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Sample records for jugular um caso

  1. Acquired Jugular Vein Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hopsu, Erkki; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Vento, Seija I.; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Venous malformations of the jugular veins are rare findings. Aneurysms and phlebectasias are the lesions most often reported. We report on an adult patient with an abruptly appearing large tumorous mass on the left side of the neck identified as a jugular vein aneurysm. Upon clinical examination with ultrasound, a lateral neck cyst was primarily suspected. Surgery revealed a saccular aneurysm in intimate connection with the internal jugular vein. Histology showed an organized hematoma inside the aneurysmal sac, which had a focally thinned muscular layer. The terminology and the treatment guidelines of venous dilatation lesions are discussed. For phlebectasias, conservative treatment is usually recommended, whereas for saccular aneurysms, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. While an exact classification based on etiology and pathophysiology is not possible, a more uniform taxonomy would clarify the guidelines for different therapeutic modalities for venous dilatation lesions. PMID:20107571

  2. Contemporary management of jugular paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Haynes, David S; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-04-01

    Jugular paragangliomas are generally benign slow-growing tumors that can cause pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, and cranial nerves neuropathy. Progressive growth can also lead to intracranial extension. Historically, the treatment of choice for these lesions has been gross total resection. However, over the last 15 years, many groups have adopted less invasive management strategies including stereotactic radiation therapy, subtotal resection, and primary observation in order to reduce treatment-associated morbidity. The focus of this article is to review the modern management of jugular paraganglioma, highlighting the evolving treatment paradigm at the Otology Group of Vanderbilt. PMID:25769354

  3. Phlebectasia of Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Satish K.; Vasisth, Gaurav O. P.; Chibber, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia (IJP) is a rare disease in which there is a fusiform dilatation of internal jugular vein, usually presenting as a neck mass in children. Accurate diagnosis from careful history, physical examination, and radiological study can be made. We report a 12-year-old boy with history of swelling appearing on the right side of the neck only on straining, coughing, or during a Valsalva maneuver. Diagnosis of right IJP was made. Exploration and wrapping the dilated segment in an 8-mm-diameter polytetrafluoroethylene tube graft was done. Because of its rarity, this entity is frequently ignored or misdiagnosed. This case report intends to stress the importance of keeping IJP as differential diagnosis while dealing with such a swelling to avoid invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. PMID:23741586

  4. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present

  5. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  6. Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, V; Menegatti, E; Mascoli, F; Gianesini, S; Salvi, F; Secchiero, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the ultrastructure of intraluminal defects found in the internal jugular vein by using a scanning electron microscopy. Methods Using a scanning electron microscopy, intraluminal septa and/or defective valves blocking the flow in the distal internal jugular vein of seven patients were studied together with the adjacent wall and compared with control specimen. Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina. Conclusions Although the lack of endothelial cells in the internal jugular vein intraluminal obstacles is a further abnormality found in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, our investigation cannot clarify whether this finding is primary or caused by progressive loss of endothelium in relation to altered haemodynamic forces and/or to a past post-thrombotic/inflammatory remodelling. PMID:24972760

  7. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia in Menkes Disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, David J.; Ravindranath, Thyyar; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric neck masses should trigger a high index of suspicion for certain genetic disorders of connective tissue. To highlight this, we report on three infants with Menkes disease, an inherited disorder of copper transport, who developed large, unilateral neck masses at between 7 and 17 months of age. All were identified in imaging studies as internal jugular phlebectasia. The masses, which enlarged on crying or exertion, have remained clinically benign in these patients for 20, 17 and 2 months, respectively. While arterial tortuosity and aneurysms have been reported often in Menkes disease, venous phlebectasia has rarely been described. We speculate that low activity of the copper-dependent enzyme, lysyl oxidase, leading to reduced tensile strength in the deep cervical fascia comprising the carotid sheath may predispose to internal jugular phlebectasia in these individuals. Improved survival and neurological outcomes in infants with Menkes disease due to advances in early diagnosis and treatment may be associated with recognition of novel clinical stigmata of this condition such as internal jugular phlebectasia. PMID:17482283

  8. Morphology, topography and clinical signi cance of the jugular foramen.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Mróz, Izabela; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes morphological variants of the jugular foramen of the human skull and discusses the reasons for its frequent asymmetry. Bilateral disproportions between the anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the jugular foramina were analyzed. We established that the jugular foramen is extremely narrow when its anteroposterior diameter is less than 5.0 mm. When the mediolateral diameter exceeds 20.0 mm, then the foramen exhibits extreme widening. PMID:27513840

  9. Systemic Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with a Case of Jugular Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Sokabe, Ayuko; Mizooka, Masafumi; Sakemi, Rinne; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Kishikawa, Nobusuke; Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Kanno, Keishi; Tazuma, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Jugular paraganlioma is a benign, slow-growing tumor originating from the paraganglion cells and it is associated with catecholamine secretion. Paragangliomas can secrete Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and present as a systemic inflammatory syndrome; these characteristics have not been previously associated with jugular paragangliomas. A 63-year-old man with a jugular tumor in the skull base was referred to our hospital for an evaluation of pyrexia, back pain, and acute inflammation. His serum IL-6 level was elevated on admission and it decreased after radiotherapy. This is the first known case of a jugular paraganglioma exhibiting systemic inflammatory syndrome. PMID:27477424

  10. [Bilateral jugular thrombosis in Lemierre syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benhayoun, M; Llor, J; Van-Den-Abbeele, T; Elmaleh, M; Mariani, P; Beaufils, F; Dauger, S

    2003-12-01

    An adolescent presented with a rhinosinusitis complicated with bilateral jugular veins and left superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis and respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. Blood culture was positive for Haemophilus influenzae and sinus puncture for Streptococcus constellatus. Evolution was under control after 1 week of appropriate antibiotherapy, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. He had no neurologic, respiratory or ophthalmologic sequelae 6 months later. Despite lack of pharyngitis or isolation of anaerobic species on blood cultures, the picture was considered compatible with Lemierre syndrome. The risk for such a complication should be considered in cases of severe otorhinolaryngologic infection in young adults. PMID:14643536

  11. Positional hoarseness: an unusual symptom in jugular foramen mass.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manish; Bhaskar, Mukesh Kumar; Mittal, Radhey Shyam; Ojha, Balkrishna

    2016-01-01

    We came across a case of jugular foramen mass causing positional hoarseness on turning the head left and disappearing on returning the head to a straight position. Hoarseness of voice due to vagus nerve involvement is seen in jugular foramen mass but positional hoarseness has never been seen before. We report this rarest presentation and discuss the pathophysiology behind it. PMID:27190124

  12. Internal jugular vein phlebectasia presenting with hoarseness of voice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sohini; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Amrita; Bagchi, Nilay Ranjan; Sarkar, Debalina; Pal, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia presents as a soft cystic mass in the neck that appears on straining. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with a painless soft cystic mass in the neck associated with hoarseness of voice. Based on clinical examination and CT image, diagnosis of right internal jugular phlebectasia was made. PMID:24369523

  13. Malposition of central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SoWoon; Lee, Ju Ho; Park, Chunghyun; Hong, Yong-woo

    2015-01-01

    The central venous cannulation is commonly performed in the operating rooms and intensive care units for various purposes. Although the central venous catheter (CVC) is used in many ways, the malpositioning of the CVC is often associated with serious complications. We report a case of an unexpected malposition of a CVC in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein. PMID:25844137

  14. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV) drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications. PMID:26457221

  15. Carotid and Jugular Classification in ARTSENS.

    PubMed

    Sahani, Ashish Kumar; Shah, Malay Ilesh; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2016-03-01

    Over past few years our group has been working on the development of a low-cost device, ARTSENS, for measurement of local arterial stiffness (AS) of the common carotid artery (CCA). This uses a single element ultrasound transducer to obtain A-mode frames from the CCA. It is designed to be fully automatic in its operation such that, a general medical practitioner can use the device without any prior knowledge of ultrasound modality. Placement of the probe over CCA and identification of echo positions corresponding to its two walls are critical steps in the process of measurement of AS. We had reported an algorithm to locate the CCA walls based on their characteristic motion. Unfortunately, in supine position, the internal jugular vein (IJV) expands in the carotid triangle and pulsates in a manner that confounds the existing algorithm and leads to wrong measurements of the AS. Jugular venous pulse (JVP), on its own right, is a very important physiological signal for diagnosis of morbidities of the right side of the heart and there is a lack of noninvasive methods for its accurate estimation. We integrated an ECG device to the existing hardware of ARTSENS and developed a method based on physiology of the vessels, which now enable us to segregate the CCA pulse (CCP) and the JVP. False identification rate is less than 4%. To retain the capabilities of ARTSENS to operate without ECG, we designed another method where the classification can be achieved without an ECG, albeit errors are a bit higher. These improvements enable ARTSENS to perform automatic measurement of AS even in the supine position and make it a unique and handy tool to perform JVP analysis. PMID:25700474

  16. Surgical Approaches to the Jugular Foramen: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; McGrew, Benjamin; Matusz, Petru; De Caro, Raffaele; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Multiple surgical approaches and combinations thereof have been described to gain access to the jugular foramen. In an area laden with important neurovascular structures, care must be taken in choosing the best surgical approach for treatment of rare pathologies involving this region. Methods This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the relevant anatomy along with an overview of the various approaches to the jugular foramen. In an attempt to simplify the various concepts, we propose a basic distinction into anterolateral and posterolateral approaches based on the main trajectory targeting the jugular foramen. Conclusion The anatomy surrounding the jugular foramen is exceedingly complex and requires in-depth understanding of skull base and head and neck relationships. PMID:27175322

  17. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was <25%. Bias was assessed using the Egger funnel plot test. Results: Across all studies, 97% of patients achieved tumor control, and 95% of patients achieved clinical control. Eight studies reported a mean or median follow-up time of >36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  18. Papilledema and Vision Loss Caused by Jugular Paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Lertakyamanee, Paweena; Srinivasan, Ashok; De Lott, Lindsey B; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Paragangliomas that arise from the jugular bulb are known to present as masses in the neck or with hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus, and lower cranial nerve palsies. Much less recognized is their tendency to cause increased intracranial pressure and papilledema by obstructing jugular venous outflow. Only 7 such cases have been reported and with minimal ophthalmic documentation. We describe 3 more cases to provide additional documentation and to emphasize that paragangliomas are a potential cause of the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, and that papilledema may be overlooked when a jugular paraganglioma is diagnosed or after it has been treated. Such lapses have led to disabling vision loss from damage to the optic nerves in long-standing papilledema. PMID:26079334

  19. Diagnosis of jugular paraganglioma by radionuclide angiography: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Kronenberg, J.; Tadmor, R.; Leventon, G.

    1983-11-01

    Jugular paraganglioma is a highly vascular tumor, slowly growing, extending into the surrounding stuctures and causing otologic and /or neurologic symptoms according to its location in the jugular bulb region or the middle-ear. In our study, modified vertex and posterior head scintiangiography was used in seven cases. Scintiangiography was positive in all seven, whereas concomitant radiographic studies were limited: four of the seven gave positive findings by transmission computerized tomography (TCT). Only four patients underwent angiography, with positive results in two. Hypocycloidal tomography was positive in three cases. However, some radiographic studies, particularly TCT, may be useful in detecting local extension, bone destruction, and soft-tissue infiltration. Radionuclide angiography proved highly reliable and should be used initially whenever a jugular paraganglioma is suspected.

  20. Jugular Vein Invasion Diagnosis and Prognosis in Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Pierre Yves; Thariat, Juliette; Chevenet, Carole; Lacout, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Diagnosis of venous jugular invasion by means of traditional imaging is very rarely reported in the literature. Doppler ultrasound definitively helps to diagnose the tumor thrombus, the extent, and helps in redefining the TNM stage of such an aggressive thyroid tumor. PMID:27354880

  1. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  2. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Fortuna, Marek; Zaniewski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:23097738

  3. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    SciTech Connect

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  4. The jugular foramen: microsurgical anatomy and operative approaches.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, T; Rhoton, A L; Matsushima, T

    1997-07-01

    The jugular foramen, based on these studies of microsurgical anatomy, is divided into three compartments: two venous and a neural or intrajugular compartment. The venous compartments consist of a larger posterolateral venous channel, the sigmoid part, which receives the flow of the sigmoid sinus, and a smaller anteromedial venous channel, the petrosal part, which receives the drainage of the inferior petrosal sinus. The petrosal part forms a characteristic venous confluens by also receiving tributaries from the hypoglossal canal, petroclival fissure, and vertebral venous plexus. The petrosal part empties into the sigmoid part through an opening in the medial wall of the jugular bulb between the glossopharyngeal nerve anteriorly and the vagus and accessory nerves posteriorly. The intrajugular or neural part, through which the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves course, is located between the sigmoid and petrosal parts at the site of the intrajugular processes of the temporal and occipital bones, which are joined by a fibrous or osseous bridge. The glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves penetrate the dura on the medial margin of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone to reach the medial wall of the internal jugular vein. The operative approaches, which access the foramen and adjacent areas and are demonstrated in a stepwise manner, are the postauricular transtemporal, retrosigmoid, extreme lateral transcondylar, and preauricular subtemporal-infratemporal approaches. PMID:9218307

  5. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia: Diagnosis by Ultrasonography, Doppler and Contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Manash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Jugular phlebectasia is an isolated saccular or fusiform dilation of a vein without tortuosity. Its aetiology remains controversial. It is infradiagnosed, as it is generally asymptomatic. However, it has been increasingly recognized in recent years due to the better imaging techniques which are available. Phlebectasia of the Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) is a rare disease. It is mostly unilateral and it involves only the right side. It is usually a childhood disease which is diagnosed during the study of an intermittent neck mass. Its treatment is controversial. Presently, a conservative approach to unilateral or bilateral asymptomatic phlebectasia is recommended. Symptomatic phlebectasia requires surgery. The diagnosis is suggested by clinical features which can be confirmed by noninvasive radiology. This paper is reporting a case of unilateral right internal jugular phlebectasia in a 12 year old female patient who complained of an intermittent, right sided neck swelling, where we used UltraSonoGraphy(USG) with Doppler and Contrast enhanced CT(CECT) to evaluate the lesion. PMID:23905140

  6. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  7. Carotid-jugular arteriovenous fistula: a case report of an iatrogenic complication following internal jugular vein catheterization for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himanshu V; Sainaresh, Vellanki V; Jain, Siddharth H; Kute, Vivek B; Godara, Suraj; Gumber, Manoj R; Munjappa, Bipin; Gera, Dinesh N; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of diabetic end-stage renal disease patient who presented with a right common carotid artery jugular arteriovenous fistula as a complication of the insertion of a polyurethane double-lumen hemodialysis catheter into the right internal jugular vein .On physical examination of the neck, a pulsating mass with a palpable thrill and a bruit was noted in the right subclavicular region. The diagnosis was confirmed by color doppler ultrasonography of the neck and carotid angiography. The review of the literature suggests the occurrence of this complication as rather rare. The fistula was successfully repaired surgically. It is emphasized that while securing the access, a thorough physical examination with a special emphasis on seeking any neck swellings, thrill, and bruit along with routine use of vascular doppler for securing dialysis access is recommended. PMID:21624042

  8. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn’t available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. Methods 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Results A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262–605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363–3.588; p = 0.001). Conclusions Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable. PMID:26751380

  9. Superior vena cava reconstruction using bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei Dong; Yu, Feng Lei; Wu, Zhong Shi

    2007-11-01

    The glutaraldehyde-treated bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC) is a xenograft conduit initially used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and has never been used for reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC). In September 2003, a patient with SVC obstruction underwent SVC reconstruction using BJVC. He has been alive for 42 months and free from signs and symptoms of SVC obstruction except that metastasis was found in the vertebrae. The radionuclide venography showed the graft tube was patent and only slight stenosis was found in the proximal anastomosis. The initial result supports BJVC as an acceptable alternative for SVC reconstruction. PMID:17768061

  10. Acute respiratory distress associated with external jugular vein catheterization in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Fadi F; Obeid, Mounir; Dabbous, Ibrahim; Hayek, Paula; Akel, Samir; Mroueh, Salman

    2003-12-01

    We report on the acute onset of respiratory distress secondary to fluid accumulation in the chest within hours of placement of an external jugular venous line in a newborn. External jugular venous catheterization in the newborn is a procedure with potentially serious complications, and should be avoided unless the patient is monitored closely. PMID:14618649

  11. Anatomical variation of cerebral venous drainage: the theoretical effect on jugular bulb blood samples.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Yule, S; Kassner, A; Jackson, A

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant variation in bilateral jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements which may be of clinical significance. We have therefore measured variations in normal dural sinus venous drainage to assess the possible effects of normal anatomical variations on measured jugular venous oxygen saturation. Normal volunteers (n = 25) were imaged using magnetic resonance venography to demonstrate variations in venous anatomy. Flow was measured in the superior sagittal sinus and bilaterally in the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus proximal to the jugular bulb and proximal jugular vein using phase difference magnetic resonance imaging. Examination of magnetic resonance venogram images showed considerable variability in the symmetry of transverse sinus flow. Complete absence of one transverse sinus was seen in four cases and significant asymmetry in the size of the transverse sinuses was present in 13. Quantitative flow studies demonstrated that the ratio of superior sagittal sinus to combined jugular bulb flow showed remarkably little variation (0.46 +/- 0.06). Measurements of transverse sinus flow showed significant asymmetry (< 40% of superior sagittal sinus flow in one transverse sinus) in 21 of 25 volunteers. The effect of the observed asymmetry on jugular venous oxygen saturation was modelled based on the assumption of either a supratentorial or infratentorial lesion. This model predicted significant asymmetry in jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements (> 10%) in 65% of cases with a supratentorial lesion which is in close agreement with clinical observations. This study suggests that normal variations in venous drainage may account for observed asymmetry in jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements. PMID:9771169

  12. Congenital Agenesis of the Internal Jugular Vein: An Extremely Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Calli, Caglar; Emre, Abdulkadir; Soy, Fatih Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of major venous vessels are rarely seen. Moreover, congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. In our case, a female patient presented with primary unknown left cervical mass. Cervical ultrasonography demonstrated absence of right internal jugular vein. In addition, computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed this diagnosis. Compensatory left internal jugular vein enlargement mimicked sort of cervical mass. Venous magnetic resonance imaging images revealed the absence of right internal jugular vein with compensatory left internal jugular vein dominance. In the literature, the agenesis of IJV was mentioned in a case with concomitant multiple problems. Here, an asymptomatic case is reported with an incident diagnosis. No interventions were planned upon the patient's request. It should be kept in mind that any kind of anomalies can be seen during venous access and neck surgery. PMID:25821625

  13. Right internal jugular venous cannulation complicated by tension hydrothorax.

    PubMed

    Maroun, Rabih; Chalhoub, Michel; Harris, Kassem

    2013-01-01

    Central Venous Catheter (CVC) is a common procedure performed in patients' management, especially the critically ill ones. CVC has been used as main access in patients requiring large amount of fluid resuscitation, total parenteral nutrition or measuring the central venous pressure. Although most complications associated with central venous cannulation are minimal, local and easy to control, others may be critical and rapidly fatal if not recognized and treated immediately. One of the most serious incidents that can occur post CVC placement is delayed hydrothorax. It usually results from migration and perforation of the catheter through the SVC wall. In this report, we describe a case of tension hydrothorax that occurred a few hours after placement of CVC in the right internal jugular vein. In acutely ill patients that are already unstable, making the diagnosis of tension hydrothorax secondary to CVC placement requires high level of suspicion. Prompt pleural effusion drainage like in our case is crucial for favorable outcome. PMID:23871236

  14. Anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein during head rotation

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Satoru; Nakazawa, Ken; Onozawa, Shiro; Mine, Takahiko; Ueda, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Yasui, Daisuke; Takeda, Minako; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein during head rotation for the effective performance of percutaneous transjugular procedures. The subjects included 30 volunteers who had never undergone internal jugular vein cannulation. In the supine position, two-dimensional ultrasonographic images of the right internal jugular vein and common carotid artery were obtained, 2 and 4 cm above the clavicle, along the lateral border of the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Ultrasonographic images were examined for head rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° from the midline to the left. The percentage of overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein and the flattening of the internal jugular vein at each head rotation position were measured and evaluated. The overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein significantly increased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01), compared with that observed in the neutral position. The flattening of the internal jugular vein significantly decreased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01). Head rotation should be kept to <45° at 2 cm above the clavicle and <30° at 4 cm above the clavicle to decrease the risk of accidental puncture of the common carotid artery during internal jugular vein puncture. Moreover, flattening of the internal jugular vein gradually decreases during head rotation to the side.

