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Sample records for jugular um caso

  1. Acquired Jugular Vein Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hopsu, Erkki; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Vento, Seija I.; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Venous malformations of the jugular veins are rare findings. Aneurysms and phlebectasias are the lesions most often reported. We report on an adult patient with an abruptly appearing large tumorous mass on the left side of the neck identified as a jugular vein aneurysm. Upon clinical examination with ultrasound, a lateral neck cyst was primarily suspected. Surgery revealed a saccular aneurysm in intimate connection with the internal jugular vein. Histology showed an organized hematoma inside the aneurysmal sac, which had a focally thinned muscular layer. The terminology and the treatment guidelines of venous dilatation lesions are discussed. For phlebectasias, conservative treatment is usually recommended, whereas for saccular aneurysms, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. While an exact classification based on etiology and pathophysiology is not possible, a more uniform taxonomy would clarify the guidelines for different therapeutic modalities for venous dilatation lesions. PMID:20107571

  2. Contemporary management of jugular paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Haynes, David S; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-04-01

    Jugular paragangliomas are generally benign slow-growing tumors that can cause pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, and cranial nerves neuropathy. Progressive growth can also lead to intracranial extension. Historically, the treatment of choice for these lesions has been gross total resection. However, over the last 15 years, many groups have adopted less invasive management strategies including stereotactic radiation therapy, subtotal resection, and primary observation in order to reduce treatment-associated morbidity. The focus of this article is to review the modern management of jugular paraganglioma, highlighting the evolving treatment paradigm at the Otology Group of Vanderbilt. PMID:25769354

  3. Phlebectasia of Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Satish K.; Vasisth, Gaurav O. P.; Chibber, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia (IJP) is a rare disease in which there is a fusiform dilatation of internal jugular vein, usually presenting as a neck mass in children. Accurate diagnosis from careful history, physical examination, and radiological study can be made. We report a 12-year-old boy with history of swelling appearing on the right side of the neck only on straining, coughing, or during a Valsalva maneuver. Diagnosis of right IJP was made. Exploration and wrapping the dilated segment in an 8-mm-diameter polytetrafluoroethylene tube graft was done. Because of its rarity, this entity is frequently ignored or misdiagnosed. This case report intends to stress the importance of keeping IJP as differential diagnosis while dealing with such a swelling to avoid invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. PMID:23741586

  4. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present

  5. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  6. Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, V; Menegatti, E; Mascoli, F; Gianesini, S; Salvi, F; Secchiero, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the ultrastructure of intraluminal defects found in the internal jugular vein by using a scanning electron microscopy. Methods Using a scanning electron microscopy, intraluminal septa and/or defective valves blocking the flow in the distal internal jugular vein of seven patients were studied together with the adjacent wall and compared with control specimen. Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina. Conclusions Although the lack of endothelial cells in the internal jugular vein intraluminal obstacles is a further abnormality found in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, our investigation cannot clarify whether this finding is primary or caused by progressive loss of endothelium in relation to altered haemodynamic forces and/or to a past post-thrombotic/inflammatory remodelling. PMID:24972760

  7. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia in Menkes Disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, David J.; Ravindranath, Thyyar; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric neck masses should trigger a high index of suspicion for certain genetic disorders of connective tissue. To highlight this, we report on three infants with Menkes disease, an inherited disorder of copper transport, who developed large, unilateral neck masses at between 7 and 17 months of age. All were identified in imaging studies as internal jugular phlebectasia. The masses, which enlarged on crying or exertion, have remained clinically benign in these patients for 20, 17 and 2 months, respectively. While arterial tortuosity and aneurysms have been reported often in Menkes disease, venous phlebectasia has rarely been described. We speculate that low activity of the copper-dependent enzyme, lysyl oxidase, leading to reduced tensile strength in the deep cervical fascia comprising the carotid sheath may predispose to internal jugular phlebectasia in these individuals. Improved survival and neurological outcomes in infants with Menkes disease due to advances in early diagnosis and treatment may be associated with recognition of novel clinical stigmata of this condition such as internal jugular phlebectasia. PMID:17482283

  8. Morphology, topography and clinical signi cance of the jugular foramen.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Mróz, Izabela; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes morphological variants of the jugular foramen of the human skull and discusses the reasons for its frequent asymmetry. Bilateral disproportions between the anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the jugular foramina were analyzed. We established that the jugular foramen is extremely narrow when its anteroposterior diameter is less than 5.0 mm. When the mediolateral diameter exceeds 20.0 mm, then the foramen exhibits extreme widening. PMID:27513840

  9. Systemic Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with a Case of Jugular Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Sokabe, Ayuko; Mizooka, Masafumi; Sakemi, Rinne; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Kishikawa, Nobusuke; Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Kanno, Keishi; Tazuma, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Jugular paraganlioma is a benign, slow-growing tumor originating from the paraganglion cells and it is associated with catecholamine secretion. Paragangliomas can secrete Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and present as a systemic inflammatory syndrome; these characteristics have not been previously associated with jugular paragangliomas. A 63-year-old man with a jugular tumor in the skull base was referred to our hospital for an evaluation of pyrexia, back pain, and acute inflammation. His serum IL-6 level was elevated on admission and it decreased after radiotherapy. This is the first known case of a jugular paraganglioma exhibiting systemic inflammatory syndrome. PMID:27477424

  10. [Bilateral jugular thrombosis in Lemierre syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benhayoun, M; Llor, J; Van-Den-Abbeele, T; Elmaleh, M; Mariani, P; Beaufils, F; Dauger, S

    2003-12-01

    An adolescent presented with a rhinosinusitis complicated with bilateral jugular veins and left superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis and respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. Blood culture was positive for Haemophilus influenzae and sinus puncture for Streptococcus constellatus. Evolution was under control after 1 week of appropriate antibiotherapy, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. He had no neurologic, respiratory or ophthalmologic sequelae 6 months later. Despite lack of pharyngitis or isolation of anaerobic species on blood cultures, the picture was considered compatible with Lemierre syndrome. The risk for such a complication should be considered in cases of severe otorhinolaryngologic infection in young adults. PMID:14643536

  11. Positional hoarseness: an unusual symptom in jugular foramen mass.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manish; Bhaskar, Mukesh Kumar; Mittal, Radhey Shyam; Ojha, Balkrishna

    2016-01-01

    We came across a case of jugular foramen mass causing positional hoarseness on turning the head left and disappearing on returning the head to a straight position. Hoarseness of voice due to vagus nerve involvement is seen in jugular foramen mass but positional hoarseness has never been seen before. We report this rarest presentation and discuss the pathophysiology behind it. PMID:27190124

  12. Internal jugular vein phlebectasia presenting with hoarseness of voice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sohini; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Amrita; Bagchi, Nilay Ranjan; Sarkar, Debalina; Pal, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia presents as a soft cystic mass in the neck that appears on straining. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with a painless soft cystic mass in the neck associated with hoarseness of voice. Based on clinical examination and CT image, diagnosis of right internal jugular phlebectasia was made. PMID:24369523

  13. Malposition of central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SoWoon; Lee, Ju Ho; Park, Chunghyun; Hong, Yong-woo

    2015-01-01

    The central venous cannulation is commonly performed in the operating rooms and intensive care units for various purposes. Although the central venous catheter (CVC) is used in many ways, the malpositioning of the CVC is often associated with serious complications. We report a case of an unexpected malposition of a CVC in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein. PMID:25844137

  14. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV) drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications. PMID:26457221

  15. Carotid and Jugular Classification in ARTSENS.

    PubMed

    Sahani, Ashish Kumar; Shah, Malay Ilesh; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2016-03-01

    Over past few years our group has been working on the development of a low-cost device, ARTSENS, for measurement of local arterial stiffness (AS) of the common carotid artery (CCA). This uses a single element ultrasound transducer to obtain A-mode frames from the CCA. It is designed to be fully automatic in its operation such that, a general medical practitioner can use the device without any prior knowledge of ultrasound modality. Placement of the probe over CCA and identification of echo positions corresponding to its two walls are critical steps in the process of measurement of AS. We had reported an algorithm to locate the CCA walls based on their characteristic motion. Unfortunately, in supine position, the internal jugular vein (IJV) expands in the carotid triangle and pulsates in a manner that confounds the existing algorithm and leads to wrong measurements of the AS. Jugular venous pulse (JVP), on its own right, is a very important physiological signal for diagnosis of morbidities of the right side of the heart and there is a lack of noninvasive methods for its accurate estimation. We integrated an ECG device to the existing hardware of ARTSENS and developed a method based on physiology of the vessels, which now enable us to segregate the CCA pulse (CCP) and the JVP. False identification rate is less than 4%. To retain the capabilities of ARTSENS to operate without ECG, we designed another method where the classification can be achieved without an ECG, albeit errors are a bit higher. These improvements enable ARTSENS to perform automatic measurement of AS even in the supine position and make it a unique and handy tool to perform JVP analysis. PMID:25700474

  16. Surgical Approaches to the Jugular Foramen: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; McGrew, Benjamin; Matusz, Petru; De Caro, Raffaele; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Multiple surgical approaches and combinations thereof have been described to gain access to the jugular foramen. In an area laden with important neurovascular structures, care must be taken in choosing the best surgical approach for treatment of rare pathologies involving this region. Methods This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the relevant anatomy along with an overview of the various approaches to the jugular foramen. In an attempt to simplify the various concepts, we propose a basic distinction into anterolateral and posterolateral approaches based on the main trajectory targeting the jugular foramen. Conclusion The anatomy surrounding the jugular foramen is exceedingly complex and requires in-depth understanding of skull base and head and neck relationships. PMID:27175322

  17. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was <25%. Bias was assessed using the Egger funnel plot test. Results: Across all studies, 97% of patients achieved tumor control, and 95% of patients achieved clinical control. Eight studies reported a mean or median follow-up time of >36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  18. Papilledema and Vision Loss Caused by Jugular Paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Lertakyamanee, Paweena; Srinivasan, Ashok; De Lott, Lindsey B; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Paragangliomas that arise from the jugular bulb are known to present as masses in the neck or with hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus, and lower cranial nerve palsies. Much less recognized is their tendency to cause increased intracranial pressure and papilledema by obstructing jugular venous outflow. Only 7 such cases have been reported and with minimal ophthalmic documentation. We describe 3 more cases to provide additional documentation and to emphasize that paragangliomas are a potential cause of the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, and that papilledema may be overlooked when a jugular paraganglioma is diagnosed or after it has been treated. Such lapses have led to disabling vision loss from damage to the optic nerves in long-standing papilledema. PMID:26079334

  19. Diagnosis of jugular paraganglioma by radionuclide angiography: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Kronenberg, J.; Tadmor, R.; Leventon, G.

    1983-11-01

    Jugular paraganglioma is a highly vascular tumor, slowly growing, extending into the surrounding stuctures and causing otologic and /or neurologic symptoms according to its location in the jugular bulb region or the middle-ear. In our study, modified vertex and posterior head scintiangiography was used in seven cases. Scintiangiography was positive in all seven, whereas concomitant radiographic studies were limited: four of the seven gave positive findings by transmission computerized tomography (TCT). Only four patients underwent angiography, with positive results in two. Hypocycloidal tomography was positive in three cases. However, some radiographic studies, particularly TCT, may be useful in detecting local extension, bone destruction, and soft-tissue infiltration. Radionuclide angiography proved highly reliable and should be used initially whenever a jugular paraganglioma is suspected.

  20. Jugular Vein Invasion Diagnosis and Prognosis in Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Pierre Yves; Thariat, Juliette; Chevenet, Carole; Lacout, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Diagnosis of venous jugular invasion by means of traditional imaging is very rarely reported in the literature. Doppler ultrasound definitively helps to diagnose the tumor thrombus, the extent, and helps in redefining the TNM stage of such an aggressive thyroid tumor. PMID:27354880

  1. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  2. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Fortuna, Marek; Zaniewski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:23097738

  3. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    SciTech Connect

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  4. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  5. The jugular foramen: microsurgical anatomy and operative approaches.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, T; Rhoton, A L; Matsushima, T

    1997-07-01

    The jugular foramen, based on these studies of microsurgical anatomy, is divided into three compartments: two venous and a neural or intrajugular compartment. The venous compartments consist of a larger posterolateral venous channel, the sigmoid part, which receives the flow of the sigmoid sinus, and a smaller anteromedial venous channel, the petrosal part, which receives the drainage of the inferior petrosal sinus. The petrosal part forms a characteristic venous confluens by also receiving tributaries from the hypoglossal canal, petroclival fissure, and vertebral venous plexus. The petrosal part empties into the sigmoid part through an opening in the medial wall of the jugular bulb between the glossopharyngeal nerve anteriorly and the vagus and accessory nerves posteriorly. The intrajugular or neural part, through which the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves course, is located between the sigmoid and petrosal parts at the site of the intrajugular processes of the temporal and occipital bones, which are joined by a fibrous or osseous bridge. The glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves penetrate the dura on the medial margin of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone to reach the medial wall of the internal jugular vein. The operative approaches, which access the foramen and adjacent areas and are demonstrated in a stepwise manner, are the postauricular transtemporal, retrosigmoid, extreme lateral transcondylar, and preauricular subtemporal-infratemporal approaches. PMID:9218307

  6. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia: Diagnosis by Ultrasonography, Doppler and Contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Manash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Jugular phlebectasia is an isolated saccular or fusiform dilation of a vein without tortuosity. Its aetiology remains controversial. It is infradiagnosed, as it is generally asymptomatic. However, it has been increasingly recognized in recent years due to the better imaging techniques which are available. Phlebectasia of the Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) is a rare disease. It is mostly unilateral and it involves only the right side. It is usually a childhood disease which is diagnosed during the study of an intermittent neck mass. Its treatment is controversial. Presently, a conservative approach to unilateral or bilateral asymptomatic phlebectasia is recommended. Symptomatic phlebectasia requires surgery. The diagnosis is suggested by clinical features which can be confirmed by noninvasive radiology. This paper is reporting a case of unilateral right internal jugular phlebectasia in a 12 year old female patient who complained of an intermittent, right sided neck swelling, where we used UltraSonoGraphy(USG) with Doppler and Contrast enhanced CT(CECT) to evaluate the lesion. PMID:23905140

  7. Carotid-jugular arteriovenous fistula: a case report of an iatrogenic complication following internal jugular vein catheterization for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himanshu V; Sainaresh, Vellanki V; Jain, Siddharth H; Kute, Vivek B; Godara, Suraj; Gumber, Manoj R; Munjappa, Bipin; Gera, Dinesh N; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of diabetic end-stage renal disease patient who presented with a right common carotid artery jugular arteriovenous fistula as a complication of the insertion of a polyurethane double-lumen hemodialysis catheter into the right internal jugular vein .On physical examination of the neck, a pulsating mass with a palpable thrill and a bruit was noted in the right subclavicular region. The diagnosis was confirmed by color doppler ultrasonography of the neck and carotid angiography. The review of the literature suggests the occurrence of this complication as rather rare. The fistula was successfully repaired surgically. It is emphasized that while securing the access, a thorough physical examination with a special emphasis on seeking any neck swellings, thrill, and bruit along with routine use of vascular doppler for securing dialysis access is recommended. PMID:21624042

  8. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn’t available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. Methods 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Results A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262–605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363–3.588; p = 0.001). Conclusions Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable. PMID:26751380

  9. Superior vena cava reconstruction using bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei Dong; Yu, Feng Lei; Wu, Zhong Shi

    2007-11-01

    The glutaraldehyde-treated bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC) is a xenograft conduit initially used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and has never been used for reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC). In September 2003, a patient with SVC obstruction underwent SVC reconstruction using BJVC. He has been alive for 42 months and free from signs and symptoms of SVC obstruction except that metastasis was found in the vertebrae. The radionuclide venography showed the graft tube was patent and only slight stenosis was found in the proximal anastomosis. The initial result supports BJVC as an acceptable alternative for SVC reconstruction. PMID:17768061

  10. Anatomical variation of cerebral venous drainage: the theoretical effect on jugular bulb blood samples.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Yule, S; Kassner, A; Jackson, A

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant variation in bilateral jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements which may be of clinical significance. We have therefore measured variations in normal dural sinus venous drainage to assess the possible effects of normal anatomical variations on measured jugular venous oxygen saturation. Normal volunteers (n = 25) were imaged using magnetic resonance venography to demonstrate variations in venous anatomy. Flow was measured in the superior sagittal sinus and bilaterally in the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus proximal to the jugular bulb and proximal jugular vein using phase difference magnetic resonance imaging. Examination of magnetic resonance venogram images showed considerable variability in the symmetry of transverse sinus flow. Complete absence of one transverse sinus was seen in four cases and significant asymmetry in the size of the transverse sinuses was present in 13. Quantitative flow studies demonstrated that the ratio of superior sagittal sinus to combined jugular bulb flow showed remarkably little variation (0.46 +/- 0.06). Measurements of transverse sinus flow showed significant asymmetry (< 40% of superior sagittal sinus flow in one transverse sinus) in 21 of 25 volunteers. The effect of the observed asymmetry on jugular venous oxygen saturation was modelled based on the assumption of either a supratentorial or infratentorial lesion. This model predicted significant asymmetry in jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements (> 10%) in 65% of cases with a supratentorial lesion which is in close agreement with clinical observations. This study suggests that normal variations in venous drainage may account for observed asymmetry in jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements. PMID:9771169

  11. Acute respiratory distress associated with external jugular vein catheterization in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Fadi F; Obeid, Mounir; Dabbous, Ibrahim; Hayek, Paula; Akel, Samir; Mroueh, Salman

    2003-12-01

    We report on the acute onset of respiratory distress secondary to fluid accumulation in the chest within hours of placement of an external jugular venous line in a newborn. External jugular venous catheterization in the newborn is a procedure with potentially serious complications, and should be avoided unless the patient is monitored closely. PMID:14618649

  12. Congenital Agenesis of the Internal Jugular Vein: An Extremely Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Calli, Caglar; Emre, Abdulkadir; Soy, Fatih Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of major venous vessels are rarely seen. Moreover, congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. In our case, a female patient presented with primary unknown left cervical mass. Cervical ultrasonography demonstrated absence of right internal jugular vein. In addition, computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed this diagnosis. Compensatory left internal jugular vein enlargement mimicked sort of cervical mass. Venous magnetic resonance imaging images revealed the absence of right internal jugular vein with compensatory left internal jugular vein dominance. In the literature, the agenesis of IJV was mentioned in a case with concomitant multiple problems. Here, an asymptomatic case is reported with an incident diagnosis. No interventions were planned upon the patient's request. It should be kept in mind that any kind of anomalies can be seen during venous access and neck surgery. PMID:25821625

  13. Right internal jugular venous cannulation complicated by tension hydrothorax.

    PubMed

    Maroun, Rabih; Chalhoub, Michel; Harris, Kassem

    2013-01-01

    Central Venous Catheter (CVC) is a common procedure performed in patients' management, especially the critically ill ones. CVC has been used as main access in patients requiring large amount of fluid resuscitation, total parenteral nutrition or measuring the central venous pressure. Although most complications associated with central venous cannulation are minimal, local and easy to control, others may be critical and rapidly fatal if not recognized and treated immediately. One of the most serious incidents that can occur post CVC placement is delayed hydrothorax. It usually results from migration and perforation of the catheter through the SVC wall. In this report, we describe a case of tension hydrothorax that occurred a few hours after placement of CVC in the right internal jugular vein. In acutely ill patients that are already unstable, making the diagnosis of tension hydrothorax secondary to CVC placement requires high level of suspicion. Prompt pleural effusion drainage like in our case is crucial for favorable outcome. PMID:23871236

  14. Anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein during head rotation

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Satoru; Nakazawa, Ken; Onozawa, Shiro; Mine, Takahiko; Ueda, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Yasui, Daisuke; Takeda, Minako; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein during head rotation for the effective performance of percutaneous transjugular procedures. The subjects included 30 volunteers who had never undergone internal jugular vein cannulation. In the supine position, two-dimensional ultrasonographic images of the right internal jugular vein and common carotid artery were obtained, 2 and 4 cm above the clavicle, along the lateral border of the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Ultrasonographic images were examined for head rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° from the midline to the left. The percentage of overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein and the flattening of the internal jugular vein at each head rotation position were measured and evaluated. The overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein significantly increased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01), compared with that observed in the neutral position. The flattening of the internal jugular vein significantly decreased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01). Head rotation should be kept to <45° at 2 cm above the clavicle and <30° at 4 cm above the clavicle to decrease the risk of accidental puncture of the common carotid artery during internal jugular vein puncture. Moreover, flattening of the internal jugular vein gradually decreases during head rotation to the side.

  15. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-05-01

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case. PMID:25425716

  16. Mid-term experience with valved bovine jugular vein conduits.

    PubMed

    Pawelec-Wojtalik, Malgorzata; Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Wodziński, Andrzej; Wojtalik, Michal; Henschke, Jacek; Sharma, Girish K

    2005-12-01

    From June 1999 to January 2004, 43 children underwent implantation of a valved bovine jugular vein conduit and correction of complex congenital heart defects. Median age was 1.98 years (range, 11 days - 13.3 years). There were 7 early deaths (16.3%) unrelated to conduit failure or thrombosis. Median follow-up of 36 survivors was 24 months (range, 1-48 months, quartile range, 12-48 months), total follow-up was 78 patient-years. There were 3 late deaths (8.3%) due to infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, and sudden cardiac arrest after re-operation to repair a right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm. There were 2 conduit explantations due to dysfunction and suspected endocarditis. Three patients underwent balloon dilatation of distal stenoses. The mean peak gradient through the pulmonary anastomosis was 15 mm Hg (range, 3-42 mm Hg) among patients free from re-intervention. No severe valve regurgitation was observed. Freedom from re-intervention was 72% at 48 months. This conduit remains a good alternative to homografts. Causes of distal stenosis must be clarified, guidelines for prophylactic anticoagulation must be created, and the role of percutaneous balloon dilatation established. PMID:16304226

  17. Impact of Jugular Vein Valve Function on Cerebral Venous Haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Toro, Eleuterio F; Muller, Lucas O; Cristini, Mariapaola; Menegatti, Erica; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the effect of internal-jugular vein function on intracranial venous haemodynamics, with particular attention paid to venous reflux and intracranial venous hypertension. Haemodynamics in the head and neck is quantified by computing the velocity, flow and pressure fields, and vessel cross-sectional area in all major arteries and veins. For the computations we use a global, closed-loop multi-scale mathematical model for the entire human circulation, recently developed by the first two authors. Validation of the model against in vitro and in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements have been reported elsewhere. Here, the circulation model is equipped with a sub-model for venous valves. For the study, in addition to a healthy control, we identify two venous-valve related conditions, namely valve incompetence and valve obstruction. A parametric study for subjects in the supine position is carried out for nine cases. It is found that valve function has a visible effect on intracranial venous haemodynamics, including dural sinuses and deep cerebral veins. In particular, valve obstruction causes venous reflux, redirection of flow and intracranial venous hypertension. The clinical implications of the findings are unknown, though they may relate to recent hypotheses linking some neurological conditions to extra-cranial venous anomalies. PMID:26256005

  18. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  19. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins

    PubMed Central

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  20. Melatonin concentrations in the two jugular veins, and relationship with the seasonal reproductive activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2010-07-15

    The authors investigated whether melatonin concentrations vary between the two jugular veins and whether absolute (nocturnal) or relative (nocturnal/diurnal ratio) plasma melatonin concentrations are associated with seasonal reproductive activity measured by oestrus or ovulatory activity in Payoya goats. Thirty-two adult Payoya goats were penned under natural photoperiod. Oestrus activity was tested daily using aproned males-twice a week plasma was sampled for progesterone. Melatonin plasma concentrations were studied at each equinox and solstice of the year in jugular samples taken simultaneously by venipuncture. Nocturnal and diurnal plasma melatonin concentrations from each jugular vein were assessed in 3 and 2 plasma samples per goat, respectively, taken at hourly intervals in each period. No differences in melatonin concentrations between the two veins were observed, but there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between jugular vein and animal in nocturnal melatonin concentrations. There was no effect of sampling period on melatonin concentrations and the coefficient of correlation between sampling periods was very high. The analyses performed indicated that neither absolute nor relative melatonin concentrations were related with the dates of onset or end of ovulatory/oestrus activity. Therefore, we concluded that in goats (1) melatonin concentrations are highly variable between jugular veins in the same individual but not in the general population, (2) melatonin concentrations are highly repeatable for each individual, and (3) absolute and relative amplitudes of melatonin concentrations are not linked to the seasonal breeding activity in Mediterranean goats. PMID:20451998

  1. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  2. Internal Jugular Vein Blood Flow in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Di Donato, Orlando; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Salvatore, Elena; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the Internal Jugular Veins dynamics using contrast enhanced ultrasonography in Multiple Sclerosis patients, clinically isolated syndrome patients and healthy controls. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography imaging of the Internal Jugular Vein was performed in fifty-eight patients with Multiple Sclerosis, seven clinically isolated syndrome patients and in thirteen healthy controls. Time-intensity curves were quantified using a semi-automated method and compared with clinical disease outcomes. Wash-out parameters were calculated and six Time-intensity curves shapes were created. Significantly reduction of wash-out rate in Internal Jugular Veins was detected in Multiple Sclerosis patients compared to healthy controls [22.2% (2.7%–65.9%) vs. 33.4% (16.2%–76.8%); P<0.005]. Internal Jugular Vein enhancement was heterogeneous in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and consisted of slow wash-out Time-intensity curves shapes, compared with almost only one type of Time-intensity curves shape in control subjects that correspond to fast enhancement and fast wash-out. The vein wash-in parameters were similar in Multiple Sclerosis group compared with controls. A significant correlation was found between Internal Jugular Vein wash-out and level of disability (R = −0.402, p<0.05). Contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the Internal Jugular Vein with time intensity curve analysis revealed alterations of cerebral venous outflow in Multiple Sclerosis patients, however mechanisms that determine this condition remains unclear. PMID:24675965

  3. Skull Base Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presented with Foramen Jugular Syndrome and Multi-Osseous Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sedighi, Nahid; Karami, Parisa; Yeganeh, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement. PMID:23329983

  4. Crouzon’s Syndrome with Life-Threatening Ear Bleed: Ruptured Jugular Vein Diverticulum Treated by Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar Anand, Sunanda Limaye, Uday S.

    2015-08-15

    Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinical presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.

  5. Ultrasound assessment of the jugular and vertebral veins in healthy individuals: selected physiological aspects and morphological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Krysiuk, Kamil; Dobrzycki, Konrad; Ustymowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim Ultrasound assessment of morphological parameters of the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins in healthy individuals as well as their dependence on the patient's position. Material The examinations were conducted in 185 healthy individuals (101 females and 84 males) aged 18–89. Ultrasound examinations were conducted with the use of a linear probe with the frequency of 5–9 MHz in the supine (0°) and sitting position (90°). Results In 154 cases (83.2%) on the left side and in 150 cases (81.1%) on the right side, the jugular veins were completely closed in the sitting position. In 31 cases (16.8%) on the left side and in 35 cases (18.9%) on the right side, they were merely narrowed. By contrast with the jugular veins, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vertebral veins was greater in the sitting position than in the supine position in a statistically significant way. The CSA values of the jugular veins in the supine position ranged from 0 cm2 to 4.3 cm2. There were no statistically significant differences in the CSA between men and women. The cross-sectional area of the right jugular vein in the supine position was greater in a statistically significant way than that of the left jugular vein. In this study population, the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the jugular veins on both sides amounted to 8.5:1. Conclusions The width of the jugular and vertebral veins significantly varies depending on the patient's position. The range of the CSA values for the jugular veins is broad, which should be taken into account when interpreting imaging findings. The internal jugular veins can show considerable asymmetry. PMID:26674467

  6. Aneurysmal dilatation without distal obstruction: a rare complication of valved bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Abbaker, Abd-Elmoneim A; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Latiff, Haifa A

    2014-04-01

    Valved bovine jugular vein (Contegra) conduit is considered a suitable choice for pediatric population with congenital heart defect requiring right ventricle to main pulmonary artery connection. Intermediate follow-up studies have shown the propensity of developing distal conduit stenosis and valve thrombosis. We present a rare case of aneurysmal dilatation of the conduit leading to valve failure requiring conduit explantation. PMID:24668992

  7. Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit in a child.

    PubMed

    Tasher, Diana; Stein, Michal; Raucher-Sternfeld, Alona; Somekh, Eli

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit which is an extremely rare manifestation of Q fever. The role of surgery in the management of C. burnetii endovascular infection and the use of serology are discussed. PMID:22349674

  8. Endoscopic Endonasal Access to the Jugular Foramen: Defining the Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis L.Y.; McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The endoscopic endonasal approach to the parapharyngeal space (PPS) and jugular foramen is not well defined. We sought to systematically define the important landmarks and limitations of this new surgical technique using an endoscopic transmaxillary transpterygoid corridor. Methods Endoscopic dissection was performed in both sides of two latex-injected cadaver heads. Left-sided dissections were facilitated by the addition of a sublabial maxillary antrostomy. The pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa, and PPS were sequentially dissected and the endoscopic perspective was examined. Measurements were obtained from the surgical orifices to the upper cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) and internal jugular vein (IJV). Results Successful access to the PPS and jugular foramen was achieved in each dissection. The lateral pterygoid plate, mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve, middle meningeal artery, levator veli palatini muscle, Eustachian tube, and stylopharyngeal fascia were identified as landmarks for the upper cervical ICA and the IJV. The mean distance from the nasal sill was markedly greater than from an ipsilateral sublabial antrostomy. Conclusion The endoscopic endonasal approach can provide adequate access to the PPS, carotid sheath, and jugular foramen. Multiple landmarks are useful to guide the dissection within these deep spaces and may facilitate the clinical application of this approach. PMID:24083127

  9. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects. PMID:25442142

  10. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs. PMID:25286775

  11. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs. PMID:25286775

  12. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K

    2015-12-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease-unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients. PMID:26682126

  13. The effect of right internal jugular vein cannulation on intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Woda, R P; Miner, M E; McCandless, C; McSweeney, T D

    1996-10-01

    Access to the central venous circulation is often necessary in patients who have elevated intracranial pressure. It has been suggested that a disadvantage of the internal jugular vein approach to the central circulation may be an elevated intracranial pressure. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of right internal jugular vein cannulation on intracranial pressure in patients who are at risk of intracerebral hypertension. Eleven adult patients studied in the intensive care unit were evaluated. The population included those patients who were admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit requiring intracranial pressure monitoring and central venous access. With the intracranial pressure monitor in place, patients were put in supine and 30 degrees head-up positions while intracranial pressure was recorded. The Queckenstedt maneuver was performed on all patients. A central venous line was then placed in the right internal jugular vein, and intracranial pressure was recorded. The Queckenstedt maneuver was again performed in the study population, and intracranial pressure measurements were recorded for the right, left, and bilateral compression of the internal jugular vein. The results of the intracranial pressure measurements before and after placement of the central venous line were statistically analyzed using single-factor analysis of variance over time. The mean Glasgow coma and Apache II scores for the study groups were 8 +/- 4 and 15 +/- 6, respectively. There were no significant differences in heart rate; cerebral perfusion pressure; or systolic, mean, or diastolic pressures throughout the study period. There was no statistical difference found between the intracranial pressures at any time point throughout the study. Furthermore, no difference was found in percentage change from baseline intracranial pressure data throughout the study period. Our results suggest that cannulation of the right internal jugular vein is a safe

  14. Dysphagia because of unilateral internal jugular vein phlebectasia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jegadeesh; Menon, Prema; Thingnum, Shyam K S; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha

    2016-07-01

    Phlebectasia affecting the internal jugular vein is a rare cause of a benign neck swelling in children. They are mostly asymptomatic and therefore managed conservatively. Ligation of the vein and excision is usually avoided owing to the worry of raised intracranial pressure. We report a case of a large right internal jugular vein phlebectasia, causing dysphagia in a 7month old male child. Contrast enhanced computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction helped in pre-operative anatomical delineation, especially of the lower extent. It was excised through a cervico-thoracic approach with postoperative amelioration of symptoms. Contrary to expectation, the ectasia was not friable and was covered with a pseudocapsule of fibrofatty tissue, making excision easy. PMID:27233370

  15. Bilateral Jugular Vein and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis Related to an Inherited Coagulopathy: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Altıntaş, Özge; Baran, Gözde; Mehdi, Elnur; Asil, Talip

    2014-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition associated with malignancy, coagulopathy, and trauma. The optimal management of any IJVT must be individualized and depends on the condition of the patient. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of a first trimester spontaneous abortion. Apart from a tension-type headache, she had no neurological symptoms. She reported an incidental diagnosis of right-sided IJVT when she was evaluated for hyperthyroidism ultrasonographically. On ultrasonography, we observed bilateral jugular vein thrombosis. The patient was started on oral warfarin. Seven months later, when she was adequately anticoagulated, she developed a second thrombosis. According to the etiological workup, she had a mutation in the homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and reduced protein C levels and activity. Conclusion. This report illustrates an unusual presentation of a rare condition. In this case, the etiology was associated with the coagulopathy, which occurred despite adequate anticoagulation. PMID:25221687

  16. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  17. Tricuspid valve replacement with a melody stented bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Joshua L; Permut, Lester C; McQuinn, Tim C; Jones, Thomas K; Chen, Jonathan M; McMullan, David Michael

    2014-11-01

    Atrioventricular valve replacement options are limited in infants and small children. The Melody stented bovine jugular vein conduit is being used with increasing frequency for percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement. The Melody valve can be serially dilated over time to accommodate the somatic growth of pediatric patients. We report the initial experience of using the Melody valve as a surgical tricuspid valve replacement in an infant. PMID:25441796

  18. A 28-year-old pregnant woman with a very rare cause of jugular vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, R; van Balen, M; Blaauwgeers, J; ten Wolde, M

    2014-05-01

    During pregnancy, venous thrombosis of the distal extremities is not uncommon. However, thrombosis in the upper part of the body, such as jugular vein thrombosis, is rare. If underlying causes such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) or septic thrombophlebitis (Lemierre's syndrome) are excluded, a serous borderline ovary tumour (BOT) must be considered and MR imaging of the abdomen could be performed to find a primary tumour mass. PMID:24829179

  19. The Utility of Intraoperative Bilateral Internal Jugular Venous Sampling With Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Sippel, Rebecca; Lederman, Julie; Chen, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the utility of routine perioperative bilateral internal jugular venous sampling of parathyroid hormone (BIJ PTH) for localization during parathyroid surgery. Summary Background Data: Venous sampling for PTH is a useful tool for parathyroid localization in patients undergoing reoperative surgery for hyperparathyroidism (HPT). With the development of intraoperative rapid PTH (ioPTH) testing, internal jugular PTH sampling with ioPTH testing to guide operative localization has been shown to be possible in select, difficult cases. However, the value of BIJ PTH for patients with HPT is unclear. Methods: Between May 2004 and February 2006, 216 consecutive patients underwent neck exploration for HPT by one surgeon. Of these, 168 patients had BIJ PTH. Internal jugular venous blood was drawn from both left and right sides and analyzed for PTH using a rapid PTH assay. BIJ PTH levels were defined as lateralizing if >5% differences were observed between the right and left internal jugular vein samples. Results: Of the 168 patients, 120 (71.4%) had a single parathyroid adenoma, 15 (8.9%) had double adenoma, and 33 (19.6%) had hyperplasia. The cure rate after parathyroidectomy was 98.2%. There were no complications related to BIJ PTH sampling. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of BIJ PTH for primary hyperparathyroidism were 80% and 71%, respectively. BIJ PTH was diagnostic in 95 cases (62.9%) in primary HPT. BIJ PTH successfully localized an abnormal gland in 26 of 45 (57.8%) in patients with negative sestamibi scanning. BIJ PTH was especially helpful in 18 of 168 (10.7%) cases when intraoperative peripheral parathyroid hormone did not fall by 50% and BIJ PTH successfully localized the hyperfunctioning glands. Conclusions: In patients with HPT, BIJ PTH is safe and effective, providing additional localization information in the majority of cases. BIJ PTH is particularly useful in the setting of negative sestamibi scanning and in complex multigland

  20. Decompression of the Jugular Bulb for Enhanced Infralabyrinthine Access to the Petroclival Region: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Pearl, Monica S; Wyse, Emily; Olivi, Alessandro; Francis, Howard W

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To describe an enhanced infralabyrinthine approach to petroclival lesions with jugular bulb decompression, and to quantify surgical access using a flat-panel computed tomography image protocol. Design Retrospective case series and paired comparison of pre- versus post-dissection anatomy. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants Four patients presenting with petroclival lesions. Six fresh cadaveric specimens were used for temporal bone dissection. Main Outcome Measures Axial and coronal dimensions, and access angles of the infralabyrinthine surgical corridor. Results Decompression of the jugular bulb increased the craniocaudal width of the infralabyrinthine corridor from 0.9 to 7.9 mm to 6.5 to 11.6 mm. The mean increase of 4 mm was statistically significant (t = 3.7; p < .05). There was also a significant widening of the infralabyrinthine window along the axial dimension by 0.9 to 4.5 mm or a mean of 2 mm (t = 3.7; p < .05). Angles of access to the petroclival region were wider following jugular bulb decompression, particularly in the coronal plane (mean difference 7.9 degrees; t = 5.0; p < .005) but less so in the axial plane (mean difference 4.7 degrees; t = 2.5; p = .05). Conclusions Jugular bulb decompression enhances infralabyrinthine access to petroclival lesions, permitting the removal of tissue for diagnoses or partial resection, without significant additional morbidity. PMID:27175321

  1. An ultrasonographic technique to assess the jugular venous pulse: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Gadda, Giacomo; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Taibi, Angelo; Menegatti, Erica; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the work described here was to investigate the feasibility of assessing the jugular venous pulse (JVP) using ultrasound (US) equipment. Three young healthy subjects underwent a B-mode US scan of the internal jugular vein (IJV) to acquire a sonogram sequence in the transverse plane. On each acquired sonogram, the IJV contour was manually traced, and both the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the perimeter were measured. The CSA data set represents the US jugular diagram (USJD). The arterial distension waveform of the subjects was compared with its USJD. The correlation between the CSA and the perimeter was assessed during the cardiac cycle to verify IJV distension. For each subject, a short sonogram sequence of a few seconds was recorded, and the USJD obtained exhibited periodic behavior. Furthermore, for all subjects, the CSA was found to be correlated with the perimeter (Pearson coefficient, R > 0.9), indicating that the IJV in supine position is distended. We compared 390 manually traced contours of the IJV cross-sectional area with corresponding values semi-automatically calculated by an algorithm developed in-house. For all subjects, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were around 95%, 85% and 90% respectively. We found that a diagram reflecting the JVP can be obtained by analyzing a B-mode sonogram sequence of the IJV; such a diagram can result in a new methodology to assess the IJV functionality. PMID:25704322

  2. [A case of catecholamine-secreting glomus jugulare tumor: treatment strategy and perioperative management].

