Science.gov

Sample records for juger les inventions

  1. Invention: Contest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jiyoon

    2008-01-01

    The author presents an invention contest to help students document the development process of inventions. By developing an invention, writing an inventor's log, and drawing an invention poster, students experience the whole process of invention and understand how to take their own ideas to the next level. (Contains 2 tables.)

  2. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  3. The Great Invention Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammontree, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Instead of a science fair, the author's intermediate school holds an invention convention. Guided by an Inventor's Log, students must problem solve, think creatively, and budget their time and resources to brainstorm and build an invention. The inventions are built at home, with parental support and supervision. Then, when everyone is ready, the…

  4. Invent America! Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Patent Model Foundation, Alexander, VA.

    The Invent America program addresses the need to provide K-8 students with opportunities to learn critical and creative thinking skills through the process of inventing. Students apply problem-solving skills as they turn their own creative ideas into inventions. It is an effort to integrate the curriculum, help students synthesize knowledge, and…

  5. Students of Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Thomas A. Edison said, "To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk." Well, the finalists in this year's Craftsman/NSTA Young Inventors Award Program had no shortage of imagination, but chose more useful items with which to work. With the goal to invent or modify a tool, students across the country were searching homes, yards, and…

  6. Inventors and Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Tom

    An 8-day unit introduces middle school students to American inventors and inventions. In separate lessons, students examine the patenting process, women inventors, minority inventors, Native American inventors, the airplane, Thomas Edison, and the impact of inventions on America's growth. A brief outline of daily lesson plans precedes a section of…

  7. Inventive Thinking in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    To encourage students to become involved in the inventive and imaginative dimensions of biology, students are asked to invent: a useful product, way to use old newspapers, insect repellent, organism attracter, organelle separater, way to measure rate of hyphal growth, and method to measure strength of spider web. (DC)

  8. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  9. Inventing to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobey, Ed

    2006-01-01

    A method of instruction is presented in which learners construct their own understanding by engaging in experiments directed to solving specified problems. The method is based on how successful inventors learn and create new inventions.

  10. From Invention to Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Rorke, M.

    1999-09-16

    The Inventions and Innovation Program, formerly known as ERIP (Energy-related Inventions Program), was established by the U.S. Congress in 1974. The program offers assistance to independent inventors and very small businesses engaged in developing new energy-saving technologies. The program remains clearly focused on energy generation and savings. The I I Program funding is based on a competitive proposal process.

  11. From Invention to Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Rorke, M.

    2000-07-18

    The Inventions and Innovation Program, formerly known as ERIP (Energy-related Inventions Program), was established by the U.S. Congress in 1974. The program offers assistance to independent inventors and very small businesses engaged in developing new energy-saving technologies. The program remains clearly focused on energy generation and savings. The I&I Program funding is based on a competitive proposal process.

  12. Inventions: Waiting for Eureka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelfried, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Legend has it that when Archimedes made a discovery related to water displacement, he leapt out of a bath declaring, "Eureka!" Whether true or not, the tale serves as a symbol for the notion that a burst of inspiration can lead to an exciting new discovery. Most books about inventions, however, tell a different story. The path from the germ of an…

  13. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  14. Science and Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of reference sources for the study of science and technology focuses on an annotated list of eight less expensive sources that supplement standard materials such as encyclopedias. An example of an activity designed for grades five, six, or seven that deals with inventions related to water is included. (LRW)

  15. Invention in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Invention offers many benefits as a unit of study. It teaches valuable process, subject integration, and critical thinking skills. It is especially relevant to American history. Over 60 percent of the annual growth in U.S. gross national product comes from technological advances. Technology is the cardiovascular system of the U.S. economy.…

  16. Inventing Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn; Vosevich, Mary; O'Connor, Michael; Whitefield, Joe; Medlin, E. Lander

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Smith, APPA's Vice President for Professional Development, had the honor of introducing the closing panel discussion at APPA's annual conference in Boston last July--a discussion centered on the theme "Inventing Our Future." Previous general plenary sessions and related breakout sessions had explored the challenges people face in these…

  17. The Soul of Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Scott Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Technology shifts gears. The workers who control it need to learn how to shift gears, too. Workers brought up with universal schooling would respect authority, learn enough "geometry and mechanics" to use in their trades, keep invention alive, and finally see through "the interested complaints of faction and sedition." In other words, they would…

  18. Refactorable Numbers - A Machine Invention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Simon

    1999-02-01

    The HR (or Hardy-Ramanujan) program invents and analyses definitions in areas of pure mathematics, including finite algebras, graph theory and number theory. While working in number theory, HR recently invented a new integer sequence, the refactorable numbers, which are defined and developed here. A discussion of how HR works, along with details of well known sequences reinvented by HR and other new sequences invented by HR is also given.

  19. Invention-driven marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, William E.

    1994-01-01

    Suppose you have just created a revolutionary bicycle suspension which allows a bike to be ridden over rough terrain at 60 miles per hour. In addition, suppose that you are deeply concerned about the plight of hungry children. Which should you do: be sure all hungry children have bicycles; transfer the technology for your new suspension to bicycle manufacturers worldwide; or start a company to supply premium sports bicycle based on your patented technology, and donate the profits to a charity which feeds hungry children? Woven through this somewhat trivial example is the paradox of technology transfer - the supplier (owner) may want to transfer technology; but to succeed, he or she must reformulate the problem as a user need for which there is a new and better solution. Successful technology transfer is little more than good marketing applied to an existing invention, process, or capability. You must identify who needs the technology, why they need it, why the new technology is better than alternatives, how much the customers are willing and able to pay for these benefits, and how to distribute products based on the technology tc the target customers. In market-driven development, the term 'technology transfer' is rarely used. The developers focus on studying user needs and designing solution They may have technology needs, but they don't have technology in search of a use.