  15. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-05-01

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case. PMID:25425716

  16. Impact of Jugular Vein Valve Function on Cerebral Venous Haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Toro, Eleuterio F; Muller, Lucas O; Cristini, Mariapaola; Menegatti, Erica; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the effect of internal-jugular vein function on intracranial venous haemodynamics, with particular attention paid to venous reflux and intracranial venous hypertension. Haemodynamics in the head and neck is quantified by computing the velocity, flow and pressure fields, and vessel cross-sectional area in all major arteries and veins. For the computations we use a global, closed-loop multi-scale mathematical model for the entire human circulation, recently developed by the first two authors. Validation of the model against in vitro and in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements have been reported elsewhere. Here, the circulation model is equipped with a sub-model for venous valves. For the study, in addition to a healthy control, we identify two venous-valve related conditions, namely valve incompetence and valve obstruction. A parametric study for subjects in the supine position is carried out for nine cases. It is found that valve function has a visible effect on intracranial venous haemodynamics, including dural sinuses and deep cerebral veins. In particular, valve obstruction causes venous reflux, redirection of flow and intracranial venous hypertension. The clinical implications of the findings are unknown, though they may relate to recent hypotheses linking some neurological conditions to extra-cranial venous anomalies. PMID:26256005

  17. Mid-term experience with valved bovine jugular vein conduits.

    PubMed

    Pawelec-Wojtalik, Malgorzata; Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Wodziński, Andrzej; Wojtalik, Michal; Henschke, Jacek; Sharma, Girish K

    2005-12-01

    From June 1999 to January 2004, 43 children underwent implantation of a valved bovine jugular vein conduit and correction of complex congenital heart defects. Median age was 1.98 years (range, 11 days - 13.3 years). There were 7 early deaths (16.3%) unrelated to conduit failure or thrombosis. Median follow-up of 36 survivors was 24 months (range, 1-48 months, quartile range, 12-48 months), total follow-up was 78 patient-years. There were 3 late deaths (8.3%) due to infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, and sudden cardiac arrest after re-operation to repair a right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm. There were 2 conduit explantations due to dysfunction and suspected endocarditis. Three patients underwent balloon dilatation of distal stenoses. The mean peak gradient through the pulmonary anastomosis was 15 mm Hg (range, 3-42 mm Hg) among patients free from re-intervention. No severe valve regurgitation was observed. Freedom from re-intervention was 72% at 48 months. This conduit remains a good alternative to homografts. Causes of distal stenosis must be clarified, guidelines for prophylactic anticoagulation must be created, and the role of percutaneous balloon dilatation established. PMID:16304226

  18. Melatonin concentrations in the two jugular veins, and relationship with the seasonal reproductive activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2010-07-15

    The authors investigated whether melatonin concentrations vary between the two jugular veins and whether absolute (nocturnal) or relative (nocturnal/diurnal ratio) plasma melatonin concentrations are associated with seasonal reproductive activity measured by oestrus or ovulatory activity in Payoya goats. Thirty-two adult Payoya goats were penned under natural photoperiod. Oestrus activity was tested daily using aproned males-twice a week plasma was sampled for progesterone. Melatonin plasma concentrations were studied at each equinox and solstice of the year in jugular samples taken simultaneously by venipuncture. Nocturnal and diurnal plasma melatonin concentrations from each jugular vein were assessed in 3 and 2 plasma samples per goat, respectively, taken at hourly intervals in each period. No differences in melatonin concentrations between the two veins were observed, but there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between jugular vein and animal in nocturnal melatonin concentrations. There was no effect of sampling period on melatonin concentrations and the coefficient of correlation between sampling periods was very high. The analyses performed indicated that neither absolute nor relative melatonin concentrations were related with the dates of onset or end of ovulatory/oestrus activity. Therefore, we concluded that in goats (1) melatonin concentrations are highly variable between jugular veins in the same individual but not in the general population, (2) melatonin concentrations are highly repeatable for each individual, and (3) absolute and relative amplitudes of melatonin concentrations are not linked to the seasonal breeding activity in Mediterranean goats. PMID:20451998

  19. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  20. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins

    PubMed Central

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  1. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  2. Internal Jugular Vein Blood Flow in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Di Donato, Orlando; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Salvatore, Elena; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the Internal Jugular Veins dynamics using contrast enhanced ultrasonography in Multiple Sclerosis patients, clinically isolated syndrome patients and healthy controls. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography imaging of the Internal Jugular Vein was performed in fifty-eight patients with Multiple Sclerosis, seven clinically isolated syndrome patients and in thirteen healthy controls. Time-intensity curves were quantified using a semi-automated method and compared with clinical disease outcomes. Wash-out parameters were calculated and six Time-intensity curves shapes were created. Significantly reduction of wash-out rate in Internal Jugular Veins was detected in Multiple Sclerosis patients compared to healthy controls [22.2% (2.7%–65.9%) vs. 33.4% (16.2%–76.8%); P<0.005]. Internal Jugular Vein enhancement was heterogeneous in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and consisted of slow wash-out Time-intensity curves shapes, compared with almost only one type of Time-intensity curves shape in control subjects that correspond to fast enhancement and fast wash-out. The vein wash-in parameters were similar in Multiple Sclerosis group compared with controls. A significant correlation was found between Internal Jugular Vein wash-out and level of disability (R = −0.402, p<0.05). Contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the Internal Jugular Vein with time intensity curve analysis revealed alterations of cerebral venous outflow in Multiple Sclerosis patients, however mechanisms that determine this condition remains unclear. PMID:24675965

  3. Skull Base Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presented with Foramen Jugular Syndrome and Multi-Osseous Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sedighi, Nahid; Karami, Parisa; Yeganeh, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement. PMID:23329983

  4. Crouzon’s Syndrome with Life-Threatening Ear Bleed: Ruptured Jugular Vein Diverticulum Treated by Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar Anand, Sunanda Limaye, Uday S.

    2015-08-15

    Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinical presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.

  5. Ultrasound assessment of the jugular and vertebral veins in healthy individuals: selected physiological aspects and morphological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Krysiuk, Kamil; Dobrzycki, Konrad; Ustymowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim Ultrasound assessment of morphological parameters of the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins in healthy individuals as well as their dependence on the patient's position. Material The examinations were conducted in 185 healthy individuals (101 females and 84 males) aged 18–89. Ultrasound examinations were conducted with the use of a linear probe with the frequency of 5–9 MHz in the supine (0°) and sitting position (90°). Results In 154 cases (83.2%) on the left side and in 150 cases (81.1%) on the right side, the jugular veins were completely closed in the sitting position. In 31 cases (16.8%) on the left side and in 35 cases (18.9%) on the right side, they were merely narrowed. By contrast with the jugular veins, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vertebral veins was greater in the sitting position than in the supine position in a statistically significant way. The CSA values of the jugular veins in the supine position ranged from 0 cm2 to 4.3 cm2. There were no statistically significant differences in the CSA between men and women. The cross-sectional area of the right jugular vein in the supine position was greater in a statistically significant way than that of the left jugular vein. In this study population, the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the jugular veins on both sides amounted to 8.5:1. Conclusions The width of the jugular and vertebral veins significantly varies depending on the patient's position. The range of the CSA values for the jugular veins is broad, which should be taken into account when interpreting imaging findings. The internal jugular veins can show considerable asymmetry. PMID:26674467

  6. Endoscopic Endonasal Access to the Jugular Foramen: Defining the Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis L.Y.; McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The endoscopic endonasal approach to the parapharyngeal space (PPS) and jugular foramen is not well defined. We sought to systematically define the important landmarks and limitations of this new surgical technique using an endoscopic transmaxillary transpterygoid corridor. Methods Endoscopic dissection was performed in both sides of two latex-injected cadaver heads. Left-sided dissections were facilitated by the addition of a sublabial maxillary antrostomy. The pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa, and PPS were sequentially dissected and the endoscopic perspective was examined. Measurements were obtained from the surgical orifices to the upper cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) and internal jugular vein (IJV). Results Successful access to the PPS and jugular foramen was achieved in each dissection. The lateral pterygoid plate, mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve, middle meningeal artery, levator veli palatini muscle, Eustachian tube, and stylopharyngeal fascia were identified as landmarks for the upper cervical ICA and the IJV. The mean distance from the nasal sill was markedly greater than from an ipsilateral sublabial antrostomy. Conclusion The endoscopic endonasal approach can provide adequate access to the PPS, carotid sheath, and jugular foramen. Multiple landmarks are useful to guide the dissection within these deep spaces and may facilitate the clinical application of this approach. PMID:24083127

  7. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects. PMID:25442142

  8. Aneurysmal dilatation without distal obstruction: a rare complication of valved bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Abbaker, Abd-Elmoneim A; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Latiff, Haifa A

    2014-04-01

    Valved bovine jugular vein (Contegra) conduit is considered a suitable choice for pediatric population with congenital heart defect requiring right ventricle to main pulmonary artery connection. Intermediate follow-up studies have shown the propensity of developing distal conduit stenosis and valve thrombosis. We present a rare case of aneurysmal dilatation of the conduit leading to valve failure requiring conduit explantation. PMID:24668992

  9. Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit in a child.

    PubMed

    Tasher, Diana; Stein, Michal; Raucher-Sternfeld, Alona; Somekh, Eli

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit which is an extremely rare manifestation of Q fever. The role of surgery in the management of C. burnetii endovascular infection and the use of serology are discussed. PMID:22349674

  10. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K

    2015-12-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease-unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients. PMID:26682126

  11. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs. PMID:25286775

  12. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs. PMID:25286775

  13. The effect of right internal jugular vein cannulation on intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Woda, R P; Miner, M E; McCandless, C; McSweeney, T D

    1996-10-01

    Access to the central venous circulation is often necessary in patients who have elevated intracranial pressure. It has been suggested that a disadvantage of the internal jugular vein approach to the central circulation may be an elevated intracranial pressure. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of right internal jugular vein cannulation on intracranial pressure in patients who are at risk of intracerebral hypertension. Eleven adult patients studied in the intensive care unit were evaluated. The population included those patients who were admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit requiring intracranial pressure monitoring and central venous access. With the intracranial pressure monitor in place, patients were put in supine and 30 degrees head-up positions while intracranial pressure was recorded. The Queckenstedt maneuver was performed on all patients. A central venous line was then placed in the right internal jugular vein, and intracranial pressure was recorded. The Queckenstedt maneuver was again performed in the study population, and intracranial pressure measurements were recorded for the right, left, and bilateral compression of the internal jugular vein. The results of the intracranial pressure measurements before and after placement of the central venous line were statistically analyzed using single-factor analysis of variance over time. The mean Glasgow coma and Apache II scores for the study groups were 8 +/- 4 and 15 +/- 6, respectively. There were no significant differences in heart rate; cerebral perfusion pressure; or systolic, mean, or diastolic pressures throughout the study period. There was no statistical difference found between the intracranial pressures at any time point throughout the study. Furthermore, no difference was found in percentage change from baseline intracranial pressure data throughout the study period. Our results suggest that cannulation of the right internal jugular vein is a safe

  14. Bilateral Jugular Vein and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis Related to an Inherited Coagulopathy: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Altıntaş, Özge; Baran, Gözde; Mehdi, Elnur; Asil, Talip

    2014-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition associated with malignancy, coagulopathy, and trauma. The optimal management of any IJVT must be individualized and depends on the condition of the patient. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of a first trimester spontaneous abortion. Apart from a tension-type headache, she had no neurological symptoms. She reported an incidental diagnosis of right-sided IJVT when she was evaluated for hyperthyroidism ultrasonographically. On ultrasonography, we observed bilateral jugular vein thrombosis. The patient was started on oral warfarin. Seven months later, when she was adequately anticoagulated, she developed a second thrombosis. According to the etiological workup, she had a mutation in the homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and reduced protein C levels and activity. Conclusion. This report illustrates an unusual presentation of a rare condition. In this case, the etiology was associated with the coagulopathy, which occurred despite adequate anticoagulation. PMID:25221687

  15. Dysphagia because of unilateral internal jugular vein phlebectasia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jegadeesh; Menon, Prema; Thingnum, Shyam K S; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha

    2016-07-01

    Phlebectasia affecting the internal jugular vein is a rare cause of a benign neck swelling in children. They are mostly asymptomatic and therefore managed conservatively. Ligation of the vein and excision is usually avoided owing to the worry of raised intracranial pressure. We report a case of a large right internal jugular vein phlebectasia, causing dysphagia in a 7month old male child. Contrast enhanced computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction helped in pre-operative anatomical delineation, especially of the lower extent. It was excised through a cervico-thoracic approach with postoperative amelioration of symptoms. Contrary to expectation, the ectasia was not friable and was covered with a pseudocapsule of fibrofatty tissue, making excision easy. PMID:27233370

  16. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  17. A 28-year-old pregnant woman with a very rare cause of jugular vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, R; van Balen, M; Blaauwgeers, J; ten Wolde, M

    2014-05-01

    During pregnancy, venous thrombosis of the distal extremities is not uncommon. However, thrombosis in the upper part of the body, such as jugular vein thrombosis, is rare. If underlying causes such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) or septic thrombophlebitis (Lemierre's syndrome) are excluded, a serous borderline ovary tumour (BOT) must be considered and MR imaging of the abdomen could be performed to find a primary tumour mass. PMID:24829179

  18. The Utility of Intraoperative Bilateral Internal Jugular Venous Sampling With Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Sippel, Rebecca; Lederman, Julie; Chen, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the utility of routine perioperative bilateral internal jugular venous sampling of parathyroid hormone (BIJ PTH) for localization during parathyroid surgery. Summary Background Data: Venous sampling for PTH is a useful tool for parathyroid localization in patients undergoing reoperative surgery for hyperparathyroidism (HPT). With the development of intraoperative rapid PTH (ioPTH) testing, internal jugular PTH sampling with ioPTH testing to guide operative localization has been shown to be possible in select, difficult cases. However, the value of BIJ PTH for patients with HPT is unclear. Methods: Between May 2004 and February 2006, 216 consecutive patients underwent neck exploration for HPT by one surgeon. Of these, 168 patients had BIJ PTH. Internal jugular venous blood was drawn from both left and right sides and analyzed for PTH using a rapid PTH assay. BIJ PTH levels were defined as lateralizing if >5% differences were observed between the right and left internal jugular vein samples. Results: Of the 168 patients, 120 (71.4%) had a single parathyroid adenoma, 15 (8.9%) had double adenoma, and 33 (19.6%) had hyperplasia. The cure rate after parathyroidectomy was 98.2%. There were no complications related to BIJ PTH sampling. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of BIJ PTH for primary hyperparathyroidism were 80% and 71%, respectively. BIJ PTH was diagnostic in 95 cases (62.9%) in primary HPT. BIJ PTH successfully localized an abnormal gland in 26 of 45 (57.8%) in patients with negative sestamibi scanning. BIJ PTH was especially helpful in 18 of 168 (10.7%) cases when intraoperative peripheral parathyroid hormone did not fall by 50% and BIJ PTH successfully localized the hyperfunctioning glands. Conclusions: In patients with HPT, BIJ PTH is safe and effective, providing additional localization information in the majority of cases. BIJ PTH is particularly useful in the setting of negative sestamibi scanning and in complex multigland

  19. Tricuspid valve replacement with a melody stented bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Joshua L; Permut, Lester C; McQuinn, Tim C; Jones, Thomas K; Chen, Jonathan M; McMullan, David Michael

    2014-11-01

    Atrioventricular valve replacement options are limited in infants and small children. The Melody stented bovine jugular vein conduit is being used with increasing frequency for percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement. The Melody valve can be serially dilated over time to accommodate the somatic growth of pediatric patients. We report the initial experience of using the Melody valve as a surgical tricuspid valve replacement in an infant. PMID:25441796

  20. Decompression of the Jugular Bulb for Enhanced Infralabyrinthine Access to the Petroclival Region: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Pearl, Monica S; Wyse, Emily; Olivi, Alessandro; Francis, Howard W

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To describe an enhanced infralabyrinthine approach to petroclival lesions with jugular bulb decompression, and to quantify surgical access using a flat-panel computed tomography image protocol. Design Retrospective case series and paired comparison of pre- versus post-dissection anatomy. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants Four patients presenting with petroclival lesions. Six fresh cadaveric specimens were used for temporal bone dissection. Main Outcome Measures Axial and coronal dimensions, and access angles of the infralabyrinthine surgical corridor. Results Decompression of the jugular bulb increased the craniocaudal width of the infralabyrinthine corridor from 0.9 to 7.9 mm to 6.5 to 11.6 mm. The mean increase of 4 mm was statistically significant (t = 3.7; p < .05). There was also a significant widening of the infralabyrinthine window along the axial dimension by 0.9 to 4.5 mm or a mean of 2 mm (t = 3.7; p < .05). Angles of access to the petroclival region were wider following jugular bulb decompression, particularly in the coronal plane (mean difference 7.9 degrees; t = 5.0; p < .005) but less so in the axial plane (mean difference 4.7 degrees; t = 2.5; p = .05). Conclusions Jugular bulb decompression enhances infralabyrinthine access to petroclival lesions, permitting the removal of tissue for diagnoses or partial resection, without significant additional morbidity. PMID:27175321

  1. [A case of catecholamine-secreting glomus jugulare tumor: treatment strategy and perioperative management].