    PubMed

    Motegi, Hiroaki; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2008-11-01

    Advances of neuroimaging, skull base technique and embolization improved outcome in patients who present with tumor of the glomus jugulare. Catecholamine secreting subgroup, however, is considered to be extremely high risk because of potentially serious complication of an intra- and perioperative hypertension crisis. The authors present detailed description of treatment strategies and perioperative management with a catecholamine secreting glomus jugulare. A 57-year-old woman, in whom the noradrenaline level in plasma was twenty times higher than normal, presented with uncontrolled labile hypertension and carcinoid syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan depicted the tumor as originating from the jugular foramen extending to the infratemporal fossa. Alpha catecholamine blocker and magnesium sulfate treatment was commenced prior to embolization and surgery. Under cranial nerve and hemodynamic monitoring, tumor resection via the infratemporal fossa type A was performed. The patient remained hemodynamically stable and the lower cranial nerve injury was able to be avoided. The plasma noradrenaline level decreased and hypertension became normalized. We emphasize treatment strategy, intra- and perioperative management of this rare entity. PMID:19048923

  3. An intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumors are rare skull base slow-growing, hypervascular neoplasms that frequently involve critical neurovascular structures, and delay in diagnosis is frequent. Surgical removal is rarely radical and is usually associated with morbidity or mortality. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has gained an increasing dependable role in the management of glomus jugulare tumors, with high rate of tumor growth control, preserving or improving clinical status and with limited complications. This study aims to evaluate intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of twenty-two patients bearing growing glomus jugulare tumors at the International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo, Egypt, between 2005 and 2011. The mean follow-up period was 56 months (range 36-108 months); there were 3 males, 19 females; mean age was 43.6 years; 15 patients had GKS as the primary treatment; 2 patients had surgical residuals; 2 had previous radiation therapy; and 3 previously underwent endovascular embolization. The average tumor volume was 7.26 cm3, and the mean marginal dose was 14.7 Gy. Post gamma knife surgery through the follow-up period neurological status was improved in 12 patients, 7 showed stable clinical condition and 3 patients developed new moderate deficits. Tumor volume post GKS was unchanged in 13 patients, decreased in 8, and showed tumor regrowth in 1 patient. Tumor progression-free survival in our studied patients was 95.5% at 5 and 7 years of the follow-up period post GKS. Gamma knife surgery could be used safely and effectively with limited complications as a primary management tool in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors controlling tumor growth with preserving or improving clinical status especially those who do not have significant cranial or cervical extension, elderly, and surgically unfit patients; moreover, it is safe and highly effective as adjuvant therapy as well. PMID:26879488

  4. Valved bovine jugular venous conduits for right ventricular to pulmonary artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Scavo, V A; Turrentine, M W; Aufiero, T X; Sharp, T G; Brown, J W

    1999-01-01

    Various valved and nonvalved external right ventricle (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) conduits have been used to palliate congenital heart anomalies. The ideal conduit has not been found. Reasons for conduit failures include stenosis, thrombosis, calcification of the valve or graft wall, and development of an obstructive peel. We evaluated valved and nonvalved conduits constructed from a glutaraldehyde preserved segment of bovine jugular vein. Bovine jugular conduits (n = 31), 10-13 mm in diameter, were implanted into weight-matched adult mongrel dogs using a standard closed heart technique. Valved conduits (VC, n = 17) were stented at the valve annulus with a Gore-Tex ring, whereas the nonvalved conduits (NC, n = 14) were stented at their midpoint. The proximal PA was tightly banded to 3 mm with a ligature. Cardiac output (CO) and hemodynamic gradients were measured at the time of insertion and 8 months postoperatively. Pulmonary artery angiograms were used to assess bovine jugular conduit regurgitation. All xenografts were evaluated by gross and histologic exam. Two dogs had conduits placed but died for reasons unrelated to the conduit before evaluation. Valved conduit leaflets showed thickening, insignificant thrombus deposition in the base of one or more cusps, and a mild degree of regurgitation as assessed by angiograms. Examination of the NC showed mild conduit thickening and a moderate-to-severe degree of regurgitation as assessed by angiograms. There was a significant difference observed in pulmonary outflow gradients between the VC (11 +/- 2 mm Hg) and NC (17 +/- 2 mm Hg) (p < 0.05), although neither group developed a hemodynamically significant gradient. On gross examination, VC ventricles displayed significantly less evidence of volume and pressure overload compared with the NC ventricle. Valved conduits demonstrated significantly less obstruction and regurgitation. The potential clinical advantages of bovine jugular conduits are their availability

  5. Radical resection of the superior vena cava using the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Elizabeth; Dusmet, Michael; Petrou, Mario

    2010-02-01

    Radical resection of the superior vena cava poses a challenge for the cardiothoracic surgeon. The Contegra graft (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN), a biologic conduit comprising the valved segment of the bovine jugular vein, is established as a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit for right ventricular outflow tract repair in the pediatric population. We describe the use of the Contegra graft to facilitate radical resection and reconstruction of the superior vena cava in 2 patients, with demonstrable patency of grafts at 12 months and 7 months postoperatively. PMID:20103366

  6. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) in association with jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Williamson, R A; Hoover, W W; Grant, S S

    1989-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis in association with cystic hygroma is described. Ultrasound findings of severe short-limbed dwarfism, decreased vertebral ossification, and normal ossification of the calvarium were all consistent with achondrogenesis type II. Although the unusual finding of associated cystic hygroma raised the suspicion of a concurrent chromosome abnormality, the karyotype of both fetal lymphocytes and fetal fibroblasts was normal. Autopsy confirmed dilated lymphatic channels in the basal endothelial layer of the skin, cystic hygroma, and coarctation of the aorta. Although previously unreported, we suggest that the features of this case of achondrogenesis indicate an association with lymphatic stasis and jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence in this syndrome. PMID:2671977

  7. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  8. Thrombosis of the External Jugular Vein: A Rare Complication of a Proximal Humerus Fracture Treated with Collar and Cuff Immobilisation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Helen; Pickering, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 87-year-old woman who developed a thrombosis of her external jugular vein after sustaining a proximal humerus fracture managed nonoperatively with a collar and cuff. At review in fracture clinic she was found to have an enlarged external jugular vein which was subsequently found to be thrombosed. Her collar and cuff had been applied very tightly and it was felt by the ENT team to be the cause of the thrombosis of her external jugular vein. She was fully anticoagulated with warfarin after subsequently developing a deep vein thrombosis in the subclavian and axillary veins. She made a full recovery following anticoagulation. In this case, we review the potential causes of this rare and underdiagnosed condition, as well as the usual investigations and treatments. We also review the common complications of this fracture and the alternative treatment options available. PMID:25247102

  9. A new RV-PA conduit with a natural valve made of bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    A new RV-PA conduit with a natural valve was developed using bovine jugular vein. To maintain the natural, mechanical properties of the veins, a hydrophilic cross-linking reagent, a glycerol polyglycidyl ether polyepoxy compound (PC) was used. The treatment has already been proven in the field of vascular grafts to be able to reduce antigenicity, biodegradability, and degenerative changes such as calcification, to induce antithrombogenicity with hydrogenicity, and to improve affinity to host cells. Bovine jugular veins were cross-linked with the reagent and were implanted as a conduit into the RV-PA position in six dogs. The main PA was ligated after implantation. One animal died due to bleeding 2 days after implantation; the other animals were healthy and allowed to survive until they were sacrificed. The graft was very soft and as pliable as native tissue, and was as strong as a heart valve. Post-operative catheterization and angiography showed adequate function of the valve. Macroscopic and microscopic observations revealed the antithrombogenicity of the graft in this animal study. These results indicated that this newly developed biologic valved conduit has a high probability of overcoming many problems observed in existing RV-PA conduits. PMID:1457862

  10. Transcription factor FOXC2 demarcates the jugular lymphangiogenic region in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Rutscher, K; Wilting, J

    2008-03-01

    In the human, mutations of the forkhead winged-helix transcription factor FOXC2 cause the lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, which is characterized by a double row of eyelashes and pubertal onset lymphedema of the legs due to hyperplasia and malformation of lymphatic collectors. While a function of FOXC2 for the differentiation of lymphatic collectors is well documented, recent studies have indicated an early function for the sprouting of lymphatics from embryonic veins. We studied the expression of FoxC2 in early avian embryos and compared its expression pattern with that of the homeobox transcription factor Prox1, which is essential for lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) development. We show that FoxC2 demarcates a segment of the somatopleura in the cervical region on embryonic day (ED) 3, before Prox1 is expressed. On ED 4, its expression domain coincides with that of Prox1 in the jugular region. This region is characterized by the confluence of Tie2-positive anterior and posterior cardinal veins. It has been shown that Prox1 expression in a subpopulation of venous endothelial cells induces transdifferentiation into LECs. Our data suggest that FoxC2, in addition to its late functions during lymph collector differentiation, has an early function during lymphendothelial commitment of venous ECs in the jugular region. PMID:18581954

  11. A novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Pan, Boan; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood (SjvO2) by using Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The different positions of patients can affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), in other words, it causes the sectional change of the IJV blood volume. When lying position of patients, the CSA is larger than that keeping upper body 80 degree, and the CSA can compute quantitatively by the use of ultrasound and digital image processing methods. The entire method consist of constructing different position of patient (upper body rotation 0 and 80 degree), comparing the light absorption changes. SjvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelength, before and after the position changes. The method has been applied to the vertical area over the IJV of 11 patients who were placed a central venous catheter into a large vein in the neck for medical uses, using wavelength of 735 and 850 nm. At last, comparing the SjvO2NIRS which measured by NIRS noninvasively with SjvO2IJVBG which was quantified using a whole blood gas analyzer, we found there were some certain relativity. The results were influenced by vascular depth greatly.

  12. Dissection of the posterior wall by guide-wire during internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Eriko; Shimamoto, Yoko; Tokumine, Joho

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of posterior wall hematoma formation in the internal jugular vein after the puncture of central vein. An 82-year-old woman was scheduled for laparotomy for an abdominal incisional hernia. After induction of general anesthesia, we performed central venous catheterization via the right internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance in the short-axis view and out-of plane technique. The ultrasound view after insertion of a guide-wire revealed a hematoma-like space on the posterior wall of the vein. We removed and reinserted the guide-wire. This time, insertion of the wire and catheter was uneventful. Seven days after the surgery, no hematoma-like space was found in the vein. The malposition of the guide-wire was detected before dilation, which enabled us to avoid complications in this case. We should note that the confirmation of guide-wire placement in the vein is important during ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. PMID:25138819

  13. Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting with Jugular-Subclavian Deep Vein Thrombosis as the First Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Ceniza, Sidney; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Jugular venous thrombosis infrequently could be secondary to malignancy and has seldom been reported secondary to mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas. The postulated mechanisms are mechanical compression that leads to stagnation of blood in the venous system of the neck and/or an increase in the circulating thrombogenic elements that could cause venous thromboembolism as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We report the case of a middle aged male presenting with right sided neck pain and arm swelling secondary to ipsilateral jugular-subclavian deep vein thrombosis. Investigations revealed it to be secondary to a mediastinal mass shown on CT scan of the chest. PMID:25821628

  14. [Thrombosis of the external jugular vein. Case report of a rare cause for pain in the lateral neck].

    PubMed

    Bartella, Alexander; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Gander, Thomas; Grätz, Klaus W; Kruse, Astrid I

    2014-01-01

    Dental practitioners are sometimes confronted with patients complaining about pain in the neck area. Especially if an induration in the region of the big vessels is present, one must keep in mind the differential diagnosis of a spontaneous thrombosis of the external jugular vein. This diagnosis needs consequent treatment but also consequent search for an underlying pathology. This case report presents such a situation in an exemplary way. Despite risk factors, the reason for thrombosis stays in the dark. However, all possible causes were cleared and are shown to the reader. Especially malignancies are responsible for thrombosis of the jugular vein in many cases. PMID:24585364

  15. Treatment of a ballistic wound of the common carotid artery revealed by a spontaneous carotid-jugular fistula.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Amélie; Mocellin, Nicolas; Imperato, Marc; Molimard, Benoît; Bordier, Emmanuel; Menguy, Paul; Baranger, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    The case reported is of a 30-year-old patient with a left internal carotid-jugular fistula secondary to the explosion of an improvised explosive device during the Afghan war. Carotid resection with arterial bypass using a venous allograft and internal jugular ligation were performed by left cervicotomy associated with sternotomy at a specialized center. The management of cervical arteriovenous fistulas that occur as a result of penetrating trauma faced during the war must be considered and it should be noted that, on battlefields, treatment is not always performed in specialized units. PMID:21183314

  16. Why Current Doppler Ultrasound Methodology Is Inaccurate in Assessing Cerebral Venous Return: The Alternative of the Ultrasonic Jugular Venous Pulse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cerebral venous return is growing interest for potential application in clinical practice. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used as a screening tool. However, three meta-analyses of qualitative DUS protocol demonstrate a big heterogeneity among studies. In an attempt to improve accuracy, several authors alternatively measured the flow rate, based on the product of the time average velocity with the cross-sectional area (CSA). However, also the quantification protocols lacked of the necessary accuracy. The reasons are as follows: (a) automatic measurement of the CSA assimilates the jugular to a circle, while it is elliptical; (b) the use of just a single CSA value in a pulsatile vessel is inaccurate; (c) time average velocity assessment can be applied only in laminar flow. Finally, the tutorial describes alternative ultrasound calculation of flow based on the Womersley method, which takes into account the variation of the jugular CSA overtime. In the near future, it will be possible to synchronize the electrocardiogram with the brain inflow (carotid distension wave) and with the outflow (jugular venous pulse) in order to nicely have a noninvasive ultrasound picture of the brain-heart axis. US jugular venous pulse may have potential use in neurovascular, neurocognitive, neurosensorial, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27006525

  17. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  18. Depth of insertion of right internal jugular central venous catheter: Comparison of topographic and formula methods

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, M; Tejesh, CA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are inserted in many critically ill patients, but there is no gold standard in estimating their approximate depth of insertion. Many techniques have been described in literature. In this study, we compare the topographic method with the standard formula technique. Materials and Methods: 260 patients, in whom central venous catheterization was warranted, were randomly assigned to either topographic method or formula method (130 in each group). The position of the CVC tip in relation to carina was measured on a postprocedure chest X-ray. The primary endpoint was the need for catheter repositioning. Results: The majority of the CVCs tips positioned by the formula method were situated below the carina, and 68% of these catheters required repositioning after obtaining postprocedure chest X-ray (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The topographic method is superior to formula approach in estimating the depth of insertion of right internal jugular CVCs. PMID:27375377

  19. Unusual case of focal neck swelling: Phlebectasia of internal jugular vein with intracranial extension

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Virender; Kumari, Abha; Murthy, TVSP

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) phlebectasia is rare in occurrence and is frequently misdiagnosed and managed inappropriately. It commonly presents as a unilateral neck swelling which typically increases in size with valsalva maneuver. Although, the most common cause of a focal neck swelling, which increases in size with valsalva maneuver is laryngocele, the possibility of phlebectasia of IJV should always be borne in mind, especially in child. Owing to the rarity of this condition, a high index of suspicion is required to recognize the same and managed appropriately. We present a case of phlebectasia of the right IJV with intracranial extension and discuss its management. The case is being reported in view of its clinical rarity (the intracranial extension being extremely rare) and to highlight the available management strategies. PMID:25664271

  20. Idiopathic unilateral hypoplasia of internal jugular vein and coagulopathy: Unusual case for central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Nama, Rajnish K; Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Shah, Veena R

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is routinely done procedure in ICU or during surgery for various indications. Right Internal jugular vein (IJV) is preferred vessel among different routes for CVC. Anatomic variations of neck vessels are not uncommon and may increase the complication rate especially in patients with altered coagulation profile. Anatomic landmark technique is commonly used for CVC but not without possibility of complications. Ultrasound (US) guided IJV Cannulation provides high success rate, less access time and lesser complications. Superiority of US over anatomic landmark technique has been established, but use of US in clinical practice is still limited. We report a case of idiopathic unilateral hypoplastic IJV in a patient with altered coagulation profile who required CVC, we also tried to find out the barriers for limited use of US. PMID:26712993

  1. Jugular foramen schwannoma mimicking paraganglioma: case report and review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael; Tong, Karen

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with an 11-year history of chronic occipital headaches and a 12-month history of worsening difficulty speaking and/or swallowing, facial spasms, hearing loss, and dizziness. A large lytic mass was found centered in the left jugular foramen (JF) on computed tomography examination; follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed an avidly enhancing mass with prominent central flow voids. Histopathologic examination after surgical resection revealed the mass to be a schwannoma. Prominent central vascularity is an unusual presentation for JF schwannomas. Our report provides a review of magnetic resonance imaging features of intrinsic JF lesions relevant to our case. PMID:26973728

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery of glomus jugulare tumors: current concepts, recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sager, Omer; Dincoglan, Ferrat; Beyzadeoglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), a very highly focused form of therapeutic irradiation, has been widely recognized as a viable treatment option in the management of intracranial pathologies including benign tumors, malign tumors, vascular malformations and functional disorders. The applications of SRS are continuously expanding thanks to the ever-increasing advances and corresponding improvements in neuroimaging, radiation treatment techniques, equipment, treatment planning and delivery systems. In the context of glomus jugulare tumors (GJT), SRS is being more increasingly used both as the upfront management modality or as a complementary or salvage treatment option. As its safety and efficacy is being evident with compiling data from studies with longer follow-up durations, SRS appears to take the lead in the management of most patients with GJT. Herein, we address current concepts, recent advances and future perspectives in SRS of GJT in light of the literature. PMID:25768334

  3. [Prevalence of stenosis and thrombosis of central veins in hemodialysis after a tunneled jugular catheter].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M

    2001-01-01

    Central venous stenosis (ST) and thrombosis (TB) related to catheter (KT) had been reported mostly for the subclavian vein. We performed a systematic cavographic study to evaluate the prevalence of these complications in 51 hemodialysis patients with present or previous history of tunneled internal jugular catheter. Each of them had used one or several KT (1.8 +/- 1.4 KT) for a mean 28 +/- 26 month cumulative time (i.e. 43,584 days total exposure time). Fifty percent of the KT were PermCath Quinton and 50% were Twincath (uncuffed) or CS 100 (cuffed) Medcomp. Twenty-seven had no ST (53%, group I), 24 had one or several significant ST (47%, group II) of superior Vena Cava (SVC, n = 4), inferior Vena Cava (IVC, n = 1), Brachio-cephalic Vein (BCV, n = 5) and subclavian vein (SC, n = 10), or a TB of SVC (n = 1), IVC (n = 3), BCV (n = 3), SC (n = 2). This accounts for an incidence of 0.55 ST or TB/1000 patient-days. Five of the twelve subclavian ST and TB had no history of previous subclavian catheter. Comparison between the two groups showed no differences according to age, time on dialysis, diabetes, hematocrit, CRP, cumulative time with catheter, catheter-related infections, type of catheter and anticoagulant treatment. IVC catheter tip's position is an important risk factor for TB and ST (4/6). Twelve group II patients had ST or TB-related symptoms, with a functional AV fistula in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent repeated percutaneous angioplasty with 4 additional Wallstents and in 2 cases an AV fistula need to be closed. Central venous ST and TB after a jugular KT is extremely frequent, mostly without any symptoms. Consequences on peripheral or central vascular access, cost and poor long-term patency rate of angioplasty are of major importance. These results incite us to further reduce the catheter use in dialysis patients. PMID:11811018

  4. Ligation of the Jugular Veins Does Not Result in Brain Inflammation or Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Pulli, Benjamin; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Ueno, Takuya; Waterman, Peter; Truelove, Jessica; Oklu, Rahmi; Chen, John W.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative hypothesis has been proposed implicating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a potential cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis in a controlled animal model. Animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. The jugular veins in SJL mice were ligated bilaterally (n = 20), and the mice were observed for up to six months after ligation. Sham-operated mice (n = 15) and mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n = 8) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. The animals were evaluated using CT venography and 99mTc-exametazime to assess for structural and hemodynamic changes. Imaging was performed to evaluate for signs of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation. Flow cytometry and histopathology were performed to assess inflammatory cell populations and demyelination. There were both structural changes (stenosis, collaterals) in the jugular venous drainage and hemodynamic disturbances in the brain on Tc99m-exametazime scintigraphy (p = 0.024). In the JVL mice, gadolinium MRI and immunofluorescence imaging for barrier molecules did not reveal evidence of BBB breakdown (p = 0.58). Myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinase, and protease molecular imaging did not reveal signs of increased neuroinflammation (all p>0.05). Flow cytometry and histopathology also did not reveal increase in inflammatory cell infiltration or population shifts. No evidence of demyelination was found, and the mice remained without clinical signs. Despite the structural and hemodynamic changes, we did not identify changes in the BBB permeability, neuroinflammation, demyelination, or clinical signs in the JVL group compared to the sham group. Therefore, our murine model does not support CCSVI as a cause of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:22457780

  5. The effect of body position on developing ultrasound criteria for the assessment of the internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Clements, E; Bonfield, M; Sassano, A

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies investigating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency highlighted that intracranial venous return has not yet been routinely investigated by ultrasound in the normal population. This creates an absence of a reference standard and raises concerns that the approach introduces variations into the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop reference standards for the assessment of the internal jugular vein in a normal population. A prospective small-scale study was conducted. Internal jugular veins of 31 normal candidates were examined using B-Mode and PW Doppler. Measurements at proximal and mid-point internal jugular vein were taken in sitting (90°) and supine (0°) positions. Area measurements were taken during passive respiration in cm(2). Time average velocity measurements were taken during passive respiration over a 3-second period. Reflux measurements were taken after apnoea and reflux was recorded from any reversed flow. Measurements were taken three times; an average was calculated and statically analysed. Of the 31 participants, one was excluded from the study and 30 were suitable. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results; all results (area, time average velocity and reflux) showed that there was a significant difference between the two positions with p < 0.05 (two-tailed). This pilot study does suggest that there is a significant difference in area, time average velocity and reflux measurements of the internal jugular vein when taken in the sitting and supine position, which could affect the outcome of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A further large-scale study is required to validate and standardise the assessment of the internal jugular vein. PMID:27433241

  6. The effect of body position on developing ultrasound criteria for the assessment of the internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Bonfield, M; Sassano, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency highlighted that intracranial venous return has not yet been routinely investigated by ultrasound in the normal population. This creates an absence of a reference standard and raises concerns that the approach introduces variations into the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop reference standards for the assessment of the internal jugular vein in a normal population. A prospective small-scale study was conducted. Internal jugular veins of 31 normal candidates were examined using B-Mode and PW Doppler. Measurements at proximal and mid-point internal jugular vein were taken in sitting (90°) and supine (0°) positions. Area measurements were taken during passive respiration in cm2. Time average velocity measurements were taken during passive respiration over a 3-second period. Reflux measurements were taken after apnoea and reflux was recorded from any reversed flow. Measurements were taken three times; an average was calculated and statically analysed. Of the 31 participants, one was excluded from the study and 30 were suitable. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results; all results (area, time average velocity and reflux) showed that there was a significant difference between the two positions with p < 0.05 (two-tailed). This pilot study does suggest that there is a significant difference in area, time average velocity and reflux measurements of the internal jugular vein when taken in the sitting and supine position, which could affect the outcome of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A further large-scale study is required to validate and standardise the assessment of the internal jugular vein.

  7. [Two Cases of Retained Guide Wires after Placement of a Central Venous Catheter via the Internal Jugular Vein].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Masumori, Yasushi; Tanigawa, Saori; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Miki; Tateda, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of a retained guide wire after perioperative placement of a central venous catheter during a six-month period. Case 1: A 73-year-old male was scheduled for an open cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. After induction of anesthesia, a central venous (CV) catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein using an ultrasound guide. Chest radiographs showed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava immediately after surgery, which was removed by interventional radiologist before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Case 2: A 77-year-old male was scheduled for colostomy closure. The surgeon inserted a CV catheter in the right internal jugular vein 4 days before the colostomy. Chest radiographs revealed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava, which was removed by interventional radiologists before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Although a retained guide wire is a rare complication, awareness of this mishap is necessary to prevent it from happening. PMID:26742416

  8. Seldinger Technique for Placement of “Peripheral” Internal Jugular Line: Novel Approach for Emergent Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Adam J.; Raio, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report describing the ultrasound-guided placement of a peripheral intravenous catheter into the internal jugular vein of a patient with difficult vascular access. Although this technique has been described in the past, this case is novel in that the Seldinger technique was used to place the catheter. This allows for safer placement of a longer catheter (2.25″) without the need for venous dilation, which is potentially hazardous. PMID:26823937

  9. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices. PMID:24299024

  10. Comparison of an ultrasound-guided technique versus a landmark-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Dolu, Hasan; Goksu, Sıtkı; Sahin, Levent; Ozen, Onder; Eken, Levent

    2015-02-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly preformed procedure in many branches of medicine, particularly in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the landmark-guided technique to the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in cardiovascular surgery patients. One hundred cardiovascular surgery patients, of whom 65 were male and 35 were female with ages ranging from 22 to 65, who had internal jugular cannulation between December 2010-March 2011 in our clinic were investigated prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups; ultrasound guided internal jugular cannulation cases in group U (n=50), and anatomic landmark guided cases in group A (n=50). The number of attempts until successful catheterization, the time required for successful catheterization, arising complications, the demographics and the duration of catheterization were recorded for each patient. There were no significant differences found in the demographic features between the two groups. The number of attempts for successful catheterization was statistically lower in group U (1.1±0.5) than in group A (2.2±1.6). The time required for successful catheterization was statistically lower in group U (109.4±30.4) than in group A (165.9±91.5). There were no significant differences found in the total complications of the two groups (p=0.092). Four patients had an arterial punction [group U (n=0) and group A (n=4)] and two patients had a hematoma [group U (n=1) and group A (n=1)]. Arterial punction complication was increased significantly in landmark group (p=0.041). The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of attempts. PMID:24838550

  11. The Oscillating Component of the Internal Jugular Vein Flow: The Overlooked Element of Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Sisini, Francesco; Toro, Eleuterio; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The jugular venous pulse (JVP) provides valuable information about cardiac haemodynamics and filling pressures and is an indirect estimate of the central venous pressure (CVP). Recently it has been proven that JVP can be obtained by measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV on each sonogram of an ultrasound B-mode sonogram sequence. It has also been proven that during its pulsation the IJV is distended and hence that the pressure gradient drives the IJV haemodynamics. If this is true, then it will imply the following: (i) the blood velocity in the IJV is a periodic function of the time with period equal to the cardiac period and (ii) the instantaneous blood velocity is given by a time function that can be derived from a flow-dynamics theory that uses the instantaneous pressure gradient as a parameter. The aim of the present study is to confirm the hypothesis that JVP regulates the IJV blood flow and that pressure waves are transmitted from the heart toward the brain through the IJV wall. PMID:26783380

  12. Physical stress testing of bovine jugular veins using magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography and electrical velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Boethig, Dietmar; Ernst, Franziska; Sarikouch, Samir; Norozi, Kambiz; Lotz, Joachim; Opherk, Jan Patrick; Meister, Maren; Breymann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Bovine jugular veins (BJVs) (Contegra) are valve-bearing pulmonary artery substitutes. Their valves have higher profiles than human pulmonary valves; this might result in less optimal performance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of stress and undersizing on conduit performance with ergometry, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between April 2007 and June 2008, 20 BJV recipients (age 7.9-19.6 years) underwent spiroergometry and subsequent echocardiography; after due rest, ergometry was repeated and followed by MRI during recovery. A year later, exams were repeated. Data was evaluated as follows: comparison of stress related maximal individual valve performance changes (magnetic resonance: exercise induced average stroke volume changes by 61+/-49%; mean insufficiency increased by 2% in patients with <1% rest insufficiency and by 8% after rest insufficiency of >10%; the average rest gradient of 24+/-11 mmHg rose to 40+/-20 mmHg), and stratification of pooled observations by regurgitation fraction, insufficiency grades and z-values (insufficiency rose with increasing heart rate and decreasing stroke volume; undersizing increased gradients during recovery by 7+/-0.7 mmHg/z-value). Contegras high-profile valves tolerate stress without performance drop. Stress induced changes of insufficiency and gradient were clinically not significant, but sufficient to distort examination results; therefore, constant examination conditions are indispensable for a correct follow-up. PMID:20479070

  13. Calcification resistance for photooxidatively crosslinked acellular bovine jugular vein conduits in right-side heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei-Dong; Wang, An-Ping; Wu, Zhong-Shi; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Tie-Hui; Lei, Guang-Yan; Hu, Ye-Rong

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of decellularization plus photooxidative crosslinking and ethanol pretreatment on bioprosthetic tissue calcification. Photooxidatively crosslinked acellular (PCA) bovine jugular vein conduits (BJVCs) and their photooxidized controls (n = 5 each) were sterilized in a graded concentration of ethanol solutions for 4 h, and used to reconstruct dog right ventricular outflow tracts. At 1-year implantation, echocardiography showed similar hemodynamic performance, but obvious calcification for the photooxidized BJVC walls. Further histological examination showed intense calcium deposition colocalized with slightly degraded elastic fibers in the photooxidized BJVC walls, with sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the valves and other areas of walls. But PCA BJVCs had apparent degradation of elastic fibers in the walls, with only sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the walls and valves. Content assay demonstrated comparable calcium content for the two groups at preimplantation, whereas less calcium for the PCA group in the walls and similar calcium in the valvular leaflets compared with the photooxidized group at 1-year retrieval. Elastin content assay presented the conduit walls of PCA group had less elastin content at preimplantation, but similar content at 1-year retrieval compared with the photooxidized group. Phospholipid analysis showed phospholipid extraction by ethanol for the PCA group was more efficacious than the photooxidized group. These results indicate that PCA BJVCs resist calcification in right-side heart implantation owing to decellularization, further photooxidative crosslinking, and subsequent phospholipid extraction by ethanol at preimplantation. PMID:22615255

  14. Surgical Management of Giant Transdural Glomus Jugulare Tumors with Cerebellar and Brainstem Compression

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Janus, Jeffrey R.; Link, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to discuss the management of advanced glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) presenting with intradural disease and concurrent brainstem compression. Study Design This is a retrospective case series. Results Over the last decade, four patients presented to our institution with large (Fisch D2; Glasscock-Jackson 4) primary or recurrent GJTs resulting in brainstem compression of varying severities. All patients underwent surgical resection through a transtemporal, transcervical approach resulting in adequate brainstem decompression; the average operative time was 12.75 hours and the estimated blood loss was 2.7 L. All four patients received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in the form of intensity-modulated radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery. Combined modality treatment permitted tumor control in all patients (range of follow-up 5 to 9 years). Conclusion A small subset of GJTs may present with intracranial transdural extension with aggressive brainstem compression mandating surgical intervention. Surgical resection is extremely challenging; the surgical team must be prepared for extensive operating time and the patient for prolonged aggressive rehabilitation. Newly diagnosed and recurrent large GJTs involving the brainstem may be controlled with a combination of aggressive surgical resection and postoperative radiation. PMID:23730549

  15. The dynamics of changing internal jugular veins diameter based on increasing head elevation angle

    PubMed Central

    Urakov, Aleksandr L.; Kasatkin, Anton A.; Nigmatullina, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Venous outflow from the cranial cavity occurs mainly through the internal jugular vein (IJV). The increase in venous outflow through IJV is possible by head elevation. IJV collapse may indicate the reduction of blood volume in the vein and show the head elevation effectiveness. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of head elevation on IJV size. Subjects and Methods: IJV ultrasound scanning in 31 healthy volunteers was carried after gradual head elevation at 15°, 30°, and 45°. Maximum and minimum IJV diameters were recorded. Mean ± standard deviation, median, range, and collapsibility index were calculated. Results: Thirty-one volunteers were involved (19 males), their average age was 37.0 ± 11.5 years. Increasing the head elevation angle by 15°, 30° and 45° resulted in a decrease in IJV diameter in the right and left sides in all patients. The occurrence of the vein walls collapse corresponds to the collapsibility index equal to 100%. The results showed that 100% collapsibility index was recorded in 6 patients (19%) at 15° head elevation, in 12 patients (39%) at 30°, in 11 patients (35%) at 45°. In two volunteers (6%), 100% collapsibility index was not recorded even at maximum 45° head elevation. Conclusions: Ultrasound IJV scanning during gradual head elevation together with the collapsibility index calculation could be useful guidance for the venous outflow assessment. In order to prove and extend the study findings, more research is needed. PMID:26628827

  16. Right Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: Carotid Artery-directed versus Sternocleidomastoid-directed Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yan; Yuan, Ping; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Min

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore a simple and safe method for central venous catheterization (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) by comparing carotid artery (CA) positioning with sternocleidomastoid (SCM) positioning. The medical records of patients who underwent CVC between January 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Central venous catheters were inserted into the RIJV either above the level of the cricoid cartilage using the CA-directed method (419 patients, Group 1) or below the level of the cricoid cartilage using the SCM-directed method (436 patients, Group 2). Success rate and related complications of catheterization were evaluated in the two groups. The total success rate of RIJV cannulation in Group 1 (97.2%) was higher than that in Group 2 (94.5%). Moreover, the success rate at first attempt was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.4% vs 86.9%). The incidence of hematoma was 1.6 per cent in Group 1 and 3.8 per cent in Group 2. The rate of other complications such as pneumothorax, catheter-related infections, and catheter occlusion did not significantly differ between the groups. In conclusions, CA-directed RIJV cannulation is more effective and simple to perform than the SCM-directed method, and should become the preferred CVC technique in the absence of ultrasound guidance. PMID:26874140

  17. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing.

