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Sample records for jugular vein deformities

  1. Acquired Jugular Vein Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hopsu, Erkki; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Vento, Seija I.; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Venous malformations of the jugular veins are rare findings. Aneurysms and phlebectasias are the lesions most often reported. We report on an adult patient with an abruptly appearing large tumorous mass on the left side of the neck identified as a jugular vein aneurysm. Upon clinical examination with ultrasound, a lateral neck cyst was primarily suspected. Surgery revealed a saccular aneurysm in intimate connection with the internal jugular vein. Histology showed an organized hematoma inside the aneurysmal sac, which had a focally thinned muscular layer. The terminology and the treatment guidelines of venous dilatation lesions are discussed. For phlebectasias, conservative treatment is usually recommended, whereas for saccular aneurysms, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. While an exact classification based on etiology and pathophysiology is not possible, a more uniform taxonomy would clarify the guidelines for different therapeutic modalities for venous dilatation lesions. PMID:20107571

  2. Phlebectasia of Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Satish K.; Vasisth, Gaurav O. P.; Chibber, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia (IJP) is a rare disease in which there is a fusiform dilatation of internal jugular vein, usually presenting as a neck mass in children. Accurate diagnosis from careful history, physical examination, and radiological study can be made. We report a 12-year-old boy with history of swelling appearing on the right side of the neck only on straining, coughing, or during a Valsalva maneuver. Diagnosis of right IJP was made. Exploration and wrapping the dilated segment in an 8-mm-diameter polytetrafluoroethylene tube graft was done. Because of its rarity, this entity is frequently ignored or misdiagnosed. This case report intends to stress the importance of keeping IJP as differential diagnosis while dealing with such a swelling to avoid invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. PMID:23741586

  3. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present

  4. Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, V; Menegatti, E; Mascoli, F; Gianesini, S; Salvi, F; Secchiero, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the ultrastructure of intraluminal defects found in the internal jugular vein by using a scanning electron microscopy. Methods Using a scanning electron microscopy, intraluminal septa and/or defective valves blocking the flow in the distal internal jugular vein of seven patients were studied together with the adjacent wall and compared with control specimen. Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina. Conclusions Although the lack of endothelial cells in the internal jugular vein intraluminal obstacles is a further abnormality found in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, our investigation cannot clarify whether this finding is primary or caused by progressive loss of endothelium in relation to altered haemodynamic forces and/or to a past post-thrombotic/inflammatory remodelling. PMID:24972760

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV) drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications. PMID:26457221

  6. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Fortuna, Marek; Zaniewski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:23097738

  7. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  8. Malposition of central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SoWoon; Lee, Ju Ho; Park, Chunghyun; Hong, Yong-woo

    2015-01-01

    The central venous cannulation is commonly performed in the operating rooms and intensive care units for various purposes. Although the central venous catheter (CVC) is used in many ways, the malpositioning of the CVC is often associated with serious complications. We report a case of an unexpected malposition of a CVC in the jugular venous arch via external jugular vein. PMID:25844137

  9. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn’t available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. Methods 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Results A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262–605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363–3.588; p = 0.001). Conclusions Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable. PMID:26751380

  10. Superior vena cava reconstruction using bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei Dong; Yu, Feng Lei; Wu, Zhong Shi

    2007-11-01

    The glutaraldehyde-treated bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC) is a xenograft conduit initially used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and has never been used for reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC). In September 2003, a patient with SVC obstruction underwent SVC reconstruction using BJVC. He has been alive for 42 months and free from signs and symptoms of SVC obstruction except that metastasis was found in the vertebrae. The radionuclide venography showed the graft tube was patent and only slight stenosis was found in the proximal anastomosis. The initial result supports BJVC as an acceptable alternative for SVC reconstruction. PMID:17768061

  11. Congenital Agenesis of the Internal Jugular Vein: An Extremely Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Calli, Caglar; Emre, Abdulkadir; Soy, Fatih Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of major venous vessels are rarely seen. Moreover, congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. In our case, a female patient presented with primary unknown left cervical mass. Cervical ultrasonography demonstrated absence of right internal jugular vein. In addition, computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed this diagnosis. Compensatory left internal jugular vein enlargement mimicked sort of cervical mass. Venous magnetic resonance imaging images revealed the absence of right internal jugular vein with compensatory left internal jugular vein dominance. In the literature, the agenesis of IJV was mentioned in a case with concomitant multiple problems. Here, an asymptomatic case is reported with an incident diagnosis. No interventions were planned upon the patient's request. It should be kept in mind that any kind of anomalies can be seen during venous access and neck surgery. PMID:25821625

  12. Impact of Jugular Vein Valve Function on Cerebral Venous Haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Toro, Eleuterio F; Muller, Lucas O; Cristini, Mariapaola; Menegatti, Erica; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the effect of internal-jugular vein function on intracranial venous haemodynamics, with particular attention paid to venous reflux and intracranial venous hypertension. Haemodynamics in the head and neck is quantified by computing the velocity, flow and pressure fields, and vessel cross-sectional area in all major arteries and veins. For the computations we use a global, closed-loop multi-scale mathematical model for the entire human circulation, recently developed by the first two authors. Validation of the model against in vitro and in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements have been reported elsewhere. Here, the circulation model is equipped with a sub-model for venous valves. For the study, in addition to a healthy control, we identify two venous-valve related conditions, namely valve incompetence and valve obstruction. A parametric study for subjects in the supine position is carried out for nine cases. It is found that valve function has a visible effect on intracranial venous haemodynamics, including dural sinuses and deep cerebral veins. In particular, valve obstruction causes venous reflux, redirection of flow and intracranial venous hypertension. The clinical implications of the findings are unknown, though they may relate to recent hypotheses linking some neurological conditions to extra-cranial venous anomalies. PMID:26256005

  13. Anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein during head rotation

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Satoru; Nakazawa, Ken; Onozawa, Shiro; Mine, Takahiko; Ueda, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Yasui, Daisuke; Takeda, Minako; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the anatomical relationship between the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein during head rotation for the effective performance of percutaneous transjugular procedures. The subjects included 30 volunteers who had never undergone internal jugular vein cannulation. In the supine position, two-dimensional ultrasonographic images of the right internal jugular vein and common carotid artery were obtained, 2 and 4 cm above the clavicle, along the lateral border of the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Ultrasonographic images were examined for head rotation at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° from the midline to the left. The percentage of overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein and the flattening of the internal jugular vein at each head rotation position were measured and evaluated. The overlap of the common carotid artery by the internal jugular vein significantly increased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01), compared with that observed in the neutral position. The flattening of the internal jugular vein significantly decreased at ≥45° of head rotation 2 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01) and at ≥30° of head rotation 4 cm above the clavicle (P < 0.01). Head rotation should be kept to <45° at 2 cm above the clavicle and <30° at 4 cm above the clavicle to decrease the risk of accidental puncture of the common carotid artery during internal jugular vein puncture. Moreover, flattening of the internal jugular vein gradually decreases during head rotation to the side.

  14. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-05-01

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case. PMID:25425716

  15. Mid-term experience with valved bovine jugular vein conduits.

    PubMed

    Pawelec-Wojtalik, Malgorzata; Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Wodziński, Andrzej; Wojtalik, Michal; Henschke, Jacek; Sharma, Girish K

    2005-12-01

    From June 1999 to January 2004, 43 children underwent implantation of a valved bovine jugular vein conduit and correction of complex congenital heart defects. Median age was 1.98 years (range, 11 days - 13.3 years). There were 7 early deaths (16.3%) unrelated to conduit failure or thrombosis. Median follow-up of 36 survivors was 24 months (range, 1-48 months, quartile range, 12-48 months), total follow-up was 78 patient-years. There were 3 late deaths (8.3%) due to infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, and sudden cardiac arrest after re-operation to repair a right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm. There were 2 conduit explantations due to dysfunction and suspected endocarditis. Three patients underwent balloon dilatation of distal stenoses. The mean peak gradient through the pulmonary anastomosis was 15 mm Hg (range, 3-42 mm Hg) among patients free from re-intervention. No severe valve regurgitation was observed. Freedom from re-intervention was 72% at 48 months. This conduit remains a good alternative to homografts. Causes of distal stenosis must be clarified, guidelines for prophylactic anticoagulation must be created, and the role of percutaneous balloon dilatation established. PMID:16304226

  16. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins

    PubMed Central

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  17. A rare case of anastomosis between the external and internal jugular veins.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Charalampidis, Charalampos; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Kioumis, Ioannis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andrew; Sachpekidis, Nikolaos; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Pitsiou, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Fouka, Evagelia; Demetriou, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face. It commences from the substance of the parotid gland and runs down the neck at the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus and ends in the subclavian vein in front of the scalenus anterior. The external jugular vein is covered by the platysma and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior, draining the submaxillary region. In our patient, we recognized a shunt between the external and internal jugular veins. It appeared in the middle of the veins, between the pair of valves, which are placed ~2.5 cm above the termination of the vessel. The anastomosis was fully functional, and there was no problem in the blood pressure of the patient. Moreover, the shunt was not associated with any systemic disease. PMID:27051321

  18. Internal jugular vein phlebectasia presenting with hoarseness of voice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sohini; Dey, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Amrita; Bagchi, Nilay Ranjan; Sarkar, Debalina; Pal, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Internal jugular phlebectasia presents as a soft cystic mass in the neck that appears on straining. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with a painless soft cystic mass in the neck associated with hoarseness of voice. Based on clinical examination and CT image, diagnosis of right internal jugular phlebectasia was made. PMID:24369523

  19. Melatonin concentrations in the two jugular veins, and relationship with the seasonal reproductive activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2010-07-15

    The authors investigated whether melatonin concentrations vary between the two jugular veins and whether absolute (nocturnal) or relative (nocturnal/diurnal ratio) plasma melatonin concentrations are associated with seasonal reproductive activity measured by oestrus or ovulatory activity in Payoya goats. Thirty-two adult Payoya goats were penned under natural photoperiod. Oestrus activity was tested daily using aproned males-twice a week plasma was sampled for progesterone. Melatonin plasma concentrations were studied at each equinox and solstice of the year in jugular samples taken simultaneously by venipuncture. Nocturnal and diurnal plasma melatonin concentrations from each jugular vein were assessed in 3 and 2 plasma samples per goat, respectively, taken at hourly intervals in each period. No differences in melatonin concentrations between the two veins were observed, but there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between jugular vein and animal in nocturnal melatonin concentrations. There was no effect of sampling period on melatonin concentrations and the coefficient of correlation between sampling periods was very high. The analyses performed indicated that neither absolute nor relative melatonin concentrations were related with the dates of onset or end of ovulatory/oestrus activity. Therefore, we concluded that in goats (1) melatonin concentrations are highly variable between jugular veins in the same individual but not in the general population, (2) melatonin concentrations are highly repeatable for each individual, and (3) absolute and relative amplitudes of melatonin concentrations are not linked to the seasonal breeding activity in Mediterranean goats. PMID:20451998

  20. Carotid-jugular arteriovenous fistula: a case report of an iatrogenic complication following internal jugular vein catheterization for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himanshu V; Sainaresh, Vellanki V; Jain, Siddharth H; Kute, Vivek B; Godara, Suraj; Gumber, Manoj R; Munjappa, Bipin; Gera, Dinesh N; Shah, Pankaj R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of diabetic end-stage renal disease patient who presented with a right common carotid artery jugular arteriovenous fistula as a complication of the insertion of a polyurethane double-lumen hemodialysis catheter into the right internal jugular vein .On physical examination of the neck, a pulsating mass with a palpable thrill and a bruit was noted in the right subclavicular region. The diagnosis was confirmed by color doppler ultrasonography of the neck and carotid angiography. The review of the literature suggests the occurrence of this complication as rather rare. The fistula was successfully repaired surgically. It is emphasized that while securing the access, a thorough physical examination with a special emphasis on seeking any neck swellings, thrill, and bruit along with routine use of vascular doppler for securing dialysis access is recommended. PMID:21624042

  1. Internal Jugular Vein Blood Flow in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Di Donato, Orlando; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Salvatore, Elena; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the Internal Jugular Veins dynamics using contrast enhanced ultrasonography in Multiple Sclerosis patients, clinically isolated syndrome patients and healthy controls. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography imaging of the Internal Jugular Vein was performed in fifty-eight patients with Multiple Sclerosis, seven clinically isolated syndrome patients and in thirteen healthy controls. Time-intensity curves were quantified using a semi-automated method and compared with clinical disease outcomes. Wash-out parameters were calculated and six Time-intensity curves shapes were created. Significantly reduction of wash-out rate in Internal Jugular Veins was detected in Multiple Sclerosis patients compared to healthy controls [22.2% (2.7%–65.9%) vs. 33.4% (16.2%–76.8%); P<0.005]. Internal Jugular Vein enhancement was heterogeneous in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and consisted of slow wash-out Time-intensity curves shapes, compared with almost only one type of Time-intensity curves shape in control subjects that correspond to fast enhancement and fast wash-out. The vein wash-in parameters were similar in Multiple Sclerosis group compared with controls. A significant correlation was found between Internal Jugular Vein wash-out and level of disability (R = −0.402, p<0.05). Contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the Internal Jugular Vein with time intensity curve analysis revealed alterations of cerebral venous outflow in Multiple Sclerosis patients, however mechanisms that determine this condition remains unclear. PMID:24675965

  2. Jugular Vein Invasion Diagnosis and Prognosis in Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Pierre Yves; Thariat, Juliette; Chevenet, Carole; Lacout, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Diagnosis of venous jugular invasion by means of traditional imaging is very rarely reported in the literature. Doppler ultrasound definitively helps to diagnose the tumor thrombus, the extent, and helps in redefining the TNM stage of such an aggressive thyroid tumor. PMID:27354880

  3. Ultrasound assessment of the jugular and vertebral veins in healthy individuals: selected physiological aspects and morphological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Krysiuk, Kamil; Dobrzycki, Konrad; Ustymowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim Ultrasound assessment of morphological parameters of the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins in healthy individuals as well as their dependence on the patient's position. Material The examinations were conducted in 185 healthy individuals (101 females and 84 males) aged 18–89. Ultrasound examinations were conducted with the use of a linear probe with the frequency of 5–9 MHz in the supine (0°) and sitting position (90°). Results In 154 cases (83.2%) on the left side and in 150 cases (81.1%) on the right side, the jugular veins were completely closed in the sitting position. In 31 cases (16.8%) on the left side and in 35 cases (18.9%) on the right side, they were merely narrowed. By contrast with the jugular veins, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vertebral veins was greater in the sitting position than in the supine position in a statistically significant way. The CSA values of the jugular veins in the supine position ranged from 0 cm2 to 4.3 cm2. There were no statistically significant differences in the CSA between men and women. The cross-sectional area of the right jugular vein in the supine position was greater in a statistically significant way than that of the left jugular vein. In this study population, the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the jugular veins on both sides amounted to 8.5:1. Conclusions The width of the jugular and vertebral veins significantly varies depending on the patient's position. The range of the CSA values for the jugular veins is broad, which should be taken into account when interpreting imaging findings. The internal jugular veins can show considerable asymmetry. PMID:26674467

  4. Aneurysmal dilatation without distal obstruction: a rare complication of valved bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Abbaker, Abd-Elmoneim A; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Latiff, Haifa A

    2014-04-01

    Valved bovine jugular vein (Contegra) conduit is considered a suitable choice for pediatric population with congenital heart defect requiring right ventricle to main pulmonary artery connection. Intermediate follow-up studies have shown the propensity of developing distal conduit stenosis and valve thrombosis. We present a rare case of aneurysmal dilatation of the conduit leading to valve failure requiring conduit explantation. PMID:24668992

  5. Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit in a child.

    PubMed

    Tasher, Diana; Stein, Michal; Raucher-Sternfeld, Alona; Somekh, Eli

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with Coxiella burnetii infection of a bovine jugular vein conduit which is an extremely rare manifestation of Q fever. The role of surgery in the management of C. burnetii endovascular infection and the use of serology are discussed. PMID:22349674

  6. The effect of right internal jugular vein cannulation on intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Woda, R P; Miner, M E; McCandless, C; McSweeney, T D

    1996-10-01

    Access to the central venous circulation is often necessary in patients who have elevated intracranial pressure. It has been suggested that a disadvantage of the internal jugular vein approach to the central circulation may be an elevated intracranial pressure. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of right internal jugular vein cannulation on intracranial pressure in patients who are at risk of intracerebral hypertension. Eleven adult patients studied in the intensive care unit were evaluated. The population included those patients who were admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit requiring intracranial pressure monitoring and central venous access. With the intracranial pressure monitor in place, patients were put in supine and 30 degrees head-up positions while intracranial pressure was recorded. The Queckenstedt maneuver was performed on all patients. A central venous line was then placed in the right internal jugular vein, and intracranial pressure was recorded. The Queckenstedt maneuver was again performed in the study population, and intracranial pressure measurements were recorded for the right, left, and bilateral compression of the internal jugular vein. The results of the intracranial pressure measurements before and after placement of the central venous line were statistically analyzed using single-factor analysis of variance over time. The mean Glasgow coma and Apache II scores for the study groups were 8 +/- 4 and 15 +/- 6, respectively. There were no significant differences in heart rate; cerebral perfusion pressure; or systolic, mean, or diastolic pressures throughout the study period. There was no statistical difference found between the intracranial pressures at any time point throughout the study. Furthermore, no difference was found in percentage change from baseline intracranial pressure data throughout the study period. Our results suggest that cannulation of the right internal jugular vein is a safe

  7. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  8. Dysphagia because of unilateral internal jugular vein phlebectasia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jegadeesh; Menon, Prema; Thingnum, Shyam K S; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha

    2016-07-01

    Phlebectasia affecting the internal jugular vein is a rare cause of a benign neck swelling in children. They are mostly asymptomatic and therefore managed conservatively. Ligation of the vein and excision is usually avoided owing to the worry of raised intracranial pressure. We report a case of a large right internal jugular vein phlebectasia, causing dysphagia in a 7month old male child. Contrast enhanced computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction helped in pre-operative anatomical delineation, especially of the lower extent. It was excised through a cervico-thoracic approach with postoperative amelioration of symptoms. Contrary to expectation, the ectasia was not friable and was covered with a pseudocapsule of fibrofatty tissue, making excision easy. PMID:27233370

  9. Dissection of the posterior wall by guide-wire during internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Eriko; Shimamoto, Yoko; Tokumine, Joho

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of posterior wall hematoma formation in the internal jugular vein after the puncture of central vein. An 82-year-old woman was scheduled for laparotomy for an abdominal incisional hernia. After induction of general anesthesia, we performed central venous catheterization via the right internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance in the short-axis view and out-of plane technique. The ultrasound view after insertion of a guide-wire revealed a hematoma-like space on the posterior wall of the vein. We removed and reinserted the guide-wire. This time, insertion of the wire and catheter was uneventful. Seven days after the surgery, no hematoma-like space was found in the vein. The malposition of the guide-wire was detected before dilation, which enabled us to avoid complications in this case. We should note that the confirmation of guide-wire placement in the vein is important during ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization. PMID:25138819

  10. Bilateral Jugular Vein and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis Related to an Inherited Coagulopathy: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Altıntaş, Özge; Baran, Gözde; Mehdi, Elnur; Asil, Talip

    2014-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition associated with malignancy, coagulopathy, and trauma. The optimal management of any IJVT must be individualized and depends on the condition of the patient. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of a first trimester spontaneous abortion. Apart from a tension-type headache, she had no neurological symptoms. She reported an incidental diagnosis of right-sided IJVT when she was evaluated for hyperthyroidism ultrasonographically. On ultrasonography, we observed bilateral jugular vein thrombosis. The patient was started on oral warfarin. Seven months later, when she was adequately anticoagulated, she developed a second thrombosis. According to the etiological workup, she had a mutation in the homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and reduced protein C levels and activity. Conclusion. This report illustrates an unusual presentation of a rare condition. In this case, the etiology was associated with the coagulopathy, which occurred despite adequate anticoagulation. PMID:25221687

  11. Tricuspid valve replacement with a melody stented bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Joshua L; Permut, Lester C; McQuinn, Tim C; Jones, Thomas K; Chen, Jonathan M; McMullan, David Michael

    2014-11-01

    Atrioventricular valve replacement options are limited in infants and small children. The Melody stented bovine jugular vein conduit is being used with increasing frequency for percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement. The Melody valve can be serially dilated over time to accommodate the somatic growth of pediatric patients. We report the initial experience of using the Melody valve as a surgical tricuspid valve replacement in an infant. PMID:25441796

  12. A 28-year-old pregnant woman with a very rare cause of jugular vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, R; van Balen, M; Blaauwgeers, J; ten Wolde, M

    2014-05-01

    During pregnancy, venous thrombosis of the distal extremities is not uncommon. However, thrombosis in the upper part of the body, such as jugular vein thrombosis, is rare. If underlying causes such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) or septic thrombophlebitis (Lemierre's syndrome) are excluded, a serous borderline ovary tumour (BOT) must be considered and MR imaging of the abdomen could be performed to find a primary tumour mass. PMID:24829179

  13. Thrombosis of the External Jugular Vein: A Rare Complication of a Proximal Humerus Fracture Treated with Collar and Cuff Immobilisation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Helen; Pickering, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 87-year-old woman who developed a thrombosis of her external jugular vein after sustaining a proximal humerus fracture managed nonoperatively with a collar and cuff. At review in fracture clinic she was found to have an enlarged external jugular vein which was subsequently found to be thrombosed. Her collar and cuff had been applied very tightly and it was felt by the ENT team to be the cause of the thrombosis of her external jugular vein. She was fully anticoagulated with warfarin after subsequently developing a deep vein thrombosis in the subclavian and axillary veins. She made a full recovery following anticoagulation. In this case, we review the potential causes of this rare and underdiagnosed condition, as well as the usual investigations and treatments. We also review the common complications of this fracture and the alternative treatment options available. PMID:25247102

  14. A new RV-PA conduit with a natural valve made of bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    A new RV-PA conduit with a natural valve was developed using bovine jugular vein. To maintain the natural, mechanical properties of the veins, a hydrophilic cross-linking reagent, a glycerol polyglycidyl ether polyepoxy compound (PC) was used. The treatment has already been proven in the field of vascular grafts to be able to reduce antigenicity, biodegradability, and degenerative changes such as calcification, to induce antithrombogenicity with hydrogenicity, and to improve affinity to host cells. Bovine jugular veins were cross-linked with the reagent and were implanted as a conduit into the RV-PA position in six dogs. The main PA was ligated after implantation. One animal died due to bleeding 2 days after implantation; the other animals were healthy and allowed to survive until they were sacrificed. The graft was very soft and as pliable as native tissue, and was as strong as a heart valve. Post-operative catheterization and angiography showed adequate function of the valve. Macroscopic and microscopic observations revealed the antithrombogenicity of the graft in this animal study. These results indicated that this newly developed biologic valved conduit has a high probability of overcoming many problems observed in existing RV-PA conduits. PMID:1457862

  15. A novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Pan, Boan; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood (SjvO2) by using Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The different positions of patients can affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), in other words, it causes the sectional change of the IJV blood volume. When lying position of patients, the CSA is larger than that keeping upper body 80 degree, and the CSA can compute quantitatively by the use of ultrasound and digital image processing methods. The entire method consist of constructing different position of patient (upper body rotation 0 and 80 degree), comparing the light absorption changes. SjvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelength, before and after the position changes. The method has been applied to the vertical area over the IJV of 11 patients who were placed a central venous catheter into a large vein in the neck for medical uses, using wavelength of 735 and 850 nm. At last, comparing the SjvO2NIRS which measured by NIRS noninvasively with SjvO2IJVBG which was quantified using a whole blood gas analyzer, we found there were some certain relativity. The results were influenced by vascular depth greatly.

  16. Radical resection of the superior vena cava using the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Elizabeth; Dusmet, Michael; Petrou, Mario

    2010-02-01

    Radical resection of the superior vena cava poses a challenge for the cardiothoracic surgeon. The Contegra graft (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN), a biologic conduit comprising the valved segment of the bovine jugular vein, is established as a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit for right ventricular outflow tract repair in the pediatric population. We describe the use of the Contegra graft to facilitate radical resection and reconstruction of the superior vena cava in 2 patients, with demonstrable patency of grafts at 12 months and 7 months postoperatively. PMID:20103366

  17. [Thrombosis of the external jugular vein. Case report of a rare cause for pain in the lateral neck].

    PubMed

    Bartella, Alexander; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Gander, Thomas; Grätz, Klaus W; Kruse, Astrid I

    2014-01-01

    Dental practitioners are sometimes confronted with patients complaining about pain in the neck area. Especially if an induration in the region of the big vessels is present, one must keep in mind the differential diagnosis of a spontaneous thrombosis of the external jugular vein. This diagnosis needs consequent treatment but also consequent search for an underlying pathology. This case report presents such a situation in an exemplary way. Despite risk factors, the reason for thrombosis stays in the dark. However, all possible causes were cleared and are shown to the reader. Especially malignancies are responsible for thrombosis of the jugular vein in many cases. PMID:24585364

  18. [Prevalence of stenosis and thrombosis of central veins in hemodialysis after a tunneled jugular catheter].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M

    2001-01-01

    Central venous stenosis (ST) and thrombosis (TB) related to catheter (KT) had been reported mostly for the subclavian vein. We performed a systematic cavographic study to evaluate the prevalence of these complications in 51 hemodialysis patients with present or previous history of tunneled internal jugular catheter. Each of them had used one or several KT (1.8 +/- 1.4 KT) for a mean 28 +/- 26 month cumulative time (i.e. 43,584 days total exposure time). Fifty percent of the KT were PermCath Quinton and 50% were Twincath (uncuffed) or CS 100 (cuffed) Medcomp. Twenty-seven had no ST (53%, group I), 24 had one or several significant ST (47%, group II) of superior Vena Cava (SVC, n = 4), inferior Vena Cava (IVC, n = 1), Brachio-cephalic Vein (BCV, n = 5) and subclavian vein (SC, n = 10), or a TB of SVC (n = 1), IVC (n = 3), BCV (n = 3), SC (n = 2). This accounts for an incidence of 0.55 ST or TB/1000 patient-days. Five of the twelve subclavian ST and TB had no history of previous subclavian catheter. Comparison between the two groups showed no differences according to age, time on dialysis, diabetes, hematocrit, CRP, cumulative time with catheter, catheter-related infections, type of catheter and anticoagulant treatment. IVC catheter tip's position is an important risk factor for TB and ST (4/6). Twelve group II patients had ST or TB-related symptoms, with a functional AV fistula in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent repeated percutaneous angioplasty with 4 additional Wallstents and in 2 cases an AV fistula need to be closed. Central venous ST and TB after a jugular KT is extremely frequent, mostly without any symptoms. Consequences on peripheral or central vascular access, cost and poor long-term patency rate of angioplasty are of major importance. These results incite us to further reduce the catheter use in dialysis patients. PMID:11811018

  19. The dynamics of changing internal jugular veins diameter based on increasing head elevation angle

    PubMed Central

    Urakov, Aleksandr L.; Kasatkin, Anton A.; Nigmatullina, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Venous outflow from the cranial cavity occurs mainly through the internal jugular vein (IJV). The increase in venous outflow through IJV is possible by head elevation. IJV collapse may indicate the reduction of blood volume in the vein and show the head elevation effectiveness. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of head elevation on IJV size. Subjects and Methods: IJV ultrasound scanning in 31 healthy volunteers was carried after gradual head elevation at 15°, 30°, and 45°. Maximum and minimum IJV diameters were recorded. Mean ± standard deviation, median, range, and collapsibility index were calculated. Results: Thirty-one volunteers were involved (19 males), their average age was 37.0 ± 11.5 years. Increasing the head elevation angle by 15°, 30° and 45° resulted in a decrease in IJV diameter in the right and left sides in all patients. The occurrence of the vein walls collapse corresponds to the collapsibility index equal to 100%. The results showed that 100% collapsibility index was recorded in 6 patients (19%) at 15° head elevation, in 12 patients (39%) at 30°, in 11 patients (35%) at 45°. In two volunteers (6%), 100% collapsibility index was not recorded even at maximum 45° head elevation. Conclusions: Ultrasound IJV scanning during gradual head elevation together with the collapsibility index calculation could be useful guidance for the venous outflow assessment. In order to prove and extend the study findings, more research is needed. PMID:26628827

  20. Unusual case of focal neck swelling: Phlebectasia of internal jugular vein with intracranial extension

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Virender; Kumari, Abha; Murthy, TVSP

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) phlebectasia is rare in occurrence and is frequently misdiagnosed and managed inappropriately. It commonly presents as a unilateral neck swelling which typically increases in size with valsalva maneuver. Although, the most common cause of a focal neck swelling, which increases in size with valsalva maneuver is laryngocele, the possibility of phlebectasia of IJV should always be borne in mind, especially in child. Owing to the rarity of this condition, a high index of suspicion is required to recognize the same and managed appropriately. We present a case of phlebectasia of the right IJV with intracranial extension and discuss its management. The case is being reported in view of its clinical rarity (the intracranial extension being extremely rare) and to highlight the available management strategies. PMID:25664271

  1. Idiopathic unilateral hypoplasia of internal jugular vein and coagulopathy: Unusual case for central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Nama, Rajnish K; Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Shah, Veena R

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is routinely done procedure in ICU or during surgery for various indications. Right Internal jugular vein (IJV) is preferred vessel among different routes for CVC. Anatomic variations of neck vessels are not uncommon and may increase the complication rate especially in patients with altered coagulation profile. Anatomic landmark technique is commonly used for CVC but not without possibility of complications. Ultrasound (US) guided IJV Cannulation provides high success rate, less access time and lesser complications. Superiority of US over anatomic landmark technique has been established, but use of US in clinical practice is still limited. We report a case of idiopathic unilateral hypoplastic IJV in a patient with altered coagulation profile who required CVC, we also tried to find out the barriers for limited use of US. PMID:26712993

  2. The effect of body position on developing ultrasound criteria for the assessment of the internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Clements, E; Bonfield, M; Sassano, A

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies investigating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency highlighted that intracranial venous return has not yet been routinely investigated by ultrasound in the normal population. This creates an absence of a reference standard and raises concerns that the approach introduces variations into the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop reference standards for the assessment of the internal jugular vein in a normal population. A prospective small-scale study was conducted. Internal jugular veins of 31 normal candidates were examined using B-Mode and PW Doppler. Measurements at proximal and mid-point internal jugular vein were taken in sitting (90°) and supine (0°) positions. Area measurements were taken during passive respiration in cm(2). Time average velocity measurements were taken during passive respiration over a 3-second period. Reflux measurements were taken after apnoea and reflux was recorded from any reversed flow. Measurements were taken three times; an average was calculated and statically analysed. Of the 31 participants, one was excluded from the study and 30 were suitable. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results; all results (area, time average velocity and reflux) showed that there was a significant difference between the two positions with p < 0.05 (two-tailed). This pilot study does suggest that there is a significant difference in area, time average velocity and reflux measurements of the internal jugular vein when taken in the sitting and supine position, which could affect the outcome of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A further large-scale study is required to validate and standardise the assessment of the internal jugular vein. PMID:27433241

  3. The effect of body position on developing ultrasound criteria for the assessment of the internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Bonfield, M; Sassano, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency highlighted that intracranial venous return has not yet been routinely investigated by ultrasound in the normal population. This creates an absence of a reference standard and raises concerns that the approach introduces variations into the results. The primary objective of this study was to develop reference standards for the assessment of the internal jugular vein in a normal population. A prospective small-scale study was conducted. Internal jugular veins of 31 normal candidates were examined using B-Mode and PW Doppler. Measurements at proximal and mid-point internal jugular vein were taken in sitting (90°) and supine (0°) positions. Area measurements were taken during passive respiration in cm2. Time average velocity measurements were taken during passive respiration over a 3-second period. Reflux measurements were taken after apnoea and reflux was recorded from any reversed flow. Measurements were taken three times; an average was calculated and statically analysed. Of the 31 participants, one was excluded from the study and 30 were suitable. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results; all results (area, time average velocity and reflux) showed that there was a significant difference between the two positions with p < 0.05 (two-tailed). This pilot study does suggest that there is a significant difference in area, time average velocity and reflux measurements of the internal jugular vein when taken in the sitting and supine position, which could affect the outcome of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A further large-scale study is required to validate and standardise the assessment of the internal jugular vein.