    PubMed

    Motegi, Hiroaki; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2008-11-01

    Advances of neuroimaging, skull base technique and embolization improved outcome in patients who present with tumor of the glomus jugulare. Catecholamine secreting subgroup, however, is considered to be extremely high risk because of potentially serious complication of an intra- and perioperative hypertension crisis. The authors present detailed description of treatment strategies and perioperative management with a catecholamine secreting glomus jugulare. A 57-year-old woman, in whom the noradrenaline level in plasma was twenty times higher than normal, presented with uncontrolled labile hypertension and carcinoid syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan depicted the tumor as originating from the jugular foramen extending to the infratemporal fossa. Alpha catecholamine blocker and magnesium sulfate treatment was commenced prior to embolization and surgery. Under cranial nerve and hemodynamic monitoring, tumor resection via the infratemporal fossa type A was performed. The patient remained hemodynamically stable and the lower cranial nerve injury was able to be avoided. The plasma noradrenaline level decreased and hypertension became normalized. We emphasize treatment strategy, intra- and perioperative management of this rare entity. PMID:19048923

  2. An ultrasonographic technique to assess the jugular venous pulse: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Gadda, Giacomo; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Taibi, Angelo; Menegatti, Erica; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the work described here was to investigate the feasibility of assessing the jugular venous pulse (JVP) using ultrasound (US) equipment. Three young healthy subjects underwent a B-mode US scan of the internal jugular vein (IJV) to acquire a sonogram sequence in the transverse plane. On each acquired sonogram, the IJV contour was manually traced, and both the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the perimeter were measured. The CSA data set represents the US jugular diagram (USJD). The arterial distension waveform of the subjects was compared with its USJD. The correlation between the CSA and the perimeter was assessed during the cardiac cycle to verify IJV distension. For each subject, a short sonogram sequence of a few seconds was recorded, and the USJD obtained exhibited periodic behavior. Furthermore, for all subjects, the CSA was found to be correlated with the perimeter (Pearson coefficient, R > 0.9), indicating that the IJV in supine position is distended. We compared 390 manually traced contours of the IJV cross-sectional area with corresponding values semi-automatically calculated by an algorithm developed in-house. For all subjects, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were around 95%, 85% and 90% respectively. We found that a diagram reflecting the JVP can be obtained by analyzing a B-mode sonogram sequence of the IJV; such a diagram can result in a new methodology to assess the IJV functionality. PMID:25704322

  3. An intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumors are rare skull base slow-growing, hypervascular neoplasms that frequently involve critical neurovascular structures, and delay in diagnosis is frequent. Surgical removal is rarely radical and is usually associated with morbidity or mortality. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has gained an increasing dependable role in the management of glomus jugulare tumors, with high rate of tumor growth control, preserving or improving clinical status and with limited complications. This study aims to evaluate intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of twenty-two patients bearing growing glomus jugulare tumors at the International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo, Egypt, between 2005 and 2011. The mean follow-up period was 56 months (range 36-108 months); there were 3 males, 19 females; mean age was 43.6 years; 15 patients had GKS as the primary treatment; 2 patients had surgical residuals; 2 had previous radiation therapy; and 3 previously underwent endovascular embolization. The average tumor volume was 7.26 cm3, and the mean marginal dose was 14.7 Gy. Post gamma knife surgery through the follow-up period neurological status was improved in 12 patients, 7 showed stable clinical condition and 3 patients developed new moderate deficits. Tumor volume post GKS was unchanged in 13 patients, decreased in 8, and showed tumor regrowth in 1 patient. Tumor progression-free survival in our studied patients was 95.5% at 5 and 7 years of the follow-up period post GKS. Gamma knife surgery could be used safely and effectively with limited complications as a primary management tool in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors controlling tumor growth with preserving or improving clinical status especially those who do not have significant cranial or cervical extension, elderly, and surgically unfit patients; moreover, it is safe and highly effective as adjuvant therapy as well. PMID:26879488

  4. Valved bovine jugular venous conduits for right ventricular to pulmonary artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Scavo, V A; Turrentine, M W; Aufiero, T X; Sharp, T G; Brown, J W

    1999-01-01

    Various valved and nonvalved external right ventricle (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) conduits have been used to palliate congenital heart anomalies. The ideal conduit has not been found. Reasons for conduit failures include stenosis, thrombosis, calcification of the valve or graft wall, and development of an obstructive peel. We evaluated valved and nonvalved conduits constructed from a glutaraldehyde preserved segment of bovine jugular vein. Bovine jugular conduits (n = 31), 10-13 mm in diameter, were implanted into weight-matched adult mongrel dogs using a standard closed heart technique. Valved conduits (VC, n = 17) were stented at the valve annulus with a Gore-Tex ring, whereas the nonvalved conduits (NC, n = 14) were stented at their midpoint. The proximal PA was tightly banded to 3 mm with a ligature. Cardiac output (CO) and hemodynamic gradients were measured at the time of insertion and 8 months postoperatively. Pulmonary artery angiograms were used to assess bovine jugular conduit regurgitation. All xenografts were evaluated by gross and histologic exam. Two dogs had conduits placed but died for reasons unrelated to the conduit before evaluation. Valved conduit leaflets showed thickening, insignificant thrombus deposition in the base of one or more cusps, and a mild degree of regurgitation as assessed by angiograms. Examination of the NC showed mild conduit thickening and a moderate-to-severe degree of regurgitation as assessed by angiograms. There was a significant difference observed in pulmonary outflow gradients between the VC (11 +/- 2 mm Hg) and NC (17 +/- 2 mm Hg) (p < 0.05), although neither group developed a hemodynamically significant gradient. On gross examination, VC ventricles displayed significantly less evidence of volume and pressure overload compared with the NC ventricle. Valved conduits demonstrated significantly less obstruction and regurgitation. The potential clinical advantages of bovine jugular conduits are their availability

  5. Radical resection of the superior vena cava using the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Elizabeth; Dusmet, Michael; Petrou, Mario

    2010-02-01

    Radical resection of the superior vena cava poses a challenge for the cardiothoracic surgeon. The Contegra graft (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN), a biologic conduit comprising the valved segment of the bovine jugular vein, is established as a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit for right ventricular outflow tract repair in the pediatric population. We describe the use of the Contegra graft to facilitate radical resection and reconstruction of the superior vena cava in 2 patients, with demonstrable patency of grafts at 12 months and 7 months postoperatively. PMID:20103366

  6. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) in association with jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Williamson, R A; Hoover, W W; Grant, S S

    1989-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis in association with cystic hygroma is described. Ultrasound findings of severe short-limbed dwarfism, decreased vertebral ossification, and normal ossification of the calvarium were all consistent with achondrogenesis type II. Although the unusual finding of associated cystic hygroma raised the suspicion of a concurrent chromosome abnormality, the karyotype of both fetal lymphocytes and fetal fibroblasts was normal. Autopsy confirmed dilated lymphatic channels in the basal endothelial layer of the skin, cystic hygroma, and coarctation of the aorta. Although previously unreported, we suggest that the features of this case of achondrogenesis indicate an association with lymphatic stasis and jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence in this syndrome. PMID:2671977

  7. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  8. Thrombosis of the External Jugular Vein: A Rare Complication of a Proximal Humerus Fracture Treated with Collar and Cuff Immobilisation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Helen; Pickering, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 87-year-old woman who developed a thrombosis of her external jugular vein after sustaining a proximal humerus fracture managed nonoperatively with a collar and cuff. At review in fracture clinic she was found to have an enlarged external jugular vein which was subsequently found to be thrombosed. Her collar and cuff had been applied very tightly and it was felt by the ENT team to be the cause of the thrombosis of her external jugular vein. She was fully anticoagulated with warfarin after subsequently developing a deep vein thrombosis in the subclavian and axillary veins. She made a full recovery following anticoagulation. In this case, we review the potential causes of this rare and underdiagnosed condition, as well as the usual investigations and treatments. We also review the common complications of this fracture and the alternative treatment options available. PMID:25247102

  9. Dissection of the posterior wall by guide-wire during internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Eriko; Shimamoto, Yoko; Tokumine, Joho

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of posterior wall hematoma formation in the internal jugular vein after the puncture of central vein. An 82-year-old woman was scheduled for laparotomy for an abdominal incisional hernia. After induction of general anesthesia, we performed central venous catheterization via the right internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance in the short-axis view and out-of plane technique. The ultrasound view after insertion of a guide-wire revealed a hematoma-like space on the posterior wall of the vein. We removed and reinserted the guide-wire. This time, insertion of the wire and catheter was uneventful. Seven days after the surgery, no hematoma-like space was found in the vein. The malposition of the guide-wire was detected before dilation, which enabled us to avoid complications in this case. We should note that the confirmation of guide-wire placement in the vein is important during ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. PMID:25138819

  10. A new RV-PA conduit with a natural valve made of bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    A new RV-PA conduit with a natural valve was developed using bovine jugular vein. To maintain the natural, mechanical properties of the veins, a hydrophilic cross-linking reagent, a glycerol polyglycidyl ether polyepoxy compound (PC) was used. The treatment has already been proven in the field of vascular grafts to be able to reduce antigenicity, biodegradability, and degenerative changes such as calcification, to induce antithrombogenicity with hydrogenicity, and to improve affinity to host cells. Bovine jugular veins were cross-linked with the reagent and were implanted as a conduit into the RV-PA position in six dogs. The main PA was ligated after implantation. One animal died due to bleeding 2 days after implantation; the other animals were healthy and allowed to survive until they were sacrificed. The graft was very soft and as pliable as native tissue, and was as strong as a heart valve. Post-operative catheterization and angiography showed adequate function of the valve. Macroscopic and microscopic observations revealed the antithrombogenicity of the graft in this animal study. These results indicated that this newly developed biologic valved conduit has a high probability of overcoming many problems observed in existing RV-PA conduits. PMID:1457862

  11. Transcription factor FOXC2 demarcates the jugular lymphangiogenic region in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Rutscher, K; Wilting, J

    2008-03-01

    In the human, mutations of the forkhead winged-helix transcription factor FOXC2 cause the lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, which is characterized by a double row of eyelashes and pubertal onset lymphedema of the legs due to hyperplasia and malformation of lymphatic collectors. While a function of FOXC2 for the differentiation of lymphatic collectors is well documented, recent studies have indicated an early function for the sprouting of lymphatics from embryonic veins. We studied the expression of FoxC2 in early avian embryos and compared its expression pattern with that of the homeobox transcription factor Prox1, which is essential for lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) development. We show that FoxC2 demarcates a segment of the somatopleura in the cervical region on embryonic day (ED) 3, before Prox1 is expressed. On ED 4, its expression domain coincides with that of Prox1 in the jugular region. This region is characterized by the confluence of Tie2-positive anterior and posterior cardinal veins. It has been shown that Prox1 expression in a subpopulation of venous endothelial cells induces transdifferentiation into LECs. Our data suggest that FoxC2, in addition to its late functions during lymph collector differentiation, has an early function during lymphendothelial commitment of venous ECs in the jugular region. PMID:18581954

  12. A novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Pan, Boan; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood (SjvO2) by using Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The different positions of patients can affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), in other words, it causes the sectional change of the IJV blood volume. When lying position of patients, the CSA is larger than that keeping upper body 80 degree, and the CSA can compute quantitatively by the use of ultrasound and digital image processing methods. The entire method consist of constructing different position of patient (upper body rotation 0 and 80 degree), comparing the light absorption changes. SjvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelength, before and after the position changes. The method has been applied to the vertical area over the IJV of 11 patients who were placed a central venous catheter into a large vein in the neck for medical uses, using wavelength of 735 and 850 nm. At last, comparing the SjvO2NIRS which measured by NIRS noninvasively with SjvO2IJVBG which was quantified using a whole blood gas analyzer, we found there were some certain relativity. The results were influenced by vascular depth greatly.

  13. Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting with Jugular-Subclavian Deep Vein Thrombosis as the First Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Ceniza, Sidney; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Jugular venous thrombosis infrequently could be secondary to malignancy and has seldom been reported secondary to mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas. The postulated mechanisms are mechanical compression that leads to stagnation of blood in the venous system of the neck and/or an increase in the circulating thrombogenic elements that could cause venous thromboembolism as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We report the case of a middle aged male presenting with right sided neck pain and arm swelling secondary to ipsilateral jugular-subclavian deep vein thrombosis. Investigations revealed it to be secondary to a mediastinal mass shown on CT scan of the chest. PMID:25821628

  14. Treatment of a ballistic wound of the common carotid artery revealed by a spontaneous carotid-jugular fistula.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Amélie; Mocellin, Nicolas; Imperato, Marc; Molimard, Benoît; Bordier, Emmanuel; Menguy, Paul; Baranger, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    The case reported is of a 30-year-old patient with a left internal carotid-jugular fistula secondary to the explosion of an improvised explosive device during the Afghan war. Carotid resection with arterial bypass using a venous allograft and internal jugular ligation were performed by left cervicotomy associated with sternotomy at a specialized center. The management of cervical arteriovenous fistulas that occur as a result of penetrating trauma faced during the war must be considered and it should be noted that, on battlefields, treatment is not always performed in specialized units. PMID:21183314

  15. [Thrombosis of the external jugular vein. Case report of a rare cause for pain in the lateral neck].

    PubMed

    Bartella, Alexander; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Gander, Thomas; Grätz, Klaus W; Kruse, Astrid I

    2014-01-01

    Dental practitioners are sometimes confronted with patients complaining about pain in the neck area. Especially if an induration in the region of the big vessels is present, one must keep in mind the differential diagnosis of a spontaneous thrombosis of the external jugular vein. This diagnosis needs consequent treatment but also consequent search for an underlying pathology. This case report presents such a situation in an exemplary way. Despite risk factors, the reason for thrombosis stays in the dark. However, all possible causes were cleared and are shown to the reader. Especially malignancies are responsible for thrombosis of the jugular vein in many cases. PMID:24585364

  16. Why Current Doppler Ultrasound Methodology Is Inaccurate in Assessing Cerebral Venous Return: The Alternative of the Ultrasonic Jugular Venous Pulse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cerebral venous return is growing interest for potential application in clinical practice. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used as a screening tool. However, three meta-analyses of qualitative DUS protocol demonstrate a big heterogeneity among studies. In an attempt to improve accuracy, several authors alternatively measured the flow rate, based on the product of the time average velocity with the cross-sectional area (CSA). However, also the quantification protocols lacked of the necessary accuracy. The reasons are as follows: (a) automatic measurement of the CSA assimilates the jugular to a circle, while it is elliptical; (b) the use of just a single CSA value in a pulsatile vessel is inaccurate; (c) time average velocity assessment can be applied only in laminar flow. Finally, the tutorial describes alternative ultrasound calculation of flow based on the Womersley method, which takes into account the variation of the jugular CSA overtime. In the near future, it will be possible to synchronize the electrocardiogram with the brain inflow (carotid distension wave) and with the outflow (jugular venous pulse) in order to nicely have a noninvasive ultrasound picture of the brain-heart axis. US jugular venous pulse may have potential use in neurovascular, neurocognitive, neurosensorial, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27006525

  17. Idiopathic unilateral hypoplasia of internal jugular vein and coagulopathy: Unusual case for central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Nama, Rajnish K; Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Shah, Veena R

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is routinely done procedure in ICU or during surgery for various indications. Right Internal jugular vein (IJV) is preferred vessel among different routes for CVC. Anatomic variations of neck vessels are not uncommon and may increase the complication rate especially in patients with altered coagulation profile. Anatomic landmark technique is commonly used for CVC but not without possibility of complications. Ultrasound (US) guided IJV Cannulation provides high success rate, less access time and lesser complications. Superiority of US over anatomic landmark technique has been established, but use of US in clinical practice is still limited. We report a case of idiopathic unilateral hypoplastic IJV in a patient with altered coagulation profile who required CVC, we also tried to find out the barriers for limited use of US. PMID:26712993

  18. Jugular foramen schwannoma mimicking paraganglioma: case report and review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael; Tong, Karen

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with an 11-year history of chronic occipital headaches and a 12-month history of worsening difficulty speaking and/or swallowing, facial spasms, hearing loss, and dizziness. A large lytic mass was found centered in the left jugular foramen (JF) on computed tomography examination; follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed an avidly enhancing mass with prominent central flow voids. Histopathologic examination after surgical resection revealed the mass to be a schwannoma. Prominent central vascularity is an unusual presentation for JF schwannomas. Our report provides a review of magnetic resonance imaging features of intrinsic JF lesions relevant to our case. PMID:26973728

  19. Stereotactic radiosurgery of glomus jugulare tumors: current concepts, recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sager, Omer; Dincoglan, Ferrat; Beyzadeoglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), a very highly focused form of therapeutic irradiation, has been widely recognized as a viable treatment option in the management of intracranial pathologies including benign tumors, malign tumors, vascular malformations and functional disorders. The applications of SRS are continuously expanding thanks to the ever-increasing advances and corresponding improvements in neuroimaging, radiation treatment techniques, equipment, treatment planning and delivery systems. In the context of glomus jugulare tumors (GJT), SRS is being more increasingly used both as the upfront management modality or as a complementary or salvage treatment option. As its safety and efficacy is being evident with compiling data from studies with longer follow-up durations, SRS appears to take the lead in the management of most patients with GJT. Herein, we address current concepts, recent advances and future perspectives in SRS of GJT in light of the literature. PMID:25768334

  20. Depth of insertion of right internal jugular central venous catheter: Comparison of topographic and formula methods

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, M; Tejesh, CA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are inserted in many critically ill patients, but there is no gold standard in estimating their approximate depth of insertion. Many techniques have been described in literature. In this study, we compare the topographic method with the standard formula technique. Materials and Methods: 260 patients, in whom central venous catheterization was warranted, were randomly assigned to either topographic method or formula method (130 in each group). The position of the CVC tip in relation to carina was measured on a postprocedure chest X-ray. The primary endpoint was the need for catheter repositioning. Results: The majority of the CVCs tips positioned by the formula method were situated below the carina, and 68% of these catheters required repositioning after obtaining postprocedure chest X-ray (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The topographic method is superior to formula approach in estimating the depth of insertion of right internal jugular CVCs. PMID:27375377

  1. Unusual case of focal neck swelling: Phlebectasia of internal jugular vein with intracranial extension

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Virender; Kumari, Abha; Murthy, TVSP

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) phlebectasia is rare in occurrence and is frequently misdiagnosed and managed inappropriately. It commonly presents as a unilateral neck swelling which typically increases in size with valsalva maneuver. Although, the most common cause of a focal neck swelling, which increases in size with valsalva maneuver is laryngocele, the possibility of phlebectasia of IJV should always be borne in mind, especially in child. Owing to the rarity of this condition, a high index of suspicion is required to recognize the same and managed appropriately. We present a case of phlebectasia of the right IJV with intracranial extension and discuss its management. The case is being reported in view of its clinical rarity (the intracranial extension being extremely rare) and to highlight the available management strategies. PMID:25664271

  2. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  3. [Prevalence of stenosis and thrombosis of central veins in hemodialysis after a tunneled jugular catheter].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M

    2001-01-01

    Central venous stenosis (ST) and thrombosis (TB) related to catheter (KT) had been reported mostly for the subclavian vein. We performed a systematic cavographic study to evaluate the prevalence of these complications in 51 hemodialysis patients with present or previous history of tunneled internal jugular catheter. Each of them had used one or several KT (1.8 +/- 1.4 KT) for a mean 28 +/- 26 month cumulative time (i.e. 43,584 days total exposure time). Fifty percent of the KT were PermCath Quinton and 50% were Twincath (uncuffed) or CS 100 (cuffed) Medcomp. Twenty-seven had no ST (53%, group I), 24 had one or several significant ST (47%, group II) of superior Vena Cava (SVC, n = 4), inferior Vena Cava (IVC, n = 1), Brachio-cephalic Vein (BCV, n = 5) and subclavian vein (SC, n = 10), or a TB of SVC (n = 1), IVC (n = 3), BCV (n = 3), SC (n = 2). This accounts for an incidence of 0.55 ST or TB/1000 patient-days. Five of the twelve subclavian ST and TB had no history of previous subclavian catheter. Comparison between the two groups showed no differences according to age, time on dialysis, diabetes, hematocrit, CRP, cumulative time with catheter, catheter-related infections, type of catheter and anticoagulant treatment. IVC catheter tip's position is an important risk factor for TB and ST (4/6). Twelve group II patients had ST or TB-related symptoms, with a functional AV fistula in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent repeated percutaneous angioplasty with 4 additional Wallstents and in 2 cases an AV fistula need to be closed. Central venous ST and TB after a jugular KT is extremely frequent, mostly without any symptoms. Consequences on peripheral or central vascular access, cost and poor long-term patency rate of angioplasty are of major importance. These results incite us to further reduce the catheter use in dialysis patients. PMID:11811018