    PubMed

    Laganà, M M; Pelizzari, L; Scaccianoce, E; Dipasquale, O; Ricci, C; Baglio, F; Cecconi, P; Baselli, G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1-C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1-C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  18. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, L.; Scaccianoce, E.; Dipasquale, O.; Ricci, C.; Baglio, F.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1–C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1–C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  19. [Treatment with the placement of carotid stent of jugular-carotid fistula after the insertion of hemodialysis catheter].

    PubMed

    Vera, M; Quintana, L; Blasco, J; Real, M; Macho, J M

    2005-01-01

    The use of jugular temporary catheters as vascular access for hemodialysis, entails a risk of various complications. The most frequent problems are the arterial puncture and haematoma. However, there are other less frequent potentially serious complications, which constitute a therapeutic and diagnostic challenge for the nephrologists. We present a case of a patient that developed an acute renal failure in the context of cellulites for E. Coli treated with aminoglycosid, who required renal treatment with haemodialysis. After the placement of a polyurethane double-lumen catheter with ultrasound guidance at the level of the internal jugular vein, arterial blood streaming was observed through the lumen of the catheter. The angiographic study showed the tipo of the catheter placed at the level of the aortic arch. Ultrasound exam clearly despicted the track between the internal jugular vein and the internal carotid artery. An effective closing of the fistula was achieved with the placement of a covered stent-graft with the simultaneous withdrawal of the catheter. Reviewing the literature this is the first reported case of an iatrogenic jugulo-carotid fistula secundary to placement of hemodialysis catheter resolved by the implantation of carotid stent-graft. PMID:16392309

  20. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in critically ill pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eu Jeen; Ha, Hyeong Seok; Kong, Young Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continuous intravenous access is imperative in emergency situations. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization was investigated in critically ill pediatric patients to assess the feasibility of the procedure. Methods Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between February 2011 and September 2012 were enrolled in this study. All patients received a central venous catheter from attending house staff under ultrasound guidance. Outcome measures included successful insertion of the catheter, cannulation time, number of cannulation attempts, and number and type of resulting complications. Results Forty-one central venous catheters (93.2%) were successfully inserted into 44 patients (21 males and 23 females; mean age, 6.54±1.06 years). Thirty-three patients (75.0%) had neurological disorders. The right IJV was used for catheter insertion in 34 cases (82.9%). The mean number of cannulation attempts and the mean cannulation time was 1.57±0.34 and 14.07±1.91 minutes, respectively, the mean catheter dwell time was 14.73±2.5 days. Accidental catheter removal was observed in 9 patients (22.0%). Six patients (13.6%) reported complications, the most serious being catheter-related sepsis, which affected 1 patient (2.3%). Other complications included 2 reported cases of catheter malposition (4.6%), and 1 case each of arterial puncture (2.3%), pneumothorax (2.3%), and skin infection (2.3%). Conclusion The results suggest that ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization can be performed easily and without any serious complications in pediatric patients, even when performed by visiting house staff. Therefore, ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization is strongly recommended for critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:25932035

  1. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  2. Puncture point-traction method: A novel method applied for right internal jugular vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    WU, TIANLIANG; ZANG, HONGCHENG

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound probe and advancement of the needle during real-time ultrasound-assisted guidance of catheterization of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) tend to collapse the vein, which reduces the success rate of the procedure. We have developed a novel puncture point-traction method (PPTM) to facilitate RIJV cannulation. The present study examined whether this method facilitated the performance of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients. In this study, 120 patients were randomly assigned to a group in which PPTM was performed (PPTM group, n=60) or a group in which it was not performed (non-PPTM group, n=60). One patient was excluded because of internal carotid artery puncture and 119 patients remained for analysis. The cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter (AD) and transverse diameter (TD) of the RIJV at the cricoid cartilage level following the induction of anesthesia and during catheterization were measured, and the number with obvious loss of resistance (NOLR), the number with easy aspiration of blood into syringe (NEABS) during advancement of the needle, and the number of first-pass punctures (NFPP) during catheterization were determined. In the non-PPTM group, the CSA was smaller during catheterization compared with that following the induction of anesthesia (P<0.01). In the PPTM group compared with the non-PPTM group during catheterization, the CSA was larger (P<0.01) and the AD (P<0.01) and TD (P<0.05) were wider; NOLR (P<0.01), NEABS (P<0.01) and NFPP (P<0.01) increased significantly. The findings from this study confirmed that the PPTM facilitated catheterization of the RIJV and improved the success rate of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients in the supine position. PMID:27347054

  3. Intravascular extension of papillary thyroid carcinoma to the internal jugular vein: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jarrah, Q.; Abou-Foul, Ak.; Heis, H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy and usually spreads via lymphatic system. PTC can sometimes show microscopic vascular invasion, but rarely causes tumour thrombus in the internal jugular vein (IJV) or other great veins of the neck. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a 62-year-old female presented with symptomatic central neck mass. Clinical examination revealed a hard solitary right-sided thyroid nodule with ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Ultrasonography (US) confirmed the clinical diagnosis and visualised a dilated ipsilateral IJV. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed PTC cells so total thyroidectomy with right neck dissection was done. A tumour thrombus was discovered in the distended right IJV and was cleared successfully. The patient recovered well after the operation with no local or distant metastasis detected. DISCUSSION Tumour vascular spread is observed in tumours with angio-invasive features including follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland where great cervical veins can be affected. PTC commonly spreads to the lymph nodes and vascular spread via direct intravascular extension is extremely rare. Neck US has an important role in the diagnosis, and operators should attempt to detect signs of tumour thrombi in all patients with thyroid masses. Aggressive surgical treatment with vascular repair is recommended whenever possible to minimise the risk of potentially fatal complications of the intraluminal masses. CONCLUSION Intravascular tumour extension of PTC is rare but with serious consequences. Diagnosis with neck US is possible but some cases are only discovered intraoperatively. Thrombectomy with vascular repair or reconstruction is usually possible. PMID:25044067

  4. Preoperative ultrasonographic findings of internal jugular veins and carotid arteries in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Park, Jeong Bo; Lee, Jeong Jin; Ko, Justin Sangwook

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis via the internal jugular vein (IJV) has been widely used for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, as they have a higher risk of arterial diseases. We investigated the ultrasonographic findings of the IJV and carotid artery (CA) in recipients of kidney transplantation (KT) and identified factors influencing IJV/CA abnormalities. Methods We enrolled 120 adult KT recipients. Patients in group A (n = 57) had a history of IJV hemodialysis, while those in group B (n = 63) were not yet on dialysis or undergoing dialysis methods not involving the IJV. The day before surgery, we evaluated the state of the IJV and CA using ultrasonography. We followed patients with IJV stenosis for six months after KT. Results Ultrasonography revealed that four patients (7%) in group A had IJV abnormalities, while no patients in group B had abnormalities (P = 0.118). Of the four patients with abnormalities, one with 57.4% stenosis normalized during follow- up. However, another patient with 90.1% stenosis progressed to occlusion, while the two patients with total occlusion remained the same. Twenty patients in group A (n = 11) and B (n = 9) had several CA abnormalities (P = 0.462). Upon multivariate analysis with stepwise selection, height and age were significantly correlated with IJV stenosis (P = 0.043, odds ratio = 0.9) and CA abnormality (P = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.1), respectively. Conclusions IJV abnormalities (especially with a history of IJV hemodialysis) and CA abnormalities may be present in ESRD patients. Therefore, we recommend ultrasonographic evaluation before catheterization. PMID:27482315

  5. Cardiac Variation of Internal Jugular Vein for the Evaluation of Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Qian, Kun; Ando, Takehiro; Inokuchi, Ryota; Doi, Kent; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Evaluations of intravascular fluid volume are considered to be one of the most important assessments in emergency and intensive care. Focusing on pulse-induced variation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) area, i.e., cardiac variation, we investigated its correlation with various hemodynamic indices using newly developed software. Software that automatically can track and analyze the IJV during ultrasonography was developed. Eleven healthy patients were subjected to an exercise load to increase their stroke volume (SV) and a dehydration load to decrease their central venous pressure (CVP). The cardiac variation in the area of the IJV, CVP, the SV and the respiratory variation in the inferior vena cava (IVC) were evaluated. The exercise protocol increased the patients' mean SV by 14.5 ± 3.7 mL, and the dehydration protocol caused their mean CVP to fall by 3.75 ± 0.33 cm H2O, which resulted in the collapse index (max IJV area - min IJV area/max IJV area) changing from 0.32 ± 0.04 to 0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.49 ± 0.04, respectively (p < 0.05). The SV exhibited a strong positive correlation with the collapse index (r = 0.59, p = 0.006), and CVP showed a strong positive correlation with the body height-adjusted mean area of the IJV (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Cardiac variation in the area of the great veins is considered to be induced by venous return to the right atrium under negative pressure. It is possible that intravascular dehydration can be detected and hemodynamic indices, such as CVP and SV, can be estimated by evaluating cardiac variation in the area of the IJV. PMID:27108039

  6. Jugular venous reflux and white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chih-Ping; Beggs, Clive; Wang, Pei-Ning; Bergsland, Niels; Shepherd, Simon; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Dwyer, Michael G; Hu, Han-Hwa; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether jugular venous reflux (JVR) is associated with cerebral white matter changes (WMCs) in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied 12 AD patients 24 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 17 elderly age- and gender-matched controls. Duplex ultrasonography and 1.5T MRI scanning was applied to quantify cerebral WMCs [T2 white matter (WM) lesion and dirty-appearing-white-matter (DAWM)]. Subjects with severe JVR had more frequently hypertension (p = 0.044), more severe WMC, including increased total (p = 0.047) and periventricular DAWM volumes (p = 0.008), and a trend for increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes (p = 0.067) compared with the other groups. A significantly decreased (65.8%) periventricular DAWM volume (p = 0.01) in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts was detected. There was a trend for increased periventricular and subcortical T2 WMC lesion volumes in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts (p = 0.073). This phenomenon was not observed in either the control or MCI groups. In multiple regression analysis, the increased periventricular WMC lesion volume and decreased DAWM volume resulted in 85.7% sensitivity and 80% specificity for distinguishing between JVR-positive and JVR-negative AD patients. These JVR-WMC association patterns were not seen in the control and MCI groups. Therefore, this pilot study suggests that there may be an association between JVR and WMCs in AD patients, implying that cerebral venous outflow impairment might play a role in the dynamics of WMCs formation in AD patients, particularly in the periventricular regions. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and validate our findings. PMID:24217278

  7. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  8. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Mahajan, Anuradha Parag; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a very rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen (JF). A 45-year-old male patient presented with gradually progressive vertigo and tinnitus. CT and MRI scans revealed a 3.5 cm right-sided JF tumor with characteristic bright signal (restricted diffusion) on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). DWI may be useful in accurately differentiating the lesion from other cystic neoplasms of the JF. We describe the imaging features of intracranial epidermoid and JF tumors and discuss its differential diagnosis. PMID:25810672

  9. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p < 0.0001) when compared with CKCSs with SM (median left JF: 0.0382 cm3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the left and right JF within each group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent reproducibility of all volume measurements. Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF

  10. Internal jugular vein thrombosis due to heterozygote methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298C and Factor V G1691A mutations after a minor trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gumussoy, Murat; Arslan, Ilker B.; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis usually appears in central venous catheterization, distant malignancies, hypercoagulation, infections, or secondary to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A 44-year-old female patient presented to us with sore throat, and pain and swelling on the right side of her neck. She had a history of simple neck trauma 10 days ago. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies and right internal jugular vein thrombosis. Patient was put on parenteral antibiotherapy and oral anticoagulant treatment. Genomic DNA tests for hypercoagulation revealed methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C heterozygote mutation and Factor V G1691A (Leiden) mutation. Patient has been under clinical control for 1 year and does not have any complaints. In this article, diagnosis, treatment, and the etiology of internal jugular vein thrombosis, which is a rare and potentially fatal condition, have been discussed through this case. PMID:25937730

  11. Evaluation of a training model to teach veterinary students a technique for injecting the jugular vein in horses.

    PubMed

    Eichel, Jane-Carolin; Korb, Werner; Schlenker, Antje; Bausch, Gerold; Brehm, Walter; Delling, Uta

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a newly-developed model for training veterinary students to inject the jugular vein in horses was evaluated as an additional tool to supplement the current method of teaching. The model was first validated by 19 experienced equine veterinarians, who judged the model to be a realistic and valuable tool for learning the technique. Subsequently, it was assessed using 24 students who were divided randomly into two groups. The injection technique was taught conventionally in a classroom lecture and a live demonstration to both groups, but only group 1 received additional training on the new model. All participants filled out self-assessment questionnaires before and after group 1 received training on the model. Finally, the proficiency of both groups was assessed using an objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) on live horses. Students from group 1 showed significantly improved confidence after their additional training on the model and also showed greater confidence when compared to group 2 students. In the OSCE, group 1 had a significantly better score compared to group 2: the median (with inter-quartile range) was 15 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (2.8) points out of 15, respectively. The training model proved to be a useful tool to teach veterinary students how to perform jugular vein injections in horses in a controlled environment, without time limitations or animal welfare concerns. The newly developed training model offers an inexpensive, efficient, animal-sparing way to teach this clinical skill to veterinary students. PMID:23975072

  12. The ability of anaesthetists to identify the position of the right internal jugular vein correctly using anatomical landmarks.

    PubMed

    Harber, C R; Harvey, D J R; Wiles, M D; Bogod, D G

    2010-09-01

    We performed a study of 85 consenting anaesthetists to assess their ability to locate the right internal jugular vein using a landmark technique. Initially, a questionnaire was completed ascertaining previous user experience. An ultrasound probe, using the midpoint as an 'imaginary needle', was placed on the neck of a healthy volunteer (with previously confirmed normal anatomy) and the image recorded. Both anaesthetist and volunteer were blinded to the screen until the image was stored. Anaesthetists were grouped into those in training before 2002 (Pre-2002, n = 58), when National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommending ultrasound guidance were published, and those training after this time point (Post-2002, n = 27). The success rate for identifying the internal jugular vein using the landmark technique was 36/58 (62%) in the Pre-2002 group and 6/27 (22%) in the Post-2002 group (p < 0.001). Three participants in each group would have hit the carotid artery (5% Pre-2002 and 11% Post-2002 respectively; p = 0.2). The advent of routine use of ultrasound has resulted in a cohort of anaesthetists who are unable to use a landmark technique effectively or safely. This has significant training implications. PMID:21198484

  13. Internal jugular vein cannulation complications and elimination of the muscular triangle of the neck due to aberrant infrahyoid muscles.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Agnihotri, Ashwin; Yousif, Saif; Kordali, Panagiota; Saberi, Minu; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We report on a rare case of anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles with prominent clinical significance. The aberrant anatomy was on the right side of the neck and involved the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles. The superior belly of the omohyoid was duplicated in width due to an aberrant belly anteriorly and merged with fibers of the inferior belly inferiorly and the sternohyoid muscle medially. An additional aberrant muscle slip extended between the inferior third of the sternohyoid muscle and united with the inferior belly of the omohyoid. The intermediate tendon between the two bellies of the omohyoid was absent, whereas the so-called muscular triangle of the neck was diminished. Due to the arrangement and fusion of myofibers the muscle could be termed as omo-sternohyoid muscle. A profound hematoma was noted in the aberrant muscle at the area overlying the internal jugular vein indicating difficulty in obtaining jugular venous access for catheter placement. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of muscular anatomic variations when intervening in the lateral neck area as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse. PMID:25329135

  14. Internal jugular vein thrombosis presenting as a painful neck mass due to a spontaneous dislocated subclavian port catheter as long-term complication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Binnebösel, Marcel; Grommes, Jochen; Junge, Karsten; Göbner, Sonja; Schumpelick, Volker; Truong, Son

    2009-01-01

    Central venous access devices are extensively used for long-term chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. However, there are some possible immediate, early, and late complications related to the implantation technique, care, and maintenance. We present the uncommon occurrence of a thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to a spontaneous migration of a Port-A-Cath catheter into the ipsilateral internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy delivery. A review of the literature is given, and the factors responsible for this unusual complication will be discussed. PMID:19830037

  15. Serotonin Receptors in Rat Jugular Vein: Presence and Involvement in the Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Geri L.; Szasz, Theodora; Thompson, Janice M.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is released during platelet aggregation, a phenomenon commonly observed in blood clot formation and venous diseases. Once released, 5-HT can interact with its receptors in the peripheral vasculature to modify vascular tone. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT receptors involved in the contractile response of the rat jugular vein (RJV) using recently developed drugs with greater selectivity toward 5-HT receptor subtypes. We hypothesized that, as for other blood vessels, the 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2B receptor subtypes mediate contraction in RJV alongside the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. Endothelium-intact RJV rings were set up in an isolated organ bath for isometric tension recordings, and contractile concentration-effect curves were obtained for 13 distinct serotonergic receptor agonists. Surprisingly, the 5-HT1A and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonists (±)-2-dipropyl-amino-8-hydroxyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-methoxy-3 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl) (1H indole) (RU24969) caused contractions that were antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist [O-methyl-3H]-N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100135). The contractile curve to 5-HT was shifted to the right by WAY100135, 3-[2-[4-(4-fluoro benzoyl)-piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-1H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (ketanserin; 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist), and 1-(2-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole hydrochloride (LY266097; 5-HT2B receptor antagonist). Ketanserin also caused rightward shifts of the contractile curves to 8-OH-DPAT, RU24969, and the 5-HT2B receptor agonist (α-methyl-5-(2-thienylmethoxy)-1H-indole-3-ethanamine) (BW723C86). Agonists for 5-HT1B/1D/1F, 5-HT3, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors were inactive. In real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments that have never been performed in this tissue previously, we

  16. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  17. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  18. Endovascular Internal Trapping of Ruptured Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Occipital-Internal Jugular Vein Fistula in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Taichiro; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous cervical extradural pseudoaneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular diseases. We report a case of ruptured occipital artery (OA) pseudoaneurysm associated with occipital-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula in neurofibromatosis type 1. Endovascular internal trapping via the OA was attempted; however, the distal entry of the OA could not be accessed because of the high shunt flow and tortuosity of the OA. The distal part of the OA was obliterated with coil via a transvenous approach through the IJV and pseudoaneurysm. The proximal entry of the OA was obliterated with coil and glue under proximal flow control with a balloon, and the fistula was successfully obliterated without placement of coils in the pseudoaneurysm. When ordinary internal trapping via a transarterial approach is not possible, the transvenous approach should be considered as an alternative for AVF associated with an aneurysmal component. PMID:26971039

  19. Multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation: a pilot clinical test in the internal jugular vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Patrikeev, Igor A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2006-06-01

    A noninvasive, high-resolution optoacoustic technique is a promising alternative to currently used invasive methods of brain oxygenation monitoring. We present the results of our pilot clinical test of this technique in healthy volunteers. Multiwavelength optoacoustic measurements (with nanosecond optical parametric oscillator as a source of radiation) were performed on the area of the neck overlying the internal jugular vein, a deeply located large vein that drains blood from the brain and from extracranial tissues. Optoacoustic signals induced in venous blood were measured with high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio despite the presence of a thick layer of overlying tissue (up to 10 mm). The characteristic parameters of the signal at different wavelengths correlated well with the spectrum of the effective attenuation coefficient of blood.

  20. Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A.; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.1-5 The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. 6-8 The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.9-11 This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., 9 as well as others.12-14 Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain expertise fast

  1. Training a sophisticated microsurgical technique: interposition of external jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.(1-5) The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. (6-8) The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.(9-11) This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., (9) as well as others.(12-14) Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain

  2. Observation and partial targeted surgery in the management of tympano-jugular paraganglioma: a contribution to the multioptional treatment.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of a limited tumor excision in tympano-jugular paragangliomas treated with observation with the goal of preventing, or repairing, a neural (VII cranial nerve) or brain damage and continue an otherwise correct observation. This is a retrospective case review. Each patient was submitted to a complete neuro-radiological work-up for diagnosis including CT, MRI, and angiography if needed of tympano-jugular paraganglioma class C. All the cases were submitted to observation and in 16 cases partial targeted surgery was performed. In 10 cases, the procedure involved a targeted removal of the tumor growing in contact with, or invading, the Fallopius. In four cases, the procedure was a petro-occipital trans-sigmoid approach to remove the intradural portion of tumor producing the picture of brain stem compression. In two cases, there was the excision of the bleeding tumor surfaces in the outer ear canal. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 20 years. Success was considered the maintenance of observation without the change of class of tumor extension. In 13 over 16 cases, the observation could be continued, as it still was the more favorable option between natural and surgical morbidity. In the other three cases, a newly installed paralysis of the 9-10 cranial nerves due to tumor growth involved a correction of the strategy to a radical procedure. Partial targeted surgery was directed to cases submitted to observation. It allowed to prevent, or repair, an impending, or actual damage to the facial nerve or the brain stem and to continue the abstentional treatment by keeping the balance between natural and therapy morbidity in favor of observation. PMID:25822289

  3. Clinical Applicability of Assessment of Jugular Flow over the Individual Cardiac Cycle Compared with Current Ultrasound Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Menegatti, Erica; Vannini, Maria Elena; Gianesini, Sergio; Tavoni, Valentina; Gadda, Giacomo; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo; Zamboni, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in measuring cerebral venous outflow with ultrasound (US). However, results obtained with the current US Doppler methodology, which uses just a single value of cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel, are highly variable and inconclusive. The product of CSA and time-averaged velocity in the case of pulsatile vessels may be a possible source of error, particularly for a pulsatile vein like the internal jugular vein (IJV), where the cardiac pump transmits a sequence of well-established waves along the conduit. We herein propose a novel technique for US IJV flow assessment that accurately accounts for IJV CSA variations during the cardiac cycle. Five subjects were investigated with a high-resolution real-time B-mode video, synchronized with an electrocardiography trace. In this approach, CSA variations representing the pulsatility of the IJV are overlapped with the velocity curve obtained by the usual spectral Doppler trace. The overlap is then phased point by point using the electrocardiography pacemaker. This allows us to experimentally measure the velocity variation in relation to the change in CSA precisely, ultimately enabling calculation of IJV flow. (i) The sequence of CSA variation with respect to the electrocardiography waves corresponds exactly to the jugular venous pulse as measured in physiology. (ii) The methodology permits us to phase the velocity and CSA, which is ultimately what is currently lacking to precisely calculate the flow in the IJV with US. (iii) The time-averaged flow, calculated with the described technique, is very close to that calculated assuming a constant IJV CSA, whereas the time-dependent flow shows differs as much as 40%. (iv) Finally, we tested the accuracy of the technique with a methodology that may allow for universal assessment of the accuracy of each personal US-based evaluation of flow rate. PMID:27108038

  4. Long-term oncological results in 47 cases of jugular paraganglioma surgery with special emphasis on the facial nerve issue.

    PubMed

    Tran Ba Huy, P; Chao, P Z; Benmansour, F; George, B

    2001-12-01

    Oncological and functional results were assessed in 47 type C and/or D jugular paraganglioma operated on between 1984 and 1998 using the classical infratemporal fossa type A approach (mean follow-up = 66 months). In 24 instances, however, the facial nerve was not re-routed. Total resection was achieved in 33 cases (70 per cent). In 25 patients available for follow-up this resulted in a 92 per cent cure rate while two patients (eight per cent) developed recurrences that are being followed-up clinically and radiologically. Sub-total resection, leaving infracentimetric tumour remnants after being coagulated, was achieved in 14 cases (30 per cent). In 11 patients available for follow-up, only three cases developed tumour regrowth (27 per cent) that was controlled by salvage irradiation or surgery while in the other cases tumour remnants remained stable (73 per cent). Symptomatic post-operative lower cranial nerve impairment was observed in 23 per cent. When results were analysed depending on whether the facial nerve had been re-routed (n = 18) or not (n = 24), the incidence of facial paralysis HB grade III or more at one year was 33 per cent and eight per cent, respectively. Total resection was achieved in 56 per cent when the facial nerve was re-routed versus 75 per cent when it was not, the difference being due to a higher incidence of large tumours in the first group. The present study suggests that: 1) surgical resection of jugular paraganglioma provides overall satisfactory results, i.e. a 86 per cent rate of either cure or tumour remnant stabilization, but carries a significant risk of iatrogeny; 2) complete tumour removal should not be attempted, especially in patients over 60 years of age with no pre-operative neurological deficits, since leaving infracentimetric tumour remnants has no major detrimental effect on the final outcome; 3) facial nerve transposition carries a significant risk of cosmetic sequelae while it does not provide significant advantages in

  5. Investigation of the effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on jugular venous oxygen saturation in anesthetized pigs: implications for their mechanism of acute antimigraine action.

    PubMed

    Létienne, Robert; Verscheure, Yvan; John, Gareth W

    2003-10-01

    The effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carotid hemodynamics were compared in the anesthetized pig. Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in systemic arterial and jugular venous blood as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation were determined by conventional blood gas analysis. Vehicle (n = 19) or naratriptan, rizatriptan, or sumatriptan (0.63, 2.5, 10, 40, 160, 630, and 2,500 microg/kg i.v.; n = 7/group) were infused cumulatively. In naratriptan-, rizatriptan-, and sumatriptan-treated animals, jugular venous oxygen saturation decreased dose dependently (geometric mean ED50 values of 3.1, 17.9, and 16.0 microg/kg, respectively) concomitantly with increases in carotid vascular resistance. Rizatriptan significantly and dose dependently, from 160 microg/kg, increased PvCO2 (P < 0.05 versus vehicle). Naratriptan and sumatriptan also tended to increase PvCO2 albeit nonstatistically significantly. All three triptans consistently evoked quantitatively similar carotid vasoconstriction, whereas decreases in jugular venous oxygen saturation (VOS) and increases in PvCO2 had different magnitudes and occurred only in around one-half of the animals studied. Maximal variations in PvCO2 were found to correlate highly with those in PvO2 (P = 0.002), but maximal variations in carotid resistance failed to correlate with those in PvCO2 (P = 0.76) or PvO2 (P = 0.28). The results demonstrate that the triptans investigated robustly produced carotid vasoconstriction, but elicited less consistent decreases in VOS and increases in jugular PvCO2, possibly suggestive of distinct mechanisms. Collectively, the data suggest that triptan-induced increases in arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carbon dioxide partial pressure in venous blood draining the head are class effects. PMID:12954804

  6. Integration of jugular venous return and circle of Willis in a theoretical human model of selective brain cooling.

    PubMed

    Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2007-11-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model was developed to examine the induction of selective brain cooling (SBC) in the human brain by intracarotid cold (2.8 degrees C) saline infusion (ICSI) at 30 ml/min. The Pennes bioheat equation was used to propagate brain temperature. The effect of cooled jugular venous return was investigated, along with the effect of the circle of Willis (CoW) on the intracerebral temperature distribution. The complete CoW, missing A1 variant (mA1), and fetal P1 variant (fP1) were simulated. ICSI induced moderate hypothermia (defined as 32-34 degrees C) in the internal carotid artery (ICA) territory within 5 min. Incorporation of the complete CoW resulted in a similar level of hypothermia in the ICA territory. In addition, the anterior communicating artery and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery distributed cool blood to the contralateral anterior and ipsilateral posterior territories, respectively, imparting mild hypothermia (35 and 35.5 degrees C respectively). The mA1 and fP1 variants allowed for sufficient cooling of the middle cerebral territory (30-32 degrees C). The simulations suggest that ICSI is feasible and may be the fastest method of inducing hypothermia. Moreover, the effect of convective heat transfer via the complete CoW and its variants underlies the important role of CoW anatomy in intracerebral temperature distributions during SBC. PMID:17761787

  7. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  8. Intraoperative radiation of canine carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Therapeutic applications in the management of advanced head and neck cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.B.; Pelzer, H.; Tsao, C.S.; Ward, W.F.; Johnson, P.; Friedman, C.; Sisson, G.A. Sr.; Kies, M. )

    1990-12-01

    As a step in the application of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for treating advanced head and neck cancers, preliminary information was obtained on the radiation tolerance of the canine common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve to a single, high-dose electron beam. Both sides of the neck of eight mongrel dogs were operated on to expose an 8-cm segment of common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. One side of the neck was irradiated, using escalating doses of 2500, 3500, 4500, and 5500 cGy. The contralateral side of the neck served as the unirradiated control. At 3 and 6 months after IORT, one dog at each dose level was killed. None of the dogs developed carotid bleeding at any time after IORT. Light microscopic investigations using hematoxylin-eosin staining on the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein showed no consistent changes that suggested radiation damage; however, the Masson trichrome stain and hydroxyproline concentration of irradiated common carotid artery indicated an increase in the collagen content of the tunica media. Marked changes in the irradiated vagus nerve were seen, indicating severe demyelination and loss of nerve fibers, which appeared to be radiation-dose dependent. Four patients with advanced recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with surgical resection and IORT without any acute or subacute complications. The role of IORT as a supplement to surgery, external beam irradiation, and chemotherapy in selected patients with advanced head and neck cancer needs further exploration.

  9. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  10. Short- and Long-Term Prognostic Implications of Jugular Venous Distension in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Fernando; Berkovitch, Anat; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Rott, David; Arbel, Yaron; Elis, Avishai; Klempfner, Robert

    2016-07-15

    The present study was designed to assess the role of jugular venous distension (JVD) as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in a "real-life" setting. The independent association between the presence of admission JVD and the 30-day, 1- and 10-year mortality was assessed among 2,212 patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) who were enrolled in the Heart Failure Survey in Israel (2003). Independent predictors of JVD finding in study patients included: the presence of significant hyponatremia (odds ratio [OR] 1.48; p = 0.03), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction ([LVEF] OR 1.24; p = 0.03), anemia (OR 1.3; p = 0.01), New York Heart Association III to IV (OR 1.34; p <0.01) and age >75 years (OR 1.32; p = 0.01). The presence of JVD versus its absence at the time of HF hospitalization was associated with increased 30-day mortality (7.2% vs 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.02), 1-year (33% vs 28%, respectively; p <0.001), and greater 10-year mortality (91.8% vs 87.2%, respectively; p <0.001). Consistently, interaction term analysis demonstrated that the presence of JVD at the time of the index HF hospitalization was independently associated with a significant increased risk for 10-year mortality, with a more pronounced effect among younger patients, patients with reduced LVEF, preserved renal function, and chronic HF. In conclusion, in patients admitted with HF, JVD is associated with specific risk factors and is independently associated with increased risk of both short- and long-term mortality. These findings can be used for improved risk assessment and management of this high-risk population. PMID:27287063

  11. Anatomic Relationship of the Internal Jugular Vein and the Common Carotid Artery Applied to Percutaneous Transjugular Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Turba, Ulku C.; Uflacker, Renan Hannegan, Christopher; Selby, J. Bayne

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the anatomic relationship of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with the common carotid artery (CCA) in order to avoid inadvertent puncture of the CCA during percutaneous central venous access or transjugular interventional procedures. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients requiring either central venous access or interventional procedures via the IJV were included in the analysis. The position of the IJV in relation to the CCA was demonstrated by portable ultrasonography. The IJV location was recorded in a clock-dial system using the carotid as the center of the dial and the angles were measured. Outcomes of the procedure were also recorded. Results. The IJV was lateral to the CCA in 187 of 188 patients and medial to the CCA in one patient. The left IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 12 patients (6%), the 11 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%), the 10 o'clock position in 142 patients (75%) and at the 9 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). The right IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 8 patients (4%), the 1 o'clock position in 31 patients (16%), the 2 o'clock position in 134 patients (71%) and the 3 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). In one patient the left IJV was located approximately 60 deg. medial to the left CCA; this was recorded as 2 o'clock on the left since it is opposite to the 10 o'clock position. Conclusion. Knowledge of the IJV anatomy and relationship to the CCA is important information for the operator performing an IJV puncture, to potentially reduce the chance of laceration of the CCA and avoid placement of a large catheter within a critical artery, even when ultrasound guidance is used.