  20. 1999 Inventions and Innovations Brochure

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Theis, K.

    1999-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy DOE's Inventions and Innovation (I&I) Program can help if you are an individual inventor or small business planning to develop your energy-saving invention or innovation. The program provides financial assistance at two levels and also offers technical guidance and commercialization support to successful applicants.

  1. Invention at Play. Educators' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Michael; Lacasse, Jane; Smith, Monica; Reilly, Katie

    A Smithsonian exhibition was developed that looked at invention in an innovative way. It aimed to encourage visitors to make connections between their own lives and abilities and those of inventors. The role of play in the invention process was examined. Play is a universal and familiar activity and can help people find the link between their own…

  2. Stages for Children Inventing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…

  3. An Experiment in Teaching Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that invention can be taught to business students who do not have the prior technical knowledge that is assumed to be a requirement for this kind of activity. Design/methodology/approach: This paper contains reflections on the results of introducing a specific course in inventing based on the…

  4. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  5. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a...

  6. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a...

  7. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a...

  8. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a...

  9. 43 CFR 6.53 - Unpatented inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unpatented inventions. 6.53 Section 6.53... Unpatented inventions. The Secretary of the Interior may also have transferable interests in inventions which... benefit of the public, a license may be granted with respect to such an invention only if (a) a...

  10. Camp Invention Connects to Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Danute V.; Clark, Barbara D.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes Camp Invention, a national creativity day camp that integrates science, math, social studies, and the arts. The one week camp for children entering grades 2-6 attracts many academically gifted children because of its hands-on curriculum. The camp's curriculum and activities are discussed. (Contains two references.) (CR)

  11. A Model of Inventive Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant progress over the past six decades, a number of obstacles still exist as far as the understanding and application of inventive ideation techniques is concerned. This paper describes the development of a model aimed at simplifying the selection and application of these techniques. Analysis of a diverse range of creative thinking…

  12. The Invention of "The Invention of Hugo Cabret"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selznick, Brian

    2008-01-01

    "The Invention of Hugo Cabret" is a story about Georges Melies that the author began thinking about over 15 years ago and took about two-and-a-half years to complete. The book is about a boy named Hugo Cabret, an orphan living secretly in the walls of a train station in Paris who becomes involved in a mystery that ties him together with a mean old…

  13. Humanisme : inventer l'avenir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Federico

    2014-06-01

    Humanism: inventing the future - Humanity is still confronted by the scourges of poverty, hunger, violence and inequality. If we are to invent a better future, we must first understand the past, recalling the missed opportunities of 1918, 1945 and 1989, at the end of two world wars and a cold war. This article summarises the proposals put forward by the author on several occasions during his career. He expresses a forceful confidence in humankind's ability to take control of its destiny and shake off government that puts economic interest before universal human values. The twenty-first century should be the era of rebellion in cyberspace, one in which more women and young people are involved in decision making, heralding a future of freedom and happiness for all.

  14. Creative inventive design and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a summary of a course given at the Goddard Space Flight Center for graduate engineers entitled 'Creative Inventive Design and Research.' This course strikes at the heart of the problem as it describes the thinking process itself before it goes deeper into the design process as a structured method for performing creative design. Many problem examples and figures are presented in a form that should make clear to all students what this process is and how it can be used.

  15. Duracell/NSTA Invention Challenge. Teacher Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankovits, Nicholas; Luton, Grant; Rabelo, Javier

    This teacher module provides background information and resources to the Annual Duracell/National Science Teachers Association Scholarship Competition Invention Challenge for high school students. Contents include: (1) "Introduction to the Competition"; (2) "Tips for Motivating Students"; (3) "Preparing for Inventing"; (4) "Teaching Invention:…

  16. It's No Problem to Invent a Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Rose M.

    2012-01-01

    A kindergarten class learns about inventions, inventors, and how to be an inventor. Engaging students in learning about pencil sharpeners led to researching and developing a lesson plan designed so students could learn how inventions are solutions to problems. Through identifying, researching, and brainstorming new inventions, the students…

  17. Inventions and Inventors. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    Invention is the creation of a new device or technique or the use of some particular phenomenon to achieve a given result. Examples of technological invention can be found at all times and in all places of human history. This paper chronicles the history of invention and provides references to materials that discuss the socio-cultural, economic,…

  18. The America Invents Act implementation.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) is by far the most comprehensive change to the patent law in at least half a century. Implementation of the AIA has been ongoing, but the final and most critical provisions went into effect on March 16, 2013. Although, it will take several years before we fully understand the law's impact, the new law is likely to fundamentally change the way innovation is protected within the United States. Researchers will need to become increasingly vigilant as to publication dates as well as communications coming from their labs. PMID:23560953

  19. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  3. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  4. Children's Inventions for Multidigit Multiplication and Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliandro, Christine Koller

    2000-01-01

    Describes an informal research activity in which third grade students invent their own algorithms for multidigit multiplication and division. Discusses teaching implications and action research ideas. (ASK)

  5. Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details such as bloodspatter patterns and graffiti. This ability keeps the scene's components intact and pristine for the collection of information and evidence. The laser scaling device elegantly solved a pressing problem for NASA's shuttle operations team and also provided industry with a useful tool. For NASA, the laser scaling device is still used to measure divots or damage to the shuttle's external tank and other structures around the launchpad. When the invention also met similar needs within industry, the Innovative Partnerships Program provided information to Armor Forensics for licensing and marketing the laser scaling device. Jeff Kohler, technology transfer agent at Kennedy, added, "We also invited a representative from the FBI's special photography unit to Kennedy to meet with Armor Forensics and the innovator. Eventually the FBI ended up purchasing some units. Armor Forensics is also beginning to receive interest from DoD [Department of Defense] for use in military crime scene investigations overseas."