  4. Ligation of the Jugular Veins Does Not Result in Brain Inflammation or Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Pulli, Benjamin; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Ueno, Takuya; Waterman, Peter; Truelove, Jessica; Oklu, Rahmi; Chen, John W.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative hypothesis has been proposed implicating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a potential cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis in a controlled animal model. Animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. The jugular veins in SJL mice were ligated bilaterally (n = 20), and the mice were observed for up to six months after ligation. Sham-operated mice (n = 15) and mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n = 8) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. The animals were evaluated using CT venography and 99mTc-exametazime to assess for structural and hemodynamic changes. Imaging was performed to evaluate for signs of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation. Flow cytometry and histopathology were performed to assess inflammatory cell populations and demyelination. There were both structural changes (stenosis, collaterals) in the jugular venous drainage and hemodynamic disturbances in the brain on Tc99m-exametazime scintigraphy (p = 0.024). In the JVL mice, gadolinium MRI and immunofluorescence imaging for barrier molecules did not reveal evidence of BBB breakdown (p = 0.58). Myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinase, and protease molecular imaging did not reveal signs of increased neuroinflammation (all p>0.05). Flow cytometry and histopathology also did not reveal increase in inflammatory cell infiltration or population shifts. No evidence of demyelination was found, and the mice remained without clinical signs. Despite the structural and hemodynamic changes, we did not identify changes in the BBB permeability, neuroinflammation, demyelination, or clinical signs in the JVL group compared to the sham group. Therefore, our murine model does not support CCSVI as a cause of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:22457780

  5. The effect of body position on developing ultrasound criteria for the assessment of the internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Clements, E; Bonfield, M; Sassano, A

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies investigating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency highlighted that intracranial venous return has not yet been routinely investigated by ultrasound in the normal population. This creates an absence of a reference standard and raises concerns that the approach introduces variations into the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop reference standards for the assessment of the internal jugular vein in a normal population. A prospective small-scale study was conducted. Internal jugular veins of 31 normal candidates were examined using B-Mode and PW Doppler. Measurements at proximal and mid-point internal jugular vein were taken in sitting (90°) and supine (0°) positions. Area measurements were taken during passive respiration in cm(2). Time average velocity measurements were taken during passive respiration over a 3-second period. Reflux measurements were taken after apnoea and reflux was recorded from any reversed flow. Measurements were taken three times; an average was calculated and statically analysed. Of the 31 participants, one was excluded from the study and 30 were suitable. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results; all results (area, time average velocity and reflux) showed that there was a significant difference between the two positions with p < 0.05 (two-tailed). This pilot study does suggest that there is a significant difference in area, time average velocity and reflux measurements of the internal jugular vein when taken in the sitting and supine position, which could affect the outcome of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A further large-scale study is required to validate and standardise the assessment of the internal jugular vein. PMID:27433241

  6. The effect of body position on developing ultrasound criteria for the assessment of the internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Bonfield, M; Sassano, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency highlighted that intracranial venous return has not yet been routinely investigated by ultrasound in the normal population. This creates an absence of a reference standard and raises concerns that the approach introduces variations into the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop reference standards for the assessment of the internal jugular vein in a normal population. A prospective small-scale study was conducted. Internal jugular veins of 31 normal candidates were examined using B-Mode and PW Doppler. Measurements at proximal and mid-point internal jugular vein were taken in sitting (90°) and supine (0°) positions. Area measurements were taken during passive respiration in cm2. Time average velocity measurements were taken during passive respiration over a 3-second period. Reflux measurements were taken after apnoea and reflux was recorded from any reversed flow. Measurements were taken three times; an average was calculated and statically analysed. Of the 31 participants, one was excluded from the study and 30 were suitable. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results; all results (area, time average velocity and reflux) showed that there was a significant difference between the two positions with p < 0.05 (two-tailed). This pilot study does suggest that there is a significant difference in area, time average velocity and reflux measurements of the internal jugular vein when taken in the sitting and supine position, which could affect the outcome of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A further large-scale study is required to validate and standardise the assessment of the internal jugular vein.

  7. [Two Cases of Retained Guide Wires after Placement of a Central Venous Catheter via the Internal Jugular Vein].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Masumori, Yasushi; Tanigawa, Saori; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Miki; Tateda, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of a retained guide wire after perioperative placement of a central venous catheter during a six-month period. Case 1: A 73-year-old male was scheduled for an open cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. After induction of anesthesia, a central venous (CV) catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein using an ultrasound guide. Chest radiographs showed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava immediately after surgery, which was removed by interventional radiologist before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Case 2: A 77-year-old male was scheduled for colostomy closure. The surgeon inserted a CV catheter in the right internal jugular vein 4 days before the colostomy. Chest radiographs revealed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava, which was removed by interventional radiologists before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Although a retained guide wire is a rare complication, awareness of this mishap is necessary to prevent it from happening. PMID:26742416

  8. Seldinger Technique for Placement of “Peripheral” Internal Jugular Line: Novel Approach for Emergent Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Adam J.; Raio, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report describing the ultrasound-guided placement of a peripheral intravenous catheter into the internal jugular vein of a patient with difficult vascular access. Although this technique has been described in the past, this case is novel in that the Seldinger technique was used to place the catheter. This allows for safer placement of a longer catheter (2.25″) without the need for venous dilation, which is potentially hazardous. PMID:26823937

  9. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices. PMID:24299024

  10. Comparison of an ultrasound-guided technique versus a landmark-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Dolu, Hasan; Goksu, Sıtkı; Sahin, Levent; Ozen, Onder; Eken, Levent

    2015-02-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly preformed procedure in many branches of medicine, particularly in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the landmark-guided technique to the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in cardiovascular surgery patients. One hundred cardiovascular surgery patients, of whom 65 were male and 35 were female with ages ranging from 22 to 65, who had internal jugular cannulation between December 2010-March 2011 in our clinic were investigated prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups; ultrasound guided internal jugular cannulation cases in group U (n=50), and anatomic landmark guided cases in group A (n=50). The number of attempts until successful catheterization, the time required for successful catheterization, arising complications, the demographics and the duration of catheterization were recorded for each patient. There were no significant differences found in the demographic features between the two groups. The number of attempts for successful catheterization was statistically lower in group U (1.1±0.5) than in group A (2.2±1.6). The time required for successful catheterization was statistically lower in group U (109.4±30.4) than in group A (165.9±91.5). There were no significant differences found in the total complications of the two groups (p=0.092). Four patients had an arterial punction [group U (n=0) and group A (n=4)] and two patients had a hematoma [group U (n=1) and group A (n=1)]. Arterial punction complication was increased significantly in landmark group (p=0.041). The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of attempts. PMID:24838550

  11. The Oscillating Component of the Internal Jugular Vein Flow: The Overlooked Element of Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Sisini, Francesco; Toro, Eleuterio; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The jugular venous pulse (JVP) provides valuable information about cardiac haemodynamics and filling pressures and is an indirect estimate of the central venous pressure (CVP). Recently it has been proven that JVP can be obtained by measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV on each sonogram of an ultrasound B-mode sonogram sequence. It has also been proven that during its pulsation the IJV is distended and hence that the pressure gradient drives the IJV haemodynamics. If this is true, then it will imply the following: (i) the blood velocity in the IJV is a periodic function of the time with period equal to the cardiac period and (ii) the instantaneous blood velocity is given by a time function that can be derived from a flow-dynamics theory that uses the instantaneous pressure gradient as a parameter. The aim of the present study is to confirm the hypothesis that JVP regulates the IJV blood flow and that pressure waves are transmitted from the heart toward the brain through the IJV wall. PMID:26783380

  12. Physical stress testing of bovine jugular veins using magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography and electrical velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Boethig, Dietmar; Ernst, Franziska; Sarikouch, Samir; Norozi, Kambiz; Lotz, Joachim; Opherk, Jan Patrick; Meister, Maren; Breymann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Bovine jugular veins (BJVs) (Contegra) are valve-bearing pulmonary artery substitutes. Their valves have higher profiles than human pulmonary valves; this might result in less optimal performance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of stress and undersizing on conduit performance with ergometry, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between April 2007 and June 2008, 20 BJV recipients (age 7.9-19.6 years) underwent spiroergometry and subsequent echocardiography; after due rest, ergometry was repeated and followed by MRI during recovery. A year later, exams were repeated. Data was evaluated as follows: comparison of stress related maximal individual valve performance changes (magnetic resonance: exercise induced average stroke volume changes by 61+/-49%; mean insufficiency increased by 2% in patients with <1% rest insufficiency and by 8% after rest insufficiency of >10%; the average rest gradient of 24+/-11 mmHg rose to 40+/-20 mmHg), and stratification of pooled observations by regurgitation fraction, insufficiency grades and z-values (insufficiency rose with increasing heart rate and decreasing stroke volume; undersizing increased gradients during recovery by 7+/-0.7 mmHg/z-value). Contegras high-profile valves tolerate stress without performance drop. Stress induced changes of insufficiency and gradient were clinically not significant, but sufficient to distort examination results; therefore, constant examination conditions are indispensable for a correct follow-up. PMID:20479070

  13. Calcification resistance for photooxidatively crosslinked acellular bovine jugular vein conduits in right-side heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei-Dong; Wang, An-Ping; Wu, Zhong-Shi; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Tie-Hui; Lei, Guang-Yan; Hu, Ye-Rong

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of decellularization plus photooxidative crosslinking and ethanol pretreatment on bioprosthetic tissue calcification. Photooxidatively crosslinked acellular (PCA) bovine jugular vein conduits (BJVCs) and their photooxidized controls (n = 5 each) were sterilized in a graded concentration of ethanol solutions for 4 h, and used to reconstruct dog right ventricular outflow tracts. At 1-year implantation, echocardiography showed similar hemodynamic performance, but obvious calcification for the photooxidized BJVC walls. Further histological examination showed intense calcium deposition colocalized with slightly degraded elastic fibers in the photooxidized BJVC walls, with sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the valves and other areas of walls. But PCA BJVCs had apparent degradation of elastic fibers in the walls, with only sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the walls and valves. Content assay demonstrated comparable calcium content for the two groups at preimplantation, whereas less calcium for the PCA group in the walls and similar calcium in the valvular leaflets compared with the photooxidized group at 1-year retrieval. Elastin content assay presented the conduit walls of PCA group had less elastin content at preimplantation, but similar content at 1-year retrieval compared with the photooxidized group. Phospholipid analysis showed phospholipid extraction by ethanol for the PCA group was more efficacious than the photooxidized group. These results indicate that PCA BJVCs resist calcification in right-side heart implantation owing to decellularization, further photooxidative crosslinking, and subsequent phospholipid extraction by ethanol at preimplantation. PMID:22615255

  14. Surgical Management of Giant Transdural Glomus Jugulare Tumors with Cerebellar and Brainstem Compression

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Janus, Jeffrey R.; Link, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to discuss the management of advanced glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) presenting with intradural disease and concurrent brainstem compression. Study Design This is a retrospective case series. Results Over the last decade, four patients presented to our institution with large (Fisch D2; Glasscock-Jackson 4) primary or recurrent GJTs resulting in brainstem compression of varying severities. All patients underwent surgical resection through a transtemporal, transcervical approach resulting in adequate brainstem decompression; the average operative time was 12.75 hours and the estimated blood loss was 2.7 L. All four patients received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in the form of intensity-modulated radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery. Combined modality treatment permitted tumor control in all patients (range of follow-up 5 to 9 years). Conclusion A small subset of GJTs may present with intracranial transdural extension with aggressive brainstem compression mandating surgical intervention. Surgical resection is extremely challenging; the surgical team must be prepared for extensive operating time and the patient for prolonged aggressive rehabilitation. Newly diagnosed and recurrent large GJTs involving the brainstem may be controlled with a combination of aggressive surgical resection and postoperative radiation. PMID:23730549

  15. The dynamics of changing internal jugular veins diameter based on increasing head elevation angle

    PubMed Central

    Urakov, Aleksandr L.; Kasatkin, Anton A.; Nigmatullina, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Venous outflow from the cranial cavity occurs mainly through the internal jugular vein (IJV). The increase in venous outflow through IJV is possible by head elevation. IJV collapse may indicate the reduction of blood volume in the vein and show the head elevation effectiveness. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of head elevation on IJV size. Subjects and Methods: IJV ultrasound scanning in 31 healthy volunteers was carried after gradual head elevation at 15°, 30°, and 45°. Maximum and minimum IJV diameters were recorded. Mean ± standard deviation, median, range, and collapsibility index were calculated. Results: Thirty-one volunteers were involved (19 males), their average age was 37.0 ± 11.5 years. Increasing the head elevation angle by 15°, 30° and 45° resulted in a decrease in IJV diameter in the right and left sides in all patients. The occurrence of the vein walls collapse corresponds to the collapsibility index equal to 100%. The results showed that 100% collapsibility index was recorded in 6 patients (19%) at 15° head elevation, in 12 patients (39%) at 30°, in 11 patients (35%) at 45°. In two volunteers (6%), 100% collapsibility index was not recorded even at maximum 45° head elevation. Conclusions: Ultrasound IJV scanning during gradual head elevation together with the collapsibility index calculation could be useful guidance for the venous outflow assessment. In order to prove and extend the study findings, more research is needed. PMID:26628827

  16. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing.

    PubMed

    Laganà, M M; Pelizzari, L; Scaccianoce, E; Dipasquale, O; Ricci, C; Baglio, F; Cecconi, P; Baselli, G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1-C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1-C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  17. Right Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: Carotid Artery-directed versus Sternocleidomastoid-directed Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yan; Yuan, Ping; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Min

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore a simple and safe method for central venous catheterization (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) by comparing carotid artery (CA) positioning with sternocleidomastoid (SCM) positioning. The medical records of patients who underwent CVC between January 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Central venous catheters were inserted into the RIJV either above the level of the cricoid cartilage using the CA-directed method (419 patients, Group 1) or below the level of the cricoid cartilage using the SCM-directed method (436 patients, Group 2). Success rate and related complications of catheterization were evaluated in the two groups. The total success rate of RIJV cannulation in Group 1 (97.2%) was higher than that in Group 2 (94.5%). Moreover, the success rate at first attempt was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.4% vs 86.9%). The incidence of hematoma was 1.6 per cent in Group 1 and 3.8 per cent in Group 2. The rate of other complications such as pneumothorax, catheter-related infections, and catheter occlusion did not significantly differ between the groups. In conclusions, CA-directed RIJV cannulation is more effective and simple to perform than the SCM-directed method, and should become the preferred CVC technique in the absence of ultrasound guidance. PMID:26874140

  18. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, L.; Scaccianoce, E.; Dipasquale, O.; Ricci, C.; Baglio, F.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1–C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1–C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  19. [Treatment with the placement of carotid stent of jugular-carotid fistula after the insertion of hemodialysis catheter].

    PubMed

    Vera, M; Quintana, L; Blasco, J; Real, M; Macho, J M

    2005-01-01

    The use of jugular temporary catheters as vascular access for hemodialysis, entails a risk of various complications. The most frequent problems are the arterial puncture and haematoma. However, there are other less frequent potentially serious complications, which constitute a therapeutic and diagnostic challenge for the nephrologists. We present a case of a patient that developed an acute renal failure in the context of cellulites for E. Coli treated with aminoglycosid, who required renal treatment with haemodialysis. After the placement of a polyurethane double-lumen catheter with ultrasound guidance at the level of the internal jugular vein, arterial blood streaming was observed through the lumen of the catheter. The angiographic study showed the tipo of the catheter placed at the level of the aortic arch. Ultrasound exam clearly despicted the track between the internal jugular vein and the internal carotid artery. An effective closing of the fistula was achieved with the placement of a covered stent-graft with the simultaneous withdrawal of the catheter. Reviewing the literature this is the first reported case of an iatrogenic jugulo-carotid fistula secundary to placement of hemodialysis catheter resolved by the implantation of carotid stent-graft. PMID:16392309

  20. Puncture point-traction method: A novel method applied for right internal jugular vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    WU, TIANLIANG; ZANG, HONGCHENG

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound probe and advancement of the needle during real-time ultrasound-assisted guidance of catheterization of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) tend to collapse the vein, which reduces the success rate of the procedure. We have developed a novel puncture point-traction method (PPTM) to facilitate RIJV cannulation. The present study examined whether this method facilitated the performance of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients. In this study, 120 patients were randomly assigned to a group in which PPTM was performed (PPTM group, n=60) or a group in which it was not performed (non-PPTM group, n=60). One patient was excluded because of internal carotid artery puncture and 119 patients remained for analysis. The cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter (AD) and transverse diameter (TD) of the RIJV at the cricoid cartilage level following the induction of anesthesia and during catheterization were measured, and the number with obvious loss of resistance (NOLR), the number with easy aspiration of blood into syringe (NEABS) during advancement of the needle, and the number of first-pass punctures (NFPP) during catheterization were determined. In the non-PPTM group, the CSA was smaller during catheterization compared with that following the induction of anesthesia (P<0.01). In the PPTM group compared with the non-PPTM group during catheterization, the CSA was larger (P<0.01) and the AD (P<0.01) and TD (P<0.05) were wider; NOLR (P<0.01), NEABS (P<0.01) and NFPP (P<0.01) increased significantly. The findings from this study confirmed that the PPTM facilitated catheterization of the RIJV and improved the success rate of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients in the supine position. PMID:27347054

  1. Intravascular extension of papillary thyroid carcinoma to the internal jugular vein: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jarrah, Q.; Abou-Foul, Ak.; Heis, H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy and usually spreads via lymphatic system. PTC can sometimes show microscopic vascular invasion, but rarely causes tumour thrombus in the internal jugular vein (IJV) or other great veins of the neck. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a 62-year-old female presented with symptomatic central neck mass. Clinical examination revealed a hard solitary right-sided thyroid nodule with ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Ultrasonography (US) confirmed the clinical diagnosis and visualised a dilated ipsilateral IJV. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed PTC cells so total thyroidectomy with right neck dissection was done. A tumour thrombus was discovered in the distended right IJV and was cleared successfully. The patient recovered well after the operation with no local or distant metastasis detected. DISCUSSION Tumour vascular spread is observed in tumours with angio-invasive features including follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland where great cervical veins can be affected. PTC commonly spreads to the lymph nodes and vascular spread via direct intravascular extension is extremely rare. Neck US has an important role in the diagnosis, and operators should attempt to detect signs of tumour thrombi in all patients with thyroid masses. Aggressive surgical treatment with vascular repair is recommended whenever possible to minimise the risk of potentially fatal complications of the intraluminal masses. CONCLUSION Intravascular tumour extension of PTC is rare but with serious consequences. Diagnosis with neck US is possible but some cases are only discovered intraoperatively. Thrombectomy with vascular repair or reconstruction is usually possible. PMID:25044067

  2. Preoperative ultrasonographic findings of internal jugular veins and carotid arteries in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Park, Jeong Bo; Lee, Jeong Jin; Ko, Justin Sangwook

