, magnetic pressure due to toroidal field entrained in the E × B plasma flow from the helicity-injection gap drops, allowing resistive magnetic reconnection even though the total injected current is almost constant. Where appropriate, the simulations are compared with Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments in the NSTX spherical tokamak, which have demonstrated the formation of a promising candidate for non-inductive startup plasmas [Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075005 (2003)].

  14. The proton concentration in the vicinity of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Bagenal, F.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of lightning-generated whistlers conducted with the aid of the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument during the March, 1979 encounter of Jupiter have been employed in numerous studies involving Jupiters's inner magnetosphere. In an investigation carried out by Tokar et al. (1982), the Voyager whistler observations were combined with heavy ion charged particle measurements in the Io torus to determine the light ion charge concentration along the whistler propagation paths. In the investigation, simple models were used for the plasma distribution along the propagation paths. In the present study, an improved model is used for the plasma distribution in the inner magnetosphere. The adopted model treats a plasma in diffusive equilibrium under the action of gravitational, centrifugal, and ambipolar electric field forces.

  15. Modeling Temporal Variability of Plasma Conditions in the Io Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Steffl, A.; Bagenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of ultraviolet (UV) emissions from the major ion species (S(sup +), S(sup ++), S(sup +++), O(sup +), O(sup ++) of the Io Plasma torus made during the Cassini flyby (October 2000 to March 2001) have revealed significant time variability. Using a homogenoeus model for mass and energy flow in the torus parameterized by five input variables (transport timescale, neutral source strength, ratio of oxygen to sulfur atoms in the source, fraction of superthermal electrons, and temperature of the hot electrons), we have investigated the time variability of the torus properties (density, composition, and temperature) during the Cassini era. In order to match the changes in emissions, the model suggests that a significant change in the neutral source occurred near the beginning of the observing period, decreasing from more than 1.8 tons/s to 0.7 tons/s. The changes in the neutral source appear to coincide with the declining phase of a dramatic (i.e., 2-3 order of magnitude) peak in iogenic dust emissions observed by Galileo prior to the Cassini era.

  16. Aperiodic ion temperature variations in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eviatar, A.; Mekler, Y.

    1984-03-01

    The observed aperiodic variations of S III temperature reported by ground-based observers, which take place on time scales short in comparison with the radiation and electron collision relaxation times, are considered. It is suggested that ion-ion charge exchange processes are responsible for the heating and ion-atom collisions are the source of the cooling. The fluctuations are attributed to random strong variations in the output of neutral matter from the volcanoes and surface of Io. Freshly ionized sulfur that will have near full corotation gyro-energy will undergo charge exchange with thermal doubly ionized sulfur and oxygen, thus producing hot S III. Newly injected neutral atoms can cool the ambient hot plasma by collisions on a time scale comparable to their lifetime against ionization processes. Analytic solutions of the temperature rate equations, including the time variation of the neutral and ionized matter density are found to reproduce the observed fluctuations for reasonable values of initial densities.

  17. Characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma generated with high positive or negative applied potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The toroidal ring of plasma contained in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus superconducting magnet facility may be biased to positive or negative potentials approaching 50 kilovolts by applying direct-current voltages of the respective polarity to 12 or fewer of the midplane electrode rings. The electric fields which are responsible for heating the ions by E/B drift then point radially outward or inward. The low-frequency fluctuations below the ion cyclotron frequency appeared to be dominated by rotating spokes.

  18. Periodic intensity variation in (SIII) 9531 A emission from the Jupiter plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, F. L.; Scherb, F.; Oliversen, R. J.

    1984-02-01

    The intensity variation of [S III] 9531 Å line emission from the hot plasma torus of Jupiter was measured from Kitt Peak National Observatory during April 1982 using a scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a field of view 2 RJ in diameter centered at 6 RJ on the centrifugal equator. During the observational period, which covered 43 rotations of Jupiter, the intensities showed a periodic variation consistent with a zone of enhanced emission approximately 90° in longitude rotating with a period of 10.2 hours, or 2.8% longer than Jupiter's rotational period.

  19. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-08-05

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans.

  20. Ulysses radio occultation observations of the Io plasma torus during the Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, M. K.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Edenhofer, P.; Funke, O.; Paetzold, M.; Volland, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radio signals from Ulysses were used to probe the Io plasma torus (IPT) shortly after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The frequencies of the two downlinks at S-band (2.3 gigahertz) and X-band (8.4 gigahertz) were recorded, differenced, and integrated in order to derive the columnar electron density of the IPT. The measurements agree qualitatively with contemporary models of the IPT based on Voyager data, but significant differences are apparent as well. The overall level of the IPT electron density is approximately the same as the prediction, implying that the amount of gas (or plasma) injected from Io is similar to that observed during the Voyager era. On the other hand, the IPT seems to be less extended out of the centrifugal equator, implying a smaller plasma temperature than predicted.

  1. Energy branching in the Io plasma torus - The failure of neutral cloud theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1988-03-01

    The energy branching of the hot Io plasma torus using model calculations which include all of the significant physical chemistry that affects the system has been examined in order to study energy source characteristics. Most theoretical discussions of the energetics of the torus assume that the system is maintained against radiative and other losses by the interaction of the plasma with neutral atomic clouds. The energy in this theory is derived from the kinetic energy acquired by ions created in the rotating planetary magnetic field. Coulomb collisions with the electron gas control the flow of energy to the ionizing and radiative processes. The energetics of this theoretical system is defined by fixing the electron density, the diffusive loss time, and the relative volumetric rates of injection of the major neutral constituents, oxygen and sulfur. On the basis of calculations of this kind in comparison with the characteristics of the observed system, the conclusion has been drawn that neutral cloud theory is qualitatively inadequate. Two possibilities for energy sources involving a particular interaction with an Io atmosphere and a heterogeneous source of energetic electrons are discussed.

  2. Radial Variations in the Io Plasma Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Steffl, A.

    2005-01-01

    A radial scan through the midnight sector of the Io plasma torus was made by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on 14 January 2001, shortly after closest approach to Jupiter. From these data, Steffl et al. (2004a) derived electron temperature, plasma composition (ion mixing ratios), and electron column density as a function of radius from L = 6 to 0 as well as the total luminosity. We have advanced our homogeneous model of torus physical chemistry (Delamere and Bagenal, 2003) to include latitudinal and radial variations in a manner similar to the two-dimensional model by Schreier et al. (1998). The model variables include: (1) neutral source rate, (2) radial transport coefficient, (3) the hot electron fraction, (4) hot electron temperature, and (5) the neutral O/S ratio. The radial variation of parameters 1-4 are described by simple power laws, making a total of nine parameters. We have explored the sensitivity of the model results to variations in these parameters and compared the best fit with previous Voyager era models (schreier et al., 1998), galileo data (Crary et al., 1998), and Cassini observations (steffl et al., 2004a). We find that radial variations during the Cassini era are consistent with a neutral source rate of 700-1200 kg/s, an integrated transport time from L = 6 to 9 of 100-200 days, and that the core electron temperature is largely determined by a spatially and temporally varying superthermal electron population.

  3. Torus mandibularis bone chips combined with platelet rich plasma gel for treatment of intrabony osseous defects: clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, K S; Alagl, A S; Abdel-Hady, A

    2012-12-01

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel in combination with torus mandibularis offers a potentially useful treatment for periodontal osseous defects. Whether this combination enhances the outcome of periodontal regenerative therapy is not known. This study compared the effectiveness of torus mandibularis bone chips alone and when combined with autogenous PRP gel in treating periodontal osseous defects. 24 sites from 12 patients were selected using a split mouth design and determined by a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Both sites received a full-thickness mucoperiosteal flap; one intrabony defect was filled with torus mandibularis bone chips alone and the other with torus mandibularis bone chips mixed with PRP gel. There was a 57% gain in the clinical attachment level and 60% reduction in the probing depth for torus mandibularis alone compared to 72% and 68% for sites treated with torus mandibularis and PRP gel (p ≤ 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference in the bone dentistry and the marginal bone loss at sites with PRP gel compared to those without gel (p ≤ 0.01). The use of mandibular tori as autogenous bone graft combined with PRP gel showed a significant improvement in the clinical outcome of periodontal therapy than mandibular tori alone. PMID:22483445

  4. Plasma transport in the Io torus - The importance of microscopic diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, YI; Thorne, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether the distribution of mass in the Io plasma torus is consistent with the concept of interchange eddy transport. Specifically, the flux tube content exhibits a gradual decrease with increasing radial distance from the source near Io without any evidence for substantial density irregularity associated with the plasma source or loss. Using a simple one-dimensional numerical model to simulate macroscopic interchange eddy transport, it is demonstrated that this smooth equilibrium distribution of mass can occur but only with the inclusion of a minimal level of small scale microscopic mixing at a rate approaching Bohm diffusion. Otherwise, the system exhibits a chaotic appearance which never approaches an equilibrium distribution. Various physical mechanisms for the microscopic diffusion process which is required to provide a sufficiently rapid mixing of material between the macroscopic eddies are discussed.

  5. Ground-based observations of comets, the Jupiter plasma Torus, and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of cometary and magnetospheric physics were investigated by means of ground-based astronomical spectroscopy. High-throughput, dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometers were used to obtain very high resolution spectra of atomic, molecular, and ionic emission lines from the diffuse gases and plasmas associated with comets and the Jupiter plasma torus. The Fabry-Perot spectrometers were also used with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to obtain images of these extended emission sources in individual spectral lines at high spectral resolution. A new program using the McMath solar-stellar spectrograph to observe emission lines from Io was recently initiated. The McMath spectrograph has a high resolution mode which allows the detection of narrow, relatively faint emission lines superimposed on Io's reflected solar spectrum.

  6. Acceleration of compact torus plasma rings in a coaxial rail-gun

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.

    1985-05-16

    We discuss here theoretical studies of magnetic acceleration of Compact Torus plasma rings in a coaxial, rail-gun accelerator. The rings are formed using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and are accelerated by injection of B/sub theta/ flux from an accelerator bank. After acceleration, the rings enter a focusing cone where the ring is decelerated and reduced in radius. As the ring radius decreases, the ring magnetic energy increases until it equals the entering kinetic energy and the ring stagnates. Scaling laws and numerical calculations of acceleration using a O-D numerical code are presented. 2-D, MHD simulations are shown which demonstrate ring formation, acceleration, and focusing. Finally, 3-D calculations are discussed which determine the ideal MHD stability of the accelerated ring.

  7. Plasma shape control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) using real-time equilibrium reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Bell, M.; Gibney, T.; Johnson, R.; Marsala, R. J.; Mastrovito, D.; Menard, J. E.; Mueller, D.; Penaflor, B.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Stevenson, T.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma shape control using real-time equilibrium reconstruction has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The rtEFIT code originally developed for use on DIII-D was adapted for use on NSTX. The real-time equilibria provide calculations of the flux at points on the plasma boundary, which are used as input to a shape control algorithm known as isoflux control. The flux at the desired boundary location is compared with a reference flux value, and this flux error is used as the basic feedback quantity for the poloidal field coils on NSTX. The hardware that comprises the control system is described, as well as the software infrastructure. Examples of precise boundary control are also presented.

  8. Plasma Shape Control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) using Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron; M. Bell; T. Gibney; R. Johnson; R.J. Marsala; D. Mastrovito; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Penaflor; S.A. Sabbagh; T. Stevenson

    2005-04-15

    Plasma shape control using real-time equilibrium reconstruction has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The rtEFIT code originally developed for use on DIII-D was adapted for use on NSTX. The real-time equilibria provide calculations of the flux at points on the plasma boundary, which is used as input to a shape control algorithm known as isoflux control. The flux at the desired boundary location is compared to a reference flux value, and this flux error is used as the basic feedback quantity for the poloidal-field coils on NSTX. The hardware that comprises the control system is described, as well as the software infrastructure. Examples of precise boundary control are also presented.

  9. Modeling of Jovian Hectometric Radiation Source Locations: Ulysses Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Reiner, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on Ulysses has provided unique high latitude measurements of Jovian hectometric radiation (HOM) during its encounter with Jupiter in February 1992. URAP was the first radio instrument in the Jovian environment with radio direction-finding capability, which was previously used to determine the HOM source locations in the Jovian magnetosphere. These initial source location determinations were based on several assumptions, including the neglect of refractive effects, which may be tested. We have, for the first time, combined the measured incident ray-direction at the spacecraft with a model magnetosphere to directly trace the rays back to the HOM source. We concentrate on the observations of HOM from high northern latitudes when Ulysses was at distances less than 15 R(sub j). The three- dimensional ray-tracing calculations presented here indicate that the HOM sources probably lie on L shells in the range 3 less than or approximately equal to L less than 7 (tilted dipole magnetic field model) consistent with previous determinations that ignored the effects of refraction. The ray-tracing results, however, indicate that wave refraction due to the Io torus and the magnetic field can significantly influence the precise source location. We show that constraints on the locations imposed by the gyroemission mechanism suggest that the lo torus density may have experienced temporal and/or spatial fluctuations during the Ulysses observations of HOM. Finally, in the cold plasma approximation we demonstrate that even if the emission were nearly linearly polarized near the source region, almost circular polarization will be observed at Ulysses, in agreement with observations.

  10. Final Technical Report on DOE Grant for Modeling of Plasma Rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K. C.

    2009-07-09

    This is the final technical report on the Modeling of Plasma Rotation in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-02ER54679. The research subjects, technical abstracts, and publications where details of the research results can be found are reported here.

  11. Rocket FUV Observations of the Io Plasma Torus During the Shoemaker-Levy/9 Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. A.; Slater, D.; Cash, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Green, J.; Gladstone, R.

    1995-01-01

    We observed the Io torus from 820-1140 A on universal time (UT) 20.25 July 1994 from a sounding rocket telescope/spectrograph. These observations serve as only the fourth published spectrum of the torus in this wavelength range, and the only far ultraviolet (FUV) data documenting the state of the torus during the Shoemaker Levy 9 Impacts.

  12. Surface Treatment of a Lithium Limiter for Spherical Torus Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.; Antar, G.; Timberlake, J.; Spaleta, J.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Kugel, H.; Taylor, G.; Stutman, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Molesa, S.; Efthimion, P.; Menard, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Luckhardt, S.

    2001-03-20

    The concept of a flowing lithium first wall for a fusion reactor may lead to a significant advance in reactor design, since it could virtually eliminate the concerns with power density and erosion, tritium retention, and cooling associated with solid walls. As part of investigations to determine the feasibility of this approach, plasma interaction questions in a toroidal plasma geometry are being addressed in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) spherical torus (ST). The first experiments involved a toroidally local lithium limiter (L3). Measurements of pumpout rates indicated that deuterium pumping was greater for the L3 compared to conventional boron carbide limiters. The difference in the pumpout rates between the two limiter types decreased with plasma exposure, but argon glow discharge cleaning was able to restore the pumping effectiveness of the L3. At no point, however, was the extremely low recycling regime reported in previous lithium experiments achieved. This may be due to the much larger lithium surfaces that were exposed to the plasma in the earlier work. The possibility will be studied in the next set of CDX-U experiments, which are to be conducted with a large area, fully toroidal lithium limiter.

  13. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission From Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25 - 2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fall to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  14. Observation of quasi-coherent edge fluctuations in Ohmic plasmas on National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Diallo, A.; Zweben, S. J.

    2016-04-01

    A quasi-coherent edge density mode with frequency fmode ˜ 40 kHz is observed in Ohmic plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment using the gas puff imaging diagnostic. This mode is located predominantly just inside the separatrix, with a maximum fluctuation amplitude significantly higher than that of the broadband turbulence in the same frequency range. The quasi-coherent mode has a poloidal wavelength λpol ˜ 16 cm and a poloidal phase velocity of Vpol ˜ 4.9 ± 0.3 km s-1 in the electron diamagnetic direction, which are similar to the characteristics expected from a linear drift-wave-like mode in the edge. This is the first observation of a quasi-coherent edge mode in an Ohmic diverted tokamak, and so may be useful for validating tokamak edge turbulence codes.

  15. Long Pulse High Performance Plasma Scenario Development for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Bell, R.E.; Bell, M.G.; Gates, D.A.; Harvey, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion, 44, 452 (2004)] is targeting long pulse high performance, noninductive sustained operations at low aspect ratio, and the demonstration of nonsolenoidal startup and current rampup. The modeling of these plasmas provides a framework for experimental planning and identifies the tools to access these regimes. Simulations based on neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated plasmas are made to understand the impact of various modifications and identify the requirements for (1) high elongation and triangularity, (2) density control to optimize the current drive, (3) plasma rotation and/or feedback stabilization to operate above the no-wall limit, and (4) electron Bernstein waves (EBW) for off-axis heating/current drive (H/CD). Integrated scenarios are constructed to provide the transport evolution and H/CD source modeling, supported by rf and stability analyses. Important factors include the energy confinement, Zeff, early heating/H mode, broadening of the NBI-driven current profile, and maintaining q(0) and qmin>1.0. Simulations show that noninductive sustained plasmas can be reached at IP=800 kA, BT=0.5 T, 2.5, N5, 15%, fNI=92%, and q(0)>1.0 with NBI H/CD, density control, and similar global energy confinement to experiments. The noninductive sustained high plasmas can be reached at IP=1.0 MA, BT=0.35 T, 2.5, N9, 43%, fNI=100%, and q(0)>1.5 with NBI H/CD and 3.0 MW of EBW H/CD, density control, and 25% higher global energy confinement than experiments. A scenario for nonsolenoidal plasma current rampup is developed using high harmonic fast wave H/CD in the early low IP and low Te phase, followed by NBI H/CD to continue the current ramp, reaching a maximum of 480 kA after 3.4 s.

  16. An interpretation of the broadband VLF waves near the Io torus as observed by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Macdowell, R. J.; Hess, R. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for the Ulysses trajectory to attain high ecliptic latitudes using a Jovian gravitational assist resulted in a fortuitous passage through the Io torus region. Specifically, the spacecraft spent many hours at latitudes just above the torus. During this time the low-frequency cutoff of an ordinary mode (O mode) emission allowed a determination of the local electron plasma frequency (i.e., electron density) along the northern flank of the torus. Also, near a Jovian System III longitude of 100 deg, the spacecraft flew past a set of active field lines that have been previously identified to be associated with the hectometric generation region. During the passage, Ulysses observed a newly discovered O mode component and a whistler mode emission similar to that observed by Voyager 1 13 years previously. All of the broadband VLF emissions imply the presence of a particular population of electrons. We suggest that broadband VLF emissions can be used as a `particle detector' to qualitatively measure the electron plasma conditions in the torus region and identify active regions.

  17. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-12-17

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.

  18. Three-Dimensional Localized Magnetic Reconnection in Torus Plasma Merging Device TS-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ii, Toru; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    Three-dimensional (3-D) localized magnetic reconnection was studied experimentally using torus plasma merging device TS-4. The direct measurements of 3-D structures of current sheet revealed two unsteady and fast reconnection mechanisms: 3-D deformation of current sheet and mass ejection. When strong compression force IAcc∼60kA was applied to two plasma toroids with low guide field Bt/B¦¦∼1, toroidal modes n=1-3 of current sheet were observed to grow only during their reconnection and to disappear after the reconnection. This 3-D deformation promoted mass ejection from the current sheet, increasing the reconnection rate as well as reconnection (toroidal) electric field and outflow. On the other hand, the reconnection rate was maintained low under the high guide field Bt/B¦¦∼7 and weak compression IAcc∼0kA. These phenomena suggest that local compression of current sheet triggers its strong dissipation as well as plasma mass ejection, which are responsible for the onset of 3-D localized reconnection.

  19. Amalthea's Modulation of Jovian Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.

    2006-08-01

    Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine Amalthea is the largest body after Galilean satellites near Jupiter. An anomaly in Jovian synchrotron radiation has been found just on the Amalthea magnetic shell (de Pater, Schulz & Brecht 1997). It has been suggested that Amalthea's motion through Jupiter's magnetic field induces Alfvén or whistler wings or electrostatic high-frequency waves which lead to the pitch angle scattering. It is reasonable to search for another effect of these processes: magnetospheric inhomogeneities which could be found via scattering of Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). Such scattering on field-aligned inhomogeneities in the Io plasma torus is known as "modulation lanes" in DAM dynamic spectra. To search for analogous Amalthea's modulation, the positions and frequency drift of about 600 lanes are measured on the UFRO spectra of DAM. The special 3D algorithm is used for localization of field-aligned magnetospheric inhomogeneities by the frequency drift of modulation lanes. It is found that about 4% of the lanes are clustered near Amalthea's magnetic shell. There are two such clusters near longitudes of 123°≤λ[III]≤140° and 284°≤λ[III]≤305°, which coincide with the regions of maximum compression of fresh plasma due to rotating magnetic field of Jupiter (where ∂(B^2)/∂λ[III]) is maximal). The Amalthea modulation could explain the enigmatic "hf-lanes" (Genova, Aubier & Lecacheux 1981). The found magnetospheric formations are a new argument for the ice nature of Amalthea which has the density less than that of water (Anderson et al. 2005). Anderson J.D. et al. 2005, Science, 308, 5726, pp. 1291-1293. de Pater I., Schulz M., Brecht S.H. 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 102, A10, pp. 22043-22064. Genova F., Aubier M.G., Lecacheux A. 1981, Astron. and Astrophys. 104, 2, pp. 229-239.

  20. Progress towards high performance plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gibney, T.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Halle, A. von; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Domier, C.; Dudek, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Finkenthal, M.; Fredd, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Glasser, A.; Goldston, R. J.; Greenough, N. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Gorelenkov, N.; Guazzotto, L.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hogan, J.; Houlberg, W.; Humphreys, D.; Jaeger, F.; Kalish, M.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lao, L. L.; Lawrence, J.; Leuer, J.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N. C.; Mazzucato, E.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Schaffer, M.; Semenov, I.; Shaing, K. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Sichta, P.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Walker, D.; Wampler, W.

    2005-10-01

    The major objective of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to understand basic toroidal confinement physics at low aspect ratio and high βT in order to advance the spherical torus (ST) concept. In order to do this, NSTX utilizes up to 7.5 MW of neutral beam injection, up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast waves (HHFWs), and it operates with plasma currents up to 1.5 MA and elongations of up to 2.6 at a toroidal field up to 0.45 T. New facility, and diagnostic and modeling capabilities developed over the past two years have enabled the NSTX research team to make significant progress towards establishing this physics basis for future ST devices. Improvements in plasma control have led to more routine operation at high elongation and high βT (up to ~40%) lasting for many energy confinement times. βT can be limited by either internal or external modes. The installation of an active error field (EF) correction coil pair has expanded the operating regime at low density and has allowed for initial resonant EF amplification experiments. The determination of the confinement and transport properties of NSTX plasmas has benefited greatly from the implementation of higher spatial resolution kinetic diagnostics. The parametric variation of confinement is similar to that at conventional aspect ratio but with values enhanced relative to those determined from conventional aspect ratio scalings and with a βT dependence. The transport is highly dependent on details of both the flow and magnetic shear. Core turbulence was measured for the first time in an ST through correlation reflectometry. Non-inductive start-up has been explored using PF-only and transient co-axial helicity injection techniques, resulting in up to 140 kA of toroidal current generated by the latter technique. Calculated bootstrap and beam-driven currents have sustained up to 60% of the flat-top plasma current in NBI discharges. Studies of HHFW absorption

  1. Progress towards high performance plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gibney, T.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; von Halle, A.; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Domier, C.; Dudek, L.; Efthimion, P. C.; Finkenthal, M.; Fredd, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Glasser, A.; Goldston, R. J.; Greenough, N. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Gorelenkov, N.; Guazzotto, L.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hogan, J.; Houlberg, W.; Humphreys, D.; Jaeger, F.; Kalish, M.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lao, L. L.; Lawrence, J.; Leuer, J.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N. C.; Mazzucato, E.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Schaffer, M.; Semenov, I.; Shaing, K. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Sichta, P.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Walker, D.; Wampler, W.

    2005-10-01

    The major objective of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to understand basic toroidal confinement physics at low aspect ratio and high βT in order to advance the spherical torus (ST) concept. In order to do this, NSTX utilizes up to 7.5 MW of neutral beam injection, up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast waves (HHFWs), and it operates with plasma currents up to 1.5 MA and elongations of up to 2.6 at a toroidal field up to 0.45 T. New facility, and diagnostic and modelling capabilities developed over the past two years have enabled the NSTX research team to make significant progress towards establishing this physics basis for future ST devices. Improvements in plasma control have led to more routine operation at high elongation and high βT (up to ~40%) lasting for many energy confinement times. βT can be limited by either internal or external modes. The installation of an active error field (EF) correction coil pair has expanded the operating regime at low density and has allowed for initial resonant EF amplification experiments. The determination of the confinement and transport properties of NSTX plasmas has benefitted greatly from the implementation of higher spatial resolution kinetic diagnostics. The parametric variation of confinement is similar to that at conventional aspect ratio but with values enhanced relative to those determined from conventional aspect ratio scalings and with a BT dependence. The transport is highly dependent on details of both the flow and magnetic shear. Core turbulence was measured for the first time in an ST through correlation reflectometry. Non-inductive start-up has been explored using PF-only and transient co-axial helicity injection techniques, resulting in up to 140 kA of toroidal current generated by the latter technique. Calculated bootstrap and beam-driven currents have sustained up to 60% of the flat-top plasma current in NBI discharges. Studies of HHFW absorption have indicated parametric decay of the wave

  2. Localized reconnection in the near jovian magnetotail

    PubMed

    Russell; Khurana; Huddleston; Kivelson

    1998-05-15

    The oppositely directed magnetic field in the jovian magnetic tail is expected eventually to reconnect across the current sheet, allowing plasma produced deep inside the magnetosphere near Io's orbit to escape in the antisolar direction down the tail. The Galileo spacecraft found localized regions of strong northward and southward field components beyond about 50 jovian radii in the postmidnight, predawn sector of the jovian magnetosphere. These pockets of vertical magnetic fields can be stronger than the surrounding magnetotail and magnetodisk fields. They may result from episodic reconnection of patches of the near jovian magnetotail. PMID:9582116

  3. Measurement of The Magnetic Field in a Spherical Torus Plasma via Electron Bernstein Wave Emission Harmonic Overlap Measurement of The Magnetic Field in a Spherical Torus Plasma via Electron Bernstein Wave Emission Harmonic Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    B. Jones; G. Taylor; P.C. Efthimion; T. Munsat

    2004-01-28

    Measurement of the magnetic field in a spherical torus by observation of harmonic overlap frequencies in the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) spectrum has been previously suggested [V.F. Shevchenko, Plasma Phys. Reports 26 (2000) 1000]. EBW mode conversion to X-mode radiation has been studied in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade spherical torus, [T. Jones, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1995] with emission measured at blackbody levels [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) article no. 165001]. Sharp transitions in the thermally emitted EBW spectrum have been observed for the first two harmonic overlaps. These transition frequencies are determined by the magnetic field and electron density at the mode conversion layer in accordance with hot-plasma wave theory. Prospects of extending this measurement to higher harmonics, necessary in order to determine the magnetic field profile, and high beta equilibria are discussed for this proposed magnetic field diagnostic.

  4. Confinement of pure electron plasmas in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkery, John W.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Kremer, Jason P.; Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Lefrancois, Remi G.; Hahn, Michael S.; Brenner, Paul W.

    2007-06-01

    The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) [T. S. Pedersen, J. P. Kremer, R. G. Lefrancois, Q. Marksteiner, N. Pomphrey, W. Reiersen, F. Dahlgreen, and X. Sarasola, Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 372 (2006)] is a stellarator used to study non-neutral plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. A detailed experimental study of confinement of pure electron plasmas in CNT is described here. Electrons are introduced into the magnetic surfaces by placing a biased thermionic emitter on the magnetic axis. As reported previously, the insulated rods holding this and other emitter filaments contribute to the radial transport by charging up negatively and creating E ×B convective transport cells. A model for the rod-driven transport is presented and compared to the measured transport rates under a number of different conditions, finding good agreement. Neutrals also drive transport, and by varying the neutral pressure in the experiment, the effects of rod-driven and neutral-driven transport are separated. The neutral-driven electron loss rate scales linearly with neutral pressure. The neutral driven transport, presumably caused by electron-neutral collisions, is much greater than theoretical estimates for neoclassical diffusion in a classical stellarator with strong radial electric fields. In fact the confinement time is on the order of the electron-neutral collision time. Ion accumulation, electron attachment, and other effects are considered, but do not explain the observed transport rates.

  5. Effect of plasma shaping on performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D. A.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Kaye, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bush, C.; Carter, M. D.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; Ferron, J.; Field, A.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastrovito, D.; Mau, T. K.; Medley, S. S.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Pinsker, R.; Ram, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Roquemore, L.; Ruskov, E.; Ryan, P.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Smith, D. R.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tritz, K.; Halle, A. von; Wade, M.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betti, R.; Bigelow, T.

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has explored the effects of shaping on plasma performance as determined by many diverse topics including the stability of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (e.g., ideal external kinks and resistive wall modes), edge localized modes (ELMs), bootstrap current drive, divertor flux expansion, and heat transport. Improved shaping capability has been crucial to achieving βt ~ 40%. Precise plasma shape control has been achieved on NSTX using real-time equilibrium reconstruction. NSTX has simultaneously achieved elongation κ ~ 2.8 and triangularity delta ~ 0.8. Ideal MHD theory predicts increased stability at high values of shaping factor S equivalent to q95Ip/(aBt), which has been observed at large values of the S ~ 37[MA/(m • T)] on NSTX. The behavior of ELMs is observed to depend on plasma shape. A description of the ELM regimes attained as shape is varied will be presented. Increased shaping is predicted to increase the bootstrap fraction at fixed Ip. The achievement of strong shaping has enabled operation with 1 s pulses with Ip=1 MA, and for 1.6 s for Ip=700 kA. Analysis of the noninductive current fraction as well as empirical analysis of the achievable plasma pulse length as elongation is varied will be presented. Data are presented showing a reduction in peak divertor heat load due to increasing in flux expansion.

  6. Effect of plasma shaping on performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Kaye, S.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; Blanchard, W.; Darrow, D.S.; Davis, W.; Diem, S.; Foley, J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hill, K.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.

    2006-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has explored the effects of shaping on plasma performance as determined by many diverse topics including the stability of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes (e.g., ideal external kinks and resistive wall modes), edge localized modes (ELMs), bootstrap current drive, divertor flux expansion, and heat transport. Improved shaping capability has been crucial to achieving {beta}{sub t}{approx}40%. Precise plasma shape control has been achieved on NSTX using real-time equilibrium reconstruction. NSTX has simultaneously achieved elongation {kappa}{approx}2.8 and triangularity {delta}{approx}0.8. Ideal MHD theory predicts increased stability at high values of shaping factor S{identical_to}q{sub 95}I{sub p}/(aB{sub t}), which has been observed at large values of the S{approx}37[MA/(m{center_dot}T)] on NSTX. The behavior of ELMs is observed to depend on plasma shape. A description of the ELM regimes attained as shape is varied will be presented. Increased shaping is predicted to increase the bootstrap fraction at fixed I{sub p}. The achievement of strong shaping has enabled operation with 1 s pulses with I{sub p}=1 MA, and for 1.6 s for I{sub p}=700 kA. Analysis of the noninductive current fraction as well as empirical analysis of the achievable plasma pulse length as elongation is varied will be presented. Data are presented showing a reduction in peak divertor heat load due to increasing in flux expansion.

  7. Dust in the Jovian System: Streams, Clouds and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Gruen, E.

    2003-04-01

    Spacecraft investigations during the last ten years have vastly improved our knowledge about dust in the Jovian system. All Galilean satellites, and probably all smaller satellites as well, are sources of dust in the Jovian system. In-situ measurements with the dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have for the first time demonstrated the electromagnetic interaction of charged dust grains with the interplanetary magnetic field and with a planetary magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a giant mass-velocity spectrometer for charged 10-nanometer dust grains. These grains are released from Jupiter's moon Io with a typical rate of ˜ 1 kg s-1. The seven-year long record of Galileo in-situ dust measurements revealed significant variations of the fluxes of the dust stream particles with Jovian local time which are caused by the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus. The streams probe the plasma conditions in the torus, and they can be used as a potential monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity. The joint Galileo-Cassini dust measurements at Jupiter imply stream particle speeds up to 400 km s-1. All Galilean satellites are surrounded by tenuous impact-generated clouds of mostly sub-micrometer ejecta grains. Jovian rings not only exist in the well-known region of the main and gossamer rings but also much farther out. Very tenuous rings composed of mostly micron-sized grains have been detected in-situ in the region between the Galilean moons and further beyond out to ˜ 250 R_J from the planet. The dust densities there are much too low to allow detection with imaging techniques. The measurements have demonstrated that impact-ejecta derived from hypervelocity impacts onto satellites are the major constituent of dusty planetary rings. On 5 November 2002 Galileo traversed Jupiter's gossamer rings for the first time and had a close flyby at Amalthea. Several hundred dust impacts have been detected during this passage with the dust detector on

  8. Microwave radiation measurements near the electron plasma frequency of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.; Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Microwave emission near the electron plasma frequency was observed, and its relation to the average electron density and the dc toroidal magnetic field was examined. The emission was detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50 omega miniature coaxial probe. The radiation appeared as a broad amplitude peak that shifted in frequency as the plasma parameters were varied. The observed radiation scanned an average plasma density ranging from 10 million/cu cm to 8 hundred million/cu cm. A linear relation was observed betweeen the density calculated from the emission frequency and the average plasma density measured with a microwave interferometer. With the aid of a relative density profile measurement of the plasma, it was determined that the emissions occurred from the outer periphery of the plasma.

  9. Magnetic Equilibrium and Stability Simulations of the National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, F.; Sabbagh, S.; Garofalo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Hatcher, R.; Lao, L.; Lazarus, E.; Turnbull, A.

    1997-11-01

    The numerical code EFIT(L. Lao, et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985).) has been modified to accommodate the geometry of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Equilibrium solutions are calculated for both fixed and free boundary conditions to determine the operational space of NSTX plasmas. The p(ψ) and ff'(ψ) equilibrium profiles are chosen either generically or from time dependent experimentally produced profiles, measured in various operational regimes (L-mode, H-mode, etc.) of the DIII-D tokamak. Results supporting the design of the external magnetic diagnostics are shown. Particular attention is given to assess sufficient coverage of the diagnostic setup, since the main future use of the code will be for equilibrium reconstruction. The stability codes GATO(L. Bernard,Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 377 (1981).) and PEST(R. Grimm, et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 16, 253 (1976).) will be used, in conjunction with EFIT, to study the effects of configuration and location of the passive plates on the stability of the various equilibria.