  4. Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting with Jugular-Subclavian Deep Vein Thrombosis as the First Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Ceniza, Sidney; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Jugular venous thrombosis infrequently could be secondary to malignancy and has seldom been reported secondary to mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas. The postulated mechanisms are mechanical compression that leads to stagnation of blood in the venous system of the neck and/or an increase in the circulating thrombogenic elements that could cause venous thromboembolism as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We report the case of a middle aged male presenting with right sided neck pain and arm swelling secondary to ipsilateral jugular-subclavian deep vein thrombosis. Investigations revealed it to be secondary to a mediastinal mass shown on CT scan of the chest. PMID:25821628

  5. Ligation of the Jugular Veins Does Not Result in Brain Inflammation or Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Pulli, Benjamin; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Ueno, Takuya; Waterman, Peter; Truelove, Jessica; Oklu, Rahmi; Chen, John W.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative hypothesis has been proposed implicating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a potential cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis in a controlled animal model. Animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. The jugular veins in SJL mice were ligated bilaterally (n = 20), and the mice were observed for up to six months after ligation. Sham-operated mice (n = 15) and mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n = 8) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. The animals were evaluated using CT venography and 99mTc-exametazime to assess for structural and hemodynamic changes. Imaging was performed to evaluate for signs of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation. Flow cytometry and histopathology were performed to assess inflammatory cell populations and demyelination. There were both structural changes (stenosis, collaterals) in the jugular venous drainage and hemodynamic disturbances in the brain on Tc99m-exametazime scintigraphy (p = 0.024). In the JVL mice, gadolinium MRI and immunofluorescence imaging for barrier molecules did not reveal evidence of BBB breakdown (p = 0.58). Myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinase, and protease molecular imaging did not reveal signs of increased neuroinflammation (all p>0.05). Flow cytometry and histopathology also did not reveal increase in inflammatory cell infiltration or population shifts. No evidence of demyelination was found, and the mice remained without clinical signs. Despite the structural and hemodynamic changes, we did not identify changes in the BBB permeability, neuroinflammation, demyelination, or clinical signs in the JVL group compared to the sham group. Therefore, our murine model does not support CCSVI as a cause of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:22457780

  6. Intravascular extension of papillary thyroid carcinoma to the internal jugular vein: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jarrah, Q.; Abou-Foul, Ak.; Heis, H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy and usually spreads via lymphatic system. PTC can sometimes show microscopic vascular invasion, but rarely causes tumour thrombus in the internal jugular vein (IJV) or other great veins of the neck. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a 62-year-old female presented with symptomatic central neck mass. Clinical examination revealed a hard solitary right-sided thyroid nodule with ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Ultrasonography (US) confirmed the clinical diagnosis and visualised a dilated ipsilateral IJV. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed PTC cells so total thyroidectomy with right neck dissection was done. A tumour thrombus was discovered in the distended right IJV and was cleared successfully. The patient recovered well after the operation with no local or distant metastasis detected. DISCUSSION Tumour vascular spread is observed in tumours with angio-invasive features including follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland where great cervical veins can be affected. PTC commonly spreads to the lymph nodes and vascular spread via direct intravascular extension is extremely rare. Neck US has an important role in the diagnosis, and operators should attempt to detect signs of tumour thrombi in all patients with thyroid masses. Aggressive surgical treatment with vascular repair is recommended whenever possible to minimise the risk of potentially fatal complications of the intraluminal masses. CONCLUSION Intravascular tumour extension of PTC is rare but with serious consequences. Diagnosis with neck US is possible but some cases are only discovered intraoperatively. Thrombectomy with vascular repair or reconstruction is usually possible. PMID:25044067

  7. The use of internal jugular vein as interposition graft for femoral vein reconstruction following traumatic venous injury: a useful approach in selected cases.

    PubMed

    Woodson, J; Rodriguez, A A; Menzoian, J O

    1990-09-01

    Complex venous injuries remain a controversial and interesting challenge to the vascular and trauma surgeon. Data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry, combined with experience from recent civilian series, seem to indicate that the best results are obtained when venous repair is undertaken. This is especially true of combined arterial and venous injury where compromised venous outflow may lead to limb loss in spite of patent arterial reconstruction. The larger size of veins, however, has required the construction of complex and time-consuming panel and spiral-vein grafts. This makes them far from ideal in the trauma treatment setting, where minimization of blood loss and operating room time are high priorities. We present a case of combined injury to both femoral artery and vein, where the femoral vein injury was repaired using autologous internal jugular vein as interposition graft while the arterial injury was repaired with autologous saphenous vein from the opposite limb. The avoidance of prosthetics, ease of harvest, size match, and little associated morbidity all make a strong case for use of the internal jugular vein where speedy reconstruction of large venous conduits is indicated. PMID:2223549

  8. [Two Cases of Retained Guide Wires after Placement of a Central Venous Catheter via the Internal Jugular Vein].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Masumori, Yasushi; Tanigawa, Saori; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Miki; Tateda, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of a retained guide wire after perioperative placement of a central venous catheter during a six-month period. Case 1: A 73-year-old male was scheduled for an open cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. After induction of anesthesia, a central venous (CV) catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein using an ultrasound guide. Chest radiographs showed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava immediately after surgery, which was removed by interventional radiologist before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Case 2: A 77-year-old male was scheduled for colostomy closure. The surgeon inserted a CV catheter in the right internal jugular vein 4 days before the colostomy. Chest radiographs revealed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava, which was removed by interventional radiologists before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Although a retained guide wire is a rare complication, awareness of this mishap is necessary to prevent it from happening. PMID:26742416

  9. Puncture point-traction method: A novel method applied for right internal jugular vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    WU, TIANLIANG; ZANG, HONGCHENG

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound probe and advancement of the needle during real-time ultrasound-assisted guidance of catheterization of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) tend to collapse the vein, which reduces the success rate of the procedure. We have developed a novel puncture point-traction method (PPTM) to facilitate RIJV cannulation. The present study examined whether this method facilitated the performance of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients. In this study, 120 patients were randomly assigned to a group in which PPTM was performed (PPTM group, n=60) or a group in which it was not performed (non-PPTM group, n=60). One patient was excluded because of internal carotid artery puncture and 119 patients remained for analysis. The cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter (AD) and transverse diameter (TD) of the RIJV at the cricoid cartilage level following the induction of anesthesia and during catheterization were measured, and the number with obvious loss of resistance (NOLR), the number with easy aspiration of blood into syringe (NEABS) during advancement of the needle, and the number of first-pass punctures (NFPP) during catheterization were determined. In the non-PPTM group, the CSA was smaller during catheterization compared with that following the induction of anesthesia (P<0.01). In the PPTM group compared with the non-PPTM group during catheterization, the CSA was larger (P<0.01) and the AD (P<0.01) and TD (P<0.05) were wider; NOLR (P<0.01), NEABS (P<0.01) and NFPP (P<0.01) increased significantly. The findings from this study confirmed that the PPTM facilitated catheterization of the RIJV and improved the success rate of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients in the supine position. PMID:27347054

  10. Cardiac Variation of Internal Jugular Vein for the Evaluation of Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Qian, Kun; Ando, Takehiro; Inokuchi, Ryota; Doi, Kent; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Evaluations of intravascular fluid volume are considered to be one of the most important assessments in emergency and intensive care. Focusing on pulse-induced variation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) area, i.e., cardiac variation, we investigated its correlation with various hemodynamic indices using newly developed software. Software that automatically can track and analyze the IJV during ultrasonography was developed. Eleven healthy patients were subjected to an exercise load to increase their stroke volume (SV) and a dehydration load to decrease their central venous pressure (CVP). The cardiac variation in the area of the IJV, CVP, the SV and the respiratory variation in the inferior vena cava (IVC) were evaluated. The exercise protocol increased the patients' mean SV by 14.5 ± 3.7 mL, and the dehydration protocol caused their mean CVP to fall by 3.75 ± 0.33 cm H2O, which resulted in the collapse index (max IJV area - min IJV area/max IJV area) changing from 0.32 ± 0.04 to 0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.49 ± 0.04, respectively (p < 0.05). The SV exhibited a strong positive correlation with the collapse index (r = 0.59, p = 0.006), and CVP showed a strong positive correlation with the body height-adjusted mean area of the IJV (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Cardiac variation in the area of the great veins is considered to be induced by venous return to the right atrium under negative pressure. It is possible that intravascular dehydration can be detected and hemodynamic indices, such as CVP and SV, can be estimated by evaluating cardiac variation in the area of the IJV. PMID:27108039

  11. Physical stress testing of bovine jugular veins using magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography and electrical velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Boethig, Dietmar; Ernst, Franziska; Sarikouch, Samir; Norozi, Kambiz; Lotz, Joachim; Opherk, Jan Patrick; Meister, Maren; Breymann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Bovine jugular veins (BJVs) (Contegra) are valve-bearing pulmonary artery substitutes. Their valves have higher profiles than human pulmonary valves; this might result in less optimal performance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of stress and undersizing on conduit performance with ergometry, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between April 2007 and June 2008, 20 BJV recipients (age 7.9-19.6 years) underwent spiroergometry and subsequent echocardiography; after due rest, ergometry was repeated and followed by MRI during recovery. A year later, exams were repeated. Data was evaluated as follows: comparison of stress related maximal individual valve performance changes (magnetic resonance: exercise induced average stroke volume changes by 61+/-49%; mean insufficiency increased by 2% in patients with <1% rest insufficiency and by 8% after rest insufficiency of >10%; the average rest gradient of 24+/-11 mmHg rose to 40+/-20 mmHg), and stratification of pooled observations by regurgitation fraction, insufficiency grades and z-values (insufficiency rose with increasing heart rate and decreasing stroke volume; undersizing increased gradients during recovery by 7+/-0.7 mmHg/z-value). Contegras high-profile valves tolerate stress without performance drop. Stress induced changes of insufficiency and gradient were clinically not significant, but sufficient to distort examination results; therefore, constant examination conditions are indispensable for a correct follow-up. PMID:20479070

  12. Calcification resistance for photooxidatively crosslinked acellular bovine jugular vein conduits in right-side heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei-Dong; Wang, An-Ping; Wu, Zhong-Shi; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Tie-Hui; Lei, Guang-Yan; Hu, Ye-Rong

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of decellularization plus photooxidative crosslinking and ethanol pretreatment on bioprosthetic tissue calcification. Photooxidatively crosslinked acellular (PCA) bovine jugular vein conduits (BJVCs) and their photooxidized controls (n = 5 each) were sterilized in a graded concentration of ethanol solutions for 4 h, and used to reconstruct dog right ventricular outflow tracts. At 1-year implantation, echocardiography showed similar hemodynamic performance, but obvious calcification for the photooxidized BJVC walls. Further histological examination showed intense calcium deposition colocalized with slightly degraded elastic fibers in the photooxidized BJVC walls, with sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the valves and other areas of walls. But PCA BJVCs had apparent degradation of elastic fibers in the walls, with only sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the walls and valves. Content assay demonstrated comparable calcium content for the two groups at preimplantation, whereas less calcium for the PCA group in the walls and similar calcium in the valvular leaflets compared with the photooxidized group at 1-year retrieval. Elastin content assay presented the conduit walls of PCA group had less elastin content at preimplantation, but similar content at 1-year retrieval compared with the photooxidized group. Phospholipid analysis showed phospholipid extraction by ethanol for the PCA group was more efficacious than the photooxidized group. These results indicate that PCA BJVCs resist calcification in right-side heart implantation owing to decellularization, further photooxidative crosslinking, and subsequent phospholipid extraction by ethanol at preimplantation. PMID:22615255

  13. Right Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: Carotid Artery-directed versus Sternocleidomastoid-directed Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yan; Yuan, Ping; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Min

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore a simple and safe method for central venous catheterization (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) by comparing carotid artery (CA) positioning with sternocleidomastoid (SCM) positioning. The medical records of patients who underwent CVC between January 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Central venous catheters were inserted into the RIJV either above the level of the cricoid cartilage using the CA-directed method (419 patients, Group 1) or below the level of the cricoid cartilage using the SCM-directed method (436 patients, Group 2). Success rate and related complications of catheterization were evaluated in the two groups. The total success rate of RIJV cannulation in Group 1 (97.2%) was higher than that in Group 2 (94.5%). Moreover, the success rate at first attempt was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.4% vs 86.9%). The incidence of hematoma was 1.6 per cent in Group 1 and 3.8 per cent in Group 2. The rate of other complications such as pneumothorax, catheter-related infections, and catheter occlusion did not significantly differ between the groups. In conclusions, CA-directed RIJV cannulation is more effective and simple to perform than the SCM-directed method, and should become the preferred CVC technique in the absence of ultrasound guidance. PMID:26874140

  14. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing.

    PubMed

    Laganà, M M; Pelizzari, L; Scaccianoce, E; Dipasquale, O; Ricci, C; Baglio, F; Cecconi, P; Baselli, G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1-C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1-C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  15. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, L.; Scaccianoce, E.; Dipasquale, O.; Ricci, C.; Baglio, F.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1–C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1–C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  16. Acute respiratory distress associated with external jugular vein catheterization in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Fadi F; Obeid, Mounir; Dabbous, Ibrahim; Hayek, Paula; Akel, Samir; Mroueh, Salman

    2003-12-01

    We report on the acute onset of respiratory distress secondary to fluid accumulation in the chest within hours of placement of an external jugular venous line in a newborn. External jugular venous catheterization in the newborn is a procedure with potentially serious complications, and should be avoided unless the patient is monitored closely. PMID:14618649

  17. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in critically ill pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eu Jeen; Ha, Hyeong Seok; Kong, Young Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continuous intravenous access is imperative in emergency situations. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization was investigated in critically ill pediatric patients to assess the feasibility of the procedure. Methods Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between February 2011 and September 2012 were enrolled in this study. All patients received a central venous catheter from attending house staff under ultrasound guidance. Outcome measures included successful insertion of the catheter, cannulation time, number of cannulation attempts, and number and type of resulting complications. Results Forty-one central venous catheters (93.2%) were successfully inserted into 44 patients (21 males and 23 females; mean age, 6.54±1.06 years). Thirty-three patients (75.0%) had neurological disorders. The right IJV was used for catheter insertion in 34 cases (82.9%). The mean number of cannulation attempts and the mean cannulation time was 1.57±0.34 and 14.07±1.91 minutes, respectively, the mean catheter dwell time was 14.73±2.5 days. Accidental catheter removal was observed in 9 patients (22.0%). Six patients (13.6%) reported complications, the most serious being catheter-related sepsis, which affected 1 patient (2.3%). Other complications included 2 reported cases of catheter malposition (4.6%), and 1 case each of arterial puncture (2.3%), pneumothorax (2.3%), and skin infection (2.3%). Conclusion The results suggest that ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization can be performed easily and without any serious complications in pediatric patients, even when performed by visiting house staff. Therefore, ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization is strongly recommended for critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:25932035

  18. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  19. Preoperative ultrasonographic findings of internal jugular veins and carotid arteries in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Park, Jeong Bo; Lee, Jeong Jin; Ko, Justin Sangwook

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis via the internal jugular vein (IJV) has been widely used for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, as they have a higher risk of arterial diseases. We investigated the ultrasonographic findings of the IJV and carotid artery (CA) in recipients of kidney transplantation (KT) and identified factors influencing IJV/CA abnormalities. Methods We enrolled 120 adult KT recipients. Patients in group A (n = 57) had a history of IJV hemodialysis, while those in group B (n = 63) were not yet on dialysis or undergoing dialysis methods not involving the IJV. The day before surgery, we evaluated the state of the IJV and CA using ultrasonography. We followed patients with IJV stenosis for six months after KT. Results Ultrasonography revealed that four patients (7%) in group A had IJV abnormalities, while no patients in group B had abnormalities (P = 0.118). Of the four patients with abnormalities, one with 57.4% stenosis normalized during follow- up. However, another patient with 90.1% stenosis progressed to occlusion, while the two patients with total occlusion remained the same. Twenty patients in group A (n = 11) and B (n = 9) had several CA abnormalities (P = 0.462). Upon multivariate analysis with stepwise selection, height and age were significantly correlated with IJV stenosis (P = 0.043, odds ratio = 0.9) and CA abnormality (P = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.1), respectively. Conclusions IJV abnormalities (especially with a history of IJV hemodialysis) and CA abnormalities may be present in ESRD patients. Therefore, we recommend ultrasonographic evaluation before catheterization. PMID:27482315

  20. Right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Broilo, Fabiano; Meregalli, Andre; Friedman, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava diameter (∆DIVC) and right internal jugular vein diameter (∆DRIJ) are correlated in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods This study was a prospective clinical analysis in an intensive care unit at a university hospital. Thirty-nine mechanically ventilated patients with hemodynamic instability were included. ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were assessed by echography. Vein distensibility was calculated as the ratio of (A) Dmax - Dmin/Dmin and (B) Dmax - Dmin/ mean of Dmax - Dmin and expressed as a percentage. Results ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were correlated by both methods: (A) r = 0.34, p = 0.04 and (B) r = 0.51, p = 0.001. Using 18% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (A), 16 patients were responders and 35 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.80). The area under the ROC curve was 0.951 (95%CI 0.830 - 0.993; cutoff = 18.92). Using 12% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (B), 14 patients were responders and 32 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.65). The area under the ROC curve was 0.903 (95%CI 0.765 - 0.973; cut-off value = 11.86). Conclusion The respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava and the right internal jugular veins are correlated and showed significant agreement. Evaluation of right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness. PMID:26465243

  1. Comparison of an ultrasound-guided technique versus a landmark-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Dolu, Hasan; Goksu, Sıtkı; Sahin, Levent; Ozen, Onder; Eken, Levent

    2015-02-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly preformed procedure in many branches of medicine, particularly in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the landmark-guided technique to the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in cardiovascular surgery patients. One hundred cardiovascular surgery patients, of whom 65 were male and 35 were female with ages ranging from 22 to 65, who had internal jugular cannulation between December 2010-March 2011 in our clinic were investigated prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups; ultrasound guided internal jugular cannulation cases in group U (n=50), and anatomic landmark guided cases in group A (n=50). The number of attempts until successful catheterization, the time required for successful catheterization, arising complications, the demographics and the duration of catheterization were recorded for each patient. There were no significant differences found in the demographic features between the two groups. The number of attempts for successful catheterization was statistically lower in group U (1.1±0.5) than in group A (2.2±1.6). The time required for successful catheterization was statistically lower in group U (109.4±30.4) than in group A (165.9±91.5). There were no significant differences found in the total complications of the two groups (p=0.092). Four patients had an arterial punction [group U (n=0) and group A (n=4)] and two patients had a hematoma [group U (n=1) and group A (n=1)]. Arterial punction complication was increased significantly in landmark group (p=0.041). The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of attempts. PMID:24838550

  2. Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A.; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.1-5 The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. 6-8 The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.9-11 This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., 9 as well as others.12-14 Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain expertise fast

  3. Training a sophisticated microsurgical technique: interposition of external jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Karina; Grommes, Jochen; Greiner, Andreas; Jalaie, Houman; Kalder, Johannes; Langer, Stephan; Koeppel, Thomas A; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is one the primary causes of stenosis in arterialized veins that are of great importance in arterial coronary bypass surgery, in peripheral arterial bypass surgery as well as in arteriovenous fistulas.(1-5) The experimental procedure of vein graft interposition in the common carotid artery by using the cuff-technique has been applied in several research projects to examine the aetiology of neointimal hyperplasia and therapeutic options to address it. (6-8) The cuff prevents vessel anastomotic remodeling and induces turbulence within the graft and thereby the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Using the superior caval vein graft is an established small-animal model for venous arterialization experiment.(9-11) This current protocol refers to an established jugular vein graft interposition technique first described by Zou et al., (9) as well as others.(12-14) Nevertheless, these cited small animal protocols are complicated. To simplify the procedure and to minimize the number of experimental animals needed, a detailed operation protocol by video training is presented. This video should help the novice surgeon to learn both the cuff-technique and the vein graft interposition. Hereby, the right external jugular vein was grafted in cuff-technique in the common carotid artery of 21 female Sprague Dawley rats categorized in three equal groups that were sacrificed on day 21, 42 and 84, respectively. Notably, no donor animals were needed, because auto-transplantations were performed. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice. In addition, the graft patency rate was 60 % for the first 10 operated animals and 82 % for the remaining 11 animals. The blood flow at the time of sacrifice was 8±3 ml/min. In conclusion, this surgical protocol considerably simplifies, optimizes and standardizes this complicated procedure. It gives novice surgeons easy, step-by-step instruction, explaining possible pitfalls, thereby helping them to gain

  4. Multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation: a pilot clinical test in the internal jugular vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Patrikeev, Igor A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2006-06-01

    A noninvasive, high-resolution optoacoustic technique is a promising alternative to currently used invasive methods of brain oxygenation monitoring. We present the results of our pilot clinical test of this technique in healthy volunteers. Multiwavelength optoacoustic measurements (with nanosecond optical parametric oscillator as a source of radiation) were performed on the area of the neck overlying the internal jugular vein, a deeply located large vein that drains blood from the brain and from extracranial tissues. Optoacoustic signals induced in venous blood were measured with high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio despite the presence of a thick layer of overlying tissue (up to 10 mm). The characteristic parameters of the signal at different wavelengths correlated well with the spectrum of the effective attenuation coefficient of blood.

  5. Internal jugular vein thrombosis due to heterozygote methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298C and Factor V G1691A mutations after a minor trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gumussoy, Murat; Arslan, Ilker B.; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis usually appears in central venous catheterization, distant malignancies, hypercoagulation, infections, or secondary to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A 44-year-old female patient presented to us with sore throat, and pain and swelling on the right side of her neck. She had a history of simple neck trauma 10 days ago. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies and right internal jugular vein thrombosis. Patient was put on parenteral antibiotherapy and oral anticoagulant treatment. Genomic DNA tests for hypercoagulation revealed methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C heterozygote mutation and Factor V G1691A (Leiden) mutation. Patient has been under clinical control for 1 year and does not have any complaints. In this article, diagnosis, treatment, and the etiology of internal jugular vein thrombosis, which is a rare and potentially fatal condition, have been discussed through this case. PMID:25937730

  6. Evaluation of a training model to teach veterinary students a technique for injecting the jugular vein in horses.

    PubMed

    Eichel, Jane-Carolin; Korb, Werner; Schlenker, Antje; Bausch, Gerold; Brehm, Walter; Delling, Uta

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a newly-developed model for training veterinary students to inject the jugular vein in horses was evaluated as an additional tool to supplement the current method of teaching. The model was first validated by 19 experienced equine veterinarians, who judged the model to be a realistic and valuable tool for learning the technique. Subsequently, it was assessed using 24 students who were divided randomly into two groups. The injection technique was taught conventionally in a classroom lecture and a live demonstration to both groups, but only group 1 received additional training on the new model. All participants filled out self-assessment questionnaires before and after group 1 received training on the model. Finally, the proficiency of both groups was assessed using an objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) on live horses. Students from group 1 showed significantly improved confidence after their additional training on the model and also showed greater confidence when compared to group 2 students. In the OSCE, group 1 had a significantly better score compared to group 2: the median (with inter-quartile range) was 15 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (2.8) points out of 15, respectively. The training model proved to be a useful tool to teach veterinary students how to perform jugular vein injections in horses in a controlled environment, without time limitations or animal welfare concerns. The newly developed training model offers an inexpensive, efficient, animal-sparing way to teach this clinical skill to veterinary students. PMID:23975072

  7. The ability of anaesthetists to identify the position of the right internal jugular vein correctly using anatomical landmarks.

    PubMed

    Harber, C R; Harvey, D J R; Wiles, M D; Bogod, D G

    2010-09-01

    We performed a study of 85 consenting anaesthetists to assess their ability to locate the right internal jugular vein using a landmark technique. Initially, a questionnaire was completed ascertaining previous user experience. An ultrasound probe, using the midpoint as an 'imaginary needle', was placed on the neck of a healthy volunteer (with previously confirmed normal anatomy) and the image recorded. Both anaesthetist and volunteer were blinded to the screen until the image was stored. Anaesthetists were grouped into those in training before 2002 (Pre-2002, n = 58), when National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommending ultrasound guidance were published, and those training after this time point (Post-2002, n = 27). The success rate for identifying the internal jugular vein using the landmark technique was 36/58 (62%) in the Pre-2002 group and 6/27 (22%) in the Post-2002 group (p < 0.001). Three participants in each group would have hit the carotid artery (5% Pre-2002 and 11% Post-2002 respectively; p = 0.2). The advent of routine use of ultrasound has resulted in a cohort of anaesthetists who are unable to use a landmark technique effectively or safely. This has significant training implications. PMID:21198484

  8. Serotonin Receptors in Rat Jugular Vein: Presence and Involvement in the Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Geri L.; Szasz, Theodora; Thompson, Janice M.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is released during platelet aggregation, a phenomenon commonly observed in blood clot formation and venous diseases. Once released, 5-HT can interact with its receptors in the peripheral vasculature to modify vascular tone. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT receptors involved in the contractile response of the rat jugular vein (RJV) using recently developed drugs with greater selectivity toward 5-HT receptor subtypes. We hypothesized that, as for other blood vessels, the 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2B receptor subtypes mediate contraction in RJV alongside the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. Endothelium-intact RJV rings were set up in an isolated organ bath for isometric tension recordings, and contractile concentration-effect curves were obtained for 13 distinct serotonergic receptor agonists. Surprisingly, the 5-HT1A and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonists (±)-2-dipropyl-amino-8-hydroxyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-methoxy-3 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl) (1H indole) (RU24969) caused contractions that were antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist [O-methyl-3H]-N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100135). The contractile curve to 5-HT was shifted to the right by WAY100135, 3-[2-[4-(4-fluoro benzoyl)-piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-1H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (ketanserin; 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist), and 1-(2-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole hydrochloride (LY266097; 5-HT2B receptor antagonist). Ketanserin also caused rightward shifts of the contractile curves to 8-OH-DPAT, RU24969, and the 5-HT2B receptor agonist (α-methyl-5-(2-thienylmethoxy)-1H-indole-3-ethanamine) (BW723C86). Agonists for 5-HT1B/1D/1F, 5-HT3, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors were inactive. In real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments that have never been performed in this tissue previously, we

  9. Internal jugular vein thrombosis presenting as a painful neck mass due to a spontaneous dislocated subclavian port catheter as long-term complication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Binnebösel, Marcel; Grommes, Jochen; Junge, Karsten; Göbner, Sonja; Schumpelick, Volker; Truong, Son

    2009-01-01

    Central venous access devices are extensively used for long-term chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. However, there are some possible immediate, early, and late complications related to the implantation technique, care, and maintenance. We present the uncommon occurrence of a thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to a spontaneous migration of a Port-A-Cath catheter into the ipsilateral internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy delivery. A review of the literature is given, and the factors responsible for this unusual complication will be discussed. PMID:19830037

  10. Internal jugular vein cannulation complications and elimination of the muscular triangle of the neck due to aberrant infrahyoid muscles.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Agnihotri, Ashwin; Yousif, Saif; Kordali, Panagiota; Saberi, Minu; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We report on a rare case of anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles with prominent clinical significance. The aberrant anatomy was on the right side of the neck and involved the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles. The superior belly of the omohyoid was duplicated in width due to an aberrant belly anteriorly and merged with fibers of the inferior belly inferiorly and the sternohyoid muscle medially. An additional aberrant muscle slip extended between the inferior third of the sternohyoid muscle and united with the inferior belly of the omohyoid. The intermediate tendon between the two bellies of the omohyoid was absent, whereas the so-called muscular triangle of the neck was diminished. Due to the arrangement and fusion of myofibers the muscle could be termed as omo-sternohyoid muscle. A profound hematoma was noted in the aberrant muscle at the area overlying the internal jugular vein indicating difficulty in obtaining jugular venous access for catheter placement. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of muscular anatomic variations when intervening in the lateral neck area as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse. PMID:25329135

  11. Endovascular Internal Trapping of Ruptured Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Occipital-Internal Jugular Vein Fistula in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Taichiro; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous cervical extradural pseudoaneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular diseases. We report a case of ruptured occipital artery (OA) pseudoaneurysm associated with occipital-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula in neurofibromatosis type 1. Endovascular internal trapping via the OA was attempted; however, the distal entry of the OA could not be accessed because of the high shunt flow and tortuosity of the OA. The distal part of the OA was obliterated with coil via a transvenous approach through the IJV and pseudoaneurysm. The proximal entry of the OA was obliterated with coil and glue under proximal flow control with a balloon, and the fistula was successfully obliterated without placement of coils in the pseudoaneurysm. When ordinary internal trapping via a transarterial approach is not possible, the transvenous approach should be considered as an alternative for AVF associated with an aneurysmal component. PMID:26971039

  12. The Oscillating Component of the Internal Jugular Vein Flow: The Overlooked Element of Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Sisini, Francesco; Toro, Eleuterio; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The jugular venous pulse (JVP) provides valuable information about cardiac haemodynamics and filling pressures and is an indirect estimate of the central venous pressure (CVP). Recently it has been proven that JVP can be obtained by measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV on each sonogram of an ultrasound B-mode sonogram sequence. It has also been proven that during its pulsation the IJV is distended and hence that the pressure gradient drives the IJV haemodynamics. If this is true, then it will imply the following: (i) the blood velocity in the IJV is a periodic function of the time with period equal to the cardiac period and (ii) the instantaneous blood velocity is given by a time function that can be derived from a flow-dynamics theory that uses the instantaneous pressure gradient as a parameter. The aim of the present study is to confirm the hypothesis that JVP regulates the IJV blood flow and that pressure waves are transmitted from the heart toward the brain through the IJV wall. PMID:26783380

  13. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  14. Intraoperative radiation of canine carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Therapeutic applications in the management of advanced head and neck cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.B.; Pelzer, H.; Tsao, C.S.; Ward, W.F.; Johnson, P.; Friedman, C.; Sisson, G.A. Sr.; Kies, M. )

    1990-12-01

    As a step in the application of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for treating advanced head and neck cancers, preliminary information was obtained on the radiation tolerance of the canine common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve to a single, high-dose electron beam. Both sides of the neck of eight mongrel dogs were operated on to expose an 8-cm segment of common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. One side of the neck was irradiated, using escalating doses of 2500, 3500, 4500, and 5500 cGy. The contralateral side of the neck served as the unirradiated control. At 3 and 6 months after IORT, one dog at each dose level was killed. None of the dogs developed carotid bleeding at any time after IORT. Light microscopic investigations using hematoxylin-eosin staining on the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein showed no consistent changes that suggested radiation damage; however, the Masson trichrome stain and hydroxyproline concentration of irradiated common carotid artery indicated an increase in the collagen content of the tunica media. Marked changes in the irradiated vagus nerve were seen, indicating severe demyelination and loss of nerve fibers, which appeared to be radiation-dose dependent. Four patients with advanced recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with surgical resection and IORT without any acute or subacute complications. The role of IORT as a supplement to surgery, external beam irradiation, and chemotherapy in selected patients with advanced head and neck cancer needs further exploration.

  15. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  16. Crouzon’s Syndrome with Life-Threatening Ear Bleed: Ruptured Jugular Vein Diverticulum Treated by Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar Anand, Sunanda Limaye, Uday S.

    2015-08-15

    Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinical presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.

  17. Anatomic Relationship of the Internal Jugular Vein and the Common Carotid Artery Applied to Percutaneous Transjugular Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Turba, Ulku C.; Uflacker, Renan Hannegan, Christopher; Selby, J. Bayne

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the anatomic relationship of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with the common carotid artery (CCA) in order to avoid inadvertent puncture of the CCA during percutaneous central venous access or transjugular interventional procedures. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients requiring either central venous access or interventional procedures via the IJV were included in the analysis. The position of the IJV in relation to the CCA was demonstrated by portable ultrasonography. The IJV location was recorded in a clock-dial system using the carotid as the center of the dial and the angles were measured. Outcomes of the procedure were also recorded. Results. The IJV was lateral to the CCA in 187 of 188 patients and medial to the CCA in one patient. The left IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 12 patients (6%), the 11 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%), the 10 o'clock position in 142 patients (75%) and at the 9 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). The right IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 8 patients (4%), the 1 o'clock position in 31 patients (16%), the 2 o'clock position in 134 patients (71%) and the 3 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). In one patient the left IJV was located approximately 60 deg. medial to the left CCA; this was recorded as 2 o'clock on the left since it is opposite to the 10 o'clock position. Conclusion. Knowledge of the IJV anatomy and relationship to the CCA is important information for the operator performing an IJV puncture, to potentially reduce the chance of laceration of the CCA and avoid placement of a large catheter within a critical artery, even when ultrasound guidance is used.

  18. A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Tamizur; Sethi, Sean K.; Utriainen, David T.; Hewett, J. Joseph; Haacke, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular nature of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is a growing field of research. This work reports on the application of MR angiographic (MRA) and venographic (MRV) techniques in assessing the extracranial vasculature in MS patients. Materials and Methods A standardized MRI protocol containing 2D TOF-MRV and dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MRAV was run for 170 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) was measured at three neck levels in all subjects for both MRV techniques to determine the presence of venous stenoses. All data were analyzed retrospectively. Results For the values where both methods showed signal, the 3D method showed larger CSA measurement values compared to 2D methods in both IJVs, in both MS and HC subjects which was confirmed with student paired t-tests. Of the 170 MS patients, 93 (55%) in CE-MRAV and 103 (61%) in TOF-MRV showed stenosis in at least one IJV. The corresponding numbers for the 40 HC subjects were 2 (5%) and 4 (10%), respectively. Carotid ectasias with IJV stenosis were seen in 26 cases (15%) with 3D CE-MRAV and were not observable with 2D TOF-MRV. Carotid ectasias were not seen in the HC group. In the 2D TOF-MRV data, banding of the IJVs related to slow flow was seen in 58 (34%) MS cases and in no HC cases. MS patients showed lower average CSAs than the HC subjects. Conclusion The 3D CE MRAV depicted the vascular anatomy more completely than the 2D TOF-MRV. However, the 3D CE MRAV does not provide any information about the flow characteristics which are indirectly available in the 2D TOF-MRV in those cases where there is slow flow. PMID:23850076

  19. Vein morphology, host rock deformation and the origin of the fabrics of echelon mineral veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, R.

    A system of sigmoidal echelon veins from a sample of sandstone from the Upper Carboniferous Culm sequence of southwest England is described. Veins are separated from one another by strips of sandstone, and divided internally by thin seams with crack—seal fabrics. The latter extend as thin veins into the sandstone host rock without change of fabric. Seams appear to be merely parts of crack—seal veins formed in a first phase of deposition in only minutely opened fractures. This phase ended as rates of fracture opening greatly increased. To allow for this widespread opening host rock between dilatating fractures (sandstone strips and seams) had to be deformed. This deformation was limited, however, to rotation, bending and fracture. Shear displacement was a function of dilatation, not zone-parallel ductile shear strain. The textures of the quartz and carbonate aggregates filling the sigmoidal veins show that second-phase crystallization took place into cavities opening more rapidly than growth was able to fill them. Growth for the greater part took place from fibres in seams and not off vein walls of the sandstone host rock. Coarsest aggregates fill the arcs of folds in seams, where rates of vein opening might be expected to have been highest and the scope for competitive cavity growth greatest.