  12. A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Tamizur; Sethi, Sean K.; Utriainen, David T.; Hewett, J. Joseph; Haacke, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular nature of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is a growing field of research. This work reports on the application of MR angiographic (MRA) and venographic (MRV) techniques in assessing the extracranial vasculature in MS patients. Materials and Methods A standardized MRI protocol containing 2D TOF-MRV and dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MRAV was run for 170 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) was measured at three neck levels in all subjects for both MRV techniques to determine the presence of venous stenoses. All data were analyzed retrospectively. Results For the values where both methods showed signal, the 3D method showed larger CSA measurement values compared to 2D methods in both IJVs, in both MS and HC subjects which was confirmed with student paired t-tests. Of the 170 MS patients, 93 (55%) in CE-MRAV and 103 (61%) in TOF-MRV showed stenosis in at least one IJV. The corresponding numbers for the 40 HC subjects were 2 (5%) and 4 (10%), respectively. Carotid ectasias with IJV stenosis were seen in 26 cases (15%) with 3D CE-MRAV and were not observable with 2D TOF-MRV. Carotid ectasias were not seen in the HC group. In the 2D TOF-MRV data, banding of the IJVs related to slow flow was seen in 58 (34%) MS cases and in no HC cases. MS patients showed lower average CSAs than the HC subjects. Conclusion The 3D CE MRAV depicted the vascular anatomy more completely than the 2D TOF-MRV. However, the 3D CE MRAV does not provide any information about the flow characteristics which are indirectly available in the 2D TOF-MRV in those cases where there is slow flow. PMID:23850076

  13. Stereotactic LINAC-Radiosurgery for Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Long-Term Follow-Up of 27 Patients

    PubMed Central

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Hunsche, Stefan; Igressa, Alhadi; Kocher, Martin; Sturm, Volker; Maarouf, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) remains controversial. Due to the critical location, microsurgery still provides high treatment-related morbidity and a decreased quality of life. Thus, we performed stereotactical radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of GJTs and evaluated the long-term outcome. Methods Between 1991 and 2011, 32 patients with GJTs underwent SRS using a linear accelerator (LINAC) either as primary or salvage therapy. Twenty-seven patients (median age 59.9 years, range 28.7–79.9 years) with a follow-up greater than five years (median 11 years, range 5.3–22.1 years) were selected for retrospective analysis. The median therapeutic single dose applied to the tumor surface was 15 Gy (range 11–20 Gy) and the median tumor volume was 9.5 ml (range 2.8–51 ml). Results Following LINAC-SRS, 10 of 27 patients showed a significant improvement of their previous neurological complaints, whereas 12 patients remained unchanged. Five patients died during follow-up due to old age or other, not treatment-related reasons. MR-imaging showed a partial remission in 12 and a stable disease in 15 patients. No tumor progression was observed. The actuarial overall survival rates after five, ten and 20 years were 100%, 95.2% and 79.4%, respectively. Conclusions Stereotactic LINAC-Radiosurgery can achieve an excellent long-term tumor control beside a low rate of morbidity in the treatment of GJTs. It should be considered as an alternative therapy regime to surgical resection or fractionated external beam radiation either as primary, adjuvant or salvage therapy. PMID:26069957

  14. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS

  15. Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) Engineering Applications. Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Linebarger, John Michael; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2011-10-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex eco-socio-economic-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to highly-saturated interdependencies and allied vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. The Phoenix initiative approaches this high-impact problem space as engineers, devising interventions (problem solutions) that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. CASoS embody the world's biggest problems and greatest opportunities: applications to real world problems are the driving force of our effort. We are developing engineering theory and practice together to create a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave, and allows us to better control those behaviors. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving CASoS Engineering principles while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it.

  16. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  17. Right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Broilo, Fabiano; Meregalli, Andre; Friedman, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava diameter (∆DIVC) and right internal jugular vein diameter (∆DRIJ) are correlated in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods This study was a prospective clinical analysis in an intensive care unit at a university hospital. Thirty-nine mechanically ventilated patients with hemodynamic instability were included. ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were assessed by echography. Vein distensibility was calculated as the ratio of (A) Dmax - Dmin/Dmin and (B) Dmax - Dmin/ mean of Dmax - Dmin and expressed as a percentage. Results ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were correlated by both methods: (A) r = 0.34, p = 0.04 and (B) r = 0.51, p = 0.001. Using 18% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (A), 16 patients were responders and 35 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.80). The area under the ROC curve was 0.951 (95%CI 0.830 - 0.993; cutoff = 18.92). Using 12% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (B), 14 patients were responders and 32 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.65). The area under the ROC curve was 0.903 (95%CI 0.765 - 0.973; cut-off value = 11.86). Conclusion The respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava and the right internal jugular veins are correlated and showed significant agreement. Evaluation of right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness. PMID:26465243

  18. The use of internal jugular vein as interposition graft for femoral vein reconstruction following traumatic venous injury: a useful approach in selected cases.

    PubMed

    Woodson, J; Rodriguez, A A; Menzoian, J O

    1990-09-01

    Complex venous injuries remain a controversial and interesting challenge to the vascular and trauma surgeon. Data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry, combined with experience from recent civilian series, seem to indicate that the best results are obtained when venous repair is undertaken. This is especially true of combined arterial and venous injury where compromised venous outflow may lead to limb loss in spite of patent arterial reconstruction. The larger size of veins, however, has required the construction of complex and time-consuming panel and spiral-vein grafts. This makes them far from ideal in the trauma treatment setting, where minimization of blood loss and operating room time are high priorities. We present a case of combined injury to both femoral artery and vein, where the femoral vein injury was repaired using autologous internal jugular vein as interposition graft while the arterial injury was repaired with autologous saphenous vein from the opposite limb. The avoidance of prosthetics, ease of harvest, size match, and little associated morbidity all make a strong case for use of the internal jugular vein where speedy reconstruction of large venous conduits is indicated. PMID:2223549

  19. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  20. Successful primary correction of tetralogy of fallot with pulmonary atresia and aortopulmonary window in a 2,220-g neonate with a valved bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Kostolny, Martin; Schreiber, Christian; Hess, John; Lange, Rüdiger

    2004-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (TOF/PA) was confirmed in a newborn with a birth weight of 2,095 g. Additionally, an aortopulmonary window (APW) type I was diagnosed on echocardiography. The operation was performed at the age of 4 weeks due to congestive heart failure. The APW was closed with a pericardial patch, the ventricular septal defect (VSD) with a Dacron patch, and the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was reconstructed with a 12-mm bovine jugular vein valved conduit (Contegra, Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). At 15-month follow-up, the patient is in excellent clinical condition without medication. On echocardiography, the conduit showed a mean gradient of 11 mmHg with first-degree insufficiency. PMID:15580326

  1. Effects of Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Internal Jugular Bulb Venous Oxygen Saturation, Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Bispectral Index in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Zhirui; Seal, Robert; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and bispectral index (BIS) used to monitor cerebral oxygen balance in pediatric patients.Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Class II-III patients aged 1 to 4 years old with congenital heart disease scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were included in this study. Temperature, BIS, rSO2, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hematocrit were recorded. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation and SvO2 were obtained from blood gas analysis at the time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), beginning of CPB (T1), ascending aortic occlusion (T2), 20 minutes after initiating CPB (T3), coronary reperfusion (T4), separation from CPB (T5), and at the end of operation (T6). The effect of hypothermia or changes in CPP on rSO2, SjvO2, SvO2, and BIS were analyzed.Compared with postinduction baseline values, rSO2 significantly decreased at all-time points: onset of extracorporeal circulation, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after CPB initiation, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with measurements made following induction of anesthesia, SjvO2 significantly increased with initiation of CPB, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with induction of anesthesia, BIS significantly decreased with the onset of CPB, aortic cross clamping, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, and coronary reperfusion (P < 0.05). Bispectral index increased following separation from CPB. There was no significant change in SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that rSO2 was positively related to CPP (r = 0.687, P = 0

  2. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  3. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture preconditioning on jugular vein glucose level and cerebral edema in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiuxia; Pan, Peng; Xu, Changqing; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the blood glucose level in jugular vein and water content in brain tissues in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury. Methods: 90 healthy male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sham-operation (SH) group, cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) group and electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning plus IR group. EA group was pretreated with EA delivered to acupoints of “Baihui” (Du 20) and “Shuigou” (Du 26) 30 min before cerebral ischemia. Results: No marked difference was observed in brain water content 2 h after procedure in IR group, SH group and EA group. Compared with SH group, the brain water contents in IR group and EA group were significantly higher 6 h after reperfusion and peaked at 48 h (P < 0.01). The blood glucose levels in EA and IR groups were significantly higher than that of SH group 2 h after reperfusion, which peaked at 6 h and tended to decline up to 24 h after reperfusion (P < 0.01). 2 h, 6 h, and 24 h after reperfusion, EA group had significantly lower blood glucose levels than IR group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Electroacupuncture preconditioning can significantly inhibit the augmentation of the blood glucose level and attenuate cerebral edema induced by reperfusion, which leads to alleviation of injury caused by ischemia reperfusion. PMID:25550958

  5. Catheterization of the Carotid Artery and Jugular Vein to Perform Hemodynamic Measures, Infusions and Blood Sampling in a Conscious Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jing; Fitz, Yvonne; Li, Yan; Fernandez, Melinda; Cortes Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Pazniokas, Stephanie; Bucher, Brandon; Cui, Xizhong; Solomon, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    The success of a small animal model to study critical illness is, in part, dependent on the ability of the model to simulate the human condition. Intra-tracheal inoculation of a known amount of bacteria has been successfully used to reproduce the pathogenesis of pneumonia which then develops into sepsis. Monitoring hemodynamic parameters and providing standard clinical treatment including infusion of antibiotics, fluids and drugs to maintain blood pressure is critical to simulate routine supportive care in this model but to do so requires both arterial and venous vascular access. The video details the surgical technique for implanting carotid artery and common jugular vein catheters in an anesthetized rat. Following a 72 hr recovery period, the animals will be re-anesthetized and connected to a tether and swivel setup attached to the rodent housing which connects the implanted catheters to the hemodynamic monitoring system. This setup allows free movement of the rat during the study while continuously monitoring pressures, infusing fluids and drugs (antibiotics, vasopressors) and performing blood sampling. PMID:25741606

  6. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further. PMID:26921505

  7. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  8. The simultaneous application of positive-end expiratory pressure with the Trendelenburg position minimizes respiratory fluctuations in internal jugular vein size

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sun Sook; Han, Woong Ki; Ko, Dong Chan

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory cycle alters the size of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). We assessed the changes in RIJV size during the respiratory cycle in patients under positive pressure ventilation. Moreover, we examined the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and the Trendelenburg position on respiratory fluctuations. Methods A prospective study of 24 patients undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia was performed. Images of the RIJV were obtained in the supine position with no PEEP (baseline, S0) and after applying three different maneuvers in random order: (1) a PEEP of 10 cmH2O (S10), (2) a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position (T0), and (3) a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position combined with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O (T10). Using the images when the area was smallest and largest, cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter, and transverse diameter were measured. Results All maneuvers minimized the fluctuation in RIJV size (all P = 0.0004). During the respiratory cycle, the smallest CSA compared to the largest CSA at S0, S10, T0, and T10 decreased by 28.3 8.5, 8.0, and 4.4%, respectively. Furthermore, compared to S0, a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O significantly increased the CSA in the largest areas by 83.8% and in the smallest areas by 169.4%. Conclusions A 10° Trendelenburg tilt position combined with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O not only increases the size of the RIJV but also reduces fluctuation by the respiratory cycle. PMID:24910725

  9. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery. In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured. All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment. The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  10. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-05-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery.In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured.All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment.The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  11. Effect of laryngeal mask airway placement on the optimal site and success rate of venipuncture via the right internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan-Qiu; Li, Xin-Bai; Zhang, Yu-Shuang; Li, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) changes the relative positions of the common carotid artery (CCA) and right internal jugular vein (IJV), thereby affecting venipuncture via the right IJV. Therefore, we went on to determine the optimal site for puncturing the IJV after LMA-Supreme™ placement. In this study, forty-six patients were placed with a LMA-Supreme™ (size 3 or 4), and the right IJV was punctured at either of the three points (anterior, middle or posterior point). The CCA diameters and overlap between the right IJV and CCA were recorded before and after the LMA-Supreme™ placement. Finally, the success rates of IJV puncturing at the three aforementioned points were compared. We found that the size of the LMA-Supreme™ had no effect on patient respiration during the procedure. Overlap between the right IJV and CCA at the anterior and middle points was significantly increased after size 3 LMA-Supreme™ placements; Size 4 masks decreased the CCA diameters at the middle and posterior points, and significantly increased overlap between the right IJV and CCA at all the three points; IJV punctures performed after placement of size 3 LMA-Supreme™ had higher success rate than those performed after placement of size 4 masks, and were less likely to result in accidental arterial puncture. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that placement of size 3 LMA-Supreme™ caused little change in overlapping between the right IJV and CCA and the incidence of accidental arterial puncture; particularly for punctures performed at the posterior point. Therefore, we recommend venipuncture at the posterior point after placement of a LMA-Supreme™. PMID:26550241

  12. The Accuracy of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Cerebral Oximetry Device and Its Potential Value for Estimating Jugular Venous Oxygen Saturation

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keita; MacLeod, David B; Grocott, Hilary P.; Moretti, Eugene W.; Ames, Warwick; Vacchiano, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background An intriguing potential clinical use of cerebral oximeter measurements (SctO2) is the ability to noninvasively estimate jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2). Our purpose in this study was to determine the accuracy of the FORE-SIGHT® (CAS Medical Systems; Branford, CT), which is calibrated to a weighted average of 70% (SjvO2) and 30% arterial saturation, for Food and Drug Administration pre-market approval 510 (k) certification by adapting an industry standard protocol, ISO 9919:2005 [www.ISO.org] (used for pulse oximeters) and to evaluate the use of SctO2 and SpO2 measurements to noninvasively estimate jugular venous oxygen saturation (SnvO2). Methods Paired blood gas samples from the radial artery and the jugular venous bulb were collected from 20 healthy volunteers undergoing progressive oxygen desaturation from 100 to 70%. The blood sample pairs were analyzed via co-oximetry and used to calculate the approximate mixed vascular cerebral blood oxygen saturation, or reference SctO2 values (refSctO2), during increasing hypoxia. These reference values were compared to bilateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values recorded simultaneously with the blood gas draws to determine its accuracy. Bilateral SctO2 and SpO2 measurements were then used to calculate SnvO2 values which were compared to SjvO2. Results Two hundred forty-six arterial and 253 venous samples from 18 subjects were used in the analysis. The ipsilateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values showed a tolerance interval (TI) of [−10.72 10.90] Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) with standard error (SE) of 0.83 ± 0.073 with the refSctO2 values calculated using arterial and venous blood gases. The combined data had a CCC of 0. 81 + 0.059 with TI of [−9.22 9.40] with overall bias was 0.09% and amplitude of the root mean square of error after it was corrected with random effects analysis was 2.92%. The bias and variability values between the ipsilateral and the contralateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2

  13. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  14. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  15. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  16. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  17. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Thosani, Rajesh; Patel, Jigar; Gandhi, Hemang; Doshi, Chirag; Kothari, Jignesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95) and female (n = 65) who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French) using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate. PMID:27052069

  18. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  19. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  20. Jugular Foramen Arteriovenous Shunt with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, G.; Comoy, J.; Hurth, M.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man with an extracerebral arteriovenous fistula at the skull base, revealed by subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into left laterobulbar veins. Embolization with bucrylate was performed and occluded totally the shunting zone. A 1-year follow-up angiogram confirmed the good stability of the result, the patient being asymptomatic. This case emphasizes the quality of results that can be obtained with bucrylate in arterioverious fistulas presenting with hemorrhage. It confirms that the external carotid artery must be studied when dealing with intracranial hemorrhage. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography may depict vascular abnormalities but do not always indicate the shunting area, thus the pathologic type of the malformation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 5p136-b PMID:17170835

  1. On the luminescence properties of CaSO4:Ce.

    PubMed

    Lapraz, D; Prevost, H; Iacconi, P; Guigues, C; Benabdesselam, M; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    The luminescent properties of cerium doped calcium sulphate are studied: fluorescence and excitation spectra, optical absorption and thermoluminescence (TSL). It is known that, in rare earth doped CaSO4, only cerium induces a strong 400 degrees C TSL peak. In CaSO4:0.2%Ce samples synthesised under oxidising conditions, the recovery step of Ce3+ fluorescence is correlated with the 400 degrees C TSL peak readout, as mentioned by Nair er al. Our results indicate that an oxidation of Ce3+ ion does occur under X-irradiation (Ce3+ --> Ce4+), followed by a complete return to the trivalent state after thermal annealing at about 500 degrees C; our results confirm the hypothesis of Nair et al that Ce3+ ions are oxidised by ionising irradiation. So, a pure redox reaction seems the most probable for the 400 degrees C TSL peak of CaSO4:Ce. Moreover, the use of the 400 degrees C TSL peak for high temperature dosimetry applications is discussed. PMID:12382899

  2. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  3. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  4. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  5. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  6. The binary system K2SO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Hansen, I.D.

    1965-01-01

    The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 was studied by means of heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, high-temperature quenching technique and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Compositions and quench products were identified optically and by X-ray. Limited solid solution of CaSO4 in K2SO4 was found. There is a eutectic at 875??C and 34 wt. per cent CaSO4. Calcium langbeinite melts incongruently at 1011??C. The melting-point of CaSO4 (1462??C) was determined by the quenching technique using sealed platinum tubes. The only intermediate crystalline phase found in the system is K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite). ?? 1965.

  7. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  8. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  9. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  10. Atomistic modelling of the hydration of CaSO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Craig D.

    2003-08-01

    Atomistic modelling techniques, using empirical potentials, have been used to simulate a range of structures formed by the hydration of γ-CaSO 4 and described as CaSO 4· nH 2O (0< n<1). The hemihydrate phase ( n=0.5) is of commercial importance and has been subjected to much experimental study. These simulation studies demonstrate significant water-matrix interactions that influence the crystallography of the hydrated phase. The existence of two types of hydration site has been predicted, including one within the Ca 2+coordination sphere. Close correlation between water molecule bonding energy, Ca 2+-O w bond length and unit-cell volume have been established. This shows that as the number of water molecules within the unit cell increases, the bonding energy increases and the unit cell contracts. However around n=0.5, this process reaches a turning point with the incorporation of further waters resulting in reduced binding energy and an expanding unit cell.

  11. A VLT VIMOS integral-field spectroscopic study of perturbed blue compact galaxies: UM 420 and UM 462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on optical integral-field spectroscopy of two unrelated blue compact galaxies mapped with the 13× 13 arcsec2 Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit at a resolution of 0.33× 0.33 arcsec2. Continuum and background subtracted emission line maps in the light of [OIII] λ5007, Hα and [NII] λ6584 are presented. Both galaxies display signs of ongoing perturbation and/or interaction. UM 420 is resolved for the first time to be a merging system composed of two starbursting components with an `arm-like' structure associated with the largest component. UM 462 which is a disrupted system of irregular morphology is resolved into at least four starbursting regions. Maps of the Hα radial velocity and full width at half-maximum are discussed. No underlying broad-line region was detected from either galaxy as the emission lines are well fitted with single Gaussian profiles only. Electron temperatures and densities as well as the abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur were computed from spectra integrated over the whole galaxies and for each area of recent star formation. Maps of the O/H ratio are presented: these galaxies show oxygen abundances that are ~20 per cent solar. No evidence of substantial abundance variations across the galaxies that would point to significant nitrogen or oxygen self-enrichment is found (<~0.2 dex limit). Contrary to previous observations, this analysis does not support the classification of these blue compact dwarf galaxies as Wolf-Rayet galaxies as the characteristic broad-emission-line features have not been detected in our spectra. Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich emission-line-ratio diagrams which were constructed on a pixel-by-pixel basis indicate that the optical spectra of these systems are predominantly excited by stellar photoionization. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile, under programmes 078.B-0353(B, E). E-mail: bj@star.ucl.ac.uk

  12. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE induced by X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L; Rivera, T; Jimenez, Y; Alvarez, R; Zeferino, J; Vázquez, A; Azorín, J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of the utilization of CaSO4:Dy pellets for X-ray measurements in a general radiology department. Thermoluminescence (TL) response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE was compared to the TL response of commercial LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) samples. TL pellets were exposed to X-ray beam from X-ray machine CMR for clinical diagnosis purpose. The calibration curve of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE was obtained and it showed a linear response as a function of absorbed dose in air at the studied dose interval. Despite this fact, this material can be used for X-ray beams measurements if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. PMID:22182627

  13. Dosimetry of fast neutron beams using CaSO 4:Dy (TLD-900) pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. S.; Rassow, J.; Meissner, P.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes the use of commercially avialable CaSO 4:Dy (TLD-900) pellets for the measurement of absorbed doses of fast neutrons and gamma rays in mixed fields with one single detector. The gamma ray absorbed doses could be estimated by recording the thermoluminiscence (TL) induced during the neutron beam irradiations, whereas the fast neutron absorbed doses were measured by employing a post-irradiation TL accumulation due to activation of sulphur by the threshold nuclear reaction 32S(n, p) 32P in CaSO 4:Dy.

  14. Influence of a Novel Inhibitor (UM8190) of Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) on Appetite and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, F. M.; Gadepalli, R.S.V.S.; Diano, S.; Cheng, Q.; Tabrizian, T.; Gailani, D.; Rimoldi, J.M.; Shariat-Madar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical pharmacological characterization of a novel inhibitor (UM8190) of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) was investigated. We synthesized and evaluated a library of proline-based analogs as prospective recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) inhibitors and inhibitors of PRCP-dependent prekallikrein (PK) activation on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC). Among the newly synthesized compounds, UM8190 was further characterized in vivo using methods that encompassed a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model and animal model of food consumption. (S)-N-dodecyl-1-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide [Compound 3 (UM8190)] was selected for further evaluation from the initial assessment of its PRCP inhibitory action (Ki= 43 µM) coupled with its ability to block PRCP-dependent PK activation on HPAEC (Ki= 34 µM). UM8190 demonstrated excellent selectivity against a panel of carboxypeptidases and serine proteases and blocked bradykinin (BK) generation and BK-induced permeability by 100%, suggesting that it may be useful in preventing the local production of large amounts of BK. Furthermore, UM8190 showed an anorexigenic effect when systemically administered to fasted mice, reducing food intake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, it also demonstrated an antithrombotic effect. UM8190 is a selective PRCP inhibitor and it may represent a new anorexigenic, and antithrombotic drug, that works by inhibiting PRCP–mediated mechanisms. PMID:22664251

  15. An alternative method for immediate dose estimation using CaSO4:Dy based TLD badges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Kadam, Sonal; Chougaonkar, M. P.; Babu, D. A. R.

    2014-11-01

    CaSO4:Dy based Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are being used in country wide personnel monitoring program in India. The TL glow curve of CaSO4:Dy consists of a dosimetric peak at 220 °C and a low temperature peak at 120 °C which is unstable at room temperature. The TL integral counts in CaSO4:Dy reduces by 15% in seven days after irradiation due to the thermal fading of 120 °C TL peak. As the dosimetric procedure involves total integrated counts for dose conversion, the dosimeters are typically read about a week after receiving. However in the event of a suspected over exposure, where urgent processing is expected, this poses limitation. Post irradiation annealing treatment is used in such cases of immediate readout of cards. In this paper we report a new and easier to use technique based on optical bleaching for the urgent processing of TLD cards. Optical bleaching with green LED (∼555 nm photons) of 25,000 lux for one and half hour removes the low temperature TL peak without affecting the dosimetric peak. This method can be used for immediate dose estimation using CaSO4:Dy based TLD badges.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the XRD-determination of the identity of CaSO4, formed by the reaction between CaO and S02, and the support of that determination by density measurements with helium pycnometry. The anhydrous CaS04 compound formed has an orthorhombic crystal structure and an...

  17. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  18. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  19. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  20. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  1. Modeling the thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy by the MCNPX method.

    PubMed

    Furetta, C; Roman, J; Rivera, T; Azorín, J; Azorín, C G; Vega-Carrillo, H R

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an algorithm for absorbed dose evaluation in the region of X-ray diagnostic energy based on the response of CaSO(4):Dy thermoluminescence powder detectors. The absorbed dose was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation code (MCSC) and then compared to the experimental TLD results for X-rays effective energies (60)Co gamma radiation. In order to study the photon interaction in the matter, a cylindrical model of 1 cm(3) was used. The gamma radiation source was placed at 100 cm to the object; the source is considered as an isotropic source of (60)Co. The energy deposited into the cylindrical model was determined by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNPX) method. Measurements of the TL phosphors were obtained by irradiating the powder by gamma radiation. TL glow curve of CaSO(4):Dy after gamma irradiated at a 1 Gy of absorbed dose was then obtained. PMID:20079655

  2. Preparation and investigation of thermoluminescence properties of CaSO4:Tm,Cu.

    PubMed

    Kása, I; Chobola, R; Mell, P; Szakács, S; Kerekes, A

    2007-01-01

    A new sort of thermoluminescent phosphor has been developed with the purpose of enlarging the range of linear dose-response. The thermoluminescence properties of CaSO(4):Tm,Cu, prepared according to our method, were studied in the dose range of 0.5 Gy-125.0 kGy. The results of the present work show that the CaSO(4):Tm,Cu is an excellent new dosimetric material due to its relatively simple glow curve, as a consequence of its simple trap system. Several applications are possible in dosimetry due to its wide range of linearity (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(3) Gy), from environmental and space dosimetry to accidental and high-dose irradiation, e.g. gamma irradiation facilities, electron accelerators, nuclear power plants, radiotherapy, medical physics, and so on. PMID:16905762

  3. CaSO4:DY,Mn: A new and highly sensitive thermoluminescence phosphor for versatile dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahl, Shaila; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Pratik

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of newer techniques for dose reduction coupled with the development of more sensitive detectors, the radiation doses in radiological medical investigation are decreasing. Nevertheless, keeping the tenet in mind that all radiation doses could entail risk, there is a need to develop more sensitive dosimeters capable of measuring low doses. This paper gives the account of the development of a new and sensitive phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn and its characterization. The standard production procedure based on the recrystallization method was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy,Mn. The Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were carried out by exposing it with gamma radiation (Cs-137) from 10 μGy to 100 Gy. The theoretical studies to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in CaSO4:Dy,Mn was performed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. Experiments were performed to determine optimum concentration of the dopants Dysprosium (Dy) and Mangnese (Mn) in the host CaSO4 so that maximum sensitivity of the phosphor may be achieved. The optimum dopant concentration turned out to be 0.1 mol%. As there were two dopants Dy and Mn their relative ratio were varied in steps of 0.025 keeping the concentration of total dopant (Dy and Mn) 0.1 mol% always. The maximum TL intensity was seen in the CaSO4:Dy(0.025),Mn(0.075) combination. The TL sensitivity of this phosphor was found to be about 2 and 1.8 times higher than that of popular phosphor CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-700H) respectively. This new phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn showed fading of 11% which is similar to that of the standard phosphor CaSO4:Dy. The paper concludes that the new, highly sensitive TL phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn has shown higher sensitivity and hence the potential to replace commonly used CaSO4:Dy.

  4. METHOD 100.2 - DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS STRUCTURES OVER 10 UM IN LENGTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is collected in a polyethylene or glass container and shipped to the laboratory. nown aliquots of the sample are filtered through a 0.1 to 0.22 um pore mixed cellulose ester (MCE). arbon extraction replica is prepared from a portion of the filter and is examined in the TEM ...

  5. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  6. Endocarditis of bovine jugular vein conduit due to Q fever.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Constantin; Benahmed-Mostafa, Aziz; Sanoussi, Ahmed; Quiriny, Marie; Demanet, Hélène; Theunissen, Caroline; Wauthy, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Contegra (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) conduits are routinely used in cases of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction during congenital heart surgery. We report two cases of Q fever endocarditis involving Contegra conduits. Surgical treatment and distinct aspects of both unusual cases are described. PMID:21620004

  7. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  8. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies--uh and um--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population. PMID:26586555

  9. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  10. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Subaru H images of UM673 (Koptelova+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptelova, E.; Chiueh, T.; Chen, W. P.; Chan, H.-H.

    2014-05-01

    We carried out H-band observations of UM673 with the Subaru Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS) using an adaptive optics system with 188 control elements (AO188). The images were reduced following the procedure described in "Subaru Data Reduction CookBook: Imaging Observation with IRCS" by Y. Minowa (see also Minowa et al. 2005ApJ...629...29M). The final Subaru H-band stack image of UM673 was created by coadding 22 reduced single exposure images. We also created the exposure time map of the stack image. The 17x10arcsec subframe of the stack image and the corresponding exposure map displayed in Figures 1 and 2 of the paper are available as fits files. (2 data files).

  12. Evaluation of the dosimetric response for CaSO4:Dy at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Ramos-Bernal, S; Negrón-Mendoza, A; Azoŕin, J

    2002-01-01

    Homemade solid state CaSO4:Dy detectors were tested to evaluate their response to gamma radiation at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The dosemeters were irradiated with doses between 12 and 1071 Gy. For this study these dosemeters were exposed to gamma rays with a dose rate of 1.19 Gy.min(-1). The analysis for these crystals was made by thermoluminiscence. The dose response at liquid nitrogen temperature was linear in the dose range studied and it is about 20% lower with respect to the response at room temperature. The response is reproducible with the same geometric set-up. PMID:12382918

  13. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  14. High-sensitive CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent phosphor synthesis by co-precipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, A R; Jose, M T; Annalakshmi, O

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the successful development of the co-precipitation technique for the preparation of a high-sensitive dysprosium-doped calcium sulphate (CaSO(4):Dy) thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) phosphor with dosimetric glow peak at approximately 230 degrees C which is a desired development in the field of radiation protection dosimetry. The main advantages of this co-precipitation technique over the conventional recrystallisation technique of phosphor preparation are: (i) preparation time is very less; (ii) quantity of sulphuric acid evaporated is insignificant; (iii) higher TL sensitivity -20% more than the present material; (iv) better glow curve structure; (v) lesser glow peak shift and better linearity to gamma and (vi) uniform crystal morphology and lower grain size-all grains are mostly cuboidal in shape, quite uniform and small (average size about 25 microm), suitable for manufacturing teflon discs in as-prepared form. Optimum values of various parameters in the method of preparation for a batch of 20 g CaSO(4):Dy phosphors to obtain maximum TL sensitivity, with favourable glow curves are studied. PMID:18716066

  15. Complex terbium luminescence centers in spectral transformers based on CaSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, I.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Maaroos, A.; Nagirnyi, V.; Pazylbek, S.; Tussupbekova, A.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blue and green terbium luminescence excitation spectra (5-15 eV) at a temperature of 9 or 300 K have been measured for a set of CaSO4 : Tb3+ phosphors with calcium and terbium ions characterized by fundamental features, which were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with variations in the composition of the raw material, the type of terbium compounds, and the concentration of introduced terbium. A comprehensive analysis of these data, emission spectra, and decay kinetics (with the rising stage) of the terbium luminescence has revealed that the main luminescence centers in an efficient phosphor with 4 at % Tb3+ each contain four closely spaced Tb3+ ions in calcium positions, as well as Na+ ions and hydrogen-containing radicals. In such complex luminescence centers, cooperative nonradiative resonant transitions in neighboring terbium ions leads to a nearly complete concentration of the terbium luminescence in the green spectral region (5 D 4 → 7 F J ). The quantum yield of the green luminescence in CaSO4 : Tb3+ (4 at %) exceeds unity, QY > 1, in the region of direct excitation of Tb3+ into the 5 d state (~5.9 eV) or excitation of oxyanions near the terbium ions (~8.1 eV).

  16. Thermoluminesence of gamma rays irradiated CaSO4 nanorods doped with different elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2015-01-01

    Nanorods of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) activated by Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were synthesized by the co-precipitation technique. They were irradiated by γ-rays in a wide range of exposures and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) properties. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra. SEM images show that the samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) have thinner nanorods than the other samples, while XRD pattern shows a complete crystalline structures in a monoclinic phase. The TL glow curves of these samples show two components. The first one include low temperature glow peaks at around 125 °C, while the second component shows high temperature peaks in the range 230-270 °C. These glow peaks diver from sample to sample by their TL intensity. The TL results are promising, particularly that of Tb and Eu. Tb doped sample is found to be a highly TL sensitive with a prominent glow peak at around 270 °C, while Eu has created very active, high dense electron traps. The later shows quite linear response in the whole studied exposures i.e. 10 Gy-10 kGy. These results show that Eu or Tb doped CaSO4 nanorods might be proper candidates as dosimeters for high doses of ionizing radiations used in irradiation of foods and seeds.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 11.5um image of NGC 835 (Gonzalez-Martin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Espaza Arredondo, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared imaging of NGC 835. This nucleus was observed with Canari-cam/GTC on 23 September 2014. Images were taken using the Si5 filter (at 11.5um with an effective width of 0.9um) in two separate observing blocks with a total on-source time of 993s. (2 data files).

  18. Phase relation of CaSO4 at high pressure and temperature up to 90 GPa and 2300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Taku; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Inoue, Toru

    2016-05-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), one of the major sulfate minerals in the Earth's crust, is expected to play a major role in sulfur recycling into the deep mantle. Here, we investigated the crystal structure and phase relation of CaSO4 up to ~90 GPa and 2300 K through a series of high-pressure experiments combined with in situ X-ray diffraction. CaSO4 forms three thermodynamically stable polymorphs: anhydrite (stable below 3 GPa), monazite-type phase (stable between 3 and ~13 GPa) and barite-type phase (stable up to at least 93 GPa). Anhydrite to monazite-type phase transition is induced by pressure even at room temperature, while monazite- to barite-type transition requires heating at least to 1500 K at ~20 GPa. The barite-type phase cannot always be quenched from high temperature and is distorted to metastable AgMnO4-type structure or another modified barite structure depending on pressure. We obtained the pressure-volume data and density of anhydrite, monazite- and barite-type phases and found that their densities are lower than those calculated from the PREM model in the studied P-T conditions. This suggests that CaSO4 is gravitationally unstable in the mantle and fluid/melt phase into which sulfur dissolves and/or sulfate-sulfide speciation may play a major role in the sulfur recycling into the deep Earth.

  19. High energy electron beams characterization using CaSO4:Dy+PTFE phosphors for clinical therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Rivera, T; Espinoza, A; Von, S M; Alvarez, R; Jiménez, Y

    2012-07-01

    In the present work high energy electron beam dosimetry from linear accelerator (LINACs) for clinical applications using dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO4:Dy+PTFE) was studied. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) Varian, CLINAC 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions (EEC). Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electrons beams irradiations. The TL response of the pellets showed an intensity peak centered at around 215 °C. TL response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. PMID:22182630

  20. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  1. Isoalantolactone Inhibits UM-SCC-10A Cell Growth via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minjun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jiehua; Weng, Zhiyong; Li, Chenyuan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Fu; Li, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC. PMID:24098753

  2. Thermoluminescent characteristics of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Dy for low dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Del Sol Fernández, S; García-Salcedo, R; Mendoza, J Guzmán; Sánchez-Guzmán, D; Rodríguez, G Ramírez; Gaona, E; Montalvo, T Rivera

    2016-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics for LiF:Mg, Cu, P, and CaSO4:Dy under the homogeneous field of X-ray beams of diagnostic irradiation and its verification using thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. The irradiation were performed utilizing a conventional X-ray equipment installed at the Hospital Juárez Norte of México. Different thermoluminescence characteristics of two material were studied, such as batch homogeneity, glow curve, linearity, detection threshold, reproducibility, relative sensitivity and fading. Materials were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to the standard calibration distance and they were positioned in a generic phantom. The dose analysis, verification and comparison with the measurements obtained by the TLD-100 were performed. Results indicate that the dosimetric peak appears at 202°C and 277.5°C for LiF:Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Dy, respectively. TL response as a function of X-ray dose showed a linearity behavior in the very low dose range for all materials. However, the TLD-100 is not accurate for measurements below 4mGy. CaSO4:Dy is 80% more sensitive than TLD-100 and it show the lowest detection threshold, whereas LiF:Mg, Cu, P is 60% more sensitive than TLD-100. All materials showed very good repeatability. Fading for a period of one month at room temperature showed low fading LiF:Mg, Cu, P, medium and high for TLD-100 and CaSO4:Dy. The results suggest that CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg, Cu, P are suitable for measurements at low doses used in radiodiagnostic. PMID:26922395

  3. Shock induced vaporization of anhydrite CaSO4 and calcite CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Yang, Wenbo

    2000-04-01

    Discovery of abundant anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) in the otherwise carbonate sediments comprising the upper portion of the rocks contained within the Chicxulub impact crater has prompted research on the shock-induced vaporization of these minerals. We use a vaporization criterion determined by shock-induced entropy. We reanalyze the shock wave experiments of Yang [1]. He shocked 30% porous anhydrite and 46% porous calcite. Post-shock adiabatic expansion of the sample across a 5 mm-thick gap and then impact upon an aluminum witness plate backed by LiF window that is monitored with a VISAR. Reanalysis uses Herrman's P-α model [2] for porous materials, and a realistic interpolation gas equation-of-state for vaporization products. Derived values of the entropies for incipient and complete vaporization for anhydrite are 1.65±0.12 and 3.17±0.12 kJ(kg.K)-1, and for calcite these are 0.99±0.11 and 1.93±0.11 kJ(kg.K)-1. Corresponding pressures for incipient and complete vaporization along the Hugoniot of non-porous anhydrite are 32.5±2.5 and 122±13 GPa and for non-porous calcite are 17.8±2.9 and 54.1±5.3 GPa, respectively. These pressures are a factor of 2-3 lower than reported earlier by Yang.