  10. Interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Europa: Constraints on the neutral atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, J.; Strobel, D. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1998-09-01

    A three-dimensional plasma model was developed to understand the sources and sinks that maintain Europa's neutral atmosphere and to study the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with this atmosphere and the formation of an ionosphere. The model includes self-consistently the feedback of the plasma action on the atmosphere through mass balance. Suprathermal torus ions with a contribution from thermal ions sputter O2 from the water ice surface, and thermal torus ions remove the O2 atmosphere by sputtering. For an oxygen column density of 5×1018m-2 the calculated intensities of the oxygen lines OI 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm produced by electron impact dissociation agree with observations by the Hubble Space Telescope [Hall et al., 1995]. Mass balance is also consistent with this column density, with a net atmospheric mass loss of 50 kgs-1. For a given neutral atmosphere and magnetospheric conditions, the electrodynamic model computes self-consistently plasma density, plasma velocity, electron temperature of the thermal and the suprathermal population, electric current and electric field in the vicinity of Europa, with the assumption of a constant homogeneous Jovian magnetic field. Europa's ionosphere is created by electron impact ionization where the coupling of the ionosphere with the energy reservoir of the plasma torus by electron heat conduction supplies the energy to maintain ionization. The calculated distribution of electron densities with a maximum value of nearly 104cm-3 is in general agreement with densities derived by Kliore et al. [1997] from the Galileo spacecraft radio occultations. The Alfvénic current system closed by the ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities carries a total current of 7×105A in each Alfvén wing.

  11. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io from HISAKI satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Kimura, Tomoki; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in the Io plasma torus (IPT) was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft, showing evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, its detailed properties and the cause of electron heating are still open issues. The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph on board the HISAKI satellite continuously observed the IPT from the end of December 2013 to the middle of January 2014. The variation in the IPT brightness showed that clear periodicity associated with Io's orbital period (42 h) and that the bright region was located downstream of Io. The amplitude of the periodic variation was larger at short wavelengths than at long wavelengths. From spectral analyses, we found that Io-correlated brightening is caused by the increase in the hot electron population in the region downstream of Io. We also found that the brightness depends on the system III longitude and found primary and secondary peaks in the longitude ranges of 100-130° and 250-340°, respectively. Io's orbit crosses the center of the IPT around these longitudes. This longitude dependence suggests that the electron heating process is related to the plasma density around Io. The total radiated power from the IPT in January 2014 was estimated to be 1.4 TW in the wavelength range from 60 to 145 nm. The Io-correlated component produced 10% of this total radiated power. The interaction between Io and the IPT continuously produces a large amount of energy around Io, and 140 GW of that energy is immediately converted to hot electron production in the IPT.

  12. Full Toroidal Imaging of Non-axisymmetric Plasma Material Interaction in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo Scotti, A.L. Roquemore, and V. A. Soukhanovskii

    2012-07-11

    A pair of two dimensional fast cameras with a wide angle view (allowing a full radial and toroidal coverage of the lower divertor) was installed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment in order to monitor non-axisymmetric effects. A custom polar remapping procedure and an absolute photometric calibration enabled the easier visualization and quantitative analysis of non-axisymmetric plasma material interaction (e.g., strike point splitting due to application of 3D fields and effects of toroidally asymmetric plasma facing components).

  13. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M.; Betti, R.

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  14. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P R.; Paschalidis, N.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keY, wide field-of-view (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for 10. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from 10 to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  15. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Paterson ,W.; Christian, E.; Mahaffy, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Lipatov, A.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter s magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keV, wide field-ofview (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter s magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for Io. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from Io to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  16. Factors controlling the occurrence of the Jovian decametric radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Rucker, H. O.

    The statistical analysis of occurrence of Io-related Jovian decametric radio (DAM) emission shows that the occurrence of the emission increase when Io is in the longitude range 120° -300° (Io's longitude in the frame III). Another result of the statistical analysis is a predominance of DAM emission sources in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. We show that these phenomena are the result of the joint effect of two factors - the variation of the efficiency of particle acceleration in the ionosphere of the satellite Io and the variation of the broadening of the angular spectrum of accelerated particles during their pass through Io's plasma torus depending on Io's longitude. The planes of the rotational, magnetic and centrifugal (for Io's torus) equators do not coincide. As a result the magnetic field near the satellite Io, which determines the accelerated particle efficiency [1], changes periodically. The most effective acceleration takes place in the longitude range 120° ≤ λIo ≤ 300° . Just in this longitude range the satellite Io appears to be "screened" by the plasma torus of the southern hemisphere. Making their way to the southern hemisphere, the particles are scattered in the torus plasma 2° , within which they and withdrawn from a narrow range of pitch-angles ∆θ0 can reach the southern hemisphere [2]. Therefore in the mentioned longitude range northern sources of DAM emission should be concentrated. At the same time in the longitude range, where the "screening" effect of the plasma torus in the southern direction is negligible, the efficiency of the accelerated mechanism is essentially smaller due to the decrease of the magnetic field near Io. Therefore the southern sources turn to be weaker and are located mainly outside the longitude range, where the emission from the northern sources predominates. Since the emission from the northern sources predominates, the active longitudes are determined basically by this emission and are in the range 120

  17. Neutral cloud theory of the Jovian nebula: Anomalous ionization effect of superthermal electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    The standard model of the Jovian nebula postulates that its particle source is the extended cloud of neutral sulfur and oxygen atoms that escape from the satellite Io and become ionized through electron impact from the corotating plasma. Its energy source is the gyroenergy acquired by newly formed pickup ions as they are swept up to corotation velocity by the planetary magnetic field. Elastic collisions between plasma ions and electrons cool the ions and heat the electrons, while inelastic collisions cool the electrons and excite the ions to radiate intense line emission, which is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the plasma. This neutral cloud theory of the Io plasma torus, as it has come to be known, has been the subject of recent critcism which asserts that the theory cannot account for the observed charge state of the plasma which features O(+) and S(2+) as the dominant ions. It is shown in this work that the inclusion of a small population of super-thermal electrons is required to achieve the correct ion partitioning among various charge states. It is also argued that the anomalous ionization effect of the superthermal electrons is responsible for the overall spatial bifurcation of the nebula into a hot multiply charged plasma region outside of 5.7 Jovian radii and a cool singly ionized plasma inside this distance.

  18. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  19. A coordinated X-ray and EUV study of the Jovian aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randall; Badman, Sarah; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen; Rodiger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    We present results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument and twice by XMM-Newton for roughly 12 hours per observation. The goal of this campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  20. Solar wind influence on the Jovian inner magnetosphere observed by Hisaki/EXCEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kimura, T.; Tao, C.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Uemizu, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus has been seen by several observations [e.g., Sandel and Broadfoot, 1982; Steffl et al., 2004]. Ip and Goertz [1983] explained this asymmetry can be caused by a dawn-to-dusk electric field in the Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. However, the question what physical process can impose such an electric field deep inside the strong magnetosphere still remains. The long-term monitoring of the Io plasma torus is a key observation to answer this question. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer EXCEED onboard the Hisaki satellite observed the Io plasma torus continuously during the two periods: from December 2013 to March 2014 and from November 2014 to May 2015. We found clear responses of the dawn-dusk asymmetry to rapid increases of the solar wind dynamic pressure. We statistically analyzed the relations between solar wind and IPT response. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of Io's volcanic activity, detected by Hisaki in January 2015, on the solar wind response of Jovian inner magnetosphere. We will report the initial results of this study.

  1. A 12-coil superconducting 'bumpy torus' magnet facility for plasma research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    A retrospective summary is presented of the performance of the two-coil superconducting pilot rig which preceded the NASA Lewis bumpy torus. The NASA Lewis bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each with a 19 cm i.d. and capable of producing magnetic field strengths of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The magnets are equally spaced around a major circumference 1.52 m in diameter, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.59 m in diameter. The design value of maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis (3.0 T) has been reached and exceeded.

  2. Spontaneous Formation of Closed-Field Torus Equilibrium via Current Jump Observed in an Electron-Cyclotron-Heated Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2006-03-31

    Spontaneous current jump resulting in the formation of closed field equilibrium has been observed in electron-cyclotron-heated toroidal plasmas under steady external fields composed of a toroidal field and a relatively weak vertical field in the low aspect ratio torus experiment device. This bridges the gap between the open field equilibrium maintained by a pressure-driven current in the external field and the closed field equilibrium at a larger current. Experimental results and theoretical analyses suggest a current jump model that is based on the asymmetric electron confinement along the field line appearing upon simultaneous transitions of field topology and equilibrium.

  3. A consistent understanding of the ribbon structure for the Io plasma torus at the Voyager 1, 1991 ground-based, and Galileo J0 epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, William H.; Peterson, Charles A.; Marconi, Max L.

    2011-07-01

    A new four-dimensional (three spatial and local time) empirical model for the Io plasma torus is presented that includes several System III longitude asymmetries and a dawn-dusk electric field with variable direction and magnitude. The model is used to analyze and compare observations for the peak density structure of the plasma torus acquired at the 1979 Voyager 1, the 1991 ground-based, and the 1995 Galileo J0 epochs. The mean magnitude of the dawn-dusk electric field is determined to be much smaller at the 1991 ground-based epoch than at the Voyager 1 and Galileo J0 epochs. A consistent understanding of the radial structure for the density peaks in the plasma torus may then be achieved for these epochs if the dawn-dusk electric field departs by ˜20° from the true dawn-dusk direction and if account is taken of absolute density changes. The ratio of the electron density in the inner and outer plasma torus varies significantly for the three epochs and indicates different temporal evolutions in the balance of the plasma torus production and loss processes. The undisturbed electron density at Io's position in the plasma torus is calculated and has significantly different values at the three epochs; it is shown for each epoch to undergo large variations as Io changes its location in heliocentric phase angle and System III longitude. These large variations provide a wide variety of changing upstream plasma conditions for Io's atmospheric formation, local aurora and distant footprint emissions, and electrodynamic interaction.

  4. Confinement time of electron plasma approaching magnetic pumping transport limit in small aspect ratio C-shaped torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Pahari, Sambaran; Goswami, Rajiv; Bajpai, Manu; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    A long confinement time of electron plasma, approaching magnetic pumping transport limit, has been observed in SMARTEX-C (a small aspect ratio partial torus with R o / a ˜ 1.59 ). Investigations of the growth rate reveal that they are governed by instabilities like resistive wall destabilization, ion driven instabilities, and electron-neutral collisions. Successful confinement of electron plasmas exceeding > 1 × 10 5 poloidal E → × B → rotations lasting for nearly 2.1 ± 0.1 s is achieved by suppressing these instabilities. The confinement time has been estimated in two ways: (a) from the frequency scaling of the linear diocotron mode launched from sections of the wall that are also used as capacitive probes and (b) by dumping the plasma onto a charge collector at different hold times.

  5. Interpretation of core localized Alfven eigenmodes in DIII-D and Joint European Torus reversed magnetic shear plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Alper, B.

    2006-05-15

    Reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAE) that were observed in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol.11, 13 (1987)] and DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion42, 614 (2002)] are studied with the ideal magnetohydrodynamic code NOVA-K [C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Rep.211, 1 (1992)]. It was found that the frequency behavior of the RSAEs can be described accurately by the NOVA-K code when plasma compressibility effects and toroidal plasma rotation are taken into account. For the mode activity on JET, the calculated drive exceeds the mode damping rate, consistent with experimental observations, while on DIII-D the growth rate from neutral beam ions for modes with high toroidal mode numbers is insufficient to account for the excitation of the modes and a major part of the drive comes from the background plasma.

  6. Analysis of Jovian low frequency radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The density of ions in the Io plasma torus and the scattering of these ions by low frequency electromagnetic emissions detected by Voyager 1 were studied. The ion density profile was investigated using whistler dispersion measurements provided by the Voyager plasma instrument. The scale height and absolute density of H+ ions in the vicinity of the plasma torus were determined by combining the measured plasma densities with the whistler dispersion measurements. A theoretical analysis of the modes of propagation of low frequency electromagnetic emissions in the torus was undertaken. Polarization reversal effects and rough estimates of the ion diffusion coefficient were utilized. Numerical evaluation of the ion diffusion coefficients in the torus were made using the observed Voyager 1 wave intensities. Results show that the observed wave intensities produce significant ion diffusion effects in the ion torus.

  7. Triton torus and Neptune aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1990-01-01

    Triton is shown to be the dominant source of plasma for L equal to or greater than 7 in the magnetosphere of Neptune. Triton maintains a neutral hydrogen torus of average density comparable to a greater than that of the Titan torus at Saturn. The Triton torus may be detectable in H Lyman-alpha emissions. However, the energy source from plasma outward transport and mass loading in the Triton torus is insufficient to explain the Neptune aurora. It is proposed that Neptune's aurora is driven mainly by a solar wind interaction.

  8. [Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis].

    PubMed

    Meza Flores, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Lesions in the oral cavity due to protuberant bone growths known as hyperostosis, which in the oral cavity are found at the palate: torus palatinus (TP) and in the jaw area torus mandibularis (TM). PMID:15614303

  9. Characteristics and performance of a superconducting bumpy-torus magnet facility for plasma research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Lewis bumpy-torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 T on its axis. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m; they are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The design value of the maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis, 3.0 T, was reached and exceeded. A maximum magnetic field of 3.23 T was held for a period of 60 minutes. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 T, the coil system went normal without apparent damage or degradation of performance.

  10. A 12 coil superconducting bumpy torus magnet facility for plasma research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of the performance of the two-coil superconducting pilot rig which preceded the NASA Lewis bumpy torus. This pilot rig was operated for 550 experimental runs over a period of 7 years. The NASA Lewis bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each with a 19 cm in diameter and capable of producing magnetic field strengths of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The magnets are equally spaced around a major circumference 1.52 m in diameter, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.59 m in diameter. The design value of maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis (3.0 teslas) was reached and exceeded. A maximum magnetic field of 3.23 teslas was held for a period of 60 minutes, and the coils did not go to normal. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 teslas, the coil system was driven normal without damage to the facility.

  11. Observations of the plasma torus of Jupiter with a Fabry-Perot/charge-coupled device /CCD/ imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, F. L.; Scherb, F.; Oliversen, R.; Jaehnig, K.; Williams, T.; York, D. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the use of a CCD imaging spectrometer which has been employed at a 2.1 m telescope to obtain monochromatic images in the red and near infrared. The system studied was Jupiter's plasma torus which circles the planet with radial extent about 5 RJ and 7 RJ (RJ is the radius of Jupiter). In ground based measurements the torus has been observed in the forbidden emission lines of S(plus) at 6716 A and 6731 A and S(plus plus) at 9531 A. Attention is given to aspects of instrumentation, observations, and performance. It is felt that the particular significance of the obtained results from the instrumental point of view is the demonstration that the CCD is an excellent detector for monochromatic imaging in the near infrared out to at least 10830 A and that pixel binning before readout can produce significantly improved S/N ratios for the study of faint, diffuse sources in cases where readout noise is dominant.

  12. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field measurements for direct detection of electron Bernstein waves in a torus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Kinjo, Kiyotake; Morikawa, Junji; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2009-02-01

    To identify the mode-converted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in a torus plasma directly, we have developed an interferometry system, in which a diagnostic microwave injected outside of the plasma column was directly detected with the probing antenna inserted into the plasma. In this work, plasma production and heating are achieved with 2.45 GHz, 2.5 kW electron cyclotron heating (ECH), whereas diagnostics are carried out with a lower power (10 W) separate frequency (1-2.1 GHz) microwave. Three components, i.e., two electromagnetic (toroidal and poloidal directions) and an electrostatic (if refractive index is sufficiently higher than unity, it corresponds to radial component), of ECRF electric field are simultaneously measured with three probing antennas, which are inserted into plasma. Selectivities of each component signal were checked experimentally. Excitation antennas have quite high selectivity of direction of linear polarization. As probing antennas for detecting electromagnetic components, we employed a monopole antenna with a length of 35 mm, and the separation of the poloidal (O-wave) and toroidal (X-wave) components of ECRF electric field could be available with this antenna. To detect EBW, which is an electrostatic wave, a small tip (1 mm) antenna was used. As the preliminary results, we detected signals that have three characteristics of EBW, i.e., short wavelength, backward propagation, and electrostatic. PMID:19256646

  13. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  14. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm(3)), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented. PMID:24593595

  15. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-12-09

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow band pass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3more » orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). Furthermore, the diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented.« less

  16. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow bandpass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). The diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented.

  17. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-12-09

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow band pass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). Furthermore, the diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented.

  18. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-12-15

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow bandpass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). The diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented.

  19. A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Scotti, F; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2015-12-01

    A two-channel spectral imaging system based on a charge injection device radiation-hardened intensified camera was built for studies of plasma-surface interactions on divertor plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak. By means of commercially available mechanically referenced optical components, the two-wavelength setup images the light from the plasma, relayed by a fiber optic bundle, at two different wavelengths side-by-side on the same detector. Remotely controlled filter wheels are used for narrow bandpass and neutral density filters on each optical path allowing for simultaneous imaging of emission at wavelengths differing in brightness up to 3 orders of magnitude. Applications on NSTX-U will include the measurement of impurity influxes in the lower divertor strike point region and the imaging of plasma-material interaction on the head of the surface analysis probe MAPP (Material Analysis and Particle Probe). The diagnostic setup and initial results from its application on the lithium tokamak experiment are presented. PMID:26724002

  20. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D; Menard, J; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, R E; Bush, C; Kaita, R

    2008-09-22

    Experiments conducted in high-performance 1.0-1.2 MA 6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with a high flux expansion radiative divertor in NSTX demonstrate that significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and access to detachment may be facilitated naturally in a highly-shaped spherical torus (ST) configuration. Improved plasma performance with high {beta}{sub p} = 15-25%, a high bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} = 45-50%, longer plasma pulses, and an H-mode regime with smaller ELMs has been achieved in the lower single null configuration with higher-end elongation 2.2-2.4 and triangularity 0.6-0.8. Divertor peak heat fluxes were reduced from 6-12 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5-2 MW/m{sup 2} in ELMy H-mode discharges using high magnetic flux expansion and partial detachment of the outer strike point at several D{sub 2} injection rates, while good core confinement and pedestal characteristics were maintained. The partially detached divertor regime was characterized by a 30-60% increase in divertor plasma radiation, a peak heat flux reduction by up to 70%, measured in a 10 cm radial zone, a five-fold increase in divertor neutral pressure, and a significant volume recombination rate increase.

  1. Large density variation predicted along the magnetic axis for cold electron plasmas in the Columbia Nonneutral Torus (CNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, Remi G.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn

    2006-12-15

    Cold pure electron plasmas confined in Penning-Malmberg traps with mirror fields are known to exhibit density variations along field lines, such that the density is roughly proportional to the magnetic field strength, n{approx}B. The Columbia Nonneutral Torus (CNT) is the first stellarator designed to study pure electron plasmas, and exhibits substantial mirroring, with B{sub max}{approx_equal}1.8B{sub min}. However, results of a three-dimensional equilibrium solver, presented in this Letter, predict a factor of 5.3 increase in density from the minimum-field cross section to the maximum-field cross section along the magnetic axis, for a 1.5 cm Debye length plasma (a{approx_equal}15 cm for CNT). In this Letter, it is shown that the density variation of electron plasmas in mirror traps can be significantly enhanced in a device that has a cross section that varies from cylinder-like to slab-like, such as the CNT. A simple analytic expression is derived that describes the axial density variation in such a device, and it is found to agree well with the computational predictions for CNT.

  2. The Io Plasma Torus: Motivation for Abandoning the "Active Sector" Concept in Favor of System IV Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, J. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Marconi, M.; Woodward, R. C., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We use an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 1000 observations of Io in [OI] 6300A, presented by Oliversen et al. (2001), narrow-band images of the torus in [SII] 6731A, and HST/STIS EUV observations of Io and its environs to confirm that the Io [OI] flux is an excellent proxy for the electron density in the Io plasma to torus (IPT). Furthermore, we find: (1) A careful statistical analysis of short-term variations in this dataset (20 min to 1 hour), previously suspected to be from flux tube interchange (Oliversen et al. 2001, Morgenthaler et al. 2012) are, in fact, consistent with the expected statistical variation of the parent population of observations. (2) The semi-empirical IPT model developed by W. Smyth (Oliversen et al. 2001; Smyth, Peterson, & Marconi 2011) fits the overall trends in the data reasonably well, with notable exceptions. (3) There may be a link between what was previously known the "active sector" at system III longitudes of 170 ~ 230 degrees and the modulation in IPT plasma density caused by the beating between system III and system IV, predicted by Hess et al. (2011). Conclusion: a simple modification to the W. Smyth semi-empirical torus model to incorporate a system IV-controlled density enhancement, rather than a fixed "active sector" in system III, should enable the model to "lock in" more readily to our extensive set of [OI] 6300A observations recorded between 1990 and 2008. This will provide detailed information about the flow of mass and energy in the IPT during the Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, and New Horizons missions. Additional observations are planned during NASA's upcoming Juno mission. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Research Program RTOP 344-32-40 to GSFC and grants NAGW-3319 and NAG5-6787 to the University of Wisconsin--Madison, STIS contract NAS5-30131 to the University of Wisconsin--Madison and NASA Outer Planets Research Program grant NNX11AM43G to PSI.

  3. The Jovian aurora: Electron or ion precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Clarke, J. T.; Cravens, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora at UV wavelengths obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory (including the brightest Jovian aurora observed to date) set strigent upper limits for sulfur and oxygen emissions, which would be associated with the precipitation of energetic heavy ions in the upper Jovian atmosphere if they were solely responsible for Jovian auroral processes. Model calculations of heavy ion precipitation and corresponding estimates of the associated sulfur and oxygen UV emissions previously carried out suggest emission values for 1304 A OI emission that are at least 30 times larger than the upper limit values set by the IUE observations reported. On the other hand the observed (feature of SII at 1256 A of 2 kR) is quite comparable to the theoretically predicted emission intensity. Taken together these observations and calculations suggest that electron as well as ion precipitation play a role in Jovian auroral processes. In light of earlier X-ray observations and in-situ plasma observations that suggest energetic heavy ion precipitation in the Jovian auroral zone, a scenario is suggested where heavy ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause. Electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions since they deposit their energy above the methane absorbing layer defined by the homopause.

  4. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  5. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  6. The source location of certain Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence is presented which supports the concept that certain of the Jovian decametric radio waves originate as northern hemisphere extraordinary mode cyclotron emissions. The wave signals received by Voyager 1 near 10 MHz shortly after the closest approach to Jupiter were found to exhibit cusps in the fringe pattern which can be attributed to Faraday rotation in the Io plasma torus. At nearly the same time, the wave polarization near 1 MHz was found to exhibit a sudden reversal of its rotation sense, indicating that the wave path for those frequencies had also become perpendicular to the magnetic field at the spacecraft. It was determined that the waves came from the northern hemisphere at progressively lower altitudes with increasing frequency, and if the source is assumed to be associated with an L = 6 field line, the emission appears to have occurred near the source cyclotron frequency somewhere in the local midnight sector. The evidence indicates that the source is at the Io flux tube and that the emitted wave mode must have been extraordinary. In addition, the emitted wave polarization must have been substantially noncircular which would require a low plasma density near the source, much like that which occurs with auroral kilometric radiation at the earth.

  7. Processes and properties of edge-localised instabilities in 2T 2MA plasmas in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, A. J. Webster, S. J.

    2014-11-15

    During July 2012, 150 almost identical H-mode plasmas were consecutively created in the Joint European Torus, providing a combined total of approximately 8 minutes of steady-state plasma with 15 000 Edge Localised Modes (ELMs). In principle, each of those 15 000 ELMs are statistically equivalent. Here, the changes in edge density and plasma energy associated with those ELMs are explored, using the spikes in Beryllium II (527 nm) radiation as an indicator for the onset of an ELM. Clearly different timescales are observed during the ELM process. Edge temperature falls over a 2 ms timescale, edge density and pressure fall over a 5 ms timescale, and there is an additional 10 ms timescale that is consistent with a resistive relaxation of the plasma's edge. The statistical properties of the energy and density losses due to the ELMs are explored. For these plasmas the ELM energy (δE) is found to be approximately independent of the time between ELMs, despite the average ELM energy (〈δE〉) and average ELM frequency (f) being consistent with the scaling of 〈δE〉∝1/f. Instead, beyond the first 0.02 s of waiting time between ELMs, the energy losses due to individual ELMs are found to be statistically the same. Surprisingly no correlation is found between the energies of consecutive ELMs either. A weak link is found between the density drop and the ELM waiting time. Consequences of these results for ELM control and modelling are discussed.

  8. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  9. Radio emission observed by Galileo in the inner Jovian magnetosphere during orbit A-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas; Gurnett, Donald A.; Groene, Joseph B.

    2005-10-01

    The Galileo spacecraft encountered the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter on its way to a flyby of Amalthea on November 5, 2002. During this encounter, the spacecraft observed distinct spin modulation of plasma wave emissions. The modulations occurred in the frequency range from a few hundred hertz to a few hundred kilohertz and probably include at least two distinct wave modes. Assuming transverse EM radiation, we have used the swept-frequency receivers of the electric dipole antenna to determine the direction to the source of these emissions. Additionally, with knowledge of the magnetic field some constraints are placed on the wave mode of the emission based on a comparative analysis of the wave power versus spin phase of the different emissions. The emission appears in several bands separated by attenuation lanes. The analysis indicates that the lanes are probably due to blockage of the freely propagating emission by high density regions of the Io torus near the magnetic equator. Radio emission at lower frequencies (<40 kHz) appears to emanate from sources at high latitude and is not attenuated. Emission at f>80kHz is consistent with O-mode and Z-mode. Lower frequency emissions could be a mixture of O-mode, Z-mode and whistler mode. Emission for f<5kHz shows bands that are similar to upper hybrid resonance bands observed near the terrestrial plasmapause, and also elsewhere in Jovian magnetosphere. Based on the observations and knowledge of similar terrestrial emissions, we hypothesize that radio emission results from mode conversion near the strong density gradient of the inner radius of the cold plasma torus, similar to the generation of nKOM and continuum emission observed in the outer Jovian magnetosphere and in the terrestrial magnetosphere from source regions near the plasmapause.

  10. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  11. Beta-limiting MHD Instabilities in Improved-performance NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson D.A. Gates: S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; C.E. Bush; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; F. Paoletti; S.F Paul; M. Ono; Y.-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; the NSTX Research Team

    2003-05-29

    Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during normal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) {beta}{sub t} = 35%, {beta}{sub N} = 6.4, <{beta}{sub N}> = 4.5, {beta}{sub N}/l{sub i} = 10, and {beta}{sub P} = 1.4. High {beta}{sub P} operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of {beta}{sub N} {approx} 6 above the ideal no-wall limit and near the with-wall limit. Details of the {beta} limit scalings and {beta}-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described.

  12. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  13. Remote sensing of the energy of Jovian auroral electrons with STIS: a clue to unveil plasma acceleration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    The polar aurora, an important energy source for the Earth's upper atmosphere, is about two orders of magnitude more intense at Jupiter where it releases approximately 10 GW in Jupiter's thermosphere. So far, HST observations of Jupiter's aurora have concentrated on the morphology and the relationship between the solar wind and the brightness distribution. While STIS-MAMA is still operational, time is now critical to move into a new era where FUV long-slit spectroscopy and the spatial scanning capabilities of HST are combined. We propose to use this powerful tool to remotely sense the characteristics of the precipitated electrons by slewing the spectral slit over the different auroral components. It will then be possible to associate electron energies with spatial auroral components and constrain acceleration mechanisms {field-aligned acceleration, magnetic field reconnection, pitch angle electron scattering} associated with specific emission regions. For this, a combination of FUV imaging with STIS long slit spectroscopy will map the spatial variations of the auroral depth and thus the energy of the precipitated electrons. These results will be compared with current models of the Jovian magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and will provide key inputs to a 3-D model of the Jupiter's atmosphere global heat budget and dynamics currently under development. This compact timely program is designed to provide a major step forward for a better understanding of the physical interactions taking place in Jupiter's magnetosphere and their effects on giant planets' atmospheres, a likely paradigm for many giant fast spinning planets with massive magnetic field in the universe.

  14. Integrated simulations of saturated neoclassical tearing modes in DIII-D, Joint European Torus, and ITER plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Federico D.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2006-06-15

    A revised version of the ISLAND module [C. N. Nguyen et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 3604 (2004)] is used in the BALDUR code [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1988)] to carry out integrated modeling simulations of DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)], and ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)] tokamak discharges in order to investigate the adverse effects of multiple saturated magnetic islands driven by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). Simulations are carried out with a predictive model for the temperature and density pedestal at the edge of the high confinement mode (H-mode) plasma and with core transport described using the Multi-Mode model. The ISLAND module, which is used to compute magnetic island widths, includes the effects of an arbitrary aspect ratio and plasma cross sectional shape, the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, and the effect of the distortion in the shape of each magnetic island caused by the radial variation of the perturbed magnetic field. Radial transport is enhanced across the width of each magnetic island within the BALDUR integrated modeling simulations in order to produce a self-consistent local flattening of the plasma profiles. It is found that the main consequence of the NTM magnetic islands is a decrease in the central plasma temperature and total energy. For the DIII-D and JET discharges, it is found that inclusion of the NTMs typically results in a decrease in total energy of the order of 15%. In simulations of ITER, it is found that the saturated magnetic island widths normalized by the plasma minor radius, for the lowest order individual tearing modes, are approximately 24% for the 2/1 mode and 12% for the 3/2 mode. As a result, the ratio of ITER fusion power to heating power (fusion Q) is reduced from Q=10.6 in simulations with no NTM islands to Q=2.6 in simulations with fully saturated

  15. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  16. Progress in Understanding Error-field Physics in NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    E. Menard, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.P. Gerhardt, J.-K. Park, S.A. Sabbagh, J.W. Berkery, A. Egan, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, Y.Q. Liu, A. Sontag, D. Swanson, H. Yuh, W. Zhu and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-05-19

    The low aspect ratio, low magnetic field, and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyze error fields, to measure error field amplification, and to detect resistive wall modes in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field, and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favorable error field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n=1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n=1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n=3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n=1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E × B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.

  17. Jovian dust streams: A monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruger, H.; Geissler, P.; Horanyi, M.; Graps, A.L.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Moissl, R.; Johnson, T.V.; Grun, E.

    2003-01-01

    Streams of high speed dust particles originate from Jupiter's moon Io. After release from Io, the particles collect electric charges in the Io plasma torus, gain energy from the co-rotating electric field of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and leave the Jovian system into interplanetary space with escape speeds over 200 km s-1. The Galileo spacecraft has continuously monitored the dust streams during 34 revolutions about Jupiter between 1996 and 2002. The observed dust fluxes exhibit large orbit-to-orbit variability due to systematic and stochastic changes. After removal of the systematic variations, the total dust emission rate of Io has been calculated. It varies between 10-3 and 10 kg s-1, and is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 kg s-1. We compare the dust emission rate with other markers of volcanic activity on Io like large-area surface changes caused by volcanic deposits and sightings of volcanic plumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Edge transport and turbulence reduction with lithium coated plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Kubota, S.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Callen, J. D.; Osborne, T. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2011-05-15

    The coating of plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium improves energy confinement and eliminates ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, the latter due to a relaxation of the density and pressure profiles that reduces the drive for peeling-ballooning modes. 2-D interpretive transport modeling of discharges without and with lithium shows that a reduction in the PFC recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.90 is required to match the drop in D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings. A broadening of the edge barrier region showing reduced transport coefficients is observed, with a {approx}75% drop of the D and {chi}{sub e} from 0.8 < {psi}{sub N} < 0.93 needed to match the profile relaxation with lithium coatings. Turbulence measurements using an edge reflectometry system as well as high-k microwave scattering show a decrease in density fluctuations with lithium coatings. These transport changes allow the realization of very wide pedestals, with a {approx}100% width increase relative to the reference discharges.

  19. High-harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive Results for Deuterium H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor, P.T. Bonoli, R.W. Harvey, J.C. hosea, E.F. Jaeger, B.P. LeBlanc, C.K. Phillisp, P.M. Ryan, E.J. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, J.C. Wright, and the NSTX Team

    2012-07-25

    A critical research goal for the spherical torus (ST) program is to initiate, ramp-up, and sustain a discharge without using the central solenoid. Simulations of non-solenoidal plasma scenarios in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [1] predict that high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) [2] can play an important roll in enabling fully non-inductive (fNI {approx} 1) ST operation. The NSTX fNI {approx} 1 strategy requires 5-6 MW of HHFW power (PRF) to be coupled into a non-inductively generated discharge [3] with a plasma current, Ip {approx} 250-350 kA, driving the plasma into an HHFW H-mode with Ip {approx} 500 kA, a level where 90 keV deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) can heat the plasma and provide additional CD. The initial approach on NSTX has been to heat Ip {approx} 300 kA, inductively heated, deuterium plasmas with CD phased HHFW power [2], in order to drive the plasma into an H-mode with fNI {approx} 1.

  20. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as β e , νe ∗ , the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when βe and νe ∗ were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both βe and νe ∗ increased, microtearing became the dominant low-kθ mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-kθ, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  1. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-01

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as βe, ν*e, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of Te, Ti, and ne were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when βe and ν*e were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both βe and ν*e increased, microtearing became the dominant low-κθ mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-κθ, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting Te for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  2. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M. Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.

    2014-08-15

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as β{sub e}, ν{sub e}{sup ∗}, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of T{sub e}, T{sub i}, and n{sub e} were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k{sub θ} mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k{sub θ}, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting T{sub e} for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  3. Observations of Reduced Electron Gyro-scale Fluctuations in National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode Plasmas with Large E × B Flow Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Kaye, S. M.; Lee, W.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H. K.; Bell, R. E.; Domier, C. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.; Menard, J. E.; Yu, H.

    2009-02-13

    Electron gyro-scale fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-mode plasmas with large toroidal rotation reveal fluctuations consistent with electron temper- ature gradient (ETG) turbulence. Large toroidal rotation in NSTX plasmas with neutral beam injection generates E × B flow shear rates comparable to ETG linear growth rates. Enhanced fluctuations occur when the electron temperature gradient is marginally stable with respect to the ETG linear critical gradient. Fluctuation amplitudes decrease when the E × B flow shear rate exceeds ETG linear growth rates. The observations indicate E × B flow shear can be an effective suppression mechanism for ETG turbulence.

  4. Observations of plasma rotation in the high-beta Tokamak Torus 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostek, C.; Marshall, T. C.

    Toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation are measured in a high Beta Tokamak device by studying the Doppler sift of the 4686 A He II line. The toroidal flow motion is in the same direction as the plasma current at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10(6) cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10(6) cm/sec. The toroidal flow is compared with the predictions of neoclassical transport theory in the collisional regime. Mechanisms for the time evolution of the rotation are also examined.

  5. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus.

    PubMed

    Gelfusa, M; Murari, A; Lupelli, I; Hawkes, N; Gaudio, P; Baruzzo, M; Brix, M; Craciunescu, T; Drozdov, V; Meigs, A; Peluso, E; Romanelli, M; Schmuck, S; Sieglin, B

    2013-10-01

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of

  6. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfusa, M.; Gaudio, P.; Peluso, E.; Murari, A.; Baruzzo, M.; Lupelli, I.; Hawkes, N.; Brix, M.; Drozdov, V.; Meigs, A.; Romanelli, M.; Schmuck, S.; Sieglin, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of

  7. The Triton torus revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, John D.; Eviatar, A.; Delitsky, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the Voyager encounter with Neptune, Delitsky et al. (1989) predicted that a torus of ions emanating from Triton would be discovered. These predictions are reexamined in light of the Voyager results. Sputtering of Triton's atmosphere can produce the heavy ion densities inferred at Triton's orbit by the Voyager plasma experiment if the ion residence time is about 30 days. The torus is found to be longitudinally asymmetric near Triton, with peak densities at longitudes of 170 and 350 deg. The total nitrogen flux due to sputtering is about 2 x 10 to the 21st/s. The consequences of larger escape fluxes of both N2 and H2 are investigated; it is difficult to reconcile large escape fluxes with the plasma and ultraviolet spectrometer observations.