  20. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  1. Successful primary correction of tetralogy of fallot with pulmonary atresia and aortopulmonary window in a 2,220-g neonate with a valved bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Kostolny, Martin; Schreiber, Christian; Hess, John; Lange, Rüdiger

    2004-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (TOF/PA) was confirmed in a newborn with a birth weight of 2,095 g. Additionally, an aortopulmonary window (APW) type I was diagnosed on echocardiography. The operation was performed at the age of 4 weeks due to congestive heart failure. The APW was closed with a pericardial patch, the ventricular septal defect (VSD) with a Dacron patch, and the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was reconstructed with a 12-mm bovine jugular vein valved conduit (Contegra, Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). At 15-month follow-up, the patient is in excellent clinical condition without medication. On echocardiography, the conduit showed a mean gradient of 11 mmHg with first-degree insufficiency. PMID:15580326

  2. Characterization of regional deformation and material properties of the intact explanted vein by microCT and computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Arnold David; Zou, Huashan; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Hsu, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Detailed mechanical information of the vein is important to better understand remodeling of the vessel in disease states, but has been difficult to obtain due to its thinness, unique geometry, and limitations of mechanical testing. This study presents a novel method for characterizing deformation of the intact explanted vein under physiological loads and determining its material properties by combining high-resolution imaging and computational analysis. Methods High-resolution CT (microCT) was used to image an iodine-stained, excised porcine internal jugular vein sample under extension to 100% and 120% of in situ length, and inflation and 2, 10, 20 mmHg of pressure, inside a microCT-compatible hydrostatic loading chamber. Regional strains were measured with the finite element (FE) image registration method known as Hyperelastic Warping. Material properties were approximated with inverse FE characterization by optimizing stiffness-related coefficients so to match simulated strains to the experimental measurements. Results The observed morphology and regional strain of the vein were found to be relatively heterogeneous. The regional variability in the measured strain was primarily driven by geometry. Although iodine treatment may result in tissue stiffening, which requires additional investigation, it is effective in allowing detailed detection of vein geometry. Conclusions The feasibility and utility of using microCT and computational analysis to characterize mechanical responses and material properties of the vein were demonstrated. The presented method is a promising alternative or addition to mechanical testing for characterizing veins or other similarly delicate vessels in their native anatomical configuration under a wide range of realistic or simulated environmental and loading conditions. PMID:25541587

  3. Aneurysmal dilatation of the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit after reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Delmo-Walter, Eva Maria; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Meyer, Rudolf; Hetzer, Roland

    2007-02-01

    An aneurysm of a 14-mm Contegra bovine conduit 5 years after a total repair of tetralogy of Fallot was confirmed by echocardiography, angiography, and magnetic resonance tomography. The conduit was replaced. Histologic examination of the explanted conduit revealed an acellular homogenous material with occasional elastic fibers, fragile, diffuse and complex collagenization throughout the conduit and mild foreign body reaction. Pannus formed over the top of all commissures and on the conduit wall, with extensive mineralization. Close follow-up is seen as mandatory for early detection of the bovine vein conduit aneurysm, particularly in patients in whom small-sized conduits are implanted. PMID:17258016

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture preconditioning on jugular vein glucose level and cerebral edema in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiuxia; Pan, Peng; Xu, Changqing; Li, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the blood glucose level in jugular vein and water content in brain tissues in rats undergoing cerebral ischemia reperfusion that induced injury. Methods: 90 healthy male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sham-operation (SH) group, cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) group and electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning plus IR group. EA group was pretreated with EA delivered to acupoints of “Baihui” (Du 20) and “Shuigou” (Du 26) 30 min before cerebral ischemia. Results: No marked difference was observed in brain water content 2 h after procedure in IR group, SH group and EA group. Compared with SH group, the brain water contents in IR group and EA group were significantly higher 6 h after reperfusion and peaked at 48 h (P < 0.01). The blood glucose levels in EA and IR groups were significantly higher than that of SH group 2 h after reperfusion, which peaked at 6 h and tended to decline up to 24 h after reperfusion (P < 0.01). 2 h, 6 h, and 24 h after reperfusion, EA group had significantly lower blood glucose levels than IR group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Electroacupuncture preconditioning can significantly inhibit the augmentation of the blood glucose level and attenuate cerebral edema induced by reperfusion, which leads to alleviation of injury caused by ischemia reperfusion. PMID:25550958

  5. Catheterization of the Carotid Artery and Jugular Vein to Perform Hemodynamic Measures, Infusions and Blood Sampling in a Conscious Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jing; Fitz, Yvonne; Li, Yan; Fernandez, Melinda; Cortes Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Pazniokas, Stephanie; Bucher, Brandon; Cui, Xizhong; Solomon, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    The success of a small animal model to study critical illness is, in part, dependent on the ability of the model to simulate the human condition. Intra-tracheal inoculation of a known amount of bacteria has been successfully used to reproduce the pathogenesis of pneumonia which then develops into sepsis. Monitoring hemodynamic parameters and providing standard clinical treatment including infusion of antibiotics, fluids and drugs to maintain blood pressure is critical to simulate routine supportive care in this model but to do so requires both arterial and venous vascular access. The video details the surgical technique for implanting carotid artery and common jugular vein catheters in an anesthetized rat. Following a 72 hr recovery period, the animals will be re-anesthetized and connected to a tether and swivel setup attached to the rodent housing which connects the implanted catheters to the hemodynamic monitoring system. This setup allows free movement of the rat during the study while continuously monitoring pressures, infusing fluids and drugs (antibiotics, vasopressors) and performing blood sampling. PMID:25741606

  6. The simultaneous application of positive-end expiratory pressure with the Trendelenburg position minimizes respiratory fluctuations in internal jugular vein size

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sun Sook; Han, Woong Ki; Ko, Dong Chan

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory cycle alters the size of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). We assessed the changes in RIJV size during the respiratory cycle in patients under positive pressure ventilation. Moreover, we examined the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and the Trendelenburg position on respiratory fluctuations. Methods A prospective study of 24 patients undergoing general endotracheal anesthesia was performed. Images of the RIJV were obtained in the supine position with no PEEP (baseline, S0) and after applying three different maneuvers in random order: (1) a PEEP of 10 cmH2O (S10), (2) a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position (T0), and (3) a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position combined with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O (T10). Using the images when the area was smallest and largest, cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter, and transverse diameter were measured. Results All maneuvers minimized the fluctuation in RIJV size (all P = 0.0004). During the respiratory cycle, the smallest CSA compared to the largest CSA at S0, S10, T0, and T10 decreased by 28.3 8.5, 8.0, and 4.4%, respectively. Furthermore, compared to S0, a 10° Trendelenburg tilt position with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O significantly increased the CSA in the largest areas by 83.8% and in the smallest areas by 169.4%. Conclusions A 10° Trendelenburg tilt position combined with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O not only increases the size of the RIJV but also reduces fluctuation by the respiratory cycle. PMID:24910725

  7. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery. In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured. All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment. The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  8. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-05-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery.In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured.All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment.The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  9. Effect of laryngeal mask airway placement on the optimal site and success rate of venipuncture via the right internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan-Qiu; Li, Xin-Bai; Zhang, Yu-Shuang; Li, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) changes the relative positions of the common carotid artery (CCA) and right internal jugular vein (IJV), thereby affecting venipuncture via the right IJV. Therefore, we went on to determine the optimal site for puncturing the IJV after LMA-Supreme™ placement. In this study, forty-six patients were placed with a LMA-Supreme™ (size 3 or 4), and the right IJV was punctured at either of the three points (anterior, middle or posterior point). The CCA diameters and overlap between the right IJV and CCA were recorded before and after the LMA-Supreme™ placement. Finally, the success rates of IJV puncturing at the three aforementioned points were compared. We found that the size of the LMA-Supreme™ had no effect on patient respiration during the procedure. Overlap between the right IJV and CCA at the anterior and middle points was significantly increased after size 3 LMA-Supreme™ placements; Size 4 masks decreased the CCA diameters at the middle and posterior points, and significantly increased overlap between the right IJV and CCA at all the three points; IJV punctures performed after placement of size 3 LMA-Supreme™ had higher success rate than those performed after placement of size 4 masks, and were less likely to result in accidental arterial puncture. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that placement of size 3 LMA-Supreme™ caused little change in overlapping between the right IJV and CCA and the incidence of accidental arterial puncture; particularly for punctures performed at the posterior point. Therefore, we recommend venipuncture at the posterior point after placement of a LMA-Supreme™. PMID:26550241

  10. Dedolomitization in tectonic veins and stylolites: evidence for rapid fluid migration during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Jurassic through Tertiary thrust-belt deformation of the Mississippian Madison Group has introduced complex fracturing, stylolitization, and carbonate vein mineralization. Host rocks are dominantly dolostone and dolomitic limestone. Tectonic veins are mineralized first by dolomite and then by multiple calcite phases. Dolomite and some generations of calcite which line veins are highly luminescent, while host-rock dolomite have been corroded and replaced by subsequent generations of calcite mineralization. These textural relationships suggest that fluids associated with thrust-belt deformation were in part extraformational and had not equilibrated with host-rock dolomite. Because thrust-belt deformation moved from west to east with time, the isotopic composition (/sup 18/O, /sup 13/O) of vein and stylolite mineralization can be used to evaluate fluid migration during deformation. In three sections located along an east-west transect in the southern overthrust belt, calcite vein mineralization displays a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinctly depleted relative to the host-rock composition. These vein-lining exhibit systematic compositional changes with both time of deformation and with geographic position relative to major thrust faults. These isotopic changes in vein mineralization and pressure-solution products, together with the textural evidence for calcitization of host-rock and vein dolomite, suggest that these rocks were open to allochthonous fluid migration during deformation.

  11. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich lower greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjøll, H. J.; Viola, G.; Menegon, L.; Sørensen, B. E.

    2015-06-01

    We studied by Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy a coarse-grained (ca. 0.5-6 mm) quartz vein embedded in a phyllonitic matrix to gain insights into the recrystallization mechanisms and the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under lower greenschist facies conditions, broadly coincident with the brittle-viscous transition. The vein deformed during faulting along a phyllonitic thrust of Caledonian age within the Porsa Imbricate Stack in the Paleoproterozoic Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The phyllonite hosting the vein formed at the expense of a metabasaltic protolith through feldspar breakdown to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body. Viscous deformation in the vein was initially accommodated by quartz basal slip. Under the prevailing deformation conditions, however, dislocation glide- and possibly creep-accommodated deformation of quartz was inefficient, and this resulted in localized strain hardening. In response to the (1) hardening, (2) progressive and cyclic increase of the fluid pressure, and (3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the weakly foliated host phyllonite, vein quartz crystals began to deform by brittle processes along specific, suitably oriented lattice planes, creating microgouges along microfractures. Nucleated new grains rapidly sealed these fractures as fluids penetrated the actively deforming system. The grains grew initially by solution precipitation and later by grain boundary migration. We suggest that the different initial orientation of the vein crystals led to strain accommodation by different mechanisms in the individual crystals, generating remarkably different microstructures. Crystals suitably oriented for basal slip, for example, accommodated strain mainly viscously and experienced only minor fracturing. Instead, crystals

  12. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  13. Quartz veining in slates and Variscan deformation: Insights from the Luarca sector (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Alonso, J.; Fuertes-Fuente, M.; Bastida, F.

    2016-03-01

    A structural and geochemical analysis of quartz veins is made in order to determine their evolution and the physical-chemical conditions that enabled their development. In this sector of the Variscan belt (Westasturian-Leonese Zone), three phases of deformation have been described. However, only the first and third phases are represented in the study sections. The first phase (D1) resulted in tight or closed folds (F1) verging towards the foreland and associated slaty cleavage (S1). The third phase (D3) resulted in approximately upright asymmetric folds (F3) with associated crenulation cleavage (S3). The veins are hosted in slates and approximately follow the slaty cleavage (S1). The veins started their development at the beginning of the deformation phase D3 as a result of S1 near parallel shortening. Through a process of progressive deformation, this compression gave rise to the folding of the cleavage and, eventually, of the veins. The F3 folds have associated crenulation cleavage parallel to the axial planes. In some cases, the location of the veins was controlled by irregularities in the bedding due to sedimentary structures. The quartz of the veins underwent notable intracrystalline plastic deformation, and the contact zone between the veins and the host rock was affected by pressure solution. The microstructures produced by the latter mechanism indicate the greatest compressive stress forming a high angle with the vein walls at a time post-dating vein generation. Quartz precipitated from an aqueous-carbonic fluid at temperatures between 350 °C and 375 °C under fluid pressure fluctuations of up to 140 MPa at constant depth. Maximum values of fluid pressure of 220 MPa and minimum values of 75 MPa were recorded by fluid inclusion assemblages in quartz of the veins under study. Pressure fluctuation from lithostatic to infralithostatic at constant depth was caused by the opening and sealing of the dilatant fractures.

  14. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjøll, H. J.; Viola, G.; Menegon, L.; Sørensen, B. E.

    2015-01-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by EBSD and optical microscopy to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low-grade conditions, broadly coincident with the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is from a high strain zone at the front of the Porsa Imbricate Stack in the Paleoproterozoic Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed under lower greenschist facies conditions during deformation along a large out-of-sequence phyllonitic thrust of Caledonian age. The host phyllonite formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation was initially accommodated by basal ⟨a⟩ slip of quartz during the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage. Under the prevailing boundary conditions, however, dislocation glide-accommodated deformation of quartz resulted inefficient and led to dislocation tangling and strain hardening of the vein. In response to hardening, to the progressive increase of fluid pressure and the increasing competence contrast between the vein and the weak foliated host phyllonite, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific, optimally oriented lattice planes, creating microgouges along microfractures. These were, however, rapidly sealed by nucleation of new grains as transiently over pressured fluids penetrated the deforming system. The new nucleated grains grew initially by solution-precipitation and later by grain boundary migration. Due to the random initial orientation of the vein crystals, strain was accommodated differently in the individual crystals, leading to the development of remarkably different microstructures. Crystals

  15. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Viola, Giulio; Menegon, Luca; Sørensen, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein with a random CPO, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by optical microscopy, SEM imaging and EBSD to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low greenschist facies conditions at the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is located in a high strain zone at the front of an imbricate stack of Caledonian age along the northwesternmost edge of the Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed within the Nussirjavrri Fault Zone (NFZ), an out-of-sequence thrust with a phyllonitic core characterized by a ramp-flat-ramp geometry, NNW plunging stretching lineations and top-to-the SSE thrusting kinematics. Deformation conditions are typical of the frictional-viscous transition. The phyllonitic core formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation, related to the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage, was accommodated within the vein initially by basal slip of suitably oriented quartz crystals, which produced e.g. undulose extinction, extinction bands and bulging grain boundaries. In the case of misoriented quartz crystals, however, glide-accommodated dislocation creep resulted soon inefficient and led to localized dislocation tangling and strain hardening. In response to 1) hardening, 2) progressive increase of fluid pressure within the actively deforming vein and 3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the surrounding weak, foliated phyllonitic fault core, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific lattice planes oriented optimally with respect to the imposed stress field. Microfaulting generated small volumes of gouge along

  16. Major Intrahepatic Veno-Venous Fistula after Fontan Operation Treated by Transcatheter Implantation of Amplatzer Septal Occluder through Internal Jugular Vein.

    PubMed

    Guzeltas, Alper; Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Saygi, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Six months after undergoing a Fontan operation, a 7-year-old boy with right atrial isomerism and a single functional ventricle was admitted to our emergency department with cyanosis. Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a large veno-venous fistula that began in a left hepatic vein, connected to the left accessory hepatic veins, and drained into the common atrium, resulting in desaturation. The fistula was occluded proximally with an Amplatzer septal occluder, with satisfying results; the patient's systemic arterial saturation decreased during his hospital stay. Three weeks after the first intervention, a second procedure was performed to retrieve the first device and to close the fistula distally. Multiple attempts with different types of gooseneck snares and a bioptome catheter failed to retrieve the first device, so a telescopic method was used to re-screw it. Using a Mullins long sheath and delivery sheath, the delivery cable was manipulated to fit into the slot of the end screw, and the cable was rotated gently in a clockwise direction to re-screw the device. Then, another Amplatzer septal occluder was placed at the distal end of the fistula. In conclusion, distal transcatheter occlusion of intrahepatic veno-venous fistulas might lead to better clinical outcomes in selected patients. Amplatzer septal occluder device can be retrieve without any complication within three weeks. PMID:27556319

  17. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Thosani, Rajesh; Patel, Jigar; Gandhi, Hemang; Doshi, Chirag; Kothari, Jignesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95) and female (n = 65) who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French) using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate. PMID:27052069

  18. [Bilateral jugular thrombosis in Lemierre syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benhayoun, M; Llor, J; Van-Den-Abbeele, T; Elmaleh, M; Mariani, P; Beaufils, F; Dauger, S

    2003-12-01

    An adolescent presented with a rhinosinusitis complicated with bilateral jugular veins and left superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis and respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. Blood culture was positive for Haemophilus influenzae and sinus puncture for Streptococcus constellatus. Evolution was under control after 1 week of appropriate antibiotherapy, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. He had no neurologic, respiratory or ophthalmologic sequelae 6 months later. Despite lack of pharyngitis or isolation of anaerobic species on blood cultures, the picture was considered compatible with Lemierre syndrome. The risk for such a complication should be considered in cases of severe otorhinolaryngologic infection in young adults. PMID:14643536

  19. Three sets of fine extinction bands in a tectonically deformed vein-quartz single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derez, Tine; Van der Donck, Tom; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Intracrystalline fine extinction bands (FEBs) in quartz, are narrow (less than 5µm thick), planar microstructures with a misorientation up to 5° with respect to the host crystal, occurring in closely spaced sets (spacing of 4-5μm). FEBs have been commonly attributed to a large range of brittle and/or crystal-plastic mechanisms, revealing considerable disagreement on the responsible crystal-plastic slip systems and the ambient conditions. Another question that arises, is whether or not the FEBs rotate from a basal plane orientation to orientations ranging between the basal and prism planes. Usually only one set of FEBs occurs in a single crystal, though two sets are observed, in particular with increasing strain. Tentatively, a maximum of two sets of sub-basal FEBs has been postulated to develop in a single quartz crystal in a tectonic context. However, we identified several crystals in naturally deformed vein-quartz containing three sets of FEBs. The vein-quartz has been deformed under sub-greenschist metamorphic conditions, during the late Palaeozoic Variscan orogeny, in the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium). The vein-quartz has been subjected to bulging dynamic recrystallisation and shows a high degree of undulatory extinction, abundant subgrains and wide extinction bands sub-parallel to the c-axis. We attempted to characterise these three sets of FEBs by means of light microscopy, EBSD-OIM and universal stage microscopy. In both cases studied the c-axis is inclined less than 8° with respect to the thin-section plane. The different sets of FEBs show a consistent orientation with respect to the c-axis. One set of FEBs deviates maximum 10° from the basal plane. The other two sets deviate between 15 and 35° from a basal plane orientation. Corresponding FEBs, at the same angle with respect to the c-axis, have similar morphologies. In relative EBSD orientation maps FEBs show a maximum misorientation of 3°, and have a lower pattern quality than the host crystal

  20. Relationships between deformation and mesothermal veins in the Sunshine Mine area, Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Jaclyn Marie

    The Coeur d'Alene district in northern Idaho is a world class Pb-Ag mesothermal vein system that has produced about 360 million ounces of silver, lead, and zinc since the 1880s. Despite the long history of exploration and production, the district does not have a predictive model for exploration based on a sound understanding of structural controls on the silver ore deposits; this is certainly the case for the Sunshine Mine and surrounding area. Fault kinematic history in the district shows a regional scale fault system reactivated over time with dextral, sinistral, and dip-slip displacement. The fault system is superimposed on regional deformation fabrics that were examined for this study in the Sunshine Mine area. Cleavage sets observed in the Sunshine mine area, distinguished by orientation and superposition relationships, are consistent with the findings of Smith (2004) which defined cleavage sets referred to as S1, S2, and S3. Two additional deformation fabrics that appear spatially tied to fault zones formed between development of cleavages S2 and S3. The multiple cleavages, fault zones, and their intersections are interpreted to act as pathways for hydrothermal fluids associated with vein formation and silver ore deposition. Thin section kinematic analysis of vein and shear zone samples defined a dip-slip sense of shear associated with the Sterling vein. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis of vein and shear zone samples failed to define a lattice preferred crystallographic orientation that defined shear sense. Similarly, cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of thin section textures failed to define a dominant shear sense and fault kinematics. Nevertheless, additional study using these techniques is warranted. Both field observation and thin section analysis demonstrate a direct relationship between shear zones, veins, and mineralization potential, clarifying the need for detailed fault maps for the Sunshine Mine area and Coeur d'Alene district.

  1. Deformation within the Pisco Basin sedimentary record (southern Peru): Stratabound orthogonal vein sets and their impact on fault development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, Andrea; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This outcrop-based study reports diffuse joints and veins, normal to strike-slip fault zones and minor folds that developed, from Miocene to Quaternary, within the clastic to siliceous sedimentary record of the forearc Pisco Basin of southern Peru. Patterns, orientations, dimensional parameters and other outcrop-scale characteristics of the various deformation features are illustrated and their genetic mechanisms and timing of development are inferred. These new structural data and interpretations allow a better constraint of the structural style and evolution of the Pisco Basin, and can represent useful guidelines for characterizing the outcrop-scale deformation affecting similar forearc basins along the Peruvian coast. Major results of this study are that the development of the documented deformation features, their patterns, dimensional parameters and kinematics seem influenced by local perturbations of the paleostress field by mechanic processes partly independent of plate tectonics forces. These processes include strain localization on both pre-existing and progressively forming new structural discontinuities, and cyclic switches of the horizontal, principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. In particular, we discuss how different normal fault patterns, from sub-parallel to multidirectional/polygonal, could form in a same deformation phase in response of the local σ2/σ3 magnitude ratio, as an evolution of stratabound, mutually orthogonal vein sets.

  2. Deformation of a continental margin sequence under a thrust sheet: complex stress history in a high pressure cell revealed by vein systems in the Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, Simon; Urai, Janos L.; Grobe, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Seven deformation phases can be mapped in mesozoic carbonates of the Jebel Akhdar mountains in North Oman. These include an early horizontal NE-SW directed extension that produced bedding confined vein sets with evidence for anticlockwise rotation of the stress field over time, interpreted to have developed during the thrust sheet emplacement. It is followed by a phase of top-NE bedding parallel shearing which rotates these veins on the North side of the mountains. The next phase is normal to oblique slip faults followed by at least two phases of strike-slip deformation. A "background" ductile deformation (maximum burial temperatures of 250 °C) is shown bu deformed fossils and diagenetic concretions. Each of these phases is consistently documented by a large number of observations of overprinting in nearly continuous outcrops. Each deformation phase produces vein sets that do not only differ in orientation but also in occurrence and appearance. Early vein sets exhibit a high stratigraphic variability, but are laterally very stable. With the onset of faulting, the stratigraphic variability decreases and the lateral variability becomes more significant. Even though the area offers excellent outcrop conditions with nearly 100% exposure, it is virtually impossible to find two outcrops that exhibit the same vein patterns. This has interesting implications for vein system analysis and is due to two reasons: (1) the stratigraphic and lateral variability of occurrence and orientation of each vein set cause different combination of vein sets do develop in different layers (2) Intersecting vein sets can show very different interaction such as crosscutting and reactivation, depending on the mechanical properties of the host rock and the veins.

  3. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  4. The Ikom-Mamfe basin, Nigeria: A study of fracture and mineral vein lineament trends and Cretaceous deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oden, M. I.; Egeh, E. U.; Amah, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Ikom-Mamfe basin is approximately a 130 km long, east-west abutment onto the eastern flank of the lower Benue trough of Nigeria and extends westwards into Cameroon. Two hundred and six fracture lineaments were analyzed in the Nigerian sector of this basin. They vary in length from 0.5 to 23.75 km, with the most frequently occurring fracture length being about 2.25 km. The most prominent fracture sets have NE-SW and NW-SE orientations, while less prominent patterns are in the NNE-SSW and ESE-WNW directions. NW-SE and NNE-SSW fracture sets are interpreted as "ac" extension fractures from two different deformation episodes, while NE-SW and ESE-WNW sets are "bc" tensile fractures parallel to the axes of F1 and F2 folds, respectively. This implies two deformation episodes in this basin, with the earlier one producing the NE-SW (F1) fold axes, exactly as in the Benue trough. Two prominent mineral vein trends in the basin are the NW-SE and NNE-SSW sets, in which minerals are loaded in "ac" extension fractures. The orientations, lengths and frequency of these lineaments should help in differentiating their ages. The less prominent veins are in the NE-SW and ESE-WNW directions, which are in the "bc" tensile fractures. Early Cretaceous sediments are characterized by NW-SE major and NE-SW minor sets of veins, while the late Cretaceous sequence is characterized by NNE-SSW major and ESE-WNW minor, mainly barite, veins. More than 70% of the barite samples tested gave specific gravity values of 4.2 and above, which is the range specified by the American Petroleum Institution (API) as drilling mud additive or weighting agent. Other vein-filling minerals in this basin are lead ore (galena), zinc ore (sphalerite), pyrite and amethyst, which are altogether subsidiary to barite mineralization.

  5. Quartz veins deformed by diffusion creep-accommodated grain boundary sliding during a transient, high strain-rate event in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wightman, Ruth H.; Prior, David J.; Little, Timothy A.

    2006-05-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) and microstructures of deformed quartz veins were measured for four samples in the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Their deformation and exhumation has occurred since 4 Ma. The quartz veins have been ductilely sheared to finite shear-strains of 5-15 in late Cenozoic shear zones at 450±50 °C, 310±90 MPa and strain-rates between 2×10 -11 and 2×10 -9 s -1. The sheared veins have a polygonal microstructure with few subgrains and an average grain-size of ˜100 μm. The CPO of the veins is random to very weak within the shear zones. We suggest that dislocation creep accommodated initial shear deformation, at high stresses and strain-rates. The deformation must have created a strong CPO and concomitant dynamic recrystallization reduced the grain-size significantly. Dissipation of stresses during initial deformation lead to a stress and strain-rate drop required for a switch to diffusion creep-accommodated grain boundary sliding (GBS). Continued shearing accommodated by GBS destroyed the CPO. Post-deformational grain growth gave rise to a final polygonal microstructure with a similar grain size in veins and in the wall rocks. Analysis of existing experimental data suggest that this sequence of events is possible in the time available. Rates of all processes may have been enhanced by the presence of a water-rich fluid within the shear zones. These observations of naturally deformed rocks provide a model for the processes that may occur during short-lived deformation at transiently-high stresses at mid-crustal depths or deeper.

  6. Anatomical variation of cerebral venous drainage: the theoretical effect on jugular bulb blood samples.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Yule, S; Kassner, A; Jackson, A

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant variation in bilateral jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements which may be of clinical significance. We have therefore measured variations in normal dural sinus venous drainage to assess the possible effects of normal anatomical variations on measured jugular venous oxygen saturation. Normal volunteers (n = 25) were imaged using magnetic resonance venography to demonstrate variations in venous anatomy. Flow was measured in the superior sagittal sinus and bilaterally in the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus proximal to the jugular bulb and proximal jugular vein using phase difference magnetic resonance imaging. Examination of magnetic resonance venogram images showed considerable variability in the symmetry of transverse sinus flow. Complete absence of one transverse sinus was seen in four cases and significant asymmetry in the size of the transverse sinuses was present in 13. Quantitative flow studies demonstrated that the ratio of superior sagittal sinus to combined jugular bulb flow showed remarkably little variation (0.46 +/- 0.06). Measurements of transverse sinus flow showed significant asymmetry (< 40% of superior sagittal sinus flow in one transverse sinus) in 21 of 25 volunteers. The effect of the observed asymmetry on jugular venous oxygen saturation was modelled based on the assumption of either a supratentorial or infratentorial lesion. This model predicted significant asymmetry in jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements (> 10%) in 65% of cases with a supratentorial lesion which is in close agreement with clinical observations. This study suggests that normal variations in venous drainage may account for observed asymmetry in jugular venous oxygen saturation measurements. PMID:9771169

  7. Water stress deforms tracheids peripheral to the leaf vein of a tropical conifer.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Holbrook, N Michele

    2005-03-01

    Just as a soggy paper straw is prone to yielding under the applied suction of a thirsty drinker, the xylem tracheids in leaves seem prone to collapse as water potential declines, impeding their function. Here we describe the collapse, under tension, of lignified cells peripheral to the leaf vein of a broad-leaved rainforest conifer, Podocarpus grayi de Laub. Leaves of Podocarpus are characterized by an array of cylindrical tracheids aligned perpendicular to the leaf vein, apparently involved in the distribution of water radially through the mesophyll. During leaf desiccation the majority of these tracheids collapsed from circular to flat over the water potential range -1.5 to -2.8 MPa. An increase in the percentage of tracheids collapsed during imposed water stress was mirrored by declining leaf hydraulic conductivity (K(leaf)), implying a direct effect on water transport efficiency. Stomata responded to water stress by closing at -2.0 MPa when 45% of cells were collapsed and K(leaf) had declined by 25%. This was still substantially before the initial indications of cavitation-induced loss of hydraulic conductance in the leaf vein, at -3 MPa. Plants droughted until 49% of tracheids had collapsed were found to fully recover tracheid shape and leaf function 1 week after rewatering. A simple mechanical model of tracheid collapse, derived from the theoretical buckling pressure for pipes, accurately predicted the collapse dynamics observed in P. grayi, substantiating estimates of cell wall elasticity and measured leaf water potential. The possible adaptive advantages of collapsible vascular tissue are discussed. PMID:15734905

  8. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  9. Contemporary management of jugular paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Haynes, David S; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-04-01

    Jugular paragangliomas are generally benign slow-growing tumors that can cause pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, and cranial nerves neuropathy. Progressive growth can also lead to intracranial extension. Historically, the treatment of choice for these lesions has been gross total resection. However, over the last 15 years, many groups have adopted less invasive management strategies including stereotactic radiation therapy, subtotal resection, and primary observation in order to reduce treatment-associated morbidity. The focus of this article is to review the modern management of jugular paraganglioma, highlighting the evolving treatment paradigm at the Otology Group of Vanderbilt. PMID:25769354

  10. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia: Diagnosis by Ultrasonography, Doppler and Contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Manash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Jugular phlebectasia is an isolated saccular or fusiform dilation of a vein without tortuosity. Its aetiology remains controversial. It is infradiagnosed, as it is generally asymptomatic. However, it has been increasingly recognized in recent years due to the better imaging techniques which are available. Phlebectasia of the Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) is a rare disease. It is mostly unilateral and it involves only the right side. It is usually a childhood disease which is diagnosed during the study of an intermittent neck mass. Its treatment is controversial. Presently, a conservative approach to unilateral or bilateral asymptomatic phlebectasia is recommended. Symptomatic phlebectasia requires surgery. The diagnosis is suggested by clinical features which can be confirmed by noninvasive radiology. This paper is reporting a case of unilateral right internal jugular phlebectasia in a 12 year old female patient who complained of an intermittent, right sided neck swelling, where we used UltraSonoGraphy(USG) with Doppler and Contrast enhanced CT(CECT) to evaluate the lesion. PMID:23905140

  11. Carotid and Jugular Classification in ARTSENS.

    PubMed

    Sahani, Ashish Kumar; Shah, Malay Ilesh; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2016-03-01

    Over past few years our group has been working on the development of a low-cost device, ARTSENS, for measurement of local arterial stiffness (AS) of the common carotid artery (CCA). This uses a single element ultrasound transducer to obtain A-mode frames from the CCA. It is designed to be fully automatic in its operation such that, a general medical practitioner can use the device without any prior knowledge of ultrasound modality. Placement of the probe over CCA and identification of echo positions corresponding to its two walls are critical steps in the process of measurement of AS. We had reported an algorithm to locate the CCA walls based on their characteristic motion. Unfortunately, in supine position, the internal jugular vein (IJV) expands in the carotid triangle and pulsates in a manner that confounds the existing algorithm and leads to wrong measurements of the AS. Jugular venous pulse (JVP), on its own right, is a very important physiological signal for diagnosis of morbidities of the right side of the heart and there is a lack of noninvasive methods for its accurate estimation. We integrated an ECG device to the existing hardware of ARTSENS and developed a method based on physiology of the vessels, which now enable us to segregate the CCA pulse (CCP) and the JVP. False identification rate is less than 4%. To retain the capabilities of ARTSENS to operate without ECG, we designed another method where the classification can be achieved without an ECG, albeit errors are a bit higher. These improvements enable ARTSENS to perform automatic measurement of AS even in the supine position and make it a unique and handy tool to perform JVP analysis. PMID:25700474

  12. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin I.; Balter, Max L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture. PMID:26779381

  13. The jugular foramen: microsurgical anatomy and operative approaches.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, T; Rhoton, A L; Matsushima, T

    1997-07-01

    The jugular foramen, based on these studies of microsurgical anatomy, is divided into three compartments: two venous and a neural or intrajugular compartment. The venous compartments consist of a larger posterolateral venous channel, the sigmoid part, which receives the flow of the sigmoid sinus, and a smaller anteromedial venous channel, the petrosal part, which receives the drainage of the inferior petrosal sinus. The petrosal part forms a characteristic venous confluens by also receiving tributaries from the hypoglossal canal, petroclival fissure, and vertebral venous plexus. The petrosal part empties into the sigmoid part through an opening in the medial wall of the jugular bulb between the glossopharyngeal nerve anteriorly and the vagus and accessory nerves posteriorly. The intrajugular or neural part, through which the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves course, is located between the sigmoid and petrosal parts at the site of the intrajugular processes of the temporal and occipital bones, which are joined by a fibrous or osseous bridge. The glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves penetrate the dura on the medial margin of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone to reach the medial wall of the internal jugular vein. The operative approaches, which access the foramen and adjacent areas and are demonstrated in a stepwise manner, are the postauricular transtemporal, retrosigmoid, extreme lateral transcondylar, and preauricular subtemporal-infratemporal approaches. PMID:9218307

  14. Endocarditis of bovine jugular vein conduit due to Q fever.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Constantin; Benahmed-Mostafa, Aziz; Sanoussi, Ahmed; Quiriny, Marie; Demanet, Hélène; Theunissen, Caroline; Wauthy, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Contegra (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) conduits are routinely used in cases of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction during congenital heart surgery. We report two cases of Q fever endocarditis involving Contegra conduits. Surgical treatment and distinct aspects of both unusual cases are described. PMID:21620004

  15. Metal veins in the Kernouvé (H6 S1) chondrite: Evidence for pre- or syn-metamorphic shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Ruzicka, Alex; Rivers, Mark L.; Ebel, Denton S.; Thostenson, James O.; Rudolph, Rebecca A.