  4. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  5. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800246

  6. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  7. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  8. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  9. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, Julie E; Hernández-León, Rocio; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Santoyo, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270 was isolated form the rhizosphere of wild Medicago spp. A previous work has shown that this pseudomonad isolate was able to produce diverse diffusible and volatile compounds involved in plant protection and growth promotion. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens strain UM270. The sequence covers 6,047,974 bp of a single chromosome, with 62.66 % G + C content and no plasmids. Genome annotations predicted 5,509 genes, 5,396 coding genes, 59 RNA genes and 110 pseudogenes. Genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in biological control and plant-growth promoting activities. We anticipate that the P. fluorescens strain UM270 genome will contribute insights about bacterial plant protection and beneficial properties through genomic comparisons among fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:26767092

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium. PMID:25417557

  12. Localization of the 5f level across the UM 5-xT x series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoł; nierek, Z̵.; Troc, R.; Tran, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    We review the results of bulk measurements on selected pseudoternary compounds within the UM 5- xT x system where M = Cu, Ni and Pt, and T = Ag, Au, Pd and Ir. These ternary compounds crystallize in the cubic AuBe 5 crystal structure. The results obtained on about 20 specimens clearly show that the 5f-localization of the uranium depends on the degree of f-d and/or f-s hybridization. The strength of the hybridization is a function of the concentration of s- and d-conduction electrons and is controlled chemically by the extent of the “M 5- xT x” alloying.

  13. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of high purity CaSO4:Dy TL material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Nadira; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Dollah, Mohd Taufik

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the characterization and TL properties of dysprosium (Dy) doped calcium sulfate (CaSO4) TL material produced by co-precipitation technique with 0.5mol% concentration of dopant. The morphology of the produced TL material was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the micrograph shows that rectangular parallelepiped shaped crystal with the average of 150 μm in length were produced. The crystallinity of the produced powder was studied using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD spectra show that the TL material produced is high purity anhydrite CaSO4 with average crystallite size of 74 nm with orthorhombic crystal system. The TL behavior of produced CaSO4:Dy was studied using a TLD reader after exposure to gamma ray by Co60 source with the doses of 1,5 and 10 Gy. The glow curve shows linear response with glow peak around 230°C which is desired development in the field of radiation dosimetry.

  14. Nano-fibrin stabilized CaSO4 crystals incorporated injectable chitin composite hydrogel for enhanced angiogenesis & osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, R; Sivashanmugam, A; Deepthi, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2016-04-20

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), an excellent biodegradable bone forming agent that is an ideal choice as additive in gels, however, its disadvantage being poor gel rheology and angiogenesis. Here, we have synthesized chitin-CaSO4-nano-fibrin based injectable gel system which shows improved rheology and angiogenic potential. Rheological studies showed that the composite gel was a shear thinning gel with elastic modulus of 15.4±0.275kPa; a 1.67 fold increase over chitin control. SEM and XRD analyses revealed the effect of nano-fibrin (nFibrin) in transforming CaSO4 crystal shape from needle to hexagonal. It also masked the retarding effect of CaSO4 towards in vitro early cell attachment and angiogenesis using rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) and HUVECs, respectively. rASCs osteogenesis was confirmed by spectrophotometric endpoint assay, which showed 6-fold early increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and immuno-cytochemistry analysis. These in vitro results highlight the potential of injectable chitin-CaSO4-nFibrin gel for osteo-regeneration via enhanced angiogenesis. PMID:26876838

  15. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R

    2013-01-01

    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning. PMID:23528326

  16. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  17. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  18. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  19. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  20. Energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD disk dosimeters to photons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Sharada, K S

    1983-01-01

    The photon energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon disk dosimeters used widely in radiation dosimetry is computed using the energy absorption coefficient values for calcium, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon taken from J. H. Hubbell's tables. For fluorine, the energy absorption coefficients were obtained from the values given by F. H. Attix for CaF2 and Ca. The energy response of the radiation-monitoring disk for the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV, relative to air, is computed and plotted. The response is maximum between 20 and 30 keV and then gradually falls to a constant at 200 keV to 10 MeV. This computed response for different energies is compared with the experimental TL response of the dosimeter. The electron energy response of these TLD disks is computed using the stopping-power values for the different component elements. The electron stopping power for sulfur and calcium from 10 keV to 10 MeV is computed using the Bethe-Bloch formula. Those for oxygen and carbon are taken from the tables given by M. J. Berger and S. M. Seltzer. For fluorine, the values are computed from those for Li and LiF given in the same tables. This calculated response is compared with the experimental beta response of the TL dosimeter. PMID:6823508

  1. Raman spectra of the different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-10-21

    Although it is known that the CaSO4/H2O system is formed by at least five different phases, this fact is not correctly documented in Raman spectroscopy studies. The main problem detected in the literature was the incorrect definition of the anhydrite, which produced the assignation of different spectra for a single compound. In this sense, two different spectra were clearly identified from the bibliography, which showed different main Raman bands at 1017 or 1025 cm(-1), although anhydrite could be present even as three different polymorphous species with different structures. A better understanding of the whole system obtained from a review of the literature allowed new conclusions to be established. Thanks to that revision and the development of different thermodynamical experiments by Raman spectroscopy, the Raman spectra of each phase were successfully identified for the first time. In this way, the main Raman bands of gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite III, anhydrite II and anhydrite I were identified at 1008, 1015, 1025, 1017 and 1017 cm(-1), respectively. To conclude this work, the contradictions found in literature were critically summarized. PMID:25226433

  2. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. PMID:27514485

  3. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  4. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These

  5. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation. PMID:26761288

  6. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  7. Evaluation of natural radionuclides at Um-Greifat area, eastern desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nada, A

    2003-02-01

    Air borne radiometric maps and remote sensing techniques were used to explore for the occurrence of radioactive materials. The previous techniques recorded radioactive mineralization for the first time along the NW-SE trending fault zones within the Miocene clastic-carbonate sediments. In the present study, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of this mineralization. Concentrations of radionuclides, associated within the iron ochre at Um-Greifat area, have been measured, using a hyper-pure germanium spectrometer. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into A, B and C regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. In region A, average concentration in Bqkg(-1) has been observed to range from 1858 to 4062 for 238U, between 29 and 151 for 232Th, from 60 to 136 for 235U and between 46 and 409 Bqkg(-1) for 40K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) in addition to external and internal hazard indices (H(ex), H(in)) have also been determined. Ra(eq) varies between 1901 and 4307Bqkg(-1), which exceeds the permitted value (370Bqkg(-1)) and H(ex) and H(in) are higher than 1. The high activity concentration within region A points to an environmental hazard, while regions B and C have less exposure effect on human beings. PMID:12573328

  8. An evaluation of China's water cycle in the MetUM-GC2 coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Marzin, Charline

    2015-04-01

    There is a general consensus in climate projections that the global hydrological cycle is likely to experience significant changes in the future, in response to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. At the regional scale, model simulations show large variations in the predictions of changes in the components of the water cycle. Increasing confidence in regional prediction of the water cycle is at the top of the NWP and climate research agenda, requiring a comprehensive evaluation of the physical processes which may play an important role. Here we present preliminary results of an evaluation of the capacity of the MetUM-GC2 coupled model to reproduce the characteristics of the water cycle in the region of China. Using water budget techniques in the atmospheric and terrestrial branches we test the water cycle components and the model's ability to replicate the climatological annual cycle and its interannual variability. Recent drought and flood events are evaluated and various metrics are employed to compare the role played by the atmospheric general circulation including the boreal summer and winter monsoon regimes and soil moisture feedback in model and observations.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  10. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  12. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  13. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  14. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  15. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  16. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  17. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  18. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  19. Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)/surface interaction and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Domenech, Marc; Foissy, Alain; Persello, Jacques; Mutin, Jean-Claude

    2000-12-01

    The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions. The specific interaction of PANa with gypsum can explain the oriented growth of gypsum crystal. The gypsum growth is slowed down but cannot be blocked by the adsorption of PANa. On the other hand, PANa can block the heterogeneous and homogenous gypsum nucleation. As soon as a critical surface density of PANa onto the hemihydrate surface is reached, the heterogeneous gypsum nucleation is prevented and hemihydrate hydration is indefinitely blocked. The interaction between PANa and the hemihydrate surface is of prime importance to control hydration. Also, the influence of the molecular weight of PANa on homogenous nucleation has been investigated. The precipitation of calcium polyacrylate can explain the differences between the two molecular weights used (2100 and 20 000). This work leads to the conclusion that heterogeneous nucleation is the key process that controls hydration of a system in which hemihydrate dissolution, gypsum nucleation and growth are all occurring at the same time in a continuous manner.

  20. Impact-induced devolatilization of CaSO4 anhydrite and implications for K-T extinctions: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent suggestions that the target area for the K-T bolide may have been a sulfate-rich evaporite and that the resulting sulfuric acid-rich aerosol was responsible for the subsequent cooling of the Earth and the resulting biological extinctions has prompted us to experimentally examine the impact-induced devolatization of the sulfate minerals anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4(2H2O)). Preliminary results for anhydrite are reported. Up to 42 GPa peak shock pressure, little or no devolatilization occurs, consistent with chemical thermodynamic calculations. Calculation of the influence of the partial pressure of the gas species on impact-induced devolatilization suggests that an even greater amount of sulfur than that proposed by Brett could have been released to the atmosphere by an impact into a sulfate-rich layer. Solid recovery, impact-induced devolatilization experiments were performed on the Caltech 20mm gun using vented, stainless steel sample assemblies.

  1. Soluble minerals in chemical evolution. I - Adsorption of 5-prime-AMP on CaSO4 - A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Chan, S.; Calderon, J.; Lahav, N.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-prime-AMP onto solid CaSO4-2H2O was studied in a saturated suspension as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration. The adsorption is pH-dependent and is directly correlated with the charge on the 5-prime-AMP molecule which is determined by the state of protonation of the N-1 nitrogen of the purine ring and the phosphate oxygens. It is proposed that the binding that occurs between the nucleotide and the salt is electrostatic in nature. The adsorption decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution which means that in a fluctuating environment of wetting and drying cycles, a biomolecule similar to 5-prime-AMP could be expected to desorb during the drying phase. The results indicate that CaSO4-2H2O can serve as a concentrating surface for biomolecules. The significance of this is discussed with regard to the possible role of soluble minerals and their surfaces in a geochemical model consistent with the evolution of the earth and the origin of life.

  2. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  3. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  4. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  5. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  6. Community Structure and Activity of a Highly Dynamic and Nutrient-Limited Hypersaline Microbial Mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M.; Shaikh, Ismail Al; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1–L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%–42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%–97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  7. Pneumatocele selar a tensión: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damián; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El neumoencéfalo a tensión luego de la cirugía transesfenoidal es poco común. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artículo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensión de presentación tardía. Descripción del caso: Una mujer de 57 años consultó por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le había realizado una cirugía transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le había colocado una derivación lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Además, se le había realizado una resección transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirugía debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llevó a cabo una resonancia magnética que demostró un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervención: Se realizó un abordaje transciliar. La región selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abrió la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despuós del procedimiento, su campo visual retornó a la normalidad. Un año después de su última cirugía, continua asintomática. Conclusión: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensión es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirugía transesfenoidal. Su manifestaciónw clínica sería la alteración visual debida a la compresión inferior de la vía óptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensión debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  8. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  9. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  10. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  11. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid metamorphic complex, Sinai, Egypt: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky

    2013-08-01

    The Um Zariq and Malhaq formations occupy roughly the northern half of the Kid metamorphic complex of SE Sinai, in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an old sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813 ± 6 Ma), whereas the Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma). The Um Zariq Formation is mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists, while the Malhaq Formation comprises a series of structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded with mica-rich phyllites and schists. The Um Zariq metasediments are depleted in SiO2, CaO and K2O and enriched in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of the Malhaq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. The source rocks of the Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of the Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq Formation metasediments. They are collectively geochemically immature and have suffered minor sedimentary recycling, with the experience of the Malhaq Formation metasediments from higher degree of sorting and reworking. The Malhaq and Um Zariq metasediments were originally deposited in a continental arc setting, most probably back

  12. Quantitation of deposition, clearance and routes of elimination of 3 um insoluble particles in the sheep lung

    SciTech Connect

    Langenback, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    This study is the first to completely determine the number of particles deposited in the lung, the number of particles cleared over a period of a hundred days and the pathways by which the particles exit the lungs. The study uses long lived radioactively (/sup 57/Co) tagged 3 um insoluble polystyrene particles to follow clearance in a sheep animal model. Particle clearance was characterized by 4 phases. Periodic sacrifice and autopsy showed no particle accumulation in regional lymph nodes draining the lung and no particle accumulation in the liver, spleen or kidneys. Urine and blood samples throughout clearance were devoid of particles, but fecal excretion of particles matched lung elimination of particles and mirrored clearance closely. Thus the avenues of long-term clearance of a 3 um polystrene particle has been established from the alveolar portion of the lung: virtually all particles cleared in 101 days were removed by transport from the alveoli to the mucociliary escalator, either as free particles and/or associated with macrophages and subsequently swallowed and excreted. Particles remaining in the lungs after 101 days continued to be cleared from the lungs via the mucociliary escalator with a t/sub 1/2/ = 38 days. This suggests that particles leave a sequestered state, re-enter the airways and are cleared.

  13. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  14. Reducing Striping and Near Field Response Influence in the MODIS 1.38um Cirrus Detection Band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Moeller, C. C.; Frey, R. A.; Gumley, L. E.; Menzel, W. P.

    2002-05-01

    Since first light in February 2000, the MODIS L1B data from Terra has exhibited detector striping in the cirrus detection band at 1.38 um (B26). This band's unique characteristic is that it is potentially able to discriminate very thin cirrus (optical depth of 0.1) because water vapor absorption effectively attenuates the upwelling signal from the earth's surface, leaving a flat dark background underneath the thin cirrus. The striping has diminished the power of this band for detecting thin cirrus in the MODIS Cloud Mask (MOD35) over the global environment by imparting a structure on the background. The striping amplitude (valley to peak) is 10 - 15% of the MODIS Ltyp radiance in B26 over land backgrounds, thus exceeding the 5% radiance prelaunch accuracy specification for the band. Also unexpected has been the presence of earth surface reflectance in B26. Forward model calculations indicate that the two-way transmittance of B26 in-band (1% to 1% response) should be < .003 when total precipitable water (TPW) exceeds about 12 mm. However, MODIS B26 imagery has routinely shown land surface reflectance, such as Florida, even in very moist (TPW > 30 mm) tropical air masses. MODIS prelaunch test data suggests that a near field response (NFR) at about 1.3 um in the B26 filter may be contributing to this behavior. A destriping and out-of-band correction algorithm has been under development at the University of Wisconsin to address the these issues. The simple linear algorithm is based on tuning detector dependent influence coefficients for B26 as a function of B5 (1.24 um) radiance so that the corrected B26 radiance is near zero for all B26 detectors in moist atmospheric conditions. B5 was chosen as a surrogate to characterize the NFR leak in the B26 filter because of its close spectral proximity to the NFR leak. Real MODIS L1B data is being used to estimate the influence coefficients. The paper will describe the B5 based destriping and NFR correction algorithm and

  15. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  16. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  17. An Investigation of the Adsorption Characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the Surface of Caso4 x 2H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, J.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    A model has been proposed in which solid surfaces can act as a site for cataletic activity of condensation reactions for certain biomolecules. From this model, the adsorption characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the surface of CaSO4.2H2O was chosen for study. It has been proven that 5'ATP and 5'AMP do adsorb onto the surface of CaSO4. Studies were then made to determine the dependence of absorption versus time, concentration, ionic strength and pH. It was found that the adsorption of the nucleotides is highly pH dependent, primarily determined by the phosphate acid groups of the nucleic acid molecule. From this investigation, the data obtained is discussed in relation to the model for the prebiotic earth.

  18. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  19. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  20. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  1. Descompresión microvascular en espasmo hemifacial: Reporte de 13 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Herreros, Isabel Cuervo-Arango; Barrenechea, Ignacio; Andjel, Germán; Ajler, Pablo; Rhoton, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de espasmo hemifacial (EHF), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde Junio de 2005 a Mayo de 2014, 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de EHF fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente, realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la sintomatología, hallazgos intraoperatorios y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 13 pacientes intervenidos, 7 fueron mujeres y 6 varones. La media de edad fue de 53 años. El tiempo medio entre el inicio de la sintomatología y la intervención quirúrgica osciló entre 3 y 9 años. En todos los casos el EHF era típico, uno de ellos con neuralgia trigeminal concomitante, observándose en todos compresión neurovascular intraoperatoria. Por orden decreciente de frecuencia la causa de la compresión fue arteria cerebelosa anteroinferior, arteria cerebelosa posteroinferior, arteria dolicomega basilar y arteria dolicomega vertebral. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 24 meses. El 62% presentó desaparición postquirúrgica inmediata de la sintomatología preoperatoria, el 30% desaparición tras un período de 3 semanas a 2 meses (8% con mejoría parcial), y en el 8% no hubo mejoría. En cuanto a las complicaciones postoperatorias: 3 pacientes presentaron paresia facial II-III en la escala de House-Brackman (se recuperaron en un período de 6 meses), y 1 paciente presentó fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Ninguno de los pacientes de la serie presentaron hipoacusia transitorio o permanente. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento del EHF es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro, que permite la resolución completa de la patología en la mayoría de los casos. PMID:27127708

  2. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  4. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Z.

    2013-04-01

    The Kid Metamorphic Complex of SE Sinai represents a thick volcano-sedimentary succession that underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The Malhaq and Um Zariq Formations, the target of this study, occupy roughly the northern half of this complex. The Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma), whereas Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an older sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6 Ma). The Malhaq Formation comprises a series of dark gray structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded and intercalated with fine- to medium-grained foliated mica-rich phyllites and schists, while the Um Zariq Formation is a dominantly metasedimentary sequence, mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists. Malhaq metasediments are enriched in SiO2, CaO and K2O and depleted in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of Um Zariq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies in all samples, and general enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. Geochemical investigations have revealed that the source rocks of Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq

  5. X- and gamma-ray response of the TLD badge based on CaSO4:Dy Teflon TLD discs.

    PubMed

    Vohra, K G; Pradhan, A S; Bhatt, R C

    1982-09-01

    A TLD badge based on CaSO4: Dy Teflon TLD discs has been designed for personnel monitoring of radiation workers encountering X-rays of effective energies above 20 keV. The badge had two Teflon TLD discs, one of which is used bare (without any filter) and other which is used with a metal filter. By taking into account the TL readout of both of these discs, the problems of photon energy dependence as well as directional dependence of the badge have been reduced to a minimum. The uncertainty due to photon energy dependence above 29 KeV (eff.) was found to be within a value of +/- 15% (at an angle of incidence of 45 degrees). The directional dependence of the badge is within +/- 30% in the energy range from 35 KeV to 1.25 MeV. The badge is designed so as to provide approximate information on the effective photon energy of the X-ray exposures. PMID:7174332

  6. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  7. Modification of a stented bovine jugular vein conduit (melody valve) for surgical mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ibrahim; Ramirez, Francisco Boye; McElhinney, Doff B; Lock, James E; del Nido, Pedro J; Emani, Sitaram

    2012-10-01

    We report the use of a Melody valve as a surgical implant in the mitral position in 2 infants, one with severe mitral regurgitation and another with mitral stenosis, where other prostheses are not small enough to be implanted in the mitral position nor expandable as the child grows. PMID:23006723

  8. Bovine valved jugular vein (Contegra) to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Thierry

    2004-09-01

    The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is the part of the circulation located between the right ventricle and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. The most cranial part of the right ventriculum infundibulum, the pulmonary anulus, the valve and finally the main trunk of the pulmonary artery are the most important structures. The RVOT is frequently affected in congenital heart diseases, either isolated, or in combination with other cardiac malformations. Current techniques for surgical correction of anomalies of the RVOT include repair and/or replacement of the pulmonary valve often combined with sub- or supravalvular reconstruction. The use of extracardiac conduits (homografts, stented or stentless xenografts) to re-establish continuity between the pulmonary ventricle and pulmonary artery has been an important advance in repair of complex congenital malformations. The Contegra (Medtronic) conduit was introduced as a xenograft tissue for RVOT reconstruction. This conduit has some advantages over homografts including availability for pediatric and adult patient sizes and proximal and distal cuffs allowing for extended reconstruction. The principal late problem related to extracardiac conduit operations is the inevitable need for one or more conduit replacements due to patient somatic growth or progressive conduit degeneration and calcification leading to stenosis. PMID:16293006

  9. Head and neck emergencies: bacterial meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess, upper airway obstruction, and jugular septic thrombophlebitis.

    PubMed

    Derber, Catherine J; Troy, Stephanie B

    2012-11-01

    Head and neck infectious disease emergencies can be rapidly fatal without prompt recognition and treatment. Empiric intravenous (IV) antibiotics should be initiated immediately in any patient with suspected bacterial meningitis, and IV acyclovir in any patient with suspected encephalitis. Surgical intervention is often necessary for brain abscesses, epiglottitis, and Ludwig's angina. A high index of suspicion is often needed to diagnose epiglottitis, Ludwig's angina, and Lemierre's syndrome. Brain infections can have high morbidity among survivors. In this article, the causes, diagnostic tests, treatment, and prognosis are reviewed for some of the more common head and neck infectious disease emergencies. PMID:23102480

  10. Trigeminus stereoguide: an instrument for stereotactic approach through the foramen ovale and foramen jugulare.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, L V

    1984-11-01

    The author describes a new, fully stereotactic instrument for the percutaneous treatment of tic douloureux. The principle is to place the instrument in such a position around the patient's head that the foramen ovale lies at the midpoint for a spherical system consisting of a cylinder part and a 90 degrees arch with an electrode carrier. The foramen can then be reached from a suitable bone-free direction, either through the cheek or inframandibularly. The position of the foramen ovale is calculated from lateral and axial radiograms and defined with x, y, and z coordinates. The instrument can also be used for the percutaneous treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. PMID:6387985

  11. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  12. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  13. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed. PMID:26624774

  14. The UmGcn5 gene encoding histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis is involved in dimorphism and virulence.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Juan Manuel; Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Domínguez, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2014-10-01

    We isolated a gene encoding a histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda., which is orthologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN5 gene. The gene was isolated from genomic clones identified by their specific hybridization to a gene fragment obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This gene (Umgcn5; um05168) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1421bp that encodes a putative protein of 473 amino acids with a Mr. of 52.6kDa. The protein exhibits a high degree of homology with histone acetyltransferases from different organisms. Null a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were constructed by substitution of the region encoding the catalytic site with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. Null a1b1 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were isolated from genetic crosses of a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 and a1b1 wild-type strains in maize. Mutants displayed a slight reduction in growth rate under different conditions, and were more sensitive than the wild type to stress conditions, but more important, they grew as long mycelial cells, and formed fuzz-like colonies under all conditions where wild-type strains grew in the yeast-like morphology and formed smooth colonies. This phenotype was not reverted by cAMP addition. Mutants were not virulent to maize plants, and were unable to form teliospores. These phenotypic alterations of the mutants were reverted by their transformation with the wild-type gene. PMID:25242418

  15. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  16. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  17. Intensity variation study of the radiation field in a mammographic system using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD-900 (CaSO4:Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, E. L.; Silva, J. O.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M. P. A.; Daros, K. A. C.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the results of the intensity variation of the radiation field in a mammographic system using the thermoluminescent dosimeter TLD-900 (CaSO4:Dy). These TLDs were calibrated and characterized in an industrial X-ray system used for instruments calibration, in the energy range used in mammography. They were distributed in a matrix of 19 lines and five columns, covering an area of 18 cm×8 cm in the center of the radiation field on the clinical equipment. The results showed a variation of the intensity probably explained by the non-uniformity of the field due to the heel effect.

  18. The Workload of the UMS Faculty. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report provides the results of a study of faculty workloads in the University of Maryland System (UMS) during the 1994-95 academic year. It was found that 19,446 course units were taught by full-time (FT) faculty at degree-granting institutions, an increase of 158 course units from the previous year while the number of FT faculty decreased by…

  19. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  20. Magnetic removal of electron contamination for 60Co panoramic gamma ray exposure--Investigations with CaSO4:Dy and LiF based dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munish; Sahani, G; Chourasiya, G

    2010-06-01

    Electron contamination from a sealed (60)Co radiation source has been investigated comprehensively using a CaSO(4):Dy based TLD badge and LiF crystals. It has been found that due to electron contamination, the thermoluminescence (TL) detectors exhibit over response which can be corrected by applying a magnetic field. It has also been found that for a source-to-dosimeter distance of 50 cm, the ratio of the TL readouts of the third to first discs of the TLD badge reduces from approximately 1.5 to approximately 1.00 after applying a magnetic field. Hence detectors which are sensitive to electrons as well as photons, and are capable of distinguishing them, can lead to an erroneous measurement. This happens because the contribution due to electron contamination interferes with pure gamma calibration. The study is helpful in establishing accurate calibration and appropriate correction factors for personnel monitoring carried out using CaSO(4):Dy based TLD badge. PMID:20071190

  1. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  2. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  3. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3.6um S4G Galactic bars characterization (Diaz-Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Garcia, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    decomposition model ('rotationcurve_decomposition.dat'), with the stellar component inferred from the 3.6~um imaging and the halo component estimated using the universal rotation curve models). (5 data files).

  5. Performance of immersion lithography for 45-nm-node CMOS and ultra-high density SRAM with 0.25um2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimotogi, Shoji; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tominaga, Makoto; Fujise, Hiroharu; Sho, Koutaro; Katsumata, Mikio; Hane, Hiroki; Ikegami, Atsushi; Nagahara, Seiji; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Asano, Masafumi; Kanai, Hideki; Kimura, Taiki; Iwai, Masaaki

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography was applied to 45nm node logic and 0.25um2 ultra-high density SRAM. The predictable enhancement of focus margin and resolution were obtained for all levels which were exposed by immersion tool. In particular, the immersion lithography enabled to apply the attenuating phase shift mask to the gate level. The enough lithography margin for the alternating phase shift mask was also obtained by using not only immersion tool but also dry tool for gate level. The immersion lithography shrunk the minimum hole pitch from 160nm to 140nm. Thus, the design rule for 45nm node became available by using immersion lithography.

  6. Dosimetric properties and stability of thermoluminescent foils made from LiF:Mg,Cu,P or CaSO4:Dy during long-term use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłosowski, M.; Liszka, M.; Kopeć, R.; Bilski, P.; Kędzierska, D.

    2014-11-01

    A few dosimetric systems based on thermoluminescence [TL] foils were developed in recent years (Nariyama et al. 2006, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120, 213-218; Olko et al. 2006 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 118, 213-218) (Czopyk et al. 2008, Radiat. Meas., 43, 977-980; Kłosowski et al. 2010, Radiat. Meas., 45, 719-721; Kopeć et al. 2013, Radiat.Meas., 56, 380-383). Major application of these systems is mapping of 2D dose distribution for medical treatment plan verification, similarly to photochromic or radiochromic films. The advantage of TL foils compared to other films is their re-usability. In this work we present dosimetric properties as dose linearity and fadding of the foils made from LiF:Mg,Cu,P or CaSO4:Dy phosphors and high temperature polymers. Both types of the foils have good linearity in the range 1-20 Gy for LiF:Mg,Cu,P and 0.1-2 Gy for CaSO4:Dy. Their long term fading does not exceed 3.7% and 9% respectively. We additionally investigated effects of sensitivity loss and emission spectra for both types of the foils. One shortcoming of TL foils is that every heat process may have negative influence on their properties, causing changes of their sensitivity. Register signal of the foils after 15 readouts may be reduced by 16% of the initial. We consider that the main reason of these changes is oxidation of organic contamination on the surface and degradation of a polymer which is one of the components of the foils. Effect of sensitivity decreasing may be slowed down by proper use and cleaning detectors by solvent.

  7. An investigation of the adsorption characteristics of 5 prime ATP and 5 prime AMP onto the surface of CaSO sub 4 x 2H sub 2 O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, J.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been proposed (Lahev and Chans, 1982) in which solid surfaces can act as a site for catalytic activity of condensation reactions for certain biomolecules. From this model, the adsorption characteristics of 5'ATP and 5'AMP onto the surface of CaSO4 2H2O was chosen for study. It has been proven that 5'ATP and 5'AMP do adsorb onto the surface of CaSO4. Studies were then made to determine the dependence of adsorption versus time, concentration, ionic strength and pH. It was found that the adsorption of the nucleotides is highly pH dependent, primarily determined by the phosphate acid groups of the nucleic acid molecule. From this investigation, the data obtained are discussed in relation to the model for the prebiotic earth.

  8. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  9. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  10. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  11. Determination of self attenuation coefficient and relative TL efficiency of CaSO 4 :Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs - An alternate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V. J.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO 4:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO 4:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO 4:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm -1, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.

  12. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  13. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  14. Microwave-promoted pure host phase for red emission CaS:Eu2+ phosphor from single CaSO4 precursor and the photoluminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Qi-Fei; Wang, Yan-Ze; Lu, Zhi-Juan; Sun, Liang; Dong, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Da-Jian

    2014-08-01

    We report a novel approach to obtaining a classical blue-green excitable CaS:Eu2+ phosphor with desired red emission by microwave (MW) firing procedure in the absence of adding elemental sulphur. The disturbing effect of MW electromagnetic field on decomposition of CaSO4 into CaS activated by europium is distinctly observed to give pure host phase without adding any elemental sulphur and carbon. The host phase evolution is observed to be highly dependent on the variation of applied MW power from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL), and a maximum PL intensity at 1100 W of MW power is acquired for the obtained purer host phase. The non-thermal and non-equilibrium effects by MW are revealed to correlate with the interaction between polar structure of the host and applied electromagnetic field. The results demonstrate an optional procedure to prepare this red-emitting phosphor in an effective, environment-friendly and scalable approach for phosphor production in the application of bio-illumination for plant cultivation and artificial photosynthesis.

  15. Development of a technique for improving coefficient of variation of CaSO4:Dy teflon-based TLD personnel monitoring system in low-dose region.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S M; Sneha, C; Sahai, M K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2015-12-01

    In view of the importance of zero-dose background (null signal) in influencing the coefficient of variation in low-dose region, a technique for the estimation of the same from composite (gross) signal is developed for CaSO4:Dy-based personnel monitoring system being used in India. The technique is based on simple analysis of glow curves (GCs) of unexposed and exposed dosemeters, evolution of trend/model for the zero-dose curves, generation of simulation protocol for individual zero-dose curves, establishment of characteristics of GCs of exposed dosemeters and finally preparation of an algorithm to segregate the components from composite signal. The technique offers the separation of real-time background and gives superior results over other method of approximation of the background. The results also prove efficiency of the empirical trending and simulation protocol of background GCs. The proposed technique can be implemented in routine monitoring without any extra man hours and reader time. PMID:25527179

  16. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  17. Shock induced reaction in Chicxulub target materials (CaSO4 and SiO2) and their relation to extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The global platinum element rich layer, the presence of shocked quartz grains (in some cases with stishovite), and the observation of a tektite-rich layer, precisely at the K-T boundary, are the three major arguments for the extinction bolide impact hypothesis of Alvarez et al. Tektites (spherules) from Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico received particular interest because of their geological proximity to the Chicxulub impact structure, which is a leading candidate for at least one of the K-T impact craters. Although in most localities the original glass has weathered to clay minerals, some shock-induced glass is found in outcrops and drill cores which is used for Ar-38/Ar-39 dating. The glassy tektites were found to be chemically similar and coeval at 65.0 Ma with Chicxulub melt rock. Two kinds of K-T spherules were discovered: (1) a silic black glass; and (2) a yellow glass, enriched in Ca, Mg, and S. The high sulfur content of the glass and the abundance of anhydrite (CaSO4) in the carbonate-evaporite sequence observed in Drill Holes Y-1 and Y-2 at Chicxulub prompted studies of calcium sulfate devolatization. Further discussion of our experiments is presented.

  18. Descompresión microvascular en neuralgia del trigémino: Reporte de 36 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Abraham Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de neuralgia del trigémino (NT), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde junio de 2005 a mayo de 2012, 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de NT fueron operados por el primer autor (AC), realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: Edad, sexo, tiempo de sintomatología previo a la cirugía, hallazgos intraoperatorios (a través de los videos quirúrgicos), y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 36 pacientes operados, 25 fueron mujeres y 11 varones. El promedio de edad fue de 48 años. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 38 meses. De los 36 pacientes, 32 (88%) evolucionaron sin dolor hasta la fecha. De los 4 casos con recurrencia de dolor, en dos pacientes se observó como hallazgo intraoperatorio un conflicto venoso. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento de la NT es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro. El hallazgo intraoperatorio de una “compresión” venosa podría indicar una evolución postoperatoria desfavorable. PMID:25379343

  19. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  20. Aneurysmal dilatation of the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit after reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Delmo-Walter, Eva Maria; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Meyer, Rudolf; Hetzer, Roland

    2007-02-01

    An aneurysm of a 14-mm Contegra bovine conduit 5 years after a total repair of tetralogy of Fallot was confirmed by echocardiography, angiography, and magnetic resonance tomography. The conduit was replaced. Histologic examination of the explanted conduit revealed an acellular homogenous material with occasional elastic fibers, fragile, diffuse and complex collagenization throughout the conduit and mild foreign body reaction. Pannus formed over the top of all commissures and on the conduit wall, with extensive mineralization. Close follow-up is seen as mandatory for early detection of the bovine vein conduit aneurysm, particularly in patients in whom small-sized conduits are implanted. PMID:17258016

  1. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  2. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  3. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  4. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Archibald, A. T.; Maycock, A. C.; Abraham, L.; Telford, P.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine theses scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impacts of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. Under a scenario for moderate climate change (RCP4.5), we find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the tropical upward mass flux at 70hPa of 17%), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of 9%) and 4) the tropospheric ozone burden decreases by 10% given mitigation of its precursor emissions but this is offset by climate change and stratospheric ozone recovery (9% and 6% increases in the burden respectively).