  6. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were paper, but…

  7. A National Climate for Creativity and Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1992-01-01

    This article offers guidelines for developing a national climate for creativity and invention. It recalls the post-Sputnik climate in the United States and notes evidence of Japan's increasing commitment to creativity. It recommends encouraging students to imagine themselves as inventors, providing early training in inventing skills, and…

  8. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwanted inventions. 650.9 Section 650.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.9 Unwanted inventions. (a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee...

  9. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  10. Inventing Toys: Kids Having Fun Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobey, Ed

    This book presents detailed teaching ideas on integrating inventing into grades 4-6 science classrooms. The contents of the book is divided into three sections. Part 1 provides theoretical and pedagogical background information to teachers on the structure of inventing and the structure of experience. Part 2 presents six detailed workshops: (1)…

  11. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unwanted inventions. 650.9 Section 650.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.9 Unwanted inventions. (a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee...

  12. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unwanted inventions. 650.9 Section 650.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.9 Unwanted inventions. (a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee...

  13. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unwanted inventions. 650.9 Section 650.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.9 Unwanted inventions. (a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee...

  14. 45 CFR 650.9 - Unwanted inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unwanted inventions. 650.9 Section 650.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.9 Unwanted inventions. (a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee...

  15. Inventors and Inventions, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Lorraine Hopping

    This activity book encourages students to think like inventors by employing ready-to-use materials, a timeline game, and topics from social studies, mathematics, science, language arts, and art. The first section explains the definition of invention and explores accidental inventions. It is followed by a section that examines the effects of…

  16. Effects of Using Invention Learning Approach on Inventive Abilities: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongkraso, Paisan; Sitti, Somsong; Piyakun, Araya

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance inventive abilities for secondary students by using the Invention Learning Approach. Its activities focus on creating new inventions based on the students' interests by using constructional tools. The participants were twenty secondary students who took an elective science course that provided instructional units…

  17. The invention and early manufacture of bifocals.

    PubMed

    Letocha, C E

    1990-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin, who died 200 years ago, is generally credited with the invention of bifocals. However, serious historians have from time to time produced evidence to suggest that others may have preceded him in the invention. This historical article includes correspondence from George Whatley, a London philanthropist, and John Fenno, editor of The Gazette of the United States, which convincingly documents that Franklin invented bifocals, perhaps 50 years earlier than has been generally thought. Appendices detail the many difficulties encountered in the early manufacture of bifocals. PMID:2274850

  18. What's in a Name? Young Adolescents' Implicit Conceptions of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates 55 6th grade students' conceptions of "invention and patent processes". Suggests that students have few or simplistic conceptions of invention and patent processes and prior exposure to invention instruction, or previous experiences with inventing did not appear to have an impact on students' conceptions of invention. (Contains 70…

  19. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage. PMID:20166289

  20. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  1. Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Même si, au Canada, les mineurs n’ont pas le droit de jouer à des jeux de hasard légalisés, les adolescents participent souvent à des jeux de hasard soit légalisés (produits de loterie, casino, terminaux de jeux vidéo), soit autonomes (jeux de cartes, paris sportifs, dés) à la maison et en milieu scolaire. Chez les adultes, le taux de prévalence de dépendance aux jeux de hasard au cours de la vie se situe entre 1 % et 2 %. D’après les données existantes, la prévalence chez les adolescents serait de deux à quatre fois plus élevée. On ne sait pas grand-chose des facteurs de risque d’apparition et de perpétuation d’une dépendance pathologique aux jeux de hasard. Le présent document de principes vise à informer les pédiatres, les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels de la santé des connaissances émergentes sur les jeux de hasard pendant l’enfance et l’adolescence et du risque de conséquences graves qui s’y rattachent. On y exhorte également les gouvernements fédéral, provinciaux et territoriaux à inclure cette question dans leur programme et à tenir compte des facteurs sociopolitiques associés aux jeux de hasard.

  2. Evaluation of energy-related inventions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewett, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    On December 31, 1974, Congress passed the Federal Non-nuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974. In Section 14 of the Act, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was assigned the role of evaluating energy-related inventions and identifying those that may be suitable for potential DOE support. In assigning the evaluation role to NBS, Congress noted that significant inventions frequently come from individual inventors or from small companies. There was concern that, in the competition for Government funds to be dispensed by DOE, the individual inventory and small company might be at a disadvantage. NBS was directed, therefore, to pay particular attention to evaluation of inventions submitted by individual inventors and by small companies. On passage of the Act, NBS began receiving requests for evaluation of inventions. By the time the NBS Office of Energy-Related Inventions (OERI) was established in April 1975 to carry out the evaluation program, more than 100 requests were awaiting evaluation. As of January 31, 1981, OERI has received approximtely 16,405 requests. This article describes the evaluation process designed and implemented by OERI, reports evaluation statistics and results, and comments on the impact of the OERI operation on the stimulation of innovation in energy technology. More than 50% of the inventions address energy-conservation activities with automotive improvements leading the submissions. About 20% of the submissions fall into the solar energy area. About 1.3% of the total requests received can be expected to be recommended for DOE support.