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis via the internal jugular vein (IJV) has been widely used for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, as they have a higher risk of arterial diseases. We investigated the ultrasonographic findings of the IJV and carotid artery (CA) in recipients of kidney transplantation (KT) and identified factors influencing IJV/CA abnormalities. Methods We enrolled 120 adult KT recipients. Patients in group A (n = 57) had a history of IJV hemodialysis, while those in group B (n = 63) were not yet on dialysis or undergoing dialysis methods not involving the IJV. The day before surgery, we evaluated the state of the IJV and CA using ultrasonography. We followed patients with IJV stenosis for six months after KT. Results Ultrasonography revealed that four patients (7%) in group A had IJV abnormalities, while no patients in group B had abnormalities (P = 0.118). Of the four patients with abnormalities, one with 57.4% stenosis normalized during follow- up. However, another patient with 90.1% stenosis progressed to occlusion, while the two patients with total occlusion remained the same. Twenty patients in group A (n = 11) and B (n = 9) had several CA abnormalities (P = 0.462). Upon multivariate analysis with stepwise selection, height and age were significantly correlated with IJV stenosis (P = 0.043, odds ratio = 0.9) and CA abnormality (P = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.1), respectively. Conclusions IJV abnormalities (especially with a history of IJV hemodialysis) and CA abnormalities may be present in ESRD patients. Therefore, we recommend ultrasonographic evaluation before catheterization. PMID:27482315

  3. Cardiac Variation of Internal Jugular Vein for the Evaluation of Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Qian, Kun; Ando, Takehiro; Inokuchi, Ryota; Doi, Kent; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Evaluations of intravascular fluid volume are considered to be one of the most important assessments in emergency and intensive care. Focusing on pulse-induced variation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) area, i.e., cardiac variation, we investigated its correlation with various hemodynamic indices using newly developed software. Software that automatically can track and analyze the IJV during ultrasonography was developed. Eleven healthy patients were subjected to an exercise load to increase their stroke volume (SV) and a dehydration load to decrease their central venous pressure (CVP). The cardiac variation in the area of the IJV, CVP, the SV and the respiratory variation in the inferior vena cava (IVC) were evaluated. The exercise protocol increased the patients' mean SV by 14.5 ± 3.7 mL, and the dehydration protocol caused their mean CVP to fall by 3.75 ± 0.33 cm H2O, which resulted in the collapse index (max IJV area - min IJV area/max IJV area) changing from 0.32 ± 0.04 to 0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.49 ± 0.04, respectively (p < 0.05). The SV exhibited a strong positive correlation with the collapse index (r = 0.59, p = 0.006), and CVP showed a strong positive correlation with the body height-adjusted mean area of the IJV (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Cardiac variation in the area of the great veins is considered to be induced by venous return to the right atrium under negative pressure. It is possible that intravascular dehydration can be detected and hemodynamic indices, such as CVP and SV, can be estimated by evaluating cardiac variation in the area of the IJV. PMID:27108039

  4. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in critically ill pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eu Jeen; Ha, Hyeong Seok; Kong, Young Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continuous intravenous access is imperative in emergency situations. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization was investigated in critically ill pediatric patients to assess the feasibility of the procedure. Methods Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between February 2011 and September 2012 were enrolled in this study. All patients received a central venous catheter from attending house staff under ultrasound guidance. Outcome measures included successful insertion of the catheter, cannulation time, number of cannulation attempts, and number and type of resulting complications. Results Forty-one central venous catheters (93.2%) were successfully inserted into 44 patients (21 males and 23 females; mean age, 6.54±1.06 years). Thirty-three patients (75.0%) had neurological disorders. The right IJV was used for catheter insertion in 34 cases (82.9%). The mean number of cannulation attempts and the mean cannulation time was 1.57±0.34 and 14.07±1.91 minutes, respectively, the mean catheter dwell time was 14.73±2.5 days. Accidental catheter removal was observed in 9 patients (22.0%). Six patients (13.6%) reported complications, the most serious being catheter-related sepsis, which affected 1 patient (2.3%). Other complications included 2 reported cases of catheter malposition (4.6%), and 1 case each of arterial puncture (2.3%), pneumothorax (2.3%), and skin infection (2.3%). Conclusion The results suggest that ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization can be performed easily and without any serious complications in pediatric patients, even when performed by visiting house staff. Therefore, ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization is strongly recommended for critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:25932035

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  6. Jugular venous reflux and white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chih-Ping; Beggs, Clive; Wang, Pei-Ning; Bergsland, Niels; Shepherd, Simon; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Dwyer, Michael G; Hu, Han-Hwa; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether jugular venous reflux (JVR) is associated with cerebral white matter changes (WMCs) in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied 12 AD patients 24 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 17 elderly age- and gender-matched controls. Duplex ultrasonography and 1.5T MRI scanning was applied to quantify cerebral WMCs [T2 white matter (WM) lesion and dirty-appearing-white-matter (DAWM)]. Subjects with severe JVR had more frequently hypertension (p = 0.044), more severe WMC, including increased total (p = 0.047) and periventricular DAWM volumes (p = 0.008), and a trend for increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes (p = 0.067) compared with the other groups. A significantly decreased (65.8%) periventricular DAWM volume (p = 0.01) in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts was detected. There was a trend for increased periventricular and subcortical T2 WMC lesion volumes in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts (p = 0.073). This phenomenon was not observed in either the control or MCI groups. In multiple regression analysis, the increased periventricular WMC lesion volume and decreased DAWM volume resulted in 85.7% sensitivity and 80% specificity for distinguishing between JVR-positive and JVR-negative AD patients. These JVR-WMC association patterns were not seen in the control and MCI groups. Therefore, this pilot study suggests that there may be an association between JVR and WMCs in AD patients, implying that cerebral venous outflow impairment might play a role in the dynamics of WMCs formation in AD patients, particularly in the periventricular regions. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and validate our findings. PMID:24217278

  7. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  8. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Mahajan, Anuradha Parag; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a very rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen (JF). A 45-year-old male patient presented with gradually progressive vertigo and tinnitus. CT and MRI scans revealed a 3.5 cm right-sided JF tumor with characteristic bright signal (restricted diffusion) on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). DWI may be useful in accurately differentiating the lesion from other cystic neoplasms of the JF. We describe the imaging features of intracranial epidermoid and JF tumors and discuss its differential diagnosis. PMID:25810672

  9. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p < 0.0001) when compared with CKCSs with SM (median left JF: 0.0382 cm3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the left and right JF within each group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent reproducibility of all volume measurements. Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF

  10. Internal jugular vein thrombosis due to heterozygote methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298C and Factor V G1691A mutations after a minor trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gumussoy, Murat; Arslan, Ilker B.; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis usually appears in central venous catheterization, distant malignancies, hypercoagulation, infections, or secondary to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A 44-year-old female patient presented to us with sore throat, and pain and swelling on the right side of her neck. She had a history of simple neck trauma 10 days ago. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies and right internal jugular vein thrombosis. Patient was put on parenteral antibiotherapy and oral anticoagulant treatment. Genomic DNA tests for hypercoagulation revealed methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C heterozygote mutation and Factor V G1691A (Leiden) mutation. Patient has been under clinical control for 1 year and does not have any complaints. In this article, diagnosis, treatment, and the etiology of internal jugular vein thrombosis, which is a rare and potentially fatal condition, have been discussed through this case. PMID:25937730

  11. Internal jugular vein cannulation complications and elimination of the muscular triangle of the neck due to aberrant infrahyoid muscles.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Agnihotri, Ashwin; Yousif, Saif; Kordali, Panagiota; Saberi, Minu; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We report on a rare case of anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles with prominent clinical significance. The aberrant anatomy was on the right side of the neck and involved the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles. The superior belly of the omohyoid was duplicated in width due to an aberrant belly anteriorly and merged with fibers of the inferior belly inferiorly and the sternohyoid muscle medially. An additional aberrant muscle slip extended between the inferior third of the sternohyoid muscle and united with the inferior belly of the omohyoid. The intermediate tendon between the two bellies of the omohyoid was absent, whereas the so-called muscular triangle of the neck was diminished. Due to the arrangement and fusion of myofibers the muscle could be termed as omo-sternohyoid muscle. A profound hematoma was noted in the aberrant muscle at the area overlying the internal jugular vein indicating difficulty in obtaining jugular venous access for catheter placement. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of muscular anatomic variations when intervening in the lateral neck area as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse. PMID:25329135

  12. Evaluation of a training model to teach veterinary students a technique for injecting the jugular vein in horses.

    PubMed

    Eichel, Jane-Carolin; Korb, Werner; Schlenker, Antje; Bausch, Gerold; Brehm, Walter; Delling, Uta

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a newly-developed model for training veterinary students to inject the jugular vein in horses was evaluated as an additional tool to supplement the current method of teaching. The model was first validated by 19 experienced equine veterinarians, who judged the model to be a realistic and valuable tool for learning the technique. Subsequently, it was assessed using 24 students who were divided randomly into two groups. The injection technique was taught conventionally in a classroom lecture and a live demonstration to both groups, but only group 1 received additional training on the new model. All participants filled out self-assessment questionnaires before and after group 1 received training on the model. Finally, the proficiency of both groups was assessed using an objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) on live horses. Students from group 1 showed significantly improved confidence after their additional training on the model and also showed greater confidence when compared to group 2 students. In the OSCE, group 1 had a significantly better score compared to group 2: the median (with inter-quartile range) was 15 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (2.8) points out of 15, respectively. The training model proved to be a useful tool to teach veterinary students how to perform jugular vein injections in horses in a controlled environment, without time limitations or animal welfare concerns. The newly developed training model offers an inexpensive, efficient, animal-sparing way to teach this clinical skill to veterinary students. PMID:23975072

  13. The ability of anaesthetists to identify the position of the right internal jugular vein correctly using anatomical landmarks.

    PubMed

    Harber, C R; Harvey, D J R; Wiles, M D; Bogod, D G

    2010-09-01

    We performed a study of 85 consenting anaesthetists to assess their ability to locate the right internal jugular vein using a landmark technique. Initially, a questionnaire was completed ascertaining previous user experience. An ultrasound probe, using the midpoint as an 'imaginary needle', was placed on the neck of a healthy volunteer (with previously confirmed normal anatomy) and the image recorded. Both anaesthetist and volunteer were blinded to the screen until the image was stored. Anaesthetists were grouped into those in training before 2002 (Pre-2002, n = 58), when National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommending ultrasound guidance were published, and those training after this time point (Post-2002, n = 27). The success rate for identifying the internal jugular vein using the landmark technique was 36/58 (62%) in the Pre-2002 group and 6/27 (22%) in the Post-2002 group (p < 0.001). Three participants in each group would have hit the carotid artery (5% Pre-2002 and 11% Post-2002 respectively; p = 0.2). The advent of routine use of ultrasound has resulted in a cohort of anaesthetists who are unable to use a landmark technique effectively or safely. This has significant training implications. PMID:21198484

  14. Internal jugular vein thrombosis presenting as a painful neck mass due to a spontaneous dislocated subclavian port catheter as long-term complication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Binnebösel, Marcel; Grommes, Jochen; Junge, Karsten; Göbner, Sonja; Schumpelick, Volker; Truong, Son

    2009-01-01

    Central venous access devices are extensively used for long-term chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. However, there are some possible immediate, early, and late complications related to the implantation technique, care, and maintenance. We present the uncommon occurrence of a thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to a spontaneous migration of a Port-A-Cath catheter into the ipsilateral internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy delivery. A review of the literature is given, and the factors responsible for this unusual complication will be discussed. PMID:19830037

  15. Serotonin Receptors in Rat Jugular Vein: Presence and Involvement in the Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Geri L.; Szasz, Theodora; Thompson, Janice M.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is released during platelet aggregation, a phenomenon commonly observed in blood clot formation and venous diseases. Once released, 5-HT can interact with its receptors in the peripheral vasculature to modify vascular tone. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT receptors involved in the contractile response of the rat jugular vein (RJV) using recently developed drugs with greater selectivity toward 5-HT receptor subtypes. We hypothesized that, as for other blood vessels, the 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2B receptor subtypes mediate contraction in RJV alongside the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. Endothelium-intact RJV rings were set up in an isolated organ bath for isometric tension recordings, and contractile concentration-effect curves were obtained for 13 distinct serotonergic receptor agonists. Surprisingly, the 5-HT1A and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonists (±)-2-dipropyl-amino-8-hydroxyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-methoxy-3 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl) (1H indole) (RU24969) caused contractions that were antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist [O-methyl-3H]-N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100135). The contractile curve to 5-HT was shifted to the right by WAY100135, 3-[2-[4-(4-fluoro benzoyl)-piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-1H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (ketanserin; 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist), and 1-(2-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole hydrochloride (LY266097; 5-HT2B receptor antagonist). Ketanserin also caused rightward shifts of the contractile curves to 8-OH-DPAT, RU24969, and the 5-HT2B receptor agonist (α-methyl-5-(2-thienylmethoxy)-1H-indole-3-ethanamine) (BW723C86). Agonists for 5-HT1B/1D/1F, 5-HT3, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors were inactive. In real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments that have never been performed in this tissue previously, we

  16. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  17. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  18. Endovascular Internal Trapping of Ruptured Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Occipital-Internal Jugular Vein Fistula in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Taichiro; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous cervical extradural pseudoaneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular diseases. We report a case of ruptured occipital artery (OA) pseudoaneurysm associated with occipital-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula in neurofibromatosis type 1. Endovascular internal trapping via the OA was attempted; however, the distal entry of the OA could not be accessed because of the high shunt flow and tortuosity of the OA. The distal part of the OA was obliterated with coil via a transvenous approach through the IJV and pseudoaneurysm. The proximal entry of the OA was obliterated with coil and glue under proximal flow control with a balloon, and the fistula was successfully obliterated without placement of coils in the pseudoaneurysm. When ordinary internal trapping via a transarterial approach is not possible, the transvenous approach should be considered as an alternative for AVF associated with an aneurysmal component. PMID:26971039

  19. Multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation: a pilot clinical test in the internal jugular vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Patrikeev, Igor A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2006-06-01

    A noninvasive, high-resolution optoacoustic technique is a promising alternative to currently used invasive methods of brain oxygenation monitoring. We present the results of our pilot clinical test of this technique in healthy volunteers. Multiwavelength optoacoustic measurements (with nanosecond optical parametric oscillator as a source of radiation) were performed on the area of the neck overlying the internal jugular vein, a deeply located large vein that drains blood from the brain and from extracranial tissues. Optoacoustic signals induced in venous blood were measured with high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio despite the presence of a thick layer of overlying tissue (up to 10 mm). The characteristic parameters of the signal at different wavelengths correlated well with the spectrum of the effective attenuation coefficient of blood.

  20. Observation and partial targeted surgery in the management of tympano-jugular paraganglioma: a contribution to the multioptional treatment.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of a limited tumor excision in tympano-jugular paragangliomas treated with observation with the goal of preventing, or repairing, a neural (VII cranial nerve) or brain damage and continue an otherwise correct observation. This is a retrospective case review. Each patient was submitted to a complete neuro-radiological work-up for diagnosis including CT, MRI, and angiography if needed of tympano-jugular paraganglioma class C. All the cases were submitted to observation and in 16 cases partial targeted surgery was performed. In 10 cases, the procedure involved a targeted removal of the tumor growing in contact with, or invading, the Fallopius. In four cases, the procedure was a petro-occipital trans-sigmoid approach to remove the intradural portion of tumor producing the picture of brain stem compression. In two cases, there was the excision of the bleeding tumor surfaces in the outer ear canal. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 20 years. Success was considered the maintenance of observation without the change of class of tumor extension. In 13 over 16 cases, the observation could be continued, as it still was the more favorable option between natural and surgical morbidity. In the other three cases, a newly installed paralysis of the 9-10 cranial nerves due to tumor growth involved a correction of the strategy to a radical procedure. Partial targeted surgery was directed to cases submitted to observation. It allowed to prevent, or repair, an impending, or actual damage to the facial nerve or the brain stem and to continue the abstentional treatment by keeping the balance between natural and therapy morbidity in favor of observation. PMID:25822289

  1. Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A.; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.1-5 The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. 6-8 The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.9-11 This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., 9 as well as others.12-14 Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain expertise fast

  2. Training a sophisticated microsurgical technique: interposition of external jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.(1-5) The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. (6-8) The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.(9-11) This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., (9) as well as others.(12-14) Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain

  3. Clinical Applicability of Assessment of Jugular Flow over the Individual Cardiac Cycle Compared with Current Ultrasound Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Menegatti, Erica; Vannini, Maria Elena; Gianesini, Sergio; Tavoni, Valentina; Gadda, Giacomo; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo; Zamboni, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in measuring cerebral venous outflow with ultrasound (US). However, results obtained with the current US Doppler methodology, which uses just a single value of cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel, are highly variable and inconclusive. The product of CSA and time-averaged velocity in the case of pulsatile vessels may be a possible source of error, particularly for a pulsatile vein like the internal jugular vein (IJV), where the cardiac pump transmits a sequence of well-established waves along the conduit. We herein propose a novel technique for US IJV flow assessment that accurately accounts for IJV CSA variations during the cardiac cycle. Five subjects were investigated with a high-resolution real-time B-mode video, synchronized with an electrocardiography trace. In this approach, CSA variations representing the pulsatility of the IJV are overlapped with the velocity curve obtained by the usual spectral Doppler trace. The overlap is then phased point by point using the electrocardiography pacemaker. This allows us to experimentally measure the velocity variation in relation to the change in CSA precisely, ultimately enabling calculation of IJV flow. (i) The sequence of CSA variation with respect to the electrocardiography waves corresponds exactly to the jugular venous pulse as measured in physiology. (ii) The methodology permits us to phase the velocity and CSA, which is ultimately what is currently lacking to precisely calculate the flow in the IJV with US. (iii) The time-averaged flow, calculated with the described technique, is very close to that calculated assuming a constant IJV CSA, whereas the time-dependent flow shows differs as much as 40%. (iv) Finally, we tested the accuracy of the technique with a methodology that may allow for universal assessment of the accuracy of each personal US-based evaluation of flow rate. PMID:27108038

  4. Long-term oncological results in 47 cases of jugular paraganglioma surgery with special emphasis on the facial nerve issue.

    PubMed

    Tran Ba Huy, P; Chao, P Z; Benmansour, F; George, B

    2001-12-01

    Oncological and functional results were assessed in 47 type C and/or D jugular paraganglioma operated on between 1984 and 1998 using the classical infratemporal fossa type A approach (mean follow-up = 66 months). In 24 instances, however, the facial nerve was not re-routed. Total resection was achieved in 33 cases (70 per cent). In 25 patients available for follow-up this resulted in a 92 per cent cure rate while two patients (eight per cent) developed recurrences that are being followed-up clinically and radiologically. Sub-total resection, leaving infracentimetric tumour remnants after being coagulated, was achieved in 14 cases (30 per cent). In 11 patients available for follow-up, only three cases developed tumour regrowth (27 per cent) that was controlled by salvage irradiation or surgery while in the other cases tumour remnants remained stable (73 per cent). Symptomatic post-operative lower cranial nerve impairment was observed in 23 per cent. When results were analysed depending on whether the facial nerve had been re-routed (n = 18) or not (n = 24), the incidence of facial paralysis HB grade III or more at one year was 33 per cent and eight per cent, respectively. Total resection was achieved in 56 per cent when the facial nerve was re-routed versus 75 per cent when it was not, the difference being due to a higher incidence of large tumours in the first group. The present study suggests that: 1) surgical resection of jugular paraganglioma provides overall satisfactory results, i.e. a 86 per cent rate of either cure or tumour remnant stabilization, but carries a significant risk of iatrogeny; 2) complete tumour removal should not be attempted, especially in patients over 60 years of age with no pre-operative neurological deficits, since leaving infracentimetric tumour remnants has no major detrimental effect on the final outcome; 3) facial nerve transposition carries a significant risk of cosmetic sequelae while it does not provide significant advantages in

  5. Investigation of the effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on jugular venous oxygen saturation in anesthetized pigs: implications for their mechanism of acute antimigraine action.