  5. Constraints on the distribution of CaSO4·nH2O phases on Mars and implications for their contribution to the hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kevin; Bish, David

    2013-03-01

    The stability of minerals in the CaSO4·nH2O system was investigated using a Bruker D8 X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with an environmental cell interfaced to a heating stage, low-temperature chiller, and relative humidity (RH) generator. This in situ analysis procedure allowed for precise monitoring of dehydration/hydration reactions over a range of PH2O values from 4 to 15,000 Pa. The formation of bassanite from gypsum was sluggish below 323 K and is unlikely to occur under current martian conditions over a diurnal/seasonal cycle from desiccation alone. Dehydration is possible on a localized scale in association with volcanic/impact events although temperatures of dehydration and rates of reaction depend on PH2O, particle size, sample thickness and heating rate. Analysis of anhydrite rehydration at 258 K suggests that if gypsum dehydration were to occur, bassanite would be observed on the martian surface under present low PH2O conditions. In addition, a stable bassanite phase could potentially cycle between n = 0.5 and n = 0.67 as a function of relative humidity (1-80%), resulting in a small flux of H2O between the atmosphere and the regolith over a diurnal cycle. Rehydration of bassanite to gypsum occurs only under conditions of 100%RH; therefore the presence of a bassanite phase on the surface of Mars can be used to help constrain paleoclimates. Low-temperature (258 K) XRD hydration experiments of bassanite resulted in the formation of gypsum in the presence of ice, suggesting that bassanite will not be present in association with H2O ice. This behavior could simulate a potential hydration mechanism on the martian surface at higher latitudes as well as at depth in association with subsurface ice at lower latitudes.

  6. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan

    2016-07-01

    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  7. Age-related Changes in Auditory Nerve – Inner Hair Cell Connections, Hair Cell Numbers, Auditory Brain Stem Response and Gap Detection in UM-HET4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, RA; Dolan, DF; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, DC; Miller, RA; Schacht, J

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in Gap Detection, the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons, and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell – auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in Gap Detection. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in gap detection, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of gap detection or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

  8. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

  9. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  10. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Antara; Maycock, Amanda; Archibald, Alexander; Telford, Paul; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine these scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impact of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. We find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson Circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the DJF 70hPa tropical upwards mass flux of ~20% at RCP4.5 and exceeding 30% at RCP8.5), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of ~10%) and 4) tropospheric ozone decreases given mitigation of its precursor emissions (with a 10% decrease in ozone burden) but this can be offset by climate change at both RCP4.5 and 8.5 and stratospheric ozone recovery (increasing the burden by 6-13%).

  11. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  12. Arsenic speciation in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O): A synchrotron XAS, single-crystal EPR, and pulsed ENDOR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinru; Chen, Ning; Nilges, Mark J.; Pan, Yuanming

    2013-04-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is a major by-product of mining and milling processes of borate, phosphate and uranium deposits worldwide and, therefore, potentially plays an important role in the stability and bioavailability of heavy metalloids, including As, in tailings and surrounding areas. Gypsum containing 1900 and 185 ppm As, synthesized with Na2HAsO4·7H2O and NaAsO2 in the starting materials, respectively, have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy (ENDOR). Quantitative analyses of As K edge XANES and EXAFS spectra show that arsenic occurs in both +3 and +5 oxidation states and the As3+/As5+ value varies from 0.35 to 0.79. Single-crystal EPR spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated gypsum reveal two types of arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO3]2- and an [AsO2]2-. The [AsO3]2- center is characterized by principal 75As hyperfine coupling constants of A1 = 1952.0(2) MHz, A2 = 1492.6(2) MHz and A3 = 1488.7(2) MHz, with the unique A axis along the S-O1 bond direction, and contains complex 1H superhyperfine structures that have been determined by pulsed ENDOR. These results suggest that the [AsO3]2- center formed from electron trapping on the central As5+ ion of a substitutional (AsO4)3- group after removal of an O1 atom. The [AsO2]2- center is characterized by its unique A(75As) axis approximately perpendicular to the O1-S-O2 plane and the A2 axis along the S-O2 bond direction, consistent with electron trapping on the central As3+ ion of a substitutional (AsO3)3- group after removal of an O2 atom. These results confirm lattice-bound As5+ and As3+ in gypsum and point to potential application of this mineral for immobilization and removal of arsenic pollution.

  13. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  14. [An accidental puncture of a small artery behind the internal jugular vein in real-time ultrasound-guided pediatric central venous cannulation].

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    A baby girl, 15-month-old, 75.6 cm in height, and 7.5 kg in weight, was scheduled to undergo ventricular septal defect repair. The right IJV, 3.0 mm in thickness and 7.0 mm in depth, was punctured to place a central venous catheter with a 19-mm-long 24G puncture needle. Non-pulsatile bright red blood appeared during the 15.8-mm-long needle insertion and dark red blood appeared during the 14.7-mm-long needle insertion. The vertebral artery, 3.9 mm in width, lay 14.1 mm in depth. The 15.8-mm-long needle inserted at a 45-degree angle could reach about 11.3 mm deep perpendicularly from the skin surface. The 14.7-mm-long needle inserted at a 45-degree angle reached about 10.4 mm, which is near the posterior wall of the IJV It seemed that a small artery behind the IJV was punctured mistakenly. In withdrawing blood from a cyanotic patient, it may be difficult to judge if the blood was arterial because it was non-pulsatile when it appeared. We should be careful to know the existence of small arteries behind IJVs and to confirm which vessels the returned blood comes from. PMID:23479923

  15. Necrotizing Fasciitis on the Right Side of the Neck with Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis and Septic Emboli: A Case of Lemierre's-Like Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dang; Yaacob, Yazmin; Hamid, Hamzaini; Muda, Sobri

    2013-10-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS. PMID:24643401

  16. A long term comparison between Denacol EX-313-treated bovine jugular vein graft and ultrafine polyester fiber graft for reconstruction of tight ventricular outflow tract in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Sugiyama, Shino; Shibazaki, Akira; Tanaka, Ryou; Takashima, Kazuaki; Noishiki, Yasuharu; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2003-03-01

    A Denacol EX-313 (Denacol)-treated bovine venous graft and an ultrafine polyester fiber (UFPF) graft were transplanted as patch graft into the right ventricular outflow tract under extracorporeal circulation in six dogs each experimentally. Hemodynamics in right heart and histological findings around the graft were compared between both groups over a period of one year after grafting. Pressure measurements and angiocardiography were performed through a cardiac catheter. Right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pessure, and right ventricle to pulmonary artery gradient were within normal limits in both groups at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 months or more after grafting. No difference were seen between the values for the Denacol and the UFPF group. Histologically, the medial surface at the site of grafting was covered with vascular endothelial cells at one month after grafting in both groups. The density of the vascular endothelial cells increased with time after grafting, showing no clear difference between the two groups. Subendothelial layers comprised of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and inflammatory cells decreased with time in both groups, but there was less cell infiltration in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all time points after grafting. In addition, the central cut thickness value of the graft tended to be thinner in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all observation time points after grafting. In the Denacol group, very slight metaplasia of cartilage was noted in a portion of the graft margin at six months or more after grafting, but no other abnormalities were observed. These results suggest that the Denacol-treated bovine venous graft has better grafting characteristics than the UFPF graft with easier intra-operative handlings and less tissue reactions after grafting. PMID:12679567

  17. [Massive endocardial thrombosis in a patient with a peritoneo-jugular shunt for refractory ascites: the therapeutic success of tissue plasminogen activator and defibrotide].

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, C; Pederzoli, S; Tamborrino, E; Grandi, M

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient with a refractory ascites due to extrahepatic portal thrombosis in course of idiopathic thrombocythemia. A peritoneovenous shunt was applied and as a late complication a massive thrombosis of the intracardiac portion of the duct developed. Thrombolysis was obtained with tissue plasminogen activator at doses usually administered for acute myocardial infarction. Prophylaxis of recurrence was pursued with pictomide and defibrotide. PMID:8079040

  18. Major Intrahepatic Veno-Venous Fistula after Fontan Operation Treated by Transcatheter Implantation of Amplatzer Septal Occluder through Internal Jugular Vein.

    PubMed

    Guzeltas, Alper; Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Saygi, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Six months after undergoing a Fontan operation, a 7-year-old boy with right atrial isomerism and a single functional ventricle was admitted to our emergency department with cyanosis. Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a large veno-venous fistula that began in a left hepatic vein, connected to the left accessory hepatic veins, and drained into the common atrium, resulting in desaturation. The fistula was occluded proximally with an Amplatzer septal occluder, with satisfying results; the patient's systemic arterial saturation decreased during his hospital stay. Three weeks after the first intervention, a second procedure was performed to retrieve the first device and to close the fistula distally. Multiple attempts with different types of gooseneck snares and a bioptome catheter failed to retrieve the first device, so a telescopic method was used to re-screw it. Using a Mullins long sheath and delivery sheath, the delivery cable was manipulated to fit into the slot of the end screw, and the cable was rotated gently in a clockwise direction to re-screw the device. Then, another Amplatzer septal occluder was placed at the distal end of the fistula. In conclusion, distal transcatheter occlusion of intrahepatic veno-venous fistulas might lead to better clinical outcomes in selected patients. Amplatzer septal occluder device can be retrieve without any complication within three weeks. PMID:27556319

  19. Necrotizing Fasciitis on the Right Side of the Neck with Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis and Septic Emboli: A Case of Lemierre’s-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Dang; YAACOB, Yazmin; HAMID, Hamzaini; MUDA, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre’s syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS. PMID:24643401

  20. A Visão do Universo Segundo a Concepção de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Nesse trabalho foi identificada por meio de um questionário a visão de mundo sobre o Universo espaço e tempo entre 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio de três escolas de São Paulo. Constatou-se pouco conhecimento dos temas investigados sendo que apenas 20% dos alunos relacionaram as semanas com as fases da lua enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de astronomia seus conceitos ainda são inadequados havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos pois apesar de popular a astronomia é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecissões.

  1. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  2. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  3. Sternbilder - Sternsagen. Mythen und Legenden um Sternbilder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonov, A.

    This book is a German translation (translator L. Korniljew) of the Bulgarian original "Mitove i legendi za s'zvezdiyata"; Sofia 1978.It describes in detail how starsand star constellations were named and presents accounts of the mythological legends associated with these names.

  4. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  5. A thermodynamic model for the prediction of phase equilibria and speciation in the H 2O-CO 2-NaCl-CaCO 3-CaSO 4 system from 0 to 250 °C, 1 to 1000 bar with NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Duan, Zhenhao

    2011-08-01

    A thermodynamic model is developed for the calculation of both phase and speciation equilibrium in the H 2O-CO 2-NaCl-CaCO 3-CaSO 4 system from 0 to 250 °C, and from 1 to 1000 bar with NaCl concentrations up to the saturation of halite. The vapor-liquid-solid (calcite, gypsum, anhydrite and halite) equilibrium together with the chemical equilibrium of H+,Na+,Ca, CaHCO3+,Ca(OH)+,OH-,Cl-, HCO3-,HSO4-,SO42-, CO32-,CO,CaCO and CaSO 4(aq) in the aqueous liquid phase as a function of temperature, pressure and salt concentrations can be calculated with accuracy close to the experimental results. Based on this model validated from experimental data, it can be seen that temperature, pressure and salinity all have significant effects on pH, alkalinity and speciations of aqueous solutions and on the solubility of calcite, halite, anhydrite and gypsum. The solubility of anhydrite and gypsum will decrease as temperature increases (e.g. the solubility will decrease by 90% from 360 K to 460 K). The increase of pressure may increase the solubility of sulphate minerals (e.g. gypsum solubility increases by about 20-40% from vapor pressure to 600 bar). Addition of NaCl to the solution may increase mineral solubility up to about 3 molality of NaCl, adding more NaCl beyond that may slightly decrease its solubility. Dissolved CO 2 in solution may decrease the solubility of minerals. The influence of dissolved calcite on the solubility of gypsum and anhydrite can be ignored, but dissolved gypsum or anhydrite has a big influence on the calcite solubility. Online calculation is made available on www.geochem-model.org/model.

  6. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  7. Double-lumen catheter in the right jugular vein induces two sub-endothelial abscesses in an unusual place, the transition between the superior vena cava and the right atrium: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endocarditis is a type of infection that is common in internal medicine wards and in haemodialysis clinics. The location that is most affected are the heart valves. Herein, we report a case of an uncommon abscess, a sub-endothelial abscess between the transition of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. There were several emboli to the lung and foot, and the agent was related to Staphylococcus aureus and a double-lumen catheter. Usually, this type of abscess is located in valves, either the tricuspid valve if related to catheters or injection drug use or the mitral valve if related to other causes. An exhaustive review was made, but we found no information about the location of this abscess and the rarity of the event motivating the report of infection. PMID:25110520

  8. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  9. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  10. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  11. Grant UM1CA167462 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Spatial deconvolution of IRAS galaxies at 60 UM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Using IRAS in a slow scan observing mode to increase the spatial sampling rate and a deconvolution analysis to increase the spatial resolution, several bright galaxies were resolved at 60 micron. Preliminary results for M 82, NGC 1068, NGC 3079 and NGC 2623 show partially resolved emission from 10 to 26 arcsec., full width at half maximum, and extended emission from 30 to 90 arcsec. from the center. In addition, the interacting system, Arp 82, along with Mark 231 and Arp 220 were studied using the program ADDSCAN to average all available survey mode observations. The Arp 82 system is well resolved after deconvolution and its brighter component is extended; the two most luminous objects are not resolved with an upper limit of 15 arcsec. for Arp 220.

  13. Exploring Ho-Nee-Um in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in grades three and four. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness--by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  14. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  15. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  16. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Astronomy around 1700. (German Title: Astronomie um 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The book focuses on Gottfried Kirch und Olaus Römer, two scholars who played a leading role in astronomy around 1700. It contains an annotated edition of the letter by Gottfried Kirch to Olaus Römer of October 25, 1703. Kirch was the astronomer of the Berlin Academy of Sciences since 1700, recognized both as astronomical calculator and as observer - Römer was director of the Copenhagen Observatory and was the first who determined the speed of light. Kirch's letter to Römer of October 1703, given here together with several addenda, was not a letter in the modern sense, but a treatise of broad contents, dealing with different astronomical items of that time: the problem of determining stellar and planetary positions, the subjective view on contemporaries, the methods of astronomical calculations, the discovery of comets and other questions are described in Kirch's vivid words. Numerous annotations by the editor explain the astronomy of that time. The editor leads the reader step by step through the methods of astronomical calculations, which become clear and understandable. A complete bibliography of works by and about Kirch and a list of known archival sources are added.

  18. GEO-CAPE application, demonstrated for CO by the IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS), and scaled to an expanded application that adds the 9.6, 3.3 and 3.6 um bands for multi-layer tropospheric ozone and for HCHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Jamieson, T. H.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm 1. As presented at this meeting in our poster "...multi-layer CO retrieval from atmospheric data..." very encouraging retrieval for CO, H2O, CH4 and albedo were obtained in an operational mode of ground based atmospheric observations that simulated space based operations in an application that would meet Decadal Survey GEO- CAPE air quality observation requirements for coverage, footprint size and refresh time. In this presentation we'll describe the details of how the ground based operations map to the space based operations. We will discuss concept details including [a] the approach for instrument cooling, [b] the scanning mirror and telescope system that would provide input to the TIMS in a way that meets the GEO-CAPE measurement requirements, [c] telemetry requirements, and [d] the scaling of retrieval precision from the ground based actuals to the space based operations. For example, the ground based actual TIMS column precisions for retrieval from the SR data scale to space deployed TIMS column retrieval precisions for CO(=8.6%), H2O(=3.7%), CH4(=0.9%) and for albedo(=0.2%) on the GEO-CAPE minimum footprint. We'll also present the actuals, and the scaling to the GEO-CAPE case, for multi-layer CO and H2O retrieval from the combined SR and TIR data sets. The required aperture is quite small, 7.5 cm. We will also present a straight forward approach to expand the GEO-CAPE TIMS concept to additional spectral regions near 3.3, 3.6 and 9.6 um that will provide for multi-layer retrieval of tropospheric ozone, and for HCHO column. The approach adds relatively small mass, but

  19. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  20. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  1. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com

  2. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com

  3. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  4. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  5. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  6. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  7. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  8. Mild steels coated with 14% manganese covered electrodes (E7-UM-200-K and E1-UM-350): Phenomena at the steel-coating interface

    SciTech Connect

    Molleda, F. . E-mail: fmolleda@etsin.upm.es; Mora, J.; Molleda, F.J.; Carrillo, E.; Mora, E.; Mellor, B.G.

    2006-12-15

    In this work the authors have studied the phenomena in the interface of the coating made on soft carbon steel with electrodes with a high content of manganese. The study has been done with scanning electron microscope and X-rays mapping images. These images show how the alloy elements are distributed in each of the constituent elements presented in the interface, and the nature of these constituents. These results have allowed us to verify that many of the problems that arise in homogeneous joints, as such localised corrosion, low interface resistance, etc., happened, precisely in these regions. As a help to determine the nature of the constituent elements, microhardness measurements have also been made.

  9. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  10. Comparison of atmospheric transmittance measurements in the 3- to 5-um and 8- to 12-um spectral regions with MODTRAN: considerations for long near-horizontal path geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkowski, Anthony J.; Anderson, Gail P.; Chetwynd, James H.; Nadile, Richard M.; Devir, Adam D.; Conley, T. D.

    1998-01-01

    Radiance measurements conducted during tropospheric operations to detect objects on the Earth's surface from a manned aircraft or from an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) will involve long, near-horizontal viewing geometries. The computer code MODTRAN is widely used for the prediction of the propagation of infrared radiation through the lower atmosphere. Consequently, we have undertaken to test the predictions of MODTRAN for the 3 - 5 and 8 - 12 micron spectral regions under mid-Eastern desert conditions.

  11. Properties of Interstellar Medium In Infrared-bright QSOs Probed by [O i] 63 um and [C ii] 158 um Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Yan, Lin; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxies of nine QSOs at 0.1 < z < 0.2 with black hole masses of 3× {10}7 {M}ȯ to 3× {10}9 {M}ȯ based on the far-IR spectroscopy taken with Herschel Space Observatory. We detect the [O i] 63 μm ([C ii] 158 μm) emission in 6 (8) out of 8 (9) sources. Our QSO sample has far-infrared luminosities ({L}{{FIR}}) ˜ several times {10}11{L}ȯ . The observed line-to-{L}{{FIR}} ratios ({L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} and {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}{{FIR}}) are in the ranges of 2.6 × 10‑4 to 10‑2 and 2.8 × 10‑4 to 2 × 10‑3, respectively (including upper limits). These ratios are comparable to the values found in local ULIRGs, but higher than the average value published so far for z\\gt 1 IR-bright QSOs. One target, W0752+19, shows an additional broad velocity component (˜720 km s‑1) and exceptionally strong [O i] 63 μm emission with {L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} of 10‑2, an order of magnitude higher than the average value found among local (U)LIRGs. Combining with the analyses of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we conclude that the [O i] 63 μm emission in these QSOs is unlikely excited by shocks. We infer that the broad [O i] 63 μm emission in W0752+19 could arise from the warm and dense ISM in the narrow-line region of the central active galactic nucleus. Another possible explanation is the existence of a dense gas outflow with {n}{{H}}˜ {10}4 cm‑3, where the corresponding broad [C ii] emission is suppressed. Based on the far-IR [O i] and [C ii] line ratios, we estimate constraints on the ISM density and UV radiation field intensity of {n}{{H}}≲ {10}3.3 cm‑3 and {10}3\\lt {G}0≲ {10}4.2, respectively. These values are consistent with those found in local Seyfert 1 ULIRGs. In contrast, the gas with broad velocity width in W0752+19 has {n}{{H}}≳ {10}4.3 cm‑3 and {G}0\\gt {10}4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  13. On telescópio remoto do Observatório Abrahão de Moraes - Obelix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, N. L.; Raffaelli, J. C.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Horvath, J. E.; Maluhy, R.; Martins, A.; Orselli, M. I. V.

    2003-08-01

    Foi desenvolvido um telescópio totalmente automático situado no Observatório Abrahão de Moraes, em Valinhos-SP, que possibilita observações remotas via Internet tanto para fins profissionais como didáticos. Usando um programa navegador da WWW, o observador tem acesso a páginas interativas que permitem não só apontar o telescópio e receber as imagens, como também controlar a abertura e o fechamento da cúpula, monitorar temperatura, umidade e orvalho e receber imagens das câmaras de segurança. O fechamento da cúpula é feito automaticamente em caso de perigo de condensação. O sistema consiste de uma câmara Apogee, uma roda de filtros SBIG modelo CFW-8 com filtros RGB e um telescópio Meade. A observação remota é feita usando programas comerciais da área. Uma caixa de controle com lógica programável controla o movimento da cúpula e a energização do telescópio. Um software em LabView adquire os dados da estação meteorológica, que inclui um sensor de chuva desenvolvido no IAG, e apresenta seus valores atuais e históricos. Usando uma facilidade do próprio LabView, a saída desse software é exportada para a Internet. Um programa em C disponibiliza as imagens das câmaras de segurança usando uma placa de captura de vídeo e um seqüencial de vídeo que foi adaptado para ser controlado pelo PC. O sistema completo já se encontra operacional.

  14. Synchronous and asynchronous multiplexer circuits for medical imaging realized in CMOS 0.18um technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Długosz, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2007-05-01

    Multiplexers are one of the most important elements in readout front-end ASICs for multi-element detectors in medical imaging. The purpose of these ASICs is to detect signals appearing randomly in many channels and to collect the detected data in an ordered fashion (de-randomization) in order to send it to an external ADC. ASIC output stage functionality can be divided into two: pulse detection and multiplexing. The pulse detection block is responsible for detecting maximum values of signals arriving from the shaper, sending a flag signal indicating that the peak signal has been detected and storing the pulse in an analog memory until read by ADC. The multiplexer in turn is responsible for searching for active flags, controlling the channel that has detected the peak signal and performing reset functions after readout. There are several types of multiplexers proposed in this paper, which can be divided into several classes: synchronous, synchronized and asynchronous. Synchronous circuits require availability of the multiphase clock generator, which increases the power dissipation, but simultaneously provide very convenient mechanism that enables unambiguous choice of the active channel. This characteristics leads to 100% effectiveness in data processing and no data loss. Asynchronous multiplexers do not require clock generators and because of that have simpler structure, are faster and more power efficient, especially when data samples occur seldom at the ASIC's inputs. The main problem of the asynchronous solution is when data on two or more inputs occur almost at the same time, shorter than the multiplexer's reaction time. In this situation some data can be lost. In many applications loss of the order of 1% of the data is acceptable, which makes use of asynchronous multiplexers possible. For applications when the lower loss is desirable a new hierarchy mechanism has been introduced. One of proposed solutions is a synchronized binary tree structure, that uses many simple asynchronous clock generators. This circuit joins advantages of synchronous and asynchronous solutions resulting in low power dissipation, high speed of operation and 100% effectiveness.

  15. High-performance 0.25-um CMOS technology for fast SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, James D.; McNelly, T. F.; Perera, Asanga H.; Pfiester, Jim R.; Subramanian, C. K.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    1996-09-01

    A high performance 0.25 micrometers CMOS process has been developed for fast static RAMs. This technology features retrograde wells, shallow trench isolation scalable to a 0.45 micrometers active pitch, surface channel 0.25 micrometers NMOS and PMOS transistors with a 55 angstroms nitrided gate oxide providing drive currents of 630 and 300 (mu) A/micrometers respectively at off-leakages of 10 pA/micrometers , overgated TFTs with an on/off ratio greater than 6(DOT)105, stacked capacitors for improved SER protection, five levels of polysilicon planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing with two self-aligned interpoly contacts, 0.35 micrometers contacts and a 0.625 metal pitch. In this technology, a triple well structure was used for SER protection. High energy retrograde wells were integrated with shallow trench isolation and epi providing excellent interwell isolation for both leakage and latch-up down to n+/p+ spaces of 0.60 micrometers . PMOS transistors were scaled to a physical gate length of 0.1 micrometers while maintaining excellent short channel characteristics. A split word-line bitcell was scaled to 1.425 micrometers X 2.625 micrometers equals 3.74 micrometers 2 using 0.25 micrometers rules. A tungsten interpoly plug was used to connect the PMOS TFT loads to the underlying NMOS latch gates without a parasitic diode or dopant interdiffusion, connecting 3 polysilicon layers with self-aligned isolation from an intervening polysilicon layer used as a local interconnect. With this plug, TFT drive currents were greatly improved, particularly at low voltages and the memory nodes pulled to the fully supply voltage. Functional 0.25 micrometers bitcells were demonstrated and with an LDD resistor it was possible to double the cell stability. Bitcell simulation was used to demonstrate that a 4T bitcell will be stable at 2.5 V but that a word-line boost will be required for 1.8 V operation.

  16. High-reliability nonhermetic 1.3-um InP-based uncooled lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naresh; Osenbach, John W.; Evanosky, T. L.; Comizzoli, Robert B.; Tsang, Won-Tien

    1996-01-01

    We report the first uncooled non-hermetic 1.3 micrometer InP-based communication lasers that have reliability comparable to their hermetically packaged counterparts for possible applications in fiber in the loop and cable TV. The development of reliable non-hermetic semiconductor lasers would not only lead to the elimination of the costs specifically associated with hermetic packaging but also lead the way for possible revolutionary low cost optoelectronic packaging technologies. We have used Fabry-Perot capped mesa buried heterostructure (CMBH) uncooled lasers with both bulk and MQW active regions grown on n- type InP substrates by VPE and MOCVD. We find that the proper dielectric facet passivation is the key to obtain high reliability in a non-hermetic environment. The passivation protects the laser from the ambient and maintains the proper facet reflectivity to achieve desired laser characteristics. The SiO facet passivation formed by molecular beam deposition (MBD) has resulted in lasers with lifetime well in excess of the reliability goal of 3,000 hours operation at 85 degrees Celsius/90% RH/30 mA aging condition. Based on extrapolations derived experimentally, we calculate a 15 year average device hazard rate of less than 300 FITs (as against the desired 1,500 FITs) for the combination of thermal and humidity induced degradation at an ambient condition of 45 degrees Celsius/50% RH. For comparison, the average hazard rate at 45 degrees Celsius and 15 years of service is approximately 250 FITs for hermetic lasers of similar construction. A comparison of the thermal only degradation (hermetic) to the thermal plus humidity induced degradation (non-hermetic) indicates that the reliability of these nonhermetic lasers is controlled by thermal degradation only and not by moisture-induced degradation. In addition to device passivation for a non-hermetic environment, MBD-SiO maintains the optical, electrical and mechanical properties needed for high-performance laser systems.

  17. Implementation of i-line lithography to 0.30 um design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, KeunYoung; Kim, Hung-Eil; Lee, Il-Ho; Kim, Jin-Soo; Chun, Jun-Sung; Hur, Ikboum; Moon, Seung-Chan; Baik, Ki-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han

    1995-05-01

    The optical lithography is extending its life by combining high numerical aperture (NA) optics and shorter wavelength. The shorter wavelength lithography has required the new developments of related technologies. In particular, DUV resists require an entirely different resist chemistry. Much progress has been demonstrated in the field of transparent chemically amplified resists with high sensitivity. However, this DUV lithography ((lambda) equals 248 nm) has been delayed for mass production due to their limitations, such as (i) delay time effects, (ii) high cost ownership due to expensive resist materials and laser maintenance, and (iii) critical dimension (CD) variation over topography caused by multireflection of topographic features. On the other hand, i- line lithography ((lambda) equals 365 nm) has apparently been applied to 64M DRAM of 0.35 micrometers design rule, and attempted to 0.30 micrometers technology which corresponds to 2nd generation 64M DRAM or 1st generation 256 M DRAM. It might be achieved by combination of off-axis illumination (OAI), phase shift mask (PMS) and advanced resist process technique of i-line lithography. Therefore, i-line lithography can be more practical method rather than DUV lithography for the mass production. In this paper, we have optimized the i-line lithographic techniques for the various pattern shape and density for 0.30 micrometers design rule. Optimum duty ratio was tried to find for line and space, contact hole patterns. The basic rule is to keep the minimum Cr width over 0.30 micrometers mask. OAI have been applied to get higher contrast of line and space, and even contact hole patterns, and achieve good pattern fidelities of island patterns. By the implementation of OAI, process latitudes were greatly improved compared to that of conventional techniques. In order to optimize the process over the actual topography, optimum numerical aperture (NA) and aperture of the OAI were selected. In conclusion, 0.30 micrometers design rule device was successfully fabricated by optimizing the advanced i-line lithographic techniques.

  18. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  19. Process control for 0.25 um GaAs microwave monolithic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgens, Rick D.; Meyers, Shirley; Small, Bret A.; Salzman, Keith; Rhine, David; Class, Randy

    1994-05-01

    Gallium arsenide metal semiconductor field effect transistors (GaAs MESFETs) are used in analog microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) because of their high frequency response. Common applications for MMICs include low noise and power amplifiers for use in satellite communication and missile guidance systems. The performance of MESFETs is improved with smaller gate lengths, but to consistently achieve the highest performance, control methods must be in place for the critical processes. Gate length control is the key parameter in maintaining the rf performance and a lack of gate pinch off is the major yield loss category. This paper describes the process and the tools that Texas Instruments uses to monitor the critical parameters. It also describes the control methods and reviews the major contributors to variations in the process.

  20. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ∼16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ∼6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  3. Earth's spectral albedo from 0.5 to 4.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanes-Rodrig, P.; Palle, E.; Goode, P. R.; Koonin, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed spectroscopic earthshine data to determine Earth's nightly spectral albedos covering the visible, near and middle infrared spectral ranges. Observations in the visible were undertaken from Palomar Observatory with the spectrograph in the Palomar 60" telescope and with the echelle spectrograph of the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The observing runs were chosen near the quarter moon to reduce the background glow produced by the moonshine (bright side of the Moon). Although observations were taken on different nights, the similarity of lunar phases and comparable cloud cover conditions for the monitored part of the Earth's surface, allow us to derive, for the first time, an apparent albedo of the Earth covering the entire spectral range from 0.5 to 4.4 microns.

  4. 1.55 um aluminum gallium indium arsenide strained MQW laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi

    At the 1.55 mum eye-safe, telecommunications operating wavelength, semiconductor diode lasers must have low threshold currents and operate at high temperatures without thermoelectric coolers. Existing diode lasers in this wavelength range based on the GaInAsP/InP materials system are very sensitive to operating temperature. To obtain high temperature, high power 1.55 mum semiconductor diode lasers, the AlGaInAs/InP materials system with strained quantum well (QW) active regions was investigated with the goal of improving temperature performance. A set of lasers with active regions consisting of different numbers of QWs (2 to 4) and different QW strains (1.2% and 1.6%) were designed taking into account the quaternary alloy bandgap of AlGaInAs, the effect of strain on the bandgap, and the quantum size effects within the QW. The active region growth temperature was optimized using photoluminescence intensity. The wafers were first processed into broad-area lasers and measured under pulsed injection. The characteristic threshold current temperature, T0, for all AlGaInAs lasers was higher (60-70 K) than for GaInAsP lasers. No strong dependence of temperature parameters on strain was observed, while properties varied significantly with the number of QWs. With more QWs, both internal efficiency and T0 increases, but internal loss increases, reducing the characteristic temperature of the differential efficiency T1. The results show that uncooled laser operation at 1.55 mum is very promising with strained AlGaInAs QWs. Ridge waveguide devices demonstrated low threshold and high output power as well as good temperature performance under continuous wave operation. Devices with different ridge heights were fabricated from one wafer and their performance was compared. It was found that current spreading was significant in these devices and a simple current density-versus-applied voltage analysis was developed to determine the spreading factor. The analysis shows that the current spreading was not effectively limited until etching went below the doped cladding layer. A recombination coefficient analysis was performed to investigate the effect of strain on Auger recombination predicted by theory. An indirect method to infer both the nonradiative recombination coefficient and the Auger recombination coefficient was initially used. The measured values of the recombination coefficients were consistent with theoretical predictions and measurements based on other material systems. The Auger recombination was lower than expected, indicating that Auger recombination is reduced in these strained QWs. To understand the carrier dynamics, impedance measurements were carried out for the first time in AlGaInAs strained QW lasers. A small-signal, sub-threshold equivalent circuit model was derived from the laser rate equations to model the measured laser impedance. Several characteristic carrier lifetimes were obtained directly from these electrical impedance measurements. From the temperature dependence of the QW escape time, it was found that hole rather than electron leakage is dominant in the AlGaInAs system due to the relatively low valence band offset. This may explain why the improvement of T0 in AlGaInAs QW 1.55 mum active regions is limited.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  6. High-speed interconnect using 1.3 um laser and fiber array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sherman; Uchida, Toshi; Tani, Takuhori

    1997-04-01

    Multifiber optic interconnects are attractive for high- throughput computer systems and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching systems. We have developed a high- performance 10-fiber interconnect with each fiber operating at a high speed of 1 Gb/s. The modules have a receptacle for mechanically transferred push-on (MTP) multifiber push pull connector. The hermetic package is surface mount type and solder reflowable. The transmitter (Tx) is dc-coupled and the receiver (Rx) is ac-coupled with a cutoff of 7 kHz. The electrical interface is differential current mode logic (CML) or emitter coupled logic (ECL), and the optical interface is a 12-fiber connector. Single-mode glass fibers (9.5 micrometer) or multimode glass graded-index fibers (62.5 micrometer) were used. Tx contains a laser-driver IC, while Rx contains pre-amplifier and postamplifier, and comparator circuits. All the ICs are minus 5.2 V bipolar GaAs, and Tx plus RX consumes 4 W. The power in a fiber is about 100 (mu) W. The back-to-back skew is less than 80 ps. For a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) 223-1 pseudo-random bit stream, the error rate was less than 10 -12 with all the channels transmitting different signals simultaneously and a 100-m small-skew (1.2 ps/m) fiber ribbon. The link worked up to an atmosphere temperature of 80 degrees Celsius.

  7. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  8. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  9. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  10. 250 um inner diameter hollow waveguide for Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    Advanced application of Er:YAG laser radiation in medical treatment requires a suitable, very precise delivery of this light to a target. In some cases (urology, cardiology, or endodontic treatments), thin waveguides are needed. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted with 250/360 μm inner/outer diameter hollow glass waveguides. The waveguide has inner coating made from cyclic olefin polymer and silver layers. All delivery systems were simple and consisted of lens, protector, and the waveguide. The laser source was the Er:YAG system working in a free-running regime and generating radiation at 2.94 μm wavelength. For testing, output laser energy up to 100 mJ with a repetition rate of 1 Hz was chosen. The output laser spatial profile was approximately TEM00 mode, so the structure changes behind the delivery system were readily detected. The energy delivery characteristics were also checked, and the transmission reached 77%. The maximum input fluence into the waveguide was 200 mJ/cm2, and no significant damages to waveguides were observed after the measurements.