  3. 78 FR 13905 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  4. 78 FR 13905 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  5. 75 FR 28663 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  6. 77 FR 54935 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the ] National Aeronautics and Space...

  7. 78 FR 13906 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  8. 78 FR 19744 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  9. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, have been filed in...

  10. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  11. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  12. 78 FR 19743 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,...

  13. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  14. Invention and Inventivity as a Special Kind of Creativity, with Implications for General Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, John C.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 452 inventors found that inventorship is a form of creativity with definitions and criteria and with quantitative measures, inventors with high rates of inventiveness more often have outstanding achievements, and a majority of inventors exhibit a random pattern of inventivity (rate of production of patents by an individual inventor).…

  15. 37 CFR 1.73 - Summary of the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary of the invention. 1... § 1.73 Summary of the invention. A brief summary of the invention indicating its nature and substance, which may include a statement of the object of the invention, should precede the detailed...

  16. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  17. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing... PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY, PATENTS, AND CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions...

  18. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Report of invention. 6.2 Section 6.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.2 Report of invention. (a) Every invention made by an employee of the Department shall be...

  19. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing... PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY, PATENTS, AND CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions...

  20. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...

  1. 37 CFR 1.73 - Summary of the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Summary of the invention. 1... § 1.73 Summary of the invention. A brief summary of the invention indicating its nature and substance, which may include a statement of the object of the invention, should precede the detailed...

  2. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  3. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  4. 37 CFR 1.73 - Summary of the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Summary of the invention. 1... § 1.73 Summary of the invention. A brief summary of the invention indicating its nature and substance, which may include a statement of the object of the invention, should precede the detailed...

  5. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  6. 37 CFR 1.73 - Summary of the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Summary of the invention. 1... § 1.73 Summary of the invention. A brief summary of the invention indicating its nature and substance, which may include a statement of the object of the invention, should precede the detailed...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications..., copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed... patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, ensure to the benefit of the Board. Upon termination...

  8. 37 CFR 1.73 - Summary of the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of the invention. 1... § 1.73 Summary of the invention. A brief summary of the invention indicating its nature and substance, which may include a statement of the object of the invention, should precede the detailed...

  9. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing... PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY, PATENTS, AND CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions...

  10. 37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. 1.109 Section 1.109 Patents, Trademarks, and... a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. (a) The effective filing date for...

  11. 37 CFR 1.109 - Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effective filing date of a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. 1.109 Section 1.109 Patents, Trademarks, and... a claimed invention under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. (a) The effective filing date for...

  12. 77 FR 27365 - Inventions and Contributions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...NASA is amending its regulations to clarify and update the procedures for board recommended awards, and the procedures and requirements for recommended special initial awards, including patent application awards, software release awards, and Tech Brief awards, and to update citations and the information on the systems used for reporting inventions and issuing award payments. The revisions to......

  13. Invention, Technology, and the GI Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The era of industrialization was also the age of invention, which spurred technology that in turn required skills not provided by existing educational institutions. In particular, the traditional elite higher education centers could not, or would not, provide the training in the numbers needed for a technical and increasingly global economy. The…

  14. Who on Earth Invented the Alphabet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassoon, John

    1990-01-01

    Considers opinions about how the alphabet might have been invented. Concludes that it probably occurred in a single "giant leap" taken by one man. Reviews the inventor's necessary background, creation of letter shapes, the writing medium, and direction of script. Postulates possibilities for initial acceptance and diffusion. Encapsulates the whole…

  15. [The first invention patents in general anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, M

    1996-12-01

    Dra, Zimmer describes in this work the evolution of general anaesthesia for surgeries, quoting the recorded invention patents, since the 1st one performed in France - an ether anaesthesia - in 1846, 2 years after Wells had used nitrous oxide as gas for a surgery (december 1844). PMID:11625369

  16. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  17. Invented Rule with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Martin, Kathryn Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize an invented rule with English language learners (ELLs) in a clinical setting to determine differences based on language and age of the children. The performance was correlated with teacher reports of strong and weak language learning. Using a within-participants design, ELLs of age three to five were taught…

  18. A Computer Program for Invention and Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Helen J.

    SEEN (Seeing Eye Elephant Network) is a computer program intended to help students write better essays by providing a heuristic for invention and a means for audience feedback. In the solo mode, the program prompts students to perceive what they have seen--that is, to consider the literary work in an active way. The program also remembers--like an…

  19. Promoting Students' Proportional Reasoning Using Invention Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    To many students, introductory physics may seem a fast-moving parade of abstract, mysterious quantities. Most such quantities are rooted in proportional reasoning. Using ratio, physicists construct the force experienced by a unit charge and characterize motion with the change in velocity for a unit time. While physicists reason about these ratios without conscious effort, students may resort to memorized algorithms and struggle to match the appropriate algorithm to the situation encountered. Dan Schwartz and colleagues at Stanford University have developed invention instruction as a means to prepare students for future learning. Invention tasks present open-ended situations in which students must invent a procedure or quantity in order to make meaningful comparisons. Through creative thinking and struggle, students are primed to make sense of the accepted scientific solution. A collaboration between Western Washington University, Rutgers, and New Mexico State has developed sequences of invention tasks to promote proportional reasoning. Central to our work is the development of assessments to gauge student learning. This talk presents an overview of the coordinated research and curriculum development project together with selected examples.