  8. Stellar and Jovian vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, T.E.; Spiegel, E.A. )

    1990-12-01

    The characteristics of 'Jovian' vortices (the large vortices observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune) are summarized, and the existence of similar structures in the atmospheres of stars is considered theoretically. The problem of vortex maintenance is addressed, including potential vorticity, numerical simulations of Jovian vortices, and cyclones and anticyclones; the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is described on the basis of Voyager data; the evidence for convective generation of vertical vorticity in the sun is examined; the possibly vortical nature of the large spots of RS CVn stars is discussed; and models of spots on rapidly rotating hot stars are surveyed. 62 refs.

  9. The Jupiter hot plasma torus - Observed electron temperature and energy flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the optical emission /O I/ 6300 A (8 + or - 4 R) and /S III/ 6312 A (48 + or - 5 R) is reported. It is noted that these emissions are indicators of the ion source morphology and the plasma physical state and that the S III emitters have a kinetic temperature of approximately 10 to the 6th K. When combined with observations of UV lines from the same species, the optical measurements separately imply effective electron temperatures for radiative processes that are mutually consistent (approximately 50,000 K).

  10. Observation of dust torus with poloidal rotation in direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manjit Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K. Sharma, Devendra; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2015-03-15

    Observation of dust cloud rotation in parallel-plate DC glow discharge plasma is reported here. The experiments are carried out at high pressures (∼130 Pa) with a metallic ring placed on the lower electrode (cathode). The dust cloud rotates poloidally in the vertical plane near the cathode surface. This structure is continuous toroidally. Absence of magnetic field rules out the possibility of E × B induced ion flow as the cause of dust rotation. The dust rotational structures exist even with water cooled cathode. Therefore, temperature gradient driven mechanisms, such as thermophoretic force, thermal creep flow, and free convection cannot be causing the observed dust rotation. Langmuir probe measurement reveals the existence of a sharp density gradient near the location of the rotating dust cloud. The gradient in the density, giving rise to a gradient in the ion drag force, has been identified as the principal cause behind the rotation of dust particles.

  11. Micrometeorite erosion of the man rings as a source of plasma in the inner Saturnian plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pospieszalska, M. K.; Johnson, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Micrometeorite bombardment is presently suggested to be a source of water molecules and molecular ions in the region between the outer edge of the main rings of Saturn and Encedalus, adding to those neutrals and plasma that are generated by the sputtering of icy satellites. In view of uncertainties concerning the magnitude and distribution of the ring source, an examination is conducted of limiting cases. The implications of such cases for the Cassini division are calculated, and a discussion of their possible relevance to the region's neutral and plasma cloud is presented.

  12. Gaussian beams for a linearized cold plasma confined in a torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinali, A.; Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Klevin, A.; Tirozzi, B.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a system of linear pde describing a cold plasma in a toroidal region in three-dimensional space. This system simulates the passage of a laser beam through the TOKAMAK, it consists of 9 equations for the electric field and the velocities of electrons and ions in a given magnetic field. Asymptotic solutions describing high-frequency Gaussian beams are constructed using the theory of Maslov complex germ in a fairly effective form. The solutions of the system are localized in the neighborhood of the beam passing through the toroidal domain (the camera). The equations for a ray take into account the density of particles in the camera and don't ``feel'' the presence of the magnetic field because of the high frequency of the Gaussian beam; the dependence on the magnetic field is contained in the amplitude of the electric field. Before the TOKAMAK camera the amplitude of the Gaussian beam is the same as in free space, but after the camera the amplitude vector rotates under the influence of the magnetic field. The formula for the angle of rotation is given explicitly. An analytical-numerical algorithm based on the asymptotic solutions is used to analyze the parameters of the magnetic field in the TOKAMAK.

  13. Model of Jovian F region ionosphere (Jovian ionosphere model in offset dipole approximation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, A.

    1990-01-01

    The geomagnetic control of the Earth's atmosphere is well understood. In the F-region and the topside ionosphere, non-electrical forces transport plasma along the magnetic field lines only. In consequence, the worldwide distribution of ionization is strongly dependent on the dip angle. For example, the equatorial anomaly is roughly symmetrical about the dipole equator rather than the geographic. The same appears to be the case in the Jovian ionosphere (Mahajan, 1981). The influence of the magnetic field of Jupiter on its ionization pattern is one of several outstanding topics which need to be studied. Tan (1986) investigated the formation of the equatorial anomaly in the Jovian ionosphere under a centered dipole model. Tan (1988) further studied the effect of the tilt of the Jovian dipole. The results were in broad agreement with those of a diffusive equilibrium model (Tan and Wu, 1981). An off-centered dipole model is constructed and its effects on the ionization pattern are investigated.

  14. Model of Jovian F region ionosphere (Jovian ionosphere model in offset dipole approximation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.

    1990-10-01

    The geomagnetic control of the Earth's atmosphere is well understood. In the F-region and the topside ionosphere, non-electrical forces transport plasma along the magnetic field lines only. In consequence, the worldwide distribution of ionization is strongly dependent on the dip angle. For example, the equatorial anomaly is roughly symmetrical about the dipole equator rather than the geographic. The same appears to be the case in the Jovian ionosphere (Mahajan, 1981). The influence of the magnetic field of Jupiter on its ionization pattern is one of several outstanding topics which need to be studied. Tan (1986) investigated the formation of the equatorial anomaly in the Jovian ionosphere under a centered dipole model. Tan (1988) further studied the effect of the tilt of the Jovian dipole. The results were in broad agreement with those of a diffusive equilibrium model (Tan and Wu, 1981). An off-centered dipole model is constructed and its effects on the ionization pattern are investigated.

  15. Modelling and observing Jovian electron propagation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toit Strauss, Du; Potgieter, Marius; Kopp, Andreas; Heber, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    During the Pioneer 10 Jovian encounter, it was observed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a strong source of low energy electrons. These electrons are accelerated in the Jovian magnetosphere and then propagate through the interplanetary medium to reach Earth, sampling the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) and its embedded turbulence. With the current constellation of near Earth spacecraft (STEREO, SOHO, ACE, ect.) various aspects of Jovian electron transport at/near Earth can be studied in 3D (spatially). During a CME, the plasma between the Earth and Jupiter becomes more disturbed, inhibiting the transport of these electrons to Earth. With the passage of the CME beyond Jupiter, quite-time transport conditions persist and increases of the electron flux at Earth are observed (so-called quite time increases). Using multi-spacecraft observation during such an event, we are able to infer the propagation time of these electrons from Jupiter to Earth. Using a state-of-the-art electron transport model, we study the transport of these electrons from Jupiter and Earth, focusing on their propagation times. These computed values are also compared with observations. We discuss the implications of these results from a particle transport point-of-view.

  16. Zebra spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rošker, S.; Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H. O.; Brazhenko, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radiation in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of complicated interactions between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moon Io. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from a few MHz up to 40 MHz. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAM exhibits different complex spectral structures. Recent observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) enabled the detection of fine spectral structures, specifically zebra stripe-like patterns, never reported before in the Jovian decametric wavelength regime (Figure 1). In this presentation we describe and analyse these new observations by investigating the characteristics of the Jovian decametric zebra patterns. On basis of these findings the possible mechanism of wave generation is discussed and in particular the value of the determination of local plasma densities within the Jovian magnetosphere by remote radio sensing is emphasized.

  17. Radio observations of the Jovian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, C. H.; Carr, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    Radio observations of Jupiter are reviewed and discussed in relation to the planet's magnetic field. Early ground-based decameter- and decimeter-wave observations lead to a first estimate of the magnetic field strength which was subsequently confirmed by space-borne measurements. Decametric, hectometric and decimetric measurements of the Jovian rotation period offer the possibility of detecting a real change in the magnetic field structure within the next few decades. Solar wind control of the radio emission allows inferences to be made concerning the magnetic field and the emission regions at decametric, hectometric and kilometric frequencies. The decametric and the hectometric radiation may originate in hollow-cone emission sources at high (auroral) latitudes on Jupiter. The broad-band kilometric emission appears to originate at the outer edge of the Io torus.

  18. Interpretation of core localized Alfvén eigenmodes in DIII-D and Joint European Torus reversed magnetic shear plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Alper, B.; de Baar, M.; Berk, H. L.; Fu, G.-Y.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; McKee, G.; Pinches, S. D.; Rhodes, T. L.; Sharapov, S. E.; Solomon, W. M.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Jet Efda Contributors

    2006-05-01

    Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAE) that were observed in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol.11, 13 (1987)] and DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion42, 614 (2002)] are studied with the ideal magnetohydrodynamic code NOVA-K [C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Rep.211, 1 (1992)]. It was found that the frequency behavior of the RSAEs can be described accurately by the NOVA-K code when plasma compressibility effects and toroidal plasma rotation are taken into account. For the mode activity on JET, the calculated drive exceeds the mode damping rate, consistent with experimental observations, while on DIII-D the growth rate from neutral beam ions for modes with high toroidal mode numbers is insufficient to account for the excitation of the modes and a major part of the drive comes from the background plasma.

  19. [Torus mandibularis].

    PubMed

    Nolte, A; Schirren, C G

    1997-06-01

    Solitary or bilateral, symptomless exostoses on the lingual surface of the mandibule are called mandibular torus. It is mainly seen in young males and has a benign clinical course. The etiopathology is not known. Both genetic and environmental factors such as the anatomy of the lower jaw are considered. Syndromes associated with facial exostoses such as Proteus syndrome or Gardner's syndrome should be clinically excluded. A 40-year-old man with exostoses of the jaw is reported. With this case report we would like to draw attention to a disease which has rarely been described in the German dermatological literature. PMID:9333619

  20. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  1. Io: Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.; Murdin, P.

    2002-10-01

    The discovery of the four largest moons of Jupiter (Io, EUROPA, GANYMEDE and CALLISTO) by GALILEO GALILEI in 1610 was crucial to the rejection of the then prevalent theory that the Earth was at the center of the universe. In the following 350 years, several additional small satellites of Jupiter were discovered (see JUPITER: SATELLITES) but relatively little was learnt about the ...

  2. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S.; Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2013-10-15

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  3. Efficient Generation of Non-Inductive, Off-axis, Ohkawa Current, Driven by Electron Bernstein Waves in High Beta, Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor; P.C. Efthimion; C.E. Kessel; R.W. Harvey; A.P. Smirnov; N.M. Ershov; M.D. Carter; C.B. Forest

    2004-04-26

    Off-axis rf-driven current can play a critical role in sustaining high Beta spherical torus (ST) plasmas without a central solenoid. Numerical modeling of electron Bernstein wave current drive (EBWCD) for a {Beta} {approx} 40% ST plasma predicts efficient, off-axis, Ohkawa EBWCD. Current can be efficiently driven at r/a greater than 0.5 where the large trapped electron fraction precludes conventional Fisch-Boozer current drive and provides near-ideal conditions for Ohkawa EBWCD. Also, Ohkawa EBWCD efficiency increases with r/a. Enhancement over Fisch-Boozer current drive is a factor of two at r/a {approx} 0.2 rising to over an order of magnitude at r/a {approx} 0.5.

  4. Generation Of High Non-inductive Plasma Current Fraction H-mode Discharges By High-harmonic Last Wave Heating In The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G; Kessel, C E; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D; Phillips, D K; Valeo, E J; Wilson, J R; Ryan, P M; Bonoli, P T; Wright, J C

    2012-02-13

    1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating, with current drive antenna phasing, has generated a Ip = 300kA, BT (0) = 0.55T deuterium H-mode plasma in the National Spherical Torus Experiment that has a non-inductive plasma current fraction, fNI = 0.7-1. Seventy-five percent of the non-inductive current was generated inside an internal transport barrier that formed at a normalized minor radius, r/a {approx} 0.4 . Three quarters of the non-inductive current was bootstrap current and the remaining non-inductive current was generated directly by HHFW power inside r/a {approx} 0.2.

  5. Spectroscopic results in helium from the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma. [ion heating by Penning discharge in confinement geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements were carried out on the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment in which a steady state ion heating method based on the modified Penning discharge is applied in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. Electron temperatures in pure helium are measured from the ratio of spectral line intensities. Measured electron temperatures range from 10 to 100 eV. Relative electron densities are also measured over the range of operating conditions. Radial profiles of temperature and relative density are measured in the two basic modes of operation of the device called the low and high pressure modes. The electron temperatures are used to estimate particle confinement times based on a steady state particle balance.

  6. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McNutt, R L; Haggerty, D K; Hill, M E; Krimigis, S M; Livi, S; Ho, G C; Gurnee, R S; Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C; McComas, D J; Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Brown, L E; Kusterer, M; Vandegriff, J; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Spencer, J R; Moore, J M

    2007-10-12

    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the jovian magnetotail to >2500 jovian radii (RJ; 1 RJ identical with 71,400 kilometers), observing a high-temperature, multispecies population of energetic particles. Velocity dispersions, anisotropies, and compositional variation seen in the deep-tail (greater, similar 500 RJ) with a approximately 3-day periodicity are similar to variations seen closer to Jupiter in Galileo data. The signatures suggest plasma streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region (approximately 200 to 400 RJ) that could be related to magnetic reconnection events. The tail structure remains coherent at least until it reaches the magnetosheath at 1655 RJ. PMID:17932283

  7. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program has supported a vigorous three-year program of groundbased observations and detailed analysis of the Jupiter/Io system. Our work focused on Io's escaping atmosphere and the plasma torus that it creates.

  8. Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S. (Editor); West, Robert A. (Editor); Rahe, Jurgen (Editor); Pereyda, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    The current state of knowledge of dynamic processes in the Jovian system is assessed and summaries are provided of both theoretical and observational foundations upon which future research might be based. There are three sections: satellite phenomena and rings; magnetospheric phenomena, Io's torus, and aurorae; and atmospheric phenomena. Each chapter discusses time dependent theoretical framework for understanding and interpreting what is observed; others describe the evidence and nature of observed changes or their absence. A few chapters provide historical perspective and attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge.

  9. Development of fully non-inductive plasmas heated by medium and high-harmonic fast waves in the national spherical torus experiment upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Poli, F.; Bertelli, N.; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Mueller, D.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Raman, R.

    2015-12-01

    A major challenge for spherical tokamak development is to start-up and ramp-up the plasma current (Ip) without using a central solenoid. Experiments in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) demonstrated that 1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power could generate an Ip = 300 kA H-mode discharge with a non-inductive Ip fraction, fNI ˜ 0.7. The discharge had an axial toroidal magnetic field (BT(0)) of 0.55 T, the maximum BT(0) available on NSTX. NSTX has undergone a major upgrade (NSTX-U), that will eventually allow the generation of BT(0) ≤ 1 T and Ip ≤ 2 MA plasmas. Full wave simulations of 30 MHz HHFW and medium harmonic fast wave (MHFW) heating in NSTX-U predict significantly reduced FW power loss in the plasma edge at the higher BT(0) achievable in NSTX-U. HHFW experiments will aim to generate stable, fNI ˜ 1, Ip = 300 kA H-mode plasmas and to ramp Ip from 250 to 400 kA with FW power. Time-dependent TRANSP simulations are used to develop non-inductive Ip ramp-up and sustainment using 30 MHz FW power. This paper presents results from these RF simulations and plans for developing non-inductive plasmas heated by FW power.

  10. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  11. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions Due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in Joint European Torus Shear Optimized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; A. Gondhalekar; A.A. Korotkov; S.E. Sharapov; D. Testa; and Contributors to the EFDA-JET Workprogramme

    2002-01-18

    Internal radial redistribution of MeV energy ICRF-driven hydrogen minority ions was inferred from neutral particle analyzer measurements during large amplitude MHD activity leading to internal reconnection in Shear Optimized plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET). A theory is developed for energetic ion redistribution during a reconnection driven by an m=2/n=1 internal kink mode. Plasma motion during reconnection generates an electric field which can change the energy and radial position of the energetic ions. The magnitude of ion energy change depends on the value of the safety factor at the plasma core from which the energetic ions are redistributed. A relation is found for corresponding change in canonical momentum. P(subscript phi), which leads to radial displacement of the ions. The model yields distinctive new features of energetic ion redistribution under such conditions. Predicted characteristics of ion redistribution are compared with the NPA measurements, and good correlation is found. Sometimes fast ions were transported to the plasma edge due to interaction with a long-lived magnetic island which developed after the reconnection and had chirping frequency in the laboratory frame. Convection of resonant ions trapped in a radially moving phase-space island is modeled to understand the physics of such events.

  12. S II and S III branching ratios in the 600- to 1200-A interval. [applied to modeling of Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. D.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Branching ratios are presented of singly and doubly ionized sulfur EUV emissions. They are determined by measuring the relative photon intensities of each of the branching components. For several transitions in S II for which mean lifetimes have been measured with fast-beam spectroscopy, the data presented here are used to determine transition probabilities. The S II transitions originate from the 2P, 4s-prime 2D, and 4s 2P terms and terminate on the metastable states of the ion. The S III transitions originate from the 3d 3D0, 4s 3P0, 3p3 3S0, 4s 1P0, and 3s3p3 1P0 terms and terminate on the metastable and ground ionic states. The results for S III include branching ratios involving intercombination transitions that affect ongoing modeling of the energy budget of the Io plasma torus.

  13. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  14. Modeling the Jovian aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Jovian aurora is the most powerful aurora in the solar system, over 100 times more powerful than the Earth's aurora. These magnificent visual displays can provide important information about the planetary magnetosphere which is responsible for the acceleration of energetic particles that produce aurora at any planet. Similarities and differences in planetary auroral emissions are thus a viable means of classifying and studying both comparative atmospheric and magnetospheric processes. For instance, at Earth the solar wind is the primary source of auroral power while at Jupiter it is conjectured that the rotation of the planet is the major source of magnetospheric and auroral power. The purpose of this IR project was to develop a model: (1) for use in interpreting the existing set of multispectral observations of Jupiter's aurora; and (2) to design new experiments based on the findings to improve understanding of the underlying auroral processes.

  15. A theory of the Io phase asymmetry of the Jovian decametric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    An explanation of an asymmetry in the occurrence probability of the Io-dependent Jovian decametric radiation is proposed. Io generates stronger Alfven waves toward the south when it is in the northern part of the torus. This wave then generates decametric radiation in the northern ionosphere after it reflects in the southern ionosphere. The asymmetry then results from computing the propagation time of the alfven wave along this trajectory. The ray paths of the decameter radiation are calculated using a three dimensional ray tracing program in the Jovian ionosphere. Variations in the expected probability plots are computer for two models of the Jovian ionosphere and global magnetic field, as well as for several choices of the ratio of the radiated frequency to the X-mode cutoff frequency.

  16. Concurrence of torus mandibularis and torus palatinus.

    PubMed

    Eggen, S; Natvig, B

    1994-02-01

    Analysis of the concurrence of torus mandibularis and torus palatinus among a total of 2010 dental patients, by the test of independence, revealed that the concurrence was statistically significant among women, but not among men. A tentative hypothesis was proposed to explain the sexual dimorphism of the variable, combined occurrence of the two features. PMID:8153582

  17. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; G. Barnes; J.H. Chrzanowski; P. Heitzenroeder; et al

    1999-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions

  18. Influence of vacuum toroidal field on two-fluid flowing equilibria of helicity-driven spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2006-07-15

    Two-fluid flowing equilibrium configurations of a helicity-driven spherical torus (HD-ST) in the realistic confinement region, including a flux conserver and a coaxial helicity source, are numerically determined by means of the combination of the finite difference and the boundary element methods. It is found from the numerical results that electron fluid near the central conductor is tied to a vacuum toroidal field and ion fluid is not. The magnetic configurations change from the high-q HD-ST (safety factor, q>1) with a paramagnetic toroidal field and low-{beta} (volume average {beta} value, <{beta}>{approx_equal}2%) through the helicity-driven spheromak and reversed-field pinch to the ultra-low-q HD-ST (0{approx_equal}18%) as the vacuum toroidal field at the inner edge regions decreases and reverses the sign. The two-fluid effects are more significant in this equilibrium transition when the ion diamagnetic drift has the same direction as the ExB one.

  19. The Io sulfur torus in 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1986-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot spectrometer was used to obtain images of the Io torus in emission lines of S II (wavelength 6716 and 6731) and S III (wavelength 9531) in February and March 1981, on the 2.1 meter telescope at KPNO. The S II and S III images showed a large variation in brightness and radial extent. There is an indication the S II and S III emissions in the warm torus are correlated. The S II and S III emissions in the warm torus also have similar scale heights along the magnetic field lines of approximately 0.6 to 0.72 R sub J. The east-west asymmetry in the S II images taken at similar magnetic longitudes, but 2.5 Jovian rotations apart, supports the theory of convective motions suggested by others. In addition to the images, simultaneous measurements of the S II (6731 wavelength) line profile were also made on one night using a Fabry-Perot scanning spectrometer on the 4 meter at KPNO. The S II spectral scans implied ion temperatures of 52 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 3rd at 5.2 to 5.6 R sub J from Jupiter and a minimum temperature of at least 3 x 10 to the 5th K at 6 R sub J from Jupiter.

  20. Investigation of Jovian satellites and the origin of Jovian system by LAPLACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yamaji, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kimura, Jun; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hussmann, Hauke; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    LAPLACE (ESA-JAXA joint mission for the Jovian system) was selected as one of future ESA scientific missions Cosmic Vision in October 2007. LAPLACE is a mission with three spacecrafts aiming at coordinated observations of Jovian satellites and the magnetosphere, atmosphere and interior of Jupiter. An orbiter around Europa or Ganymede is involved. There is a possibility that JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner. Japanese scientists working on the origin and evolution of Jupiter, satellite evolution, and astrobiology have been participating in the LAPLACE working group in Japan. Detailed observation of Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and Io as well as smaller satellites such as Amalthea would be important also for the study of the origin of Jovian system. Resurfacing processes on Europa and Ganymede should be studied to know the properties of the internal oceans. The processes can be investigated by infrared observation for salt minerals and amorphous/crystal ices. Not only the thickness of icy crust of Europa but also thickness of the ocean and its bottom topography should be important targets, which would be investigated by gravity and magnetism measurements. For both Europa and Ganymede, the surface layering and structure of icy crust should be an interesting geological target, which will be clarified by subsurface radar. In Japan, KAGUYA is observing the Moon, and Venus remote sensing mission (PLANET-C) and Mercury mission Bepi Colombo will be launched in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Several instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, a laser altimeter, a radar, a magnetometer, plasma instruments, and a dust detector should come from the heritage of instruments on board KAGUYA, PLANET-C, and BepiColombo.

  1. PARTIAL TORUS INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-20

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  2. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  3. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-03-14

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics.

  4. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  5. Single crystal diamond detector measurements of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium neutrons in Joint European Torus fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzaniga, C. Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Sundén, E. Andersson; Binda, F.; Ericsson, G.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Griesmayer, E.; Kaveney, G.; Syme, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-04-15

    First simultaneous measurements of deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium neutrons from deuterium plasmas using a Single crystal Diamond Detector are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed at JET with a dedicated electronic chain that combined high count rate capabilities and high energy resolution. The deposited energy spectrum from DD neutrons was successfully reproduced by means of Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response function and simulations of neutron emission from the plasma, including background contributions. The reported results are of relevance for the development of compact neutron detectors with spectroscopy capabilities for installation in camera systems of present and future high power fusion experiments.

  6. Single crystal diamond detector measurements of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium neutrons in Joint European Torus fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Sundén, E. Andersson; Binda, F.; Croci, G.; Ericsson, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Gorini, G.; Griesmayer, E.; Grosso, G.; Kaveney, G.; Nocente, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Rebai, M.; Syme, B.; Tardocchi, M.

    2014-04-01

    First simultaneous measurements of deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium neutrons from deuterium plasmas using a Single crystal Diamond Detector are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed at JET with a dedicated electronic chain that combined high count rate capabilities and high energy resolution. The deposited energy spectrum from DD neutrons was successfully reproduced by means of Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response function and simulations of neutron emission from the plasma, including background contributions. The reported results are of relevance for the development of compact neutron detectors with spectroscopy capabilities for installation in camera systems of present and future high power fusion experiments.

  7. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 2³S-2³P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ogane, S; Shikama, T; Zushi, H; Hasuo, M

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2(3)S-2(3)P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet. PMID:26520955

  8. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 23S-23P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogane, S.; Shikama, T.; Zushi, H.; Hasuo, M.

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 23S-23P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.

  9. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 2{sup 3}S-2{sup 3}P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ogane, S.; Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Zushi, H.

    2015-10-15

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2{sup 3}S–2{sup 3}P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.

  10. Low-frequency fluctuation spectra and associated particle transport in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, C. M.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Roth, J. R.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.; Powers, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The strong radial electric field associated with the Penning discharge and the strong toroidal magnetic field give rise to a diversity of E/B phenomena, such as rotating waves and spokes, which in turn manifest themselves as space-time fluctuations of the plasma density and potential. Work is done to further understand the nature and origin of the fluctuations and their connection with fluctuation-induced transport. The approach is to monitor the density and potential fluctuations; to digitize the data; and to generate, with the aid of a computer, various spectral properties by means of the fast fourier transform. Of particular interest is the computer-generated transport spectrum that indicates in a quantitative way which fluctuation spectral components contribute to transport and which do not. All experimental measurements of the spectral characteristics of the plasma are given in absolute units rather than as relative values. Preliminary measurements of the transport spectrum of the ion population are given, and it is shown that the fluctuation-induced transport is in order-of-magnitude agreement with that inferred from the steady state current flowing to the electrodes that generate the plasma.

  11. Multi-parameter Correlation of Jovian Radio Emissions with Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Golla, T.; Reiner, M. J.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    Variability of the numerous varieties of Jovian radio emission has been associated with aspects of solar wind (SW) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters outside the magnetosphere. Here we demonstrate multiple-parameter correlations that relate each of several Jovian emissions, including bKOM and quasi-periodic bursts, to the SW and IMF impacting the Jovian magnetosphere. The data used are from the Ulysses spacecraft with radio data from the Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) instrument, which provides high-quality remote radio observations of the Jovian emissions. The URAP observations are correlated with SW and IMF data from the relevant instruments on Ulysses, propagated to the nose of the Jovian magnetosphere with a sophisticated code. Because the aphelion of the Ulysses orbit was at the Jovian distance from the Sun, Ulysses spent ample time near Jupiter in 1991-1992 and 2003-2004, which are the intervals analyzed. Our results can be inverted such that radio observations by a Jovian orbiter, such as Cassini or Juno, are able to identify SW/IMF changes based on the behavior of the radio emissions.

  12. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the plasma analyzer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer detected the 10 plasma torus. Evidence was found of corotating ions which appear to be primarily S (++) and O (++) in the Pioneer 10 plasma data as the spacecraft moved inward from 6.9 to 5.4 R sub J. The Pioneer plasma analyzer was effective in obtaining information on the heavy ion populations in the Jovian magnetosphere. Interplanetary solar wind plasma shocks can trap energetic particles (cosmic rays) for weeks and out to distances of 17 AU. Energetic particles (o.5 MeV to 20 MeV) were confined between two plasma shocks from solar flares as the shocks propagated outward in the solar system.

  13. Flow and shear behavior in the edge and scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D.; Zweben, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as observed by the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic are studied. Calculation of local, time resolved velocity maps using the Hybrid Optical Flow and Pattern Matching Velocimetry (HOP-V) code enables analysis of turbulent flow and shear behavior. Periodic reversals in the direction of the poloidal flow near the separatrix are observed. Also, poloidal velocities and their radial shearing rate are found to be well correlated with the fraction of Dα light contained in the SOL, which acts as a measure of turbulentmore » bursts. The spectra of GPI intensity and poloidal velocity both have a strong feature near 3 kHz, which appears to correspond with turbulent bursts. This mode exhibits a poloidal structure with poloidal wavenumber of 7.7 m-1 for GPI intensity and 3.4 m-1 for poloidal velocity, and the poloidal velocity fluctuations near 3 kHz remain coherent over length scales in excess of the turbulent scales. Furthermore, recent SOL Turbulence (SOLT) simulations find a parameter regime that exhibits periodic bursty transport and shares many qualitative similarities with the experimental data. Strong correlations between the shearing rate and the turbulent bursts are observed for time periods of ~ 2 ms, but the relationship is complicated by several factors. Finally, measurements of the radial profiles of the Reynolds shear stresses are reported. These radial profiles exhibit many similarities for several shots, and a region with positive radial gradient is seen to be coincident with local flow shear.« less

  14. Flow and shear behavior in the edge and scrape-off layer of L-mode plasmas in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Maqueda, R. J.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D.; Zweben, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as observed by the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic are studied. Calculation of local, time resolved velocity maps using the Hybrid Optical Flow and Pattern Matching Velocimetry (HOP-V) code enables analysis of turbulent flow and shear behavior. Periodic reversals in the direction of the poloidal flow near the separatrix are observed. Also, poloidal velocities and their radial shearing rate are found to be well correlated with the fraction of Dα light contained in the SOL, which acts as a measure of turbulent bursts. The spectra of GPI intensity and poloidal velocity both have a strong feature near 3 kHz, which appears to correspond with turbulent bursts. This mode exhibits a poloidal structure with poloidal wavenumber of 7.7 m-1 for GPI intensity and 3.4 m-1 for poloidal velocity, and the poloidal velocity fluctuations near 3 kHz remain coherent over length scales in excess of the turbulent scales. Furthermore, recent SOL Turbulence (SOLT) simulations find a parameter regime that exhibits periodic bursty transport and shares many qualitative similarities with the experimental data. Strong correlations between the shearing rate and the turbulent bursts are observed for time periods of ~ 2 ms, but the relationship is complicated by several factors. Finally, measurements of the radial profiles of the Reynolds shear stresses are reported. These radial profiles exhibit many similarities for several shots, and a region with positive radial gradient is seen to be coincident with local flow shear.

  15. Periodic amplitude variations in Jovian continuum radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-12-01

    An analysis of periodic variations in the amplitude of continuum radiation near 3 kHz trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere shows structure with periods near both 5 and 10 horus. Contrary to a plausible initial idea, the continuum amplitudes are not organized by the position of the observer relative to the dense plasma sheet. Instead, there seem to be perferred orientations of system III longitude with respect to the direction to the sun which account for the peaks. This implies a clocklike modulation of the continuum radiation intensity as opposed to a searchlight effect. The importance of the dipole longitude solar wind alignment to the amplitude of the continuum radiation implies that the source region of the radiation is near the magnetopause and may indirectly tie the generation of the radio waves to the clocklike modulation of energetic electron fluxes from Jupiter.

  16. Low-energy energetic neutral atom imaging of Io plasma and neutral tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wieser, Martin; Wieser, Gabriella S.; Wurz, Peter; Krupp, Norbert; Brandt, Pontus C.:son

    2015-04-01

    Io's plasma and neutral tori play significant roles in the Jovian magnetosphere. We present feasibility studies of measuring low-energy energetic neutral atoms (LENAs) generated from the Io tori. We calculate the LENA flux between 10 eV and 3 keV. The energy range includes the corotational plasma flow energy. The expected differential flux at Ganymede distance is typically 103-105 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1 near the energy of the corotation. It is above the detection level of the planned LENA sensor that is to be flown to the Jupiter system with integration times of 0.01-1 s. The flux has strong asymmetry with respective to the Io phase. The observations will exhibit periodicities, which can be attributed to the Jovian magnetosphere rotation and the rotation of Io around Jupiter. The energy spectra will exhibit dispersion signatures, because of the non-negligible flight time of the LENAs from Io to the satellite. In 2030, the Jupiter exploration mission JUICE will conduct a LENA measurement with a LENA instrument, the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer (JNA). From the LENA observations collected by JNA, we will be able to derive characteristic quantities, such as the density, velocity, velocity distribution function, and composition of plasma-torus particles. We also discuss the possible physics to be explored by JNA in addition to the constraints for operating the sensor and analyzing the obtained dataset.

  17. Models of Jovian decametric radiation. [astronomical models of decametric waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of theoretical models of Jovian decametric radiation, with particular emphasis on the Io-modulated emission. The problem is divided into three broad aspects: (1) the mechanism coupling Io's orbital motion to the inner exosphere, (2) the consequent instability mechanism by which electromagnetic waves are amplified, and (3) the subsequent propagation of the waves in the source region and the Jovian plasmasphere. At present there exists no comprehensive theory that treats all of these aspects quantitatively within a single framework. Acceleration of particles by plasma sheaths near Io is proposed as an explanation for the coupling mechanism, while most of the properties of the emission may be explained in the context of cyclotron instability of a highly anisotropic distribution of streaming particles.

  18. Modeling and investigative studies of Jovian low frequency emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, James L.; Six, N. Frank; Gulkis, S.

    1986-01-01

    Jovian decametric (DAM) and hectometric (HOM) emissions were first observed over the entire spectrum by the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys of the planet. They display unusual arc-like structures on frequency-versus-time spectrograms. Software for the modeling of the Jovian plasma and magnetic field environment was performed. In addition, an extensive library of programs was developed for the retrieval of Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data in both the high and low frequency bands from new noise-free, recalibrated data tapes. This software allows the option of retrieving data sorted with respect to particular sub-Io longitudes. This has proven to be invaluable in the analyses of the data. Graphics routines were also developed to display the data on color spectrograms.

  19. Plasma Interaction at Io: Multi-species Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebek, O.; Travnicek, P. M.; Walker, R. J.; Hellinger, P.

    2015-12-01

    We present analysis of global 3-dimensional multi-species hybrid simulations of Io's interaction with Jovian magnetospheric plasma. In the multi-species simulations we assume five species, plasma torus is composed of O+, S+ and S++ ions and ions of SO+, SO2+ are created around Io by ionization of its neutral atmosphere. We consider several ionization processes, namely, charge exchange ionization and photoionization/electron impact ionization. We compare our results to data acquired in situ by the Galileo spacecraft. Our results are in a good qualitative agreement with the in situ magnetic field measurements for five Galileo's flybys around Io. The hybrid model enables to study ion kinetic effects, we investigate magnetic fluctuations triggered by growth of ion cyclotron and/or mirror instabilities of temperature anisotropic pick-up plasma. We also investigate structure of Alfvén wings under different conditions of the interaction.