    2013-09-01

    Kernouvé is an H6 chondrite that experienced a very small degree of late stage shock loading (S1). However, Kernouvé contains Fe-Ni metal vein-like structures, whose formation have been attributed to an early impact event. To establish the formation conditions of metal veins in Kernouvé, we examined the three dimensional (3D) arrangement of metal vein-like structures and typical metal grains in two samples of Kernouvé with X-ray microtomography (μCT) at resolutions of ˜11 μm/voxel. We additionally investigated the 3D structure of the porosity present in Kernouvé using μCT at two different resolutions (˜3 and ˜11 μm/voxel). These data and optical microscopy support the hypothesis that Kernouvé has experienced little post-metamorphic shock. However, the moderate 5.8 vol.% porosity of Kernouvé is in the form of intergranular voids rather than cracks, which indicates any cracking that may have existed in the relatively brittle silicate grains was annealed. We estimate that 70-80% of the primordial porosity in Kernouvé was removed by impact-related compaction. Moreover, we found no collective orientation of metal grains, so high metamorphic temperatures following compaction erased any common orientation of metal grains due to compaction. We propose that the metal vein structures can be explained as a pre- or syn-metamorphic shock-induced process, which we infer was primarily shear deformation, with some uniaxial compaction also occurring. The coarse metal veins probably formed by accumulation of ductile metal grains along shear zones, a process that would have been facilitated by having an already warm H chondrite parent body when shock occurred (i.e., syn-metamorphic shock). The complexity of shape, including numerous tendrils expanding from the primary structure, of the veins in Kernouvé is likely due to the coalescence of metal by metamorphic growth after the shear event. The metal veins in Kernouvé thus appear to record evidence for early, shock

  16. Oxygen isotope record of fluid-rock-SiO 2 interaction during Variscan progressive deformation and quartz veining in the meta-volcanosediments of Belle-Ile (Southern Brittany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernhard; Audren, Claude; Triboulet, Claude

    2002-08-01

    Belle-Ile in the South Armorican Domain is composed of Palaeozoic volcano-detrital sequences with sericite phyllites and porphyroids. Fine-banded and folded meta-tuffites, microquartzites and graphitic quartzites occur in the basal part at Plage de Bordardoué. Phengite compositions constrain that Variscan metamorphism did not exceed 430 °C/4.5 kbar. Four generations (1-4) of centimeter-thick quartz veins were precipitated during Variscan progressive deformation and recorded changing fluid compositions. Values of 26‰ δ18O SMOW in vein 1 quartz exceed high δ18O SMOW in the host rocks. Decrease of quartz δ18O SMOW from margins to centers can be observed from the syntaxial veins. Younger veins 4 have lower δ18O. Their inclusions indicate lower salinities and traces of CH 4 in the fluid when compared with veins 1. Veins 1 were overprinted by shearing and fissuring. Subgrain rotation recrystallization occurred along briquette structures and subgrain boundaries. The initial isotope values have been preserved. Larger domains with small-grained quartz can be identified by lower values of δ18O. Homogeneous isotopic compositions are found in hinges of folded veins 2 with grain boundary migration recrystallization. The small-scale oxygen isotope variations and the changing fluid compositions point to a locally hosted fluid system with a limited contribution of meteoric water during multiphase deformation and vein formation.

  17. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs. PMID:25286775

  18. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs. PMID:25286775

  19. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  20. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  1. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in ... of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein. Your veins have one-way valves that help ...

  2. Right internal jugular venous cannulation complicated by tension hydrothorax.

    PubMed

    Maroun, Rabih; Chalhoub, Michel; Harris, Kassem

    2013-01-01

    Central Venous Catheter (CVC) is a common procedure performed in patients' management, especially the critically ill ones. CVC has been used as main access in patients requiring large amount of fluid resuscitation, total parenteral nutrition or measuring the central venous pressure. Although most complications associated with central venous cannulation are minimal, local and easy to control, others may be critical and rapidly fatal if not recognized and treated immediately. One of the most serious incidents that can occur post CVC placement is delayed hydrothorax. It usually results from migration and perforation of the catheter through the SVC wall. In this report, we describe a case of tension hydrothorax that occurred a few hours after placement of CVC in the right internal jugular vein. In acutely ill patients that are already unstable, making the diagnosis of tension hydrothorax secondary to CVC placement requires high level of suspicion. Prompt pleural effusion drainage like in our case is crucial for favorable outcome. PMID:23871236

  3. Constraints on Neogene deformation in the southern Terror Rift from calcite twinning analyses of veins within the ANDRILL MIS core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Demosthenous, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Millan, C.

    2009-12-01

    The ANDRILL MIS (McMurdo Ice Shelf) Drilling Project obtained over 1200 meters of Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in 2006/2007. Systematic fracture logging of the AND-1B core identified 1,475 natural fractures, i.e. pre-existing fractures in the rock intersected by coring. The most abundant natural fractures are normal faults and calcite veins; reverse faults, brecciated zones, and sedimentary intrusions are also present. In order to better understand Neogene deformation patterns within the southern Terror Rift, we have been conducting strain analyses on mechanically twinned calcite within healed fractures in the drill core. Twinning strains using all of the data from each sample studied to date range from 2% to 10%. The cleaned data (20% of the largest magnitude deviations removed) typically show ≤30% negative expected values, consistent with a single deformation episode or multiple ~coaxial deformation episodes. The majority of the samples record horizontal extension, similar to strain patterns expected in a normal fault regime and/or vertical sedimentary compaction in a continental rift system. The morphology, width, and intensity of twins in the samples suggest that twinning typically occurred at temperatures <170° C. Twinning intensities suggest differential stress magnitudes that caused the twinning ranged from 216 to 295 MPa.

  4. Recombinant Human Elastase Treatment of Cephalic Veins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Marco D; Bingham, Karen; Moss, Emma; Warn, J Donald; Smirnov, Igor; Bland, Kimberly S; Starcher, Barry; Franano, F Nicholas; Burke, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Background Vessel injury at the time of Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) creation may lead to neointimal hyperplasia that impairs AVF maturation. Vonapanitase, a recombinant human chymotrypsin-like elastase family member 1, is an investigational drug under development to improve AVF maturation and patency. The current studies were designed to document vonapanitase effects in human cephalic veins that are used in AVF creation. Methods Human cephalic veins were mounted on a perfusion myograph. Vonapanitase 1.2, 4, 13.2, and 40 μg/ml or saline was applied drop wise on the vein followed by saline rinse. Vein segments were cut into rings for elastin content determination by desmosine radioimmunoassay and histology. Fluorescently-labelled vonapanitase was applied to veins and adventitial imaging was performed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. In vivo time course experiments were performed by treating rabbit jugular veins and harvesting 1 h and 4 h after vonapanitase treatment. Results / Conclusion Vonapanitase reduced desmosine content in a dose-related manner. Histology also confirmed a dose-related reduction in elastic fiber staining. Fluorescently-labelled vonapanitase persistently localized to elastic fibers in the vein adventitia. In vivo experiments showed a reduction in desmosine content in jugular veins from 1 h to 4 h following treatment. These data suggest that vonapanitase targets elastin in elastic fibers in a dose related manner and that elastase remains in the vessel wall and has catalytic activity for at least 1 h.

  5. Endoscopic Endonasal Access to the Jugular Foramen: Defining the Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis L.Y.; McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The endoscopic endonasal approach to the parapharyngeal space (PPS) and jugular foramen is not well defined. We sought to systematically define the important landmarks and limitations of this new surgical technique using an endoscopic transmaxillary transpterygoid corridor. Methods Endoscopic dissection was performed in both sides of two latex-injected cadaver heads. Left-sided dissections were facilitated by the addition of a sublabial maxillary antrostomy. The pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa, and PPS were sequentially dissected and the endoscopic perspective was examined. Measurements were obtained from the surgical orifices to the upper cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) and internal jugular vein (IJV). Results Successful access to the PPS and jugular foramen was achieved in each dissection. The lateral pterygoid plate, mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve, middle meningeal artery, levator veli palatini muscle, Eustachian tube, and stylopharyngeal fascia were identified as landmarks for the upper cervical ICA and the IJV. The mean distance from the nasal sill was markedly greater than from an ipsilateral sublabial antrostomy. Conclusion The endoscopic endonasal approach can provide adequate access to the PPS, carotid sheath, and jugular foramen. Multiple landmarks are useful to guide the dissection within these deep spaces and may facilitate the clinical application of this approach. PMID:24083127

  6. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Varicose Veins? Español Varicose (VAR-i-kos) veins are swollen, ... can form in other parts of the body. Varicose veins are a common condition. They usually cause few ...

  7. Mechanical buckling of veins under internal pressure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A; Shireman, Paula K; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-04-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that the veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 +/- 5.4 and 26.4 +/- 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy, and vein grafts. PMID:20094913

  8. Mechanical Buckling of Veins under Internal Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A.; Shireman, Paula K.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 ± 5.4 mmHg and 26.4 ± 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy and vein grafts. PMID:20094913

  9. Guide wire migration during femoral vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Rozita; Sadigh, Gelareh

    2010-10-01

    Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion. PMID:20852377

  10. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  11. Seldinger Technique for Placement of “Peripheral” Internal Jugular Line: Novel Approach for Emergent Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Adam J.; Raio, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report describing the ultrasound-guided placement of a peripheral intravenous catheter into the internal jugular vein of a patient with difficult vascular access. Although this technique has been described in the past, this case is novel in that the Seldinger technique was used to place the catheter. This allows for safer placement of a longer catheter (2.25″) without the need for venous dilation, which is potentially hazardous. PMID:26823937

  12. Meso- and microscale vein structures in fore-arc basalts and boninites related to post-magmatic tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Dennis; Micheuz, Peter; Kurz, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc. Two drill sites are situated on the outer fore arc composed of fore arc basalts (FAB) whereas two more sites are located on the upper trench slope penetrating the younger boninites. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured. Structures within the drill cores combined with borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones and the formation of tension fractures, shear fractures and hybrid (tension and shear) fractures. Veins form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. (Low Mg-) Calcite and/or various types of zeolite are the major vein constituents, where the latter are considered to be alteration products of basaltic glass. Micrite contents vary significantly and are related to neptunian dikes. In boninites calcite develops mainly blocky shapes but veins with fibrous and stretched crystals also occur in places indicating antitaxial as well as ataxial growth, respectively. In FAB calcite forms consistently blocky crystals without any microscopic identifiable growth direction suggesting precipitation from a highly supersaturated fluid under dropping fluid pressure conditions. However, fluid pressure

  13. Internal Jugular Phlebectasia in Menkes Disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, David J.; Ravindranath, Thyyar; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric neck masses should trigger a high index of suspicion for certain genetic disorders of connective tissue. To highlight this, we report on three infants with Menkes disease, an inherited disorder of copper transport, who developed large, unilateral neck masses at between 7 and 17 months of age. All were identified in imaging studies as internal jugular phlebectasia. The masses, which enlarged on crying or exertion, have remained clinically benign in these patients for 20, 17 and 2 months, respectively. While arterial tortuosity and aneurysms have been reported often in Menkes disease, venous phlebectasia has rarely been described. We speculate that low activity of the copper-dependent enzyme, lysyl oxidase, leading to reduced tensile strength in the deep cervical fascia comprising the carotid sheath may predispose to internal jugular phlebectasia in these individuals. Improved survival and neurological outcomes in infants with Menkes disease due to advances in early diagnosis and treatment may be associated with recognition of novel clinical stigmata of this condition such as internal jugular phlebectasia. PMID:17482283

  14. Multistage deformation of Au-quartz veins (Laurieras, French Massif Central): evidence for late gold introduction from microstructural, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essarraj, S.; Boiron, M.-C.; Cathelineau, M.; Fourcade, S.

    2001-07-01

    the main factor controlling gold enrichment. It can be related to late Hercynian deformational stages, disconnected from the early fault formation and silicification. These late stages which affected the Hercynian basement during its uplift, are of critical importance for the formation of Au-ores. We concluded that this type of Au-ore formed under rather shallow conditions, is distinct from those generally described in most mesothermal Au-veins.

  15. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other veins often mistaken for varicose veins are spider veins and reticular veins, which are the visible ... greenish-blue veins that appear in our legs. Spider veins or teleangiectesias are tiny veins that you ...

  16. An ultrasonographic technique to assess the jugular venous pulse: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Gadda, Giacomo; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Taibi, Angelo; Menegatti, Erica; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the work described here was to investigate the feasibility of assessing the jugular venous pulse (JVP) using ultrasound (US) equipment. Three young healthy subjects underwent a B-mode US scan of the internal jugular vein (IJV) to acquire a sonogram sequence in the transverse plane. On each acquired sonogram, the IJV contour was manually traced, and both the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the perimeter were measured. The CSA data set represents the US jugular diagram (USJD). The arterial distension waveform of the subjects was compared with its USJD. The correlation between the CSA and the perimeter was assessed during the cardiac cycle to verify IJV distension. For each subject, a short sonogram sequence of a few seconds was recorded, and the USJD obtained exhibited periodic behavior. Furthermore, for all subjects, the CSA was found to be correlated with the perimeter (Pearson coefficient, R > 0.9), indicating that the IJV in supine position is distended. We compared 390 manually traced contours of the IJV cross-sectional area with corresponding values semi-automatically calculated by an algorithm developed in-house. For all subjects, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were around 95%, 85% and 90% respectively. We found that a diagram reflecting the JVP can be obtained by analyzing a B-mode sonogram sequence of the IJV; such a diagram can result in a new methodology to assess the IJV functionality. PMID:25704322

  17. Morphology, topography and clinical signi cance of the jugular foramen.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Mróz, Izabela; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes morphological variants of the jugular foramen of the human skull and discusses the reasons for its frequent asymmetry. Bilateral disproportions between the anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the jugular foramina were analyzed. We established that the jugular foramen is extremely narrow when its anteroposterior diameter is less than 5.0 mm. When the mediolateral diameter exceeds 20.0 mm, then the foramen exhibits extreme widening. PMID:27513840

  18. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Lim, W K; Leong, M C; Samion, H

    2016-01-01

    A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ). The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage. PMID:27212859

  19. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, WK; Leong, MC; Samion, H

    2016-01-01

    A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ). The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage. PMID:27212859

  20. Systemic Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with a Case of Jugular Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Sokabe, Ayuko; Mizooka, Masafumi; Sakemi, Rinne; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Kishikawa, Nobusuke; Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Kanno, Keishi; Tazuma, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Jugular paraganlioma is a benign, slow-growing tumor originating from the paraganglion cells and it is associated with catecholamine secretion. Paragangliomas can secrete Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and present as a systemic inflammatory syndrome; these characteristics have not been previously associated with jugular paragangliomas. A 63-year-old man with a jugular tumor in the skull base was referred to our hospital for an evaluation of pyrexia, back pain, and acute inflammation. His serum IL-6 level was elevated on admission and it decreased after radiotherapy. This is the first known case of a jugular paraganglioma exhibiting systemic inflammatory syndrome. PMID:27477424

  1. The Utility of Intraoperative Bilateral Internal Jugular Venous Sampling With Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Sippel, Rebecca; Lederman, Julie; Chen, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the utility of routine perioperative bilateral internal jugular venous sampling of parathyroid hormone (BIJ PTH) for localization during parathyroid surgery. Summary Background Data: Venous sampling for PTH is a useful tool for parathyroid localization in patients undergoing reoperative surgery for hyperparathyroidism (HPT). With the development of intraoperative rapid PTH (ioPTH) testing, internal jugular PTH sampling with ioPTH testing to guide operative localization has been shown to be possible in select, difficult cases. However, the value of BIJ PTH for patients with HPT is unclear. Methods: Between May 2004 and February 2006, 216 consecutive patients underwent neck exploration for HPT by one surgeon. Of these, 168 patients had BIJ PTH. Internal jugular venous blood was drawn from both left and right sides and analyzed for PTH using a rapid PTH assay. BIJ PTH levels were defined as lateralizing if >5% differences were observed between the right and left internal jugular vein samples. Results: Of the 168 patients, 120 (71.4%) had a single parathyroid adenoma, 15 (8.9%) had double adenoma, and 33 (19.6%) had hyperplasia. The cure rate after parathyroidectomy was 98.2%. There were no complications related to BIJ PTH sampling. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of BIJ PTH for primary hyperparathyroidism were 80% and 71%, respectively. BIJ PTH was diagnostic in 95 cases (62.9%) in primary HPT. BIJ PTH successfully localized an abnormal gland in 26 of 45 (57.8%) in patients with negative sestamibi scanning. BIJ PTH was especially helpful in 18 of 168 (10.7%) cases when intraoperative peripheral parathyroid hormone did not fall by 50% and BIJ PTH successfully localized the hyperfunctioning glands. Conclusions: In patients with HPT, BIJ PTH is safe and effective, providing additional localization information in the majority of cases. BIJ PTH is particularly useful in the setting of negative sestamibi scanning and in complex multigland

  2. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices. PMID:24299024

  3. Transcription factor FOXC2 demarcates the jugular lymphangiogenic region in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Rutscher, K; Wilting, J

    2008-03-01

    In the human, mutations of the forkhead winged-helix transcription factor FOXC2 cause the lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, which is characterized by a double row of eyelashes and pubertal onset lymphedema of the legs due to hyperplasia and malformation of lymphatic collectors. While a function of FOXC2 for the differentiation of lymphatic collectors is well documented, recent studies have indicated an early function for the sprouting of lymphatics from embryonic veins. We studied the expression of FoxC2 in early avian embryos and compared its expression pattern with that of the homeobox transcription factor Prox1, which is essential for lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) development. We show that FoxC2 demarcates a segment of the somatopleura in the cervical region on embryonic day (ED) 3, before Prox1 is expressed. On ED 4, its expression domain coincides with that of Prox1 in the jugular region. This region is characterized by the confluence of Tie2-positive anterior and posterior cardinal veins. It has been shown that Prox1 expression in a subpopulation of venous endothelial cells induces transdifferentiation into LECs. Our data suggest that FoxC2, in addition to its late functions during lymph collector differentiation, has an early function during lymphendothelial commitment of venous ECs in the jugular region. PMID:18581954

  4. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

  5. Positional hoarseness: an unusual symptom in jugular foramen mass.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manish; Bhaskar, Mukesh Kumar; Mittal, Radhey Shyam; Ojha, Balkrishna

    2016-01-01

    We came across a case of jugular foramen mass causing positional hoarseness on turning the head left and disappearing on returning the head to a straight position. Hoarseness of voice due to vagus nerve involvement is seen in jugular foramen mass but positional hoarseness has never been seen before. We report this rarest presentation and discuss the pathophysiology behind it. PMID:27190124

  6. [Treatment with the placement of carotid stent of jugular-carotid fistula after the insertion of hemodialysis catheter].

    PubMed

    Vera, M; Quintana, L; Blasco, J; Real, M; Macho, J M

    2005-01-01

    The use of jugular temporary catheters as vascular access for hemodialysis, entails a risk of various complications. The most frequent problems are the arterial puncture and haematoma. However, there are other less frequent potentially serious complications, which constitute a therapeutic and diagnostic challenge for the nephrologists. We present a case of a patient that developed an acute renal failure in the context of cellulites for E. Coli treated with aminoglycosid, who required renal treatment with haemodialysis. After the placement of a polyurethane double-lumen catheter with ultrasound guidance at the level of the internal jugular vein, arterial blood streaming was observed through the lumen of the catheter. The angiographic study showed the tipo of the catheter placed at the level of the aortic arch. Ultrasound exam clearly despicted the track between the internal jugular vein and the internal carotid artery. An effective closing of the fistula was achieved with the placement of a covered stent-graft with the simultaneous withdrawal of the catheter. Reviewing the literature this is the first reported case of an iatrogenic jugulo-carotid fistula secundary to placement of hemodialysis catheter resolved by the implantation of carotid stent-graft. PMID:16392309

  7. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor if you think you have them. Spider Veins Spider veins are a smaller version of varicose veins and a less serious type of telangiectasias. Spider veins involve the capillaries, the smallest blood vessels ...

  8. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  9. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  10. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  11. Surgical Approaches to the Jugular Foramen: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; McGrew, Benjamin; Matusz, Petru; De Caro, Raffaele; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Multiple surgical approaches and combinations thereof have been described to gain access to the jugular foramen. In an area laden with important neurovascular structures, care must be taken in choosing the best surgical approach for treatment of rare pathologies involving this region. Methods This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the relevant anatomy along with an overview of the various approaches to the jugular foramen. In an attempt to simplify the various concepts, we propose a basic distinction into anterolateral and posterolateral approaches based on the main trajectory targeting the jugular foramen. Conclusion The anatomy surrounding the jugular foramen is exceedingly complex and requires in-depth understanding of skull base and head and neck relationships. PMID:27175322

  12. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098

  13. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was <25%. Bias was assessed using the Egger funnel plot test. Results: Across all studies, 97% of patients achieved tumor control, and 95% of patients achieved clinical control. Eight studies reported a mean or median follow-up time of >36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  14. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  15. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  16. Valved bovine jugular venous conduits for right ventricular to pulmonary artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Scavo, V A; Turrentine, M W; Aufiero, T X; Sharp, T G; Brown, J W

    1999-01-01

    Various valved and nonvalved external right ventricle (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) conduits have been used to palliate congenital heart anomalies. The ideal conduit has not been found. Reasons for conduit failures include stenosis, thrombosis, calcification of the valve or graft wall, and development of an obstructive peel. We evaluated valved and nonvalved conduits constructed from a glutaraldehyde preserved segment of bovine jugular vein. Bovine jugular conduits (n = 31), 10-13 mm in diameter, were implanted into weight-matched adult mongrel dogs using a standard closed heart technique. Valved conduits (VC, n = 17) were stented at the valve annulus with a Gore-Tex ring, whereas the nonvalved conduits (NC, n = 14) were stented at their midpoint. The proximal PA was tightly banded to 3 mm with a ligature. Cardiac output (CO) and hemodynamic gradients were measured at the time of insertion and 8 months postoperatively. Pulmonary artery angiograms were used to assess bovine jugular conduit regurgitation. All xenografts were evaluated by gross and histologic exam. Two dogs had conduits placed but died for reasons unrelated to the conduit before evaluation. Valved conduit leaflets showed thickening, insignificant thrombus deposition in the base of one or more cusps, and a mild degree of regurgitation as assessed by angiograms. Examination of the NC showed mild conduit thickening and a moderate-to-severe degree of regurgitation as assessed by angiograms. There was a significant difference observed in pulmonary outflow gradients between the VC (11 +/- 2 mm Hg) and NC (17 +/- 2 mm Hg) (p < 0.05), although neither group developed a hemodynamically significant gradient. On gross examination, VC ventricles displayed significantly less evidence of volume and pressure overload compared with the NC ventricle. Valved conduits demonstrated significantly less obstruction and regurgitation. The potential clinical advantages of bovine jugular conduits are their availability

  17. Isolated Facial Vein Thrombophlebitis: A Variant of Lemierre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karnov, Kirstine K.S.; Lilja-Fischer, Jacob; Randrup, Thomas Skov

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre syndrome is a rare complication of acute tonsillitis. It is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum and is characterized by bacteremia and septic thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Dissemination of septic emboli may occur. The diagnosis can be difficult since different organs can be involved. We discuss a case of Lemierre syndrome in a 35-year-old woman with isolated thrombophlebitis of the facial vein and fusobacteria growth in blood culture. This case emphasizes the need for awareness of the condition. PMID:25734123

  18. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  19. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose ...

  20. [Stented dilated or varicose veins as arterial bypass transplants: experimental and initial clinical results].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Magometschnigg, H; Staudacher, M; Ptakovsky, H; Raderer, F; Ullrich, R; Grabenwöger, F; Wolner, E

    1991-01-01

    Dilated and varicose veins are usually not used as arterial bypass-grafts despite they are lined with functional endothelium. External support by a constrictive mesh tube could conform these veins into evenly calibrated bypass-grafts. Ovine jugular veins could be constricted from 15 to 6 mm diameter without forming folds on the inner flow surface. 6 months after implantation of 5 cm long jugular vein segments into the carotid arteries of 7 sheep the inner diameter was 19.5 +/- 3.3 mm for native veins (n = 4) and 7.6 +/- 0.8 mm for constricted veins (n = 10). Intimal hyperplasia was reduced from 0.4 +/- 0.2 mm in native to 0.23 +/- 0.07 mm in reinforced veins (p = 0.03). Mesh tube constricted varicose veins were used as bypass material in 11 infrainguinal reconstructions. All grafts were well calibrated at control angiography. External constriction by mesh tubes is a means to convert varicose veins into suitable bypass grafts. PMID:1950138

  1. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  2. Jugular Foramen Arteriovenous Shunt with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, G.; Comoy, J.; Hurth, M.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man with an extracerebral arteriovenous fistula at the skull base, revealed by subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into left laterobulbar veins. Embolization with bucrylate was performed and occluded totally the shunting zone. A 1-year follow-up angiogram confirmed the good stability of the result, the patient being asymptomatic. This case emphasizes the quality of results that can be obtained with bucrylate in arterioverious fistulas presenting with hemorrhage. It confirms that the external carotid artery must be studied when dealing with intracranial hemorrhage. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography may depict vascular abnormalities but do not always indicate the shunting area, thus the pathologic type of the malformation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 5p136-b PMID:17170835

  3. Papilledema and Vision Loss Caused by Jugular Paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Lertakyamanee, Paweena; Srinivasan, Ashok; De Lott, Lindsey B; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Paragangliomas that arise from the jugular bulb are known to present as masses in the neck or with hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus, and lower cranial nerve palsies. Much less recognized is their tendency to cause increased intracranial pressure and papilledema by obstructing jugular venous outflow. Only 7 such cases have been reported and with minimal ophthalmic documentation. We describe 3 more cases to provide additional documentation and to emphasize that paragangliomas are a potential cause of the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, and that papilledema may be overlooked when a jugular paraganglioma is diagnosed or after it has been treated. Such lapses have led to disabling vision loss from damage to the optic nerves in long-standing papilledema. PMID:26079334

  4. Diagnosis of jugular paraganglioma by radionuclide angiography: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Kronenberg, J.; Tadmor, R.; Leventon, G.

    1983-11-01

    Jugular paraganglioma is a highly vascular tumor, slowly growing, extending into the surrounding stuctures and causing otologic and /or neurologic symptoms according to its location in the jugular bulb region or the middle-ear. In our study, modified vertex and posterior head scintiangiography was used in seven cases. Scintiangiography was positive in all seven, whereas concomitant radiographic studies were limited: four of the seven gave positive findings by transmission computerized tomography (TCT). Only four patients underwent angiography, with positive results in two. Hypocycloidal tomography was positive in three cases. However, some radiographic studies, particularly TCT, may be useful in detecting local extension, bone destruction, and soft-tissue infiltration. Radionuclide angiography proved highly reliable and should be used initially whenever a jugular paraganglioma is suspected.

  5. Complete guidewire retention after femoral vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Cat, Bahar Gulcay; Guler, Sertac; Soyuduru, Murat; Guven, Ibrahim; Ramadan, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used for various purposes in the emergency departments (ED). The main uses of CVCs in the EDs are emergent hemodialysis, in situations where peripheral vein catheterization cannot be achieved, and continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The complications related to CVC insertion are usually mechanical and observed in the near term after the procedure. Retained CVC guidewire after catheterization is a rare complication in the published reports and usually related with intra- or postoperative settings and jugular or subclavian vein. The present study reported a young female patient who underwent left femoral vein catheterization 6 months earlier in an intensive care unit of another hospital and was diagnosed with complete guidewire retention in the ED. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in published reports with a diagnosis of retained CVC guidewire with retrograde migration into the femoral vein. Surprisingly, the patient developed no thrombotic or embolic complication during this 6-month period. PMID:26657235

  6. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Deep Vein Thrombosis Overview What is deep vein thrombosis? Deep vein thrombosis (also called DVT) is a blood clot in a vein deep inside your body. These clots usually occur in your leg veins. While DVT is a fairly common condition, it is ...

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the lower leg or ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a ...

  9. Modification of a stented bovine jugular vein conduit (melody valve) for surgical mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ibrahim; Ramirez, Francisco Boye; McElhinney, Doff B; Lock, James E; del Nido, Pedro J; Emani, Sitaram

    2012-10-01

    We report the use of a Melody valve as a surgical implant in the mitral position in 2 infants, one with severe mitral regurgitation and another with mitral stenosis, where other prostheses are not small enough to be implanted in the mitral position nor expandable as the child grows. PMID:23006723

  10. Bovine valved jugular vein (Contegra) to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Thierry

    2004-09-01

    The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is the part of the circulation located between the right ventricle and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. The most cranial part of the right ventriculum infundibulum, the pulmonary anulus, the valve and finally the main trunk of the pulmonary artery are the most important structures. The RVOT is frequently affected in congenital heart diseases, either isolated, or in combination with other cardiac malformations. Current techniques for surgical correction of anomalies of the RVOT include repair and/or replacement of the pulmonary valve often combined with sub- or supravalvular reconstruction. The use of extracardiac conduits (homografts, stented or stentless xenografts) to re-establish continuity between the pulmonary ventricle and pulmonary artery has been an important advance in repair of complex congenital malformations. The Contegra (Medtronic) conduit was introduced as a xenograft tissue for RVOT reconstruction. This conduit has some advantages over homografts including availability for pediatric and adult patient sizes and proximal and distal cuffs allowing for extended reconstruction. The principal late problem related to extracardiac conduit operations is the inevitable need for one or more conduit replacements due to patient somatic growth or progressive conduit degeneration and calcification leading to stenosis. PMID:16293006

  11. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    SciTech Connect

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  12. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference

  13. Clinical Applicability of Assessment of Jugular Flow over the Individual Cardiac Cycle Compared with Current Ultrasound Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Menegatti, Erica; Vannini, Maria Elena; Gianesini, Sergio; Tavoni, Valentina; Gadda, Giacomo; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo; Zamboni, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in measuring cerebral venous outflow with ultrasound (US). However, results obtained with the current US Doppler methodology, which uses just a single value of cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel, are highly variable and inconclusive. The product of CSA and time-averaged velocity in the case of pulsatile vessels may be a possible source of error, particularly for a pulsatile vein like the internal jugular vein (IJV), where the cardiac pump transmits a sequence of well-established waves along the conduit. We herein propose a novel technique for US IJV flow assessment that accurately accounts for IJV CSA variations during the cardiac cycle. Five subjects were investigated with a high-resolution real-time B-mode video, synchronized with an electrocardiography trace. In this approach, CSA variations representing the pulsatility of the IJV are overlapped with the velocity curve obtained by the usual spectral Doppler trace. The overlap is then phased point by point using the electrocardiography pacemaker. This allows us to experimentally measure the velocity variation in relation to the change in CSA precisely, ultimately enabling calculation of IJV flow. (i) The sequence of CSA variation with respect to the electrocardiography waves corresponds exactly to the jugular venous pulse as measured in physiology. (ii) The methodology permits us to phase the velocity and CSA, which is ultimately what is currently lacking to precisely calculate the flow in the IJV with US. (iii) The time-averaged flow, calculated with the described technique, is very close to that calculated assuming a constant IJV CSA, whereas the time-dependent flow shows differs as much as 40%. (iv) Finally, we tested the accuracy of the technique with a methodology that may allow for universal assessment of the accuracy of each personal US-based evaluation of flow rate. PMID:27108038

  14. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Thierry; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community. PMID:25802795

  15. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  16. Management of superior vena cava obstruction syndrome due to thrombosis of a Contegra conduit used to re-establish the innominate vein-to-right atrium continuity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Alexiou, Christos; Tofeig, Magdi; Spyt, Tomasz J

    2007-08-01

    Following intraoperative superior vena cava injury, venous drainage of the head, neck and upper extremities can be re-established with bovine jugular vein (Contegra) conduits. Inadequate anticoagulation, however, may lead to conduit thrombosis and superior vena cava obstruction syndrome. This can be successfully treated with percutaneous dilatation and stenting of the failed conduit. PMID:17669924

  17. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Español Deep vein thrombosis (throm-BO-sis), or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Blood clots occur when blood ...

  18. Varicose veins and venous insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, and enlarged veins that you can see under the skin. They are often ... from the blood that collects there, which causes varicose veins. Smaller varicose veins that you can see on ...