  20. Patent Work: The Other Side of Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    In popular culture, the inventor is often portrayed as a lone tinkerer who emerges from a workshop with some magnificent new device. In reality, most inventions are the collaborative effort of scientists and engineers--usually researchers affiliated with a college or corporation--that result in the discovery, creation, or improvement of either…

  1. Peer Groups in Evolution: Inventing Classroom Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Elizabeth

    It can be very difficult for writers to invent classroom communities, to share their writing; it can be especially difficult for anxious young writers who have never before worked in peer groups. Student participation is largely influenced by gender roles shaped by years of socialization. Teachers should not be startled by less female…

  2. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  3. Children's Invented Spellings in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports research on children's conceptualizations of spelling. Researchers asked a combined grades 3-4 class and a combined grades 6-7 class to invent new ways of spelling words and produce written justifications for each alternate spelling. Most of the children gave phonological reasons for their creative spellings. (DR)

  4. 76 FR 42684 - Statutory Invention Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... obtaining patents on the inventions claimed in the applications. However, given that 37 CFR 1.211 requires... methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0036 comment'' in the subject line of...-272-7728, or by e-mail to Raul.Tamayo@uspto.gov with ``Paperwork'' in the subject line....

  5. The Telephone: An Invention with Many Fathers

    SciTech Connect

    Brenni, Paolo

    2008-10-01

    The names of A.G. Bell, A. Meucci, P.Reis, E. Gray, just to mention the most important ones, are all connected with the invention of the telephone. Today, the Italian inventor A. Meucci is recognized as being the first to propose a working prototype of the electric telephone. However, for a series of reasons his strenuous efforts were not rewarded. I will not repeat here the endless and complex disputes about the 'real father' of the telephone. From an historical point of view it is more interesting to understand why so many individuals from different backgrounds conceived of a similar apparatus and why most of these devices were simply forgotten or just remained laboratory curiosities. The case of the development of the telephone is an emblematic and useful example for better understanding the intricate factors which are involved in the birth of an invention and reasons for its success and failure.

  6. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking. PMID:24819029

  7. The Telephone: An Invention with Many Fathers

    ScienceCinema

    Brenni, Paolo [CNR-FST-IMSS, Florence, Italy

    2010-01-08

    The names of A.G. Bell, A. Meucci, P.Reis, E. Gray, just to mention the most important ones, are all connected with the invention of the telephone. Today, the Italian inventor A. Meucci is recognized as being the first to propose a working prototype of the electric telephone. However, for a series of reasons his strenuous efforts were not rewarded. I will not repeat here the endless and complex disputes about the ?real father? of the telephone. From an historical point of view it is more interesting to understand why so many individuals from different backgrounds conceived of a similar apparatus and why most of these devices were simply forgotten or just remained laboratory curiosities. The case of the development of the telephone is an emblematic and useful example for better understanding the intricate factors which are involved in the birth of an invention and reasons for its success and failure.

  8. Bringing university invention to the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    Despite of the fact that primary purpose of universities is to disseminate knowledge, university research happens to be extremely important for industry development. More than 70 % of most important patents are originated from university studies. This paper addresses specifics of university intellectual property (IP) and provides strategies for successful implementation of university inventions. Practical aspects of inventing such as the patent ownership and monetary rewards for the inventors, working at the university, are discussed. We paid special attention to certain distinctions in IP laws in various countries, which is important to know due to the growth of international collaboration between universities, multi-national character of companies and their cooperation with the universities. We show IP managements in industry - academia research on a fair basis within two different models: cooperation research paid by third party such as government and contract research paid by industry.

  9. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    PubMed

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-01

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism. PMID:26962897

  10. 78 FR 29388 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY:...

  11. 78 FR 13905 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY:...

  12. 78 FR 13905 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY:...

  13. 78 FR 29387 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY:...

  14. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing. 746.5 Section 746.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions...

  15. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing. 746.5 Section 746.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions...

  16. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Government and of the inventor. If an invention is reduced to practice after the invention report... Government and of the inventor, invention reports and memoranda or correspondence concerning them are to be... and division, position or title, and official working place of the inventor or inventors; (3)...

  17. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the inventor. If an invention is reduced to practice after the invention report is filed, the... inventor, invention reports and memoranda or correspondence concerning them are to be considered as... division, position or title, and official working place of the inventor or inventors; (3) A statement...

  18. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publication of the statutory invention registration, to waive the inventor's right to receive a patent on the... other inventor even if the subject matter of the statutory invention registration and an application of another inventor are commonly owned. A waiver filed with a request for a statutory invention...

  19. 43 CFR 6.2 - Report of invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Government and of the inventor. If an invention is reduced to practice after the invention report... Government and of the inventor, invention reports and memoranda or correspondence concerning them are to be... and division, position or title, and official working place of the inventor or inventors; (3)...

  20. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publication of the statutory invention registration, to waive the inventor's right to receive a patent on the... other inventor even if the subject matter of the statutory invention registration and an application of another inventor are commonly owned. A waiver filed with a request for a statutory invention...

  1. 37 CFR 1.297 - Publication of statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention registration. 1.297 Section 1.297 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Protests and Public Use Proceedings § 1.297 Publication of statutory invention registration. (a) If the request for a statutory invention registration is approved the statutory...