    PubMed

    Létienne, Robert; Verscheure, Yvan; John, Gareth W

    2003-10-01

    The effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carotid hemodynamics were compared in the anesthetized pig. Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in systemic arterial and jugular venous blood as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation were determined by conventional blood gas analysis. Vehicle (n = 19) or naratriptan, rizatriptan, or sumatriptan (0.63, 2.5, 10, 40, 160, 630, and 2,500 microg/kg i.v.; n = 7/group) were infused cumulatively. In naratriptan-, rizatriptan-, and sumatriptan-treated animals, jugular venous oxygen saturation decreased dose dependently (geometric mean ED50 values of 3.1, 17.9, and 16.0 microg/kg, respectively) concomitantly with increases in carotid vascular resistance. Rizatriptan significantly and dose dependently, from 160 microg/kg, increased PvCO2 (P < 0.05 versus vehicle). Naratriptan and sumatriptan also tended to increase PvCO2 albeit nonstatistically significantly. All three triptans consistently evoked quantitatively similar carotid vasoconstriction, whereas decreases in jugular venous oxygen saturation (VOS) and increases in PvCO2 had different magnitudes and occurred only in around one-half of the animals studied. Maximal variations in PvCO2 were found to correlate highly with those in PvO2 (P = 0.002), but maximal variations in carotid resistance failed to correlate with those in PvCO2 (P = 0.76) or PvO2 (P = 0.28). The results demonstrate that the triptans investigated robustly produced carotid vasoconstriction, but elicited less consistent decreases in VOS and increases in jugular PvCO2, possibly suggestive of distinct mechanisms. Collectively, the data suggest that triptan-induced increases in arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carbon dioxide partial pressure in venous blood draining the head are class effects. PMID:12954804

  6. Integration of jugular venous return and circle of Willis in a theoretical human model of selective brain cooling.

    PubMed

    Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2007-11-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model was developed to examine the induction of selective brain cooling (SBC) in the human brain by intracarotid cold (2.8 degrees C) saline infusion (ICSI) at 30 ml/min. The Pennes bioheat equation was used to propagate brain temperature. The effect of cooled jugular venous return was investigated, along with the effect of the circle of Willis (CoW) on the intracerebral temperature distribution. The complete CoW, missing A1 variant (mA1), and fetal P1 variant (fP1) were simulated. ICSI induced moderate hypothermia (defined as 32-34 degrees C) in the internal carotid artery (ICA) territory within 5 min. Incorporation of the complete CoW resulted in a similar level of hypothermia in the ICA territory. In addition, the anterior communicating artery and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery distributed cool blood to the contralateral anterior and ipsilateral posterior territories, respectively, imparting mild hypothermia (35 and 35.5 degrees C respectively). The mA1 and fP1 variants allowed for sufficient cooling of the middle cerebral territory (30-32 degrees C). The simulations suggest that ICSI is feasible and may be the fastest method of inducing hypothermia. Moreover, the effect of convective heat transfer via the complete CoW and its variants underlies the important role of CoW anatomy in intracerebral temperature distributions during SBC. PMID:17761787

  7. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  8. Intraoperative radiation of canine carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Therapeutic applications in the management of advanced head and neck cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.B.; Pelzer, H.; Tsao, C.S.; Ward, W.F.; Johnson, P.; Friedman, C.; Sisson, G.A. Sr.; Kies, M. )

    1990-12-01

    As a step in the application of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for treating advanced head and neck cancers, preliminary information was obtained on the radiation tolerance of the canine common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve to a single, high-dose electron beam. Both sides of the neck of eight mongrel dogs were operated on to expose an 8-cm segment of common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. One side of the neck was irradiated, using escalating doses of 2500, 3500, 4500, and 5500 cGy. The contralateral side of the neck served as the unirradiated control. At 3 and 6 months after IORT, one dog at each dose level was killed. None of the dogs developed carotid bleeding at any time after IORT. Light microscopic investigations using hematoxylin-eosin staining on the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein showed no consistent changes that suggested radiation damage; however, the Masson trichrome stain and hydroxyproline concentration of irradiated common carotid artery indicated an increase in the collagen content of the tunica media. Marked changes in the irradiated vagus nerve were seen, indicating severe demyelination and loss of nerve fibers, which appeared to be radiation-dose dependent. Four patients with advanced recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with surgical resection and IORT without any acute or subacute complications. The role of IORT as a supplement to surgery, external beam irradiation, and chemotherapy in selected patients with advanced head and neck cancer needs further exploration.

  9. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  10. Stereotactic LINAC-Radiosurgery for Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Long-Term Follow-Up of 27 Patients

    PubMed Central

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Hunsche, Stefan; Igressa, Alhadi; Kocher, Martin; Sturm, Volker; Maarouf, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) remains controversial. Due to the critical location, microsurgery still provides high treatment-related morbidity and a decreased quality of life. Thus, we performed stereotactical radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of GJTs and evaluated the long-term outcome. Methods Between 1991 and 2011, 32 patients with GJTs underwent SRS using a linear accelerator (LINAC) either as primary or salvage therapy. Twenty-seven patients (median age 59.9 years, range 28.7–79.9 years) with a follow-up greater than five years (median 11 years, range 5.3–22.1 years) were selected for retrospective analysis. The median therapeutic single dose applied to the tumor surface was 15 Gy (range 11–20 Gy) and the median tumor volume was 9.5 ml (range 2.8–51 ml). Results Following LINAC-SRS, 10 of 27 patients showed a significant improvement of their previous neurological complaints, whereas 12 patients remained unchanged. Five patients died during follow-up due to old age or other, not treatment-related reasons. MR-imaging showed a partial remission in 12 and a stable disease in 15 patients. No tumor progression was observed. The actuarial overall survival rates after five, ten and 20 years were 100%, 95.2% and 79.4%, respectively. Conclusions Stereotactic LINAC-Radiosurgery can achieve an excellent long-term tumor control beside a low rate of morbidity in the treatment of GJTs. It should be considered as an alternative therapy regime to surgical resection or fractionated external beam radiation either as primary, adjuvant or salvage therapy. PMID:26069957

  11. Anatomic Relationship of the Internal Jugular Vein and the Common Carotid Artery Applied to Percutaneous Transjugular Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Turba, Ulku C.; Uflacker, Renan Hannegan, Christopher; Selby, J. Bayne

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the anatomic relationship of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with the common carotid artery (CCA) in order to avoid inadvertent puncture of the CCA during percutaneous central venous access or transjugular interventional procedures. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients requiring either central venous access or interventional procedures via the IJV were included in the analysis. The position of the IJV in relation to the CCA was demonstrated by portable ultrasonography. The IJV location was recorded in a clock-dial system using the carotid as the center of the dial and the angles were measured. Outcomes of the procedure were also recorded. Results. The IJV was lateral to the CCA in 187 of 188 patients and medial to the CCA in one patient. The left IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 12 patients (6%), the 11 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%), the 10 o'clock position in 142 patients (75%) and at the 9 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). The right IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 8 patients (4%), the 1 o'clock position in 31 patients (16%), the 2 o'clock position in 134 patients (71%) and the 3 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). In one patient the left IJV was located approximately 60 deg. medial to the left CCA; this was recorded as 2 o'clock on the left since it is opposite to the 10 o'clock position. Conclusion. Knowledge of the IJV anatomy and relationship to the CCA is important information for the operator performing an IJV puncture, to potentially reduce the chance of laceration of the CCA and avoid placement of a large catheter within a critical artery, even when ultrasound guidance is used.

  12. Short- and Long-Term Prognostic Implications of Jugular Venous Distension in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Fernando; Berkovitch, Anat; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Rott, David; Arbel, Yaron; Elis, Avishai; Klempfner, Robert

    2016-07-15

    The present study was designed to assess the role of jugular venous distension (JVD) as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in a "real-life" setting. The independent association between the presence of admission JVD and the 30-day, 1- and 10-year mortality was assessed among 2,212 patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) who were enrolled in the Heart Failure Survey in Israel (2003). Independent predictors of JVD finding in study patients included: the presence of significant hyponatremia (odds ratio [OR] 1.48; p = 0.03), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction ([LVEF] OR 1.24; p = 0.03), anemia (OR 1.3; p = 0.01), New York Heart Association III to IV (OR 1.34; p <0.01) and age >75 years (OR 1.32; p = 0.01). The presence of JVD versus its absence at the time of HF hospitalization was associated with increased 30-day mortality (7.2% vs 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.02), 1-year (33% vs 28%, respectively; p <0.001), and greater 10-year mortality (91.8% vs 87.2%, respectively; p <0.001). Consistently, interaction term analysis demonstrated that the presence of JVD at the time of the index HF hospitalization was independently associated with a significant increased risk for 10-year mortality, with a more pronounced effect among younger patients, patients with reduced LVEF, preserved renal function, and chronic HF. In conclusion, in patients admitted with HF, JVD is associated with specific risk factors and is independently associated with increased risk of both short- and long-term mortality. These findings can be used for improved risk assessment and management of this high-risk population. PMID:27287063

  13. A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Tamizur; Sethi, Sean K.; Utriainen, David T.; Hewett, J. Joseph; Haacke, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular nature of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is a growing field of research. This work reports on the application of MR angiographic (MRA) and venographic (MRV) techniques in assessing the extracranial vasculature in MS patients. Materials and Methods A standardized MRI protocol containing 2D TOF-MRV and dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MRAV was run for 170 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) was measured at three neck levels in all subjects for both MRV techniques to determine the presence of venous stenoses. All data were analyzed retrospectively. Results For the values where both methods showed signal, the 3D method showed larger CSA measurement values compared to 2D methods in both IJVs, in both MS and HC subjects which was confirmed with student paired t-tests. Of the 170 MS patients, 93 (55%) in CE-MRAV and 103 (61%) in TOF-MRV showed stenosis in at least one IJV. The corresponding numbers for the 40 HC subjects were 2 (5%) and 4 (10%), respectively. Carotid ectasias with IJV stenosis were seen in 26 cases (15%) with 3D CE-MRAV and were not observable with 2D TOF-MRV. Carotid ectasias were not seen in the HC group. In the 2D TOF-MRV data, banding of the IJVs related to slow flow was seen in 58 (34%) MS cases and in no HC cases. MS patients showed lower average CSAs than the HC subjects. Conclusion The 3D CE MRAV depicted the vascular anatomy more completely than the 2D TOF-MRV. However, the 3D CE MRAV does not provide any information about the flow characteristics which are indirectly available in the 2D TOF-MRV in those cases where there is slow flow. PMID:23850076

  14. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  15. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS

  16. Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) Engineering Applications. Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Linebarger, John Michael; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2011-10-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex eco-socio-economic-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to highly-saturated interdependencies and allied vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. The Phoenix initiative approaches this high-impact problem space as engineers, devising interventions (problem solutions) that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. CASoS embody the world's biggest problems and greatest opportunities: applications to real world problems are the driving force of our effort. We are developing engineering theory and practice together to create a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave, and allows us to better control those behaviors. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving CASoS Engineering principles while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it.

  17. Right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Broilo, Fabiano; Meregalli, Andre; Friedman, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava diameter (∆DIVC) and right internal jugular vein diameter (∆DRIJ) are correlated in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods This study was a prospective clinical analysis in an intensive care unit at a university hospital. Thirty-nine mechanically ventilated patients with hemodynamic instability were included. ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were assessed by echography. Vein distensibility was calculated as the ratio of (A) Dmax - Dmin/Dmin and (B) Dmax - Dmin/ mean of Dmax - Dmin and expressed as a percentage. Results ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were correlated by both methods: (A) r = 0.34, p = 0.04 and (B) r = 0.51, p = 0.001. Using 18% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (A), 16 patients were responders and 35 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.80). The area under the ROC curve was 0.951 (95%CI 0.830 - 0.993; cutoff = 18.92). Using 12% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (B), 14 patients were responders and 32 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.65). The area under the ROC curve was 0.903 (95%CI 0.765 - 0.973; cut-off value = 11.86). Conclusion The respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava and the right internal jugular veins are correlated and showed significant agreement. Evaluation of right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness. PMID:26465243

  18. The use of internal jugular vein as interposition graft for femoral vein reconstruction following traumatic venous injury: a useful approach in selected cases.

    PubMed

    Woodson, J; Rodriguez, A A; Menzoian, J O

    1990-09-01

    Complex venous injuries remain a controversial and interesting challenge to the vascular and trauma surgeon. Data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry, combined with experience from recent civilian series, seem to indicate that the best results are obtained when venous repair is undertaken. This is especially true of combined arterial and venous injury where compromised venous outflow may lead to limb loss in spite of patent arterial reconstruction. The larger size of veins, however, has required the construction of complex and time-consuming panel and spiral-vein grafts. This makes them far from ideal in the trauma treatment setting, where minimization of blood loss and operating room time are high priorities. We present a case of combined injury to both femoral artery and vein, where the femoral vein injury was repaired using autologous internal jugular vein as interposition graft while the arterial injury was repaired with autologous saphenous vein from the opposite limb. The avoidance of prosthetics, ease of harvest, size match, and little associated morbidity all make a strong case for use of the internal jugular vein where speedy reconstruction of large venous conduits is indicated. PMID:2223549

  19. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  20. Successful primary correction of tetralogy of fallot with pulmonary atresia and aortopulmonary window in a 2,220-g neonate with a valved bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Kostolny, Martin; Schreiber, Christian; Hess, John; Lange, Rüdiger

    2004-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (TOF/PA) was confirmed in a newborn with a birth weight of 2,095 g. Additionally, an aortopulmonary window (APW) type I was diagnosed on echocardiography. The operation was performed at the age of 4 weeks due to congestive heart failure. The APW was closed with a pericardial patch, the ventricular septal defect (VSD) with a Dacron patch, and the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was reconstructed with a 12-mm bovine jugular vein valved conduit (Contegra, Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). At 15-month follow-up, the patient is in excellent clinical condition without medication. On echocardiography, the conduit showed a mean gradient of 11 mmHg with first-degree insufficiency. PMID:15580326

  1. Effects of Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Internal Jugular Bulb Venous Oxygen Saturation, Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Bispectral Index in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Zhirui; Seal, Robert; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and bispectral index (BIS) used to monitor cerebral oxygen balance in pediatric patients.Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Class II-III patients aged 1 to 4 years old with congenital heart disease scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were included in this study. Temperature, BIS, rSO2, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hematocrit were recorded. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation and SvO2 were obtained from blood gas analysis at the time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), beginning of CPB (T1), ascending aortic occlusion (T2), 20 minutes after initiating CPB (T3), coronary reperfusion (T4), separation from CPB (T5), and at the end of operation (T6). The effect of hypothermia or changes in CPP on rSO2, SjvO2, SvO2, and BIS were analyzed.Compared with postinduction baseline values, rSO2 significantly decreased at all-time points: onset of extracorporeal circulation, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after CPB initiation, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with measurements made following induction of anesthesia, SjvO2 significantly increased with initiation of CPB, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with induction of anesthesia, BIS significantly decreased with the onset of CPB, aortic cross clamping, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, and coronary reperfusion (P < 0.05). Bispectral index increased following separation from CPB. There was no significant change in SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that rSO2 was positively related to CPP (r = 0.687, P = 0

  2. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  3. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture preconditioning on jugular vein glucose level and cerebral edema in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiuxia; Pan, Peng; Xu, Changqing; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the blood glucose level in jugular vein and water content in brain tissues in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury. Methods: 90 healthy male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sham-operation (SH) group, cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) group and electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning plus IR group. EA group was pretreated with EA delivered to acupoints of “Baihui” (Du 20) and “Shuigou” (Du 26) 30 min before cerebral ischemia. Results: No marked difference was observed in brain water content 2 h after procedure in IR group, SH group and EA group. Compared with SH group, the brain water contents in IR group and EA group were significantly higher 6 h after reperfusion and peaked at 48 h (P < 0.01). The blood glucose levels in EA and IR groups were significantly higher than that of SH group 2 h after reperfusion, which peaked at 6 h and tended to decline up to 24 h after reperfusion (P < 0.01). 2 h, 6 h, and 24 h after reperfusion, EA group had significantly lower blood glucose levels than IR group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Electroacupuncture preconditioning can significantly inhibit the augmentation of the blood glucose level and attenuate cerebral edema induced by reperfusion, which leads to alleviation of injury caused by ischemia reperfusion. PMID:25550958

  5. Catheterization of the Carotid Artery and Jugular Vein to Perform Hemodynamic Measures, Infusions and Blood Sampling in a Conscious Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jing; Fitz, Yvonne; Li, Yan; Fernandez, Melinda; Cortes Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Pazniokas, Stephanie; Bucher, Brandon; Cui, Xizhong; Solomon, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    The success of a small animal model to study critical illness is, in part, dependent on the ability of the model to simulate the human condition. Intra-tracheal inoculation of a known amount of bacteria has been successfully used to reproduce the pathogenesis of pneumonia which then develops into sepsis. Monitoring hemodynamic parameters and providing standard clinical treatment including infusion of antibiotics, fluids and drugs to maintain blood pressure is critical to simulate routine supportive care in this model but to do so requires both arterial and venous vascular access. The video details the surgical technique for implanting carotid artery and common jugular vein catheters in an anesthetized rat. Following a 72 hr recovery period, the animals will be re-anesthetized and connected to a tether and swivel setup attached to the rodent housing which connects the implanted catheters to the hemodynamic monitoring system. This setup allows free movement of the rat during the study while continuously monitoring pressures, infusing fluids and drugs (antibiotics, vasopressors) and performing blood sampling. PMID:25741606

  6. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further. PMID:26921505

  7. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  8. The simultaneous application of positive-end expiratory pressure with the Trendelenburg position minimizes respiratory fluctuations in internal jugular vein size

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sun Sook; Han, Woong Ki; Ko, Dong Chan

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory cycle alters the size of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). We assessed the changes in RIJV size during the respiratory cycle in patients under positive pressure ventilation. Moreover, we examined the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and the Trendelenburg position on respiratory fluctuations. Methods A prospective study of 24 patients undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia was performed. Images of the RIJV were obtained in the supine position with no PEEP (baseline, S0) and after applying three different maneuvers in random order: (1) a PEEP of 10 cmH2O (S10), (2) a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position (T0), and (3) a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position combined with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O (T10). Using the images when the area was smallest and largest, cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter, and transverse diameter were measured. Results All maneuvers minimized the fluctuation in RIJV size (all P = 0.0004). During the respiratory cycle, the smallest CSA compared to the largest CSA at S0, S10, T0, and T10 decreased by 28.3 8.5, 8.0, and 4.4%, respectively. Furthermore, compared to S0, a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O significantly increased the CSA in the largest areas by 83.8% and in the smallest areas by 169.4%. Conclusions A 10° Trendelenburg tilt position combined with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O not only increases the size of the RIJV but also reduces fluctuation by the respiratory cycle. PMID:24910725