  19. Head and Neck Veins of the Mouse. A Magnetic Resonance, Micro Computed Tomography and High Frequency Color Doppler Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marcello; Greco, Adelaide; Tedeschi, Enrico; Palma, Giuseppe; Ragucci, Monica; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Torino, Enza; Scotti, Alessandro; Zucca, Ileana; Salvatore, Marco

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the anatomy of the venous outflow of the mouse brain using different imaging techniques. Ten C57/black male mice (age range: 7-8 weeks) were imaged with high-frequency Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Angiography and ex-vivo Microcomputed tomography of the head and neck. Under general anesthesia, Ultrasound of neck veins was performed with a 20 MHz transducer; head and neck Magnetic Resonance Angiography data were collected on 9.4 T or 7 T scanners, and ex-vivo Microcomputed tomography angiography was obtained by filling the vessels with a radiopaque inert silicone rubber compound. All procedures were approved by the local ethical committee. The dorsal intracranial venous system is quite similar in mice and humans. Instead, the mouse Internal Jugular Veins are tiny vessels receiving the sigmoid sinuses and tributaries from cerebellum, occipital lobe and midbrain, while the majority of the cerebral blood, i.e. from the olfactory bulbs and fronto-parietal lobes, is apparently drained through skull base connections into the External Jugular Vein. Three main intra-extracranial anastomoses, absent in humans, are: 1) the petrosquamous sinus, draining into the posterior facial vein, 2) the veins of the olfactory bulb, draining into the superficial temporal vein through a foramen of the frontal bone 3) the cavernous sinus, draining in the External Jugular Vein through a foramen of the sphenoid bone. The anatomical structure of the mouse cranial venous outflow as depicted by Ultrasound, Microcomputed tomography and Magnetic Resonance Angiography is different from humans, with multiple connections between intra- and extra-cranial veins. PMID:26067061

  20. Head and Neck Veins of the Mouse. A Magnetic Resonance, Micro Computed Tomography and High Frequency Color Doppler Ultrasound Study

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Greco, Adelaide; Tedeschi, Enrico; Palma, Giuseppe; Ragucci, Monica; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Torino, Enza; Scotti, Alessandro; Zucca, Ileana; Salvatore, Marco

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the anatomy of the venous outflow of the mouse brain using different imaging techniques. Ten C57/black male mice (age range: 7-8 weeks) were imaged with high-frequency Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Angiography and ex-vivo Microcomputed tomography of the head and neck. Under general anesthesia, Ultrasound of neck veins was performed with a 20MHz transducer; head and neck Magnetic Resonance Angiography data were collected on 9.4T or 7T scanners, and ex-vivo Microcomputed tomography angiography was obtained by filling the vessels with a radiopaque inert silicone rubber compound. All procedures were approved by the local ethical committee. The dorsal intracranial venous system is quite similar in mice and humans. Instead, the mouse Internal Jugular Veins are tiny vessels receiving the sigmoid sinuses and tributaries from cerebellum, occipital lobe and midbrain, while the majority of the cerebral blood, i.e. from the olfactory bulbs and fronto-parietal lobes, is apparently drained through skull base connections into the External Jugular Vein. Three main intra-extracranial anastomoses, absent in humans, are: 1) the petrosquamous sinus, draining into the posterior facial vein, 2) the veins of the olfactory bulb, draining into the superficial temporal vein through a foramen of the frontal bone 3) the cavernous sinus, draining in the External Jugular Vein through a foramen of the sphenoid bone. The anatomical structure of the mouse cranial venous outflow as depicted by Ultrasound, Microcomputed tomography and Magnetic Resonance Angiography is different from humans, with multiple connections between intra- and extra- cranial veins. PMID:26067061

  1. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  2. Varicose Veins and Other Vein Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How To's Related Topics Peripheral Artery Disease Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Varicose Veins and Other ...

  3. The mechanics of intersecting echelon veins and pressure solution seams in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyum, Solomon; Pollard, David D.

    2016-08-01

    Many studies that describe the formation of echelon vein arrays relate the causative stresses implicitly to the deformation, reliant on simple shear kinematics, such that the vein-to-array angle and the array width are the primary physical quantities. In contrast, we identify twelve physical quantities to describe echelon veins in two dimensions, including coeval, vein-intersecting, pressure solution seams. A finite element method is used to reproduce vein shapes in linear elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic model limestone. Model vein geometries are designed using values within the range of geometries measured from echelon veins at Raplee Anticline and Comb Monocline, Utah. Four physical quantities are significant for describing echelon vein shapes: vein spacing, vein-array angle, limestone elastic stiffness, and closing of orthogonal pressure solution seams. Pressure solution seam closing influences the mechanical interaction between adjacent veins, and for a range of conditions, causes a nearly linear vein opening distribution (triangular shapes) and encourages straight vein propagation, both of which approximate field measurements. Model results show that small spacing of veins with seams and large vein-array angles promote straight vein traces in limestone with stiffness typical of laboratory measurements, given the physical geologic conditions inferred from the burial history of the limestone strata.

  4. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  5. Efficient Gene Transfer and Durable Transgene Expression in Grafted Rabbit Veins

    PubMed Central

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; Clowes, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Venous bypass grafts are useful treatments for obstructive coronary artery disease. However, their usefulness is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Genetic engineering of venous bypass grafts that prevented atherosclerosis could improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes. We used a rabbit model of jugular vein-to-carotid interposition grafting to develop gene therapy for vein-graft atherosclerosis. Rabbit veins were easily transduced in situ with a first-generation adenoviral vector; however, most transgene expression (∼80%) was lost within 3 days after arterial grafting. This rapid loss of transgene expression was not prevented by transducing veins after grafting or by prolonged ex vivo transduction. However, delaying vein-graft transduction for 28 days (after the vein had adapted to the arterial circulation) prevented this early loss of transgene expression. We used the delayed transduction approach to test the durability of expression of a therapeutic transgene (apolipoprotein A-I) expressed from a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector. HDAd DNA and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA were easily detectable in transduced vein grafts. Vector DNA and mRNA declined by 4 weeks, and then persisted stably for at least 6 months. Delaying transduction for 28 days after grafting permitted initiation of vein-graft neointimal growth and medial thickening before gene transfer. However, vein-graft lumen diameter was not compromised, because of gradual outward remodeling of grafted veins. Our data highlight the promise of HDAd-mediated gene therapy, delivered to arterialized vein grafts, for preventing vein-graft atherosclerosis. PMID:25383597

  6. Efficient gene transfer and durable transgene expression in grafted rabbit veins.

    PubMed

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; Clowes, Alexander W; Dichek, David A

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts are useful treatments for obstructive coronary artery disease. However, their usefulness is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Genetic engineering of venous bypass grafts that prevented atherosclerosis could improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes. We used a rabbit model of jugular vein-to-carotid interposition grafting to develop gene therapy for vein-graft atherosclerosis. Rabbit veins were easily transduced in situ with a first-generation adenoviral vector; however, most transgene expression (∼80%) was lost within 3 days after arterial grafting. This rapid loss of transgene expression was not prevented by transducing veins after grafting or by prolonged ex vivo transduction. However, delaying vein-graft transduction for 28 days (after the vein had adapted to the arterial circulation) prevented this early loss of transgene expression. We used the delayed transduction approach to test the durability of expression of a therapeutic transgene (apolipoprotein A-I) expressed from a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector. HDAd DNA and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA were easily detectable in transduced vein grafts. Vector DNA and mRNA declined by 4 weeks, and then persisted stably for at least 6 months. Delaying transduction for 28 days after grafting permitted initiation of vein-graft neointimal growth and medial thickening before gene transfer. However, vein-graft lumen diameter was not compromised, because of gradual outward remodeling of grafted veins. Our data highlight the promise of HDAd-mediated gene therapy, delivered to arterialized vein grafts, for preventing vein-graft atherosclerosis. PMID:25383597

  7. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via

  8. Can tuffisite veins help dictate eruption styles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Heap, M. J.; Lavallee, Y.; Russell, J. K.; Meredith, P. G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of magmas to degas during ascent may affect eruption style. The permeability of the magma and/or the conduit wall rocks may therefore dictate whether an eruption will be explosive or effusive. Fractures increase permeability. Fractures filled by veins of autoclastic, cataclastic and tuffisitic glass shards and crystal fragments are common in shallow conduit systems. These veins have the potential to dramatically increase permeability and provide pathways for gas loss. Here we present the first study on the porosity, permeability, strength, P-and S-wave and dynamic elastic moduli of andesite containing tuffisite veins at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. Porosity was measured via pycnometry. The strength and mechanisms of deformation were investigated on tuffisite-bearing and tuffisite-free samples in a uniaxial press at 940°C by loading at 2 MPa/min until failure. The permeability, P- and S-wave velocity, and dynamic elastic moduli were measured in a high-pressure permeameter/pore volumometer up to effective confining pressures of 50 MPa (ca. 2km depth). Measurements were made on cylindrical samples prepared as: (1) without tuffisite veins and with tuffisite veins (2) perpendicular and (3) sub-parallel to flow (i.e., the samples’ axial direction). Petrographic analysis reveals that the tuffisites are comprised almost exclusively of micron-size crystal fragments. Dilatometric measurements of tuffisite (10°C/min up to 1000°C), failed to reveal a Tg, indicating the absence of interstitial glass. In contrast, the dome rocks exhibits viscous relaxation between 770 and 885 °C, indicating glass. The high-temperature (940°C) deformation experiments on samples containing tuffisite veins showed an absence of ductile deformation and a uniaxial strength of 116 MPa; i.e, slightly weaker than tuffisite-free rock (~130 MPa) and stronger than erupted dome lavas (~30 MPa). The presence of tuffisite increases the porosity. Permeability measurements show that tuffisite

  9. A serotonergic system in veins: serotonin transporter-independent uptake.

    PubMed

    Linder, A Elizabeth; Ni, Wei; Szasz, Theodora; Burnett, Robert; Diaz, Jessica; Geddes, Timothy J; Kuhn, Donald M; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-06-01

    We hypothesized that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is present and functional in veins. In vena cava (VC), the presence of the 5-HT synthesis rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1 mRNA and accumulation of the 5-HT synthesis intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan after incubation with tryptophan supported the ability of veins to synthesize 5-HT. The presence of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in VC and jugular vein (JV), and it was compared with similarly sized arteries aorta (RA) and carotid (CA), respectively. In rats treated with the monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitor pargyline to prevent 5-HT metabolism, basal 5-HT levels were higher in veins than in arteries. 5-HT uptake was observed after exposure to exogenous 5-HT in all vessels. The presence of MAO-A and the 5-HT transporter (SERT) in VC was observed by immunohistochemistry and Western analysis. However, 5-HT uptake was not inhibited by the SERT inhibitors fluoxetine and/or fluvoxamine in VC and JV, as opposed to the inhibition in RA and CA. Moreover, studies performed in VC from mutant rats lacking SERT showed no differences in 5-HT uptake compared with VC from wild type. These data suggest the SERT is not functional under physiological conditions in veins. The differences in 5-HT handling between veins and arteries may represent alternative avenues for targeting the 5-HT system in the peripheral circulation for controlling vascular tone. PMID:18322152

  10. Varicose veins and venous insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001109.htm Varicose veins and venous insufficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, and enlarged veins that you ...

  11. The Significance of Neuregulin-1/ErbB Expression in Autogenous Vein Grafts in a Diabetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiangxin; Zhang, Jueyu; Liang, Ludong; Lan, Zhicun; Huo, Tianming; Li, Shikang

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for increased vein graft failure after bypass surgery. The neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)/ErbB signaling system plays a critical role in neointimal formation after vascular injury as well as the proliferation and migration of mitogen-induced vascular smooth muscle cells; however, changes in NRG-1/ErbB signaling leading to vein grafts attrition in DM remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate changes in NRG-1/ErbB signaling in vein grafts in diabetic rats. To do this, a rat model of DM was established by streptozotocin injection followed by engraftment of autologous jugular veins to carotid arteries to induce intimal hyperplasia. After vein graft harvest, a pathohistological examination was performed; changes in NRG-1 and ErbB expression were also assessed. NRG-1 and ErbB expression localized to endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, which is consistent with the arterialization of vein grafts. NRG-1, ErbB2, and ErbB4 expression significantly decreased in vein grafts over time. Our findings show that NRG-1/ErbB signaling is impaired in vein grafts of diabetic rats, suggesting an important role for this pathway in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplastic lesions in vein grafts of patients with DM. PMID:25978692

  12. Evaluation of regional limb perfusion with amikacin using the saphenous, cephalic, and palmar digital veins in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Kelmer, G; Bell, G C; Martin-Jimenez, T; Saxton, A M; Catasus, C; Elliot, S B; Meibohm, B

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that regional limb perfusion (RLP) using the palmar digital (PD) vein delivers therapeutic concentration of amikacin to the distal limb. Our hypothesis was that using the cephalic and saphenous veins for RLP will enable delivery of therapeutic concentrations of amikacin to the distal limb. Nineteen healthy horses participated in the study. The cephalic, saphenous, or PD vein was used to perfuse the limb with amikacin. Two grams of amikacin was used for RLP using the saphenous and the cephalic veins, and one gram was used in the PD vein. Synovial samples were collected from the metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint, and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Maximum concentration (Cmax) of amikacin in the MCP/MTP joint using the cephalic and the saphenous vein was 277 and 363 mg/L, respectively. The amikacin concentrations achieved in the synovial fluid of the MCP/MTP joint in the current study were between 69 and 91 times the minimally inhibitory concentration of common susceptible bacterial pathogens causing orthopedic infections in horses. To conclude, this study shows that use of the proximal veins for RLP to treat distal limb infections is a viable alternative to using the palmar or plantar digital vein. PMID:22607056

  13. Retinal vein occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Berrocal MH, Rodriguez FJ, et al. Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Comparison of two doses ... retinal vein occlusion: results from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 6 months of follow- ...

  14. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    You were treated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein that is not on ... especially if it gets worse upon taking a deep breath in You cough up blood

  15. Popliteal vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented. PMID:16796307

  16. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  17. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A.; Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S.; Hussain, Fuad F.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Lopez, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  18. Ovarian vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenayah, Amel Achour; Saoudi, Sarra; Boudaya, Fethia; Bouriel, Ines; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare cause of abdominal pain that may mimic a surgical abdomen. It is most often diagnosed during the postpartum period. In this report, we present four cases of postoperative ovarian vein thrombosis. The complications of OVT can be significant, and the diagnosis relies on a careful examination of the radiographic findings. It can occur with lower quadrant abdominal pain, especially in the setting of recent pregnancy, abdominal surgery, pelvic inflammatory disease, or malignancy. Diagnosis can be made with confidence using ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of ovarian vein thrombosis is particularly important in the post-partum patients, with anticoagulation therapy being the current recommendation. PMID:26526119

  19. Varicose vein surgery.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Micheal; Fellmer, Peter T; Wetzig, Tino

    2012-03-01

    Venous diseases are common in the general population. After a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation, an individual therapeutic approach should be selected on the basis of the findings, with the aim of treating the diseased vein segments and improving quality of life. Numerous therapeutic options are available for the treatment of varicose veins. In addition to conservative methods such as compression therapy, exercise or drugs, surgical procedures such as traditional surgery, thermal ablation techniques or sclerotherapy can be performed. Recent developments include the use of endoluminal water vapor or mechano-chemical endovenous ablation. PMID:22222053

  20. Skull Base Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presented with Foramen Jugular Syndrome and Multi-Osseous Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sedighi, Nahid; Karami, Parisa; Yeganeh, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement. PMID:23329983

  1. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Yogesh K; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  2. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  3. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  4. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis NHLBI Resources Pulmonary Embolism (Health Topics) Non-NHLBI Resources Deep Vein Thrombosis (MedlinePlus) Pulmonary Embolism (MedlinePlus) Clinical Trials ...

  5. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation: Prognostic Markers Depicted on Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias W; Vaught, Arthur J; Poretti, Andrea; Blakemore, Karin J

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves a dual role in the prenatal diagnostic work up of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). First, it may confirm the prenatal ultrasound findings and secondly it may identify prognostically important secondary complications of the VGAM. Progressive heart failure with development of fetal hydrops and hemispheric white matter injuries are associated with a poor outcome in children with a VGAM. We present the prenatal findings using both ultrasound and MRI of a fetus with VGAM including bilateral injury of the cerebral hemispheres, severe dilatation of the jugular veins, cardiomegaly, and hydrops fetalis. The neonate died within 30 minutes after delivery. Moreover, fetal MRI revealed complete placenta praevia, uterine fibroids, and wrapping of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck. This additional information is unrelated to the fetal pathology, but could have been of importance to plan the delivery. PMID:25924177

  6. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects. PMID:25442142

  7. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K

    2015-12-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease-unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients. PMID:26682126

  8. Spontaneous Iliac Vein Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hyung Sub; Lee, Taeseung

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous iliac vein rupture (SIVR) is a rare entity, which usually occurs without a precipitating factor, but can be a life-threatening emergency often requiring an emergency operation. This is a case report of SIVR in a 62-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with left leg swelling. Workup with contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a left leg deep vein thrombosis with May-Thurner syndrome and a hematoma in the pelvic cavity without definite evidence of arterial bleeding. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention, and also underwent inferior vena cava filter insertion and subsequent anticoagulation therapy for pulmonary thromboembolism. This case shows that SIVR can be successfully managed with close monitoring and conservative management, and anticoagulation may be safely applied despite the patient presenting with venous bleeding. PMID:26217647

  9. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  10. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    PubMed

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  11. Quantitative modeling of quartz vein sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Frank; Okamoto, Atsushi; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Enzmann, Frieder; Blum, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly effects many aspects of fluid-rock interaction across all length scales, as the dynamical change of permeability, of mechanical interaction and redistribution of dissolved material. The hydrothermal growth of quartz establishes one of the most important mineralization processes in fractures. Tectonically caused fracturing, deformation and fluid transport leaves clear detectable traces in the microstructure of the mineralized veins. As these patterns give hints on the deformation history and the fluid pathways through former fracture networks, accurate spatio-temporal modeling of vein mineralization is of special interest, and the objective of this study. Due to the intricate polycrystalline geometries involved, the underlying physical processes like diffusion, advection and crystal growth have to be captured at the grain scale. To this end, we adapt a thermodynamically consistent phase-field model (PFM), which combines a kinetic growth law and mass transport equations with irreversible thermodynamics of interfaces and bulk phases. Each grain in the simulation domain is captured by a phase field with individual orientation given by three Euler angles. The model evolves in discrete time steps using a finite difference algorithm on a regular grid, optimized for large grain assemblies. The underlying processes are highly nonlinear, and for geological samples, boundary conditions as well as many of the physical parameters are not precisely known. One motivation in this study is to validate the adequately parameterized model vs. hydrothermal experiments under defined (p,T,c) conditions. Different from former approaches in vein growth simulation, the PFM is configured using thermodynamic data from established geochemical models. Previously conducted batch flow experiments of hydrothermal quartz growth were analyzed with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and used to calibrate the unknown kinetic anisotropy parameters. In the

  12. The Evolution of Fracture Systems in Rocks with Veins: Insights from 3D Discrete Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, S.; Urai, J. L.; Abe, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from natural vein systems suggest that preexisting veins can strongly influence orientation, continuity and connectivity of fractures in a rock even in cases where the orientation of the veins is incompatible with the orientation of the stress field. We present a numerical method to model cycles of fracturing and sealing in a rotating stress field to simulate such systems, for different strength ratios of host rock and vein. We study a layered model under vertical stress and uniaxial horizontal extension. This represents common conditions in sedimentary basins with layers of varying composition. The model with fractures that form during the first deformation phase is sealed and deformed again in a different direction to model the effect of a changing horizontal stress field. We find different types of fracture interaction with veins, depending on the strength contrast between veins and host rock and amount of rotation. The crack-seal and crack-jump mechanisms ensue naturally from the models as a result of the strength of the vein material relative to the host rock. Weak veins localize fracturing and reactivate, even in high misorientation to the extension direction. Connecting fractures between reactivated veins form at a higher angle to the veins than expected. In these systems, the connectivity of the fracture network is dramatically increased. Veins stronger than the host rock have less influence on the new fractures. Most fractures crosscut the veins by the step-over mechanism. Deflection occurs for favorable vein orientations but the deflection length is very short. The results are in good agreement with natural crack seal vein networks found in carbonate rocks of the Oman Mountains. We find that preexisting veins can change the fracture behavior of a rock in a way that new fractures do not necessarily align with the principle extension direction and form a highly connected network with reactivated veins that dramatically enhances lateral

  13. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amirak, Emre; Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C.; Kemp, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  14. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  15. Assessing the patency of mediastinal and thoracic inlet veins: value of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M E; Spritzer, C E; Sostman, H D

    1990-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of MR imaging in the evaluation of patients with suspected thoracic venous obstruction, hospital records and MR studies of 31 such patients were reviewed. Gradient-recalled echo, spin-echo, or cine MR techniques were used. In 26 of the 31 patients, venous obstruction was confirmed by CT, venography, sonography, surgery, or autopsy. Causes included tumor invasion, compression of veins, coagulopathy, or indwelling catheters. MR detected an abnormality of the superior vena cava in all 16 cases in which it was seen on other tests. Abnormality of the internal or external jugular veins was detected in all six cases in which other studies were abnormal. Abnormality of veins in the shoulder region was detected by MR in 10 of 12 patients in whom such disease was seen on other tests. The two interpretive errors were caused by nonocclusive clot, short (less than 2-cm) occlusions, and metallic artifact. Overall, MR correctly identified abnormality in 32 of 34 vessels (sensitivity, 94%). In all cases, a negative MR study was found to be a true negative (no false positives in 42 normal vessels; specificity, 100%). We conclude that MR is an accurate means of assessing patency of the thoracic inlet and mediastinal veins. Its noninvasive nature and multiplanar capability contribute to its usefulness in this clinical setting. PMID:2122662

  16. [Coronary veins and coronary sinus tributary veins in Africans].

    PubMed

    Yangni-Angate, H; Kokoua, A; Kouassi, R; Kassanyou, S; Gnagne, Y; Guessan, G N; Cowppli-Bony, P; Memel, J B

    1995-01-01

    This anatomical study carried out on 40 African adults hearts studied branches of the coronary sinus. By using of injection of the coronary arteries and corrosion of the myocardium, the study identified certain peculiarities of the small coronary vein and the posterior descending interventricular vein in Africans. PMID:8519704

  17. Decompression of the Jugular Bulb for Enhanced Infralabyrinthine Access to the Petroclival Region: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Pearl, Monica S; Wyse, Emily; Olivi, Alessandro; Francis, Howard W

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To describe an enhanced infralabyrinthine approach to petroclival lesions with jugular bulb decompression, and to quantify surgical access using a flat-panel computed tomography image protocol. Design Retrospective case series and paired comparison of pre- versus post-dissection anatomy. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants Four patients presenting with petroclival lesions. Six fresh cadaveric specimens were used for temporal bone dissection. Main Outcome Measures Axial and coronal dimensions, and access angles of the infralabyrinthine surgical corridor. Results Decompression of the jugular bulb increased the craniocaudal width of the infralabyrinthine corridor from 0.9 to 7.9 mm to 6.5 to 11.6 mm. The mean increase of 4 mm was statistically significant (t = 3.7; p < .05). There was also a significant widening of the infralabyrinthine window along the axial dimension by 0.9 to 4.5 mm or a mean of 2 mm (t = 3.7; p < .05). Angles of access to the petroclival region were wider following jugular bulb decompression, particularly in the coronal plane (mean difference 7.9 degrees; t = 5.0; p < .005) but less so in the axial plane (mean difference 4.7 degrees; t = 2.5; p = .05). Conclusions Jugular bulb decompression enhances infralabyrinthine access to petroclival lesions, permitting the removal of tissue for diagnoses or partial resection, without significant additional morbidity. PMID:27175321

  18. [A case of catecholamine-secreting glomus jugulare tumor: treatment strategy and perioperative management].

    PubMed

    Motegi, Hiroaki; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2008-11-01

    Advances of neuroimaging, skull base technique and embolization improved outcome in patients who present with tumor of the glomus jugulare. Catecholamine secreting subgroup, however, is considered to be extremely high risk because of potentially serious complication of an intra- and perioperative hypertension crisis. The authors present detailed description of treatment strategies and perioperative management with a catecholamine secreting glomus jugulare. A 57-year-old woman, in whom the noradrenaline level in plasma was twenty times higher than normal, presented with uncontrolled labile hypertension and carcinoid syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan depicted the tumor as originating from the jugular foramen extending to the infratemporal fossa. Alpha catecholamine blocker and magnesium sulfate treatment was commenced prior to embolization and surgery. Under cranial nerve and hemodynamic monitoring, tumor resection via the infratemporal fossa type A was performed. The patient remained hemodynamically stable and the lower cranial nerve injury was able to be avoided. The plasma noradrenaline level decreased and hypertension became normalized. We emphasize treatment strategy, intra- and perioperative management of this rare entity. PMID:19048923

  19. Effects of multiple vein microjoints on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings: numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Darvizeh, A; Appel, E; Gorb, S N

    2016-03-01

    Dragonfly wings are known as biological composites with high morphological complexity. They mainly consist of a network of rigid veins and flexible membranes, and enable insects to perform various flight manoeuvres. Although several studies have been done on the aerodynamic performance of Odonata wings and the mechanisms involved in their deformations, little is known about the influence of vein joints on the passive deformability of the wings in flight. In this article, we present the first three-dimensional finite-element models of five different vein joint combinations observed in Odonata wings. The results from the analysis of the models subjected to uniform pressures on their dorsal and ventral surfaces indicate the influence of spike-associated vein joints on the dorsoventral asymmetry of wing deformation. Our study also supports the idea that a single vein joint may result in different angular deformations when it is surrounded by different joint types. The developed numerical models also enabled us to simulate the camber formation and stress distribution in the models. The computational data further provide deeper insights into the functional role of resilin patches and spikes in vein joint structures. This study might help to more realistically model the complex structure of insect wings in order to design more efficient bioinspired micro-air vehicles in future. PMID:27069649

  20. Effects of multiple vein microjoints on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings: numerical modelling

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Darvizeh, A.; Appel, E.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are known as biological composites with high morphological complexity. They mainly consist of a network of rigid veins and flexible membranes, and enable insects to perform various flight manoeuvres. Although several studies have been done on the aerodynamic performance of Odonata wings and the mechanisms involved in their deformations, little is known about the influence of vein joints on the passive deformability of the wings in flight. In this article, we present the first three-dimensional finite-element models of five different vein joint combinations observed in Odonata wings. The results from the analysis of the models subjected to uniform pressures on their dorsal and ventral surfaces indicate the influence of spike-associated vein joints on the dorsoventral asymmetry of wing deformation. Our study also supports the idea that a single vein joint may result in different angular deformations when it is surrounded by different joint types. The developed numerical models also enabled us to simulate the camber formation and stress distribution in the models. The computational data further provide deeper insights into the functional role of resilin patches and spikes in vein joint structures. This study might help to more realistically model the complex structure of insect wings in order to design more efficient bioinspired micro-air vehicles in future. PMID:27069649

  1. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  2. Percutaneous Vein Occlusion with Small Intestinal Submucosa: An Experimental Pilot Study in Swine and Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Man Deuk; Hoppe, Hanno; Pavcnik, Dusan Kaufman, John A.; Uchida, Barry T.; Correa, Luiz O.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Park, Won Kyu; Corless, Christopher L.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility, outcomes, and amount of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) material needed for embolization of jugular vein (JV) in a swine and sheep model. Our hypothesis was that SIS would cause vein occlusion. Materials and Methods. The external JVs (EJV) in swine (n = 6) and JVs in sheep (n = 6) were occluded with SIS fan-folded compressed strips. After percutaneous puncture of the peripheral portion of the EJV or JV, a TIPS set was used to exit their lumen centrally through the skin. The SIS strips were delivered into the isolated venous segment with a pull-through technique via a 10-Fr sheath. Follow-up venograms were done immediately after placement and at the time of sacrifice at 1 or 3 months. Gross examinations focused on the EJV or JV and their surrounding structures. Specimens were evaluated by histology. Results. SIS strip(s) placement was successful in all cases, with immediate vein occlusion seen in 23 of 24 veins (95.8%). All EJVs treated with two strips and all JVs treated with three or four strips remained closed on 1- and 3-month follow-up venograms. Two EJVs treated with one strip and one JV treated with two strips were partially patent on venograms at 1 and 3 months. There has been one skin inflammatory reaction. Necropsies revealed excluded EJV or JV segments with SIS incorporation into the vein wall. Histology demonstrated various stages of SIS remodeling with fibrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, capillaries, and inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We conclude that EJV and JV ablation with SIS strips using percutaneous exit catheterization is feasible and effective in animal models. Further exploration of SIS as vein ablation material is recommended.

  3. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability. PMID:17911565

  4. The Management of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Zhang, Shiyi; Sun, Yan; Ren, Shiyan; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current management modalities for varicose veins. There are a variety of management modalities for varicose veins. The outcomes of the treatment of varicose veins are different. The papers on the management of varicose veins were reviewed and the postoperative complications and efficacy were compared. Foam sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation were associated with less pain and faster recovery than endovenous laser ablation and surgical stripping. Patients undergoing endovenous laser ablation and radiofrequency ablation are most likely to have a faster recovery time and earlier return to work in comparison with those undergoing conventional high ligation and stripping. A randomized controlled study in multiple centers is warranted to verify which approach is better than others for the treatment of varicose veins. PMID:25594661

  5. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further. PMID:26921505

  6. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Heydar Pour, Behzad; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter. PMID:25796028

  7. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  8. Using vein fabric and fluid inclusion characteristics as an integrated proxy to constrain the relative timing of non cross-cutting, syn- to late-orogenic quartz vein generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Research on ancient fluid systems mainly focuses on veins, because they offer the opportunity to combine macro- and microstructural data with geochemical data to gain insight into the P-T-X conditions present during veining. By applying such an integrated petrographic and microthermometric methodology to syn- to late-orogenic quartz veins in the Palaeozoic High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium), we were able to define the relative timing and related P-T-X conditions of different quartz vein generations, despite of the absence of any mutual cross-cutting relationships in the field (Jacques et al., 2014). The different quartz vein generations represent the meso-scale brittle accommodation during fold initiation, amplification and locking. The presence of free polycrystal growth in cavities at a midcrustal depth, and fluid-assisted brecciation indicate that veining occurred under overpressured fluid conditions during the orogeny. Significant differences in crystal-plastic deformation microstructures and P-T trapping conditions indicate that the different processes accommodating folding occurred in a progressive manner along a retrograde deformation path. While vein quartz in an extrados vein and in the peripheral part of a lenticular, fault-accommodating vein shows moderate crystal-plastic deformation (e.g. bulging recrystallisation, deformation lamellae, shear bands), crystal-plastic deformation is relatively absent in the vein quartz of a saddle reef and the core of the lenticular vein (i.e. no to minor undulose extinction). Successive veining occurred from peak metamorphic conditions (ca. 300 ° C and 190 MPa), measured in the extrados vein, to lower P-T conditions in the periphery of the lenticular vein (ca. 275 ° C and 180 MPa), the late-orogenic saddle reef (ca. 245 ° C and 160 MPa) and the core of the lenticular vein (ca. 220 ° C and 150 MPa). The relative timing and accompanying decrease in P-T conditions of the different quartz vein generations reflect the

  9. Haglund's Deformity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Haglund’s Deformity? Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft ... the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes. This often leads to painful ...

  10. An intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumors are rare skull base slow-growing, hypervascular neoplasms that frequently involve critical neurovascular structures, and delay in diagnosis is frequent. Surgical removal is rarely radical and is usually associated with morbidity or mortality. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has gained an increasing dependable role in the management of glomus jugulare tumors, with high rate of tumor growth control, preserving or improving clinical status and with limited complications. This study aims to evaluate intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of twenty-two patients bearing growing glomus jugulare tumors at the International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo, Egypt, between 2005 and 2011. The mean follow-up period was 56 months (range 36-108 months); there were 3 males, 19 females; mean age was 43.6 years; 15 patients had GKS as the primary treatment; 2 patients had surgical residuals; 2 had previous radiation therapy; and 3 previously underwent endovascular embolization. The average tumor volume was 7.26 cm3, and the mean marginal dose was 14.7 Gy. Post gamma knife surgery through the follow-up period neurological status was improved in 12 patients, 7 showed stable clinical condition and 3 patients developed new moderate deficits. Tumor volume post GKS was unchanged in 13 patients, decreased in 8, and showed tumor regrowth in 1 patient. Tumor progression-free survival in our studied patients was 95.5% at 5 and 7 years of the follow-up period post GKS. Gamma knife surgery could be used safely and effectively with limited complications as a primary management tool in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors controlling tumor growth with preserving or improving clinical status especially those who do not have significant cranial or cervical extension, elderly, and surgically unfit patients; moreover, it is safe and highly effective as adjuvant therapy as well. PMID:26879488

  11. Hepatoportography via the Umbilical Vein

    PubMed Central

    White, J. J.; Skinner, G. B.; MacLean, L. D.

    1966-01-01

    The umbilical vein in adults is patent but collapsed. There is a membranous valve at its entrance into the left portal vein. Cannulation of the portal vein via the umbilical vein permits direct access to the portal system for portography and hepatography. This procedure was performed under local or general anesthesia in 30 patients and was successful in 22. It is useful in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension, and suspected intrahepatic tumours or abscesses. It gives excellent contrast visualization of the liver and definition of lesions as small as 1.0 cm. This technique is superior to both hepatic scanning and splenoportography. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5924949

  12. How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... shun) therapy uses lasers or radiowaves to create heat to close off a varicose vein. Your doctor ...