  2. 14 CFR 1245.105 - Waiver after reporting inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver after reporting inventions. 1245.105... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.105 Waiver after reporting inventions. (a) The provisions of this section apply to petitions for waiver of domestic rights to identified inventions...

  3. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  4. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's...

  5. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps...

  6. 37 CFR 1.297 - Publication of statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention registration. 1.297 Section 1.297 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Protests and Public Use Proceedings § 1.297 Publication of statutory invention registration. (a) If the request for a statutory invention registration is approved the statutory...

  7. 37 CFR 501.4 - Determination of inventions and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of inventions... AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.4 Determination of inventions and rights. Each Government agency has the...

  8. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison...

  9. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps...

  10. 37 CFR 501.4 - Determination of inventions and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of inventions..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.4 Determination of inventions and rights. Each Government agency has the approval of the Secretary to...

  11. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's...

  12. 37 CFR 501.4 - Determination of inventions and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of inventions..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.4 Determination of inventions and rights. Each Government agency has the approval of the Secretary to...

  13. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  14. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of 40 CFR part 30, immediate and full reporting of all inventions to the Environmental Protection Agency... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting of inventions....

  15. 38 CFR 1.654 - Patenting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.654 Patenting of inventions. Any invention owned by the Government under the criteria as set forth in 37 CFR 501.6 should be protected by an... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patenting of...

  16. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  17. 43 CFR 6.5 - Rights in inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rights in inventions. 6.5 Section 6.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.5 Rights in inventions. (a) The rules prescribed in this section shall be applied in...

  18. 43 CFR 6.5 - Rights in inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rights in inventions. 6.5 Section 6.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.5 Rights in inventions. (a) The rules prescribed in this section shall be applied in...

  19. 37 CFR 1.297 - Publication of statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invention registration. 1.297 Section 1.297 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Protests and Public Use Proceedings § 1.297 Publication of statutory invention registration. (a) If the request for a statutory invention registration is approved the statutory...

  20. 48 CFR 27.305-4 - Protection of invention disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protection of invention disclosures, also see 37 CFR 401.13. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of invention....305-4 Protection of invention disclosures. (a) The Government will, to the extent authorized by 35...

  1. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's...

  2. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison...

  3. 37 CFR 501.4 - Determination of inventions and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of inventions..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.4 Determination of inventions and rights. Each Government agency has the approval of the Secretary to...

  4. 43 CFR 6.5 - Rights in inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in inventions. 6.5 Section 6.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.5 Rights in inventions. (a) The rules prescribed in this section shall be applied in...

  5. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison...

  6. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of 40 CFR part 30, immediate and full reporting of all inventions to the Environmental Protection Agency... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting of inventions....

  7. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's...

  8. 14 CFR 1245.105 - Waiver after reporting inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver after reporting inventions. 1245.105... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.105 Waiver after reporting inventions. (a) The provisions of this section apply to petitions for waiver of domestic rights to identified inventions...

  9. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison...

  10. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results...

  11. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of 40 CFR part 30, immediate and full reporting of all inventions to the Environmental Protection Agency... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting of inventions....

  12. 40 CFR 40.160-3 - Reporting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.160-3 Reporting of inventions. As provided in appendix B of 40 CFR part 30, immediate and full reporting of all inventions to the Environmental Protection Agency... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting of inventions....

  13. 14 CFR 1245.105 - Waiver after reporting inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver after reporting inventions. 1245.105... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.105 Waiver after reporting inventions. (a) The provisions of this section apply to petitions for waiver of domestic rights to identified inventions...

  14. 48 CFR 27.305-4 - Protection of invention disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protection of invention disclosures, also see 37 CFR 401.13. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of invention....305-4 Protection of invention disclosures. (a) The Government will, to the extent authorized by 35...

  15. 48 CFR 27.305-4 - Protection of invention disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protection of invention disclosures, also see 37 CFR 401.13. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of invention....305-4 Protection of invention disclosures. (a) The Government will, to the extent authorized by 35...

  16. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results...

  17. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's...

  18. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results...

  19. 48 CFR 27.305-4 - Protection of invention disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection of invention disclosures, also see 37 CFR 401.13. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of invention....305-4 Protection of invention disclosures. (a) The Government will, to the extent authorized by 35...

  20. 37 CFR 501.4 - Determination of inventions and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of inventions... AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.4 Determination of inventions and rights. Each Government agency has the...

  1. 48 CFR 27.305-4 - Protection of invention disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protection of invention disclosures, also see 37 CFR 401.13. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of invention....305-4 Protection of invention disclosures. (a) The Government will, to the extent authorized by 35...

  2. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  3. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  5. 14 CFR 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventions by NASA employees. 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance...

  6. 14 CFR 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inventions by NASA employees. 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance...

  7. 14 CFR 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Inventions by NASA employees. 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance...

  8. 14 CFR 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inventions by NASA employees. 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance...

  9. 14 CFR § 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inventions by NASA employees. § 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance...