  20. Modeling Callisto's Interaction with the Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, L.; Feyerabend, M.; Simon, S.; Motschmann, U. M.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of the Jovian magnetospheric environment with an atmosphere and induced dipole at Callisto is investigated by applying a hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulation code. Callisto is unique among the Galilean satellites in its interaction with the ambient magnetospheric plasma as the gyroradii of the impinging plasma and pickup ions are large compared to the size of the moon. A kinetic representation of the ions is therefore mandatory to adequately describe the resulting asymmetries in the electromagnetic fields and the deflection of the plasma flow near Callisto. When Callisto is embedded in the magnetodisk lobes of Jupiter, a dipolar magnetic field is generated via induction in a subsurface ocean. This field creates an obstacle to the impinging magnetospheric plasma flow at the moon. However, when Callisto is located near the center of the Jovian current sheet, local magnetic perturbations due to the magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction are more than twice the strength of the background field and may therefore obscure any magnetic signal generated via induction in a subsurface ocean. Our simulations demonstrate that the deflection of the magnetospheric plasma into Callisto's wake cannot alone explain the plasma density enhancement of two orders of magnitude measured in the wake of the interaction region during Galileo flybys of the moon. However, through inclusion of an ionosphere around Callisto, modeled densities in the wake are consistent with in situ measurements.

  1. Fine spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emission observed by ground-based radio telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.

    2014-04-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radio emission in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of a complicated interaction between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying the free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from few MHz up to 40 MHz. This emission is generated via cyclotron maser mechanism in sources located along Jovian magnetic field lines. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAMexhibits different complex spectral structures. We present the observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN- 2 (Poltava, Ukraine) operated in the decametric frequency range. This telescope is one of the largest low frequency telescopes in Europe equipped with high performance digital radio spectrometers. The antenna array of URAN-2 consists of 512 crossed dipoles with an effective area of 28 000m2 and beam pattern size of 3.5 x 7 deg. (at 25 MHz). The instrument enables continuous observations of the Jovian radio during long period of times. Jovian DAM was observed continuously since Sep. 2012 (depending on Jupiter visibility) with relatively high time-frequency resolution (4 kHz - 100ms) in the broad frequency range (8-32MHz). We have detected a big amount of the fine spectral structures in the dynamic spectra of DAM such as trains of S-bursts, quasi-continuous narrowband emission, narrow-band splitting events and zebra stripe-like patterns. We analyzed mainly the fine structures associated with non-Io controlled DAM. We discuss how the observed narrowband structures which most probably are related to the propagation of the decametric radiation in the Jupiter's ionosphere can be used to study the plasma parameters in the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  2. Dissipationless decay of Jovian jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirraglia, J. A.

    1989-05-01

    IRIS data have been taken as the bases of windshear calculations whose results imply a decrease of the Jovian planet's zonal jets with altitude. The simplified dynamical model developed to furnish a mechanism accounting for the decay involves a highly truncated set of dissipationless equations simulating the upper-tropospheric and stratospheric flow. While the model's lower boundary is constrained as a latitudinally periodic set of alternating jets, the upper boundary constraint maintains a constant potential temperature. The small perturbations to which the imposed zonal jets are unstable grow and interact nonlinearly, generating a zonal flow that opposes the imposed one and thereby leading to the apparent decrease of the jets with altitude.

  3. Time frequency analysis of Jovian and Saturnian radio spectral patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Al-Haddad, Emad; Lammer, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Prominent radio spectral patterns were observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science experiment (RPWS) principally at Jupiter and Saturn. The spectral shapes are displayed in the usual dynamic spectra showing the flux density versus the time and the frequency. Those patterns exhibit well-organized shapes in the time-frequency plane connected with the rotation of the planet. We consider in this analysis the auroral emissions which occurred in the frequency range between 10 kHz and approximately 3 MHz. It concerns the Jovian hectometric emission (HOM) and the Saturnian kilometric radiation (SKR). We show in the case of Jupiter's HOM that the spectral patterns are well-arranged arc structures with curvatures depending on the Jovian rotation. Regarding the SKR emission, the spectral shapes exhibit generally complex patterns, and only sometimes arc structures are observed. We emphasize the curve alterations from vertex-early to vertex-late arcs (and vice versa) and we study their dependences, or not, on the planetary rotations. We also discuss the common physical process at the origin of the HOM and SKR emissions, specifically the spectral patterns created by the interaction between planetary satellites (e.g. Io or Dione) and the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheres.

  4. Jupiter Torus Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of Jupiter's space environment shows magnetically trapped radiation ions (in red), the neutral gas torus of the volcanic moon Io (green) and the newly discovered neutral gas torus of the moon Europa (blue). The white lines represent magnetic field lines.

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENA) are emitted from the Europa torus regions because of the interaction between the trapped ions and the neutral gases. The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument on NASA's Cassini spacecraft imaged those energetic neutral atoms in early 2001 during Cassini's flyby of Jupiter. Energetic neutral atoms also come from Jupiter when radiation ions impinge onto Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. MPI Multicore Torus Communication Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-02-05

    The MPI Multicore Torus Communications Benchmark (TorusTest) measues the aggegate bandwidth across all six links from/to any multicore node in a logical torus. It can run in wo modi: using a static or a random mapping of tasks to torus locations. The former can be used to achieve optimal mappings and aggregate bandwidths that can be achieved with varying node mappings.

  6. Dust torus around Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Antal; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).

  7. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in 1000 patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, D S; Sanghavi, S J; Chawda, J D; Shah, R M

    1992-01-01

    Since the presence of torus poses a problem in successful construction of dentures, a study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis in 1000 patients, which was 9.5% and 1.4% respectively. The prevalence of Torus palatinus was more common in female than males. Majority of the tori were found in the age group of 11 to 30 yrs and were rarely seen before 10 yrs of age. The most common region was the middle of the palate as well as mandible. It is emphasized that presence of torus should be carefully evaluated and construction of denture be modified accordingly. PMID:1344979

  8. Energetic oxygen and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of 1 to 20 MeV/nuc oxygen, sodium, and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere are reported. Measurements made by the cosmic ray subsystem on Voyager 1 and 2 were used to calculate abundances and energy spectra in the region from 5 to 20 Jovian radii. The phase space density of the oxygen ions calculated from the spectra has a positive radial gradient between 6 and 17 Jovian radii, indicating an inward diffusive flow. The diffusion coefficient upper limit at 9 Jovian radii is approximately 10 to the -5 power/s. This limit, combined with the analysis of Voyager plasma observations by Siscoe et al.1981, implies an upper limit to the mass loading rate near Io of approximately 10 to the 28th power ions/s. The energetic oxygen lifetime is within an order of magnitude of the strong pitch-angle diffusion lifetime in this region, with the largest total number of particles lost between 7.5 and 12.5 Jovian radii. It is shown that the losses are not due to geometric absorption by Io, absorption by dust grains, or energy loss in the plasma of the inner magnetosphere, and it is therefore postulated that the primary loss mechanism is pitch-angle scattering into the loss cone.

  9. Jupiter's magnetosphere: Plasma description from the Ulysses flyby

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Feldman, W.C.; Gisler, G.R.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Thomsen, M.F. ); Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M. )

    1992-09-11

    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and Io torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  10. Observing Solar and Jovian Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippaldi, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    A recently constructed low frequency radio telescope has been constructed on the campus of the The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) has recently begun conducting observations at 20MHz as part of NASA'a Radio Jove program. This instrument is capable of observations of Jovian radio emission including strong prompt radio emission associated with the Jovian moon Io. We will discuss Jovian observations conducted with this instrument as an effort to conduct coincident observation with the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA).

  11. The Jovian electron spectrum: 1978-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, D.; Evenson, P. A.; Meyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of Jovian electrons through six consecutive 13-month Jovian synodic periods from 1978 to 1984 have been made by the University of Chicago electron spectrometer onboard the ISEE-3 (ICE) spacecraft. The Jovian electron spectrum was determined from 5 to 30 Mev and was found to have a shape which is not a power law in kinetic energy, but cuts off at approximately 30 MeV. The average shape of the spectrum over each of the six intervals of best magnetic connection remains the same for all intervals within uncertainties.

  12. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for

  13. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1983-01-04

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa < 1), increases as R/sup -2/, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency.

  14. Turbulent equipartition pinch of toroidal momentum in spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, T. S.; Lee, J.; Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Choi, G. J.; Na, D. H.; Na, Y. S.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new analytic expression for turbulent equipartition (TEP) pinch of toroidal angular momentum originating from magnetic field inhomogeneity of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. Starting from a conservative modern nonlinear gyrokinetic equation (Hahm et al 1988 Phys. Fluids 31 2670), we derive an expression for pinch to momentum diffusivity ratio without using a usual tokamak approximation of B ∝ 1/R which has been previously employed for TEP momentum pinch derivation in tokamaks (Hahm et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 072302). Our new formula is evaluated for model equilibria of National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) (Ono et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 1435) and Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) (Chung et al 2013 Plasma Sci. Technol. 15 244) plasmas. Our result predicts stronger inward pinch for both cases, as compared to the prediction based on the tokamak formula.

  15. Wake flowfields for Jovian probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

  16. Jovian Temperatures--Highest Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the highest resolution image ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the seventh of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date, in the vicinity of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. This image, shown on the bottom panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere where winds are strong. For reference, the upper panel shows the visible clouds in a Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera color composite image of the same part of the planet taken within 10 hours of the PPR observation.

    Many of Galileo's atmospheric observations targeted specific Jovian cloud features, including the Great Red Spot. It is the planet's coldest region, indicating that winds are upwelling and forcing air to expand outward over its entire visible extent. The edges of the cold inner region of the Great Red Spot are close to the PPR's 1800-kilometer (1100-mile) spatial resolution. The largest temperature gradient is also seen between the cold 'inner' Great Red Spot and a region some 5000 kilometers (3000 miles) south which is more than 10 degrees warmer. This implies a strong eastward jet, consistent with cloud-tracked winds.

    The southern central portion of the Great Red Spot is not as cold as the rest of the feature. This is consistent with the winds inside the Great Red Spot being more complicated than a simple counterclockwise rotation around the center.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. Radiation chemistry in the Jovian stratosphere - Laboratory simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The results of the present low-pressure/continuous-flow laboratory simulations of H2/He/CH4/NH3 atmospheres' plasma-induced chemistry indicate radiation yields of both hydrocarbon and N2-containing organic compounds which increase with decreasing pressure. On the basis of these findings, upper limits of 1 million-1 billion molecules/sq cm/sec are established for production rates of major auroral-chemistry species in the Jovian stratosphere. It is noted that auroral processes may account for 10-100 percent of the total abundances of most of the observed polar-region organic species.

  18. A Jovian Trojan-Satellite Population Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, T. N.

    2003-07-01

    In Special Session 1, Recent Progress in Planetary Exploration, Monash University's Andrew Prentice discusses the possible origin of Jovian satellite Amalthea as a captured Trojan asteroid. Galileo spacecraft data gives a low bulk density (~1 g/cc) for Amalthea, more consistent with a captured minor body, rather than one formed in-situ. Its 83 km radius is within the size range of the known Jovian Trojans, less than that of Trojan 624 Hektor, for example.

  19. Variable opening angle of emission cone of Jovian decameter radiation generated by cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galopeau, P. H. M.; Boudjada, M. Y.; Rucker, H. O.

    2015-10-01

    A recent study of the Io-controlled Jovian decameter radiation revealed that the radio emission is beamed in a hollow cone which presents a flattening in a specific direction linked to the local magnetic field in the source. We investigate some reasons for the existence of such a flattening. The Jovian decameter radiation, like the other auroral radio emissions emanating from the magnetized planets in the solar system, is known to be produced by the cyclotron maser instability (CMI). This mechanism allows the direct amplification of the waves through a resonant coupling between the electron population of the plasma and the electromagnetic.

  20. Charge exchange in the Io torus and exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Strobel, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Charge-exchange cross sections and their velocity dependence have been estimated for the most important reactions in the Io torus and exosphere. The methods used for calculating the cross sections are given and discussed in some detail. For symmetric-resonant single and double charge exchange, the cross sections are slowly varying functions of velocity. For inelastic charge-exchange collisions, the transition probabilities into a given final state can depend critically on velocity. Models are described which can be used to estimate both the most rapid charge-exchange processes and those states which play an important role. Calculated cross sections are used to obtain reaction rates as a function of radial position, demonstrating the importance of charge exchange in the inner torus. Charge-exchange reactions of torus ions with molecular species in Io's exosphere may yield a net supply of neutrals and plasma to the torus.

  1. The Jovian boundary layer as formed by magnetic-anomaly effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A model is presented in which a plasma boundary layer of Jupiter is formed from plasma of internal origin. It is proposed that, unlike the Earth's boundary layer, which is thought to consist principally of solar wind plasma, Jupiter's boundary layer consists principally of sulphur and oxygen from the Io plasma torus, plus a small component of hydrogen from Jupiter's ionosphere. Fresh plasma is supplied to the boundary layer once each planetary rotation period by a convection pattern that rotates with Jupiter.

  2. The Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Alfven and Arrhenius (1974, 1976) have proposed that satellites may be formed by the condensation of plasma in partial corrotation in the dipole magnetic field of the central body. They conclude that the final orbit distance of the condensed material will be two-thirds of the orbit distance of the plasma. Since the Jovian field is strongly distorted beyond about 40 Jupiter radii, it is expected (assuming that plasma and magnetic field conditions have not changed significantly with time) that the first Galilean satellites would appear at about two-thirds 40 Jupiter radii or about 27 Jupiter radii. In fact Callisto, the outermost Galilean satellite, is found at 26.47 Jupiter radii. This generally supports the Alfven-Arrhenius hypothesis that the central-body dipolar magnetic field plays a role in major satellite formation and, more, specifically, that the two-thirds law has validity.

  3. Current status of the torus palatinus and torus mandibularis.

    PubMed

    García-García, Andrés S; Martínez-González, José-María; Gómez-Font, Rafael; Soto-Rivadeneira, Angeles; Oviedo-Roldán, Lucia

    2010-03-01

    While there is a hereditary component to tori, this does not explain all cases. Tori tend to appear more frequently during middle age of life; the torus palatinus is more commonly observed in females, but this is not the case with the torus mandibularis. Certain ethnic groups are more prone to one torus or the other. The torus is mainly removed due to prostodontic reasons, as it may also be used as biomaterial, not only in periodontology, but also in implantology. The aim of this study was a review of the literature from the past twenty years. PMID:19767716

  4. The Phobos neutral and ionized torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Curry, S. M.; Fatemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Charged particle sputtering, micrometeoroid impact vaporization, and photon-stimulated desorption are fundamental processes operating at airless surfaces throughout the solar system. At larger bodies, such as Earth's Moon and several of the outer planet moons, these processes generate tenuous surface-bound exospheres that have been observed by a variety of methods. Phobos and Deimos, in contrast, are too gravitationally weak to keep ejected neutrals bound and, thus, are suspected to generate neutral tori in orbit around Mars. While these tori have not yet been detected, the distribution and density of both the neutral and ionized components are of fundamental interest. We combine a neutral Monte Carlo model and a hybrid plasma model to investigate both the neutral and ionized components of the Phobos torus. We show that the spatial distribution of the neutral torus is highly dependent on each individual species (due to ionization rates that span nearly 4 orders of magnitude) and on the location of Phobos with respect to Mars. Additionally, we present the flux distribution of torus pickup ions throughout the Martian system and estimate typical pickup ion fluxes. We find that the predicted pickup ion fluxes are too low to perturb the ambient plasma, consistent with previous null detections by spacecraft around Mars.

  5. Models of Electron Energetics in the Enceladus Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Ozak, N.; Richard, M. S.; Robertson, I. P.; Perry, M. E.; Campbell, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The inner magnetosphere of Saturn contains a mixture of plasma and neutral gas, the dominant source of which is the icy satellite Enceladus. Water vapor and water dissociation products are present throughout the magnetosphere but they are particularly concentrated in a torus surrounding Saturn at the orbit of Enceladus. The Hubble Space Telescope observed OH in the torus and other neutral species (mainly water) have been measured by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Relatively cold plasma, dominated by water group ion species, was measured by instruments onboard both the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft. The electron distribution function in this torus appears to include both a colder thermal population (seen for example by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Spectrometer’s Langmuir probe -- RPWS/LP) and hotter suprathermal populations (seen by the electron spectrometer part of the Cassini plasma analyzer -- CAPS/ELS). We present a model of electron energetics in the torus. One part of this model utilizes an electron energy deposition code to determine electron fluxes versus energy. The model includes photoelectron production from the absorption of solar radiation as well as electron impact collisional processes for water and other neutral species. Another part of the model consists of an energetics code for thermal electrons that generates electron temperatures. Heating from Coulomb collisions with photoelectrons and with hot pick-up ions was included, as was cooling due to electron impact collisions with water. We show that solar radiation is the dominant source of suprathermal electrons in the core neutral torus, in agreement with recently published CAPS-ELS data. We predict electron thermal energies of about 2 eV, which is somewhat low in comparison with recently published RPWS-LP data. The implications of these results for plasma densities in the torus will also be

  6. Lower hybrid emission diagnostics on the NASA Lewis bumpy torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using RF emission near the lower hybrid frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma for diagnostic purposes is examined. The emission is detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50 omega miniature coaxial antenna that is sensitive to the polarization of the incoming signal. The frequency shift of the lower hybrid emission peak is monitored as a function of the background pressure, electrode voltage, electrode ring configuration and the strength of the toroidal dc magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of the average plasma density are made with a polarization diplexing microwave interferometer. Data derived from the experiment are discussed with reference to the following: (1) the strength of the dc magnetic field in the emitting region; (2) comparison of the lower hybrid plasma density with the average plasma density; and (3) validity of the cold plasma lower hybrid resonance formula in the high density operating regime of the bumpy torus plasma.

  7. Acceleration of compact toruses and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Logan, B.G.; McLean, H.S.; Molvik, A.W.

    1990-10-11

    The Compact Torus (Spheromak-type) is a near ideal plasma confinement configuration for acceleration. The fields are mostly generated by internal plasma currents, plasma confinement is toroidal, and the compact torus exhibits resiliency and stability in virtue of the ``rugged`` helicity invariant. Based on these considerations we are developing a coaxial rail-gun type Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA). In the CTA, the CT ring is formed between coaxial electrodes using a magnetized Marshall gun, it is quasistatically ``precompressed`` in a conical electrode section for inductive energy storage, it is accelerated in a straight-coaxial electrode section as in a conventional rail-gun, and it is focused to small size and high energy and power density in a final ``focus`` cone section. The dynamics of slow precompression and acceleration have been demonstrated experimentally in the RACE device with results in good agreement with 2-D MHD code calculations. CT plasma rings with 100 {micro}gms mass have been accelerated to 40 Kj kinetic energy at 20% efficiency with final velocity = 1 X 10{sup 8} cm/s (= 5 KeV/H{sup +}). Preliminary focus tests exhibi dynamics of radius compression, deceleration, and bouncing. Compression ratios of 2-3 have been achieved. A scaled-up 10-100 MJ CTA is predicted to achieve a focus radius of several cm to deliver = 30 MJ ring kinetic energy in 5-10 nsec. This is sufficient energy, power, and power density to enable the CTA to act as a high efficiency, low cost ICF driver. Alternatively, the focused CT can form the basis for an magnetically insulated, inertial confinement fusion (MICF) system. Preliminary calculations of these fusion systems will be discussed.

  8. Radiation from Electron Phase Space Holes as a Possible Source of Jovian S-bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Katherine; Ergun, Robert; Holmes, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Radio-frequency short burst emissions (10-40 MHz), known as Jovian S-bursts, have been observed from the Jovian aurora for over fifty years. These emissions, associated with Io's motion, have a rapidly declining frequency and an exceptionally narrow bandwidth. While it is widely believed that S-bursts are generated by the electron cyclotron maser instability, the mechanism responsible for the rapidly declining frequency and narrow bandwidth currently is not well established. We explore a hypothesis that electron phase space holes radiate or stimulate radiation in the Jovian aurora plasma environment as a possible source of S-burst emissions. Electron phase-space holes (EHs) are ubiquitous in an auroral environment and travel at the implied speeds (˜20,000 km/s) of the structures creating the Jovian S-bursts. Furthermore, EHs have the proper physical size to create the observed bandwidth, have sufficient energy content, and can create an environment whereby X mode emissions can be excited. If verified, these findings imply that EHs may be an important source of radiation from strongly magnetized or relativistic astrophysical plasmas.

  9. Intrinsic luminosities of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Available data and theories on the size and nature of interior power sources in the four Jovian planets are reviewed. These four planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Various models, ranging from simple cooling to gravitational layering to radioactivity, are discussed. The evidence and interpretations presented in the discussion seem to indicate that (1) all four Jovian planets were once more luminous and are presently cooling to a state of equilibrium with sunlight; and (2) the thermal evolution of the Jovian planets is predominantly controlled by their photospheres and does not depend on interior conductivity. Both conclusions are consistent with either the simple adiabatic cooling model or with more complicated gravitational unmixing models of the type discussed by Stevenson and Salpeter (1977).

  10. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-11-08

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program.

  11. Summary of US compact torus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.

    1981-03-11

    During the past several years a rapid increase has occurred in compact torus (CT) research in the United States, reflecting renewed interest in this simplified reactor consequences of this configuration. This paper reviews early approaches to CT formation and results and summarizes present experimental studies. Recent experiments have demonstrated a number of macroscopic aspects of the CT, including the conditions under which a macroscopically stable CT can be formed and maintained. Scaling experiments and more detailed studies of plasma transport in progress are discussed along with experiments under construction.

  12. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  13. Spectra of the Jovian ring and Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements made between 0.887 and 2.4 microns demonstrate that the Jovian ring and Amalthea have similar reflection spectra. The spectra, in particular the ratio of the 0.9- to 2.2-micron reflectivities, are inconsistent with those expected from water, ammonia, or methane frosts, but are consistent with reflection from large rock bodies.

  14. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamoto, T.; Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ≳ 7 km s{sup –1} at 1 AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup –1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup –1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5 AU and 3.5 AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  15. Io Revealed in the Jovian Dust Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, A. L.; Gruen, E.; Krueger, H.; Horanyi, M.; Svedhem, H.; Galileo Dust Team; Cassini Dust Team

    2001-11-01

    The Jovian dust streams are high-speed bursts of submicron-sized particles travelling in the same direction from a source in the Jovian system. Since their discovery in 1992, they have been observed by three spacecraft: Ulysses, Galileo and Cassini. The work presented here describes an emerging electrodynamical picture of the Jovian dust streams. The source of the Jovian dust streams is Jupiter's moon, Io, in particular, dust from Io's volcanoes. Charged Io dust, travelling on trajectories from Io's location, is shown to have some particular signatures in frequency space and in real space. The frequency-transformed Galileo dust stream measurements show different signatures, varying, orbit-to-orbit during Galileo's first 29 orbits around Jupiter. Time-frequency analysis demonstrates that Io is a localized source of charged dust particles. In real space, aspects of the particles' dynamics can be seen in the December 2000 joint Galileo-Cassini dust stream measurements. To match the travel times, the smallest dust particles could have the following range of parameters: radius: 6 nm, density: 1.35-1.75 g-cm-3, sulfur charging conditions, which produce dust stream speeds: 220/450 km-sec-1 (Galileo/Cassini) and charge potentials: 5.5/6.3 V (Galileo/Cassini). Funding provided by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt E.V. (DLR), and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  16. Radiation characteristics of quasi-periodic radio bursts in the Jovian high-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Misawa, Hiroaki; Morioka, Akira; Nozawa, Hiromasa

    2008-12-01

    Ulysses had a "distant encounter" with Jupiter in February 2004. The spacecraft passed from north to south, and it observed Jovian radio waves from high to low latitudes (from +80° to +10°) for few months during its encounter. In this study, we present a statistical investigation of the occurrence characteristics of Jovian quasi-periodic bursts, using spectral data from the unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) onboard Ulysses. The latitudinal distribution of quasi-periodic bursts is derived for the first time. The analysis suggested that the bursts can be roughly categorized into two types: one having periods shorter than 30 min and one with periods longer than 30 min, which is consistent with the results of the previous analysis of data from Ulysses' first Jovian flyby [MacDowall, R.J., Kaiser, M.L., Desch, M.D., Farrell, W.M., Hess, R.A., Stone, R.G., 1993. Quasi-periodic Jovian radio bursts: observations from the Ulysses radio and plasma wave. Experiment. Planet. Space Sci. 41, 1059-1072]. It is also suggested that the groups of quasi-periodic bursts showed a dependence on the Jovian longitude of the sub-solar point, which means that these burst groups are triggered during a particular rotational phase of the planet. Maps of the occurrence probability of these quasi-periodic bursts also showed a unique CML/MLAT dependence. We performed a 3D ray tracing analysis of the quasi-periodic burst emission to learn more about the source distribution. The results suggest that the longitudinal distribution of the occurrence probability depends on the rotational phase. The source region of quasi-periodic bursts seems to be located at an altitude between 0.4 and 1.4 Rj above the polar cap region ( L>30).

  17. Plasma current start-up by the outer ohmic heating coils in the Saskatchewan TORus Modified (STOR-M) iron core tokamak.

    PubMed

    Mitarai, O; Xiao, C; McColl, D; Dreval, M; Hirose, A; Peng, M

    2015-03-01

    A plasma current up to 15 kA has been driven with outer ohmic heating (OH) coils in the STOR-M iron core tokamak. Even when the inner OH coil is disconnected, the outer OH coils alone can induce the plasma current as primary windings and initial breakdown are even easier in this coil layout. This result suggests a possibility to use an iron core in a spherical tokamak to start up the plasma current without a central solenoid. The effect of the iron core saturation on the extension of the discharge pulse length has been estimated for further experiments in the STOR-M tokamak. PMID:25832230

  18. A Global Magnetohydrodynamic Model of Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a new global magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with the solar wind. Observations from 28 orbits of Jupiter by Galileo along with those from previous spacecraft at Jupiter, Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and 2 and Ulysses, have revealed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a vast, complicated system. The Jovian aurora also has been monitored for several years. Like auroral observations at Earth, these measurements provide us with a global picture of magnetospheric dynamics. Despite this wide range of observations, we have limited quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and how it interacts with the solar wind. For the past several years we have been working toward a quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind by employing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the magnetosphere. Our model has been an explicit MHD code (previously used to model the Earth's magnetosphere) to study Jupiter's magnetosphere. We continue to obtain important insights with this code, but it suffers from some severe limitations. In particular with this code we are limited to considering the region outside of 15RJ, with cell sizes of about 1.5R(sub J). The problem arises because of the presence of widely separated time scales throughout the magnetosphere. The numerical stability criterion for explicit MHD codes is the CFL limit and is given by C(sub max)(Delta)t/(Delta)x less than 1 where C(sub max) is the maximum group velocity in a given cell, (Delta)x is the grid spacing and (Delta)t is the time step. If the maximum wave velocity is C(sub w) and the flow speed is C(sub f), C(sub max) = C(sub w) + C(sub f). Near Jupiter the Alfven wave speed becomes very large (it approaches the speed of light at one Jovian radius). Operating with this time step makes the calculation essentially intractable. Therefore under this funding we have been designing a

  19. A Global Magnetohydrodynamic Model of Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond J.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a new global magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with the solar wind. Observations from 28 orbits of Jupiter by Galileo along with those from previous spacecraft at Jupiter, Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and 2 and Ulysses, have revealed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a vast, complicated system. The Jovian aurora also has been monitored for several years. Like auroral observations at Earth, these measurements provide us with a global picture of magnetospheric dynamics. Despite this wide range of observations, we have limited quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and how it interacts with the solar wind. For the past several years we have been working toward a quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind by employing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the magnetosphere. Our model has been an explicit MHD code (previously used to model the Earth's magnetosphere) to study Jupiter's magnetosphere. We continue to obtain important insights with this code, but it suffers from some severe limitations. In particular with this code we are limited to considering the region outside of 15RJ, with cell sizes of about 1.5RJ. The problem arises because of the presence of widely separated time scales throughout the magnetosphere. The numerical stability criterion for explicit MHD codes is the CFL limit and is given by Cmax)(Delta)t/(Deltax less than 1 where Cmax is the maximum group velocity in a given cell, (Delta)x is the grid spacing and (Delta)t is the time step. If the maximum wave velocity is Cw and the flow speed is Cf, Cmax = Cw + Cf. Near Jupiter the Alfven wave speed becomes very large (it approaches the speed of light at one Jovian radius). Operating with this time step makes the calculation essentially intractable. Therefore under this funding we have been designing a new MHD model that will be able to compute

  20. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions. PMID:26871067

  1. Cassini ENA Observations of an Asymmetric Europa Torus with Indications of Magnetospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus; Westlake, Joseph; Mauk, Barry; Mitchell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini spacecraft imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) that are created when singly charged ions charge exchange with neutral gas atoms or molecules. The INCA observations were obtained from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. These observations have been demonstrated to be consistent with a neutral gas torus encircling Jupiter at Europa's orbit (Mauk et al., 2004). Here, we present a new, detailed analysis of the ENA images implying an asymmetric Europa neutral gas torus with indications of magnetospheric dynamics. The analysis uses images with a minimum integration time and background. A forward model using a parametric energetic ion model and a neutral gas model simulates ENA images through the instrument response function of INCA in order to determine the spatial distribution of the neutral gas.

  2. Cassini ENA Observations of an Asymmetric Europa Torus with Indications of Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Westlake, J. H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Mauk, B.; Smith, H. T.

    2014-12-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini spacecraft imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) that are created when singly charged ions charge exchange with neutral gas atoms or molecules. The INCA observations were obtained from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. These observations have been demonstrated to be consistent with a neutral gas torus encircling Jupiter at Europa's orbit (Mauk et al., 2004). Here, we present a new, detailed analysis of the ENA images implying an asymmetric Europa neutral gas torus with indications of magnetospheric dynamics. The analysis uses images with a minimum integration time and background. A forward model using a parametric energetic ion model and a neutral gas model simulates ENA images through the instrument response function of INCA in order to determine the spatial distribution of the neutral gas.

  3. Current status of Jovian magnetosphere observation by EXCEED onboard HISAKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, I.

    2015-12-01

    EXCEED is an existing Earth-orbiting spectrometer working in the EUV spectral range from 50 nm up to 150nm, still observing solar planets.Hisaki with EXCEED was successfully launched by epsilon rocket from Uchinoura in 2013 September and has competeled approximately 2-year investigations of solar planets.The inner magnetosphere of Jupiter is one of the most important targets for EXCEED. Especially, coupling between Io-Plasma-Torus (IPT) and aurora is an interesting topic, and indeed EXCEED spent much time of observations.Internal-driven aurora, IPT responses to the auroras, periodicity of IPT brightness, and SW dependence of IPT activity will be presented.

  4. Parabolic torus transreflector antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. M.; Smith, M. S.

    1984-12-01

    The possible scan rate of conventional radar antennas using parabolic dishes is limited to about 60 rev/min. This limitation is related to mechanical rotation requirements. Many radar applications require high data renewal rates, including short-range defense systems and systems for reduction of sea clutter. Faster scan rates can be obtained by using phased arrays and electronic scanning. However, the use of the required equipment introduces considerable complexity and cost. The present investigation is concerned with a novel form of antenna permitting high scan rates, taking into account a parabolic torus transreflector antenna. The feed horn illuminates one side of the radome with polarization parallel to the wires, which therefore reflect the radiation like a dish antenna. In the antenna considered, rotation of the beam is effected by mechanical rotation of the horn feed only, and this provides the potential for high scanning rates.

  5. Torus Workshop 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Packham, C.

    2012-12-01

    The nature and origin of the dusty material at the heart of active galaxies - whether it is inflowing, outflowing, its relation to star formation, etc. - has profound implications for our understanding of the evolution and lifecycle of AGN. A sound understanding of local AGN will also allow us to model them with confidence and apply our models to forthcoming observations of objects in the distant Universe. The last few years have seen numerous developments in the field: exquisitely sensitive Spitzer spectra have revealed the infrared properties of large numbers of AGN; mid-infrared interferometry is an increasingly mature technique; and models of increasing sophistication have been developed to explore the observations, to name just a few examples. The Torus 2012 workshop was held at the University of Texas, San Antonio in December 2012. Specialists in these and related areas gathered to share knowledge, debate ideas, and come to the best possible understanding of the dusty structures in AGN.

  6. International workshop on Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; West, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the scientifically interesting phenomena that occur in the Jovian system are strongly time variable. Some are episodic (e.g., Io volcanism); some are periodic (wave transport in Jupiters atmosphere); and some are exceedingly complex (magnetosphere - Io - Torus-Auroral interactions) and possibly unstable. To investigate this class of phenomena utilizing Voyager data and, in the future, Galileo results, a coherent program of ground based and earth-orbital observations, and of theory that spans the time between the missions, is required. To stimulate and help define the basis of such a scientific program researchers organized an International Workshop on the subject with the intent of publishing the proceedings which would represent the state of knowledge in 1987.

  7. Interpretation of the zebra pattern in the Jovian kilometric radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, E. Ya.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Zaitsev, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of a fine structure as quasi-harmonic parallel drifting stripes of enhanced brightness (zebra pattern) in the dynamic spectrum of Jovian kilometric radiation is discussed. A possible interpretation of the observed structure based on the effect of double plasma resonance (DPR) in the Jupiter magnetosphere is analyzed. It is shown that the observed features of the zebra pattern cannot be attributed to the DPR effect at electron cyclotron harmonics. The proposed scheme consists of excitation of ion cyclotron waves at the low hybrid frequency in the ion DPR regions and succeeding coalescence of these waves with a longitudinal wave at the upper hybrid frequency. The source parameters necessary for matching the expected and observed properties of the Jupiter zebra pattern are discussed.

  8. Expected immersion of Saturn's magnetosphere in the jovian magnetic tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzedzielski, S.; Macek, W.; Oberc, P.

    1981-08-01

    Voyager 2 approaches Saturn August 1981, after a possible encounter of the planet with the tail or wake of Jupiter. With the magnetic flux in the tail of phi being equal approximately to 2 x 10 to the 12th Wb, a simple model suggests that the tail is very long (7-15 AU) and wide enough (approximately 0.6 AU) to engulf Saturn. This could result in a sudden drop (by a factor of approximately 40) of the ram pressure on the magnetosphere of Saturn. The ensuing inflation of the magnetosphere may cause effects observable from Voyager 2 and/or earth-orbiting satellites, including a flare-up of kilometric radiation and enhancement of the Lyman-alpha limb brightening. Such events, if observed, could shed light on the magnetic and plasma nature of the jovian tail and on the electrodynamics of the Saturnian magnetosphere.

  9. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Peng; C. Kessel; C. Neumeyer; J. Schmidt; J. Chrzanowski; D. Darrow; L. Grisham; P. Heitzenroeder; T. Jarboe; C. Jun; S. Kaye; J. Menard; R. Raman; T. Stevenson; M. Viola; J. Wilson; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2003-10-27

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction.

  10. Ulysses observations of auroral hiss at high Jovian latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Macdowall, R. J.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Stone, R. G.; Kellogg, P. J.; Lin, N.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Canu, P.; Bame, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    During the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter, a whistler-mode emission was periodically detected by the unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment during intervals when the spacecraft extended to high magnetic latitudes. The signal was detected between the local electron plasma frequency and lower hybrid resonance and appears as a funnel-shaped structure on frequency-versus-time spectrograms; these characteristics are very reminiscent of whistler-mode auroral hiss observed at high latitudes at Earth. Ray tracing of the emission occurrences suggests the emission source is on magnetic field lines extending out to at least 65 R(sub J). This location associates the emission with the boundary between open and closed field lines -- not the Io torus. The emission radiates about 10(exp 7) W of power. Consequently, the auroral input power derived from the solar wind to drive the emission is believed to be 10(exp 10-12) W (or about 1% of the energy associated with Io torus electrical processes).