  9. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery. In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured. All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment. The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  10. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-05-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery.In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured.All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment.The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  11. Effect of laryngeal mask airway placement on the optimal site and success rate of venipuncture via the right internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan-Qiu; Li, Xin-Bai; Zhang, Yu-Shuang; Li, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) changes the relative positions of the common carotid artery (CCA) and right internal jugular vein (IJV), thereby affecting venipuncture via the right IJV. Therefore, we went on to determine the optimal site for puncturing the IJV after LMA-Supreme™ placement. In this study, forty-six patients were placed with a LMA-Supreme™ (size 3 or 4), and the right IJV was punctured at either of the three points (anterior, middle or posterior point). The CCA diameters and overlap between the right IJV and CCA were recorded before and after the LMA-Supreme™ placement. Finally, the success rates of IJV puncturing at the three aforementioned points were compared. We found that the size of the LMA-Supreme™ had no effect on patient respiration during the procedure. Overlap between the right IJV and CCA at the anterior and middle points was significantly increased after size 3 LMA-Supreme™ placements; Size 4 masks decreased the CCA diameters at the middle and posterior points, and significantly increased overlap between the right IJV and CCA at all the three points; IJV punctures performed after placement of size 3 LMA-Supreme™ had higher success rate than those performed after placement of size 4 masks, and were less likely to result in accidental arterial puncture. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that placement of size 3 LMA-Supreme™ caused little change in overlapping between the right IJV and CCA and the incidence of accidental arterial puncture; particularly for punctures performed at the posterior point. Therefore, we recommend venipuncture at the posterior point after placement of a LMA-Supreme™. PMID:26550241

  12. The Accuracy of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Cerebral Oximetry Device and Its Potential Value for Estimating Jugular Venous Oxygen Saturation

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keita; MacLeod, David B; Grocott, Hilary P.; Moretti, Eugene W.; Ames, Warwick; Vacchiano, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background An intriguing potential clinical use of cerebral oximeter measurements (SctO2) is the ability to noninvasively estimate jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2). Our purpose in this study was to determine the accuracy of the FORE-SIGHT® (CAS Medical Systems; Branford, CT), which is calibrated to a weighted average of 70% (SjvO2) and 30% arterial saturation, for Food and Drug Administration pre-market approval 510 (k) certification by adapting an industry standard protocol, ISO 9919:2005 [www.ISO.org] (used for pulse oximeters) and to evaluate the use of SctO2 and SpO2 measurements to noninvasively estimate jugular venous oxygen saturation (SnvO2). Methods Paired blood gas samples from the radial artery and the jugular venous bulb were collected from 20 healthy volunteers undergoing progressive oxygen desaturation from 100 to 70%. The blood sample pairs were analyzed via co-oximetry and used to calculate the approximate mixed vascular cerebral blood oxygen saturation, or reference SctO2 values (refSctO2), during increasing hypoxia. These reference values were compared to bilateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values recorded simultaneously with the blood gas draws to determine its accuracy. Bilateral SctO2 and SpO2 measurements were then used to calculate SnvO2 values which were compared to SjvO2. Results Two hundred forty-six arterial and 253 venous samples from 18 subjects were used in the analysis. The ipsilateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values showed a tolerance interval (TI) of [−10.72 10.90] Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) with standard error (SE) of 0.83 ± 0.073 with the refSctO2 values calculated using arterial and venous blood gases. The combined data had a CCC of 0. 81 + 0.059 with TI of [−9.22 9.40] with overall bias was 0.09% and amplitude of the root mean square of error after it was corrected with random effects analysis was 2.92%. The bias and variability values between the ipsilateral and the contralateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2

  13. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  14. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  15. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  16. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  17. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Thosani, Rajesh; Patel, Jigar; Gandhi, Hemang; Doshi, Chirag; Kothari, Jignesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95) and female (n = 65) who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French) using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate. PMID:27052069

  18. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  19. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  20. Jugular Foramen Arteriovenous Shunt with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, G.; Comoy, J.; Hurth, M.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man with an extracerebral arteriovenous fistula at the skull base, revealed by subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into left laterobulbar veins. Embolization with bucrylate was performed and occluded totally the shunting zone. A 1-year follow-up angiogram confirmed the good stability of the result, the patient being asymptomatic. This case emphasizes the quality of results that can be obtained with bucrylate in arterioverious fistulas presenting with hemorrhage. It confirms that the external carotid artery must be studied when dealing with intracranial hemorrhage. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography may depict vascular abnormalities but do not always indicate the shunting area, thus the pathologic type of the malformation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 5p136-b PMID:17170835

  1. On the luminescence properties of CaSO4:Ce.

    PubMed

    Lapraz, D; Prevost, H; Iacconi, P; Guigues, C; Benabdesselam, M; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    The luminescent properties of cerium doped calcium sulphate are studied: fluorescence and excitation spectra, optical absorption and thermoluminescence (TSL). It is known that, in rare earth doped CaSO4, only cerium induces a strong 400 degrees C TSL peak. In CaSO4:0.2%Ce samples synthesised under oxidising conditions, the recovery step of Ce3+ fluorescence is correlated with the 400 degrees C TSL peak readout, as mentioned by Nair er al. Our results indicate that an oxidation of Ce3+ ion does occur under X-irradiation (Ce3+ --> Ce4+), followed by a complete return to the trivalent state after thermal annealing at about 500 degrees C; our results confirm the hypothesis of Nair et al that Ce3+ ions are oxidised by ionising irradiation. So, a pure redox reaction seems the most probable for the 400 degrees C TSL peak of CaSO4:Ce. Moreover, the use of the 400 degrees C TSL peak for high temperature dosimetry applications is discussed. PMID:12382899

  2. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  3. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  4. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  5. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  6. The binary system K2SO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Hansen, I.D.

    1965-01-01

    The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 was studied by means of heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, high-temperature quenching technique and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Compositions and quench products were identified optically and by X-ray. Limited solid solution of CaSO4 in K2SO4 was found. There is a eutectic at 875??C and 34 wt. per cent CaSO4. Calcium langbeinite melts incongruently at 1011??C. The melting-point of CaSO4 (1462??C) was determined by the quenching technique using sealed platinum tubes. The only intermediate crystalline phase found in the system is K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite). ?? 1965.

  7. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  8. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  9. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  10. Atomistic modelling of the hydration of CaSO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Craig D.

    2003-08-01

    Atomistic modelling techniques, using empirical potentials, have been used to simulate a range of structures formed by the hydration of γ-CaSO 4 and described as CaSO 4· nH 2O (0< n<1). The hemihydrate phase ( n=0.5) is of commercial importance and has been subjected to much experimental study. These simulation studies demonstrate significant water-matrix interactions that influence the crystallography of the hydrated phase. The existence of two types of hydration site has been predicted, including one within the Ca 2+coordination sphere. Close correlation between water molecule bonding energy, Ca 2+-O w bond length and unit-cell volume have been established. This shows that as the number of water molecules within the unit cell increases, the bonding energy increases and the unit cell contracts. However around n=0.5, this process reaches a turning point with the incorporation of further waters resulting in reduced binding energy and an expanding unit cell.

  11. A VLT VIMOS integral-field spectroscopic study of perturbed blue compact galaxies: UM 420 and UM 462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on optical integral-field spectroscopy of two unrelated blue compact galaxies mapped with the 13× 13 arcsec2 Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit at a resolution of 0.33× 0.33 arcsec2. Continuum and background subtracted emission line maps in the light of [OIII] λ5007, Hα and [NII] λ6584 are presented. Both galaxies display signs of ongoing perturbation and/or interaction. UM 420 is resolved for the first time to be a merging system composed of two starbursting components with an `arm-like' structure associated with the largest component. UM 462 which is a disrupted system of irregular morphology is resolved into at least four starbursting regions. Maps of the Hα radial velocity and full width at half-maximum are discussed. No underlying broad-line region was detected from either galaxy as the emission lines are well fitted with single Gaussian profiles only. Electron temperatures and densities as well as the abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur were computed from spectra integrated over the whole galaxies and for each area of recent star formation. Maps of the O/H ratio are presented: these galaxies show oxygen abundances that are ~20 per cent solar. No evidence of substantial abundance variations across the galaxies that would point to significant nitrogen or oxygen self-enrichment is found (<~0.2 dex limit). Contrary to previous observations, this analysis does not support the classification of these blue compact dwarf galaxies as Wolf-Rayet galaxies as the characteristic broad-emission-line features have not been detected in our spectra. Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich emission-line-ratio diagrams which were constructed on a pixel-by-pixel basis indicate that the optical spectra of these systems are predominantly excited by stellar photoionization. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile, under programmes 078.B-0353(B, E). E-mail: bj@star.ucl.ac.uk

  12. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE induced by X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L; Rivera, T; Jimenez, Y; Alvarez, R; Zeferino, J; Vázquez, A; Azorín, J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of the utilization of CaSO4:Dy pellets for X-ray measurements in a general radiology department. Thermoluminescence (TL) response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE was compared to the TL response of commercial LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) samples. TL pellets were exposed to X-ray beam from X-ray machine CMR for clinical diagnosis purpose. The calibration curve of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE was obtained and it showed a linear response as a function of absorbed dose in air at the studied dose interval. Despite this fact, this material can be used for X-ray beams measurements if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. PMID:22182627

  13. Dosimetry of fast neutron beams using CaSO 4:Dy (TLD-900) pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. S.; Rassow, J.; Meissner, P.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes the use of commercially avialable CaSO 4:Dy (TLD-900) pellets for the measurement of absorbed doses of fast neutrons and gamma rays in mixed fields with one single detector. The gamma ray absorbed doses could be estimated by recording the thermoluminiscence (TL) induced during the neutron beam irradiations, whereas the fast neutron absorbed doses were measured by employing a post-irradiation TL accumulation due to activation of sulphur by the threshold nuclear reaction 32S(n, p) 32P in CaSO 4:Dy.

  14. Influence of a Novel Inhibitor (UM8190) of Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) on Appetite and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, F. M.; Gadepalli, R.S.V.S.; Diano, S.; Cheng, Q.; Tabrizian, T.; Gailani, D.; Rimoldi, J.M.; Shariat-Madar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical pharmacological characterization of a novel inhibitor (UM8190) of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) was investigated. We synthesized and evaluated a library of proline-based analogs as prospective recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) inhibitors and inhibitors of PRCP-dependent prekallikrein (PK) activation on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC). Among the newly synthesized compounds, UM8190 was further characterized in vivo using methods that encompassed a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model and animal model of food consumption. (S)-N-dodecyl-1-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide [Compound 3 (UM8190)] was selected for further evaluation from the initial assessment of its PRCP inhibitory action (Ki= 43 µM) coupled with its ability to block PRCP-dependent PK activation on HPAEC (Ki= 34 µM). UM8190 demonstrated excellent selectivity against a panel of carboxypeptidases and serine proteases and blocked bradykinin (BK) generation and BK-induced permeability by 100%, suggesting that it may be useful in preventing the local production of large amounts of BK. Furthermore, UM8190 showed an anorexigenic effect when systemically administered to fasted mice, reducing food intake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, it also demonstrated an antithrombotic effect. UM8190 is a selective PRCP inhibitor and it may represent a new anorexigenic, and antithrombotic drug, that works by inhibiting PRCP–mediated mechanisms. PMID:22664251

  15. An alternative method for immediate dose estimation using CaSO4:Dy based TLD badges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Kadam, Sonal; Chougaonkar, M. P.; Babu, D. A. R.

    2014-11-01

    CaSO4:Dy based Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are being used in country wide personnel monitoring program in India. The TL glow curve of CaSO4:Dy consists of a dosimetric peak at 220 °C and a low temperature peak at 120 °C which is unstable at room temperature. The TL integral counts in CaSO4:Dy reduces by 15% in seven days after irradiation due to the thermal fading of 120 °C TL peak. As the dosimetric procedure involves total integrated counts for dose conversion, the dosimeters are typically read about a week after receiving. However in the event of a suspected over exposure, where urgent processing is expected, this poses limitation. Post irradiation annealing treatment is used in such cases of immediate readout of cards. In this paper we report a new and easier to use technique based on optical bleaching for the urgent processing of TLD cards. Optical bleaching with green LED (∼555 nm photons) of 25,000 lux for one and half hour removes the low temperature TL peak without affecting the dosimetric peak. This method can be used for immediate dose estimation using CaSO4:Dy based TLD badges.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CASO4 FORMED BY REACTION OF CAO AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the XRD-determination of the identity of CaSO4, formed by the reaction between CaO and S02, and the support of that determination by density measurements with helium pycnometry. The anhydrous CaS04 compound formed has an orthorhombic crystal structure and an...

  17. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  18. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  19. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  20. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  1. Modeling the thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy by the MCNPX method.

    PubMed

    Furetta, C; Roman, J; Rivera, T; Azorín, J; Azorín, C G; Vega-Carrillo, H R

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an algorithm for absorbed dose evaluation in the region of X-ray diagnostic energy based on the response of CaSO(4):Dy thermoluminescence powder detectors. The absorbed dose was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation code (MCSC) and then compared to the experimental TLD results for X-rays effective energies (60)Co gamma radiation. In order to study the photon interaction in the matter, a cylindrical model of 1 cm(3) was used. The gamma radiation source was placed at 100 cm to the object; the source is considered as an isotropic source of (60)Co. The energy deposited into the cylindrical model was determined by the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNPX) method. Measurements of the TL phosphors were obtained by irradiating the powder by gamma radiation. TL glow curve of CaSO(4):Dy after gamma irradiated at a 1 Gy of absorbed dose was then obtained. PMID:20079655

  2. Preparation and investigation of thermoluminescence properties of CaSO4:Tm,Cu.

    PubMed

    Kása, I; Chobola, R; Mell, P; Szakács, S; Kerekes, A

    2007-01-01

    A new sort of thermoluminescent phosphor has been developed with the purpose of enlarging the range of linear dose-response. The thermoluminescence properties of CaSO(4):Tm,Cu, prepared according to our method, were studied in the dose range of 0.5 Gy-125.0 kGy. The results of the present work show that the CaSO(4):Tm,Cu is an excellent new dosimetric material due to its relatively simple glow curve, as a consequence of its simple trap system. Several applications are possible in dosimetry due to its wide range of linearity (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(3) Gy), from environmental and space dosimetry to accidental and high-dose irradiation, e.g. gamma irradiation facilities, electron accelerators, nuclear power plants, radiotherapy, medical physics, and so on. PMID:16905762

  3. CaSO4:DY,Mn: A new and highly sensitive thermoluminescence phosphor for versatile dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahl, Shaila; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Pratik

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of newer techniques for dose reduction coupled with the development of more sensitive detectors, the radiation doses in radiological medical investigation are decreasing. Nevertheless, keeping the tenet in mind that all radiation doses could entail risk, there is a need to develop more sensitive dosimeters capable of measuring low doses. This paper gives the account of the development of a new and sensitive phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn and its characterization. The standard production procedure based on the recrystallization method was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy,Mn. The Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were carried out by exposing it with gamma radiation (Cs-137) from 10 μGy to 100 Gy. The theoretical studies to determine the number of peaks and kinetic parameters related to the TL glow peaks in CaSO4:Dy,Mn was performed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. Experiments were performed to determine optimum concentration of the dopants Dysprosium (Dy) and Mangnese (Mn) in the host CaSO4 so that maximum sensitivity of the phosphor may be achieved. The optimum dopant concentration turned out to be 0.1 mol%. As there were two dopants Dy and Mn their relative ratio were varied in steps of 0.025 keeping the concentration of total dopant (Dy and Mn) 0.1 mol% always. The maximum TL intensity was seen in the CaSO4:Dy(0.025),Mn(0.075) combination. The TL sensitivity of this phosphor was found to be about 2 and 1.8 times higher than that of popular phosphor CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-700H) respectively. This new phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn showed fading of 11% which is similar to that of the standard phosphor CaSO4:Dy. The paper concludes that the new, highly sensitive TL phosphor CaSO4:Dy,Mn has shown higher sensitivity and hence the potential to replace commonly used CaSO4:Dy.

  4. METHOD 100.2 - DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS STRUCTURES OVER 10 UM IN LENGTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is collected in a polyethylene or glass container and shipped to the laboratory. nown aliquots of the sample are filtered through a 0.1 to 0.22 um pore mixed cellulose ester (MCE). arbon extraction replica is prepared from a portion of the filter and is examined in the TEM ...

  5. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  6. Endocarditis of bovine jugular vein conduit due to Q fever.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Constantin; Benahmed-Mostafa, Aziz; Sanoussi, Ahmed; Quiriny, Marie; Demanet, Hélène; Theunissen, Caroline; Wauthy, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Contegra (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) conduits are routinely used in cases of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction during congenital heart surgery. We report two cases of Q fever endocarditis involving Contegra conduits. Surgical treatment and distinct aspects of both unusual cases are described. PMID:21620004

  7. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  8. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies--uh and um--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population. PMID:26586555

  9. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  10. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Subaru H images of UM673 (Koptelova+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptelova, E.; Chiueh, T.; Chen, W. P.; Chan, H.-H.

    2014-05-01

    We carried out H-band observations of UM673 with the Subaru Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS) using an adaptive optics system with 188 control elements (AO188). The images were reduced following the procedure described in "Subaru Data Reduction CookBook: Imaging Observation with IRCS" by Y. Minowa (see also Minowa et al. 2005ApJ...629...29M). The final Subaru H-band stack image of UM673 was created by coadding 22 reduced single exposure images. We also created the exposure time map of the stack image. The 17x10arcsec subframe of the stack image and the corresponding exposure map displayed in Figures 1 and 2 of the paper are available as fits files. (2 data files).

  12. Evaluation of the dosimetric response for CaSO4:Dy at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Ramos-Bernal, S; Negrón-Mendoza, A; Azoŕin, J

    2002-01-01

    Homemade solid state CaSO4:Dy detectors were tested to evaluate their response to gamma radiation at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The dosemeters were irradiated with doses between 12 and 1071 Gy. For this study these dosemeters were exposed to gamma rays with a dose rate of 1.19 Gy.min(-1). The analysis for these crystals was made by thermoluminiscence. The dose response at liquid nitrogen temperature was linear in the dose range studied and it is about 20% lower with respect to the response at room temperature. The response is reproducible with the same geometric set-up. PMID:12382918

  13. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  14. Thermoluminesence of gamma rays irradiated CaSO4 nanorods doped with different elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan

    2015-01-01

    Nanorods of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) activated by Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were synthesized by the co-precipitation technique. They were irradiated by γ-rays in a wide range of exposures and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) properties. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra. SEM images show that the samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) have thinner nanorods than the other samples, while XRD pattern shows a complete crystalline structures in a monoclinic phase. The TL glow curves of these samples show two components. The first one include low temperature glow peaks at around 125 °C, while the second component shows high temperature peaks in the range 230-270 °C. These glow peaks diver from sample to sample by their TL intensity. The TL results are promising, particularly that of Tb and Eu. Tb doped sample is found to be a highly TL sensitive with a prominent glow peak at around 270 °C, while Eu has created very active, high dense electron traps. The later shows quite linear response in the whole studied exposures i.e. 10 Gy-10 kGy. These results show that Eu or Tb doped CaSO4 nanorods might be proper candidates as dosimeters for high doses of ionizing radiations used in irradiation of foods and seeds.