  10. Making Differences in the Composition Class: A Philosophy of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covino, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys rhetorical invention in current theoretical terms. Suggests that all invention requires the location of "differences" within a structure of free play imposed by the mind. Presents some important links between invention, J. Derrida's concept of "difference," and K. Burke's idea of eloquence. (RL)

  11. 14 CFR 1260.59A - Invention reporting and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invention reporting and rights. 1260.59A... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59A Invention reporting and rights. Invention Reporting and Rights October 2000 (a) As used in this provision: (1) The term “invention” means...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.59A - Invention reporting and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Invention reporting and rights. 1260.59A... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59A Invention reporting and rights. Invention Reporting and Rights October 2000 (a) As used in this provision: (1) The term “invention” means...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.59A - Invention reporting and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invention reporting and rights. 1260.59A... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59A Invention reporting and rights. Invention Reporting and Rights October 2000 (a) As used in this provision: (1) The term “invention” means...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.59A - Invention reporting and rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invention reporting and rights. 1260.59A... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.59A Invention reporting and rights. Invention Reporting and Rights October 2000 (a) As used in this provision: (1) The term “invention” means...

  15. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information Management System maintained by the...

  16. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information Management System maintained by the...

  17. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information Management System maintained by the...

  18. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  19. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  1. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under project agreements entered...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  4. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  9. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest....

  10. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  12. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  13. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82... GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  15. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under project agreements entered...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  18. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82... GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  19. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  1. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  4. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  7. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  8. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under project agreements entered...

  9. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4 Section 4.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If...

  10. Making the Failure More Productive: Scaffolding the Invention Process to Improve Inquiry Behaviors and Outcomes in Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N. G.; Day, James; Park, Anthony H. K.; Bonn, D. A.; Roll, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Invention activities are Productive Failure activities in which students attempt (and often fail) to invent methods that capture deep properties of a construct before being taught expert solutions. The current study evaluates the effect of scaffolding on the invention processes and outcomes, given that students are not expected to succeed in their…

  11. Inventing Songs, Inventing Worlds: The "Genesis" of Creative Thought and Activity in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for "elaboration," and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity…

  12. Evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program: An empirical analysis of 204 inventions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Morell, J.A.; Snell, S.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Friggle, W.

    1987-03-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assesses the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than $200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: priorities for allocating ERIP grants; improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and further evaluation research.

  13. Stimulating Invention Disclosures by Faculty Researchers--A Guide for the University Invention Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcy, Willard

    Intended as a guide for university administrators, this manual discusses programs to help faculty members in the recognition of inventions and to increase the flow of their disclosure. The benefits of patenting are outlined and it is suggested that these benefits provide justification for initiating a program to increase disclosures. Important…

  14. Evaluation of Energy-Related Inventions Program: An Empirical Analysis of 204 Inventions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assesses the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than $200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) priorities for allocating ERIP grants; (2) improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; (3) delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and (4) further evaluation research.

  15. Peter J Turner: an inventive optometrist.

    PubMed

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Jacobs, Robert J

    2007-11-01

    Machines are Peter Turner's life. They always have been, are now and probably always will be. He can blame his parents for this because despite urging Peter to become an optometrist they gave him inventive genes, a love of technology and holiday work in a factory fitting and turning, and welding. In the 30 years since completing his State Diploma in Optics in New Zealand (SDONZ), Peter has designed and developed three key pieces of optical equipment: a Sun-Following Radio Telescope, a CCTV read/write system and the Berkeley Glare & Acuity Test (BEGAT). He has also completed myriad technological innovations for friends and family ranging from a motorised chair and stand unit for optometric rooms to components for venetian blind manufacturing. PMID:17958574

  16. [Einthoven: the man and his invention].

    PubMed

    Lama, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    Einthoven, a Dutch physician, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. He was born on May 21, 1860, in Semarang, on the island of Java. In 1878 entered the University of Utrecht in The Netherlands, as a medical student, where he also became a keen sportsman. In 1885, he was appointed Professor of Physiology at the University of Leiden, where he began to work using first a capillary electrometer. Later, Einthoven invented a new galvanometer to generate electrocardiograms using a fine quartz string coated in silver and published his findings in 1901 and 1903. Einthoven is remembered by most of his colleagues and clinical peers as a very modest person who was hospitable and honest. He died at the age of sixty seven. PMID:15449564

  17. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    PubMed Central

    Perogamvros, Lampros

    2013-01-01

    A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel's invention (Casares, 1940), a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating, and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an “endogenous” Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states. PMID:23467765

  18. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  19. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  20. 13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, WEST HALF, LOOKING WEST - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  1. 14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, NORTH HALF LOOKING NORTH - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  2. 76 FR 10375 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Treatment of Diabetes and Clotting Description of Technology: This invention discloses small molecule... developments (blood clots; Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative...

  3. Diffusion dans les liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianoux, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.

  4. Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, David W.; Gong, Tieying; Oakey, John; Terray, Alexander V.; Wu, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Several related inventions pertain to families of devices that utilize microfluidics and/or colloidal particles to obtain useful physical effects. The families of devices can be summarized as follows: (1) Microfluidic pumps and/or valves wherein colloidal-size particles driven by electrical, magnetic, or optical fields serve as the principal moving parts that propel and/or direct the affected flows. (2) Devices that are similar to the aforementioned pumps and/or valves except that they are used to manipulate light instead of fluids. The colloidal particles in these devices are substantially constrained to move in a plane and are driven to spatially order them into arrays that function, variously, as waveguides, filters, or switches for optical signals. (3) Devices wherein the ultra-laminar nature of microfluidic flows is exploited to effect separation, sorting, or filtering of colloidal particles or biological cells in suspension. (4) Devices wherein a combination of confinement and applied electrical and/or optical fields forces the colloidal particles to become arranged into three-dimensional crystal lattices. Control of the colloidal crystalline structures could be exploited to control diffraction of light. (5) Microfluidic devices, incorporating fluid waveguides, wherein switching of flows among different paths would be accompanied by switching of optical signals.