  13. Madelung Deformity.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A

    2015-10-01

    Madelung deformity of the wrist is more common in females and is often associated with Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis, a mesomelic form of dwarfism. Patients with Madelung deformity often report wrist deformity resulting from the prominence of the relatively long ulna. The typical Madelung deformity is associated with a Vickers ligament that creates a tether across the volar-ulnar radial physis that restricts growth across this segment. The distal radius deforms in the coronal (increasing radial inclination) and the sagittal (increasing volar tilt) planes. There is lunate subsidence and the proximal carpal row adapts to the deformity by forming an upside-down pyramid shape or triangle. Treatment depends on the age at presentation, degree of deformity, and magnitude of symptoms. Mild asymptomatic deformity warrants a period of nonsurgical management with serial x-ray examinations because the natural history is unpredictable. Many patients never require surgical intervention. Progressive deformity in the young child with considerable growth potential remaining requires release of Vickers ligament and radial physiolysis to prevent ongoing deterioration Concomitant ulnar epiphysiodesis may be necessary. Advanced asymptomatic deformity in older children with an unacceptable-appearing wrist or symptomatic deformity are indications for surgery. A dome osteotomy of the radius allows 3-dimensional correction of the deformity. Positive radiographic and clinical results after dome osteotomy have been reported. PMID:26341718

  14. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) in association with jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Williamson, R A; Hoover, W W; Grant, S S

    1989-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis in association with cystic hygroma is described. Ultrasound findings of severe short-limbed dwarfism, decreased vertebral ossification, and normal ossification of the calvarium were all consistent with achondrogenesis type II. Although the unusual finding of associated cystic hygroma raised the suspicion of a concurrent chromosome abnormality, the karyotype of both fetal lymphocytes and fetal fibroblasts was normal. Autopsy confirmed dilated lymphatic channels in the basal endothelial layer of the skin, cystic hygroma, and coarctation of the aorta. Although previously unreported, we suggest that the features of this case of achondrogenesis indicate an association with lymphatic stasis and jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence in this syndrome. PMID:2671977

  15. Deltoid Branch of Thoracoacromial Vein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Wei; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Hsieh, Hong-Chang; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An entry vessel is crucial for intravenous port implantation. A safe alternative entry vessel that can be easily explored is crucial for patients without feasible cephalic vein or for those who need port reimplantation because of disease relapse. In this study, we tried to analyze the safety and feasibility of catheter implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein. From March 2012 to November 2013, 802 consecutive oncology patients who had received intravenous port implantation via the superior vena cava were enrolled in this study. The functional results and complications of different entry vessels were compared. The majority of patients (93.6%) could be identified as thoracoacromial vessel. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located on the medial aspect of the deltopectoral groove beneath the pectoralis major muscle (85.8%) and in the deep part of the deltopectoral groove (14.2%). Due to the various calibers employed and tortuous routes followed, we utilized 3 different methods for catheter implantation, including vessel cutdown (47.4%), wire assisted (17.9%), and modified puncture method (34.6%). The functional results and complication rate were similar to other entry vessels. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located in the neighborhood of the cephalic vein. The functional results of intravenous port implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein are similar to other entry vessels. It is a safe alternative entry vessel for intravenous port implantation. PMID:25929903

  16. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  17. Shock veins in the central uplift of the Manicouagan impact structure: Context and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biren, Marc B.; Spray, John G.

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of shock veins that penetrate the anorthositic central uplift of the Manicouagan impact structure. They occur as thin (< 2.5 mm wide), linear micro-fault systems that can be traced for several meters in length, and which predominantly trend radially from the point of impact. The shock veins are distinguished by the development of maskelynite along vein margins and stishovite in vein matrices, which are otherwise absent in non-veined regions. These phases define a shock excursion of up to 30 GPa, in contrast to bulk shock effects of ≤ 12 GPa defined by development of shatter cones, planar fractures and planar deformation features in various minerals. The shock veins at Manicouagan share many similarities with vein systems developed in meteorites. They also provide an in situ context with which to better understand meteoroid source and lofting conditions. In addition to containing high pressure phases, the shock veins exhibit evidence for high temperature partial melting of host silicate clasts, with the generation of flow-textured fragments and glasses. The formation of microcrystallites and dendrites from some melts indicates rapid cooling. We propose a two-stage generation mechanism comprising an initial high-pressure shock excursion (estimated to last < 0.5 s based on projectile size considerations) followed by a longer high-temperature pulse of a few seconds duration. We suggest that the shock excursion is initiated by target heterogeneities that cause distortions in the hemispherically propagating shock front. This results in radially oriented tearing and vein formation with shock amplification occurring via intra-vein shock reverberation. High-speed displacement along the veins is driven by stress release on rarefaction, which results in frictional melting via adiabatic heating.

  18. Brachiocephalic Vein Stenting and Body-Floss Technique as a Treatment of CVD in Dialysis-Dependent Patient – Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krycińska, Róża; Trznadel, Agata; Kuchalska, Paulina; Lis, Michał; Dołęga-Kozierowski, Bartosz; Dyś, Krzysztof; Drelichowski, Stanisław; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Given the increasing number of elderly hemodialysis-dependent patients with concomitant chronic diseases the successful creation and maintenance of reliable vascular access become a real challenge. In current literature central vein disease (CVD) is defined as at least 50% narrowing up to total occlusion of central veins of the thorax including superior vena cava (SVC), brachiocephalic (BCV), subclavian (SCV) and internal jugular vein (IJV). The incidence of CVD has been reported to be as high as 23% in the total dialysis population and 41% in those with access related complains. Case Report 61-year-old man has been admitted to the local radiology department with symptoms of the superior vena cava syndrome. The venography revealed occlusion of the right brachiocephalic vein. Due to Tortuosity and lack of stamp of right subclavian vein contributed to the decision to perform recanalization by “body floss” technique. In a further step we have performed PTA of obstructed vein segment using 7×40 mm balloon. Due to the presence of residual stenosis it was decided to implant two self – expanding stents 10×40 mm. After the procedure the patient was discharged in good condition and transferred to dialysis center. Conclusions Main objective was the salvage of a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Performed endovascular intervention is a safe and effective approach to correct CVD for a short term. To ensure long lasting effects the patient will require enhanced follow-up and inevitable reinterventions. For that matter, prevention of CVD remains critical. PMID:26000070

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient with methyltetrahydrofolate reductase mutation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Kolanuvada, Bangaruraju; Naik, Geetha; Zhang, Yingzhong; Zhao, Min; Sun, Lili; Alaie, Dariush; Petrillo, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The study highlights pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis by methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency-related hyperhomocysteinemia occurring in rare locations of left veins superior to the heart extensively. A 59-year-old white man with history of leg pain, smoking, weight loss, benign prostatic hyperplasia, lipoma and panic attack presented with shortness of breath and chest pain for 2 days precipitated by not feeling well for months. The diagnostic workup revealed pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in the left subclavian vein which extended throughout the left brachiocephalic vein to the superior vena cava and left jugular vein. Further workup showed moderate hyperhomocysteinemia with normal levels of vitamin B6, B12 and folic acid. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase genetic study found the patient to be homozygous for G677T variant. He was started on low-molecular-weight heparin and was discharged on oral anticoagulant. No recurrent thrombotic episodes were witnessed after 4 months of follow-up after discharge. PMID:26650456

  20. Treatment of a ballistic wound of the common carotid artery revealed by a spontaneous carotid-jugular fistula.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Amélie; Mocellin, Nicolas; Imperato, Marc; Molimard, Benoît; Bordier, Emmanuel; Menguy, Paul; Baranger, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    The case reported is of a 30-year-old patient with a left internal carotid-jugular fistula secondary to the explosion of an improvised explosive device during the Afghan war. Carotid resection with arterial bypass using a venous allograft and internal jugular ligation were performed by left cervicotomy associated with sternotomy at a specialized center. The management of cervical arteriovenous fistulas that occur as a result of penetrating trauma faced during the war must be considered and it should be noted that, on battlefields, treatment is not always performed in specialized units. PMID:21183314

  1. Portal Vein Thrombosis in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kaiser; Jacob, Mathew; Asthana, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is being increasingly recognized in patients with advanced cirrhosis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. Reduced flow in the portal vein is probably responsible for clotting in the spleno-porto-mesenteric venous system. There is also increasing evidence that hypercoagulability occurs in advanced liver disease and contributes to the risk of PVT. Ultrasound based studies have reported a prevalence of PVT in 10–25% of cirrhotic patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial thrombosis of the portal vein is more common and may not have pathophysiological consequences. However, there is high risk of progression of partial PVT to complete PVT that may cause exacerbation of portal hypertension and progression of liver insufficiency. It is thus, essential to accurately diagnose and stage PVT in patients waiting for transplantation and consider anticoagulation therapy. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been shown to achieve complete and partial recanalization in 33–45% and 15–35% of cases respectively. There are however, no guidelines to help determine the dose and therapeutic efficacy of anticoagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation therapy related bleeding is the most feared complication but it appears that the risk of variceal bleeding is more likely to be dependent on portal pressure rather than solely related to coagulation status. TIPS has also been reported to restore patency of the portal vein. Patients with complete PVT currently do not form an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Thrombectomy or thromboendovenectomy is possible in more than 75% of patients followed by anatomical end-to-end portal anastomosis. When patency of the portal vein and/or superior mesenteric vein is not achieved, only non-anatomical techniques (reno-portal anastomosis or cavo-portal hemitransposition) can be performed. These techniques, which do not fully reverse portal

  2. Management of superficial vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, B

    2015-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is less well studied than deep vein thrombosis (DVT), because it has been considered to be a minor, self-limiting disease that is easily diagnosed on clinical grounds and that requires only symptomatic relief. The most frequently involved sites of the superficial vein system are the lower limbs, especially the saphenous veins, mostly in relation to varicosities. Lower-limb SVT shares the same risk factors as DVT; it can propagate into the deep veins, and have a complicated course with pulmonary embolism. Clinical diagnosis may not be accurate, and ultrasonography is currently indicated for both confirmation and evaluation of SVT extension. Treatment aims are symptom relief and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to the thrombotic burden. SVT of the long saphenous vein within 3 cm of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) is considered to be equivalent to a DVT, and thus deserving of therapeutic anticoagulation. Less severe forms of lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ have been included in randomized clinical trials of surgery, compression hosiery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparins, with inconclusive results. The largest randomized clinical trial available, on 3004 patients with lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ, showed that fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily for 6 weeks is more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of the composite of death from any cause and symptomatic VTE (0.9% versus 5.9%). Further studies are needed to define the optimal management strategies for SVT of the lower limbs and other sites, such as the upper limbs. PMID:25903684

  3. Palaeoseismic events recorded in Archaean gold-quartz vein networks, Val d'Or, Abitibi, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Robert, François

    1992-02-01

    Archaean gold-quartz vein deposits are commonly hosted in high-angle reverse shear zones and are interpreted to have formed in a regime of horizontal compression and high fluid pressure environment. This paper presents the results of a combined structural and fluid inclusion study on three gold-quartz vein deposits of the Val d'Or area (Abitibi, Quebec) consisting of subhorizontal extensional veins and E-W steeply dipping shear veins. Crack-seal structures, tourmaline fibres, stretched quartz crystals and open-space filling textures indicate that the subhorizontal veins formed by hydraulic fracturing under supralithostatic fluid pressure. CO 2-rich and H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusions, interpreted as two coexisting immiscible fluids, occur typically in microcracks of different orientations interpreted to have formed in the σ1- σ2 plane. Horizontal CO 2-rich fluid inclusion planes are contemporaneous with the opening of these veins (σ 3 vertical). Vertical H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusion planes, as well as some microstructures, such as deformed minerals, indicate that the same extensional veins have experienced episodic vertical shortening (σ 3 horizontal) alternating with the opening events. Deformation and slip/opening also occurred in shear veins in which preferred orientation of fluid inclusion planes is not clear, except that the H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusion planes tend to be oriented at high angles to the slip direction. The successive opening and collapse events in subhorizontal extensional veins are correlated with deformation and slip/opening events in shear veins, respectively, and are attributed to cyclic fluid pressure fluctuations in the system. They are thus consistent with the fault-valve model: sudden drop in fluid pressure from supralithostatic to lower values induces fluid unmixing and occurs immediately post-failure following seismic rupturing along the shear zone. Sealing of the shear veins allows the fluid pressure to build up again and the

  4. Clumped-Isotope Thermometry of Carbonate Veins from the SAFOD Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetkemeyer, P. B.; Kirschner, D. L.; Huntington, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    We present clumped-isotope and stable-isotope data from carbonate veins obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole. A number of models proposed to explain the apparent weakness of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) require fluids to be present in the fault zone. However, little is known about the presence, source(s), temperature, and migration pathways of these fluids. We investigate spatial trends in isotopic composition of veins within meters of two actively deforming strands of the SAF - the southern deformation zone (SDZ) and central deformation zone (CDZ). Two populations of veins are present based on the isotopic data. The first group of veins with calcite δ18O values < +15 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ 13C values > +1 ‰ (VPDB) are present in foliated siltstone and shale cataclasites from 3186 to 3194 meters MD and in sheared siltstones and sandstones of the CDZ from 3297 to 3301 meters MD. Clumped-isotope analyses for a subset of samples from this vein set indicate temperatures between 72 and 99 °C and calculated pore fluid δ18O values of -3.4 to +0.1‰ (VSMOW). A second group of veins with δ18O values between +17 and +25 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ13C values between +1 and -18 (VPDB) is present in the serpentinite-bearing SDZ from 3196 to 3197 meters MD and in siltstones from 3302 to 3310 meters MD. Veins in the SDZ record temperatures from 80 to 118 °C and calculated pore fluid δ18O values of -0.3 to +3.1‰ (VSMOW). Both vein populations record temperatures less than or within uncertainty of present-day borehole temperature of ca. 120 °C. We propose the first group of veins formed by precipitating from fluids charged with soil CO2 or biogenic methane that flowed along preexisting diagenetic fracture networks or fractures formed early in the evolution of the SAF. The second group of veins precipitated from fluids charged with thermogenic methane near present-day ambient temperatures and localized in a ~50 meter wide zone of damage along the

  5. Why Current Doppler Ultrasound Methodology Is Inaccurate in Assessing Cerebral Venous Return: The Alternative of the Ultrasonic Jugular Venous Pulse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cerebral venous return is growing interest for potential application in clinical practice. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used as a screening tool. However, three meta-analyses of qualitative DUS protocol demonstrate a big heterogeneity among studies. In an attempt to improve accuracy, several authors alternatively measured the flow rate, based on the product of the time average velocity with the cross-sectional area (CSA). However, also the quantification protocols lacked of the necessary accuracy. The reasons are as follows: (a) automatic measurement of the CSA assimilates the jugular to a circle, while it is elliptical; (b) the use of just a single CSA value in a pulsatile vessel is inaccurate; (c) time average velocity assessment can be applied only in laminar flow. Finally, the tutorial describes alternative ultrasound calculation of flow based on the Womersley method, which takes into account the variation of the jugular CSA overtime. In the near future, it will be possible to synchronize the electrocardiogram with the brain inflow (carotid distension wave) and with the outflow (jugular venous pulse) in order to nicely have a noninvasive ultrasound picture of the brain-heart axis. US jugular venous pulse may have potential use in neurovascular, neurocognitive, neurosensorial, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27006525

  6. Depth of insertion of right internal jugular central venous catheter: Comparison of topographic and formula methods

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, M; Tejesh, CA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are inserted in many critically ill patients, but there is no gold standard in estimating their approximate depth of insertion. Many techniques have been described in literature. In this study, we compare the topographic method with the standard formula technique. Materials and Methods: 260 patients, in whom central venous catheterization was warranted, were randomly assigned to either topographic method or formula method (130 in each group). The position of the CVC tip in relation to carina was measured on a postprocedure chest X-ray. The primary endpoint was the need for catheter repositioning. Results: The majority of the CVCs tips positioned by the formula method were situated below the carina, and 68% of these catheters required repositioning after obtaining postprocedure chest X-ray (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The topographic method is superior to formula approach in estimating the depth of insertion of right internal jugular CVCs. PMID:27375377

  7. Jugular foramen schwannoma mimicking paraganglioma: case report and review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael; Tong, Karen

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with an 11-year history of chronic occipital headaches and a 12-month history of worsening difficulty speaking and/or swallowing, facial spasms, hearing loss, and dizziness. A large lytic mass was found centered in the left jugular foramen (JF) on computed tomography examination; follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed an avidly enhancing mass with prominent central flow voids. Histopathologic examination after surgical resection revealed the mass to be a schwannoma. Prominent central vascularity is an unusual presentation for JF schwannomas. Our report provides a review of magnetic resonance imaging features of intrinsic JF lesions relevant to our case. PMID:26973728

  8. Stereotactic radiosurgery of glomus jugulare tumors: current concepts, recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sager, Omer; Dincoglan, Ferrat; Beyzadeoglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), a very highly focused form of therapeutic irradiation, has been widely recognized as a viable treatment option in the management of intracranial pathologies including benign tumors, malign tumors, vascular malformations and functional disorders. The applications of SRS are continuously expanding thanks to the ever-increasing advances and corresponding improvements in neuroimaging, radiation treatment techniques, equipment, treatment planning and delivery systems. In the context of glomus jugulare tumors (GJT), SRS is being more increasingly used both as the upfront management modality or as a complementary or salvage treatment option. As its safety and efficacy is being evident with compiling data from studies with longer follow-up durations, SRS appears to take the lead in the management of most patients with GJT. Herein, we address current concepts, recent advances and future perspectives in SRS of GJT in light of the literature. PMID:25768334

  9. A comparative study of the effects of vein-joints on the mechanical behaviour of insect wings: I. Single joints.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Darvizeh, A; Dirks, J-H; Appel, E; Gorb, S N

    2015-10-01

    The flight performance of insects is strongly affected by the deformation of the wing during a stroke cycle. Many insects therefore use both active and passive mechanisms to control the deformation of their wings in flight. Several studies have focused on the wing kinematics, and plenty is known about the mechanism of their passive deformability. However, given the small size of the vein-joints, accurate direct mechanical experiments are almost impossible to perform. We therefore developed numerical models to perform a comparative and comprehensive investigation of the mechanical behaviour of the vein-joints under external loading conditions. The results illustrate the effect of the geometry and the presence of the rubberlike protein resilin on the flexibility of the joints. Our simulations further show the contribution of the spikes to the anisotropic flexural stiffness in the dorsal and ventral directions. In addition, our results show that the cross veins, only in one joint type, help to transfer the stress to the thicker longitudinal veins. The deformation pattern and the stress distribution in each vein-joint are discussed in detail. This study provides a strong background for further realistic modelling of the dragonfly wing deformation. PMID:26292260

  10. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  11. The Treatment of Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Subramonia, S; Lees, TA

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the past few years, there has been a move to less invasive endoluminal methods in the treatment of lower limb varicose veins combined with a renewed interest in sclerotherapy, with the recent addition of foam sclerotherapy. The development of these new techniques has led many to question some of the more conventional teaching on the treatment of varicose veins. This review examines these new treatments for lower limb varicose veins and the current evidence for their use. MATERIALS AND METHODS An extensive search of available electronic and paper-based databases was performed to identify studies relevant to the treatment of varicose veins with particular emphasis on those published within the last 10 years. These were analysed by both reviewers independently. RESULTS There is no single method of treatment appropriate for all cases. Conventional surgery is safe and effective and is still widely practised. Whilst the new treatments may be popular with both surgeons and patients, it is important that they are carefully evaluated not only for their clinical benefits and complications when compared to existing treatments but also for their cost prior to their wider acceptance into clinical practice. PMID:17346396

  12. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, J. D.; Ginsberg, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common disease, can be difficult to diagnose because its clinical features are nonspecific. Venography is the standard test, but other less expensive, easily performed, noninvasive tests are available. At present, duplex ultrasonography is the noninvasive test of choice. PMID:8616289

  13. Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your health care provider to help you take ... What to ask your doctor about varicose veins; Venous insufficiency - what to ask your doctor; Vein stripping - what to ask your ...

  14. Can the seismic slip direction be retrieved from pseudotachylyte veins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Gebelin, A.; Geissman, J. W.; Wilson, K. M.

    2007-05-01

    Pseudotachylytes can form by frictional melting as a result of seismic slip along a fault plane. During a brief seismic event, the fault plane material initially deforms by cataclastic flow until melting occurs and stress drops. The partially molten material then flows as a solid-melt suspension. Immediately after the seismic event, the pseudotachylyte vein consists of a mix of irregularly shaped, sub-equant, randomly oriented clasts, glass and a few newly formed microlites. This study aims to investigates the origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in pseudotachylyte veins and to assess whether the AMS records syn-seismic or post-seismic flow. The pseudotachylytes of the Val Gilba (Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps) are chosen as an example of syn- exhumation veins. They formed at about 20 Ma during the unroofing of mylonitic gneisses that had recorded a pressure peak of metamorphism at ca. 35 Ma. These veins, up to 25 mm in width, are occur parallel to the mylonitic foliation and are continuous over several tens of meters. The magnetic fabric of both host and vein are very consistent, yet distinct. The AMS of the host gneiss is controlled by magnetite and phyllosilicates (P = 1.32) and lies parallel to the pervasive stretching lineation. In contrast, the AMS of the pseudotachylyte, controlled almost entirely by elongated magnetite grains (P = 1.08), is oblique (30°) to the stretching lineation. The AMS fabric in the gneiss is strongly planar (T = 0.886), whereas in the pseudotachylite, the fabric is more plano-linear (T = 0.373). The pseudotachylite oblique fabric might be interpreted as a result of imbrication. Microstructures of the pseudotachylyte indicate that deformation was plastic and occurred at high temperature. The AMS in the pseudotachylite is interpreted to result from syn-seismic melt flow, as suggested by the laminated internal structure of the veins and by small drag folds affecting the laminae. These new results open unprecedented

  15. phenoVein-A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software. PMID:26468519

  16. Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, Frank; Esch, Jan Schulte am; Hammerschlag, Sascha; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Fuerst, Guenter

    2008-07-15

    Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

  17. Prediction of long saphenous vein graft adaptation.

    PubMed

    Davies, A H; Magee, T R; Hayward, J K; Baird, R N; Horrocks, M

    1994-07-01

    The ability of vein to dilate may allow smaller veins to be used for bypass if this change could be predicted. Sixty patients undergoing femorodistal popliteal or infrapopliteal bypass have had their long saphenous vein studied. Diameter measurements of the long saphenous vein have been performed using an ATL Duplex scanner at the groin, mid-thigh and knee. Measurements were performed preoperatively both at rest and with a venous occlusion cuff to dilate the vein and subsequently at 7 days and 3, 6, 9, 12 months after implantation. The mean diameter of the vein at the mid thigh was 4.2 mm non dilated, 5.1 mm with occlusion, 5.4 mm 7 days postoperatively and 5.5 mm at 12 months (p < 0.01 ANOVA). The mean diameter of the vein at the knee was 3.8 mm non-dilated, 4.8 mm with occlusion, 4.8 mm at 7 days and 5.0 mm at 12 months after operation (p < 0.01 ANOVA). If the minimum resting internal diameter of vein regarded as being suitable for bypass was 3 mm, this technique would have increased the vein utilisation rate by 22%. These results show that by using a technique of venous occlusion at the time of preoperative vein mapping the adaptive response of the vein can be predicted and this can result in an increased rate of vein utilisation. PMID:8088400

  18. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  19. Abnormal patterns of the renal veins

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Hassan; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of the retroperitoneal region. Here, morphometric and histological studies of a human cadaveric specimen presented a complex, anomalous pattern of renal veins. The left renal vein had an oblique retro-aortic course and received two lumbar veins. It bifurcated near its drainage point into the inferior vena cava. The right renal vein received the right testicular vein. In addition, the left kidney was located at a low position. The spleen was enlarged. The present case is unique and provides information that may help surgeons or angiologists to apply safer interventions. PMID:22536553

  20. [An accidental puncture of a small artery behind the internal jugular vein in real-time ultrasound-guided pediatric central venous cannulation].

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    A baby girl, 15-month-old, 75.6 cm in height, and 7.5 kg in weight, was scheduled to undergo ventricular septal defect repair. The right IJV, 3.0 mm in thickness and 7.0 mm in depth, was punctured to place a central venous catheter with a 19-mm-long 24G puncture needle. Non-pulsatile bright red blood appeared during the 15.8-mm-long needle insertion and dark red blood appeared during the 14.7-mm-long needle insertion. The vertebral artery, 3.9 mm in width, lay 14.1 mm in depth. The 15.8-mm-long needle inserted at a 45-degree angle could reach about 11.3 mm deep perpendicularly from the skin surface. The 14.7-mm-long needle inserted at a 45-degree angle reached about 10.4 mm, which is near the posterior wall of the IJV It seemed that a small artery behind the IJV was punctured mistakenly. In withdrawing blood from a cyanotic patient, it may be difficult to judge if the blood was arterial because it was non-pulsatile when it appeared. We should be careful to know the existence of small arteries behind IJVs and to confirm which vessels the returned blood comes from. PMID:23479923

  1. Necrotizing Fasciitis on the Right Side of the Neck with Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis and Septic Emboli: A Case of Lemierre's-Like Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dang; Yaacob, Yazmin; Hamid, Hamzaini; Muda, Sobri

    2013-10-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS. PMID:24643401

  2. A long term comparison between Denacol EX-313-treated bovine jugular vein graft and ultrafine polyester fiber graft for reconstruction of tight ventricular outflow tract in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Sugiyama, Shino; Shibazaki, Akira; Tanaka, Ryou; Takashima, Kazuaki; Noishiki, Yasuharu; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2003-03-01

    A Denacol EX-313 (Denacol)-treated bovine venous graft and an ultrafine polyester fiber (UFPF) graft were transplanted as patch graft into the right ventricular outflow tract under extracorporeal circulation in six dogs each experimentally. Hemodynamics in right heart and histological findings around the graft were compared between both groups over a period of one year after grafting. Pressure measurements and angiocardiography were performed through a cardiac catheter. Right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pessure, and right ventricle to pulmonary artery gradient were within normal limits in both groups at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 months or more after grafting. No difference were seen between the values for the Denacol and the UFPF group. Histologically, the medial surface at the site of grafting was covered with vascular endothelial cells at one month after grafting in both groups. The density of the vascular endothelial cells increased with time after grafting, showing no clear difference between the two groups. Subendothelial layers comprised of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and inflammatory cells decreased with time in both groups, but there was less cell infiltration in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all time points after grafting. In addition, the central cut thickness value of the graft tended to be thinner in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all observation time points after grafting. In the Denacol group, very slight metaplasia of cartilage was noted in a portion of the graft margin at six months or more after grafting, but no other abnormalities were observed. These results suggest that the Denacol-treated bovine venous graft has better grafting characteristics than the UFPF graft with easier intra-operative handlings and less tissue reactions after grafting. PMID:12679567

  3. Necrotizing Fasciitis on the Right Side of the Neck with Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis and Septic Emboli: A Case of Lemierre’s-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Dang; YAACOB, Yazmin; HAMID, Hamzaini; MUDA, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre’s syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS. PMID:24643401

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein.

    PubMed

    Imao, Tetsuya; Amano, Toshiyasu; Takemae, Katsurou

    2011-02-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of a left retroperitoneal mass. She presented to our internal medicine department complaining of back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left retroperitoneal mass 55 mm in size in the hilum of the left kidney. Enhanced CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a poorly staining mass. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy demonstrated no accumulation in the mass; moreover, endocrinologic examination was normal. Laparoscopic resection of the left retroperitoneal tumor was attempted; however, strong adhesion between the tumor and the left renal vein was encountered. Thus, left nephrectomy after open conversion was performed. Histological findings indicated leiomyosarcoma originating from the left renal vein. The postoperative course has been uneventful; neither recurrence nor metastasis is evident 2 years postsurgery. PMID:20694494

  5. [ENDOVENOUS LASER TREATMENT FOR VARICOSE VEINS].

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao

    2015-05-01

    Varicose veins are a common condition attecting approximately 10 million patients in Japan. The main cause of varicose veins is reflux of the saphenous vein, and conventional treatment for several decades was stripping the affected saphenous vein and phlebectomy. Endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) is a less-invasive treatment method in which the saphenous vein is ablated with a laser under local anesthesia. EVLT has been approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare since 2011, and we have performed EVLT on 5,160 legs with saphenous insufficiency with no severe complications including deep vein thrombosis except for one case of arteriovenous fistula. EVLT appears to be a safe, effective treatment option for varicose veins with saphenous insufficiency. PMID:26281654

  6. Genesis of Syntectonic Hydrothermal Veins in the Igneous Rock of Teschenite Association (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic): Growth Mechanism and Origin of Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urubek, Tomáš; Dolníček, Zdeněk; Kropáč, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal mineralization hosted by the Lower Cretaceous igneous rock of the teschenite association at Jasenice (Silesian Unit, Flysch Belt, Outer Western Carpathians) occurs in two morphological types - irregular vein filled by granular calcite and regular composite vein formed by both fibrous and granular calcite and minor chlorite, quartz, and pyrite. Crosscutting evidence indicates that the granular veins are younger than the composite vein. The composite vein was formed by two mechanisms at different times. The arrangement of solid inclusions in the marginal fibrous zone suggests an episodic growth by the crack-seal mechanism during syntectonic deformation which was at least partially driven by tectonic suction pump during some stages of the Alpine Orogeny. Both the central part of the composite vein and monomineral veins developed in a brittle regime. In these cases, the textures of vein suggest the flow of fluids along an open fracture. The parent fluids of both types of vein are characterized by low temperatures (Th=66-163 °C), low salinities (0.4 to 3.4 wt. % NaCl eq.), low content of strong REE-complexing ligands, and δ18O and δ13C ranges of + 0.2/+12.5 %. SMOW and -11.8/-14.1 %. PDB, respectively. The parent fluids are interpreted as the results of mixing of residual seawater and diagenetic waters produced by dewatering of clay minerals in the associ-ated flysch sediments. The flow of fluids was controlled by tectonic deformation of the host rock.

  7. Vein harvesting and techniques for infrainguinal bypass.

    PubMed

    Albäck, Anders; Saarinen, Eva; Venermo, Maarit

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve good long term results after bypass surgery, alongside with good inflow and outflow arteries, the bypass graft material also has an important role. The best patency and limb salvage rates are achieved with autologous vein. If great saphenous vein is not available, acceptable long-term results can be achieved with arm veins and lesser saphenous vein. The quality and size of the vein are important. A small-caliber vein, increased wall thickness, postphlebitic changes and varicosities are associated with a risk of early failure. Preoperative vein mapping with ultrasound reduces readmissions and postoperative surgical site infections. During the mapping, the vein to be used and its main tributaries are marked with a permanent marker pen. To reduce wound complication rates we recommend bridged incisions in vein harvesting. Endoscopic vein harvesting seems to have no benefit compared to open techniques in lower limb bypasses, and has been associated with higher risk of primary patency loss at one year. With deep tunneling of the graft the problems caused by wound infection can be avoided. PMID:26837257

  8. Quaternary deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Displaced or deformed rock units and landforms record the past 2 m.y. of faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence in California. Properly interpreted, such evidence provides a quantitative basis for predicting future earthquake activity and for relating many diverse structures and landforms to the 5 cm/yr of horizontal motion at the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Modern techniques of geologic dating and expanded research on earthquake hazards have greatly improved our knowledge of the San Andreas fault system. Much of this new knowledge has been gained since 1965, and that part which concerns crustal deformation during the past 2 m.y. is briefly summarized here.