  11. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not readily observable.

  12. Io control of Jovian radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of Io controlling Jovian decametric radio emission, particularly in the region below 22 MHz, is discussed. Results of a two-year survey at 26.3 at 26.3 MHz are presented which demonstrate the control of Io over a high-intensity storm component of the radio emission and the independence of a weak radio component from the phase of Io, as was observed at lower frequencies. It is thus hypothesized that Io control is a flux-dependent rather than a frequency-dependent phenomenon, and results of analyses at 18 and 10 MHz which support this hypothesis are presented. The apparent correlation between frequency and Io control is thus shown to result from a selection effect due to the increase of non-Io emission with decreasing frequency and relative antenna detection threshold. This result implies a contiguous Io-controlled source region extending out several Jovian radii along the Io flux tube.

  13. Discovery of two additional Jovian irregulars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandersen, M.; Gladman, B.; Jacobson, R.; Brozovic, M.; Veillet, C.

    2011-10-01

    In September 2010 Jupiter and Uranus passed each other on the sky. This allowed our team to easily recover many Jovian and Uranian irregular satellites with uncertain orbits. In addition to the planned recoveries, our observations revealed two previously undetected Jovian irregular satellites. Jacobson et al. [3] and Veillet et al. [7] provided the discovery data for S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2, respectively. Follow up observations in October 2010 to January 2011 indicates that these are ˜1 km objects on bound retrograde orbits. However, the fitted orbits are still too uncertain to determine which, if any, satellite group these additional satellites belong to [2]. We will obtain additional observations in July and August 2011, allowing us to present accurate orbital and grouping information.

  14. On dust emissions from the jovian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, H. A.; Gruen, E.; Baguhl, M.; Balogh, A.; Bame, S. J.; Fechtig, H.; Forsyth, R.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.

    1993-01-01

    As described by Gruen et al., the dust impact detector on the Ulysses spacecraft detected a totally unexpected series of dust streams in the outer solar system near the orbit of Jupiter. Five considerations lead us to believe that the dust streams emanate from the jovian system itself: the dust streams only occur within about 1 AU of the jovian system, with the strongest stream being the one closest to Jupiter (about 550 R(sub J) away); the direction from which they arrive is never far from the line-of-sight direction to Jupiter; the time period between streams is about 28 (+/- 3) days; the impact velocities are very high--mostly around 40 km/s; and we can think of no cometary, asteroidal, or interstellar source that could give rise to the above four phenomena (such streams have never before been detected).

  15. Implementation of real-time equilibrium reconstruction (rtEFIT) with isoflux control for plasma shape and position control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, David; Ferron, John

    2003-10-01

    Real time equilibrium reconstruction using the rtEFIT code has been implemented for plasma control on NSTX. The reconstructions are based on 70 magnetic field and flux measurements as well as 11 poloidal and toroidal field coil current measurements. In addition to the usual equilibrium field measurements, 8 loop voltage measurements have been incorporated in the reconstruction so as to estimate the axi-symmetric portions of the vacuum vessel eddy currents. The plasma boundary calculated in this way was used as input to an isoflux control algorithm that generates power supply voltage requests based on the error in the boundary flux at 3 poloidal locations, as well as the position of both X-points. Several technological achievements which led to this result are described. The plasma boundary reconstructed in real-time compares well to those reconstructed using the between shots equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT. The sources of residual error are analyzed. The rtEFIT algorithm was originally developed at General Atomics for use on DIII-D. Present day efforts are aimed at reducing system latency so as to improve vertical position control which will in turn allow higher poloidal β.

  16. Forward and inverse modeling for jovian seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, Jason; Nettelmann, Nadine; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    Jupiter is expected to pulsate in a spectrum of acoustic modes and recent re-analysis of a spectroscopic time series has identified a regular pattern in the spacing of the frequencies (Gaulme, P., Schmider, F.-X., Gay, J., Guillot, T., Jacob, C. [2011]. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A104). This exciting result can provide constraints on gross jovian properties and warrants a more in-depth theoretical study of the seismic structure of Jupiter. With current instrumentation, such as the SYMPA instrument (Schmider, F.X. [2007]. Astron. Astrophys. 474, 1073-1080) used for the Gaulme et al. (Gaulme, P., Schmider, F.-X., Gay, J., Guillot, T., Jacob, C. [2011]. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A104) analysis, we assume that, at minimum, a set of global frequencies extending up to angular degree ℓ=25 could be observed. In order to identify which modes would best constraining models of Jupiter's interior and thus help motivate the next generation of observations, we explore the sensitivity of derived parameters to this mode set. Three different models of the jovian interior are computed and the theoretical pulsation spectrum from these models for ℓ⩽25 is obtained. We compute sensitivity kernels and perform linear inversions to infer details of the expected discontinuities in the profiles in the jovian interior. We find that the amplitude of the sound-speed jump of a few percent in the inner/outer envelope boundary seen in two of the applied models should be reasonably inferred with these particular modes. Near the core boundary where models predict large density discontinuities, the location of such features can be accurately measured, while their amplitudes have more uncertainty. These results suggest that this mode set would be sufficient to infer the radial location and strength of expected discontinuities in Jupiter's interior, and place strong constraints on the core size and mass. We encourage new observations to detect these jovian oscillations.

  17. Electron capture decay in Jovian planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, R. R.; Schiferl, D.

    1987-12-01

    Following the commonly acknowledged fact that the decay of K-40 substantially contributes to the heating of planetary interiors, an examination is made of the possibility that interior heat in the Jovian planets and stars, where interior pressures may exceed 45 Mbar, may be generated by the pressure-accelerated electron capture decay of a variety of isotopes. The isotopes considered encompass K-40, V-50, Te-123, La-138, Al-26, and Cl-36.

  18. Vertical shear in the Jovian equatorial zone.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layton, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Jupiter photographs taken in two different wavelength regions (blue and red) are studied for clues to differing Jovian atmosphere motions. The relative motions of features visible on these photographs may be interpreted as a vertical shear at visible cloud level. The value obtained implies that the north equatorial zone must be about 0.35 deg K warmer than the adjacent equatorial zone. Deeper in the atmosphere the reverse must hold.

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Io's Atmosphere and Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    1999-01-01

    This final report describes the results of our NASA/Planetary Atmospheres program studying the atmosphere of Jupiter's moon Io and the plasma torus which it creates. Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not so readily observable.

  20. Fathom The Jovian Dust Streams: Recent Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, A. L.; Grün, E.; Krüger, H.; Horányi, M.; Srama, R.; Kempf, S.

    The Jovian dust streams are high-speed bursts of submicron-sized particles traveling in the same direction from an Io source in the Jovian system. The work presented here describes our present electrodynamical picture of the Jovian dust streams based on modeling with Galileo and Cassini spacecraft dust detector data from the last two years. Sizes, densities, plausible material properties, charges, and speeds of the dust stream particles will be presented with reliability estimates.

  1. A dawn to dusk electric field in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Ip, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that if Io-injected plasma is lost via a planetary wind-fixed Birkeland current system may result. This is due to the fact that the azimuthal centrifugal current flows across a density gradient produced by the loss of plasma through the planetary wind in the tail. The divergent centrifugal current is connected to field-aligned Birkeland currents which flow into the ionosphere at dawn and out of it at dusk. The closure currents in the ionosphere require a dawn to dusk electric field which at the orbit of Io is estimated to have a strength of 0.2 mV/m. However, the values of crucial parameters are not well known and the field at Io's orbit may well be significantly larger. Independent estimates derived from the local time asymmetry of the torus UV emission indicate a field of 1.5 mV/m.

  2. Evidence for global electron transportation into the jovian inner magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M

    2014-09-26

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic electrons in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot electrons (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, electron transportation in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward transport of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot electron fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot electrons responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves. PMID:25258073

  3. The global morphology of the Europa neutral torus from Cassini Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) observations and implications for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mauk, B.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Barabash, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini spacecraft imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) that are created when singly charged ions charge exchange with neutral gas atoms or molecules. The INCA observations were obtained from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. We present underlying neutral torus gas morphologies by simulating INCA images using an empirical ion distribution model and a range of theoretical gas model distributions. Just like Mauk et al. (2003), who used a different analysis technique, we find that the INCA images are consistent with a neutral torus at the orbital distance of Europa (9.5 RJ). However, within the limitations of instrument resolution, we present also possible solutions of a longitudinally asymmetric torus distribution and its implication for neutral gas release and loss rates from Europa. The Jovian Energetic Neutral and Ions (JENI) camera is the second generation ENA camera based on INCA and was selected for the science payload of the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission, planned for launch around 2022 and orbit insertion around Jupiter in 2030. Using the same forward simulation technique as above, we use the INCA observations to demonstrate what we expect the JENI camera to observe in orbit around Jupiter and Ganymede.

  4. Models of the Jovian Ring and Comparisions With Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, A.; Horanyi, M.

    2008-12-01

    A number of in situ and remote sensing observations of the Jovian ring system exist so we can now combine observations from Voyager, Pioneer, Galileo and Cassini, as well as ground based and HST measurements. In this presentation we will compare this large body of observations to available theoretical models of the dust dynamics in the Jovian ring. Common to all models (Burns et al., 1985, 2001 ; Horanyi et al.,1996, 2004) is the basic idea that dust is being continuously produced due to micro-meteoroid bombardment of the moons in this region. Also, the spatial distribution of dust in the halo region inward of the main ring is generally accepted to be a consequence of electrodynamic perturbations acting on small charged dust particles. However, in the suggested theoretical models the time scale for orbital evolution is drastically differ. Burns et al. argues, that in the main ring, dust particles evolve inward very slowly due to Poynting-Robertson drag. A typical micron sized grain is predicted to orbit Jupiter for 104 years before crashing into the atmosphere of Jupiter. Horanyi et al. argues that the radial transport is due to resonant charge variations, dictated by the plasma density distribution. In this model grains are transported on a time scale that is orders of magnitude shorter than predicted by PR drag. Here we use both of these models to generate brightness distributions and predict optical depth distributions for same geometries and wavelengths as that of the observations. Quantitative comparisons of the modeled and the real observations lead us to the conclusion that the dust transport in ring/halo region at Jupiter is mainly due to resonant charge variation.

  5. Two-dimensional MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, R. A.; Malova, H. V.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-09-01

    A self-consistent stationary axially symmetric MHD model of the Jovian magnetodisk is constructed. This model is a generalization of the models of plane current sheets that have been proposed earlier in order to describe the structure of the current sheet in the magnetotail of the Earth [1, 2]. The model takes centrifugal force, which is induced by the corotation electric field, and the azimuthal magnetic field into account. The configurations of the magnetic field lines for the isothermic (plasma temperature assumed to be constant) and the isentropic (plasma entropy assumed to be constant) models of the magnetodisk are determined. The dependence of the thickness of the magnetodisk on the distance to Jupiter is obtained. The thickness of the magnetodisk and the magnetic field distribution in the isothermic and isentropic models are similar. The inclusion of a low background plasma pressure results in a considerable reduction in the thickness of the magnetodisk. This effect may be attributed to the fact that centrifugal force prevails over the pressure gradient at large distances from the planet. The mechanism of unipolar induction and the related large-scale current system are analyzed. The direct and return Birkeland currents are determined in the approximation of a weak azimuthal magnetic field. The modeling results agree with theoretical estimates from other studies and experimental data.

  6. Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the “embryology” of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings.

  7. Quasi-similar decameter emission features appearing in the solar and jovian dynamic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, G. V.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Panchenko, M.; Dorovsky, V. V.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Rucker, H. O.; Vinogradov, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the dynamic spectra of the Sun and jovian decametric radiation obtained by the authors with the radio telescopes UTR-2 and URAN-2 (Kharkov, Poltava, Ukraine). We focus on the similar structures that appear on the dynamic spectra of those objects: S-bursts, drifting pairs, absorption bursts and zebra patterns. Similarity in structures allows us to assume that the plasma processes in the solar corona and in the jovian magnetosphere might have similar properties. We analyze and compare the main parameters of those structures and describe briefly some mechanisms of their generation that have already discussed in publications. We selected the mechanisms which, in our opinion, most completely and consistently explain the properties of the structures under consideration.

  8. Characteristics of Energy Transport of Li-conditioned and non-Li-conditioned Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, S.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Paul, S.; Wan, B.

    2009-10-21

    The transport properties of NSTX plasmas obtained during the 2008 experimental cam- paign have been studied and are reported here. Transport trends and dependences have been isolated, and it is found that both electron and ion energy transport coefficients have strong dependences on local values of nΔT, which in turn is strongly dependent on local current density profile. Without identifying this dependence, it is difficult to identify others, such as the dependence of transport coefficients on Bp (or q), Ip and Pheat. In addition, a comparison between discharges with and without Lithium wall conditioning has been made. While the trends in the two sets of data are similar, the thermal transport loss, especially in the electron channel, is found to strongly depend on the amount of Lithium deposited, decreasing by up to 50% of its no-Lithium value.

  9. Magnetic surfaces in an axisymmetric torus

    SciTech Connect

    Skovoroda, A. A.

    2013-04-15

    A method is developed for specifying the boundary equilibrium magnetic surface in an axially symmetric torus by using the absolute values of the magnetic field B = B{sub s}({theta}) and the gradient of the poloidal flux vertical bar vertical bar {nabla}{Psi} vertical bar = vertical bar {nabla}{Psi} vertical bar {sub s}({theta}) in a special flux coordinate system. By setting two surface constants (e.g., the safety factor q and dp/d{Psi}) and matching the absolute values of the magnetic field and the flux gradient on a closed magnetic surface, it is possible to find all equilibrium magnetic functions (including n {center_dot} {nabla} ln B and the local shear s) and all constants (including the toroidal current J and the shear d{mu}/d{Psi}) on this surface. Such a non-traditional formulation of the boundary conditions in solving the stability problem in an axisymmetric torus allows one to impose intentional conditions on plasma confinement and MHD stability at the periphery of the system.

  10. Jovian Magnetospheric Interactions with Io, Amalthea, and the Planetary Rings: Current and Expected Results from the Galileo Orbiter Heavy Ion Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    The energetic (keV to MeV) heavy ion population in the inner jovian magnetosphere, out to Io's orbit, originates mostly from acceleration of Io plasma torus ions and contributes to erosion of satellite surfaces and ring particles by sputtering. Photo- and plasma-ionization of iogenic neutrals, magnetospheric pickup of the resultant ions, and magnetospheric acceleration processes produce high fluxes of oxygen and sulfur ions at total energies above 40 MeV which are measured by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) instrument on the Galileo Orbiter. Directional measurements during the spacecraft's 20-second spin period allow determination of local anisotropy distributions with respect to magnetic pitch angles of magnetospheric ions and to absorption by satellite surfaces approached during close flybys. Numerical modeling of anisotropy data from these flybys allows limits to be set on the ion charge states and on models for the magnetic environments including possible presence of internal field sources. The Io phase of the Galileo satellite tour has concluded with successful HIC and magnetometer data return from five of seven flybys, including two passes (I31 and I32) over Io's poles. The absorption signatures from the polar passes are very different from the more equatorial ones (J0, I24, I27) and modeling is in progress to determine best-fit configurations of Io's global magnetic environment. Due to high electronic thresholds for the heavy ion measurements, HIC has been insensitive to magnetospheric electron and proton backgrounds during these flybys and is expected to return good data for the upcoming Amalthea flyby on Nov. 5, 2002. This assumes that spacecraft systems will survive the return to perijove (2.0 Rj) just outside Jupiter's main ring (1.8 Rj), first traversed by Pioneer 11 in Dec. 1974 and again by the Galileo Probe twenty-one years later. Detectors on both of these latter spacecraft resolved the cutoff of magnetospheric ion flux by interaction with the jovian

  11. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-15

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R{sub 0}/a) reduced to A ∼ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ∼ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  12. Recent progress on spherical torus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Masayuki; Kaita, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ˜ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ˜ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of an attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two mega-ampere class ST facilities in 2000, the National Spherical Torus Experiment in the United States and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than 16 ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  13. Dust charging in the dense Enceladus torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Victoria; Lühr, Hermann; Morfill, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    The key parameter of the dust-plasma interactions is the charge carried by a dust particle. The grain electrostatic potential is usually calculated from the so called orbit-motion limited (OML) model [1]. It is valid for a single particle immersed into collisionless plasmas with Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Apparently, such a parameter regime cannot be directly applied to the conditions relevant for the Enceladus dense neutral torus and plume, where the plasma is multispecies and multistreaming, the dust density is high, sometimes even exceeding the plasma number density. We have examined several new factors which can significantly affect the grain charging in the dust loaded plasma of the Enceladus torus and in the plume region and which, to our knowledge, have not been investigated up to now for such plasma environments. These include: (a) influence of the multispecies plasma composition, namely the presence of two electron populations with electron temperatures ranging from a few eV up to a hundred eV [2], a few ion species (e.g. corotating water group ions, and protons, characterized by different kinetic temperatures), as well as cold nonthermalized new-born water group ions which move with Kepler velocity [3]; (b) effect of the ion-neutral collisions on the dust charging in the dense Enceladus torus and in the plume; (c) effect of high dust density, when a grain cannot be considered as an isolated particle any more (especially relevant for the plume region, where the average negative dust charge density according to Cassini measurements is of the order or even exceeds the plasma number density [4,5]). It turns out that in this case, the electrostatic potential and respective dust charge cannot be deduced from the initial OML formalism and there is a need to incorporate the effect of dust density into plasma fluxes flowing to the grain surface to calculate the grain equilibrium charge; (e) since the dust in the planetary rings comes in a wide

  14. The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Alexander, N.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Beebe, C.; Clark, G.; Crary, F.; Desai, M. I.; De Los Santos, A.; Demkee, D.; Dickinson, J.; Everett, D.; Finley, T.; Gribanova, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kofoed, C.; Loeffler, C.; Louarn, P.; Maple, M.; Mills, W.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Rodriguez, B.; Rouzaud, J.; Santos-Costa, D.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R. J.; White, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) on Juno provides the critical in situ measurements of electrons and ions needed to understand the plasma energy particles and processes that fill the Jovian magnetosphere and ultimately produce its strong aurora. JADE is an instrument suite that includes three essentially identical electron sensors (JADE-Es), a single ion sensor (JADE-I), and a highly capable Electronics Box (EBox) that resides in the Juno Radiation Vault and provides all necessary control, low and high voltages, and computing support for the four sensors. The three JADE-Es are arrayed 120∘ apart around the Juno spacecraft to measure complete electron distributions from ˜0.1 to 100 keV and provide detailed electron pitch-angle distributions at a 1 s cadence, independent of spacecraft spin phase. JADE-I measures ions from ˜5 eV to ˜50 keV over an instantaneous field of view of 270∘×90∘ in 4 s and makes observations over all directions in space each 30 s rotation of the Juno spacecraft. JADE-I also provides ion composition measurements from 1 to 50 amu with m/Δm˜2.5, which is sufficient to separate the heavy and light ions, as well as O+ vs S+, in the Jovian magnetosphere. All four sensors were extensively tested and calibrated in specialized facilities, ensuring excellent on-orbit observations at Jupiter. This paper documents the JADE design, construction, calibration, and planned science operations, data processing, and data products. Finally, the Appendix describes the Southwest Research Institute [SwRI] electron calibration facility, which was developed and used for all JADE-E calibrations. Collectively, JADE provides remarkably broad and detailed measurements of the Jovian auroral region and magnetospheric plasmas, which will surely revolutionize our understanding of these important and complex regions.

  15. Physical Analysis of the Jovian Synchrotron Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Thorne, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of our recent investigation of the Jovian synchrotron emission based on a particle transport code. The features of the two-dimensional brightness distributions, radio spectra and beaming curves are correlated to the different phenomena driven the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. The adiabatic invariant theory was used for performing this analysis work. The theoretical approach first enabled us to describe the electron radiation belts by modeling the interactions between high-energy trapped particles and plasmas, neutrals, moons, dust and magnetic field. Then radio observations were used to discuss the computed particle distributions in the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The simulated brightness mappings were compared with VLA observations made at two wavelengths (20 and 6 cm). The beaming curve comparisons at 13-cm wavelength were performed for different epochs in order to evaluate the dependence of the model to the geometric factor De. The computed radio spectra were discussed with measurements made in the [0.5-20] GHz radio band. The simulation results match the different remote observations very well and thus allowed us to study the phenomenology of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission. The analysis of the Jovian synchrotron emission demonstrates that during the inward particle transport, local losses associated with the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron radiation along the magnetic equator. Close to the planet, trapped electrons suffer from the interactions with dust and magnetic field, resulting in the transport of particles toward the high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce the measurable secondary radio emissions. The simulations show that the moon sweeping effect controls both the transport toward the planet and at high latitudes by reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate the regions out of the equator. Among the

  16. Jovian chromophore characteristics from multispectral HST images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter J.

    2011-10-01

    The chromophores responsible for coloring the jovian atmosphere are embedded within Jupiter's vertical aerosol structure. Sunlight propagates through this vertical distribution of aerosol particles, whose colors are defined by ϖ0( λ), and we remotely observe the culmination of the radiative transfer as I/ F( λ). In this study, we employed a radiative transfer code to retrieve ϖ0( λ) for particles in Jupiter's tropospheric haze at seven wavelengths in the near-UV and visible regimes. The data consisted of images of the 2008 passage of Oval BA to the south of the Great Red Spot obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present derived particle colors for locations that were selected from 14 weather regions, which spanned a large range of observed colors. All ϖ0( λ) curves were absorbing in the blue, and ϖ0( λ) increased monotonically to approximately unity as wavelength increased. We found accurate fits to all ϖ0( λ) curves using an empirically derived functional form: ϖ0( λ) = 1 - A exp(- Bλ). The best-fit parameters for the mean ϖ0( λ) curve were A = 25.4 and B = 0.0149 for λ in units of nm. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on our ϖ0( λ) results and found that one or two independent chromophores were sufficient to produce the variations in ϖ0( λ). A PCA of I/ F( λ) for the same jovian locations resulted in principal components (PCs) with roughly the same variances as the ϖ0( λ) PCA, but they did not result in a one-to-one mapping of PC amplitudes between the ϖ0( λ) PCA and I/ F( λ) PCA. We suggest that statistical analyses performed on I/ F( λ) image cubes have limited applicability to the characterization of chromophores in the jovian atmosphere due to the sensitivity of I/ F( λ) to horizontal variations in the vertical aerosol distribution.

  17. Numerical simulation of baroclinic Jovian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achterberg, R. K.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1994-02-01

    We examine the evolution of baroclinic vortices in a time-dependent, nonlinear numerical model of a Jovian atmosphere. The model uses a normal-mode expansion in the vertical, using the barotropic and first two baroclinic modes. Results for the stability of baroclinic vortices on an f plane in the absence of a mean zonal flow are similar to results of Earth vortex models, although the presence of a fluid interior on the Jovian planets shifts the stability boundaries to smaller length scales. The presence of a barotropic mean zonal flow in the interior stabilizes vortices against instability and significantly modifies the finite amplitude form of baroclinic instabilities. The effect of a zonal flow on a form of barotropic instability produces periodic oscillations in the latitude and longitude of the vortex as observed at the level of the cloud tops. This instability may explain some, but not all, observations of longitudinal oscillations of vortices on the outer planets. Oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation of stable vortices in a zonal shear flow are observed in this baroclinic model, as in simpler two-dimensional models. Such oscillations are also observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune. The meridional propagation and decay of vortices on a beta plane is inhibited by the presence of a mean zonal flow. The direction of propagation of a vortex relative to the mean zonal flow depends upon the sign of the meridional potential vorticity gradient; combined with observations of vortex drift rates, this may provide a constraint on model assumption for the flow in the deep interior of the Jovian planets.

  18. Millimeter-wave spectra of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is critical for understanding the subcloud atmospheric structure of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). This research utilizes a combination of laboratory measurements, computer modeling, and radio astronomical observation in order to obtain a better understanding of the millimeter-wave spectra of the Jovian planets. The pressure broadened absorption from gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was measured in the laboratory under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmospheres. Researchers developed new formalisms for computing the absorptivity of gaseous NH3 and H2S based on their laboratory measurements. They developed a radiative transfer and thermochemical model to predict the abundance and distribution of absorbing constituents in the Jovian atmospheres. They used the model to compute the millimeter wave emission from the Jovian planets.

  19. The origin of chondrules at jovian resonances

    PubMed

    Weidenschilling; Marzari; Hood

    1998-01-30

    Isotopic dating indicates that chondrules were produced a few million years after the solar nebula formed. This timing is incompatible with dynamical lifetimes of small particles in the nebula and short time scales for the formation of planetesimals. Temporal and dynamical constraints can be reconciled if chondrules were produced by heating of debris from disrupted first-generation planetesimals. Jovian resonances can excite planetesimal eccentricities enough to cause collisional disruption and melting of dust by bow shocks in the nebular gas. The ages of chondrules may indicate the times of Jupiter's formation and dissipation of gas from the asteroidal region. PMID:9445468

  20. [Torus mandibularis. Apropos a case].

    PubMed

    Gil Tutor, E

    1999-01-01

    One case of mandibular torus is described. It was an hyperostosis of the lower jaw, of big size, condition scarcely presented, and characterized by its long course and slight local feeling of discomfort. Total removing of the mass is the indicated surgical treatment. PMID:10568301

  1. Linear pinch driven by a moving compact torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.

    1984-04-25

    In principle, a Z-pinch of sufficiently large aspect ratio can provide arbitrarily high magnetic field intensity for the confinement of plasma. In practice, however, achievable field intensities and timescales are limited by parasitic inductances, pulse driver power, current, voltage, and voltage standoff of nearby insulating surfaces or surrounding gas. Further, instabilities may dominate to prevent high fields (kink mode) or enhance them (sausage mode) but in a nonuniform and uncontrollable way. In this paper we discuss an approach to producing a high-field-intensity pinch using a moving compact torus. The moving torus can serve as a very high power driver and may be used to compress a pre-established pinch field, switch on an accelerating pinch field, or may itself be reconfigured to form an intense pinch. In any case, the high energy, high energy density, and high velocity possible with an accelerated compact torus can provide extremely high power to overcome, by a number of orders of magnitude, the limitations to pinch formation described earlier. In this paper we will consider in detail pinches formed by reconfiguration of the compact torus.

  2. Io and its plasma environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southwood, D. J.; Kivelson, M. G.; Walker, R. J.; Slavin, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of Io with its plasma torus and the Jovian magnetic field is described and examined in the context of several currently popular models. Three specific matters are addressed. First, features implied by sub-Alfvenic flow which must be common to all models are discussed. Next, the magnetic signature observed near Io by the Goddard Space Flight Center Voyager 1 magnetometer is examined and it is pointed out that the preliminary estimate of 5,000,000 A current may be an overestimate. Good fits are obtained with alternative current distributions which yield currents as small as 700,000 A through Io. The best fits are obtained for an Alfven Mach number of 0.15, but good fits are also found for Alfven Mach numbers between 0.1 and 0.25. Lastly, the crucial role of charged particle data for probing the near Io interaction is pointed out. Published data from the low energy charged particle (LECP) detector are made to suggest that Io has an intrinsic magnetic field of magnitude comparable with earlier estimates. Predictions are made which can test this picture as further data become available.

  3. Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Kaye, S. M.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Barnes, G.; Blanchard, W.; Carter, M. D.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Ewig, R.; Gates, D.; Hatcher, R. E.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S. C.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kalish, M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; McCormack, B.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Nelson, B. E.; Neumeyer, C.; Oliaro, G.; Paoletti, F.; Parsells, R.; Perry, E.; Pomphrey, N.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E. J.; Viola, M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; NSTX Team

    2000-03-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is being built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test the fusion physics principles for the spherical torus concept at the MA level. The NSTX nominal plasma parameters are R0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, R/a >= 1.26, Bt = 3 kG, Ip = 1 MA, q95 = 14, elongation κ <= 2.2, triangularity δ <= 0.5 and a plasma pulse length of up to 5 s. The plasma heating/current drive tools are high harmonic fast wave (6 MW, 5 s), neutral beam injection (5 MW, 80 keV, 5 s) and coaxial helicity injection. Theoretical calculations predict that NSTX should provide exciting possibilities for exploring a number of important new physics regimes, including very high plasma β, naturally high plasma elongation, high bootstrap current fraction, absolute magnetic well and high pressure driven sheared flow. In addition, the NSTX programme plans to explore fully non-inductive plasma startup as well as a dispersive scrape-off layer for heat and particle flux handling.

  4. Jovian modulation of interplanetary electrons as observed with Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The release of magnetospheric electrons from Jupiter into interplanetary space is modulated by the Jovian rotation period. The Voyager 1 and 2 observations showed that the modulation period agrees on the average with the synodic period of Jupiter (9h 55m 33.12s), but over intervals of weeks it can differ from the synodic period by several minutes. The lack of exact synchronization is attributed to changes of the plasma population in the Jovian magnetosphere. The Jovian modulation appears to be a persistent feature of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and the disappearance of the modulation away from Jupiter is attributed to interplanetary propagation conditions. This leads to the following limits on the diffuse coefficient for interplanetary electrons: kappa perpendicular is or = 8 x 10 to the 19th power sq cm/s and kappa parallel is or = 10 to the 21st power sq cm/s. Modulation was still detectable at 3.8 A.U. behind Jupiter in the far magnetotail. This requires a mean free path in the tail 0.75 A.U. and good field connection along the tail to Jupiter.

  5. Intrinsic luminosities of the Jovian planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1980-02-01

    We review available data and theories on the size and nature of interior power sources in the Jovian planets. Broad band infrared measurements indicate that Jupiter and Saturn have interior heat fluxes about 150 and 50 times larger, respectively, than the terrestrial value. While Neptune has a modest heat flux (approx.5 times terrestrial), it is clearly detected by earth-based measurements. Only Uranus seems to lack a detectable interior heat flow. Various models, ranging from simple cooling to gravitational layering to radioactivity, are discussed. Current evidence seems to favor a cooling model in which the escape of heat is regulated by the atmosphere. This model seems capable of explaining phenomena such as the uniformity of effective temperature over Jupiter's surface and the different emission rates of Uranus and Neptune. In such a model the heat radiated from the atmosphere may derived from depletion of a thermal reservoir in the interior, or it may derive from separation of chemical elements during formation of a core. Calculations indicate that in the earlier stages of cooling, Jupiter and Saturn may have more homogeneous abundances of hydrogen and helium and radiate energy derived from simple cooling. At a subsequent phase (which may be later than the present time), hydrogen and helium will separate and supply grativational energy. Either model is consistent with a hot, high-luminosity origin for the Jovian Planets.

  6. A theory of Jovian decameter radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sharma, R. R.; Ben-Ari, M.; Eviatar, A.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-02-01

    A theory of the Jovian decameter radiation is presented based on the assumed existence of beams of energetic electrons in the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Beam-like electron distributions are shown to be unstable to the growth of both upper hybrid and lower hybrid electrostatic waves. The upconversion of these waves to fast extraordinary mode electromagnetic radiation is calculated by using a fluid model. Two possibilities are considered. First, a random phase approximation is made which leads to a very conservative estimate of intensity that can be expected in decameter radiation. The alternative possibility is also considered, viz, that the upconversion process is coherent. A comparison of both processes suggests that an incoherent interaction may be adequate to account for the observed intensity of decametric radiation, except perhaps near the peak of the spectrum (8 MHz). The coherent process is intrinsically more efficient and can easily produce the observed intensity near 8 MHz if only 0.01% of the energy in the beam is converted to electrostatic energy.

  7. Modeling Enceladus and its torus in Saturn's magnetosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Khurana, K. K.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics of the saturnian magnetosphere is controlled by the planetary spin at a rate of about 10.5 hours. The second icy moon of Saturn, Enceladus, orbits at 4 planetary radii deep in the inner magnetosphere. Enceladus creates neutrals at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second. These neutrals are ionized and picked up by the ambient plasma and spun up to the corotational velocity to form a plasma disk. Consequently, the gas and plasma density peak close to the Enceladus orbit. In the gas torus, the majority of the gas particles travel at their keplerian speed of 14 km/s, while the bulk of the plasma rotates at 30-40 km/s as a response to the rigid spinning of the saturnian magnetic field. The corotating plasma torus feels a centrifugal force that is balanced by the magnetic tension force. To balance the centripetal force of this plasma disk, Saturn’s magnetic field is stretched in both radial and azimuthal directions. At Enceladus the massive pickup of new ions from its plume slows down the corotating flow and breaks this force balance to cause plasma flows in the radial direction of Saturn. Such radial flows in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are supported by Cassini observations using various particle and field instruments. In this study we summarize the lessons learned from recent Cassini observations and our numerical simulation effort of the local interactions at Enceladus, and model the inner magnetosphere of Saturn to reproduce the force balance processes. The neutral torus is treated as a background in this axis-symmetric model.

  8. Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, V. K.; Husein, A.; Mishra, N.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, size, shape, and location of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM), and to assess their sex-related and age-related differences in the Malay population. Sixty-five subjects were assessed for the presence of both tori at the School of Dental Sciences University Sains Malaysia. The prevalence of TP was 38–63% and that of TM was 1–10%. TP was frequently more common in females than males (90.9% versus 9.1%; P < 0.05) and was frequently found in medium sizes, spindle shaped, and was often located at the combined premolar to molar areas. The prevalence of TM was not significantly different in males and females (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.523), occurred most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and was often located at the canine to premolar area. PMID:24478956

  9. JUICE: a European mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitrij; Dougherty, Michele K.; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Barabash, Stas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Iess, Luciano; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Hussmann, Hauke; Langevin, Yves; Jaumann, Ralf; Altobelli, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Gurvits, Leonid; Gladstone, Randy; Erd, Christian; Hartogh, Paul; Bruzz, Lorenzo

    ) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a particle package (PEP) including plasma and energetic particle sensors, neutral gas mass spectrometer, and two ENA imagers, a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The launch of the JUICE spacecraft is foreseen in June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030, the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 years tour in the Jovian system investigating the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. Gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys aiming at raising the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. More than 10 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The presentation will give a status of the JUICE mission in the end of the definition phase, its science scenario, observation strategy, and the payload.

  10. On the Origin of System III Asymmetries in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Delamere, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Io plasma torus exhibits several intriguing asymmetries which offer insights to the processes that transport mass and energy through the system. While these asymmetries are increasingly well described observationally, most still lack physical explanations. One important asymmetry is fixed in the coordinate system corotating with Jupiter's magnetic field. Space-based and ground-based observations have shown that torus ions are hotter and more highly ionized around System III 20 deg. Our simulations show that this type of torus asymmetry can be caused by enhanced pickup of fresh ions from Io's neutral clouds near these longitudes. The enhancement is caused primarily by the tilt and offset of the torus relative to the neutral clouds. We will report on the model parameters required to match the observed asymmetries, and offer predictions which will allow a test of this hypothesis.