  15. High-sensitive CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent phosphor synthesis by co-precipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, A R; Jose, M T; Annalakshmi, O

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the successful development of the co-precipitation technique for the preparation of a high-sensitive dysprosium-doped calcium sulphate (CaSO(4):Dy) thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) phosphor with dosimetric glow peak at approximately 230 degrees C which is a desired development in the field of radiation protection dosimetry. The main advantages of this co-precipitation technique over the conventional recrystallisation technique of phosphor preparation are: (i) preparation time is very less; (ii) quantity of sulphuric acid evaporated is insignificant; (iii) higher TL sensitivity -20% more than the present material; (iv) better glow curve structure; (v) lesser glow peak shift and better linearity to gamma and (vi) uniform crystal morphology and lower grain size-all grains are mostly cuboidal in shape, quite uniform and small (average size about 25 microm), suitable for manufacturing teflon discs in as-prepared form. Optimum values of various parameters in the method of preparation for a batch of 20 g CaSO(4):Dy phosphors to obtain maximum TL sensitivity, with favourable glow curves are studied. PMID:18716066

  16. Complex terbium luminescence centers in spectral transformers based on CaSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, I.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Maaroos, A.; Nagirnyi, V.; Pazylbek, S.; Tussupbekova, A.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blue and green terbium luminescence excitation spectra (5-15 eV) at a temperature of 9 or 300 K have been measured for a set of CaSO4 : Tb3+ phosphors with calcium and terbium ions characterized by fundamental features, which were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with variations in the composition of the raw material, the type of terbium compounds, and the concentration of introduced terbium. A comprehensive analysis of these data, emission spectra, and decay kinetics (with the rising stage) of the terbium luminescence has revealed that the main luminescence centers in an efficient phosphor with 4 at % Tb3+ each contain four closely spaced Tb3+ ions in calcium positions, as well as Na+ ions and hydrogen-containing radicals. In such complex luminescence centers, cooperative nonradiative resonant transitions in neighboring terbium ions leads to a nearly complete concentration of the terbium luminescence in the green spectral region (5 D 4 → 7 F J ). The quantum yield of the green luminescence in CaSO4 : Tb3+ (4 at %) exceeds unity, QY > 1, in the region of direct excitation of Tb3+ into the 5 d state (~5.9 eV) or excitation of oxyanions near the terbium ions (~8.1 eV).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 11.5um image of NGC 835 (Gonzalez-Martin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Espaza Arredondo, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared imaging of NGC 835. This nucleus was observed with Canari-cam/GTC on 23 September 2014. Images were taken using the Si5 filter (at 11.5um with an effective width of 0.9um) in two separate observing blocks with a total on-source time of 993s. (2 data files).

  18. High energy electron beams characterization using CaSO4:Dy+PTFE phosphors for clinical therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Rivera, T; Espinoza, A; Von, S M; Alvarez, R; Jiménez, Y

    2012-07-01

    In the present work high energy electron beam dosimetry from linear accelerator (LINACs) for clinical applications using dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO4:Dy+PTFE) was studied. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) Varian, CLINAC 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions (EEC). Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electrons beams irradiations. The TL response of the pellets showed an intensity peak centered at around 215 °C. TL response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. PMID:22182630

  19. Phase relation of CaSO4 at high pressure and temperature up to 90 GPa and 2300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Taku; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Inoue, Toru

    2016-05-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), one of the major sulfate minerals in the Earth's crust, is expected to play a major role in sulfur recycling into the deep mantle. Here, we investigated the crystal structure and phase relation of CaSO4 up to ~90 GPa and 2300 K through a series of high-pressure experiments combined with in situ X-ray diffraction. CaSO4 forms three thermodynamically stable polymorphs: anhydrite (stable below 3 GPa), monazite-type phase (stable between 3 and ~13 GPa) and barite-type phase (stable up to at least 93 GPa). Anhydrite to monazite-type phase transition is induced by pressure even at room temperature, while monazite- to barite-type transition requires heating at least to 1500 K at ~20 GPa. The barite-type phase cannot always be quenched from high temperature and is distorted to metastable AgMnO4-type structure or another modified barite structure depending on pressure. We obtained the pressure-volume data and density of anhydrite, monazite- and barite-type phases and found that their densities are lower than those calculated from the PREM model in the studied P-T conditions. This suggests that CaSO4 is gravitationally unstable in the mantle and fluid/melt phase into which sulfur dissolves and/or sulfate-sulfide speciation may play a major role in the sulfur recycling into the deep Earth.

  20. Isoalantolactone Inhibits UM-SCC-10A Cell Growth via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minjun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jiehua; Weng, Zhiyong; Li, Chenyuan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Fu; Li, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC. PMID:24098753

  1. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  2. Thermoluminescent characteristics of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Dy for low dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Del Sol Fernández, S; García-Salcedo, R; Mendoza, J Guzmán; Sánchez-Guzmán, D; Rodríguez, G Ramírez; Gaona, E; Montalvo, T Rivera

    2016-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics for LiF:Mg, Cu, P, and CaSO4:Dy under the homogeneous field of X-ray beams of diagnostic irradiation and its verification using thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. The irradiation were performed utilizing a conventional X-ray equipment installed at the Hospital Juárez Norte of México. Different thermoluminescence characteristics of two material were studied, such as batch homogeneity, glow curve, linearity, detection threshold, reproducibility, relative sensitivity and fading. Materials were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to the standard calibration distance and they were positioned in a generic phantom. The dose analysis, verification and comparison with the measurements obtained by the TLD-100 were performed. Results indicate that the dosimetric peak appears at 202°C and 277.5°C for LiF:Mg, Cu, P and CaSO4:Dy, respectively. TL response as a function of X-ray dose showed a linearity behavior in the very low dose range for all materials. However, the TLD-100 is not accurate for measurements below 4mGy. CaSO4:Dy is 80% more sensitive than TLD-100 and it show the lowest detection threshold, whereas LiF:Mg, Cu, P is 60% more sensitive than TLD-100. All materials showed very good repeatability. Fading for a period of one month at room temperature showed low fading LiF:Mg, Cu, P, medium and high for TLD-100 and CaSO4:Dy. The results suggest that CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg, Cu, P are suitable for measurements at low doses used in radiodiagnostic. PMID:26922395

  3. Shock induced vaporization of anhydrite CaSO4 and calcite CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Yang, Wenbo

    2000-04-01

    Discovery of abundant anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) in the otherwise carbonate sediments comprising the upper portion of the rocks contained within the Chicxulub impact crater has prompted research on the shock-induced vaporization of these minerals. We use a vaporization criterion determined by shock-induced entropy. We reanalyze the shock wave experiments of Yang [1]. He shocked 30% porous anhydrite and 46% porous calcite. Post-shock adiabatic expansion of the sample across a 5 mm-thick gap and then impact upon an aluminum witness plate backed by LiF window that is monitored with a VISAR. Reanalysis uses Herrman's P-α model [2] for porous materials, and a realistic interpolation gas equation-of-state for vaporization products. Derived values of the entropies for incipient and complete vaporization for anhydrite are 1.65±0.12 and 3.17±0.12 kJ(kg.K)-1, and for calcite these are 0.99±0.11 and 1.93±0.11 kJ(kg.K)-1. Corresponding pressures for incipient and complete vaporization along the Hugoniot of non-porous anhydrite are 32.5±2.5 and 122±13 GPa and for non-porous calcite are 17.8±2.9 and 54.1±5.3 GPa, respectively. These pressures are a factor of 2-3 lower than reported earlier by Yang.

  4. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  5. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800246

  6. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  7. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  8. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  9. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, Julie E; Hernández-León, Rocio; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Santoyo, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270 was isolated form the rhizosphere of wild Medicago spp. A previous work has shown that this pseudomonad isolate was able to produce diverse diffusible and volatile compounds involved in plant protection and growth promotion. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens strain UM270. The sequence covers 6,047,974 bp of a single chromosome, with 62.66 % G + C content and no plasmids. Genome annotations predicted 5,509 genes, 5,396 coding genes, 59 RNA genes and 110 pseudogenes. Genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in biological control and plant-growth promoting activities. We anticipate that the P. fluorescens strain UM270 genome will contribute insights about bacterial plant protection and beneficial properties through genomic comparisons among fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:26767092

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium. PMID:25417557

  12. Localization of the 5f level across the UM 5-xT x series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoł; nierek, Z̵.; Troc, R.; Tran, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    We review the results of bulk measurements on selected pseudoternary compounds within the UM 5- xT x system where M = Cu, Ni and Pt, and T = Ag, Au, Pd and Ir. These ternary compounds crystallize in the cubic AuBe 5 crystal structure. The results obtained on about 20 specimens clearly show that the 5f-localization of the uranium depends on the degree of f-d and/or f-s hybridization. The strength of the hybridization is a function of the concentration of s- and d-conduction electrons and is controlled chemically by the extent of the “M 5- xT x” alloying.

  13. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R

    2013-01-01

    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning. PMID:23528326

  14. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of high purity CaSO4:Dy TL material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Nadira; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Dollah, Mohd Taufik

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the characterization and TL properties of dysprosium (Dy) doped calcium sulfate (CaSO4) TL material produced by co-precipitation technique with 0.5mol% concentration of dopant. The morphology of the produced TL material was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the micrograph shows that rectangular parallelepiped shaped crystal with the average of 150 μm in length were produced. The crystallinity of the produced powder was studied using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD spectra show that the TL material produced is high purity anhydrite CaSO4 with average crystallite size of 74 nm with orthorhombic crystal system. The TL behavior of produced CaSO4:Dy was studied using a TLD reader after exposure to gamma ray by Co60 source with the doses of 1,5 and 10 Gy. The glow curve shows linear response with glow peak around 230°C which is desired development in the field of radiation dosimetry.

  15. Nano-fibrin stabilized CaSO4 crystals incorporated injectable chitin composite hydrogel for enhanced angiogenesis & osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, R; Sivashanmugam, A; Deepthi, S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2016-04-20

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), an excellent biodegradable bone forming agent that is an ideal choice as additive in gels, however, its disadvantage being poor gel rheology and angiogenesis. Here, we have synthesized chitin-CaSO4-nano-fibrin based injectable gel system which shows improved rheology and angiogenic potential. Rheological studies showed that the composite gel was a shear thinning gel with elastic modulus of 15.4±0.275kPa; a 1.67 fold increase over chitin control. SEM and XRD analyses revealed the effect of nano-fibrin (nFibrin) in transforming CaSO4 crystal shape from needle to hexagonal. It also masked the retarding effect of CaSO4 towards in vitro early cell attachment and angiogenesis using rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) and HUVECs, respectively. rASCs osteogenesis was confirmed by spectrophotometric endpoint assay, which showed 6-fold early increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and immuno-cytochemistry analysis. These in vitro results highlight the potential of injectable chitin-CaSO4-nFibrin gel for osteo-regeneration via enhanced angiogenesis. PMID:26876838

  16. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  17. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  18. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  19. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  20. Energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD disk dosimeters to photons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Sharada, K S

    1983-01-01

    The photon energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon disk dosimeters used widely in radiation dosimetry is computed using the energy absorption coefficient values for calcium, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon taken from J. H. Hubbell's tables. For fluorine, the energy absorption coefficients were obtained from the values given by F. H. Attix for CaF2 and Ca. The energy response of the radiation-monitoring disk for the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV, relative to air, is computed and plotted. The response is maximum between 20 and 30 keV and then gradually falls to a constant at 200 keV to 10 MeV. This computed response for different energies is compared with the experimental TL response of the dosimeter. The electron energy response of these TLD disks is computed using the stopping-power values for the different component elements. The electron stopping power for sulfur and calcium from 10 keV to 10 MeV is computed using the Bethe-Bloch formula. Those for oxygen and carbon are taken from the tables given by M. J. Berger and S. M. Seltzer. For fluorine, the values are computed from those for Li and LiF given in the same tables. This calculated response is compared with the experimental beta response of the TL dosimeter. PMID:6823508

  1. Raman spectra of the different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-10-21

    Although it is known that the CaSO4/H2O system is formed by at least five different phases, this fact is not correctly documented in Raman spectroscopy studies. The main problem detected in the literature was the incorrect definition of the anhydrite, which produced the assignation of different spectra for a single compound. In this sense, two different spectra were clearly identified from the bibliography, which showed different main Raman bands at 1017 or 1025 cm(-1), although anhydrite could be present even as three different polymorphous species with different structures. A better understanding of the whole system obtained from a review of the literature allowed new conclusions to be established. Thanks to that revision and the development of different thermodynamical experiments by Raman spectroscopy, the Raman spectra of each phase were successfully identified for the first time. In this way, the main Raman bands of gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite III, anhydrite II and anhydrite I were identified at 1008, 1015, 1025, 1017 and 1017 cm(-1), respectively. To conclude this work, the contradictions found in literature were critically summarized. PMID:25226433

  2. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. PMID:27514485

  3. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  4. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These

  5. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation. PMID:26761288

  6. An evaluation of China's water cycle in the MetUM-GC2 coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Marzin, Charline

    2015-04-01

    There is a general consensus in climate projections that the global hydrological cycle is likely to experience significant changes in the future, in response to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. At the regional scale, model simulations show large variations in the predictions of changes in the components of the water cycle. Increasing confidence in regional prediction of the water cycle is at the top of the NWP and climate research agenda, requiring a comprehensive evaluation of the physical processes which may play an important role. Here we present preliminary results of an evaluation of the capacity of the MetUM-GC2 coupled model to reproduce the characteristics of the water cycle in the region of China. Using water budget techniques in the atmospheric and terrestrial branches we test the water cycle components and the model's ability to replicate the climatological annual cycle and its interannual variability. Recent drought and flood events are evaluated and various metrics are employed to compare the role played by the atmospheric general circulation including the boreal summer and winter monsoon regimes and soil moisture feedback in model and observations.

  7. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  8. Evaluation of natural radionuclides at Um-Greifat area, eastern desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nada, A

    2003-02-01

    Air borne radiometric maps and remote sensing techniques were used to explore for the occurrence of radioactive materials. The previous techniques recorded radioactive mineralization for the first time along the NW-SE trending fault zones within the Miocene clastic-carbonate sediments. In the present study, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of this mineralization. Concentrations of radionuclides, associated within the iron ochre at Um-Greifat area, have been measured, using a hyper-pure germanium spectrometer. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into A, B and C regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. In region A, average concentration in Bqkg(-1) has been observed to range from 1858 to 4062 for 238U, between 29 and 151 for 232Th, from 60 to 136 for 235U and between 46 and 409 Bqkg(-1) for 40K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) in addition to external and internal hazard indices (H(ex), H(in)) have also been determined. Ra(eq) varies between 1901 and 4307Bqkg(-1), which exceeds the permitted value (370Bqkg(-1)) and H(ex) and H(in) are higher than 1. The high activity concentration within region A points to an environmental hazard, while regions B and C have less exposure effect on human beings. PMID:12573328

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  11. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  12. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  13. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  14. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  15. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  16. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  17. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  18. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  19. Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)/surface interaction and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Domenech, Marc; Foissy, Alain; Persello, Jacques; Mutin, Jean-Claude

    2000-12-01

    The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions. The specific interaction of PANa with gypsum can explain the oriented growth of gypsum crystal. The gypsum growth is slowed down but cannot be blocked by the adsorption of PANa. On the other hand, PANa can block the heterogeneous and homogenous gypsum nucleation. As soon as a critical surface density of PANa onto the hemihydrate surface is reached, the heterogeneous gypsum nucleation is prevented and hemihydrate hydration is indefinitely blocked. The interaction between PANa and the hemihydrate surface is of prime importance to control hydration. Also, the influence of the molecular weight of PANa on homogenous nucleation has been investigated. The precipitation of calcium polyacrylate can explain the differences between the two molecular weights used (2100 and 20 000). This work leads to the conclusion that heterogeneous nucleation is the key process that controls hydration of a system in which hemihydrate dissolution, gypsum nucleation and growth are all occurring at the same time in a continuous manner.

  20. Impact-induced devolatilization of CaSO4 anhydrite and implications for K-T extinctions: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent suggestions that the target area for the K-T bolide may have been a sulfate-rich evaporite and that the resulting sulfuric acid-rich aerosol was responsible for the subsequent cooling of the Earth and the resulting biological extinctions has prompted us to experimentally examine the impact-induced devolatization of the sulfate minerals anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4(2H2O)). Preliminary results for anhydrite are reported. Up to 42 GPa peak shock pressure, little or no devolatilization occurs, consistent with chemical thermodynamic calculations. Calculation of the influence of the partial pressure of the gas species on impact-induced devolatilization suggests that an even greater amount of sulfur than that proposed by Brett could have been released to the atmosphere by an impact into a sulfate-rich layer. Solid recovery, impact-induced devolatilization experiments were performed on the Caltech 20mm gun using vented, stainless steel sample assemblies.

  1. Soluble minerals in chemical evolution. I - Adsorption of 5-prime-AMP on CaSO4 - A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Chan, S.; Calderon, J.; Lahav, N.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of 5-prime-AMP onto solid CaSO4-2H2O was studied in a saturated suspension as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration. The adsorption is pH-dependent and is directly correlated with the charge on the 5-prime-AMP molecule which is determined by the state of protonation of the N-1 nitrogen of the purine ring and the phosphate oxygens. It is proposed that the binding that occurs between the nucleotide and the salt is electrostatic in nature. The adsorption decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution which means that in a fluctuating environment of wetting and drying cycles, a biomolecule similar to 5-prime-AMP could be expected to desorb during the drying phase. The results indicate that CaSO4-2H2O can serve as a concentrating surface for biomolecules. The significance of this is discussed with regard to the possible role of soluble minerals and their surfaces in a geochemical model consistent with the evolution of the earth and the origin of life.

  2. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  3. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  4. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  5. Community Structure and Activity of a Highly Dynamic and Nutrient-Limited Hypersaline Microbial Mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M.; Shaikh, Ismail Al; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1–L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%–42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%–97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  6. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  7. Pneumatocele selar a tensión: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Bendersky, Damián; Campero, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El neumoencéfalo a tensión luego de la cirugía transesfenoidal es poco común. En la literatura existen pocos casos reportados en los cuales el aire se encuentra localizado exclusivamente en las regiones selar y supraselar, constituyendo un pneumatocele selar. En este artículo se describe un caso inusual de pneumatocele selar a tensión de presentación tardía. Descripción del caso: Una mujer de 57 años consultó por hemianopsia bitemporal. Previamente, ya se le había realizado una cirugía transnasal por un adenoma hipofisario y se le había colocado una derivación lumbo-peritoneal por la presencia de una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Además, se le había realizado una resección transcraneal de un componente intracavernoso del tumor y radiocirugía debido a la agresividad del mismo. Se llevó a cabo una resonancia magnética que demostró un pneumatocele selar y supraselar. Intervención: Se realizó un abordaje transciliar. La región selar estaba encapsulada por tejido cicatrizal debido a los procedimientos previos. Se abrió la cicatriz y el aire fue evacuado. Posteriormente, el piso selar fue cerrado con grasa y cola de fibrina. Despuós del procedimiento, su campo visual retornó a la normalidad. Un año después de su última cirugía, continua asintomática. Conclusión: El pneumatocele selar y supraselar a tensión es un hallazgo extremadamente raro luego de una cirugía transesfenoidal. Su manifestaciónw clínica sería la alteración visual debida a la compresión inferior de la vía óptica. El pneumatocele selar a tensión debe ser evacuado en un corto plazo. PMID:23596554

  8. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  9. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  10. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points