  9. Aches, pains and headache: an unusual combination of hypothyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, cervical radiculopathy and cortical vein sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Vijayan, Anuroopa; Kottam, Pratheep; Jose, Appu

    2015-01-01

    A young obese woman was admitted with vague aches and pains, including a headache. At first a provisional diagnosis of depression/myofacial pain syndrome was considered. Later, on evaluation, she was diagnosed to have hypothyroidism and vitamin D deficiency. One week into treatment, her neck pain and headache got worse. Examination of the fundus showed tortuous vessels, papilloedema and intraretinal haemorrhages. MR venogram of the brain was performed, which revealed the presence of thrombosis in the left transverse sinus, left sigmoid sinus and left internal jugular vein. This report is an unusual presentation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient where overlapping diagnoses confound the clinical picture and test the clinical acumen of the physician. A careful history followed by a focused clinical examination and evaluation will help to delineate potential confounders. The report further highlights the importance of clinical medicine even in this era of 'investigative medicine'. PMID:26156835

  10. Surgical Management of Giant Transdural Glomus Jugulare Tumors with Cerebellar and Brainstem Compression

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Janus, Jeffrey R.; Link, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to discuss the management of advanced glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) presenting with intradural disease and concurrent brainstem compression. Study Design This is a retrospective case series. Results Over the last decade, four patients presented to our institution with large (Fisch D2; Glasscock-Jackson 4) primary or recurrent GJTs resulting in brainstem compression of varying severities. All patients underwent surgical resection through a transtemporal, transcervical approach resulting in adequate brainstem decompression; the average operative time was 12.75 hours and the estimated blood loss was 2.7 L. All four patients received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in the form of intensity-modulated radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery. Combined modality treatment permitted tumor control in all patients (range of follow-up 5 to 9 years). Conclusion A small subset of GJTs may present with intracranial transdural extension with aggressive brainstem compression mandating surgical intervention. Surgical resection is extremely challenging; the surgical team must be prepared for extensive operating time and the patient for prolonged aggressive rehabilitation. Newly diagnosed and recurrent large GJTs involving the brainstem may be controlled with a combination of aggressive surgical resection and postoperative radiation. PMID:23730549

  11. Shifts in leaf vein density through accelerated vein formation in C4 Flaveria (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Athena D.; Dengler, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf venation in many C4 species is characterized by high vein density, essential in facilitating rapid intercellular diffusion of C4 photosynthetic metabolites between different tissues (mesophyll, bundle sheath). Greater vein density has been hypothesized to be an early step in C4 photosynthesis evolution. Development of C4 vein patterning is thought to occur from either accelerated or prolonged procambium formation, relative to ground tissue development. Methods Cleared and sectioned tissues of phylogenetically basal C3 Flaveria robusta and more derived C4 Flaveria bidentis were compared for vein pattern in mature leaves and vein pattern formation in developing leaves. Key Results In mature leaves, major vein density did not differ between C3 and C4 Flaveria species, whereas minor veins were denser in C4 species than in C3 species. The developmental study showed that both major and minor vein patterning in leaves of C3 and C4 species were initiated at comparable stages (based on leaf length). An additional vein order in the C4 species was observed during initiation of the higher order minor veins compared with the C3 species. In the two species, expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells occurred after vein pattern was complete and xylem differentiation was continuous in minor veins. In addition, mesophyll cells ceased dividing sooner and enlarged less in C4 species than in C3 species. Conclusions Leaf vein pattern characteristic to C4 Flaveria was achieved primarily through accelerated and earlier offset of higher order vein formation, rather than other modifications in the timing of vein pattern formation, as compared with C3 species. Earlier cessation of mesophyll cell division and reduced expansion also contributed to greater vein density in the C4 species. The relatively late expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells shows that vein patterning precedes ground tissue development in C4 species. PMID:19759038

  12. Madelung deformity.

    PubMed

    Ghatan, Andrew C; Hanel, Douglas P

    2013-06-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the wrist caused by asymmetric growth at the distal radial physis secondary to a partial ulnar-sided arrest. The deformity is characterized by ulnar and palmar curvature of the distal radius, positive ulnar variance, and proximal subsidence of the lunate. It more commonly occurs in females than males and typically affects both wrists. The deformity can occur in isolation or as part of a genetic syndrome. The pattern of inheritance varies, with some cases following a pseudoautosomal pattern and many others lacking a clear family history. Nonsurgical management is typically advocated in asymptomatic patients. Few studies exist on the natural history of the condition; however, extensor tendon ruptures have been reported in severe and chronic cases. Stiffness, pain, and patient concerns regarding wrist cosmesis have been cited as indications for surgery. Various techniques for surgical management of Madelung deformity have been described, but clear evidence to support the use of any single approach is lacking. PMID:23728962

  13. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John Calvin, Jr.; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  14. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy. PMID:715684

  15. Laser leg vein treatment: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victor; Domankevitz, Yacov

    2003-12-01

    Laser treatment of leg veins has been associated with a number of disadvantages, but the introduction of new devices has increased the role of lasers in the treatment of leg veins. This paper reviews the role of laser devices applied from the surface in the treatment of reticular and spider veins. Success is determined by the proper selection of wavelength, fluence, pulse duration, spot size, and number and frequency of treatments. PMID:14741827

  16. The adrenal and renal veins of man and their connections with azygos and lumbar veins.

    PubMed

    Monkhouse, W S; Khalique, A

    1986-06-01

    There exist many variations in the manner of formation, dimensions and place of termination of the central adrenal veins. In addition, some superficial adrenal veins may be substantial in size and may themselves drain directly into the renal veins and/or into other vessels which communicate with azygos and lumbar veins. This provides a route for venous adrenal blood to the heart via the azygos system and the superior vena cava rather than via the inferior vena cava. Variations in the formation and disposition of the renal veins are also described and the patterns of communication between somatic veins (including veins of the azygos and lumbar systems) and the left renal vein are illustrated and discussed in relation to the findings of others. PMID:3693053

  17. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins? The signs and symptoms of varicose veins include: Large veins ... skin in the area around the varicose vein. Signs of telangiectasias are clusters of red veins that ...

  19. Significance of geometrical relationships between low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in naturally deformed quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derez, T.; Pennock, G.; Drury, M. R.; Sintubin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although quartz is one of the most studied minerals in the Earth's crust when it comes to its rheology, the interpretation of intracrystalline deformation microstructures with respect to deformation conditions and mechanisms, remains highly contentious. Moreover, inconsistent use of terminology for both deformation microstructures and mechanisms makes a correct assessment of observations and interpretations in published material very difficult. With respect to low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in quartz, different conflicting genetic models have been proposed. Most probably, the lack of consensus means that there is no unique interpretation for these microstructures, primarily because their initiation and development depend on many ambient conditions. We extensively studied these intracrystalline deformation microstructures by means of optical microscopy, Hot-Cathodoluminescence, SEM-Cathodoluminescence and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Orientation Imaging, in vein quartz of the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, France, Luxemburg, Germany), (de)formed in a low-temperature regime. Firstly, we propose a new, purely descriptive terminology for the low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in naturally deformed quartz: fine extinction bands (FEB), wide extinction bands (WEB) and strings. The strings can be further subdivided into blocky (BS), straight (SS) and recrystallised (RS) morphological types. FEBs have consistently been called deformation lamellae in quartz and planar slip bands in metals. WEBs have been called deformation bands, prismatic kink bands or type II kink bands. Strings have formerly been called shear bands, deformation bands or type I kink bands. No distinction between blocky and straight morphological string types had ever been made. Secondly, a survey of the pre-recrystallisation stages in the history of the intracrystalline deformation microstructures reveals that the different types of low

  20. Intracranial pressure monitoring during adult spinal deformity correction in a patient with critical venous occlusive disease and superior vena cava syndrome: A technical note

    PubMed Central

    Ozpinar, Alp; Liu, Jesse J.; Tempel, Zachary J.; Choi, Phillip A.; Hart, Robert A.; Hamilton, D. Kojo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is not routinely used during complex spinal deformity correction surgery. The authors report a 66-year-old male who during thoracolumbar deformity surgery required the placement of an ICP monitor due to the underlying history of a superior vena cava syndrome (e.g., s/p right jugular stent). Case Description: A 66-year-old male with multiple prior lumbar spinal procedures presented with lower back and bilateral lower extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. He had a history of chronic left internal jugular and brachiocephalic venous occlusion (e.g., he had a right internal jugular stent). During deformity surgery, a frontal intraparenchymal ICP monitor was placed. During the early portion of the operation, bed adjustments (increasing reverse trendelenburg position) were required to compensate for ICP elevations as high as 30 mm Hg. A subsequent inadvertent durotomy during decompression lowered the ICP to <5 mm Hg; no further ICP spikes occurred. His postoperative course was uneventful, and 14-month later, he was dramatically improved. Conclusion: ICP monitoring may be a useful adjunct for patient safety in selected patients who are at risk for developing intracranial hypertension during extensive spinal deformity surgery. PMID:27168950

  1. Jugular venous reflux and white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chih-Ping; Beggs, Clive; Wang, Pei-Ning; Bergsland, Niels; Shepherd, Simon; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Dwyer, Michael G; Hu, Han-Hwa; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether jugular venous reflux (JVR) is associated with cerebral white matter changes (WMCs) in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied 12 AD patients 24 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 17 elderly age- and gender-matched controls. Duplex ultrasonography and 1.5T MRI scanning was applied to quantify cerebral WMCs [T2 white matter (WM) lesion and dirty-appearing-white-matter (DAWM)]. Subjects with severe JVR had more frequently hypertension (p = 0.044), more severe WMC, including increased total (p = 0.047) and periventricular DAWM volumes (p = 0.008), and a trend for increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes (p = 0.067) compared with the other groups. A significantly decreased (65.8%) periventricular DAWM volume (p = 0.01) in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts was detected. There was a trend for increased periventricular and subcortical T2 WMC lesion volumes in the JVR-positive AD individuals compared with their JVR-negative counterparts (p = 0.073). This phenomenon was not observed in either the control or MCI groups. In multiple regression analysis, the increased periventricular WMC lesion volume and decreased DAWM volume resulted in 85.7% sensitivity and 80% specificity for distinguishing between JVR-positive and JVR-negative AD patients. These JVR-WMC association patterns were not seen in the control and MCI groups. Therefore, this pilot study suggests that there may be an association between JVR and WMCs in AD patients, implying that cerebral venous outflow impairment might play a role in the dynamics of WMCs formation in AD patients, particularly in the periventricular regions. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and validate our findings. PMID:24217278

  2. Structural evolution of a quartz sillimanite vein and nodule complex in a late-to post-tectonic leucogranite, Western Adirondack Highlands, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLelland, James; Goldstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Betsy; Olson, Christopher; Orrell, Suzanne

    2002-07-01

    Quartz-sillimanite veins and nodules within the carapace of a late- to post- tectonic leucogranite crosscut one another as well as calcsilicate schlieren. These relationships document a fracture-related and hydrothermal origin of the vein and nodule complex. Two dominant orientations (N50E, N20E) are observed with the former being the oldest and most deformed. Both of these sets have undergone deformation, including boudinage of veins to produce nodules. Zircon geochronology fixes the emplacement age of the leucogranite at 1035.1±3.8 Ma and late crosscutting pegmatites at 1034±10 Ma, hence the vein-nodule complex must fall within this interval. Late dikes of leucogranite truncate the complex and document the continued presence of magma during vein-nodule formation. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in the leucogranite carapace reveals an approximately horizontal flow direction, within a plane striking N49E and dipping moderately to the northwest. In this regime, quartz-sillimanite veins formed initially as tension fractures in subvertical NNE orientations either as a result of high fluid pressures or rapid sinistral shear along the N50E contact. Progressive sinistral shear rotated the veins counterclockwise causing buckling followed by boudinage and rotation of fragments into near parallelism with the N50E contact. Strain was accommodated by slip between crystals and melt migration with an estimated melt fraction of at least 30%. Multiple episodes of fracturing and vein formation appear to have occurred. Final deformation of the carapace and the vein-nodule complex is envisioned as a flattening against the contact, perhaps as a result of pluton inflation. Melt was still present after this event as evidenced by post-vein granite and pegmatite dikes, commonly with sinistral shear along the dike margin.

  3. 21 CFR 880.6980 - Vein stabilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vein stabilizer. 880.6980 Section 880.6980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6980 Vein stabilizer. (a)...

  4. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk for varicose veins, including family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Family History Having family members who have varicose veins may ... of them. Older Age Getting older may raise your risk for varicose ...

  5. [Aneurysm of the femoral and popliteal vein].

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; Boris, P

    1986-04-01

    Aneurysms of the popliteal and femoral veins are rare and may be seen as casual findings with no clinical manifestations whatsoever. On the other hand they may be potential source of recurrent pulmonary embolism. A case is reported, where an aneurysm of the femoral vein was found in a clinically symptomless woman aged 48. PMID:3715020

  6. [Pseudotumor aspect of ovarian vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Randoux, B; Goudot, D; Clément, O; Deux, J F; Lecuru, F; Taurelle, R; Frija, G

    1997-11-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is an unusual puerperal illness (1 in 600 deliveries) which usually recovers spontaneously or under treatment. We report a rare follow-up observation of a puerperal ovarian vein thrombophlebitis, first diagnosed by computed tomography, which evolved to a 6 x 10 cm pseudotumoral cavernoma mass after 18 months. PMID:9499957

  7. Pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian C; Kasa, David; Mazer, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    A patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein with a resultant noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent portal vein thrombosis diagnosed by computed tomography and ultrasonography is reported. A review of the existing English literature on this rare complication is also provided. PMID:19561436

  8. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  9. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(cip1) in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while alpha-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27(Kip1) and p16(INKA) remained unchanged, whereas p21(Cip1) was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21(Cip1) is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts. PMID:19563615

  10. Vein graft in stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S A

    1996-03-01

    Sealing the opening of the oval window during stapes surgery is essential; it prevents postoperative complications, such as perilymph fistula and sensorineural hearing loss. In this small series of 269 cases with otosclerosis, tympanosclerosis, and congenital ossicular abnormality, vein grafting was used to seal the opening of the footplate. Hearing improvement after surgery was acceptable, and none had total hearing loss or perilymphatic fistula. World literature from the last half of this century on grafting the oval window is reviewed. Absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam) seems to be causing more complications, so its use is highly discouraged. Temporalis fascia, fat, and perivenous loose areolar tissue have been used by different authors at different times in footplate surgery. The opening created in the oval window during stapes surgery must not be left uncovered. PMID:8723953

  11. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. PMID:20938213

  12. Treatment of deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) for whom in-hospital treatment should be considered. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The literature was searched for studies on outpatient treatment of DVT. Seventeen studies were assessed: seven were randomized controlled trials (level I evidence), and 10 were non-randomized trials (level II evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Four criteria can be used to identify patients with DVT for whom outpatient treatment might not be appropriate: presence of massive DVT, presence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism, high risk of bleeding with anticoagulant therapy, and presence of comorbid conditions or other factors that warrant in-hospital care. CONCLUSION Four criteria can be used to identify patients with DVT for whom in-hospital treatment should be considered. PMID:15751565

  13. Enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1999-07-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This technique uses a near infrared light source and one or more infrared sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using an LCD vein projector. The use of an infrared transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in most cases. Preliminary studies on a 9 month old girl indicate promise for pediatric use.

  14. Adventitial cystic disease of common femoral vein

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Bo-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of venous system is an extremely rare condition. Very few reports of ACD in venous system have been described. In this report we discuss two cases of common femoral vein ACD that presented with a swollen leg by the obstruction of the vein. Ultrasound imaging showed the typical hypoechoic fluid filled cyst with a posterior acoustic window. Computed tomography scan and ascending venogram showed a stenosis to flow in the common femoral vein caused by an extrinsic mass. Trans-adventitial evacuation of cyst with removal of vein wall was performed for both cases. During operation we found the gelatinous material in the cysts arising in the wall of the common femoral vein and compressing the lumen. The patients were released after short hospitalization and have remained symptom free with no recurrence. PMID:22066091

  15. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis? The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis ( ... serious, possibly life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  16. [SUBFASCIAL ENDOSCOPIC PERFORATOR VEIN SURGERY IN THE TREATMENT OF SEVERE VARICOSE VEINS].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Atsushi; Masaki, Hisao; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2015-05-01

    Surgical treatment of severe varicose veins (CEAP classification : C4b-C6) should involve not only interruption of incompetent superficial veins to prevent venous regurgitation due to valve incompetence but also interruption of incompetent perforator veins. Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) is performed via a small skin incision and involves interruption of perforator veins by the insertion of an endoscope into the subfascial space. SEPS produces good surgical outcomes: it is accurate in detecting and transecting perforator veins; has a low frequency of surgical wound complications; prevents lipodermatosclerosis and formation of pigmented skin lesions; and is minimally invasive compared with Linton's operation. Thus, SEPS is an excellent procedure for patients with incompetent perforator veins. SEPS has been covered by the Japanese national health insurance system since April 2014, and it is expected that SEPS will be further developed and become more widespread in use. PMID:26281656

  17. The Development of Vein and Pressure Solution Arrays in a Compressive Orogenic Belt, County Clare, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenna, F. A.; Aydin, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Carboniferous Ross Sandstone, exposed on the Loop Head Peninsula, County Clare, Ireland is part of the deep-water deposits of the Shannon Basin fill that was subject to compressive stresses at the end of the Carboniferous during the Variscan Orogeny. This deformation produced broad regional east-west trending folds and also tight low-amplitude folds that are concentrated around thrust faults. Near these faults, orthogonal sets of pressure solutions and veins form a pervasive structural assemblage within the sandstone. Abutting relationships of the veins against the pressure solution seams indicate contemporaneous formation of the two structure sets. The east-west orientation of the pressure solution seams are sub-parallel to local thrust fault traces and fold axes, and reflects the regional Variscan structural fabric. A subsequent stress or material rotation during the Variscan Orogeny (or perhaps a major second stage of deformation either in late phase of the orogeny or following the orogeny) has lead to left-lateral shear of the pressure solution seams evidenced by pressure solution splays and pull-aparts between their sheared segments, and right-lateral shear on the veins evidenced by splay crack features. With increased shear, extensive splay cracks and pull-apart networks form damage zones through which strike-slip fault systems develop. Ultimately, this study documents the formation of damage zones through the formation and evolution of veins and pressure solution seams and the role of these fundamental structures in palaeo- and present-day fluid flow.

  18. Ultrasound strain elastography in assessment of cortical mechanical behavior in acute renal vein occlusion: in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; He, Wen; Cheng, Ling-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Xiou-Ru; Juluru, Krishna; Al Khori, Noor; Coya, Adrienne; Min, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of quantitative ultrasound strain parameters with the severity of cortical edema in renal vein occlusion, we prospectively performed ultrasound strain elastography on a canine acute renal vein occlusion model prior to and following 10, 20, and 40min of renal vein ligation. Strain and strain relaxation time representing the deformation and relaxation of the renal cortices and reference soft tissue were produced by the external compression with the ultrasound transducer and estimated using commercially available 2-D speckle tracking software. Cortical thickness was additionally measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the difference in cortical thickness, strain ratio (mean cortical strain divided by mean reference tissue strain), and strain relaxation time ratio (cortical relaxation time divided by reference tissue relaxation time) prior to and after renal vein ligation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to test the relationship between strain parameters and the time of the renal vein ligation. There was a strong positive correlation between the duration of renal vein ligation and strain (R(2)=0.97) and strain relaxation time (R(2)=0.98) ratios. Significant differences in strain and strain relaxation time ratios were found at all measured timepoints (all P≪.001). Cortical thickness, however, showed no significant difference between timepoints (P=.065). Our result suggest that strain and strain relaxation time ratios may be used as quantitative markers for the assessment of the renal cortical mechanical behavior in subclinical acute renal vein occlusion. PMID:25481219

  19. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-01-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 PMID:7400038

  20. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Mahajan, Anuradha Parag; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a very rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen (JF). A 45-year-old male patient presented with gradually progressive vertigo and tinnitus. CT and MRI scans revealed a 3.5 cm right-sided JF tumor with characteristic bright signal (restricted diffusion) on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). DWI may be useful in accurately differentiating the lesion from other cystic neoplasms of the JF. We describe the imaging features of intracranial epidermoid and JF tumors and discuss its differential diagnosis. PMID:25810672

  1. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p < 0.0001) when compared with CKCSs with SM (median left JF: 0.0382 cm3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the left and right JF within each group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent reproducibility of all volume measurements. Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF

  2. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  3. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In the High-Ardenne slate belt, part of the Rhenohercynian external fold-and-thrust belt at the northern extremity of the Late Palaeozoic Variscan orogen (Belgium, Germany, France), particular quartz vein occurrences can be observed in predominantly fine-grained siliciclastic metasediments. Detailed structural, petrographical and geochemical studies has revealed that these vein occurrences can be related to a mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a low-grade metamorphic mid-crustal environment. The first type of quartz veins are bedding-perpendicular, lens-shaped extension veins that are confined to the sandstone layers within the multilayer sequence. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrate high fluid pressures suggesting that the individual sandstone bodies acted as isolated high-pressure compartments in an overpressured basin. Hydraulic fracturing occurred during the tectonic inversion (from extension to compression) in the earliest stages of the Variscan orogeny. The vein fill shows a blocky character indicating crystal growth in open cavities. Both the typical lens shape of the veins and the subsequent cuspate-lobate folding of the bed interfaces in between the quartz veins suggest plastic deformation of cohesionless fluid-filled fissures. Metamorphic grade of the host rock and fluid temperature and pressure clearly indicates mid-crustal conditions below the brittle-plastic transition. This first type of quartz veins exemplifies mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour, possibly related to a transient deepening of the brittle-plastic transition. This is in contrast with contemporaneous bedding-perpendicular crack-seal veins observed in higher - upper-crustal - structural levels in the slate belt, reflecting pure brittle deformation behaviour. The second type are discordant quartz veins confined to extensional low-angle detachment shear zones. These very irregular veins transect a pre-existing pervasive cleavage fabric. They show no matching walls and

  4. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary vein varix.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Kimata, Masaki; Kambayashi, Daisuke; Mano, Akiko; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Kobara, Miyuki; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-09-01

    Pulmonary vein varix is a rare abnormality, often resembling a pulmonary or mediastinal mass on chest radiographs, and pulmonary angiography has been the mainstay of diagnosis. An unusual case of pulmonary vein varix was clearly defined by echocardiography performed in a 47-year-old woman with chest discomfort who had been found to have an abnormal structure behind the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. The diagnosis of left lower pulmonary vein varix was noninvasively confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography. PMID:12939558

  6. [Endovenous ablation of saphenous vein varicosis].

    PubMed

    Schuller-Petrovic, Sanja

    2016-06-01

    In the past 15 years, the minimally invasive endovenous treatments of varicose veins have been widely accepted. The efficacy of the different endovenous methods and the minimal post operative side effects are meanwhile well documented in a large number of evidence based publications. The recent NICE Guidelines (2013) considering the varicose vein treatment recommend in case of an insufficiency of saphenous veins first the endovenous thermal ablation with radiofrequency or laser, then the ultrasound guided sclerotherapy and as the third line the classic surgical treatment with stripping and high ligation. PMID:27295103

  7. Genesis of the vein-type tungsten mineralization at Nyakabingo (Rwanda) in the Karagwe-Ankole belt, Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, S.; De Clercq, F.; Hulsbosch, N.; Piessens, K.; Boyce, A.; Burgess, R.; Muchez, Ph.

    2016-02-01

    The vein-type tungsten deposit at Nyakabingo in the central Tungsten belt of Rwanda is located in the eastern flank of the complex Bumbogo anticlinal structure. The host rock is composed of alternating sequences of sandstones, quartzites, and black pyritiferous metapelitic rocks. Two types of W-mineralized quartz veins have been observed: bedding-parallel and quartz veins that are at high angle to the bedding, which are termed crosscutting veins. Both vein types have been interpreted to have been formed in a late stage of a compressional deformation event. Both vein types are associated with small alteration zones, comprising silicification, tourmalinization, and muscovitization. Dating of muscovite crystals at the border of the veins resulted in a maximum age of 992.4 ± 1.5 Ma. This age is within error similar to the ages obtained for the specialized G4 granites (i.e., 986 ± 10 Ma). The W-bearing minerals formed during two different phases. The first phase is characterized by scheelite and massive wolframite, while the second phase is formed by ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite. These minerals occur late in the evolution of the massive quartz veins, sometimes even in fractures that crosscut the veins. The ore minerals precipitated from a H2O-CO2-CH4-N2-NaCl-(KCl) fluid with low to moderate salinity (0.6-13.8 eq. wt% NaCl), and minimal trapping temperatures between 247 and 344 °C. The quartz veins have been crosscut by sulfide-rich veins. Based on the similar setting, mineralogy, stable isotope, and fluid composition, it is considered that both types of W-mineralized quartz veins formed during the same mineralizing event. Given the overlap in age between the G4 granites and the mineralized quartz veins, and the typical association of the W deposits in Rwanda, but also worldwide, with granite intrusions, W originated from the geochemically specialized G4 granites. Intense water-rock interaction and mixing with metamorphic fluids largely overprinted the

  8. Biomechanical behaviors of dragonfly wing: relationship between configuration and deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Huai-Hui; Wang, Xi-Shu; Chen, Ying-Long; Li, Xu-Dong

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the natural structures of a dragonfly wing, including the corrugation of the chordwise cross-section, the sandwich microstructure veins, and the junctions between the vein and the membrane, have been investigated with experimental observations, and the morphological parameters of these structural features are measured. The experimental result indicates that the corrugated angle among the longitudinal veins ranges from 80° to 150°, and the sandwiched microstructure vein mainly consists of chitin and protein layers. Meanwhile, different finite element models, which include models I and I* for the planar forewings, models II and II* for the corrugated forewings, and a submodel with solid veins and membranes, are created to investigate the effects of these structural features on the natural frequency/modal, the dynamical behaviors of the flapping flight, and the deformation mechanism of the forewings. The numerical results indicate that the corrugated forewing has a more reasonable natural frequency/modal, and the first order up-down flapping frequency of the corrugated wing is closer to the experimental result (about 27.00 Hz), which is significantly larger than that of the planar forewing (10.94 Hz). For the dynamical responses, the corrugated forewing has a larger torsional angle than the planar forewing, but a lower flapping angle. In addition, the sandwich microstructure veins can induce larger amplitudes of torsion deformation, because of the decreasing stiffness of the whole forewing. For the submodel of the forewing, the average stress of the chitin layer is much larger than that of the protein layer in the longitudinal veins. These simulative methods assist us to explain the flapping flight mechanism of the dragonfly and to design a micro aerial vehicle by automatically adjusting the corrugated behavior of the wing.

  9. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms. PMID:20689798

  10. Complications of umbilical vein catherisation. Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bothur-Nowacka, Joanna; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Nowakowska-Rysz, Monika; Kościesza, Andrzej; Polnik, Dariusz; Dobrzańska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: Umbilical vein catheterization is a relatively easy procedure performed routinely on the neonate intensive care units. It provides a fast central vein access, but some complications have been described in the literature. Case Reports: We presented a case report of a premature infant (34 hbd) with extravasation of the parenteral nutrition and drugs to the liver after umbilical vein catheterization. Fever and increasing biochemical markers of infection were observed. USG revealed a heterogenic, well-limited space of 4 cm in diameter, located in the right lobe of the liver. CT excluded liver abscess. Considering neoplastic process or incorrect location of the catheter of the central vein, we performed liver biopsy. Results: Cytological and biochemical analysis of the aspirated fluid revealed extravasation of parenteral nutrition to the liver. Our case confirms the necessity of controlling a proper location of the central catheter right after its insertion and during hospitalization. PMID:22802847

  11. The role of splenomesenteric vein anastomosis after division of the splenic vein in pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Misuta, Koichiro; Shimada, Hiroshi; Miura, Yasuhiko; Kunihiro, Osamu; Kubota, Toru; Endo, Itaru; Sekido, Hitoshi; Togo, Shinji

    2005-02-01

    Division of the splenic vein was performed in 29 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy to achieve lymph node dissection and neural resection around the superior mesenteric artery. The basic protocol for the splenic vein reconstruction to reduce congestion of the spleen and stomach is as follows. When the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) drained into the splenic vein, the confluence was preserved without reconstruction of the splenic vein. When the IMV drained into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or the splenomesenteric angle, the division of the IMV and spleno-IMV anastomosis were performed. In postoperative venography, nine patients showed downward flow (from the splenic vein to the IMV) and three patients showed upward flow (from the IMV to the splenic vein). Postoperative computed tomography scans showed venous dilatation and splenomegaly in the upward flow group; there were no patients in the downward flow group. In selected patients, splenic vein reconstruction is necessary to reduce congestion of the spleen and stomach. When the flow is downward, spleno-IMV flow should be preserved. When the flow is upward, spleno-SMV anastomosis is necessary instead of spleno-IMV anastomosis. PMID:15694821

  12. Posttraumatic arteriovenous fistula and subclavian vein thrombosis: treatment by percutaneous arterial embolization and vein angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Y P; Soulez, G; Riadh, A; Houdart, E; Herbreteau, D; Merland, J J

    1993-09-01

    A 71-year-old woman had edema and venous dilatation of her upper right limb that caused painful functional disability following a shoulder injury. Arteriograms demonstrated an arteriovenous fistula between the subclavian artery and vein associated with thrombosis of the vein at the same level. The arteriovenous fistula was found to have multiple arteriovenous communications. Because of associated distal venous thrombosis, venous drainage was retrograde through the brachial vein. The inflow arteries of the fistula were embolized and then the subclavian vein thrombosis was recanalized, dilated, and an endoluminal stent inserted. Clinical signs completely resolved. PMID:8268095

  13. Continuous deformation versus episodic deformation at high stress - the microstructural record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepmann, C. A.; Stöckhert, B.

    2009-04-01

    The microstructural record of continuous high stress deformation is compared to that of episodic high stress deformation on two examples: 1. Folding of quartz veins in metagreywacke from Pacheco Pass, California, undergoing deformation by dissolution precipitation creep at temperatures of 300 ± 50°C. The microfabric of the folded quartz veins indicates deformation by dislocation creep accompanied by subgrain rotation. The small recrystallized grain size of ~8±6 µm in average implies relatively high differential stresses of a few hundred MPa. The stress concentration in the vein is due to a high contrast in effective viscosities between the single phase material and the polyphase fine-grained host metagreywacke deforming by dissolution precipitation creep. Smoothly curved, but generally not sutured, grain boundaries as well as the small size and a relatively high dislocation density of recrystallized grains suggest that strain-induced grain boundary migration was of minor importance. This is suspected to be a consequence of low strain gradients, which are due to the relative rates of dynamic recovery and continuous dislocation production during climb-controlled creep, at high stress and the given low temperature. Subgrain rotation recrystallization is thus proposed to be characteristic for continuous deformation at high differential stress. 2. Episodic deformation in the middle crust at the tip of a seismic active fault zone. The microfabric of mid-crustal rocks exhumed in tectonically active regions can record episodic high stress deformation at the base of the seismogenic layer. The quartz veins from St. Paul la Roche in the Massif Central, France, are very coarse grained. On the scale of a thin section they are basically single crystalline. However, they show a very heterogeneous microstructure with a system of healed microcracks that are decorated by subgrains and more rarely by small recrystallized grains. Undulating deformation lamellae that do not show a

  14. Long-Term Robust Myocardial Transduction of the Dog Heart from a Peripheral Vein by Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype-8

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiufang; Yue, Yongping; Zhang, Keqing; Lostal, William; Shin, Jin-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular intervention using noninvasive myocardial gene transfer holds great promise for treating heart diseases. Robust cardiac transduction from peripheral vein injection has been achieved in rodents using adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype-9 (AAV-9). However, a similar approach has failed to transduce the heart in dogs, a commonly used large animal model for heart diseases. To develop an effective noninvasive method to deliver exogenous genes to the dog heart, we employed an AAV-8 vector that expresses human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene under the transcriptional regulation of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. Vectors were delivered to three neonatal dogs at the doses of 1.35×1014, 7.14×1014, and 9.06×1014 viral genome particles/kg body weight via the jugular vein. Transduction efficiency and overall safety were evaluated at 1.5, 2.5, and 12 months postinjection. AAV delivery was well tolerated and dog growth was normal. Blood chemistry and internal organ histology were unremarkable. Widespread skeletal muscle transduction was observed in all dogs without T-cell infiltration. Encouragingly, whole heart myocardial transduction was achieved in two dogs that received higher doses and cardiac expression lasted for at least 1 year. In summary, peripheral vein AAV-8 injection may represent a simple heart gene transfer method in large mammals. Further optimization of this gene delivery strategy may open the door for a readily applicable gene therapy method to treat many heart diseases. PMID:23551085

  15. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  16. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  17. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in a Newborn: A Commonly Overlooked Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-valenzuela, Nathalie Jeanne Magioli; Silva, Guilherme Ricardo Nunes; Varella, Marcela Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary pulmonary vein stenosis is often overlooked because its symptoms overlap lung diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis may be difficult because the condition is progressive and associated with other defects. We present a case of pulmonary vein stenosis in a newborn with stenosis of the left-sided common pulmonary vein, diffuse hypoplasia of the superior right pulmonary vein, and atresia of the inferior right pulmonary vein. PMID:26457207

  18. Fibrous gypsum veins as diffuse features and within fault zones: the case study of the Pisco Basin (Ica desert, southern Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, Andrea; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Baud, Patrick; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    New knowledge on patterns of fibrous gypsum veins, their genetic mechanisms, deformation style and weathering are provided by a field- and laboratory-based study carried out on the Neogene to Quaternary Pisco Basin sedimentary strata (porous sandstones, siltstones and diatomites) exposed in the Ica desert, southern Peru. Gypsum veins vary considerably in dimensions, attitudes and timing and can develop in layered and moderately fractured rocks also in the absence of evaporitic layers. Veins occur both as diffuse features, confined to certain stratigraphic levels, and localised within fault zones. Arrays formed by layer-bounded, mutually orthogonal sets of steeply-dipping gypsum veins are reported for the first time. Vein length, height and spacing depend on the thickness of the bed packages in which they are confined. Within fault zones, veins are partly a product of faulting but also inherited layer-bounded features along which faults are superimposed. Due to the different petrophysical properties with respect to the parent rocks and their susceptibility to textural and mineralogical modifications, water dissolution and rupture, gypsum veins may have a significant role in geofluid management. Depending on their patterns and grade of physical and chemical alteration, veins may influence geofluid circulation and storage, acting as barriers to flow and possibly also as conduits.

  19. The influence of loading conditions on fracture initiation, propagation, and interaction in rocks with veins: Results from a comparative Discrete Element Method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, Simon; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of loading conditions on the interactions between extension fractures and veins. We model the fracture behavior of brittle discrete element materials each containing a tabular vein body of variable orientation and strength in two different loading conditions. The first is uniaxial tension, applied with servo-controlled sidewalls. The second is a boudinage boundary condition in which a tensile triaxial stress state is induced in the brittle model volume by quasi-viscous extensional deformation in the adjacent layers. Most of the fracture- vein interactions observed in uniaxial tension also exists in boudinage boundary conditions. However, the importance of each interaction mechanism for a given configuration of relative strength and misorientation of the vein may differ according to the loading mechanism. Nucleation and internal deflection is under both boundary conditions the dominating fracture-vein interaction style in weak veins. In uniaxial tension models, strong veins tend to alter the fracture path by external deflection, while under boudinage loading these veins are more likely overcome by the fracture step over mechanism. Dynamic bifurcation of fractures was observed in uniaxial tension models but never for boudinage boundary conditions. This is because the acceleration of fracture tips in these conditions is suppressed by interaction with distributed fractures as well as viscous damping by the neighboring layers.