  11. ULF waves in the Io torus: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Naiguo; Kellogg, P. J.; Macdowell, R. J.; Mei, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Canu, P.; De Villedary, C.; Rezeau, L.; Balogh, L.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Io torus, Ulysses has observed intense ultralow frequency (ULF) wave activity in both electric and magnetic components. Such ULF waves have been previously suggested as the source of ion precipitation leading to Jovian aurorae. The peaks of the wave spectra are closely related to the ion cyclotron frequencies, which is evidence of the waves being ion cyclotron waves (ICWs). Analysis of the dispersion relation using a multicomponent density model shows that at high latitudes (approximately 30 deg), peak frequencies of the waves fall into L mode branches of guided or unguided ICWs. Near the equator, in addition to the ICWs below f(sub cO(2+)), there are strong signals at approximately 10 Hz which require an unexpectedly large energetic ion temperature anistropy to be explained by the excitation of either convective or nonconvective ion cyclotron instabilities. Their generation mechanism remains open for the future study. Evaluation of the Poynting vector and the dispersion relation analysis suggest that the waves near the equator had a small wave angle relative to the magnetic field, while those observed at high latitudes were more oblique. The polarization of the waves below f(sub cH(+)) is more random than that of the whistler mode waves, but left-hand-polarized components of the waves can still be seen. The intensity of the ICWs both near the equator and at high latitudes are strong enough to meet the requirement for producing strong pitch angle scattering of energetic ions.

  12. Jovian narrow-band as generator of the Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.

    2000-11-01

    We report on the narrow-band emissions observed in the dynamic spectra of the Jovian decametric radio emissions. Such narrow-band emissions are infrequent phenomena and are related to the Jovian millisecond radio bursts (S-bursts). From the Riihimaa catalogue (Riihimaa 1991) we select narrow-band events observed in Oulu (Finland) with an acousto-optic spectrograph (AOS) with a high time resolution of about 7 ms. The AOS receiver gives the possibility to study the relationship between the S-bursts and the Jovian narrow-band emissions. For this we use the Riihimaa classification which shows sketches of millisecond radio bursts as they appear on the dynamic spectra and allows to distinguish one S-burst from another. The analysis of the temporal evolution of the Jovian narrow-band leads to a new interpretation of the Riihimaa structures. We show that each individual structure could be decomposed in one, two or three components and related to the narrow-band. It appears that the temporal evolution of the narrow-band involves the presence of fine structures, i.e. S-bursts, with a short time duration of about few tens of milliseconds. The individual S-burst duration and the short time scale of the gap in the narrow-band account for a mechanism totally intrinsic to the radio source. Taking into consideration our new results, we show that two models, the feedback model (Calvert 1982) and filamentary model (Louarn 1997) could explain part but not the global observed features of the narrow-band. According to the previous models the drift rate of the individual S-bursts seems to associate the combined effect of the source width with the refractive index or the geometry of the source relatively to the observer.

  13. The Orbits of the Regular Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R.

    2014-04-01

    At the conclusion of the Galileo Mission we produced ephemerides for the Galilean and four inner Jovian satellites, Amalthea, Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis [1]. The satellite orbits were determined by fitting a data set that included Earthbased astrometry through 2001 and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, and Galileo spacecraft. The spacecraft tracking data provided additional information on the Jovian system gravity parameters. In preparation for the Juno mission currently enroute to Jupiter, we have been developing new ephemerides from updated satellite orbits. As before, the orbits are determined through a comprehensive data fit which also redetermines the gravity parameters and spacecraft trajectories to be consistent with the revised satellite orbits. Our standard model for the orbits, both satellite and spacecraft, is a numerical integration of their equations of motion. We include the gravitational effects of the point mass mutual interactions of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, and Amalthea (Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis are assumed to be massless), the effects of an oblate Jupiter, and perturbations from the Sun and planets. For our new orbits we also take into account the effects of tides raised on Jupiter by the satellites. Lainey et al. [4] have pointed out the importance of the tidal accelerations. The spacecraft are also affected by nongravitational forces, e.g., solar radiation pressure, trajectory correction maneuvers. These forces are discussed by several authors [2, 3, 5]. Our current data set is an expansion of that used previously. We have extended the Galilean satellite Earthbased astrometry back to 1891 and forward to 2013 and the inner satellite astrometry back to 1892 and forward to 2002. We added the Galilean satellite mutual events from 2003 and 2009, the Galilean satellite eclipse timings from 1878 to 2013, and the Earthbased radar ranges to Ganymede and Callisto measured in 1992. We also augmented our spacecraft data

  14. Jovian Chromophore Characteristics from Multispectral HST Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The chromophores responsible for coloring the jovian atmosphere are embedded within Jupiter's vertical aerosol structure. Sunlight propagates through this vertical distribution of aerosol particles, whose colors are defined by omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda), and we remotely observe the culmination of the radiative transfer as I/F(lambda). In this study, we employed a radiative transfer code to retrieve omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) for particles in Jupiter's tropospheric haze at seven wavelengths in the near-UV and visible regimes. The data consisted of images of the 2008 passage of Oval BA to the south of the Great Red Spot obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. We present derived particle colors for locations that were selected from 14 weather regions, which spanned a large range of observed colors. All omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves were absorbing in the blue, and omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) increased monotonically to approximately unity as wavelength increased. We found accurate fits to all omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curves using an empirically derived functional form: omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) = 1 A exp(-B lambda). The best-fit parameters for the mean omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) curve were A = 25.4 and B = 0.0149 for lambda in units of nm. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on our omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) results and found that one or two independent chromophores were sufficient to produce the variations in omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda). A PCA of I/F(lambda) for the same jovian locations resulted in principal components (PCs) with roughly the same variances as the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA, but they did not result in a one-to-one mapping of PC amplitudes between the omega-bar (sub 0)(lambda) PCA and I/F(lambda) PCA. We suggest that statistical analyses performed on I/ F(lambda) image cubes have limited applicability to the characterization of chromophores in the jovian atmosphere due to the sensitivity of 1/ F

  15. Radial guiding-center drifts and omnigenity in bumpy-torus confinement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Catto, P. J.

    1982-07-01

    Collisional transport of a high temperature plasma across the confining field of a bumpy torus magnetic confinement system which depends sensitively upon the functional form of the radial quiding center drift, and thus upon details of the confinement geometry is discussed. A general and relatively explicit formula for the radial drift is derived, using the large aspect-ratio results of a previous equilibrium study. Allowance is made for: (1) arbitrary toroidal variation of the confining field; (2) field distortion due to plasma currents; (3) noncircular deformation of the toroidal field coils. The analysis pertains only to the plasma core, and not to the high beta annuli (electron rings) which are usually present in experiments. The question of bumpy torus omnigenity whether any bumpy torus field configuration is consistent with a vanishing, or nearly vanishing, radial drift, is also investigated. It is found that omnigenity does not occur in the vicinity of the magnetic axis.

  16. Final report on the LLNL compact torus acceleration project

    SciTech Connect

    Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.; Hartman, C.; McLean, H.; Molvik, A.

    1995-03-19

    In this report, we summarize recent work at LLNL on the compact torus (CT) acceleration project. The CT accelerator is a novel technique for projecting plasmas to high velocities and reaching high energy density states. The accelerator exploits magnetic confinement in the CT to stably transport plasma over large distances and to directed kinetic energies large in comparison with the CT internal and magnetic energy. Applications range from heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices, generation of intense pulses of x-rays or neutrons for weapons effects and high energy-density fusion concepts.

  17. The condensate from torus knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, A.; Milekhin, A.; Sopenko, N.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss recently formulated instanton-torus knot duality in Ω-deformed 5D SQED on {{R}}^4× {S}^1 focusing at the microscopic aspects of the condensate formation in the instanton ensemble. Using the chain of dualities and geometric transitions we embed the SQED with a surface defect into the SU(2) SQCD with N f = 4 and identify the numbers ( n, m) of the torus T n, m knot as instanton charge and electric charge. The HOMFLY torus knot invariants in the fundamental representation provide entropic factor in the condensate of the massless flavor counting the degeneracy of the instanton-W-boson web with instanton and electric numbers ( n, m) but different spin and flavor content. Using the inverse geometrical transition we explain how our approach is related to the evaluation of the HOMFLY invariants in terms of Wilson loop in 3d CS theory. The reduction to 4D theory is briefly considered and some analogy with baryon vertex is conjectured.

  18. Correlating east-west asymmetries in the Jovian magnetosphere and the Io sodium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, W. H.; Combi, M. R.

    1987-09-01

    Three east-west intensity asymmetries in the Jupiter system that would appear to an earth observer in optical S+, extreme ultraviolet S++ and optical Na emissions are reviewed. The three asymmetries imply that some combination of the plasma torus number densities and electron temperature is, on the long-term average, larger west of Jupiter than east of Jupiter. A small east-to-west electric field, previously proposed to explain the ion intensity asymmetries, is also shown to provide a natural explanation for the sodium intensity asymmetry. A long-term average east-to-west electric field of about 3 mV/m and a corresponding west-to-east offset of about 0.16 Jupiter radii for the plasma torus at Io's orbital distance are implied. On a shorter time scale, the east-west electric field appears to be time variable and may be readily monitored from earth by observations of the sodium cloud.

  19. Correlating east-west asymmetries in the Jovian magnetosphere and the Io sodium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Three east-west intensity asymmetries in the Jupiter system that would appear to an earth observer in optical S+, extreme ultraviolet S++ and optical Na emissions are reviewed. The three asymmetries imply that some combination of the plasma torus number densities and electron temperature is, on the long-term average, larger west of Jupiter than east of Jupiter. A small east-to-west electric field, previously proposed to explain the ion intensity asymmetries, is also shown to provide a natural explanation for the sodium intensity asymmetry. A long-term average east-to-west electric field of about 3 mV/m and a corresponding west-to-east offset of about 0.16 Jupiter radii for the plasma torus at Io's orbital distance are implied. On a shorter time scale, the east-west electric field appears to be time variable and may be readily monitored from earth by observations of the sodium cloud.

  20. Large amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Smith, C. W.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves upstream of Jupiter's bow shock are analyzed. The waves are found to be right circularly polarized in the solar wind frame which suggests that they are propagating in the fast magnetosonic mode. A complete spectral and minimum variance eigenvalue analysis of the data was performed. The power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations contains several peaks. The fluctuations at 2.3 mHz have a direction of minimum variance along the direction of the average magnetic field. The direction of minimum variance of these fluctuations lies at approximately 40 deg. to the magnetic field and is parallel to the radial direction. We argue that these fluctuations are waves excited by protons reflected off the Jovian bow shock. The inferred speed of the reflected protons is about two times the solar wind speed in the plasma rest frame. A linear instability analysis is presented which suggests an explanation for many of the observed features of the observations.

  1. Energetic particles in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Teegarden, B. J.; Webber, W. R.; Roelof, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed account of the Pioneer 10 encounter with Jupiter is presented. Flux time histories of electrons and protons are given over a wide energy band. Proton and electron energy spectra are given at various Jovicentric distances. Proton spectra are shown to transform from a power law with indices in the 3-4.2 range to more nearly exponential forms in the inner regions. Extensive data are presented on the angular distributions of protons and electrons at various locations in the Jovicentric magnetosphere. In addition, a harmonic analysis of 1-2 MeV proton angular distributions was performed. Alpha/proton ratios are given as a function of Jovian radius and are compared to the earth and solar wind values.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Under this grant we have undertaken a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation and data analysis studies to help better understand the configuration and dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere. We approached our studies of Jupiter's magnetosphere in two ways. First we carried out a number of studies using our existing MHD code. We carried out simulation studies of Jupiter s magnetospheric boundaries and their dependence on solar wind parameters, we studied the current systems which give the Jovian magnetosphere its unique configuration and we modeled the dynamics of Jupiter s magnetosphere following a northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Second we worked to develop a new simulation code for studies of outer planet magnetospheres.

  3. Performance of a 12-coil superconducting 'bumpy torus' magnet facility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis 'bumpy torus' facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm ID and capable of 3.0 tesla on their axes. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Final shakedown tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The facility is now ready for use as a plasma physics research facility. A maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis of 3.23 teslas has been held for a period of more than sixty minutes without a coil normalcy.

  4. Mass and energy balance of the cold Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, M. A.; Barbosa, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    A new model of the cold Io torus is described. Ions and energy are injected into the system by independent processes so that the mass balance is isolated from the energy balance. The primary source of energy is local ionization and acceleration of hot pickup ions resulting from charge exchange between thermal ions and an extended cloud of Iogenic sulfur and oxygen atoms. The primary energy loss mechanism of the plasma is collisionally excited line emission at optical wavelengths. The primary ion source is radial diffusion inward from the hot torus on a time scale of 140-710 days. The primary ion loss mechanism is a novel two-step enhanced recombination mechanism involving charge exchange between thermal ions and an extended cloud of neutral SO2 molecules, followed by rapid dissociative recombination of the resultant molecular ion. The model provides a self-consistent solution which reconciles a number of diverse observations with known physical processes.

  5. Processes of Neutral Winds in the Jovian Thermospehere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, T.; Waite, J. H.; Bougher, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; Bell, J.

    2012-09-01

    Recent analysis of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the Jovian aurora indicates the presence of highspeed neutral winds in Jupiter's thermosphere. While existing 1-D models are useful for understanding global averages of the Jovian thermosphere, 3-D models can provide significant insight into the regional importance of various dynamical processes. We use our fully coupled 3-D Jupiter Thermosphere General Circulation Model (JTGCM) to quantify wind processes that are responsible for generating neutral winds in the auroral thermosphere from 20 μbar to 10-4 nbar self-consistently with the thermal structure and compositions (ion and neutral). The heat sources in the JTGCM that drive the global neutral flow are high-latitude joule heating, resulting from frictional motion of ions relative to neutrals, and charge particle heating from auroral particle impact. These sources of high-latitude heating in the JTGCM are strongly related to the current system in the outer magnetosphere that allows plasma to flow in and out of the Jovian ionosphere. Due to Jupiter's rapid rotation, the mapping of this flow at ionospheric heights gives rise to an ion drag process in addition to Coriolis torque that appears to dominate the neutral momentum forcing near the altitude of the ionospheric peak. We find that for a rapidly rotating Jupiter, ion drag and joule heating inputs in the JTGCM significantly intensify the underlying global thermospheric dynamics and develop strong pressure gradients in the auroral oval regions, thereby affecting zonal and meridional winds. The zonal flow of neutral winds in the auroral ovals of both hemispheres is primarily driven by competition between the magnitudes of accelerations resulting from Coriolis forcing and ion drag processes near the ionospheric peak. However, above the ionospheric peak (<0.01 μbar), the acceleration of neutral flow due to pressure gradients in the upper thermosphere is found to be the most effective source of zonal winds

  6. Observations of Europa's Extended Atmosphere and Torus; Oxygen and the Discovery of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Shemansky, D. E.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2003-05-01

    Cassini UVIS observed Europa in January 2001. With 0.25 mrad resolution we identify Europa as a point source of e- + O2 oxygen emission. We also recognize a spatially broader source apparently produced by electron and photon excitation of atomic oxygen. This second emission source may be indicative of a torus of atomic oxygen. Atomic hydrogen emission suggests a strong peak at Europa merged with a more complex spatially extended distribution, partially from a different source. UVIS observed Europa and its environment with 0.48 nm spectral resolution. The UVIS slit, with 64 spatial pixels, was oriented perpendicular to Jupiter's equatorial plane. The total extent of the slit was such that spatial coverage extended well beyond the orbital planes of the Galilean satellites. The total integration time in the January 6 observation was 17,000 seconds, and on January 12 integration time was 41,000 seconds. The UVIS data clearly shows the 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm emission features first detected by HST and attributed by Hall et al (1995) to a bound O2 atmosphere at Europa. These are actually atomic oxygen emission lines and using the intrinsic capability of the UVIS instrument we are able to identify both a closely bound O2 component to Europa's atmosphere and an extended atomic oxygen component. We will discuss the compatibility of our results with the torus of neutrals in Europa's orbit first reported by Mauk et al (2003) using the Cassini INCA instrument. We can identify the composition of this torus to be almost entirely hydrogen. Atomic oxygen forms a very minor component. We find the torus to be much smaller in extent than they reported, with a diameter of just 0.3 Jovian radii. Part of this work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Technology.

  7. Distribution of Heavy Ions in the Jovian Magnetosphere from Re-Analysis of Voyager PLS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, L.; Bagenal, F.; Wilson, R. J.; Bodisch, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is populated with heavy ions produced by ionization of volcanic gases from Io. The 1979 flybys of the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft through the Jovian system provided in situ measurements of plasma properties by the Plasma Science (PLS) instruments. Re-analysis of the Voyager 1 and 2 PLS data, combined with constraints from EUV emissions, allow a more detailed description of the distribution of heavier ions throughout the entire Jovian magnetosphere. The PLS instrument on the Voyager spacecraft had a large angle of view, with 4 Faraday cups covering different portions of the sky. This allows for an accurate determination of the properties of the plasma, including density, temperature, and flow speed, assuming a convected Maxwellian distribution. We determine densities of S+, S++, S+++, O+, and O++ ions mapped out to 30 RJ. Because the instrument measures a current as a function of energy/charge, there is an ambiguity in the measurement of the density of the dominant species O+ and S++. To resolve this issue we use a chemistry model to constrain the relative amounts of these two species throughout the magnetosphere.

  8. Minimisation of the Hydrogenic Inventory of the ITER Neutral Beamline and Torus Cryo-Sorption Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wykes, M

    2005-07-15

    The tritium inventory of all the ITER torus cryopumps open to the vacuum vessel has an administrative limit of 120 g, including tritium bound to hydrocarbon compounds formed by combination of fuel gas with carbon plasma-facing components. The total hydrogenic inventory of each of the torus cryopumps has to be less than that resulting in a deflagration pressure of 0.2 MPa (the design pressure of the ITER vacuum vessel of which the torus and neutral beam cryopump pressure boundaries are a part) following a hydrogen-air ignition. Since the neutral beamline fuelling is with protium and deuterium only, these pumps do not significantly contribute to the 120 g tritium limit. The hydrogenic inventories of both the torus and neutral beam cryopumps add to the total for the vacuum vessel following an in-vessel ingress of coolant from a failed water-cooled component, wherein hydrogen is produced from steam reacting with hot metallic dust. There is therefore a large incentive to keep the peak inventories of both the torus and neutral beamline cryopumps as low as practicable. The paper describes the regeneration patterns of the torus and neutral beamline cryopumps that are used to attain this goal while achieving the required vacuum conditions commensurate with the reference ITER pulse scenarios.

  9. The Ionosphere of Io and Its Interaction with the Jovian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, J.

    In this talk we will review the mechanisms that form, maintain, and control Io's unique ionosphere. We will discuss how Io's ionosphere is the cause of the violent plasma interaction between Io and the Jovian magnetosphere. Thereby we strongly focus on the progress in our understanding of Io's ionosphere and plasma interaction due to the rich set of Galileo spacecraft and recent ground based observations such as the Hubble Space Telescope. We will discuss, in particular, the structure of Io's ionosphere. We study the total ionospheric pickup rate and other total rates such as the elastic collision rate to distinguish between a comet-like and an ionosphere-like electrodynamic interaction. In addition, we show how the plasma and field measurements of the Galileo spacecraft probe the feedback mechanisms between Io's atmosphere, ionosphere, and the magnetosphere.

  10. First results from the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Lovell, T.W.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    The first period of physics operation of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch ({ital Plasma} {ital Physics} {ital and} {ital Controlled} {ital Nuclear} {ital Fusion} {ital Research} 1988 (IAEA, Vienna, 1989), Vol 2, p. 757) has produced information on sawtooth oscillations, edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations, and equilibrium parameters at large plasma size. Sawtooth oscillations are prevalent at all values of pinch parameter and might constitute discrete dynamo events. Both electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations are of sufficient magnitude to be relevant to transport in the reversed field pinch. In the plasmas studied to date (up to a plasma current of 0.5 MA) the poloidal beta value is about 10% or greater.

  11. REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SPHERICAL TORUS EXPERIMENT RESEARCH RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Menard, J. E.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Diem, S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Hill, K. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mansfield, D. K.; Majeski, R. P.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Myra, J. R.; Park, H. K.; Paul, S. F.

    2009-07-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas, with toroidal aspect ratio as low as 1.25 and plasma currents up to 1.5 MA, which can be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves and up to 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. With these capabilities, NSTX has already made considerable progress in advancing the scientific understanding of high performance plasmas needed for low-aspect-ratio reactor concepts and for ITER. In transport and turbulence research on NSTX, the role of magnetic shear is being elucidated in discharges in which electron energy transport barriers are observed. Scaling studies indicate a weaker dependence on plasma current than at conventional aspect ratio and a significant dependence on toroidal field (B{sub T}).

  12. Physics Basis for a Spherical Torus Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; J. Menard; S.C. Jardin; T.K. Mau; et al

    1999-11-01

    The spherical torus, or low-aspect-ratio tokamak, is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. A special class of wall-stabilized high-beta high-bootstrap fraction low-aspect-ratio tokamak equilibrium are analyzed with respect to MHD stability, bootstrap current and external current drive, poloidal field system requirements, power and particle exhaust and plasma operating regime. Overall systems optimization leads to a choice of aspect ratio A = 1:6, plasma elongation kappa = 3:4, and triangularity delta = 0:64. The design value for the plasma toroidal beta is 50%, corresponding to beta N = 7:4, which is 10% below the ideal stability limit. The bootstrap fraction of 99% greatly alleviates the current drive requirements, which are met by tangential neutral beam injection. The design is such that 45% of the thermal power is radiated in the plasma by Bremsstrahlung and trace Krypton, with Neon in the scrapeoff layer radiating the remainder.

  13. Plasmadynamic hypervelocity dust injector for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticoş, Cǎtǎlin M.; Wang, Zhehui; Dorf, Leonid A.; Wurden, Glen A.

    2006-10-01

    The design and construction of a plasmadynamic device to accelerate dust to hypervelocities is presented. High speed dust will be used to measure magnetic field lines in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The plasma gun produces a high density (ne≈1018cm-3) and low temperature (a few eV) deuterium plasma, ejected by J ×B forces which provide drag on the dust particles in its path. The dust will be entrained by the plasma to velocities of 1-30km/s, depending on the dust mass. Carbon dust particles will be used, with diameters from 1to50μm. The key components of the plasmadynamic accelerator are a coaxial plasma gun operated at 10kV (with an estimated discharge current of 200kA), a dust dispenser activated by a piezoelectric transducer, and power and remote-control systems.

  14. Substantial Io Torus Variability 1998-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Morris, R.; Park, A.; Kueppers, M.

    2001-11-01

    Analysis of torus observations from the KPNO 4m telescope during the Cassini encounter suggest that the structure of the torus was different from recent years based on comparable long-slit spectra. Specifically, the brightest S+ 6731Å emission came from the cold torus, not the ribbon or warm torus. This is not to say that the ribbon had disappeared: it is still evident in our data but it does not dominate the spatial profile as it has in observations in 1998 and 1999. In 1998-1999, the cold torus appeared as a bump on the inside edge of the ribbon. In 2000, the cold torus is well resolved from the ribbon, and brighter than the ribbon at virtually all longitudes. Further analysis will determine if the spatial change is accompanied by luminosity changes, and whether the torus density or ionization state has changed. Comparison with Cassini and other groundbased observations may place the variability in context, though sufficent data are probably not available to determine the cause or effect of the torus variability. This work has been supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program

  15. Helicity Injected Torus Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Aboulhosn, R. Z.; Akcay, C.; Hamp, W. T.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Sutphin, G. L.; Wrobel, J. S.; Mueller, D.; Roquemore, L.

    2006-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT--SI) spheromak experiment [Sieck, Nucl. Fusion v.46, p.254 (2006)] addresses critical issues for spheromaks, including current drive, high-beta operation, confinement quality and efficient steady-state operation. HIT--SI has a ``bow-tie'' shaped axisymmetric confinement region (major radius R=0.33 m, axial extent of 0.57 m) and two half-torus helicity injectors, one mounted on each end of the flux conserver. HIT--SI has produced spheromaks with up to 30 kA of toroidal current, using less than 4 MW of applied power, demonstrating that Steady Inductive Helicity Injection can generate and sustain discharges with modest power requirements. Fast camera images of HIT--SI discharges indicate a toroidally rotating n=1 structure, driven by the helicity injectors. The direction of the toroidal current is determined by the direction of rotation of the driven n=1. Measured surface and internal magnetic fields in HIT--SI discharges are consistent with that of the true 3D Taylor state, including the injectors. Recent HIT--SI physics studies, diagnostic improvements and machine upgrades will also be summarized.

  16. Idealized Voyager Jovian magnetosphere shape and field

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, I.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A magnetic field arising from the Jovian equatorial sheet current deduced from Voyager 1 and 2 observations has been added to a planetary dipole field to provide a model of magnetic field inside the magnetopause. This internal field was used to calculate the magnetopause surface in a cyclic process. During each cycle, the surface was calculated, and the resulting field due to currents on the magnetopause was calculated for inclusion in the total field used to calculate the next-order surface. The resulting magnetopause is, as anticipated, flatter in shape than one resulting primarily from a dipole internal field source, but not dissimilar in overall height-to-width configuration to that of the magnetopause calculated for the larger inflated magnetopause observed by Pioneer 10. An array of magnetic field values for locations internal and external to the magnetopause due to currents on the surface has been computed by integrating over the entire magnetopause. A model for the total magnetospheric field of this semi-inflated magnetosphere has been constructed by adding this latter contribution to the internal source fields to obtain a global model of a semi-inflated Jovianlike magnetospheric field. The magnitude of the contribution of the surface currents to the total magnetic field in the region of the orbits of the Galilean satellites is calculated to be considerably larger for this Voyager model than for the Pioneer model.

  17. Energetic protons in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, F. B.; Schardt, A. W.; Trainor, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The time histories, angular distributions and energy spectra of energetic protons were measured over an energy range extending from 0.2 - 20 MeV for the four passes of Pioneers 10 and 11 through the Jovian magnetosphere. Azimuthal asymmetries appear to dominate with time variations also contributing to the very complex topology. On the inbound P-10 pass the expected corotation anisotropy was not observed in the outer magnetosphere supporting the probable existence of a planetary wind in this region. Near the dawn meredian particle streaming away from the planet begins at about 15 RJ. On both the P-10 inbound and P-11 outbound passes, there are regions where only partial corotation is achieved. In the mid-magnetosphere, field-aligned streaming away from the near-equatorial current sheet region is the most prominent feature. At mid-latitudes in the subsolar regime, the streaming pattern is more chaotic and its magnitude is smaller. Qualitative discussions are presented for a number of possible mechanisms which could produce this streaming.

  18. Rotation lightcurves of small jovian Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Sieben, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We present new lightcurve information for 19 Trojans ≲ 30 km in diameter, more than doubling the number of objects in this size range for which some rotation information is known. The minimum densities for objects with complete lightcurves are estimated and are found to be comparable to those measured for cometary nuclei. A significant fraction (∼40%) of this observed small Trojan population rotates slowly (P > 24 h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner, B.D., Stephens, R.D. [2011]. Minor Planet Bull. 38, 110-111). The excess of slow rotators may be due to the YORP effect. Results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggest that the distribution of Trojan rotation rates is dissimilar to those of Main Belt Asteroids of the same size. Concerted observations of a large number of Trojans could establish the spin barrier (Warner, B.D., Harris, A.W., Pravec, P. [2009]. Icarus 202, 134-146), making it possible to estimate densities for objects near the critical period.

  19. Water in the Jovian Trojan Asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin

    2007-05-01

    Water, as a major constituent of the solar nebula, is believed to have played an important role in shaping the Solar System. In the terrestrial region, the concentration of water vapor is expected to determine the local oxidation state and chemical structure. Beyond 5 AU, water ice makes up nearly 50% of the mass of the solids and may have strongly influenced the formation of the giant planets. In addition, liquid water is thought to be necessary for life, as we know it, to form and survive. Jovian Trojan asteroids are orbiting the Sun at nearly the same heliocentric distance as Jupiter. Since these objects are located far from the Sun , they could contain significant amounts of volatile materials (e.g. water ice). We have obtained near-IR spectroscopic data of Trojan asteroids at H and K-band (from 1.4 - 2.5 micron) using the UKIRT, IRTF and Subaru telescopes on Mauna Kea. Our goal is to look for evidence of water ice, hydrated minerals and hydrocarbon features in order to determine compositions of Trojan asteroids and their possible origin. We will present the near-IR spectroscopic data and discuss the analysis and implications of these observations.

  20. DISCOVERY OF TWO ADDITIONAL JOVIAN IRREGULARS

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersen, M.; Gladman, B.; Veillet, C.; Jacobson, R.; Brozovic, M.; Rousselot, P.

    2012-07-15

    We report on the discovery of two previously undetected irregular satellites of Jupiter (S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2) during recovery observations of other known satellites. S/2010 J 1 was discovered with the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope on September 7 UT of 2011, while S/2010 J 2 was discovered on September 8 with the 3.5 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The satellites have r-band magnitudes of 23.2 {+-} 0.3 and 24.0 {+-} 0.3, for S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2, respectively, indicating diameters of {approx}2-3 km. Both S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2 are on bound retrograde orbits. Time-averaged integrated orbits suggest the association to the Carme and Ananke groups, respectively. Given that the satellites were discovered within a small field during the routine observations of the previously known irregulars, their discovery agrees with predictions that other moons of similar sizes remain undetected in the Jovian Hill sphere.

  1. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium in Hot Jovians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Mandell, Avi; Hébrard, Eric; Venot, Olivia; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that equilibrium chemistry is usually achieved deep in the atmosphere of hot Jovians where timescales are short (Line and Yung 2013). Thus, equilibrium chemistry has been used as a starting point (setting initial conditions) for evaluating disequilibrium processes. We explore parameters of setting these initial conditions including departures from solar metallicity, the number of species allowed in a system, the types of species allowed in a system, and different thermodynamic libraries in an attempt to create a standard for evaluating equilibrium chemistry. NASA's open source code Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) is used to calculate model planet abundances by varying the metallicity, in the pressure regime 0.1 to 1 bar. These results are compared to a variety of exoplanets(Teq between 600 and 2100K) qualitatively by color maps of the dayside with different temperature redistributions. Additionally, CEA (with an up-dated thermodynamic library) is compared with the thermochemical model presented in Venotet al. (2012) for HD 209458b and HD 189733b. This same analysis is then applied to the cooler planet HD 97658b. Spectra are generated and we compare both models' outputs using the open source codetransit (https://github.com/exosports/transit) using the opacities of 15 molecules. We make the updated CEA thermodyanamic library and supporting Python scripts to do the CEA analyses available open source. Thiswork was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G.

  2. Research support for plasma diagnostics on Elmo Bumpy Torus - development of a multichannel Hall-probe based diamagnetic diagnostic instrument and observation and modeling of EBT electron rings. Final report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H.; Booker, R.H.

    1983-10-01

    Use of multiple Hall effect probes is a cost effective way to observe diamagnetic fields from the hot electron rings in the Elmo Bumpy Torus device at several locations simultaneously. A special diagnostic instrument has been developed having six Hall probe channels with the sensitivity and stability needed for the diamagnetic measurements. The instrument uses an AC carrier system with isolation transformers located remotely from the instrument and near the probe locations. Details of instrument design as well as operating instructions for it are included in this report.

  3. PINCHED PLASMA REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.A.; Suydam, R.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-07-01

    BS>A plasma confining and heating reactor is described which has the form of a torus with a B/sub 2/ producing winding on the outside of the torus and a helical winding of insulated overlapping tunns on the inside of the torus. The inner helical winding performs the double function of shielding the plasma from the vitreous container and generating a second B/sub z/ field in the opposite direction to the first B/sub z/ field after the pinch is established.

  4. A feasibility study for the spherical torus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1985-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes to build the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX), a very low aspect ratio toroidal confinement device. This proposal concentrates on tokamak operation of the experiment; however, it can in principle be operated as a pinch or reversed-field pinch as well. As a tokamak, the spherical torus confines a plasma that is characterized by high toroidal beta, low poloidal beta, large natural elongation, high plasma current for a given edge q, and strong paramagnetism. These features combine to offer the possibility of a compact, low-field fusion device. The figure below shows that when compared to a conventional tokamak the spherical torus represents a major change in geometry. The primary goals of the experiment will be to demonstrate a capability for high beta (20%) in the first stability regime, to extend our knowledge of tokamak confinement scaling, and to test oscillating-field current drive. The experiment will operate in the high-beta, collisionless regime, which is achieved in STX at low temperatures because of the geometry. At a minimum, operation of STX will help to resolve fundamental questions regarding the scaling of beta and confinement in tokamaks. Complete success in this program would have a significant impact on toroidal fusion research in that it would demonstrate solutions to the problems of beta and steady-state operation in the tokamak. The proposed device has a major radius of 0.45 m, a toroidai field of 0.5 T, a plasma current of 900 kA, and heating by neutral beam injection. We estimate 30 months for design, construction, and assembly. The budget estimate, including contingency and escalation, is $6.8 million.

  5. Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Seah, Y H

    1995-10-01

    The torus has been mentioned in the literature for about 180 years. However, little has been revealed about it until the last two decades when great advances were made in the field of genetics. Its occurrence in various ethnic groups ranges from 9 to 66 per cent. Even between similar ethnic groups living in different environments, different figures have been reported. It has been statistically proven that differences do occur between various ethnic groups and the sexes. In current thinking, the occurrence of tori is considered to be an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The quasi-continuous genetic or threshold model seems to hold the answers to their formation. This theory proposes that the environmental factors responsible must first reach a threshold level before the genetic factors can express themselves in the individual. Hence, both genetic and environmental factors determine liability, making the system multifactorial. PMID:8629961

  6. New Capabilities and Results for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.M. Kaye, H. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, F.M. Levinton, R. Maingi, J.E. Menard, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, D. Stutman and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-02-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas with toroidal aspect ratio as low as 1.25, which can be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves and up to 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. Using new poloidal fields coils, plasmas with cross-section elongation up to 2.7, triangularity 0.8, plasma currents Ip up to 1.5 MA and normalized currents Ip/a·BT up to 7.5 MA/m·T have been achieved. A significant extension of the plasma pulse length, to 1.5 s at a plasma current of 0.7 MA, has been achieved by exploiting the bootstrap and NBI-driven currents to reduce the dissipation of poloidal flux. Inductive plasma startup has been supplemented by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and the production of persistent current on closed flux surfaces by CHI has now been demonstrated in NSTX. The plasma response to magnetic field perturbations with toroidal mode numbers n = 1 or 3 and the effects on the plasma rotation have been investigated using three pairs of coils outside the vacuum vessel. Recent studies of both MHD stability and of transport benefitted from improved diagnostics, including measurements of the internal poloidal field using the motional Stark effect (MSE). In plasmas with a region of reversed magnetic shear in the core, now confirmed by the MSE data, improved electron confinement has been observed.