  5. From Indian Corn to Outer Space: Women Invent in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showell, Ellen H.; Amram, Fred M. B.

    This book is about women who have made contributions that have changed the world and continue to change lives, sometimes having overcome enormous social obstacles. It examines American history to find women who have invented for fun and profit, invented to make their own lives better, and who, as a result of their employment by the National…

  6. Seeking Social Inventions to Improve the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Social inventions are new ways of solving human problems. This article reports on an action research project designed to find social inventions to reduce structural lag in four programs that support the transition to adulthood of marginalized youth in Latin America. The investigators engaged youth and staff members in identifying important…

  7. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of identified inventions. 784.5 Section 784.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PATENT WAIVER REGULATION § 784.5 Waiver of identified inventions. This... is useful in the production or utilization of special nuclear material or atomic energy; (d)...

  8. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of identified inventions. 784.5 Section 784.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PATENT WAIVER REGULATION § 784.5 Waiver of identified inventions. This... is useful in the production or utilization of special nuclear material or atomic energy; (d)...

  9. Toward a Language of Invention and Synthetic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the conceptual bases of two different approaches to a language of invention and synthetic thinking as applied to commonplace inventions such as the chair: first, a conceptual history based on the gradual accretion of complexity, and second, a modern account based on the principles of engineering design. (DB)

  10. The Employee Invention Report (EIR) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    After making such a discovery, NCI researchers should immediately contact their Laboratory or Branch Chief and inform him or her of a possible invention and consult with your NCI TTC Technology Transfer Specialist about submitting an Employee Invention Report (EIR) Form.

  11. 37 CFR 1.293 - Statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... registration. 1.293 Section 1.293 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Public Use Proceedings § 1.293 Statutory invention registration. (a) An applicant for an original patent... specification and drawings be published as a statutory invention registration. Any such request must be...

  12. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Interferences § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent judge may decline to...

  13. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Interferences § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent judge may decline to...

  14. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent judge may decline to declare,...

  15. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent judge may decline to declare,...

  16. 37 CFR 41.206 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 41.206 Section 41.206 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Interferences § 41.206 Common interests in the invention. An administrative patent judge may decline to...

  17. 37 CFR 42.411 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 42.411 Section 42.411 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.411 Common interests in the invention. The Board may decline...

  18. 37 CFR 42.411 - Common interests in the invention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Common interests in the invention. 42.411 Section 42.411 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.411 Common interests in the invention. The Board may decline...

  19. 14 CFR 1245.301 - Inventions under NASA contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inventions under NASA contracts. 1245.301... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.301 Inventions under NASA contracts. (a) Pursuant to § 1245.113, NASA has facilitated the filing of foreign patent applications by contractors...

  20. 14 CFR § 1245.301 - Inventions under NASA contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inventions under NASA contracts. § 1245... AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.301 Inventions under NASA contracts. (a) Pursuant to § 1245.113, NASA has facilitated the filing of foreign patent applications...

  1. 14 CFR 1245.301 - Inventions under NASA contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Inventions under NASA contracts. 1245.301... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.301 Inventions under NASA contracts. (a) Pursuant to § 1245.113, NASA has facilitated the filing of foreign patent applications by contractors...

  2. 14 CFR 1245.301 - Inventions under NASA contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventions under NASA contracts. 1245.301... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.301 Inventions under NASA contracts. (a) Pursuant to § 1245.113, NASA has facilitated the filing of foreign patent applications by contractors...

  3. 14 CFR 1245.301 - Inventions under NASA contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inventions under NASA contracts. 1245.301... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.301 Inventions under NASA contracts. (a) Pursuant to § 1245.113, NASA has facilitated the filing of foreign patent applications by contractors...

  4. 14 CFR 1245.105 - Waiver after reporting inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Waiver after reporting inventions. 1245.105 Section 1245.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PATENTS AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.105 Waiver after reporting inventions. (a)...

  5. Playful Invention and Exploration. Final Evaluation Report: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John; Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    PIE (Playful Invention and Exploration) is a unique approach to learning that centers on the use of technology and design challenges to create powerful learning experiences in informal education settings. The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Overall, 150…

  6. A Study of English Majors' Preferences in Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, James L.

    This paper appraises aspects of Anglo-American and Chinese concepts of invention from a historical perspective. It then describes the results of 70 third-year Taiwanese English majors' responses to a Likert scale questionnaire that sought their reaction to Anglo-American strategies of invention in English academic writing. It singles out two…

  7. 75 FR 77882 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... diseases other than cancer, such as those related to the lymphatic system, the pulmonary airway, the kidney... applications. Software System for Quantitative Assessment of Vasculature in Three Dimensional Images Description of Invention: This invention offered for licensing and further development is a software...

  8. 75 FR 77885 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... diseases other than cancer, such as those related to the lymphatic system, the pulmonary airway, the kidney... applications. Software System for Quantitative Assessment of Vasculature in Three Dimensional Images Description of Invention: This invention offered for licensing and further development is a software...

  9. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  10. 10 CFR 784.5 - Waiver of identified inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... extent to which the Government has contributed to the field of technology of the invention; (e) The... extent to which the field of technology of the invention has been developed at the contractor's expense... safety, or public welfare; (j) The likely effect of the waiver on competition and market...