  11. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a „terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  12. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  13. [The life story of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo: Quincas, Um berro à vida].

    PubMed

    Zancan, Lenira; Matida, Álvaro Hideyoshi

    2015-10-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the contribution of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo (1936-1993) to the field of public health relating his life story and his scientific production with core issues of education and health, present in his time and which remain in debate to this day. His contribution resulted in the production of new meanings for health practices, with the understanding as social and transdisciplinary phenomena. Based on conversations with co-authors and friends and rereading of his texts, it was decided to approach his biography from: (i) his skills and participation in initiatives and practices of preventive medicine and popular education, which fomented the critical analysis of health education; (ii) his presence as an educator in public health courses throughout the country, eliciting the deconstruction of the theories and practices of education and health with managers, students, professionals and teachers; (iii) his availability for transdisciplinary dialogue with the humanities and social sciences in the search for "epistemological sutures" between reason and passion, capable of responding to the dilemmas and challenges of healthcare work. These three trajectories indicate that the performance of "Quincas" must be understood from his restlessness as a health professional and educator, engaged in the production of knowledge and practices related to the complexity of the phenomenon of life. PMID:26465867

  14. Comparative study of i-line and DUV lithography for 0.35 um and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakone, Nandasiri; Chang, Wayne H.; Tandberg, Erik; Elliot, Christina; Wang, Timothy Y.

    1995-05-01

    New I-line resists are claimed to be usable at 0.35 micrometers design rules. We have examined the suitability of several such materials (JSR IX750, Sumitomo PFi-38a, OCG RX64I) for this purpose and compared them with our production 0.5 micrometers resist, JSR IX700. A variety of criteria have been used, including the measured focus exposure windows at e-min and e-max, DOF vs. CD for grouped and isolated lines as well as contacts, linearity, and proximity response as a function of pitch. A limited study has been done on the impact of embedded phase shift reticles on printing small geometry contacts. We report upon the process improvements observed with two different reticle transmissions, their impact on isofocal bias, as well as the issue of sidelobe formation. Proponents of DUV claim that modern DUV materials exhibit significant advantages in terms of process window and more over are applicable to smaller geometries without the need for supplementary techniques such as phase shifting or modified illumination. In this study, we have examined the performance of a number of DUV materials (BASF ST3.5, OCG ARCH, JSR KRFL2 and an as yet experimental JSR resists) on ASM-L and Nikon excimer laser steppers. Limited results were also obtained using Shipley 2408 and dyed XP-9444 (0.8) on the SVG Micrascan II. Our studies conclude with a comparison of the CD swing observed over a variety of chemically mechanically planarized steps. This has been done for selected I-line and DUV resists with the aid of a TAR or BARC or as in the case of the broad band SVG system either a BARC or a dyed resist.

  15. The impact of atmospheric waves on the O2 1.27-um nightglow distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Naoya; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    O2 -1.27µm nightglow is the indicator of the general circulation at about 95 km in Venus. Recent nightglow observations reported that the nightglow emission showed the temporal variations with a timescale of a few hours and days [e.g.,Gerard et al., 2008]. The temporal variations are thought to be caused by wind fluctuations due to atmospheric waves propagating from the lower atmosphere. In recent years, the importance of planetary-scale waves on the general circulation of the Venusian atmosphere has been recognized. Forbes and Konopliv [2007] suggested the propagation of planetary-scale waves originated in the cloud deck into the upper atmosphere. However, the impact of the planetary-scale waves on the Venusian upper atmosphere has not been investigated yet. In this study, we have performed numerical simulations with a general circulation model (GCM), which includes the altitude region of 80 -about 200 km in order to understand the impact of atmospheric waves on the nightglow distribution. Our model considers the chemical processes and calculates the O2 -1.27µm nightglow intensity. The planetary-scale waves (thermal tides, Kelvin wave, and Rosbby wave) are imposed at the lower boundary. The amplitudes and phase velocities of the waves are assumed from the study by Del Genio and Rossow [1990]. The simulation results show dominance of the Kelvin wave at about 80 -120 km with a vertical wavelength of about 40 -50 km. The amplitude of the zonal wind fluctuation caused by the Kelvin wave has a maximum value of about 9 m/s at about 95 km. Our results suggest that the Kelvin wave would cause the wind variation of the nightglow emission region between the 00:00LT -00:40LT with a period of 4 days. In this presentation, we will show the details of our simulation results considering the planetary-scale waves. In addition, we will present the initial results of a simulation considering the small-scale gravity wave.

  16. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  17. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  18. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  19. Are "physiological" and "psychological" addiction really different? well, no! ... um, er, yes?

    PubMed

    Newlin, David B

    2008-01-01

    The distinction often made between psychological and physiological addiction is a form of mind-body dualism. Therefore, it is a false distinction. However, this does not imply that behavioral and autonomic symptoms of addiction have the same brain substrates. In fact, they likely do not, although there is some overlap. PMID:18570028

  20. High-quantum-efficiency 2.2-um InGaAs MOCVD photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Colter, Peter C.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.

    1997-04-01

    Photodiodes responding in the 0.8-2.3 micrometers wavelength range are of interest in a wide range of applications, from wind- shear detection systems which use eyesafe 2.1 micrometers lasers to differential absorption LIDAR aerosol measurements of CO2. In this paper, we report on uncooled, broadband, 2.25 micrometers lattice-mismatched 0.55eV In0.72Ga0.28As photodiode arrays, in which the cutoff wavelength has been 'extended' from the 1.65 micrometers which is standard for 0.74eV In0.53Ga0.47As lattice-matched to InP wafers. InxGa1-xAs step-grading layers were used to transition from the InP wafer to the final In0.72Ga0.28As photodiode material during the metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxial growth. Linear 64 X 1 photodiode arrays were made with an independently-verified external quantum efficiency above 50 percent from 0.8 to 2.2 micrometers using MgF2/ZnS dual layer antireflection coating. Average 300 degree K area-normalized dark current for these N/P diodes was 5 X 10-5 A/cm2 at 10mV reverse bias.

  1. A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.; de Medeiros, N. G. F.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2003-08-01

    Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que houve a percolação do fluido. Reformulando o modelo acima, podemos escrever um código particularmente adaptado para simulações em Galáxias, onde iremos supor que os canais formam um reticulado, e que cada sítio da rede representa um poro que será interpretado como uma região ativa de formação estelar. Para cada elo teremos um pequeno canal ligando dois sítios vizinhos, que poderá, após um tempo "t", induzir ou não a formação de uma região ativa no poro vizinho. Para simular a passagem desta região ativa através dos poros, diremos que um elo está aberto com probabilidade p e fechado com probabilidade 1-p. Dessa forma, passamos a imaginar configurações de elos abertos e fechados, onde cada configuração ocorre com uma certa probabilidade, dada por p|A|(1-p)|F|, onde |A| é o número de elos abertos e |F| o número de elos fechados da configuração. A expressão anterior só tem importância física se |A| e |F| forem ambos finitos, pois, caso contrário, a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma dada configuração será sempre nula. Neste trabalho, foram considerados dados cinemáticos publicados na literatura bem como aqueles obtidos pelos autores a partir de observações fotométricas realizadas no Observatório de Las Campanãs, em 1994, para a Galáxia Anelada Peculiar HRG 03401. Mostraremos que para certos valores de p, situados entre 0,5 e 0,6, os clusters assim formados irão simular, de maneira coerente, o referido objeto.

  2. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The injection of calcium-based sorbents into coal-fired boilers for reaction with, and reduction in the levels of, sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas has undergone considerable research and development. Significant effort has also been made in developing models for the overall ...

  4. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  5. Very deep traps in Al 2O 3 and CaSO 4 : Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portal, Guy; Lorrain, Serge; Valladas, Georges

    1980-09-01

    In dosimetry, empty traps were generally used at temperatures lower than 350°C. On account of the difficulties due to the black body emission, very few searchers have studied traps stimulated at higher temperatures [1,5]. The present work deals with the study of energetic levels stimulated at temperatures higher than 500°C. These levels have the advantage of being very stable even at conservation temperatures near 350°C.

  6. Acentos, Tildes, Casas, Cosas, Casos, Cosos? (Accents, Tildes, [Punctuation, and Spelling Accuracy]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabri Diaz, Victor

    1972-01-01

    Correct spelling, punctuation marks, and spelling accents must be taught in the beginning Spanish course. Accent marks make a difference in the interpretation of the written word. Rules govern the placing of exclamation and question marks and make up an integral part of written Spanish. Teachers have a duty and a responsibility to teach these…

  7. Materials Data on CaSO4 (SG:180) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  9. TRPM8 function and expression in vagal sensory neurons and afferent nerves innervating guinea pig esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Ru, Fei; Kollarik, Marian; Undem, Bradley J; Yu, Shaoyong

    2015-03-15

    Sensory transduction in esophageal afferents requires specific ion channels and receptors. TRPM8 is a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family and participates in cold- and menthol-induced sensory transduction, but its role in visceral sensory transduction is still less clear. This study aims to determine TRPM8 function and expression in esophageal vagal afferent subtypes. TRPM8 agonist WS-12-induced responses were first determined in nodose and jugular neurons by calcium imaging and then investigated by whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in nodose and jugular C fiber neurons using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. TRPM8 mRNA expression was determined by single neuron RT-PCR in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. The TRPM8 agonist WS-12 elicited calcium influx in a subpopulation of jugular but not nodose neurons. WS-12 activated outwardly rectifying currents in esophageal Dil-labeled jugular but not nodose neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which could be inhibited by the TRPM8 inhibitor AMTB. WS-12 selectively evoked action potential discharges in esophageal jugular but not nodose C fibers. Consistently, TRPM8 transcripts were highly expressed in esophageal Dil-labeled TRPV1-positive jugular neurons. In summary, the present study demonstrated a preferential expression and function of TRPM8 in esophageal vagal jugular but not nodose neurons and C fiber subtypes. This provides a distinctive role of TRPM8 in esophageal sensory transduction and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of esophageal sensation and nociception. PMID:25591866

  10. The Role of the Paratrigeminal Nucleus in Vagal Afferent Evoked Respiratory Reflexes: A Neuroanatomical and Functional Study in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Driessen, Alexandria K.; Farrell, Michael J.; Mazzone, Stuart B.; McGovern, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory tree receives sensory innervation from the jugular and nodose vagal sensory ganglia. Neurons of these ganglia are derived from embryologically distinct origins and as such demonstrate differing molecular, neurochemical and physiological phenotypes. Furthermore, whereas nodose afferent neurons project to the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS), recent neuroanatomical studies in rats suggest that jugular neurons have their central terminations in the paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5). In the present study we confirm that guinea pigs demonstrate a comparable distinction between the brainstem terminations of nodose and jugular ganglia afferents. Thus, microinjection of fluorescently conjugated cholera toxin B (CT-B) neural tracers into the caudal nTS and Pa5 resulted in highly specific retrograde labeling of neurons in the nodose and jugular ganglia, respectively. Whereas, nodose neurons more often expressed 160 KD neurofilament proteins and the alpha3 subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase, significantly more jugular neurons expressed the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and, especially, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP). Indeed, terminal fibers in the Pa5 compared to the nTS were characterized by their significantly greater expression of CGRP, further supporting the notion that jugular afferents project to trigeminal-related brainstem regions. Electrical stimulation of the guinea pig larynx following selective surgical denervation of the nodose afferent innervation to the larynx (leaving intact the jugular innervation) resulted in stimulus dependent respiratory slowing and eventual apnea. This jugular ganglia neuron mediated response was unaffected by bilateral microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into the nTS, but was abolished by muscimol injected into the Pa5. Taken together these data confirm that jugular and nodose vagal ganglia afferent neurons innervate distinct central circuits and support the notion that multiple peripheral and central pathways

  11. Dilemma with the route of venous access for hemodialysis catheter insertion in a patient with dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ashokananda, Devanahalli; Chakravarthy, Murali; Gowda, Mohan; Maddirala, Pavani; Sripar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    A 68 year old patient requiring urgent dialysis due to raising potassium was referred to our center. He had 3 indwelling catheters in his heart via right subclavian vein. His left subclavian and interngal jugular veins were thrombosed possibly due to earlier indwelling catheters. The dilemma was if right internal jugular venous route could be used for insertion of dialysis catheter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, right internal jugular vein was cannulated with the dialysis catheter without problems. This case is being presented to highlight the need for imaging both by ultrasound and radiography during the procedure. PMID:27397439

  12. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  13. Laser activity at 1.18 um, 1.07 um, and 0.97 umin the low phonon energy crystalline hosts KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+

    SciTech Connect

    Rademaker, K; Heumann, E; Payne, S A; Huber, G; Krupke, W F; Isaenko, L I; Burger, A

    2004-09-15

    For the first time laser activity has been achieved in the low phonon energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals, neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:KPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}). Laser activity at 1.07 {micro}m was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths 1.18 {micro}m and 0.97 {micro}m resulting from the {sup 4}F{sub 5/2} + {sup 2}H{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub J} transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RPB was achieved for the first time in a solid state laser material. Rare earth- doped MPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} (M=K, Rb) is a promising candidate for long wavelength infrared applications because of its low phonon frequencies and other favorable features. In principle, Nd{sup 3+}:MPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} has high potential for laser operation at new wavelengths as well as for the realization of short-wavelength lasing due to upconversion processes.

  14. IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) demonstration of CO retrieval, including multi-layer, from atmospheric data acquired simultaneously in the solar reflective region near 2.3 um and the thermal emissive region near 4.7 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergenthaler, J. L.; Kumer, J.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Blatherwick, R.; Hawat, T.; Desouza-Machado, S.; Hannon, S.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm-1. We describe joint deployment at Denver University (DU) with co-investigators there of the TIMS, and of the DU colleagues FTS, to acquire simultaneous measurements of atmospheric spectra in the SR and the TIR. The FTS provided validation radiance data for the TIMS. The TIMS retrievals of CO, H2O and CH4 agreed well with validation vs these as retrieved from the DU data, AIRS retrieval, standard models and ECMWF. The TIMS CO retrievals included column retrieved from the just the SR data, column retrieved from just the TIR data, and a simple two-layer retrieval from the combined data sets. The data were acquired in an operational mode that mimicked the operations in a conceptual application that would provide footprints, coverage, refresh time as in the Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission statement. Very encouraging CO precisions were achieved, e.g., the TIMS CO column retrieval from the SR data demonstrated better than the 10% precision requirement as listed on slide 32 of the GEO-CAPE Reference document http://geo- cape.larc.nasa.gov/docs/GEOMAC_FinalReport_no_costs.ppt

  15. Unilateral vocal cord palsy and dysphagia: an unusual presentation of cerebellopontine angle meningioma.

    PubMed

    Senior, Andrew; Douglas, James Andrew; Thompson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours are the most common neoplasms in the posterior fossa, accounting for 5-10% of intracranial tumours. Most CPA tumours are benign, with most being vestibular schwannomas. Meningiomas arising from the jugular foramen are among the rarest of all with very few being described in the literature. Treatment options vary considerably as experience with these tumours is limited. One option is a skull base approach, but this depends on size, location and ability to preserve lower cranial nerve function. This can be extremely challenging and is accompanied by high mortality risk; therefore, a more conservative option must be considered. This case report highlights the difficulty in management of patients with jugular fossa meningiomas, including appropriate investigations, analysis of surgical versus conservative treatment and associated complications. Furthermore, we elaborate the decision-making process pertaining to the tailoring of the surgical route used for the resection of jugular foramen meningiomas. (Jugular Foramen Meningioma, cerebellopontine angle). PMID:26486157

  16. Unilateral vocal cord palsy and dysphagia: an unusual presentation of cerebellopontine angle meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Andrew; Douglas, James Andrew; Thompson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours are the most common neoplasms in the posterior fossa, accounting for 5–10% of intracranial tumours. Most CPA tumours are benign, with most being vestibular schwannomas. Meningiomas arising from the jugular foramen are among the rarest of all with very few being described in the literature. Treatment options vary considerably as experience with these tumours is limited. One option is a skull base approach, but this depends on size, location and ability to preserve lower cranial nerve function. This can be extremely challenging and is accompanied by high mortality risk; therefore, a more conservative option must be considered. This case report highlights the difficulty in management of patients with jugular fossa meningiomas, including appropriate investigations, analysis of surgical versus conservative treatment and associated complications. Furthermore, we elaborate the decision-making process pertaining to the tailoring of the surgical route used for the resection of jugular foramen meningiomas. (Jugular Foramen Meningioma, cerebellopontine angle). PMID:26486157

  17. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 24um fluxes of GOODS-S AGN (Garcia-Gonzalez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Sarajedini, V. L.; Villar, V.

    2015-06-01

    We compiled all the data taken around the GOODS South field with the MIPS instrument at 24μm by querying the Spitzer Heritage Archive.1 This field was observed by Spitzer during several campaigns from 2004 January to 2007 March. We focused our study on a region around RA=03:32:36 (J2000) and DE=-27:48:39 (J2000). These data correspond to different observing proposals from different PI, including the Guaranteed Time Observations programme (GTO, PI: G. Rieke) and the GOODS programme (PI: M. Dickinson). We have obtained 151 AORs (Astronomical Observation Request) but only downloaded 127 because the others were from the SWIRE (Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic) survey and were not sufficiently deep. (2 data files).

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE STRONG ACIDITY OF ATMOSPHERIC FINE PARTICLES (<2.5 UM) USING ANNULAR DENUDER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a standardized methodology description for the determination of strong acidity of fine particles (less than 2.5 microns) in ambient air using annular denuder technology. his methodology description includes two parts: art A - Standard Method and Part B - Enhanced M...

  20. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  1. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  3. Photocathodes based on semiconductor superlattices for streak tubes for IR region of 0.9-1.0 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, Eduard L.

    1995-05-01

    A possibility of temporal analysis of picosecond light pulses in the IR region with the help of photocathodes based on semiconductor superlattices (SL) of type I (InP/InGaAs) with Schottky barrier is discussed. A new principle of avalanche photoelectron emission from such an SL at interband absorption of light is suggested. The principle is based on the electrons free length path increasing in a SL with narrow quantum wells under high electric field applied to the SL. The idea makes it possible to develop a new device - avalanche photocathode with internal amplification for the IR region of 0.9-2 micrometers and temporal resolution better than 30 ps. It is proposed to use doped as well as undoped SL as basis for photocathodes sensitive to the IR radiation in the range of up to 10 micrometers . The photoemission from such structures is caused by the intersubband absorption of light in quantum wells. The use of undoped SL greatly reduced the thermoemission current of the photocathode but requires additional excitation of the SL by light pulses with energy approximately corresponding to the band gap of the narrow band gap material of the SL. The temporal resolution of such photocathodes is supposed to be less than 30 ps. The conditions for the avalanche photoelectron emission obtaining are determined, and the SL parameters which meet the requirement of maximum quantum efficiency of the photocathode are calculated.

  4. 1.9-um diode-laser-assisted anastomoses in reconstructive microsurgery: preliminary results in 12 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Schoffs, Michel; Martinot, Veronique L.; Buys, Bruno; Patenotre, Philippe; Lesage, Jean C.; Dhelin, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The authors reported an original 1.9 micrometer diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) in human. This technique has been applied in 12 patients during reconstructive surgery for digital replantations (n equals 2), for digital revascularizations (n equals 3) and for free flap transfers (n equals 7). Fourteen end-to-end anastomoses (10 arteries, 4 veins) were performed. LAMA were always performed on vessel which did not impede the chance of success of the surgical procedure in case of thrombosis. LAMA was performed with a 1.9 micrometer diode laser after placement of 2 equidistant stitches. The didoes spot was obtained by means of an optic fiber transmitted to the vessel wall via a pencil size hand piece. The used parameters were as followed: spot size equals 400 micrometer, power equals 70 to 220 mW, time equals 0.7 to 2 seconds, mean fluence equals 115 J/cm2. The mechanism involved is a thermal effect on the collagen of the adventitia and media leading to a phenomena which the authors have termed 'heliofusion.' This preliminary trial has permitted to define the modalities of its use in human. The technique is simple, rapid and easily learned. The equipment is not cumbersome, sterilizable and very ergonomic. LAMA does not replace sutures but is complementary, thanks to a reduction in the number of stitches used and to an access to surgical areas which are not easily accessible. This study must be completed by a larger scale study to confirm this technique and its reliability. Others uses could performed on different tissues such as biliary and urinary track, specially under laparoscopic conditions.

  5. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  6. Elemental analysis of natural quartz from Um Higlig, Red Sea Aea, Egypt by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Alharbi, Abdulaziz

    2013-12-01

    A scheme for INAA of 25 elements: As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr in quartz collected from the eastern desert along the Egyptian Red Sea coast is proposed. The samples were prepared together with standard reference material and irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by a HPGe detector and the analysis was done by a computerized multichannel analyzer.The accuracy of the procedure is evaluated by the analysis of two geo-standard reference materials (Dolerite WSE and Microgabro PMS). The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the quartz rock. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of quartz, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian quartz. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, quartz chemistry and related fields. PMID:23954747

  7. Design of a new 1-5.5-um infrared camera for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, John T.; Shure, Mark A.; Toomey, Douglas W.; Onaka, Peter M.; Denault, Anthony J.; Stahlberger, Werner E.; Watanabe, Darryl; Criez, K.; Robertson, L.; Cook, D.; Kidger, Michael J.

    1993-10-01

    The design of a multipurpose 1 - 5.5 micrometers infrared camera (NSFCAM) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, is described. The camera is built around the new 256 X 256 InSb array manufactured by Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) and incorporates a variety of observing modes to fulfill its role as a major facility instrument. These include three remotely-selectable image scales, a selection of fixed bandpass filters, R equals 50 - 100 spectral resolution circularly variable filters, a grism, coronographic masks, and a polarization imaging capability. Through the use of flexible array clocking schemes, driven by programmable digital signal processors (DSPs), we plan to implement several new operating modes, including real-time shift and add for image stabilization, and fast subarray readouts for occultations. Simultaneous optical and infrared imaging of the same field will be possible through the use of a cold dichroic beamsplitter. This feature is primarily intended for use with the IRTF tip-tilt image stabilization system currently being built. Given a suitable guide star, the camera should achieve near-diffraction limited imaging at 2 - 5 micrometers . In this paper we discuss the design of the optics, cryogenic, electronics and software needed to provide the camera with these capabilities.

  8. Epitaxial growth of HgCdTe 1.55-um avalanche photodiodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lyon, Terence J.; Baumgratz, B.; Chapman, G. R.; Gordon, E.; Hunter, Andrew T.; Jack, Michael D.; Jensen, John E.; Johnson, W.; Johs, Blaine D.; Kosai, K.; Larsen, W.; Olson, G. L.; Sen, M.; Walker, B.

    1999-04-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode (SAM-APD) device structures, operating in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range, have been fabricated in the HgCdTe material system by molecular-beam epitaxy. These HgCdTe device structures, which offer an alternative technology to existing III-V APD detectors, were grown on CdZnTe(211)B substrates using CdTe, Te, and Hg sources with in situ In and As doping. The alloy composition of the HgCdTe layers was adjusted to achieve both efficient absorption of IR radiation in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range and low excess-noise avalanche multiplication. To achieve resonant enhancement of hole impact ionization from the split-off valence band, the Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te alloy composition in the gain region of the device, x equals 0.73, was chosen to achieve equality between the bandgap energy and spin-orbit splitting. The appropriate value of this alloy composition was determined from analysis of the 300 K bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energies of a set of calibration layers, using a combination of IR transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. MBE-grown APD epitaxial wafers were processed into passivated mesa-type discrete device structures and diode mini-arrays using conventional HgCdTe process technology. Device spectral response, dark current density, and avalanche gain measurements were performed on discrete diodes and diode mini- arrays on the processed wafers. Avalanche gains in the range of 30 - 40 at reverse bias of 85 - 90 V and array-median dark current density below 2 X 10(superscript -4) A/cm(superscript 2) at 40 V reverse bias have been demonstrated.

  9. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  10. Chemical optimization of resist/developer systems tuned for sub-0.4-um process window expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukhy, Medhat A.; Schlicht, Karin R.; Tarbox, Kimberly

    1997-07-01

    In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10-10 cm2/s to 10-12 cm2/s. All the experiments are conducted at room temperature and are valid only for acid vapor. With different film thickness, it was found that the acid diffuses through the film with a similar diffusion constant. The diffusion is faster with increased solvent residue in the film (controlled by spin coating speed). The theoretical computer modeling of the local acid concentration with respect to acid diffusion is also performed.

  11. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  12. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  13. Near-achromatic retardance behavior of HN22 Polaroid 3.6 to 5.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lompado, Arthur; Sornsin, Elizabeth A.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1997-10-01

    Polaroid HN22, a popular sheet polarizer, has been measured to be a nearly half wave retarder in the 3.6 to 5.4 micrometers spectral band with a transmittance of approximately 20 percent. The exact retardance value may be tuned to the range of 60 degrees - 260 degrees by tilting the HN22 with respect to the incident beam. The material's polarizing effects have been shown to be minimal in this waveband. Its availability, relatively large available aperture, large filed of view, and low cost make HN22 an excellent candidate for use as an IR retarder for systems operating from 3.6 to 5.4 micrometers . As such, HN22 may be used for rotating the plane of polarization of an incident linearly polarized beam as well as to convert between circular polarization states.

  14. High resolution analysis of the ethylene-1-13C spectrum in the 8.4-14.3 um region

    SciTech Connect

    Flaud, Jean Marie; Lafferty, Walter J.; Sams, Robert L.; Devi, V. M.

    2010-01-29

    Fourier transform spectra of mono-13C ethylene have been recorded in the 8.4-14.3- μm spectral region (700 cm-1 to 1190 cm-1) using a Bruker 120 HR interferometer at a resolution of 0.0017 cm-1 allowing the extensive study of the set of resonating states {101, 81, 71,41,61}. Due to the high resolution available as well as the extended spectral range involved in this study, a much larger set of line assignments are now available. The present analysis has leads to the determination of more accurate spectroscopic constants including interaction constants than were obtained in earlier studies. In particular, the following band centers were derived: ν0(ν10) = 825.40602(30) cm-1, ν0(ν8) = 932.19572(15) cm-1, ν0(ν7) = 937.44452(10) cm-1, ν0(ν4) = 1025.6976(14) cm-1. Finally a synthetic spectrum was generated leading to the assignment of a number of 13C12CH4 lines observed through an earlier heterodyne spectroscopic study.

  15. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  16. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  17. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  18. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  19. Substrate-removed 850-nm RCLEDs and small core (63/125 um) plastic optical fibers for optical data communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coosemans, Thierry; Bockstaele, Ronny; Van Hove, An; Naessens, Kris; Derluyn, Joff; Vanwassenhove, Luc; Van Daele, Peter; Moerman, Ingrid; Baets, Roel G.

    2000-04-01

    Current developments in computer technology give rise to increasing data communication over relatively short distances at backplane- and inter MCM interconnect level. It is foreseen that electrical interconnect will not be able to accommodate the necessary data traffic in advanced data processing systems in the future and hence a bottleneck will be created. A potential remedy for this interconnect problem is the use of parallel optical datalinks. In this paper we propose small diameter step index plastic optical fiber ribbons in combination with high efficient resonant cavity LED's as a cheap and feasible option for these optical links. A design for such an optical link is presented with special attention for the optical pathway. Experimental results on the optical properties of the used POF are shown. We describe the development of RCLED's at 850 nm specially designed for efficient coupling into POF. We measured a RCLED to POF coupling efficiency up to 40%. Additionally we report on the technologies used for the fabrication and assembly of the optical pathways and finally some experiments were carried out on the first realized assemblies.

  20. Embolization of a congenital arteriovenous fistula of the internal maxillary artery: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santillan, Alejandro; Johnson, Jeremiah; Birnbaum, Lee A

    2016-06-01

    A 13 year-old girl with a congenital carotid-jugular fistula presented with a pulsatile mass and a thrill on the left side of her neck. Angiography showed a fistula between the left internal maxillary artery and the jugular vein. The patient underwent coil embolization using a transarterial balloon-assisted technique and one week later, a transvenous approach. The fistula was completely obliterated, and the patient's symptoms resolved. PMID:26842609

  1. Unusual venous drainage of face: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Dhiraj; Baral, Prakash; Kuwar, Ram Bahadur; Rai, Dilip; Dhungel, Shaligram; Jha, Chandra Bhusan; Bhattacharya, Sounmya

    2006-12-01

    Facial region has enormous blood supply. The maxillary vein, facial vein and superficial temporal vein are chief venous draining channels. There are numerous reports of unusual venous system of face, in the present case, retromandibular vein divides into anterior and posterior division soon after its formation, external carotid artery lying lateral to retromandibular vein, formation of common venous channel between internal jugular vein and anterior jugular vein where facial, lingual and submental vein drain. PMID:17357652

  2. Thymic lymphosarcoma in three heifers.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, C E; Rebhun, W C; Dill, S G

    1986-12-15

    Three heifers with the thymic form of lymphosarcoma were examined. In each of the 3 cases, fever, bloat, and jugular venous distention had developed. Detectable antibody to bovine leukosis virus was not found on agar gel immunodiffusion testing in any of the cases. Thymic lymphosarcoma was confirmed by necropsy and histologic examination. Thymic lymphosarcoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis in heifers with fever, bloat, and jugular venous distention. PMID:3793601

  3. Heat capacities and entropies from 8 to 1000 K of langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), anhydrite (CaSO4) and of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Russell-Robinson, Susan; Hemingway, Bruce S.

    1989-01-01

    Although Bond (Bell Sys. Tech. J., 22 (1943) 145) reported that langbeinite was piezoelectric at room temperature, we found no evidence in our Cpo measurements for a Curie temperature above which langbeinite would no longer be piezoelectric.

  4. Effect of different surgical positions on the cerebral venous drainage: a pilot study using healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, T Y; Tan, A; Manninen, P; Chan, V W S; Venkatraghavan, L

    2016-07-01

    Excessive neck flexion and rotation in certain surgical positions may cause kinking of the internal jugular vein that obstructs cerebral venous blood flow and results in elevated intracranial pressure. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular vein flow and identify potential impediments to venous flow in supine, prone, and park bench positions using non-anaesthetised volunteers. Twenty-seven volunteers were recruited. Venous flow rate was derived from ultrasound measurements of the vessel cross-sectional area and flow velocity. Change from supine to prone position produced a significant increase in both jugular vein cross-sectional areas without affecting venous flows. In the right park bench position, the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area decreased from 1.2 to 0.9 cm(2) (p = 0.027) without substantive changes in mean venous flow rate (p = 0.91) when compared with supine. In summary, the internal jugular vein flow was not compromised by either prone or park bench positions in non-anaesthetised volunteers, and careful positioning may prevent kinking of the jugular vein. Further studies in anaesthetised and ventilated patients are needed to validate these results for clinical practice. PMID:27160870

  5. Síndrome de Poland. Presentacíon de un caso. [Poland's syndrome. A case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández González, A L; García Redondo, A; García Castro, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of Poland's syndrome in a 19-year-old male is briefly described. This syndrome is characterized by congenital absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles as well as homolateral brachysyndactyly. The etiology is unknown. Surgical repair is aimed at constructing a functional hand. Chest deformities usually does not require surgery except in cases of lung herniation or breast hypoplasia. PMID:2096446

  6. POBREZA Y VULNERABILIDAD EN MÉXICO: EL CASO DE LOS JÓVENES QUE NO ESTUDIAN NI TRABAJAN*

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Mejía, Nelly; Pérez, Francisco; Rivera, Alfonso; Ramírez, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    La situación de los jóvenes que no estudian ni trabajan (ninis) se ha vuelto evidente en los últimos años debido a los riesgos que enfrenta dicha población. Este artículo contribuye a la literatura al analizar las características económicas y laborales de los ninis, explora la situación laboral de sus parejas y provee proyecciones al año 2030. Asimismo, propone una clasificación de ninis para focalizar el diseño de políticas públicas, que identifica una tendencia a la baja de éstos debido a las mujeres que acceden al sistema educativo y al mercado laboral y que una mayor proporción de esta población estará compuesta por desempleados. PMID:25918452

  7. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  8. Tão perto de casa, tão longe de nós: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, “Richard Perry University professor” no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edição do “Ethnografeast”. Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  9. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  10. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kasatkin, A. A. Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L.

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  11. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  12. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  13. From rebellious palpitations to the discovery of auricular fibrillation: contributions of Mackenzie, Lewis and Einthoven.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M E

    1994-02-15

    An irregular pulse, referred to as rebellious palpitations, delirium cordis and pulsus irregularis perpetuus, was a cause of speculation by physicians since early times. It was James Mackenzie, a Scottish general practitioner in Burnley, England, utilizing an ink-writing polygraph to record and label jugular venous pulses, who would pioneer in deciphering normal and abnormal cardiac rhythms. His key observation that the jugular "A wave" was lost in a patient who went from a normal to an irregular rhythm provided the first insight into the mechanism of auricular fibrillation. Similar jugular venous and arterial pulse findings were discovered by Cushny, Edmunds and Lewis in directly observed experimental auricular fibrillation. In 1909 Lewis in England and Rothberger and Winterberg in Vienna, taking advantage of Einthoven's newly developed string galvanometer, were the first to establish electrocardiographically that auricular fibrillation was the cause of pulsus irregularis perpetuus. PMID:8109554

  14. Lemierre's syndrome (necrobacillosis)

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Marin, B.; Alonso, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome or postanginal septicaemia (necrobacillosis) is caused by an acute oropharyngeal infection with secondary septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and frequent metastatic infections. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the most common pathogen isolated from the patients. The interval between the oropharyngeal infection and the onset of the septicaemia is usually short. The most common sites of septic embolisms are the lungs and joints, and other locations can be affected. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose the syndrome. Computed tomography of the neck with contrast is the most useful study to detect internal jugular vein thrombosis. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotic therapy and drainage of septic foci. The role of anticoagulation is controversial. Ligation or excision of the internal jugular vein may be needed in some cases.