  7. Role of Magnetic Field Gradient on the Beaming Cone Flattening of Io-Controlled Jovian Decameter Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    A recent study of the angular distribution of the Jovian decameter radiation occurrence probability, relatively to the local magnetic field B and its gradient Grad B in the source region, revealed that the radio emission is beamed in a hollow cone presenting a flattening in a certain direction. In the present work, we investigate some physical reasons for the existence of such a flattening in the beam geometry. The Jovian decameter radiation, like the other auroral radio emissions emanating from the magnetized planets in the solar system, is known to be produced by the cyclotron maser instability (CMI). This mechanism allows the direct amplification of the waves through a resonant coupling between the electron population of the plasma and the electromagnetic waves with right circular polarization of the X mode. In a medium with axial symmetry, i.e., where B and Grad B are parallel, the maximum amplification is obtained for a particular value of the emergence angle relatively to the local magnetic field B. We suppose that the plasma is constituted of a cold component which supports the wave propagation and an energetic component which takes part in the growth of the waves by supplying the CMI with free energy. The angle corresponding to the maximum amplification is not constant anymore when B and Grad B are not parallel, so that the emission cone does not have any axial symmetry and then presents a flattening in a privileged direction. The topology of the magnetic field models (O6, VIP4, VIT4, VIPAL) developed for describing the Jovian magnetospheric environment seems to indicate that such a geometry exists in the case of the Io-controlled Jovian decameter radiation.

  8. Analogies between Jovian magnetodisk and heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, Roman; Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi

    Recently due to the development of spatial missions the famous model by E. Parker [1] faced with some problems, such as the effect of magnetic flux excess and the existence of latitude component of magnetic field [2]. Thus the incomplete knowledge about large scale current system of heliospheric current sheet (HCS) motivated us to construct and investigate the self-consistent axisymmetric stationary MHD model of HCS and to compare it with earlier presented model of Jupiterian magnetodisk [3]. Both HCS and magnetodisk have inner plasma sources (i.e. the Sun in case of HCS and satellite Io in case of Jupiter); also they depend on the centrifugal force at small distances and on corotation processes. They both have strong radial component of current density, thin elongated structure etc. Thus in the frame of the MHD model we have calculated for HCS the parallel currents (analogous to Jovian Birkeland currents) and we obtained the latitude component of the magnetic field. The results of the model allowed us to explain the magnetic flux excess by the existence of the self-consistent HCS magnetic field. The decrease of radial magnetic field from the distance from the Sun as the power -5/3 obtained by numerical calculations is in good agreement with experimental data. Generally this model can be applied for the quiet period of the low solar activity when the perturbation of HCS structure named “ballerina skirt” does not play any role. References: 1. Parker E. N., Astrophys. J., V. 128, 664, pp. 664-676, 1958. 2. Khabarova O. V., Астрономический журнал, V. 90, №11, pp. 919-935, 2013. 3. Kislov R.A. et al., Bull. MSU, Physics and Astron., 2013

  9. Initial Physics Operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment- Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Dennis; NSTX-U Team

    2015-11-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is an experiment designed to study the physics of Spherical Torus (ST) at about twice the toroidal field and neutral beam injection (NBI) power as NSTX for 5 s. at full parameters. In its initial operational period NSTX-U will limit operation to BT <= .75 T but the full complement of 6 neutral beam (NB) sources will be available. Three NB sources added during the upgrade inject more tangentially and will be essential to investigate the physics of neutral beam current drive. In NSTX-U, use of a digital real-time plasma control system and the application of wall conditioning techniques will be used to achieve routine operation with good confinement. The wall conditioning techniques include bakeout to over 300°C, helium glow discharge cleaning, boronization of the plasma facing surfaces using deuterated trimethylboron gas in a helium glow discharge and lithium evaporation onto the walls. Auxiliary heating by up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Waves will be available. The operational experience during the plasma commissioning phase will be discussed. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Neutral cloud and heavy ion inner torus at Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Pospieszalska, M.K.; Sittler, E.C. Jr.; Cheng, A.F.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1989-02-01

    Voyager plasma data are used in conjunction with laboratory data on water molecule sputter-yields and energy distributions to calculate the morphology of the Saturn neutral water molecule and dissociated water molecule-product torus coexisting with the E-ring and icy satellites of this planet. Plasma production rates determined for this cloud exhibit a structure with distance from Saturn as well as from the orbit plane; this suggests a lack of equilibrium for the heavy ion plasma at less than 7 planet radii. Attention is given to the possibility that the Saturn E-ring may be a precipitate of the neutral cloud that is initiated by low-energy ion-molecule reactions. 61 references.

  11. Three dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Ray tracing studies of Jovian low frequency emissions were studied. A comprehensive three-dimensional ray tracing computer code for examination of model Jovian decametric (DAM) emission was developed. The improvements to the computer code are outlined and described. The results of the ray tracings of Jovian emissions will be presented in summary form.

  12. Some possible effects of Jupiter's rings on the Jovian inner plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Walker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The ionospheric plasma density on magnetic field lines threading the Jovian rings which are located inside approximately 1.8 Jupiter radii on the jovigraphic equatorial plane is calculated by using a rotating ion exosphere model. It is found that the bulk of the ionospheric particles on these field lines are on ballistic trajectories. On field lines approximately symmetric with respect to the jovigraphic equator, the ring, which to a first approximation would absorb the population of trapped particles, consequently has little effect. On field lines which are made asymmetric by the higher-order multipoles of Jupiter's field and the tilt of the dipole axis, the rings may have a significant effect. It is suggested that better definition of the rings' atmospheric and ionospheric properties is required to model these localized effects. If the rings are found to be an important plasma source for the inner magnetosphere, the present exospheric model will have to be revised.

  13. An Ancient Storm in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been prepared for presentation by the Hubble Heritage Team.

  14. Next-step spherical torus experiment and spherical torus strategy in the course of development of fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Kessel, C.; Neumeyer, C.; Schmidt, J.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.; Grisham, L.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jarboe, T.; Jun, C.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Raman, R.; Stevenson, T.; Viola, M.; Wilson, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2004-03-01

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to the proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact component test facility (CTF) and high performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive Demo and power plant scale reactors. To provide the physical basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken, which we refer to as the 'next-step spherical torus' (NSST) device and which we examine in some detail herein. NSST is a 'performance extension' stage ST with a plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, BT les 2.6 T and the possibility of varying physical parameters. The mission of NSST is to (1) provide a sufficient physical basis for the design of a CTF; (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction and high performance which can be utilized by CTF, Demo, and power plants; and (3) contribute to the general science of high bgr toroidal plasmas. The NSST is designed to utilize a TFTR-like site to minimize the cost and time required for design and construction.

  15. Discussing the processes constraining the Jovian synchrotron radio emission's features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.

    2008-03-01

    Our recent analysis and understanding of the Jovian synchrotron radio emission with a radiation-belt model is presented. In this work, the electron population is determined by solving the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation and considering different physical processes. The results of the modeling are first compared to in situ particle data, brightness distributions, radio spectrum, and beaming curves to verify the simulated particle distributions. The dynamics of high-energy electrons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere and their related radio emission are then examined. The results demonstrate that the Jovian moons set the extension and intensity of the synchrotron emission's brightness distribution along the magnetic equator. Simulations show that moons and dust both control the transport toward the planet by significantly reducing the abundance of particles constrained to populate, near the equator and inside 1.8 Jovian radii, the innermost region of the magnetosphere. Due to interactions with dust and synchrotron mechanism, radiation-belt electrons are moved along field lines, between Metis (1.79 Jovian radii) and Amalthea (2.54 Jovian radii), toward high latitudes. The quantity of particles transported away from the equator is sufficient to produce measurable secondary radio emissions. Among all the phenomena acting in the inner magnetosphere, the moons (Amalthea and Thebe) are the primary moderator for the radiation's intensity at high latitudes. Moon losses also affect the characteristics of the total radio flux with longitude. The sweeping effect amplifies the 10-h modulation of the beaming curve's amplitude while energy resonances occurring near Amalthea and Thebe belong to phenomena adjusting it to the right level. Interactions with dust do not significantly constrain radio spectrum features. Resonances near Amalthea and Thebe are responsible for the Jovian radio spectrum's particular slope.

  16. Analysis and Modeling of Jovian Radio Emissions Observed by Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    Our studies of Jovian radio emission have resulted in the publication of five papers in refereed journals, with three additional papers in progress. The topics of these papers include the study of narrow-band kilometric radio emission; the apparent control of radio emission by Callisto; quasi-periodic radio emission; hectometric attenuation lanes and their relationship to Io volcanic activity; and modeling of HOM attenuation lanes using ray tracing. A further study of the control of radio emission by Jovian satellites is currently in progress. Abstracts of each of these papers are contained in the Appendix. A list of the publication titles are also included.

  17. On the proposed triggering of Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1985-09-01

    Calvert (1985) has proposed that solar type III radio bursts can trigger the onset of certain Jovian hectometer wavelength emissions. The authors show, using the data obtained by the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment, that this triggering hypothesis is not supported statistically. Furthermore, the authors question the causality of this proposed triggering because much of the Jovian hectometer emission is due to a quasi-continuous radio source rotating, in lighthouse fashion, with Jupiter. Thus, an observed "onset" of emission is simply a function of the observer's position in local time around Jupiter.

  18. On the proposed triggering of Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Calvert (1985) has proposed that a solar type III radio bursts can trigger the onset of certain Jovian hectometer wavelength emissions. It is shown, using the data obtained by the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment, that this triggering hypothesis is not supported statistically. Furthermore, the causality of this proposed triggering is questioned because much of the Jovian hectometer emission is due to a quasi-continuous radio source rotating, in lighthouse fashion, with Jupiter. Thus, an observed 'onset' of emission is simply a function of the observer's position in local time around Jupiter.

  19. Analysis of Jovian decametric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiments (PRA) have produced the finest set of Jovian decametric radio emission data ever obtained. Jovian decametric L-burst and S-burst arcs were characterized and the data reconciled with models for the radio emission geometry and mechanisms. The first major results involve comparisons of the distribution of arc separations with longitudes. The identification and analyses of systematic variations in the PRA data have yielded interesting results, but only the most obvious features of the data were examined. Analyses of the PRA data were extended with the use of new 6-Sec formats that are more sensitive to the S-bursts.

  20. Channel and physical models of the Jovian subnebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    A semiempirical physical model of the Jovian subnebula was developed by analogy with the primitive solar nebula itself. The chemical aspects of this model are developed according to the principles developed in the study of the thermochemistry and gas kinetic behavior of the solar nebula, but with important modifications to take into account the higher pressures and densities in the Jovian subnebula. The bulk compositions and densities of the inner satellites of Jupiter are calculated. It is proposed that Europa differs from Io chiefly in that in has suffered a less severe thermal history. The general features of this model are applicable with minor modification to the systems of Saturn and Uranus.

  1. Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection. PMID:27005472

  2. Wave signatures in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkaki, Panagiota; Dougherty, Michele

    2000-04-01

    Magnetometer data from the Ulysses Jupiter flyby are examined, in particular middle magnetosphere observations in the vicinity of the magnetodisk. Ion cyclotron waves are searched for in the heavy ion gyrofrequency regime (SO +2, SO +, K +, S +, Na +, O + and S ++). Power spectral peaks in the ion cyclotron frequency range from some of the dayside Ulysses magnetometer data have previously been described. Here we examine the dayside and high latitude duskside high resolution 1-s data. Ion cyclotron waves signatures are observed on several occasions both close to the magnetic equator and at some distance from it. Rippling and warping of the magnetodisk, as observed by Ulysses, could be the cause of such ion cyclotron signatures arising some distance away from the magnetic equator. Lower mass ions are observed further away from the planet and the heaviest mass ion signatures appear closer to the Io torus. Preliminary polarisation analysis of the observations is also presented and some theoretical implications of the wave signatures are discussed.

  3. [Surgery of palatal and mandibular torus].

    PubMed

    Castro Reino, O; Perez Galera, J; Perez Cosio Martin, J; Urbon Caballero, J

    1990-06-01

    Surgical techniques for the exeresis of torus, both palatal and mandibular. We observe indications, contraindications and complications as well as enumerate all the right events to realize correctly the said techniques. PMID:2206647

  4. Confinement of Neutral Beam Ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg

    2001-12-18

    The loss of neutral-beam ions to the wall has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by means of thermocouples, an infrared (IR) camera, and a Faraday cup probe. The losses tend to exhibit the expected dependences on plasma current, tangency radius of the injector, and plasma outer gap. However, the thermocouples and the Faraday cups indicate substantially different levels of loss and this difference has yet to be understood.

  5. Response of the Jovian thermosphere to variations in solar EUV flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Achilleos, Nick; Kita, Hajime

    2014-05-01

    Examining the response to solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is an established diagnostic method used to understand the physics of planetary environments. In this study, we focus on the response of the Jovian thermosphere to variations in the solar EUV flux and discuss the consequences for the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. We use a model that simulates both the thermospheric dynamics and the magnetospheric plasma velocity distribution under conditions of angular momentum transport between these regions. The simulations show that when the EUV flux increases by ~100% and 200%, the thermospheric neutral wind velocity at ~45° latitude increases by 16% and 22%, respectively. The short-term variation over a few Earth days causes an increased velocity at middle latitudes which are magnetically conjugate to the Jovian radiation belt. Increased heating due to solar EUV contributes to this velocity change. The other contribution arises ~30 planetary rotations after the initial solar EUV flux increase. This second ("delayed") effect is due to propagation of momentum from high latitudes (the auroral region), where Joule heating is dominant, and is related to the behavior of the ionospheric conductance and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents. The modeled velocity enhancement is smaller than that required to explain the observed enhancement of the synchrotron emission by radial diffusion of the trapped energetic electrons. In this context, we discuss the sensitivity of the underlying thermosphere-ionosphere response to short-wavelength solar radiation and the ensuing three-dimensional wind fields.

  6. An elementary model of torus canards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benes, G. Nicholas; Barry, Anna M.; Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Burke, John

    2011-06-01

    We study the recently observed phenomena of torus canards. These are a higher-dimensional generalization of the classical canard orbits familiar from planar systems and arise in fast-slow systems of ordinary differential equations in which the fast subsystem contains a saddle-node bifurcation of limit cycles. Torus canards are trajectories that pass near the saddle-node and subsequently spend long times near a repelling branch of slowly varying limit cycles. In this article, we carry out a study of torus canards in an elementary third-order system that consists of a rotated planar system of van der Pol type in which the rotational symmetry is broken by including a phase-dependent term in the slow component of the vector field. In the regime of fast rotation, the torus canards behave much like their planar counterparts. In the regime of slow rotation, the phase dependence creates rich torus canard dynamics and dynamics of mixed mode type. The results of this elementary model provide insight into the torus canards observed in a higher-dimensional neuroscience model.

  7. Studies for the Europagenic Plasma Source in Jupiter's Inner Magnetosphere during the Galileo Europa Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in research to understand the three-dimensional nature of the Europagenic plasma torus is summarized. Efforts to improve the plasma torus description near Europa's orbit have included a better understanding of Europa's orbit and an improved description of the planetary magnetic field. New plasma torus chemistry for molecular and atomic species has been introduced and implemented in Europa neutral cloud models. Preliminary three-dimensional model calculations for Europa's neutral clouds and their plasma sources are presented.

  8. Suprathermal ion transport in simple magnetized torus configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, K.; Ricci, P.; Bovet, A.; Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.

    2012-06-15

    Inspired by suprathermal ion experiments in the basic plasma experiment TORPEX, the transport of suprathermal ions in ideal interchange mode turbulence is theoretically examined in the simple magnetized torus configuration. We follow ion tracer trajectories as specified by ideal interchange mode turbulence imported from a numerical simulation of drift-reduced Braginskii equations. Using the variance of displacements, {sigma}{sup 2}(t){approx}t{sup {gamma}}, we find that {gamma} depends strongly on suprathermal ion injection energy and the relative magnitude of turbulent fluctuations. The value of {gamma} also changes significantly as a function of time after injection, through three distinguishable phases: ballistic, interaction, and asymmetric. During the interaction phase, we find the remarkable presence of three regimes of dispersion: superdiffusive, diffusive, and subdiffusive, depending on the energy of the suprathermal ions and the amplitude of the turbulent fluctuations. We contrast these results with those from a 'slab' magnetic geometry in which subdiffusion does not occur during the interaction phase. Initial results from TORPEX are consistent with data from a new synthetic diagnostic used to interpret our simulation results. The simplicity of the simple magnetized torus makes the present work of interest to analyses of more complicated contexts ranging from fusion devices to astrophysics and space plasma physics.

  9. Initial physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Darrow, D.; Efthimion, P.; Ferron, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Grisham, L.; Hosea, J.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Mau, T. K.; Maqueda, R. J.; Mazzucato, E.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, Y-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Raman, R.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Zweben, S.; Bers, A.; Carter, M.; Deng, B.; Domier, C.; Doyle, E.; Finkenthal, M.; Hill, K.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Ji, H.; Lao, L.; Lee, K. C.; Luhmann, N.; Majeski, R.; Medley, S.; Park, H.; Peebles, T.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porter, G.; Ram, A.; Rensink, M.; Rognlien, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Taylor, G.; Wampler, W.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Zeng, L.

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approx-equal 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) and co-axial helicity injection (CHI) for noninductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high βt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for noninductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit, respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 ms was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and βt = 21% were produced.

  10. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  11. Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.; Bell, M.

    2000-11-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a {approx} 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-{beta}{sub t} and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA, stored energies up to 55 kJ, {beta}{sub t} {approx} 10%, and a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and {beta}{sub t}=21% were produced.

  12. Astronomical studies of the major planets, natural satellites and asteroids using the 2.24 m telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Ground based detection of east-west asymmetries in the Jovian torus, three dimensional models of the plasma conditions in the Jovian torus, rotational variations in methane band images of Neptune, Io's rapid flickering, thermophysical models, the diameters and albedos of the satellites of Uranus from radiometric observations, the diameters of Pluto and Triton, standard stars are discussed.

  13. The Advanced Jovian Asteroid Explorer (AJAX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Adams, E. Y.; Mustard, J. F.; Rivkin, A.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Jovian Asteroid eXplorer (AJAX) is the first mission to characterize the geology, morphology, geophysical properties, and chemistry of a Trojan asteroid. The Decadal Survey outlined a notional New Frontiers class Trojan asteroid rendezvous mission to conduct geological, elemental composition, mineralogical, and geophysical investigations. AJAX, our Discovery mission proposal, addresses the Decadal Survey science goals by using a focused payload and an innovative mission design. By responding to the most important questions about the Trojan asteroids, AJAX advances our understanding of all of the Solar System. Are these objects a remnant population of the local primordial material from which the outer planets and their satellites formed, or did they originate in the Kuiper Belt? Landed measurements of major and minor elements test hypotheses for the Trojan asteroid origin, revealing the outer Solar System dynamical history. How and when were prebiotic materials delivered to the terrestrial planets? AJAX's landed measurements include C and H concentrations, necessary to determine their inventories of volatiles and organic compounds, material delivered to the inner Solar System during the Late Heavy Bombardment. What chemical and geological processes shaped the small bodies that merged to form the planets in our Solar System? AJAX investigates the asteroid internal structure, geology, and regolith by using global high-resolution stereo and multispectral imaging, determining density and estimating interior porosity by measuring gravity, and measuring regolith mechanical properties by landing. AJAX's science phase starts with search for natural satellites and dust lifted by possible cometary activity and shape and pole position determination. AJAX descends to lower altitudes for global mapping, and conducts a low flyover for high-resolution surface characterization and measurement of hydrogen abundance. Finally, it deploys a small landed package, which

  14. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Jovian Dayglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Dalgarno, A.

    1995-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectra of molecular hydrogen H2 and HD due to solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation are calculated and compared with the Jovian equatorial dayglow spectrum measured at 3 A resolution at solar maximum. The dayglow emission is accounted for in both brightness and spectral shape by the solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation and requires no additional energy source. The emission is characterized by an atmospheric temperature of 530 K and an H2 column density of 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). The dayglow spectrum contains a cascade contribution to the Lyman band emission from high-lying E and F states. Its relative weakness at short wavelengths is due to both self-absorption by H2 and absorption by CH4. Strong wavelength coincidences of solar emission lines and absorption lines of H2 and HD produce unique line spectra which can be identified in the dayglow spectrum. The strongest fluorescence is due to absorption of the solar Lyman-beta line at 1025.72 A by the P(1) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of H2 at 1025.93 A. The fluorescence lines due to absorption of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A by vibrationally excited H2 via the Q(3) line of the (1, 1) Werner band at 1031.86 A are identified. The fluorescence lines provide a sensitive measure of the atmospheric temperature. There occurs an exact coincidence of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A and the R(0) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of HD at 1031-91 A, but HD on Jupiter is difficult to detect due to the dominance of the H2 emission where the HD emission is particularly strong. Higher spectral resolution and higher sensitivity may make possible such a detection. The high resolution (0.3 A) spectra of H2 and HD are presented to stimulate search for the HD on Jupiter with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. Analysis of Jovian decamteric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. N.; Hammerschlag, R.

    1986-01-01

    This research effort involved careful examination of Jovian radio emission data below 40 MHz, with emphasis on the informative observations of the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment (PRA) on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The work is divided into three sections, decametric arcs, decametric V bursts, and hectometric modulated spectral activity (MSA).

  16. Structure of the Jovian Magnetodisk Current Sheet: Initial Galileo Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Huddleston, D. E.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The ten-degree tilt of the Jovian magnetic dipole causes the magnetic equator to move back and forth across Jupiter's rotational equator and tile Galileo orbit that lies therein. Beyond about 24 Jovian radii, the equatorial current sheet thins and tile magnetic structure changes from quasi-dipolar into magnetodisk-like with two regions of nearly radial but antiparallel magnetic field separated by a strong current layer. The magnetic field at the center of the current sheet is very weak in this region. Herein we examine tile current sheet at radial distances from 24 55 Jovian radii. We find that the magnetic structure very much resembles tile structure seen at planetary magnetopause and tail current sheet crossings. Tile magnetic field variation is mainly linear with little rotation of the field direction, At times there is almost no small-scale structure present and the normal component of the magnetic field is almost constant through the current sheet. At other times there are strong small-scale structures present in both the southward and northward directions. This small-scale structure appears to grow with radial distance and may provide the seeds for tile explosive reconnection observed at even greater radial distances oil tile nightside. Beyond about 40 Jovian radii, the thin current sheet also appears to be almost constantly in oscillatory motion with periods of about 10 min. The amplitude of these oscillations also appears to grow with radial distance. The source of these fluctuations may be dynamical events in tile more distant magnetodisk.

  17. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Himalia An Irregular Jovian Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Baines, K.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of the irregular Jovian satellite Himalia were obtained with the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini during the Jupiter Flyby on December 18-19, 2000. These are the first spectral data of an irregular satellite beyond 2.5 microns. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. The energy spectrum of Jovian electrons in interplanetary space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Webber, W. R.

    1985-08-01

    The energy spectrum of electrons with energies approx 10 to approx 180 MeV measured with the electron telescope on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in interplanetary space from 1978 to 1983 is studied. The kinetic energy of electrons is determined by double dE/dx measurements from the first two detectors (D1, D2) of a stack of eight solid state detectors and by the range of particle penetration into the remaining six detectors (D3 to D8) which are interleaved with tungsten absorbers. From 1978 to 1983 (radial range approx 2 to approx 12 AU) electrons of Jovian origin were clearly observable for electrons stopping in D3(e or MeV) and in D4 (E or = 8 MeV). . For electrons stopping in D5 (E or = 12 MeV), the jovian flux dominated the galactic electron flux for a period of approximately one year near the encounter with Jupiter. Jovian electrons were also observed in D6(E or = 21 Mev) 1 MeV but not in D7(E 28 MeV). A detailed interpretation of the electron variations in all energy channels depends on an accurate subtraction of background induced by energetic protons of a few 100 MeV. This substraction is facilitated by laboratory calibration results at several energies. Further results on the differential energy spectrum of Jovian electrons and limits on the maximum detected energies will be reported.

  19. First results from the MST (Madison Symmetric Torus) reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1989-11-01

    The first period of physics operation of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (Proc. 12th Intl. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Cont. Fusion, I.A.E.A., 1988) has produced information on sawtooth oscillations, edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations, and equilibrium parameters at large plasma size. Sawtooth oscillations are prevalent at all values of pinch parameter, and might constitute discrete dynamo events. Both electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations are of sufficient magnitude to be relevant to transport in the RFP. In the plasmas studied to date (up to a plasma current of 0.5 MA) the poloidal beta value is about 10%, or greater.

  20. A Collective Scattering System for Measuring Electron Gyroscale Fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.

    2009-02-13

    A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.

  1. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJAN POPULATION: TAXONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 {mu}m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 {mu}m can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L {sub 4}), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L {sub 5}), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L {sub 4}/L {sub 5} = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  2. Electron distributions in the inner Jovian magnetosphere: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, G.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1993-01-01

    Using several improvements in the analysis of the observations of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1, electron phase space densities in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (5 - 10 R(sub J) were first calculated at constant first and second invariants (represented by mu and K, respectively), based on the LECP measurements. The calculated electron phase space density profiles show that in the inner Jovian magnetosphere there exist evident time and longitude variations, energetic electron injections, and present radial transport and distributed losses. To study the radial and pitch angle diffusions of Jovian electrons, we have calculated the phase space densities in the K-L space. It is found that the electron population in the inner Jovian magnetosphere seems to consist of two components: electrons radially diffusing from a main external source and electrons generated from local sources. The radially diffusing electrons have a relatively time stationary and isotropic distribution, while the locally created electrons mainly concentrate around the equatorial plane and have relatively lower energies, in comparison with the inward diffusing electrons. Consequently, the sources of precipitation losses to the ionosphere must be primarily electrons transported from outer sources, and the major precipitations occur in the inner magnetosphere (L less than 7.5 R(sub J). In the inner Jovian magnetosphere (L = 5 to approximately 10 R(sub J)) it is estimated that for electrons with magnetic moment mu = 300 MeV/G, the diffusion coefficient D is roughly 10(exp -8) to approximately 10(exp -6) R(exp 2)(sub J)/s, and the lifetime against the diffusion losses is of the order of 10(exp 4) to approximately 10(exp 6) s.

  3. Theory and observations of electrostatic ion waves in the cold Io torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the ELF plasma wave environment of the cold Io torus in Jupiter's magnetosphere is made. Voyager 1 data are presented which show three distinct types of electrostatic ion waves occurring there: the Buchsbaum ion-ion mode just below the proton cyclotron frequency f(cp), hydrogen Bernstein modes at (n + 1/2) f(cp), and lower hybrid waves near f(LHR). The presence of these waves at their characteristic frequencies is consistent with a predominantly heavy ion plasma composed of singly ionized sulfur and oxygen ions along with a small admixture of protons. The hydrogen Bernstein modes are tightly confined to the magnetic equator, occurring within + or - 4 deg of it, while the Buchsbaum mode is localized to the dense heavy ion plasma of the cold torus near the centrifugal equator. A general theory for excitation of the waves based on the ion pickup process is developed.

  4. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  5. Near-infrared brightness of the Galilean satellites eclipsed in Jovian shadow: A new technique to investigate Jovian upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, K.; Arimatsu, K.; Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Wada, T.; Egami, E.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Honda, C.; Kimura, J.; Kuramoto, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Surace, J.

    2014-07-10

    Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, we have discovered that Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are bright around 1.5 μm even when not directly lit by sunlight. The observations were conducted with non-sidereal tracking on Jupiter outside of the field of view to reduce the stray light subtraction uncertainty due to the close proximity of Jupiter. Their eclipsed luminosity was 10{sup –6}-10{sup –7} of their uneclipsed brightness, which is low enough that this phenomenon has been undiscovered until now. In addition, Europa in eclipse was <1/10 of the others at 1.5 μm, a potential clue to the origin of the source of luminosity. Likewise, Ganymede observations were attempted at 3.6 μm by the Spitzer Space Telescope, but it was not detected, suggesting a significant wavelength dependence. It is still unknown why they are luminous even when in the Jovian shadow, but forward-scattered sunlight by hazes in the Jovian upper atmosphere is proposed as the most plausible candidate. If this is the case, observations of these Galilean satellites while eclipsed by the Jovian shadow provide us with a new technique to investigate the Jovian atmospheric composition. Investigating the transmission spectrum of Jupiter by this method is important for investigating the atmosphere of extrasolar giant planets by transit spectroscopy.

  6. Observational Constraints on a Pluto Torus of Circumsolar Neutral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. E.; Kollmann, P.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Smith, H. T.; Bagenal, F.; Brown, L. E.; Elliott, H. A.; Haggerty, D. K.; Horanyi, M.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kusterer, M. B.; Lisse, C. M.; McComas, D. J.; Piquette, M. R.; Sidrow, E. J.; Strobel, D. F.; Szalay, J.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Zirnstein, E.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the concept of a neutral gas torus surrounding the Sun, aligned with Pluto's orbit, and place observational constraints based primarily on comparison of New Horizons (NH) measurements with a 3-D Monte Carlo model adapted from analogous satellite tori surrounding Saturn and Jupiter. Such a torus, or perhaps partial torus, should result from neutral N2 escaping from Pluto's exosphere. Unlike other more massive planets closer to the Sun, neutrals escape Pluto readily owing, e.g., to the high thermal speed relative to the escape velocity. Importantly, escaped neutrals have a long lifetime due to the great distance from the Sun, ~100 years for photoionization of N2 and ~180 years for photoionization of N, which results from disassociated N2. Despite the lengthy 248-year orbit, these long e-folding lifetimes may allow an enhanced neutral population to form an extended gas cloud that modifies the N2 spatial profile near Pluto. These neutrals are not directly observable by NH but once ionized N2+ or N+ are picked up by the solar wind, reaching ~50 keV, making these pickup ions (PUIs) detectable by NH's Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument. PEPSSI observations analyzed to date may constrain the N2 density; the remaining ~95% of the encounter data, scheduled for downlink in August along with similarly anticipated data from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) experiment, should help determine the Pluto outgassing rates. Measurements from SWAP include the solar wind speed, a quantity that greatly enhances PUI studies by enabling us to directly account for the PUI distribution's sensitive dependence on plasma speed. Note that anomalous cosmic ray Si observed at Voyager is overabundant by a factor of ~3000 relative to interstellar composition. This might be related to "outer source" PUIs, but the fact that N2 and Si are indistinguishable in many instruments could mean that N2 is actually driving this apparent Si discrepancy.

  7. Relationship between Jovian Hectometric Attenuation Lanes And Io Volcanic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Within the Galileo plasma wave instrument data a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band is seen in the hectometric (HOM) emission that varies in frequency with system III longitude. This attenuation lane is believed to be the result of near-grazing incidence or coherent scattering of radio emission near the outer edge of the Io torus, i.e., when the ray path is nearly tangent to an L shell containing the Io flux tube. Such a process should, therefore, be enhanced when the Io volcanic activity is increased and the Io flux tube has enhanced density. We have performed a systematic study of the existing Galileo radio emission data in an effort to determine the phenomenology and frequency of occurrence of the attenuation lanes and the association, if any, with published volcanic activity of Io. Our results indicate that the attenuation lanes are present almost all of the time but are enhanced on occasion. The best examples of attenuation lanes occur when Galileo is within approximately 65 R(sub J) of Jupiter and thus are probably more apparent because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the radio receivers. The lack of continuous monitoring of Io activity and the lack of known activity on the anti-Earthward side of Io are problematic and make detailed correlation with radio emission very difficult at this time. Nevertheless, if the data are displayed for periods when the spacecraft is within 65 R(sub J) (i.e., for each perijove pass), then the highest-contrast lanes occur on most passes when the Io volcanic activity is also high for that pass. These results support our current understanding of attenuation lane formation and suggest that future efforts can be made to better understand the interaction of HOM emission with the Io flux tube.

  8. Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low-frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Green, J. L.; Gulkis, S.; Six, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing of the Jovian DAM emission has been performed utilizing the O-4 magnetic field model (Acuna and Ness, 1979) and a realistic plasma model. Minimal assumptions about the emission mechanism have been made that include radiation in the right-hand extraordinary mode, propagating nearly perpendicular to the field line at source points located just above the RX cutoff frequency along Io flux tubes. Ray tracing has been performed in the frequency range from 2-35 MHz from successive Io flux tubes separated by ten degrees of central meridian longitude for a full circumference of northern hemisphere sources. The results show unusual complexity in model arc spectra that is displayed in a constant Io phase format with many similarities to the Voyager PRA data. The results suggest much of the variation in observed DAM spectral features is a result of propagation effects rather than emission process differences.

  9. Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate "obscuring torus", that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the "torus" into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

  10. Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope determination of the Io torus electron temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. T.; Bednar, C. J.; Durrance, S. T.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcgrath, M. A.; Moos, H. W.; Strobel, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur ion emissions from the Io plasma torus observed by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) in 1990 December have been analyzed to determine the effective temperature of the exciting electrons. Spectra were obtained with a long slit that extended from 3.1 to 8.7 Jupiter radii R(sub J) on both dawn and dusk torus ansae. The average temperature of electrons exciting S(2+) emissions from the dawn ansa is (4800 +/- 2400) K lower than on the dusk ansa, a dawn-dusk asymmetry comparable in both sign and magnitude to that measured by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) experiment. Emissions from S(2+) ions are generated in a source region with electron temperatures in the range 32,000-56,000 K; S(3+) ion emissions are excited by electrons that average 20,000-40,000 K hotter. This distinct difference suggests that the S(3+) emission source region is spatially separate from the S(2+) source region. Estimated relative aperture filling factors suggest that the S(3+) emissions originate from a region more extended out of the centrifugal plane than the S(2+) emissions.

  11. Performance of a 12-coil superconducting bumpy torus magnet facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The bumpy torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 teslas on their axes. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m, and are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Final shakedown tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The facility is now ready for use as a plasma physics research facility. A maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis of 3.23 teslas was held for a period of more than sixty minutes without a coil normalcy. The design field was 3.00 teslas. The steady-state liquid helium boil-off rate was 87 liters per hour of liquid helium without the coils charged. The coil array was stable when subjected to an impulsive loading, even with the magnets fully charged. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 teslas, the system was driven normal without damage.

  12. Engineering design of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; J. Spitzer, J. Chrzanowski; et al

    2000-05-11

    NSTX is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at exploring the physics of the ``spherical torus'' (ST) configuration, which is predicted to exhibit more efficient magnetic confinement than conventional large aspect ratio tokamaks, amongst other advantages. The low aspect ratio (R/a, typically 1.2--2 in ST designs compared to 4--5 in conventional tokamaks) decreases the available cross sectional area through the center of the torus for toroidal and poloidal field coil conductors, vacuum vessel wall, plasma facing components, etc., thus increasing the need to deploy all components within the so-called ``center stack'' in the most efficient manner possible. Several unique design features have been developed for the NSTX center stack, and careful engineering of this region of the machine, utilizing materials up to their engineering allowables, has been key to meeting the desired objectives. The design and construction of the machine has been accomplished in a rapid and cost effective manner thanks to the availability of extensive facilities, a strong experience base from the TFTR era, and good cooperation between institutions.

  13. Field-aligned Currents in Io's Plasma Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuxin

    2008-09-01

    Since the discovery of Io-controlled decametric radio emissions, the interaction between Io and Jovian magnetosphere has been studied intensively. Two types of interaction have been proposed so far. One is electric circuit model, in which the induced currents flow between Io and the Jovian ionosphere along the magnetic flux tube threading Io. The other is Alfvén wing model. A wing forms in the perturbed magnetic field lines behind Io, the Alfvénic currents develop in the wing rather than along the magnetic flux tubes. More recently, auroral emission associated with Io's footprint and its trailing emission were observed. Such auroral arc may extend longitudinally westward for more than 100 degrees. This trail of aurora is brightest near Io and dims with increasing downstream distance. There is no clear theoretical understanding of the physics that generates this downstream aurora. However it is generally believed that Io's plasma wake is associated with this phenomenon and field-aligned currents lead to downstream emissions. Along with the above two types of the interaction between Io and its surrounding medium, there are also two theoretical frameworks in which these downstream emissions can be interpreted. The first one is corotational lag. When an Io-perturbed (mass loading and/or Io's conductivity) magnetic flux tube moves slowly relative to Jovian magnetosphere, an electric field would be induced at the equatorial plane of the flux tube, which in turn causes a current perpendicular to the field lines that is connected by field-aligned currents. The Lorentz force due to the perpendicular current would play the role of bring the lagged plasma up to corotation. The second is Alfvén wave, in which the Io-perturbed Alfvén wave is reflected between the Jovian ionosphere and the torus edge, driving particles into loss cone. Our present study attempts to use a MHD method to solve the above problem. MHD simulations of Io-Jupiter interaction has been carried out by

  14. [A case with palatine torus of rare shape and size].

    PubMed

    Sekletov, A G

    2003-01-01

    Palatine torus is a bone formation on the palate at the site of the palatine suture, a result of connection of the palatine mandibular processes grown together. The shape and size of the palatine torus vary. Large size of the palatine torus makes difficult the designing of removable dentures for orthodontic treatment. PMID:12772558

  15. The Io sulfur torus in 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1991-01-01

    Io torus spectrometry obtained in the S II and S III forbidden lines during February-March 1981 indicate that these emissions are correlated in the warm torus, and possess similar scale heights along the magnetic field lines. The observed emission scale heights can be used to estimate the ion temperature parallel to the magnetic field, given the effective ion mass. Attention is also given to simultaneous measurements of the S II forbidden 6731 line profile obtained on one night with a Fabry-Perot scanning spectrophotometer.

  16. Overview of results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Brower, D.; Bush, C.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Carter, M.; Caughman, J.; Chang, C.; Choe, W.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Efthimion, P.; Ejiri, A.; Ershov, N.; Evans, T.; Feibush, E.; Fenstermacher, M.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Funaba, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grisham, L.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Hosea, J.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Idehara, T.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ishida, A.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Ji, H.; Jung, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kawamori, E.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kimura, H.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Krstic, P.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mitarai, O.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, S.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nagayama, Y.; Nelson, B.; Nguyen, X.; Nishino, N.; Nishiura, M.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Pacella, D.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redd, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scott, S.; Shaing, K.; Sharpe, P.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, S.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Strait, T.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, R.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Ticos, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Turrnbull, A.; Tynan, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Utergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Welander, A.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Xu, X.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zweben, S.

    2009-10-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high β operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of high harmonic fast-waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance li ~ 0.4 with strong shaping (κ ~ 2.7, δ ~ 0.8) with βN approaching the with-wall β-limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction fNI ~ 71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfvénic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfvénic. Linear toroidal Alfvén eigenmode thresholds and appreciable fast ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared with theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is an important result for ITER. Resistive wall mode/resonant field amplification feedback combined with n = 3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain

  17. The Jovian hectometric radiation - an overview after the Voyager mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladreiter, H. P.; Leblanc, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The main characteristics and the inferred properties of the hectometric (HOM) radiation which was observed by IMP-6, RAE-1 and Voyager spacecraft are reviewed. This includes the occurrence of HOM in Jovian longitude, the strong beaming in latitude, the polarization properties, the local time effect, and the solar wind control of the emission. Like many radio emissions observed at the other magnetized planets, the hectometric components is likely to be generated in the R-X mode from sources in the northern and southern auroral zones. The emission is beamed along the surface of hollow cones and is possibly produced by the cyclotron maser mechanism. The HOM sources extend up to 7 R(J) (Jovian radii) along field lines near L = 20 in the auroral zone; they are distinct from the Io-controlled decametric (DAM) sources but are probably the extension of the non-Io DAM sources.

  18. Particles, environments, and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The possible existence of indigenous Jovian organisms is investigated by characterizing the relevant physical environment of Jupiter, discussing the chromophores responsible for the observed coloration of the planet, and analyzing some permissible ecological niches of hypothetical organisms. Values of the eddy diffusion coefficent are estimated separately for the convective troposphere and the more stable mesosphere, and equilibrium condensation is studied for compounds containing Na, Cl, or both. The photoproduction of chromophores and nonequilibrium organic molecules is analyzed, and the motion of hypothetical organisms is examined along with the diffusion of metabolites and the consequent growth of organisms. Four kinds of organisms are considered: primary photosynthetic autotrophs ('sinkers'), larger autotrophs or heterotrophs that actively maintain their pressure level ('floaters'), organisms that seek out others ('hunters'), and organisms that live at almost pyrolytic depths ('scavengers'). It is concluded that ecological niches for sinkers, floaters, and hunters appear to exist in the Jovian atmosphere.

  19. A CCD comparison of outer Jovian satellites and Trojan asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1991-01-01

    The eight small outer Jovian satellites are not as well known as the brighter, more illustrious Galilean satellites. They are divided into two groups, each containing four satellites; the inner group travels in prograde orbits while the outer group travels in retrograde orbits. From the distinct orbital characteristics of the two groups, most of the theories of their origin involve the capture and breakup of two planetesimals upon entry into the atmosphere of proto-Jupiter. Their proximity to the Trojans asteroids has led to conjectures of a link between them and the Trojans. However, Tholen and Zellner (1984) found no red spectrum among six of the satellites and postulated that they were all C-type objects; therefore, they were unlikely to be derivatives of the Trojan population. Charge-coupled device (CCD) photometry and spectroscopy of the eight outer Jovian satellites obtained from 1987 to 1989 and a comparison between these eight satellites and the Trojan asteroids are presented.

  20. Theoretical predictions of deuterium abundances in the Jovian planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.; MacFarlane, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Current concepts for the origin of the Jovian planets and current constraints on their interior structure are used to support the argument that the presence of large amounts of 'ice' (H2O, CH4, and NH3) in Uranus and Neptune indicates temperature low enough to condense these species at the time Uranus and Neptune formed. Such low temperatures, however, imply orders-of-magnitude fractionation effects for deuterium into the 'ice' component if isotopic equilibration can occur. The present models thus imply that Uranus and Neptune should have D/H ratio at least four times primordial, contrary to observation for Uranus. It is found that the Jovian and Saturnian D/H should be close to primordial regardless of formation scenario.

  1. Io as a source of the jovian dust streams

    PubMed

    Graps; Grun; Svedhem; Kruger; Horanyl; Heck; Lammers

    2000-05-01

    Streams of dust emerging from the direction of Jupiter were discovered in 1992 during the flyby of the Ulysses spacecraft, but their precise origin within the jovian system remained unclear. Further data collected by the Galileo spacecraft, which has been orbiting Jupiter since December 1995, identified the possible sources of dust as Jupiter's main ring, its gossamer ring, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (ref. 8) and Io. All but Jupiter's gossamer ring and Io have since been ruled out. Here we find that the dominant source of the jovian dust streams is Io, on the basis of periodicities in the dust impact signal. Io's volcanoes, rather than impact ejecta, are the dust sources. PMID:10811212

  2. Galilean satellite eclipse studies. III - Jovian methane abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.; Greene, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    The methane abundance in the lower Jovian stratosphere is measured using the Galilean satellite eclipse technique. The average mixing ratio at the locations measured is larger than the expected value for a solar abundance of carbon with the possibility of some zenographic variation. Observationally compatible values are found for the South Temperate Zone, the edge of the Great Red Spot and the South Tropical Zone, and the Great Red Spot.

  3. The dynamics of a high-speed Jovian jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.

    1984-01-01

    New measurements of the velocity field in the neighborhood of the high-speed jet located at approximately 24 deg N latitude in the Jovian atmosphere are presented. The maximum zonal velocity is found to be 182 + or - 10 m/s, located at 23.7 + or - 0.2 deg N and representing the largest velocity measured on the planet. The distinctive cloud markings found close to this latitude are discussed and possible dynamical consequences presented.

  4. Studies of thermal wave phenomena on the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based and Voyager observations of Jupiter provided evidence that the tropospheric temperature shows global-scale longitudinal variations which are often wavelike in character. The investigation is presented which is directed toward obtaining additional ground-based data in IR spectral bands whose contribution functions are optimized for specific atmospheric regions, in order to confirm the previous results, and to identify the nature and physical significance of wavelike longitudinal temperature fluctuations on the Jovian planets.

  5. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  6. Galilean satellite eclipse studies. III - Jovian methane abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. W.; Greene, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methane abundance in the lower Jovian stratosphere is measured using the Galilean satellite eclipse technique. The average mixing ratio at the locations measured is larger than the expected value for a solar abundance of carbon with the expected value for a solar abundance of carbon with the possibility of some zenographic variation. Observationally compatible values are found for the South Temperate Zone, the edge of the Great Red Spot and the South Tropical Zone, and the Great Red Spot.

  7. First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S P; Canik, J M; Maingi, R; Bell, R; Gates, d; Goldston, R; Hawryluk, R; Le Blanc, B P; Menard, J; Sontag, A C; Sabbagh, S

    2010-07-15

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________

  8. Development of internal magnetic probe for current density profile measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, J. W.; Jung, B. K.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    An internal magnetic probe using Hall sensors to measure a current density profile directly with perturbation of less than 10% to the plasma current is successfully operated for the first time in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). An appropriate Hall sensor is chosen to produce sufficient signals for VEST magnetic field while maintaining the small size of 10 mm in outer diameter. Temperature around the Hall sensor in a typical VEST plasma is regulated by blown air of 2 bars. First measurement of 60 kA VEST ohmic discharge shows a reasonable agreement with the total plasma current measured by Rogowski coil in VEST.

  9. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of

  10. Jovian longitudinal control of Io-related radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to explain the control of Io-related radio emissions by Jupiter's rotational phase. The model is based on the hypothesis that the radio emissions are generated by Birkeland currents flowing between Io and the Jovian ionosphere. Specifically, it is suggested that the precipitation of radiation-belt electrons within a certain range of Jovian longitudes produces a restricted region of enhanced ionization and correspondingly enhanced conductivity in Jupiter's ionosphere and that the Io-Jupiter Birkeland current and the associated radio emissions are dramatically increased when Io's flux tube encounters this sector of enhanced ionization in Jupiter's ionosphere. The magnitude of the current is found to be about 100,000 A at most Jovian longitudes because of ionospheric resistance. It is estimated that within the favored longitudinal sector electron precipitation produces an enhancement of this current by one to three orders of magnitude. The model predictions are compared with observations made during the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys, and satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  11. Stability of Jovian Irregular Satellites Between Callisto and Themisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Jewitt, D.

    2006-09-01

    Mauna Kea survey observations of Jovian irregular satellites indicate that the region between Callisto (the outermost regular satellite at semimajor axis of 26 Jupiter-radii) and Themisto (the innermost Jovian irregular at approximately 100 Jupiter-radii), is devoid of small objects. An explanation for this observation may lie in the dynamical nature of small bodies in this region. That is, these objects may be intrinsically unstable. To examine this scenario, we launched an extensive numerical study of the orbital stability of small bodies in the region between 30 to 80 Jupiter-radii. We simulated the dynamics of a large battery of small objects and mapped their parameter-space for different values of their semimajor axes, eccentricities, and orbital inclinations. Results indicate that this region is indeed intrinsically unstable. However, the lifetimes of objects vary with their orbital eccentricities and inclinations. We present the results of our simulations and discuss their applicability to the origin of Jovian irregular satellites. This research has been supported by NASA Astrobioilogy Institute under Cooperative Agreement NNA04CC08A.

  12. Particles, environments and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The eddy diffusion coefficient is estimated as a function of altitude, separately for the Jovian troposphere and mesosphere. Complex organic molecules produced by the Ly alpha photolysis of methane may possibly be the absorbers in the lower mesosphere which account for the low reflectivity of Jupiter in the near ultraviolet. The optical frequency chromophores are localized at or just below the Jovian tropopause. Candidate chromophore molecules must satisfy the condition that they are produced sufficiently rapidly that convective pyrolysis maintains the observed chromophore optical depth. The condition is satisfied if complex organic chromophores are produced with high quantum yield by NH3 photolysis at less than 2,300 A. Jovian photoautotrophs in the upper troposphere satisfy this condition well, even with fast circulation, assuming only biochemical properties of comparable terrestrial organisms. An organism in the form of a thin, gas filled balloon can grow fast enough to replicate if (1) it can survive at the low mesospheric temperatures, or if (2) photosynthesis occurs in the troposphere.

  13. Long-term resonances between two Jovian exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horedt, G. P.

    2015-11-01

    Within the plane planetary problem we present two new approaches for the determination of purely resonant eccentricity and semimajor axis variations in terms of simple, closed algebraic relationships. We consider the motion of two Jovian exoplanets in 2:1, 3:1, and 7:4 resonance. Even with initial eccentricities of 0.05, we have found two numerical examples of purely resonant motion of two Jovian exoplanets in 2:1 and 3:1 resonance, fitting throughout the theoretical relationships for over 10^5 revolutions of the outer exoplanet. The maximum eccentricities of the two Jovian exoplanets are <0.15<0.15, if the initial ratio of semimajor axes is <0.6992<0.6992 and the initial eccentricities are ≤0.05. During intervals of negligible secular perturbations, the agreement between theoretical and numerical maximum resonant eccentricity variations is generally much better than within a factor of 2. The theoretical and calculated maximum eccentricity of a Plutino in 2:3 resonance with Neptune is >0.053.

  14. Temperature structure and emergent flux of the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvaggio, P.; Sagan, C.

    1978-01-01

    Long path, low temperature, moderate resolution spectra of methane and ammonia, broadened by hydrogen and helium, are used to calculate non-gray model atmospheres for the four Jovian planets. The fundamental and first overtone of hydrogen contributes enough absorption to create a thermal inversion for each of the planets. The suite of emergent spectral fluxes and representative limb darkenings and brightenings are calculated for comparison with the Voyager infrared spectra. The temperature differences between Jovian belts and zones corresponds to a difference in the ammonia cirrus particle radii (1 to 3 micron in zones; 10 micron in belts). The Jovian tropopause is approximately at the 0.1 bar level. A thin ammonia cirrus haze should be distributed throughout the Saturnian troposphere; and NH3 gas must be slightly supersaturated or ammonia ice particles are carried upwards convectively in the upper troposphere of Saturn. Substantial methane clouds exist on both Uranus and Neptune. There is some evidence for almost isothermal structures in the deep atmospheres of these two planets.

  15. Spatial and diurnal features of the Jovian equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines a time-dependent model of the Jovian ionosphere with electrodynamic drift to study the spatial and temporal features of the Jovian equatorial anomaly. Two sinusoidal drift velocity models are considered, model 1, akin to that in the terrestrial ionosphere and model 2, having opposite phase. The drift velocity amplitude is taken to be 100 m/s. In either model, an equatorial anomaly which persists throughout the day unlike its terrestrial counterpart, and disappears after midnight is obtained. The crest of ionization is centered around 7-8 degrees latitude in either model as compared with about 15 degrees for the terrestrial anomaly. The Rm index attains a maximum value of 2.6 in the afternoon in model 2. The peak electron density at the equator minimizes before midnight in model 1, but after sunrise in model 2. There is no 'noon biteout' like that found in the terrestrial equatorial ionosphere. The height of the peak electron density roughly follows the drift velocity pattern. Comparison with experimental data indicates that drift velocity amplitudes far exceeding 100 m/s would be required to produce the observed Jovian equatorial anomaly.

  16. Design Features and Commissioning of the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Chung, K.; H. An, Y.; K. Jung, B.; Y. Lee, H.; C., Sung; S. Na, Y.; S. Hahm, T.; S. Hwang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A new spherical torus called VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) is designed, constructed and successfully commissioned at Seoul National University. A unique design feature of the VEST is two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which can provide sufficient magnetic fluxes to initiate tokamak plasmas while keeping a low aspect ratio configuration in the central region. According to initial double null merging start-up scenario using the partial solenoid coils, appropriate power supplies for driving a toroidal field coil, outer poloidal field coils, and the partial solenoid coils are fabricated and successfully commissioned. For reliable start-up, a pre-ionization system with two cost-effective homemade magnetron power supplies is also prepared. In addition, magnetic and spectroscopic diagnostics with appropriate data acquisition and control systems are well prepared for initial operation of the device. The VEST is ready for tokamak plasma operation by completing and commissioning most of the designed components.

  17. Characterization and parametric dependencies of low wavenumber pedestal turbulence in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2013-05-15

    The spherical torus edge region is among the most challenging regimes for plasma turbulence simulations. Here, we measure the spatial and temporal properties of ion-scale turbulence in the steep gradient region of H-mode pedestals during edge localized mode-free, MHD quiescent periods in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 ρ{sub i}, and decorrelation times are about 5 a/c{sub s}. Next, we introduce a model aggregation technique to identify parametric dependencies among turbulence quantities and transport-relevant plasma parameters. The parametric dependencies show the most agreement with transport driven by trapped-electron mode, kinetic ballooning mode, and microtearing mode turbulence, and the least agreement with ion temperature gradient turbulence. In addition, the parametric dependencies are consistent with turbulence regulation by flow shear and the empirical relationship between wider pedestals and larger turbulent structures.

  18. A dawn-to-dusk electric field in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Goertz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that if Io-injected plasma is lost via a planetary wind a sun-fixed Birkeland current system may result. This is due to the fact that a current flows across a density gradient produced by the loss of plasma through the planetary wind in the tail. The divergent current is connected to field-aligned Birkeland currents which flow into the ionosphere at dawn and out of it at dusk. The closure currents in the ionosphere require a dawn-to-dusk electric field which at the orbit of Io is estimated to have a strength of a few mV/m. Independent estimates derived from the local time asymmetry of the torus u.v. emission indicate a field of 1.5 mV/m.

  19. Torus Palatinus Osteonecrosis Related to Bisphosphonate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Mariana; Barbosa, Fabio; Andrade, Felipe; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Osteonecrosis of the palate is a rare condition which is even rarer when occurring on a torus palatinus and associated with bisphosphonate (BP). Case Presentation We report an uncommon case of osteonecrosis of a torus palatinus. Our patient was a 67-year-old white female who presented with a painful intraoral ulcer associated with necrotic bone tissue of her torus palatinus, due to the chronic use of alendronate. Conclusion We point out the possible causative relationship of BPs and osteonecrosis on torus growth. It is very important to know that torus palatinus and the use of BPs are risk factors for osteonecrosis of the maxilla. PMID:23687490

  20. Transient Transport Experiments in the CDX-U Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; P.C. Efthimion; B. Jones; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; D. Stutman; and G. Taylor

    2001-06-12

    Electron transport has been measured in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) using two separate perturbative techniques. Gas modulation at the plasma edge was used to introduce cold-pulses which propagate towards the plasma center, providing time-of-flight information leading to a determination of chi(subscript e) as a function of radius. Sawteeth at the q=1 radius (r/a {approx} 0.15) induced heat-pulses which propagated outward towards the plasma edge, providing a complementary time-of-flight based chi(subscript e) profile measurement. This work represents the first localized measurement of chi(subscript e) in a spherical torus. It is found that chi(subscript e) = 1-2 meters squared per second in the plasma core (r/a < 1/3), increasing by an order of magnitude or more outside of this region. Furthermore, the chi(subscript e) profile exhibits a sharp transition near r/a = 1/3. Spectral and profile analyses of the soft X-rays, scanning interferometer, and edge probe data show no evidence of a significant magnetic island causing the high chi(subscript e) region.

  1. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder

    2010-06-04

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  2. Energetic Ion Behavior in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-06-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral beam injection (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Typical NSTX parameters are R(sub)0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(sub)p less than or equal to 1.5 MA, B(sub)T = 0.3-0.6 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral beam sources have injected P(sub)NB less than or equal to 6.2 MW at energies E(sub)b less than or equal to 100 keV. HHFW heating has delivered up to P(sub)RF approximately equal to 6 MW to deuterium and helium plasmas.

  3. The Composition and Physical Structure of the Io Torus and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Generally speaking the goal of the research was to provide detailed spectral analysis of a Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope EUV/FUV spectrum of the Io plasma torus. The specific research tasks outlined to achieve this goal were: Line identifications and brightnesses. Verify line identifications with independent data sets. Simple physical modeling to derive ne, ni, Te. Determine neutral source rates. Determine implications of minor species abundances for Io processes. Determine spatial structure from HUT data.

  4. Stable ellipticity-induced Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Fasoli, A.; Borba, D.; Jaun, A.

    1997-10-01

    An external antenna excites stable eigenmodes in elongated Ohmically heated plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.-H. Rebut, R. J. Bickerton, and B. E. Keen, Nucl. Fusion {bold 25}, 1011 (1985)]. The frequency of the modes (240{minus}290 kHz) falls in the gap in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) continuum that is produced by ellipticity. Some modes are very weakly damped ({gamma}/{omega}{lt}10{sup {minus}3}). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Observations of the He+ pickup ion torus velocity distribution function with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taut, Andreas; Berger, Lars; Bochsler, Peter; Drews, Christian; Klecker, Berndt; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    Interstellar PickUp Ions (PUIs) are created from neutrals coming from the interstellar medium that get ionized inside the heliosphere. Once ionized, the freshly created ions are injected into the magnetized solar wind plasma with a highly anisotropic torus-shaped Velocity Distribution Function (VDF). It has been commonly assumed that wave-particle interactions rapidly destroy this torus by isotropizing the distribution in one hemisphere of velocity space. However, recent observations of a He+ torus distribution using PLASTIC on STEREO showed that the assumption of a rapid isotropization is oversimplified. The aim of this work is to complement these studies. Using He+ data from the Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) sensor of the Charge, ELement, and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on-board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and magnetic field data from the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) magnetometer of the WIND spacecraft, we derive the projected 1-D VDF of He+ for different magnetic field configurations. Depending on the magnetic field direction, the initial torus VDF lies inside CTOF's aperture or not. By comparing the VDFs derived under different magnetic field directions with each other we reveal an anisotropic signature of the He+ VDF.

  6. Updating the Jovian Proton Radiation Environment - 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry; Martinez-Sierra, Luz Maria; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Since publication in 1983 by N. Divine and H. Garrett, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's plasma and radiation models have been the design standard for NASA's missions to Jupiter. These models consist of representations of the cold plasma and electrons, the warm and auroral electrons and protons, and the radiation environment (electron, proton, and heavy ions). To date, however, the high-energy proton model has been limited to an L-shell of 12. With the requirement to compute the effects of the high energy protons and other heavy ions on the proposed Europa mission, the extension of the high energy proton model from approximately 12 L-shell to approximately 50 L-shell has become necessary. In particular, a model of the proton environment over that range is required to estimate radiation effects on the solar arrays for the mission. This study describes both the steps taken to extend the original Divine proton model out to an approximately 50 L-shell and the resulting model developed to accomplish that goal. In addition to hydrogen, the oxygen, sulfur, and helium heavy ion environments have also been added between approximately 6 L-shell and approximately 50 L-shell. Finally, selected examples of the model's predictions are presented to illustrate the uses of the tool.

  7. The Jovian magnetotail and its current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of Voyager magnetic field measurements have extended the understanding of the structural and temporal characteristics of Jupiter's magnetic tail. The magnitude of the magnetic field in the lobes of the tail is found to decrease with Jovicentric distance approximately as r to he-1.4, compared with the power law exponent of -1.7 found for the rate of decrease along the Pioneer 10 outbound trajectory. Voyager observations of magnetic field component variations with Jovicentric distance in the tail do not support the uniform radial plasma outflow model derived from Pioneer data. Voyager 2 has shown that the azimuthal current sheet which surrounds Jupiter in the inner and middle magnetosphere extends tailward (in the anti-Sun direction) to a distance of at least 100 R sub J. In the tail this current sheet consists of a plasma sheet and embedded neutral sheet. In the region of the tail where the sheet is observed, the variation of the magnetic field as a result of the sheet structure and its 10 hr periodic motion is the dominant variation seen.

  8. Exploring the intriguing differences between Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheric neutral tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.; Richardson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Jovian and Saturnian systems are similar in that they are relatively rapidly rotating gas giants with internal magnetic fields. They also possess ring systems and a large number of satellites (67 and 62, respectively) with a single moon in each system serving as the primary magnetospheric heavy particle source (Io and Enceladus, respectively) but with Jupiter's primary particle source orbiting further from the planet. Jupiter's magnetic field is over an order of magnitude stronger than the Saturnian field and is tilted by almost 10 degrees while Saturn's magnetic field has no detectable tilt from its rotational axis. Additionally, Saturn is about twice as far from the Sun as Jupiter. Even considering these differences, however, it is very interesting that Jupiter's magnetosphere is dominated by plasma while Saturn's magnetosphere contains much more neutral than charged particles. Such a difference has extremely significant impacts on magnetospheric generation and dynamics. The wealth of information provided by Cassini over the last 10 years has provided unprecedented insight in to Saturn's magnetosphere and has well positioned us to conduct studies comparing Saturn's and Jupiter's magnetospheres. A better understanding of neutral tori not only sheds valuable insight into past observations but also provides critical preparation for the upcoming ESA and NASA missions to the Jovian system. For this work, we combine all available data for these two systems as well as neutral tori modeling to quantify the differences between these two magnetospheres. From the analysis, we illustrate how various neutral tori are generated and evolve. The results provide insight into the critical factors that determine how large gas giant magnetospheres can evolve into such significantly different configurations.

  9. Jovian S emission: Model of radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, B. P.

    1994-04-01

    A physical model of the radiation source and an excitation mechanism have been suggested for the S component in Jupiter's sporadic radio emission. The model provides a unique explanation for most of the interrelated phenomena observed, allowing a consistent interpretation of the emission cone structure, behavior of the integrated radio spectrum, occurrence probability of S bursts, location and size of the radiation source, and fine structure of the dynamic spectra. The mechanism responsible for the S bursts is also discussed in connection with the L type emission. Relations are traced between parameters of the radio emission and geometry of the Io flux tube. Fluctuations in the current amplitude through the tube are estimated, along with the refractive index value and mass density of the plasma near the radiation source.

  10. Research support for plasma diagnostics on Elmo Bumpy Torus. Observations of EBT ring geometry by means of diamagnetic field measurements using a compensated ferromagnetic resonance magnetometer, and a preliminary numerical study of EBT flux penetration dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H.; Booker, R.H.

    1982-10-01

    A preliminary numerical study of flux penetration dynamics has been made assuming a bumpy cylinder geometry for the EBT vacuum vessel. Estimates made by this study show that the diamagnetic signal from the rings should penetrate the vacuum vessel in a time on the order of 100 mS when the plasma is changed. This penetration time appears qualitatively reasonable.

  11. Operational Regimes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; M. Bitter; T. Bigelow; P. Bonoli; M. Carter; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; D. Gates; L. Grisham; J.C. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; H. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; R. Maqueda; J. Menard; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; R. Raman; S.A. Sabbagh; C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; D. Swain; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson; G.A. Wurden; S. Zweben

    2002-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST), i.e., low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. Important issues for ST research are whether the high-eta stability and reduced transport theoretically predicted for this configuration can be realized experimentally. In NSTX, the commissioning of a digital real-time plasma control system, the provision of flexible heating systems, and the application of wall conditioning techniques were instrumental in achieving routine operation with good confinement. NSTX has produced plasmas with R/a {approx} 0.85 m/0.68 m, A {approx} 1.25, Ip * 1.1 MA, BT = 0.3-0.45 T, k * 2.2, d * 0.5, with auxiliary heating by up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Waves, and 5 MW of 80 keV D0 Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The energy confinement time in plasmas heated by NBI has exceeded 100 ms and a toroidal beta (bT = 2m0

    /BT02, where BT0 is the central vacuum toroidal magnetic field) up to 22% has be en achieved. HHFW power of 2.3 MW has increased the electron temperature from an initial 0.4 keV to 0.9 keV both with and without producing a significant density rise in the plasma. The early application of both NBI and HHFW heating has slowed the penetration of the inductively produced plasma current, modifying the current profile and, thereby, the observed MHD stability.

  12. Control of Jovian Radio Emission by Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Christopher, I.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo has been in orbit around Jupiter since December 1995 and a large database has been collected. We present the results of a survey of the plasma wave data for the frequency range 2.0 MHz to 5.6 MHz, the low frequency decametric (DAM) emissions. While the control of a portion of the radio emission by the moon lo is well known, and Ganymede control has been more recently indicated, we report that a small but significant portion of DAM emission is seen to be correlated with the orbital phase of Callisto. While the occurrence rate of emission controlled by Ganymede and Callisto is considerably less than for lo, the power levels can be nearly the same. We estimate the power of the Callisto-dependent emission to be approx. 70% of the Io-dependent radio emission and about the same as the Ganymede-dependent radio emission. This result indicates an Alfven current system associated with Callisto, and thus a significant interaction of the magnetosphere of Callisto with that of Jupiter as is believed to exist for both lo and Ganymede.

  13. Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Stallard, Tom; Miller, Steve; Melin, Henrik; Lystrup, Makenzie; Cowley, Stan W H; Bunce, Emma J; Achilleos, Nicholas; Dougherty, Michele

    2008-06-19

    Planetary aurorae are formed by energetic charged particles streaming along the planet's magnetic field lines into the upper atmosphere from the surrounding space environment. Earth's main auroral oval is formed through interactions with the solar wind, whereas that at Jupiter is formed through interactions with plasma from the moon Io inside its magnetic field (although other processes form aurorae at both planets). At Saturn, only the main auroral oval has previously been observed and there remains much debate over its origin. Here we report the discovery of a secondary oval at Saturn that is approximately 25 per cent as bright as the main oval, and we show this to be caused by interaction with the middle magnetosphere around the planet. This is a weak equivalent of Jupiter's main oval, its relative dimness being due to the lack of as large a source of ions as Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. This result suggests that differences seen in the auroral emissions from Saturn and Jupiter are due to scaling differences in the conditions at each of these two planets, whereas the underlying formation processes are the same. PMID:18563160

  14. Outer satellite atmospheres: Their extended nature and planetary interactions. [sodium cloud of Io, hydrogen torus of Titan, and comet atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Highly developed numerical models are applied to interpret extended-atmosphere data for the sodium cloud of Io and the hydrogen torus of Titan. Solar radiation pressure was identified and verified by model calculations as the mechanism to explain two different east-west asymmetries observed in the sodium cloud. Analysis of sodium line profile data, suggesting that a Jupiter magnetospheric wind may be responsible for high speed sodium atoms emitted from Io, and preliminary modeling of the interaction of the Io plasma torus and Io's sodium cloud are also reported. Models presented for Titan's hydrogen torus are consistent both with the recent Pioneer 11 measurements and earlier Earth-orbiting observations by the Copernicus satellite. Progress is reported on developing models for extended gas and dust atmospheres of comets.

  15. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1993-04-03

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement has been improved by reduction of magnetic field errors with correction coils in the primary circuit and reduction of impurities using boronization; high densities have been achieved with hydrogen pellet injection. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5--7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occuring during strong MHD relaxation. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. Initial profile control experiments have begun using insertable biased probes and plasma guns. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer, 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  16. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Hartog, D.J.D.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C. )

    1993-09-01

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement scaling falls short of the RFP scaling trends observed in smaller RFPs, although the plasma resistance is classical. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode numbers m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5-7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occurring during strong MHD relaxation. The anomalous heating fraction decreases with increasing density, such that ion temperatures approach the lower limit given by electron-ion friction. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  17. Initial Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gates; J. Hosea; M. Ono; M. Peng; S.M. Kaye

    1999-06-01

    With a small, high-power density, and compact fusion core, Spherical Tori (ST) can provide an attractive path to a reactor or a volumetric neutron source. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle experiment that will explore the physics of low aspect ratio in scientifically interesting and aggressive regimes. To accomplish this mission, NSTX is designed to produce plasmas with R/a = 0.85 m/0.68 m {approximately} 1.25, I{sub p} = 1 MA, B{sub T} {le} 0.6 T, {kappa} {le} 2.2, {delta} {le} 0.5, heating powers of up to 11 MW (6 MW High Harmonic Fast Waves, 5 MW, 80 keV, D{sup 0} Neutral Beam Injection), and operation over a wide range of shapes and configurations. The OH solenoid and PF coils on NSTX are capable of producing approximately 1 V-sec of inductive flux, which, alone, is sufficient for plasma breakdown and for increasing the plasma current to the MA level. Breakdown, however, will be assisted by EC preionization. Co-axial Helicity Injection (CHI){sup 4} provides the opportunity for V-sec savings during breakdown as well as for completely non-inductive startup to about 500 kA.

  18. Electron Bernstein Wave Experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. K.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; Seltzman, A. H.

    2009-11-26

    A system to heat electrons and possibly drive off-axis field-aligned current is under development on the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP. Staged experiments have reached an input power of 150 kW at 3.6G Hz and have produced a localized increase in SXR emission during rf injection. This measured emission is consistent with modeling in its location, energy spectrum and dependence on radial diffusion within the plasma. The emission is strongest in the region where ray tracing predicts deposition of the injected power. The multi-chord SXR camera used is sensitive to 4-7 keV photons. Enhanced emission in this energy range is consistent with Fokker-Plank modeling of EBW injection. The enhanced SXR emission vanishes quickly when radial diffusion in the plasma is high (as indicated by m = 0 magnetic activity); this is also consistent with Fokker-Plank modeling. An increase of boron emission (and presumably boron within the plasma) is also observed during EBW injection. This presents an alternative explanation to the enhanced SXR emission. Subsequent experiments with a different antenna at 100 kW input showed a small increase in SXR emission near 3 keV. A higher frequency experiment (5.5 GHz) with more input power available is currently under construction. Initial tests are centered on a circular waveguide launcher which requires only a 5 cm circular port in the vacuum vessel and has a target launch power of 400 kW.

  19. Energetic oxygen and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere and their contribution to the auroral excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Stone, E. C.

    1983-07-01

    Observations of 1 to 20 MeV/nuc oxygen, sodium, and sulfur ions in the Jovian magnetosphere are reported. Measurements made by the cosmic ray subsystem on Voyager 1 and 2 are used to calculate abundances and energy spectra in the region from 5 to 20 Jovian radii.

  20. Electrodynamic interaction of Ganymede with the Jovian magnetosphere and the radial spread of wake-associated disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, G.F.; Armstrong, T.P.; Lowry, J.W.

    1985-05-01

    An investigation is conducted of the electrostatics of the interaction of Jupiter's satellite Ganymede with the Jovian plasma and the MHD stability of the resulting downstream cavity, taking into account an evaluation of the effect of distorted magnetic field models on the radial extent of the disturbances. The objective of the investigation is an understanding of the data which have been provided by Voyager 2 during its approach to Jupiter, giving attention to the Voyager 2 magnetometer experiment. It is concluded that the magnetic field distortion by itself is insufficient to explain the large radial extent of the observed wake encounters. Linear treatment of MHD equations showed that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is initiated at the plasma-cavity interface. 29 references.