Keywords: Lemierre's syndrome; Fusobacterium necrophorum; necrobacillosis; septicaemia; oropharynx PMID:10448489

  15. Lemierre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Mastoiditis in a 2-Year-Old Girl with Congenital Dwarfism

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jason B.; Prout, Andrew; Blackwood, R. Alexander; Warrier, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre syndrome is defined by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein caused by Fusobacterium. Historically, these infections originate from the oropharynx and typically are seen in older children, adolescents and young adults. More recently, otogenic sources in younger children have been described with increasing frequency. We present a case of a two-year old, who initially developed an otitis media with perforation of the tympanic membrane and went on to develop mastoiditis and non-occlusive thrombosis of the venous sinus and right internal jugular vein. Fusobacterium necrophorum was grown from operative cultures of the mastoid, ensuing computed tomography scan revealed occlusion of the internal jugular vein and the patient was successfully treated with clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and enoxaparin. This case demonstrates the importance of considering Fusobacterium in otogenic infections and the consideration of Lemierre syndrome when F. necrophorum is identified PMID:26294952

  16. Effects of acid on vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes in guinea pig esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Yu, Shaoyong

    2014-08-15

    Acid reflux-induced heartburn and noncardiac chest pain are processed peripherally by sensory nerve endings in the wall of the esophagus, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of acid on esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in guinea pig vagal nodose or jugular C fiber neurons by using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. We recorded action potentials (AP) of esophageal nodose or jugular C fibers evoked by acid perfusion and compared esophageal distension-evoked AP before and after acid perfusion. Acid perfusion for 30 min (pH range 7.4 to 5.8) did not evoke AP in nodose C fibers but significantly decreased their responses to esophageal distension, which could be recovered after washing out acid for 90 min. In jugular C fibers, acid perfusion not only evoked AP but also inhibited their responses to esophageal distension, which were not recovered after washing out acid for 120 min. Lower concentration of capsaicin perfusion mimicked acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fibers. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810, but not acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor amiloride, significantly inhibited acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fiber. These results demonstrate that esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent nerve subtypes display distinctive responses to acid. Acid activates jugular, but not nodose, C fibers and inhibits both of their responses to esophageal distension. These effects are mediated mainly through TRPV1. This inhibitory effect is a novel finding and may contribute to esophageal sensory/motor dysfunction in acid reflux diseases. PMID:24994852

  17. Biometric measurements involving the terminal portion of the thoracic duct on left cervical level IV: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Andressa Cristina Sposato; Lim, Soo Jin; Pallazzo, Jaqueline Fabiano; Silva, Viviane Passarelli Ramin; de Oliveira, Ruan Vitor Silva; Yoshio, Alvaro Masahiro; de Araújo-Neto, Vergilius José Furtado; Leite, Ana Kober Nogueira; Silveira, André; Simões, Cesar; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Matos, Leandro Luongo de; Cernea, Claudio Roberto

    2016-06-01

    To determine the point of entrance of the thoracic duct in the venous system, as well as to evaluate some biometric measurements concerning its terminal portion, we conducted an anatomic study on 25 non-preserved cadavers. The termination of the thoracic duct occurred on the confluence between the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein in 60 % of the individuals. The average results for the biometric measurements were: distance between the end of left internal jugular vein and omohyoid muscle 31.2 ± 2.7 mm; distance between the end of thoracic duct and the left internal jugular vein 0.0 ± 0.0 mm; distance between the end of thoracic duct and the left subclavian vein 3.6 ± 1.0 mm; distance between the end of thoracic duct and the left brachiocephalic vein 10.7 ± 3.1 mm. Moreover, it was identified that the left internal jugular vein length in level IV, measured between its entrance in the left subclavian vein and the omohyoid muscle, was able to predict the termination of the thoracic duct on the junction between the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein (OR = 2.99) with high accuracy (79.3 %). In addition, the left internal jugular vein length at level IV was able to predict the localization of thoracic duct termination. Thus, this finding has practical value in minimizing the risk for a potential chyle leak during or after a left-sided neck dissection. PMID:26272628

  18. Morphofunctional variation of the tooth pulp under the action of the erbium laser radiation with the wavelength 2.69 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, Victor N.; Guk, Alexey S.; Jordanishwily, A. K.; Kropotov, Sergey P.; Maday, Dimitry Y.; Kusovkova, Tatyana A.; Serebryakov, Victor A.; Frolov, Sergey V.

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of the morphofunctional state of the mouth cavity tissues after teeth processing by the laser radiation with the wavelength 2.69 micrometers . Teeth preparation down to the state of the deep or intermediate caries as well as pulp trepanation cases are discussed. No pulp necrosis was observed.

  19. Commissioning results of MMT-POL: the 1-5um imaging polarimeter leveraged from the AO secondary of the 6.5m MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Warner, C.; Krejny, M.; Shenoy, D.; Vonderharr, T.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; DeWahl, K.

    2012-09-01

    MMT-POL is an adaptive optics optimized imaging polarimeter designed for use at the 6.5m MMT. By taking full advantage of the adaptive optics secondary mirror of the MMT, this polarimeter offers diffraction-limited polarimetry with very low instrumental polarization and minimal thermal background. MMT-POL permits observations as diverse as protoplanetary discs, comets, red giant winds, (super)novae and ejecta, galaxies, and AGN. We report on the initial on-sky commissioning results of the instrument including a description of the instrument.

  20. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  1. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  2. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  3. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ∼4.79 and ∼1.49 n W m‑2 MJy‑1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  4. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  5. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  6. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petrun`kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-02-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids.

  7. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  8. Utilizing contrast enhancement material as a topside antireflective coating (TARC) for maximizing an i-line 0.35-um process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Matthew L.; Markowski, Mark S.

    1995-06-01

    As critical dimensions become smaller, a greater demand is being placed on existing i-line lithographic capability to support 0.35 micrometers technology. One method that is gaining wider acceptance is the use of a top side anti reflective coating (TARC). The effect of the TARC is to reduce the interference effects occurring in the film stack so that critical dimension (CD) variation as a result of topography is minimized. Unfortunately, the TARC provides no improvement with other lithographic responses that define the process window of a resist. Another approach is to use a contrast enhancement material (CEM). It is well known that a CEM can improve the depth of focus and resolution of a given resist system, and it is suspected that it may also possess some of the interference reduction properties of conventional TARCs. The purpose of this work is to investigate how effective the CEM acts as a TARC, and to determine any additional lithographic improvements which will increase the overall 0.35 micrometers process window. Process optimization of the CEM and TARC revealed that similar processing schemes could be used for both materials, but that it was necessary to remove the CEM (w/ a water rinse) prior to post exposure bake (PEB). The bulk photospeed swing ratio of the SPR3000 alone, was compared to SPR3000/Aquatar and SPR3000/CEM. Results showed that the Aquatar reduced the Eo swing ratio by 75%, while the CEM reduced the Eo swing ratio by about 55%. Similar improvements were seen with 0.35 micrometers CD swing ratio data. Exposure latitude and focus latitude (0.35 micrometers lines/spaces) data was generated using the same resist/enhancement schemes mentioned above at thicknesses corresponding to an Emax and Emin. Results of the lithography at each thickness were overlaid to determine the process window. Results showed the Aquatar and CEM processes to provide improved 0.35 micrometers windows, and that using a contrast enhancement material as a TARC is another alternative which can be used to increase the capability of commercially available i-line resists.

  9. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Akrivou, Maria; Featherstone, John D.; Murray, Michael W.; Dickenson, Kevin M.

    2001-04-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 micrometers wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce an initial high energy spike at the beginning of the laser pulse of submicrosecond duration followed by a long tail of about 1 - 4 microsecond(s) . The pulse duration is well matched to the 1 - 2 microsecond(s) thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 micrometers and effectively heats the enamel to the temperatures required for surface modification at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk of pulpal necrosis from excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences, the high peak power of the laser pulse rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By lengthening the laser pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial high energy spike, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  10. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy of H212C16O in the 1.9 to 2.56 um Spectral Range

    SciTech Connect

    Flaud, J-M; Lafferty, Walter J.; Sams, Robert L.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2006-06-20

    Infrared spectra of H2CO covering the 1.9 ? 2.5 ?m spectral domain have been recorded at very high resolution (0.005 cm-1) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of this spectral region has led to the observation and analysis of the v1+v6, v2+v4+v6, 2v3+ v6, v3+v5, v1+v2, v2+v5, 2v2+ v6 and 3v2 bands. The line frequencies were calculated using effective (empirical) Hamiltonian models which account for the main Coriolis and vibrational interactions. Using an interactive scheme it was then possible to least-squares fit the observed energy levels to within a few thousandths of a wavenumber. The Obs. ? Calc. differences do not match the spectral precision ({approx}0.0008 cm-1), but given the congestion in the spectrum resulting from the density of the vibrational states as well as the large centrifugal distortion and Coriolis and anharmonic coupling effects, we believe that a reasonable agreement was obtained.

  12. Antarktische benthische Ostracoden. VIII. Auswertung der Reise der ``Meteor'' (Ant. 11/4) in die Gewässer um Elephant Island und der Antarktischen Halbinsel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Gerd

    1992-12-01

    The present paper deals with ostracods collected in Antarctica during the voyage of R.V. “Meteor” (11/4) in December and January 1989/90 in waters around Elephant Island and west of the Antarctic Peninsula between 61° and 67°S and 54° and 69°W. 38 of the 50 species sampled were already known to science, but again 4 new species have been found, while 8 have to remain in open nomenclature. For the first time, a species of the subfamily Paracytherideinae was discovered in Antarctica. Additional material from Cytheropteron insulelephantensis, described by the author (Hartmann, 1989) from Elephant Island and rediscovered now at two further stations, shows that this species has to be placed into the genus Nodobythere. The systematical part of the paper contains the description of the new species and new data for species already previously treated (see Hartmann, 1986 1991), while the list of species and the list of stations (see appendix) contains all the species that were collected.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Combined ArTeMiS+SPIRE 350um image of NGC6334 (Andre+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, P.; Reveret, V.; Konyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tige, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-05-01

    High dynamic range dust continuum map of the NGC 6334 star-forming complex at 350 microns obtained by combining high-resolution ground-based observations taken with the ArTeMiS camera on the APEX telescope and Herschel Space Observatory data from the HOBYS key project (Motte et al., 2010A&A...518L..77M; Russeil et al. 2013A&A...554A..42R). The effective angular resolution is ~ 8" (HPBW). (2 data files).

  14. Thermodynamic and transport properties of single-crystalline UM Ga5 (M=Fe,Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Os,Ir,Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, N. O.; Bauer, E. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Hundley, M. F.; Thompson, J. D.; Fisk, Z.

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity measurements on UMGa5 (M=Fe,Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Os,Ir,Pt) single crystals. Antiferromagnetic ordering was observed for M=Ni , Pd, and Pt, with ordering temperatures TN=80K , 28K , and 23.5K , respectively. For the UMGa5 compounds with transition metals from the Fe and Co columns, itinerant paramagnetic behavior is observed. The evolution of this behavior is discussed in terms of f -ligand interaction with an emphasis on the role played by f-d hybridization.

  15. Increased efficiency of silicon light-emitting diodes in a standard 1.2-um silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl; du Plessis, Monuko; Gouws, Rudolph B.

    1998-07-01

    Scaled versions of a variety of silicon light-emitting diode elements (Si LEDs) have been realized using a standard 1.2- micrometers , double-polysilicon, double-metal, n-well CMOS fabrication process. The devices operated with a n+p junction biased in the avalanche breakdown mode and were realized by using standard features of the ORBIT FORESIGHT design rules. The elements emit optical radiation in a broad band in the 450- to 850-nm range. An emitted intensity of up to 7.1 (mu) W/cm2 has been obtained with 5 mA of current at an operating voltage of 18.5 V. Excellent uniformity in emission intensity of better than 1 percent variation was obtained over areas as large as 100 X 500 micrometers . A best power conversion efficiency of 8.7 X 10-8 and a quantum efficiency of 7.8 X 10-7 were measured. All of these values are about one order of magnitude better than previously reported values for Si LED avalanche devices. Coupling between the elements as well as electro- optical coupling between an element and an optical fiber was realized.

  16. Leo de Ball and his contributions to international astronomical projects around 1900. (German Title: Leo de Ball und seine Beiträge zu internationalen Astronomieprojekten um 1900)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1891 until 1916 Leo de Ball was the director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. Born in Germany in 1853, he studied at Berlin and Bonn. After having received his doctorate in 1877, he became assistant at Gotha. From 1881 to 1882 he worked at the observatory in Bothkamp, where he discovered the minor planet ``Athamantis''. In 1883, he followed an invitation to the Ougrée Observatory in Belgium. Here he published some quite remarkable papers on the mass of Saturn and was also introduced to meridian circle astronomy. In 1891 he received a call to Moriz von Kuffner's observatory in Vienna. During that time the Astronomische Gesellschaft called for an extension of the ``Zonenunternehmen'' to southern declinations from -2 ° to -23°. De Ball took over the zone -5°50´ to -10°50´. This work occupied most of his time from 1892 to 1896. In 1900 Leo de Ball initiated a project for determining relative parallaxes of 252 stars in collaboration with four observatories. Although the project was only partly executed, Leo de Ball published relative parallaxes of 16 stars, observed from 1901 to 1907 with the Vienna heliometer.

  17. An Unusual Observation During Neck Dissection.

    PubMed

    Anehosur, Venkatesh; Rajendiran, Saravanan; Jayade, Gautam R; Kumar, Niranjan

    2016-07-01

    External jugular vein (EJV) is a major superficial vein in the neck which drains deeper parts of face and posterior scalp region. Although it follows a predicted pattern in formation, course and termination in general unusually it also exhibits variations which are clinically important. Gross variations in the incidence of these variations in EJV are noted. We report an anomalous course of EJV which drains into internal jugular vein in our case report. Knowledge about EJV and its origin, course and termination is important for surgeons, interventional radiologist, anaesthesiologist, clinicians in general to avoid inadvertent complication. PMID:27408458

  18. Review of venous anatomy for venographic interpretation in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Werner, John D; Siskin, Gary P; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Herr, Allen

    2011-12-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) represents a recently described condition that may potentially contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. The evaluation of a prospective patient for CCSVI often involves an invasive evaluation with venography of the internal jugular and azygos veins. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral, and azygos veins, as an understanding of these veins is necessary for appropriate interpretation of the venograms obtained to evaluate patients for CCSVI. PMID:21975259

  19. Permanent pacing in patients without upper limb venous access: a review of current techniques

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Swee-Chong; Lim, Toon-Wei; Singh, Devinder; Yeo, Wee-Tiong; Kojodjojo, Pipin

    2014-01-01

    Permanent transvenous cardiac pacing is usually accomplished through the upper limb veins. When these are occluded, several other vascular access options exist which include the internal jugular, external jugular, femoral and iliac veins as well as more proximal access of the subclavian veins. Anterograde and retrograde techniques to restore subclavian venous patency has been described. A review of these approaches is undertaken, with a discussion of their pros and cons. Familiarity with these techniques will enable the implanter to perform transvenous pacing when faced with limited vascular access. PMID:27326197

  20. Lemierre’s Syndrome presenting with neurological and pulmonary symptoms: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Nath, Alok; Singh, Rajni; Keshri, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre’s Syndrome (LS) is a potentially life-threatening condition, characterized by clinical or radiologic evidence of internal jugular vein thrombosis following an oropharyngeal infection, most commonly by Fusobacterium necrophorum. A high index of suspicion and early recognition is important for successful management and to prevent systemic complications like multiorgan failure with extremely high morbidity, prolonged hospitalization and, not uncommonly, death. We are reporting a rare case of LS that was complicated with internal jugular vein and cavernous sinus thrombosis along with lung metastatic lesions, which was diagnosed and treated at our institute. PMID:23956578

  1. A case of lemierre syndrome secondary to otitis media and mastoiditis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Aynur; Cam, Harun; Dadali, Yeliz; Korkmaz, Serdar; Ozdek, Ali; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare clinical condition that generally develops secondary to oropharyngeal infection caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is an anaerobic bacteria. A 62-year-old patient with diabetes mellitus presented with internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus-transverse sinus thrombophlebitis, accompanying otitis media and mastoiditis that developed after an upper airway infection. Interestingly, there were air bubbles in both the internal jugular vein and transverse sinus. Vancomycin and meropenem were started and a right radical mastoidectomy was performed. The patient's clinical picture completely resolved in 14 days. High mortality and morbidity may be prevented with a prompt diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome. PMID:25431696

  2. Slowly progressive Lemierre's syndrome with orbital pain and exophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Hama, Yuka; Koga, Masatoshi; Fujinami, Jun; Asayama, Shinya; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an oropharyngeal bacterial infection characterized by rapidly progressive septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. A lack of appropriate antibiotic therapy can be life-threatening. We describe the case of a 39-year-old man with Lemierre's syndrome who presented with long-lasting orbital pain and acute exophthalmos 6 weeks after initial infection. This report is to help clinicians consider the diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome when encountering a patient with long-lasting orbital pain and acute exophthalmos. Neck ultrasonography is useful for detecting thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein in Lemierre's syndrome patients. PMID:26419364

  3. [Throat ache ans swelling of the neck: first symptoms of Lemierre's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ybema, A; de Lange, J; Baas, E M

    2014-03-01

    Lemierre's syndrome, a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, is a rare disorder, usually caused by the microorganism Fusobacterium necrophorum. Throat ache and swelling of the neck are often the first symptoms. Without adequate treatment, Lemierre's syndrome may result in thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic lung abscesses, with a mortality rate of 18%. On the basis of 2 cases, Lemierre's syndrome is described here. In cases where Lemierre's syndrome is suspected, hospitalization often follows, with the administration of intravenous antibiotics and drainage of the abscesses. One should be on the alert for Lemierre's syndrome when a patient is presented with swelling in the neck following an oropharyngeal infection. PMID:24684132

  4. Lemierre's syndrome: a serious complication of a routine dental procedure.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, B; Bertram, A; Naim, A

    2013-06-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is the clinical presentation characterized by oropharyngeal or tonsillar infection, anaerobic septicaemia often with distant septic emboli, and clinical or radiological evidence of thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in a 44-year-old type II diabetic male. This case is unique for two reasons. Firstly, we believe it is the first reported iatrogenic case following a routine dental procedure. Secondly, the internal jugular vein thrombosis was found to occur on the contralateral side to the primary infection. PMID:23713647

  5. Lemierre's Syndrome presenting with neurological and pulmonary symptoms: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Nath, Alok; Singh, Rajni; Keshri, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Lemierre's Syndrome (LS) is a potentially life-threatening condition, characterized by clinical or radiologic evidence of internal jugular vein thrombosis following an oropharyngeal infection, most commonly by Fusobacterium necrophorum. A high index of suspicion and early recognition is important for successful management and to prevent systemic complications like multiorgan failure with extremely high morbidity, prolonged hospitalization and, not uncommonly, death. We are reporting a rare case of LS that was complicated with internal jugular vein and cavernous sinus thrombosis along with lung metastatic lesions, which was diagnosed and treated at our institute. PMID:23956578

  6. A Case of Lemierre Syndrome Secondary to Otitis Media and Mastoiditis

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Aynur; Cam, Harun; Dadali, Yeliz; Korkmaz, Serdar; Özdek, Ali; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare clinical condition that generally develops secondary to oropharyngeal infection caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is an anaerobic bacteria. A 62-year-old patient with diabetes mellitus presented with internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus-transverse sinus thrombophlebitis, accompanying otitis media and mastoiditis that developed after an upper airway infection. Interestingly, there were air bubbles in both the internal jugular vein and transverse sinus. Vancomycin and meropenem were started and a right radical mastoidectomy was performed. The patient's clinical picture completely resolved in 14 days. High mortality and morbidity may be prevented with a prompt diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome. PMID:25431696

  7. Persistent left superior vena cava: Two case reports and a review from nephrologists' perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayarlar, Arzu Ozdemir; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Caglayan, Feyza Bayraktar; Hasbal, Nuri Baris; Nazif, Perin; Isleem, Mahmoud; Sahutoglu, Elif; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-07-01

    Thoracic venous anomalies without congenital heart anomalies are present in minority of the population, but they are frequent enough to be encountered while placing hemodialysis catheters through the jugular or subclavian veins. Persistent left superior vena cava is the most commonly seen anomaly and it is rarely noticed before the observation of an unusual course of hemodialysis catheter or guidewire on chest X-ray. We present two patients with previously unspotted persistent left superior vena cava and uncomplicated hemodialysis catheter insertions through the internal jugular veins with good catheter functions. Review of the relevant literature from a nephrologists' perspective with technical aspects is provided. PMID:26843030

  8. Experiencias, Sentido y Significado de la Consejeria en Justicia Social a Nivel Universitario: Estudio de Caso Cualitativo Mediante Tres Narrativas De Consejeros Profesionales en Educacion Superior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago Tosado, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and profoundly describe the nature of social justice practice, as is comes up from the experience of three professional counselors whose working settings are the academic arena. Detailed descriptions are presented concerning the meanings and sense of counseling for social justice, as the interviews…

  9. Educacion Fundamental Integral #2: Teoria y Aplicacion en el Caso de ACPO. (Fundamental Integral Education #2: Theory and Application in the Case of ACPO.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Hernando Bernal

    Educacion Fundamental Integral (EFI) is an educational process which aims to help Colombia's rural population to improve their living conditions. EFI adapts to the concrete circumstances of the person in his own environment. Objectives of EFI are to make the rural people: responsible for the work necessary for their own development; work together;…

  10. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  11. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  12. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  13. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  14. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  15. [Radiological percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP), 17 años de experiencia, serie de casos del hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Navarro Falcón, Magnolia Del Carmen; Parejo Campos, Juana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2015-01-01

    When assessing a patient nutritional support the state of the gastrointestinal tract is the most important point to consider, whenever possible we should choose the enteral nutrition (EN) over parenteral nutrition (PN) and recognized by its various advantages. The percutaneous gastrostomy (GRP) were introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to surgical gastrostomy (GQ). The speed, simplicity, low cost, low morbidity and low mortality of these techniques has allowed its rapid development.The feeding tubes types used were the balloon-retained devices catheter, the pig tail and the ballon-retained with gastropexia (gastropexia). It is a retrospective study of all patients who were placed GPR in the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Sevilla, between September 1996 and September 2013, which aims to study is to describe the characteristics of patients and the complications presented for different types of enteral feeding tubes used. GPR 186 were performed in 176 patients (135 males (76.70%), with an average duration of 303.6 days, the most frequent diseases were cancers of the head and neck 49.46%. The types of feeding tubes used were pigtail 118 (63.44%), balloon-retained devices 22 (11.83%), and gastropexia 46 (24.73%). The most common early complications in the pigtail group were early purulent exudate and early bleeding (2.5 and 3.4% respectively), while in the balloon catheter group the initial output of the probe was most frequent early complication (13.7%), none of these complications were observed in the group of gastropexy. The most common late complication was obstruction probe. The GPR is a safe technique with lower mortality of 1%; Low frequently of early and late complications. A better understanding of this technique can reduce the frequency of complications. PMID:25561125

  16. Metamorphic Formation of Extraterrestrial Portlandite in the Sutter's Mill Meteorite (SM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, C. W.; Garvie, L. A.; Domanik, K. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sutter's Mill meteorite fell on April 22nd, 2012. Only three small stones (totaling 14.6 g) were collected before heavy rains fell over the fall site, one of which (SM3, 5.0 g) was obtained by Arizona State University's Center for Meteorite Studies. Bulk powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigation of seven stones shows that SM3, 6, 8 and 9 are olivine-rich and SM38, 41 and 65 are clay-rich [Garvie 2013]. The olivine-rich stones are largely anhydrous, with mass losses of ~3 wt%, as measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SM3 also contains Fe-sulfides, magnetite, oldhamite, and minor enstatite. Reflected-light observations show a heterogeneous distribution of clasts, chondrules, sulfides and bluish-white grains embedded in a dark, fine-grained matrix. Three visually prominent bluish-white mineral grains were identified for study: Grain 1, 100 um surrounded by matrix; Grain 2, 200 x 100 um with a rim of ferrous olivine; and Grain 3, 350 x 150 um surrounded by a thick rim of microcrystalline Fe-Ni sulfides. Wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) data of these grains are dominated by Ca and O exhibiting a 1:2 Ca:O ratio, with minor Cl and S. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) reveals abundant H. Compositional maps show an even distribution of Ca across the grains, with enrichments of S at the rims. The chemical data of these grains is consistent with portlandite, Ca(OH)2. This is the first indigenous report of meteoritic portlandite. Portlandite can form through the thermal decomposition of CaCO3 or via the carbothermic reduction of CaSO4 to CaO. CaCO3 decomposes to CO2 and CaO at temperatures >840° C. Carbothermic reduction of CaSO4 to CaO can occur at temperatures >700° C. Both reactions produce CaO which can then easily hydrate to Ca(OH)2, with a likely source of H from dehydroxylation of pre-existing serpentines. Dehydroxylation of serpentine occurs between 550° and 800° C with complete dehydration to olivine >800° C [Ivanova 2010, Gualtieri

  17. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  18. A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

  19. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  20. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Acidic Cave Biofilms in the Frasassi Caves, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Cleaveland, L. C.; Galdenzi, S.; Macalady, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Acidic (pH 2-4) and extremely acidic (pH 0-1) biofilms in sulfidic regions of the Frasassi cave system are relatively simple, chemoautotrophic microbial communities. As such, they serve as model systems to test relationships between microbial diversity and physical and geochemical factors. Both biofilm types are isolated from surface sources of C and N and are ultimately powered by oxidation of H2S present in the cave atmosphere. pH 2-4 biofilms consist of cells in close association with sub-um to sub-mm mineral grains (primarily CaSO4) coating cave walls. Direct counts of cells stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, hydrochloride (DAPI) yield a biomass estimate of 7.5 x 106 to 1.3 x 107 cells per cm3. The great majority of these cells are either dormant (contain few ribosomes) or cells which do not hybridize with either bacteria- or archaea-specific oligonucleotide probes. Sparse clusters of short rod and coccus-shaped cells hybridized with a bacteria-specific Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) probe. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rDNA was successful with bacteria-specific primers as well as with several sets of archaeal-specific primers, suggesting that some of the "dormant" cells are archaea. Extremely acidic biofilms (snottites) drip from macroscopic (1-2 cm length), reddish CaSO4 crystals on the cave walls. DAPI-staining and FISH revealed abundant bacterial rods, bacterial filaments, and fungi in the snottites. Future work will characterize the acidic cave wall biofilms, as well as neutral-pH cave stream biofilms, using 16S rDNA clone libraries in order to determine whether pH is an important factor controlling microbial diversity.

  1. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  2. Astronomia cultural e meio ambiente segundo uma abordagem holística

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho ampliamos a discussão da abordagem holística para o ensino de astronomia que temos desenvolvido nos últimos anos, analisamos novos resultados e apresentamos exemplos práticos para interessados em experimentá-la. A constatação básica a orientar este enfoque é que cursos introdutórios em astronomia costumam ser excessiva e prematuramente técnicos, além de assumirem uma visão tradicional, muito estreita, do que seja educação científica, herdada da era cartesiana e positivista da ciência. Fundamentamos porque é importante que elementos de astronomia cultural ofereçam o mote e constituam o eixo norteador daqueles cursos e porque é urgente revermos a visão que temos da relação entre astronomia e meio ambiente. Um ponto central nesta abordagem é explorar formas de reativar e atualizar uma relação orgânica com o meio e excitar a consciência de nossa inevitável e profunda interdependência com ele em nível cósmico. Neste trabalho exemplificamos a possibilidade de concretização desta proposta em três diferentes situações: disciplinas de cursos de licenciatura em geografia e em física; escolas de nível fundamental; e, neste caso ainda a ser implementada, comunidades carentes. Estes casos envolvem públicos e espaços diferenciados para educação formal e não-formal. Dos casos já implementados, destacamos os resultados alcançados pelos alunos: enriquecimento cultural, aprendizagem significativa de conteúdos astronômicos tradicionais; mudanças de comportamento, incorporando contato diário com o céu; e freqüentes vivências de sentimentos empáticos que redirecionam a relação com a natureza e a consciência ecológica global. Além disto, para interessados em aplicar esta proposta, também socializamos procedimentos e cuidados para a implementação de ações alternativas consonantes com a mesma. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  3. Acute dissection of a Contegra conduit: a rare mechanism of failure.

    PubMed

    Kavarana, Minoo N; Dorfman, Adam L; Agarwal, Prachi P; Bove, Edward L

    2010-09-01

    The Contegra (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) bovine jugular vein conduit has been used with increasing frequency in congenital heart disease for the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. In this report, we describe a mechanism for conduit failure secondary to an acute dissection of the inner neointimal peel from the conduit wall. PMID:20732536

  4. Management of superior vena cava obstruction syndrome due to thrombosis of a Contegra conduit used to re-establish the innominate vein-to-right atrium continuity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Alexiou, Christos; Tofeig, Magdi; Spyt, Tomasz J

    2007-08-01

    Following intraoperative superior vena cava injury, venous drainage of the head, neck and upper extremities can be re-established with bovine jugular vein (Contegra) conduits. Inadequate anticoagulation, however, may lead to conduit thrombosis and superior vena cava obstruction syndrome. This can be successfully treated with percutaneous dilatation and stenting of the failed conduit. PMID:17669924

  5. Nanofiber-reinforced biological conduit in cardiac surgery: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Soma; Galla, Satish; Ramesh, Balasundari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2011-06-01

    Several options are available for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, including commercially available bovine jugular vein and cryo-preserved homografts. Homograft non-availability and the problems of commercially available conduits led us to develop indigenously processed bovine jugular vein conduits with competent valves. They were made completely acellular and strengthened by non-conventional cross-linking without disturbing the extracellular matrix, which improved the luminal surface characteristics for hemocompatibility. Biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, along with thermal stability, matrix stability, and mechanical strength have been evaluated. Sixty-nine patients received these conduits for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. Seven conduits dilated and 4 required replacement. To counteract dilatation, biodegradable polymeric nanofibers in various combinations and in isolation (collagen, polycaprolactone, polylactic acid) were characterized and used to reinforce the conduit circumferentially. Physical validation by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy, and in-vitro cytotoxicity was conducted. Thermal stability, spectroscopy studies of the polymer, and preclinical studies of the coated bovine jugular vein in animals are in progress. The feasibility studies have been completed, and the final polymer selection depends on evaluation of the functional superiority of the coated bovine jugular vein. PMID:21885543

  6. Which blood oxygen can sensitively indicate shock severity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Clinical shock-monitoring mainly depends on measuring oxygen saturations from SVC blood samples invasively. The golden standard indicator is the central internal jugular vein oxygenation (SjvO2). Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) also can monitor shock in some papers published, but there is no discussion about which oxygen saturation (cerebral venous oxygen saturation, ScvO2; tissue oxygen saturation of internal jugular area; tissue oxygen saturation of extremities areas) can monitor shock patient more sensitively and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to examine which one is most effective. In order to discuss the problem, we continuously detected 56 critical patients who may be into shock state using NIRS oximeter at prefrontal, internal jugular vein area and forearm, and chose 24 patients who were into shock and then out of shock from the 56 critical patients. Combined with the patients' condition, the pulse oxygen saturation is most sensitively to monitoring shock than the others, and the internal jugular vein area oxygen saturation is most effective.

  7. A Rare Case of Lateral Sinus Thrombosis with Carotid Space Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam Bir; Rai, Anil K.; Singh, Sarvejeet; Sinha, Mukul

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a case of carotid space abscess secondary to lateral sinus thrombosis associated with internal jugular vein thrombosis. With this case, we illustrate a rare entity that presented in an extremely rare manner. To the authors knowledge such a case has not been previously reported. PMID:23193490

  8. Pharmacometrics of Pterostilbene: Pre-Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant, and Analgesic Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate the pre-clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pterostilbene. Methods: Rat liver microsomes were used to evaluate in vitro phase I and II metabolism. Right jugular vein cannulated male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed intravenously with 20 mg/kg of pterostilbene and sam...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pentazocine base per pound of body weight per day. (ii) Indications for use. For symptomatic relief of pain... are given slowly in the jugular vein. In cases of severe pain, a second dose is recommended... amelioration of pain accompanying postoperative recovery, fracture, trauma, and spinal disorders....

  10. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pentazocine base per pound of body weight per day. (ii) Indications for use. For symptomatic relief of pain... are given slowly in the jugular vein. In cases of severe pain, a second dose is recommended... amelioration of pain accompanying postoperative recovery, fracture, trauma, and spinal disorders....

  11. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pentazocine base per pound of body weight per day. (ii) Indications for use. For symptomatic relief of pain... are given slowly in the jugular vein. In cases of severe pain, a second dose is recommended... amelioration of pain accompanying postoperative recovery, fracture, trauma, and spinal disorders....

  12. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug User

    SciTech Connect

    Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Doriforou, Ortansia; Skiadas, Vasilios Koutoulidis, Vasilios; Katsenis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Lampros

    2006-08-15

    A 26-year-old drug abuser who presented with sepsis was found to have a pseudoaneurysm in the left vertebral artery. This aneurysm was presumed to be post-traumatic, since the patient reported multiple attempts to inject drugs in the left jugular vein 15 days prior to admission. The pseudoaneurysm was treated effectively with stent-graft placement.

  13. Evaluation of the stress response of heifers during transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the stress associated with transportation; 22 heifers (326 ± 47 kg) were randomly assigned to a control (Con) or transport (Tran) group. On d 0, 12 h prior to the transportation, heifers were weighed and fitted with an indwelling rectal temperature (RT) probe, jugular catheters, and hear...

  14. Lemierre's syndrome presenting with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Marulasiddappa, Vinay; Tejesh, C A

    2013-11-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic abscesses following oropharyngeal infection. Though classically caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, a number of other causative organisms have been reported in literature. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome following parapharyngeal abscess due to staphylococcus aureus which progressed to septic shock. PMID:24501493

  15. Lemierre's syndrome, the forgotten disease.

    PubMed

    Morariu, I; Curran, A; Killeen, R P

    2014-09-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal entity affecting otherwise healthy and young adults. The infection originates in the throat and spreads via a septic trombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, with development of distant septic emboli. This clinical picture is characteristic but many clinicians are unaware of the condition and diagnosis is often delayed with potentially fatal consequences. PMID:25282965

  16. Lemierre's syndrome presenting with septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Marulasiddappa, Vinay; Tejesh, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic abscesses following oropharyngeal infection. Though classically caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, a number of other causative organisms have been reported in literature. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome following parapharyngeal abscess due to staphylococcus aureus which progressed to septic shock. PMID:24501493

  17. Great cervical venous tumoral thrombosis of melanotic medullary carcinoma thyroid: Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography enabled diagnosis and radiotherapy planning

    PubMed Central

    Chigurupati, Mohana Vamsy; Madiraju, Vidya; Chigurupati, Namrata; Shinkar, Pawan Gulabrao; Dhagam, Snehalatha; Prabhakar Rao, Vatturi Venkata Satya

    2016-01-01

    The authors report an extremely rare occurrence of a massive tumor thrombus involving right internal and external jugular veins extending into superior vena cava from a still rarer melanotic medullary carcinoma thyroid in the postoperative follow-up. The case was managed by hypofractionated intensity modulated radiotherapy technique with gratifying results. PMID:26917895

  18. GLP-2-MEDIATED UP-REGULATION OF INTESTINAL BLOOD FLOW AND GLUCOSE UPTAKE IS NITRIC OXIDE-DEPENDENT IN TPN-FED PIGLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Our aim was to determine whether the intestinotrophic effects of GLP-2 are mediated by acute up-regulation of intestinal substrate utilization in TPN-fed piglets. METHODS: Twenty-four 12-day-old pigs, fitted with a portal flow probe and carotid, jugular and portal catheters, were ...

  19. Bovine acute-phase response following different doses of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen weaned, halter-trained Angus steers (BW = 191 ± 2.1 kg) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheter and rectal temperature monitoring device on d -1 of the study. On d 0, steers were ranked by body weight and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 infusion treatments (i.v.): 1) 0.1 micrograms...

  20. Use of an automated sampler to assess bovine adrenal hormone response to transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated blood sampling would aid characterization of acute endocrine responses to transportation procedures. In this study, the IceSampler™ device was programmed to collect blood samples via jugular catheter from the herd's 7 calmest (C; temperament score=0.84±0.03) and 8 most temperamental (T; te...