  20. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins. PMID:25448906

  1. The Incidence, Clinical Importance and Management of Incompetent Gastrocnemius Vein

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence, clinical importance and management of the incompetent gastrocnemius vein. Methods: The incompetency was examined by duplex and pulse-Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal fossa in a standing position between July 2006 and August 2014. Results: Among 1805 legs surveyed, 14 legs showed primary incompetent gastrocnemius vein (0.78%). The incompetency was in medial gastrocnemius vein in 13 legs (93%). Clinical manifestation was varicose vein in the small saphenous territory in nine, varicose vein in great saphenous territory in one, congestive dermatitis in two, calf clamp in one and no symptom in one. The nine cases with varicose vein in the small saphenous territory received surgical management. These included three cases with residual varicose veins after saphenopopliteal disconnection and stripping small saphenous vein. The root of the gastrocnemius vein was divided leaving no complication. In cases without varicose vein in small saphenous territory, an elastic compression socks was useful in some degree. Conclusions: Incompetency of gastrocnemius vein was not so rare. When a case is accompanied by small saphenous varicose veins, division of the root of gastrocnemius vein along with small saphenous vein stripping is recommended in order to reduce residual varicose vein. PMID:27087871

  2. Vein attribute scaling in strike-slip and extensional fault damage zones affecting the platform carbonates in the Jabal Qusaybah anticline, Salakh Arc, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio; Solum, John; Taberner, Conxita; Tueckmantel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Understanding factors that determine deformation intensity and vein attributes in fault damage zones is important to predict fracture patterns and fault system permeability in the subsurface. In this contribution we present a new dataset on vein attributes collected along 26 fault zones (extensional and strike-slip) developed in the Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Natih Formation during the growth of the Jabal Qusaybah anticline, in the foreland basin of the Oman Mountains. Extensional and strike slip fault zones accommodated comparable displacements (~0.1 up to ~100 m), but were active at different burial depths. Extensional fault zones developed at shallow burial depth (<1-2 km) during late-stage folding and strike-slip faulting, and are laterally restricted by sub-vertical strike-slip fault zones. Vein aperture (A), eight (H), and spacing (S) were measured in vertical sections by scanlines across 10 strike-slip and 16 extensional fault damage zones, and then statistically analyzed. In both strike-slip and extensional fault damage zones vein aperture and height generally increase approaching the master slip surfaces, while vein spacing decreases approaching them. Deformation intensity, calculated as vein H/S ratio per meter, exponentially increases moving from background host rock toward master slip surfaces. Furthermore, the mean vein H/S ratio calculated in each damage zone increases also with increasing fault displacement in extensional fault zones, whereas it remain almost constant in strike-slip fault zones. Different vein pattern evolutions in the two fault systems are due to the presence of sub-vertical strike-slip fault zones which provided mechanical barriers that hindered the lateral propagation of extensional fault zones. During extensional faulting, the vertical downthrown was not inhibited, thus resulting in a progressively higher deformation intensity in laterally-restricted, extensional fault damage zones.

  3. Double left renal veins and multiple right renal veins found in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Yahiro, J; Miyoshi, S

    1993-12-01

    A case of circumaortic renal venous collar, the first such collar to be observed in a Japanese female cadaver, is presented, and its anatomical organization is compared with that in another case in which four right renal veins accompanied four right and three left renal arteries in a Japanese male cadaver. Double left renal veins are formed by persistence of a more central retroaortic venous anastomosis, in contrast to multiple right renal veins, which are formed by persistence of some embryonic renal veins arranged in ladder-like patterns. In our case, the dorsal limb of the renal collar communicated with the azygos system veins and lumbar veins. The azygos system veins were considered to have atrophied as a result of some persisting retroaortic venous anastomoses located in the thorax. Therefore, we believe that the renal collar was related to the atrophy of the azygos system veins. To determine whether there are racial differences in incidence of renal collar, further studies in Asians are required. PMID:8202308

  4. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  5. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    1998-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution.

  6. Giacomini vein: thigh extension of the small saphenous vein - report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, K; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, N; Sofidis, G; Piagkou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Varicose vein surgery is very commonly performed. Also, it is very frequently employed for recurrent disease. The recognition of the normal or variant veins, inducing incompetency, is a prerequisite for effective treatment. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein, the so-called Giacomini vein, was extensively described in 1873 by Carlo Giacomini in an incidence of 72%. However, such a vein is usually underestimated in classic surgical textbooks. Description of cases We present two cases of Giacomini vein found in two cadavers, dissected for academic purposes in the Department of Anatomy, where the small saphenous vein displayed a thigh extension without terminating into the popliteal vein. In one case Giacomini vein drained into the large saphenous vein, while in the other case the vein divided into two branches, separately draining into the large saphenous vein and the subcutaneous tissue of the gluteal region. Conclusion Due to the fact that Giacomini vein could be incompetent, associated with or without varicose saphenous vein trunks, the vascular surgeon should keep in mind that anatomical entity, to include it in preoperative ultrasound scanning control. Moreover, this vein could be utilized as an autologous graft, when the large saphenous is not available. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 263-265.

  7. Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2000-05-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

  8. Observation and partial targeted surgery in the management of tympano-jugular paraganglioma: a contribution to the multioptional treatment.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of a limited tumor excision in tympano-jugular paragangliomas treated with observation with the goal of preventing, or repairing, a neural (VII cranial nerve) or brain damage and continue an otherwise correct observation. This is a retrospective case review. Each patient was submitted to a complete neuro-radiological work-up for diagnosis including CT, MRI, and angiography if needed of tympano-jugular paraganglioma class C. All the cases were submitted to observation and in 16 cases partial targeted surgery was performed. In 10 cases, the procedure involved a targeted removal of the tumor growing in contact with, or invading, the Fallopius. In four cases, the procedure was a petro-occipital trans-sigmoid approach to remove the intradural portion of tumor producing the picture of brain stem compression. In two cases, there was the excision of the bleeding tumor surfaces in the outer ear canal. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 20 years. Success was considered the maintenance of observation without the change of class of tumor extension. In 13 over 16 cases, the observation could be continued, as it still was the more favorable option between natural and surgical morbidity. In the other three cases, a newly installed paralysis of the 9-10 cranial nerves due to tumor growth involved a correction of the strategy to a radical procedure. Partial targeted surgery was directed to cases submitted to observation. It allowed to prevent, or repair, an impending, or actual damage to the facial nerve or the brain stem and to continue the abstentional treatment by keeping the balance between natural and therapy morbidity in favor of observation. PMID:25822289

  9. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  10. Spontaneous Resolution of Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Banumukala, Vishnu; Babu, Adarsh

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with symptoms of belching, abdominal pain and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly which was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). CT images also revealed filling defects in the portal vein and intrahepatic branches consistent with thrombosis and hepatosplenic infarcts. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated at 688 units, all other investigations, including full blood count, coagulation screen and tumour markers, were normal. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography did not reveal any mass in the porta hepatis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. Liver biopsy was normal and did not reveal any evidence of lymphoma. The raised alkaline phosphatase settled to reference range over a period of 3 weeks. Thrombophilia screen was negative. Contrast CT of the abdomen performed after 4 weeks displayed revascularisation of the previously thrombosed portal vein and intrahepatic branches. The patient has remained asymptomatic since and we note spontaneous recanalisation of the previously occluded portal vein. PMID:21490872

  11. Spontaneous resolution of portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Banumukala, Vishnu; Babu, Adarsh

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with symptoms of belching, abdominal pain and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly which was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). CT images also revealed filling defects in the portal vein and intrahepatic branches consistent with thrombosis and hepatosplenic infarcts. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated at 688 units, all other investigations, including full blood count, coagulation screen and tumour markers, were normal. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography did not reveal any mass in the porta hepatis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. Liver biopsy was normal and did not reveal any evidence of lymphoma. The raised alkaline phosphatase settled to reference range over a period of 3 weeks. Thrombophilia screen was negative. Contrast CT of the abdomen performed after 4 weeks displayed revascularisation of the previously thrombosed portal vein and intrahepatic branches. The patient has remained asymptomatic since and we note spontaneous recanalisation of the previously occluded portal vein. PMID:21490872

  12. Deringing procedure for congenital pulmonary vein stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Victor, S; Nayak, V M

    1995-01-01

    We operated on a 14-year-old boy who had an echocardiographic diagnosis of ventricular septal defect. At surgery we found, in addition, an anomalous and obstructive intraventricular muscle bundle. Detection of a continuous thrill over the right pulmonary veins, prior to cardiopulmonary bypass, led to exploration of the left atrium. The ostia of the right superior and inferior pulmonary veins were impeded by circumferential membranous rings of endocardium with central stenotic openings. Excision of these annular rings relieved the obstruction. The left lung was drained by a long intrapericardial common venous channel that entered the left atrium through a stenotic ostium; excision of an annular ridge of endocardium restored normal flow. The patient remains asymptomatic after 23 months. The case is reported for the new deringing technique and the rarity of successful correction of congenital pulmonary vein stenosis. Images PMID:7647600

  13. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  14. [Retinal vein occlusion: an interdisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Hatz, Katja; Martinez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion provide a common cause of significant visual reduction but also late ocular complications. The medical care of these patients pursue two goals: On the one hand vision threatening complications need to be identified and treated, and on the other hand treatable risk factors are need to be identified and treated. This paper summarizes the common ophthalmological therapeutic approaches as well as recommended medical evaluations carried out by the general practitioner. This supports the interdisciplinary approach in evaluating and treating retinal vein occlusions by ophthalmologists and the general practitioners/specialist in internal medicine. PMID:26982647

  15. Saphenous vein graft aneurysm: an incidental finding

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Omar; Greaves, Kim; Shepherd, David; Parvin, Simon; Swallow, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVGA) is an uncommon complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An 82-year-old man underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography to investigate aorto-iliac disease. He was coincidentally noted to have an aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft to his right coronary artery. This was visualised on transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography and coronary angiography. In the absence of symptoms and in view of high surgical risk, conservative management with anticoagulation was chosen. The patient was commenced on warfarin and remains asymptomatic. PMID:21686801

  16. CO2 outburst events in relation to seismicity: Constraints from microscale geochronology, geochemistry of late Quaternary vein carbonates, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Işık, Veysel; Shulmeister, James; İmer, Ali; Feng, Yue-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Vein and breccia carbonates precipitated in a highly fractured/faulted carbonate bedrock in SW Turkey were investigated through high-resolution U-series geochronology, microstructural and geochemical studies including C-O-Sr isotope and rare-earth element and yttrium (REY) analyses. Petrographical observations and geochronological data are interpreted as evidence that the calcite veins formed through a crack-seal mechanism, mostly accompanied/initiated by intensive hydraulic fracturing of the host limestone in response to high-pressure fluids, which is manifested by multi-stage breccia deposits. Microscale U-series dates (272.6-20.5 kyr) and geochemical compositions of the vein/breccia samples provide information on the timing and mechanism of the vein formation and identify the source of CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the carbonate precipitation. δ18OVPDB and δ13CVPDB values of the calcite veins range between -5.9 and -1.7‰, and -10.6 and -4.6‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of the veins show highly fluctuating values as calcite grew successively perpendicular to vein walls, which, in combination with microstructural and geochronological constraints, are interpreted to reflect episodic CO2 degassing events associated with seismic and aseismic deformation. Oxygen and Sr isotope compositions (δ18OVPDB: -5.9 to -1.7‰; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7082 to 0.7085) together with REY concentrations indicate deep infiltration of meteoric waters with various degrees of interactions mostly with the host limestone and siliciclastic parts of the basement rocks. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions suggest CO2 degassing through intensive limestone dissolution. While majority of the veins display similar Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalised REY variations, some of the veins show positive EuPAAS anomalies, which could be indicative of contributions from a deeply derived, heated, and reduced fluid component, giving rise to multiple fluid sources for the

  17. Effect of Diameter of Saphenous Vein on Stump Length after Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Vein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jusung; Cho, Sungsin; Joh, Jin Hyun; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Park, Ho-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has gained popularity for treatment of varicose veins. The diameter of the saphenous vein should be considered before RFA because occlusion of the vein may differ depending on its diameter. Until now, however, there have been few data about the correlation between the diameter of the saphenous vein and the stump length after RFA. The purpose of our study was to investigate its correlation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed from prospectively collected data of RFA patients between March 2009 and December 2011. Preoperatively, the saphenous vein diameter was measured. Ablation was initiated 2 cm distal from the junction. Postoperatively, stump length was measured at 1 week and 6 months. After 2 years, we measured the length from the saphenofemoral junction to the leading point of occlusion for great saphenous vein, and length from the saphenopopliteal junction to the leading point of occlusion for small saphenous vein. The paired t-test, independent t-test, and correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During the study period, RFA was performed in 201 patients. Endovenous heat-induced thrombosis developed in 3 patients (1.5%). After 2 years, the stump length was obtained in 74 limbs. The mean diameter and stump length of the saphenous vein were 6.7±1.8 mm and 12.5±8.5 mm, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient of these factors was −0.017. Conclusion: There was no correlation between the diameter of saphenous vein and stump length. PMID:26719839

  18. Clinical Significance of the Soleal Vein and Related Drainage Veins, in Calf Vein Thrombosis in Autopsy Cases with Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the histopathological characteristics of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resulting in lethal pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Subjects and Methods: We investigated 100 autopsy cases of PE from limb DVT. The distribution and chronology of DVT in each deep venous segment were examined. Venous segments were classified into three groups: iliofemoral vein, popliteal vein and calf vein (CV). The CV was subdivided into two subgroups, drainage veins of the soleal vein (SV) and non drainage veins of SV. Results: Eighty-nine patients had bilateral limb DVTs. CV was involved in all limbs with DVT with isolated calf DVTs were seen in 47% of patients. Fresh and organized thrombi were detected in 84% of patients. SV showed the highest incidence of DVTs in eight venous segments. The incidence of DVT gradually decreased according to the drainage route of the central SV. Proximal tips of fresh thrombi were mainly located in the popliteal vein and tibioperoneal trunk, occurring in these locations in 63% of limbs. Conclusions: SV is considered to be the primary site of DVT; the DVT then propagated to proximal veins through the drainage veins. Lethal thromboemboli would occur at proximal veins as a result of proximal propagation from calf DVTs. PMID:27087868

  19. Splenic Vein Thrombosis with Oesophageal Varices: A Late Complication of Umbilical Vein Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Vos, L. J. M.; Potocky, V.; Bröker, F. H. L.; Vries, J. A. De; Postma, L.; Edens, E.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of observations made on three infants, a description is given of a late complication of umbilical vein catheterization not hitherto reported. The children showed the symptoms of thrombosis of the splenic vein with secondary splenomegaly and marked gastric and/or esophageal varices, while the portal vein showed no abnormality. The diagnosis was preoperatively established by means of selective angiography of the superior mesenteric artery and the splenic artery. Treatment in these three cases consisted of splenectomy, with good clinical and radiological results. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4842977

  20. Inhibition of Vein Graft Stenosis in Rabbits with a c-jun Targeting DNAzyme in a Cationic Liposomal Formulation Containing 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Bhindi, Ravinay; Deng, Zhou J.; Morton, Stephen W.; Hammond, Paula T.; Khachigian, Levon M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is among the most commonly performed heart surgical procedures for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Saphenous vein graft failure due to stenosis impedes the longer-term success of CABG. A key cellular event in the process of vein graft stenosis is smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a DNAzyme (Dz13) targeting the transcription factor c-Jun in a rabbit model of vein graft stenosis after autologous transplantation in a cationic liposomal formulation containing 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Dz13 in DOTAP/DOPE has undergone preclinical toxicological testing, and a Phase I clinical trial we recently conducted in skin cancer patients demonstrates that it is safe and well tolerated after local administration. Methods Effects of Dz13 in a formulation containing DOTAP/DOPE on SMC growth and c-Jun expression were assessed. Dz13 transfection was determined by cellular uptake of carboxyfluorescein-labeled Dz13. Autologous jugular vein to carotid artery transplantation was performed in New Zealand White rabbits to investigate the effect of the Dz13 in DOTAP/DOPE formulation on the extent of intimal hyperplasia. Results Dz13/DOTAP/DOPE reduced SMC proliferation and c-Jun protein expression in vitro compared with an impotent form of Dz13 bearing a point mutation in its catalytic domain (Dz13.G>C). The Dz13 (500 µg)/DOTAP/DOPE formed lipoplexes that were colloidally stable for up to 1 hour on ice (0°C) or 30 minutes at 37°C, allowing sufficient uptake by the veins. Dz13 (500µg) inhibited neointima formation 28 days after end-to-side transplantation. Conclusions This formulation applied to veins prior to transplantation may potentially be useful in efforts to reduce graft failure. PMID:23886527

  1. Central venous catheter malposition in the azygos vein and difficult endotracheal intubation in severe ankylosing spondylitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjin; Jeong, Hyungmo; Chung, Junyoung; Yi, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can be challenging for anesthesiologists because central venous access can be difficult, and the airway can be blocked due to the fixed flexion deformity of the spine. In this case, we attempted central access via the right subclavian vein, but the catheter was repeatedly inserted into the azygos vein, which was confirmed by radiology. After several attempts, the catheter position was corrected at the superior vena cava-atrial junction. Although several useful devices have been developed to address difficult intubation, in this case, fiberoptic bronchoscopy was the only applicable safe alternative because of the patient’s extremely severe chin on chest deformity and temporomandibular joint disease. We report a successful awake fiberoptic bronchoscopic intubation in a patient with extremely severe AS and recommend that the catheter placement should be confirmed with radiology to ensure proper positioning for severe AS patients. PMID:26885138

  2. Pancreatectomy with vein reconstruction: technique matters

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Monica M; Tran, Thuy B; Klausner, Jill; Hwa, Kim J; Poultsides, George A; Norton, Jeffrey A; Visser, Brendan C

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of techniques have been described for portal vein (PV) and/or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy. The ideal strategy remains unclear. Methods Patients who underwent PV/SMV resection/reconstruction during a pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2014 were identified. Medical records and imaging were retrospectively reviewed for operative details and outcomes, with particular emphasis on patency. Results Ninety patients underwent vein resection/reconstruction with one of five techniques: (i) longitudinal venorrhaphy (LV, n = 17); (ii) transverse venorrhaphy (TV, n = 9); (iii) primary end-to-end (n = 28); (iv) patch venoplasty (PV, n = 17); and (v) interposition graft (IG, n = 19). With a median follow-up of 316 days, thrombosis was observed in 16/90 (18%). The rate of thrombosis varied according to technique. All patients with primary end-to-end or TV remained patent. LV, PV and IG were all associated with significant rates of thrombosis (P = 0.001 versus no thrombosis). Comparing thrombosed to patent, there were no differences with respect to pancreatectomy type, pre-operative knowledge of vein involvement and neoadjuvant therapy. Prophylactic aspirin was used in 69% of the total cohort (66% of patent, 81% of thrombosed) and showed no protective benefit. Conclusions Primary end-to-end and TV have superior patency than the alternatives after PV/SMV resection and should be the preferred techniques for short (<3 cm) reconstructions. PMID:26223388

  3. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology. PMID:27157637

  4. Crossectomy and great saphenous vein stripping.

    PubMed

    Winterborn, R J; Earnshaw, J J

    2006-02-01

    Crossectomy and stripping have been the standard of care for primary great saphenous varicose veins since the high failure rates of sclerotherapy became apparent in the 1970s. As the specialty of venous surgery has evolved, a number of clinical trials have established the optimal methods of surgical treatment, and the clinical benefit of routine stripping. Long-term trials, however, have uncovered a high recurrence rate after varicose vein surgery that approaches 70% after 10 years. There is much debate about whether this is the result of the dilatation of existing tributaries in the groin or the growth of new veins as a result of angiogenesis that follows surgical treatment and healing (neovascularisation). The addition of barrier technology to current crossectomy has the potential to improve the results of surgery in the future. In the meanwhile, new techniques are evolving to obliterate the great saphenous vein, including endovenous laser, radiofrequency ablation and foam sclerotherapy. Randomised clinical trials are urgently required to compare these new treatments against standard surgery, and they will need to focus on whether the short-term gains in reduced convalescence and morbidity are balanced by durable long-term results. PMID:16434942

  5. Left renal vein compression syndrome ("nutcracker phenomenon").

    PubMed

    Stassen, C M; Weil, E H; Janevski, B K

    1989-06-01

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as "nutcracker phenomenon". The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. PMID:2544950

  6. Hepatic myospherulosis complicating portal vein embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Lui, P C W; Luk, I S C; Lee, C K L; Lui, Y H; Leung, C Y; Choi, C H

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Myospherulosis is a rare condition characterised by sac-like structures containing spheroid bodies in cysts or cystic spaces in the tissue. This condition has not previously been reported in the liver. The association with previous portal vein embolisation using a mixture of butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodised oil and the proposed mechanism of pathogenesis are discussed. Methods: Samples from 8 patients treated by hepatectomy after portal vein embolisation using a mixture of butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodised oil were retrieved from the archives of the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong. The histological specimens were reviewed. A panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains was used. Results: All cases showed hepatic myospherulosis within the veins. The veins were denuded of endothelium, which was replaced by granulation tissue and fibrous tissue with a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Foreign body-type giant cells (six cases) and eosinophilic infiltrates (seven cases) were noted in most cases. Both parent bodies and endobodies were stained red by Papanicolaou and Masson’s trichrome and stained blue by solochrome cyanine. The endobodies showed immunoreactivity towards glycophorin A. They were negative for Alcian blue, periodic acid Schiff, Grocott, and Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Conclusions: The endobodies of myospherulosis may be misdiagnosed as fungi or algae by the unwary. The clinical history, intravascular location, lack of staining with periodic acid Schiff and Grocott stains, and positive glycophorin A staining are generally sufficient for a confident diagnosis of myospherulosis. PMID:14747440

  7. Endoscopic vein harvesting: technique, outcomes, concerns & controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the graft conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has significant implications both in the short- and long-term. The patency of a coronary conduit is closely associated with an uneventful postoperative course, better long-term patient survival and superior freedom from re-intervention. The internal mammary artery is regarded as the primary conduit for CABG patients, given its association with long-term patency and survival. However, long saphenous vein (LSV) continues to be utilized universally as patients presenting for CABG often have multiple coronary territories requiring revascularization. Traditionally, the LSV has been harvested by creating incisions from the ankle up to the groin termed open vein harvesting (OVH). However, such harvesting methods are associated with incisional pain and leg wound infections. In addition, patients find such large incisions to be cosmetically unappealing. These concerns regarding wound morbidity and patient satisfaction led to the emergence of endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). Published experience comparing OVH with EVH suggests decreased wound related complications, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay, and reduced postoperative pain at the harvest site following EVH. Despite these reported advantages concerns regarding risk of injury at the time of harvest with its potential detrimental effect on vein graft patency and clinical outcomes have prevented universal adoption of EVH. This review article provides a detailed insight into the technical aspects, outcomes, concerns, and controversies associated with EVH. PMID:24251019

  8. Varicose and other vein problems - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... you stand. As a result, you may have: Varicose veins Swelling in your legs Skin changes or even ... at home to: Slow down the development of varicose veins Decrease any discomfort Prevent skin ulcers

  9. Anatomical variation of the inferior mesenteric vein's drainage pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilaie, Mina

    The purpose of this project is to report the variable drainage pattern of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) as reported by medical students' observations recorded on anatomical variation data sheets (n = 192). A meta-analysis on the drainage pattern of the inferior mesenteric vein as described in various anatomy resources was conducted (n = 40). The inferior mesenteric vein was observed to drain into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein, and the junction between the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. Anatomy resources do not commonly report all three drainage sites. It is imperative that all these common drainage sites of the inferior mesenteric vein are stated in anatomy resources, so that students are taught realistic human anatomy including its common variations.

  10. New Portal-Superior Mesenteric Vein Reconstructions Using First Jejunal Vein Flap in Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Nobuyuki; Miki, Kenji; Kosuge, Tomoo

    2016-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the only potential treatment for pancreatic head adenocarcinomas, which are sometimes located close to or invade the portal-superior mesenteric vein (PSMV). Surgeons often attempt to obtain a negative resectional margin after resection of the PSMV. This attempt requires PSMV reconstruction through graft replacements or end-to-end anastomosis; however, possible complications should be concerned including anastomosis stenosis, damage to some of the PSMV branches, prosthetic graft infection, and that associated with autologous graft harvesting. The first jejunal artery and vein are often resected in PD with the intent of lymphadenectomy. In this study, jejunal vein flap was used for PSMV reconstruction without causing damage to any of the PSMV branches in two patients. Here, we describe the new methods of PSMV reconstruction using first jejunal vein flap in PD. PMID:26801505

  11. Reconstruction of portal vein and superior mesenteric vein after extensive resection for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suh Min; Park, Daedo; Min, Sang-Il; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tumor invasion to the portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) can be encountered during the surgery for pancreatic cancer. Venous reconstruction is required, but the optimal surgical methods and conduits remain in controversies. Methods From January 2007 to July 2012, 16 venous reconstructions were performed during surgery for pancreatic cancer in 14 patients. We analyzed the methods, conduits, graft patency, and patient survival. Results The involved veins were 14 SMVs and 2 PVs. The operative methods included resection and end-to-end anastomosis in 7 patients, wedge resection with venoplasty in 2 patients, bovine patch repair in 3 patients, and interposition graft with bovine patch in 1 patient. In one patient with a failed interposition graft with great saphenous vein (GSV), the SMV was reconstructed with a prosthetic interposition graft, which was revised with a spiral graft of GSV. Vascular morbidity occurred in 4 cases; occlusion of an interposition graft with GSV or polytetrafluoroethylene, segmental thrombosis and stenosis of the SMV after end-to-end anastomosis. Patency was maintained in patients with bovine patch angioplasty and spiral vein grafts. With mean follow-up of 9.8 months, the 6- and 12-month death-censored graft survival rates were both 81.3%. Conclusion Many of the involved vein segments were repaired primarily. When tension-free anastomosis is impossible, the spiral grafts with GSV or bovine patch grafts are good options to overcome the size mismatch between autologous vein graft and portomesenteric veins. Further follow-up of these patients is needed to demonstrate long-term patency. PMID:23741692

  12. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23978427

  13. The nature of faults and hydrothermal veins in corehole SB-15-D, The Geysers Steam Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Porosity in The Geysers Coring Project corehole SB-15-D is concentrated along vuggy, steeply-dipping, hydrothermal calcite-quartz {plus_minus} adularia veins. There is little difference in the texture and abundance of these veins between the upper two thirds of the core, interpreted as caprock, and the lower two-thirds, in which two, vein-controlled, fluid-loss zones (probable steam entries) were encountered. However, vugs in the caprock veins are locally choked with mixed-layer clay, whereas those in the deeper steam-reservoir veins generally lack this clay but contain calc-silicate minerals. Steeply-dipping, concordant faults concentrated in argillite throughout the core show predominantly strike-slip displacement. Although movement was predominantly along argillites, the lithology appears to have deformed in a ductile manner, and porosity development was minimal. High-angle dilational fractures were developed contemporaneously in the graywackes. These fractures in the graywacke were only partially filled by secondary minerals, and are potential steam conduits in the vapor-dominated geothermal system.

  14. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) include: A history of DVT. ... increase the risk of clotting. Injury to a deep vein from surgery, a broken bone, or other ...

  15. Intra-vascular leiomyoma of the popliteal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, R. J.; Armstrong, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    A large mass in the popliteal fossa was found to be a leiomyoma of the popliteal vein with portions of tumour both inside and outside the vein. This is only the second recorded case of a benign smooth muscle tumour of a peripheral vein. Images Figure 1 PMID:3174546

  16. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  17. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  19. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  20. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  1. Intermittent axillary vein obstruction in a competitive canoeist.

    PubMed Central

    Livesey, J R

    1990-01-01

    The case is reported of a competitive canoeist with intermittent axillary vein obstruction secondary to shoulder girdle muscle hypertrophy. The anatomy of the axilla, pathology of the axillary vein, and reported cases of sports injuries involving the axillary vein are discussed. This would appear to be the first report of such an occurrence in a canoeist. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2265314

  2. Prevalence of Isolated Asymptomatic Deep Vein Thrombosis in Varicose Vein Patients with Superficial Thrombophlebitis: A Single Center Experience in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Sadaaki; Shirato, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Toshimitsu; Ono, Hisako; Yabuki, Shiho; Jojima, Kumiko; Niimi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prevalence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with primary varicose veins remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Here, we conducted a retrospective study to clarify the incidence of asymptomatic DVT in patients with varicose veins, especially focusing on those with superficial thrombophlebitis (STP). Results: Among 431 patients with primary varicose veins with saphenous vein incompetence, 20 (4.64%) had asymptomatic DVT. The presence of STP was a significant risk factor for asymptomatic DVT as 10 of the 24 (41.7%) patients with STP had asymptomatic DVT, and all cases having calf muscle vein thrombosis. In contrast, of the patients with primary varicose veins without STP only 2.46% had asymptomatic DVT. Conclusions: In patients with primary varicose veins with STP, significant risk factors for DVT were being over C3 on the clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological (CEAP) classification. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 13–19.) PMID:27087866

  3. Long-term oncological results in 47 cases of jugular paraganglioma surgery with special emphasis on the facial nerve issue.

    PubMed

    Tran Ba Huy, P; Chao, P Z; Benmansour, F; George, B

    2001-12-01

    Oncological and functional results were assessed in 47 type C and/or D jugular paraganglioma operated on between 1984 and 1998 using the classical infratemporal fossa type A approach (mean follow-up = 66 months). In 24 instances, however, the facial nerve was not re-routed. Total resection was achieved in 33 cases (70 per cent). In 25 patients available for follow-up this resulted in a 92 per cent cure rate while two patients (eight per cent) developed recurrences that are being followed-up clinically and radiologically. Sub-total resection, leaving infracentimetric tumour remnants after being coagulated, was achieved in 14 cases (30 per cent). In 11 patients available for follow-up, only three cases developed tumour regrowth (27 per cent) that was controlled by salvage irradiation or surgery while in the other cases tumour remnants remained stable (73 per cent). Symptomatic post-operative lower cranial nerve impairment was observed in 23 per cent. When results were analysed depending on whether the facial nerve had been re-routed (n = 18) or not (n = 24), the incidence of facial paralysis HB grade III or more at one year was 33 per cent and eight per cent, respectively. Total resection was achieved in 56 per cent when the facial nerve was re-routed versus 75 per cent when it was not, the difference being due to a higher incidence of large tumours in the first group. The present study suggests that: 1) surgical resection of jugular paraganglioma provides overall satisfactory results, i.e. a 86 per cent rate of either cure or tumour remnant stabilization, but carries a significant risk of iatrogeny; 2) complete tumour removal should not be attempted, especially in patients over 60 years of age with no pre-operative neurological deficits, since leaving infracentimetric tumour remnants has no major detrimental effect on the final outcome; 3) facial nerve transposition carries a significant risk of cosmetic sequelae while it does not provide significant advantages in

  4. Retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome documented by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ann V; Moore, Grant H; Tsui, Irena

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome and unilateral glaucoma in his left eye. He was born with a port wine mark involving his upper left eyelid. On ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, he was found to have several vein-to-vein anastomoses in his left retina. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25944745

  5. Meso- and microscale structures related to post-magmatic deformation of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheuz, P.; Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Analysis of structures within drill cores, combined with borehole and site survey seismic data, indicates that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic, associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement, deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones, and the formation of tension fractures, hybrid (tension and shear) fractures, and shear fractures. Veins commonly form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and, generally, show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. The vein filling generally consists of (Low Mg-) calcite and/or various types of zeolite as well as clay. Vein frequency varies with depth but does not seem to correlate with the proximity of faults. This may indicate that these veins are genetically related to hydrothermal activity taking place shortly after magma cooling. Host-rock fragments are commonly embedded within precipitated vein material pointing to a high fluid pressure. Vein thickness varies from < 1 mm up to 15 mm. The wider veins appear to have formed in incremental steps of extension. Calcite veins tend to be purely dilational at shallow depths, but gradually evolve towards oblique tensional veins at depth, as shown by the growth of stretched calcite and/or zeolites (idiomorphic and/or stretched) with respect to vein margins. With increasing depth, the calcite grains exhibit deformation microstructures more frequently than at shallower core intervals. These microstructures include thin twinning (type I twins), increasing in width with depth (type I and type II twins), curved twins, and subgrain boundaries indicative of incipient plastic deformation.

  6. Formation of iddingsite veins in the martian crust by centripetal replacement of olivine: Evidence from the nakhlite meteorite Lafayette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Tomkinson, T.; Hallis, L. J.; Mark, D. F.

    2015-04-01

    The Lafayette meteorite is an olivine clinopyroxenite that crystallized on Mars ∼1300 million years ago within a lava flow or shallow sill. Liquid water entered this igneous rock ∼700 million years later to produce a suite of secondary minerals, collectively called 'iddingsite', that occur as veins within grains of augite and olivine. The deuterium/hydrogen ratio of water within these secondary minerals shows that the aqueous solutions were sourced from one or more near-surface reservoirs. Several petrographically distinct types of veins can be recognised by differences in their width, shape, and crystallographic orientation. Augite and olivine both contain veins of a very fine grained hydrous Fe- and Mg-rich silicate that are ∼1-2 μm in width and lack any preferred crystallographic orientation. These narrow veins formed by cementation of pore spaces that had been opened by fracturing and probably in response to shock. The subset of olivine-hosted veins whose axes lie parallel to (0 0 1) have serrated walls, and formed by widening of the narrow veins by interface coupled dissolution-precipitation. Widening started by replacement of the walls of the narrow precursor veins by Fe-Mg silicate, and a crystallographic control on the trajectory of the dissolution-precipitation front created micrometre-scale {1 1 1} serrations. The walls of many of the finely serrated veins were subsequently replaced by siderite, and the solutions responsible for carbonation of olivine also partially recrystallized the Fe-Mg silicate. Smectite was the last mineral to form and grew by replacement of siderite. This mineralization sequence shows that Lafayette was exposed to two discrete pulses of aqueous solutions, the first of which formed the Fe-Mg silicate, and the second mediated replacement of vein walls by siderite and smectite. The similarity in size, shape and crystallographic orientation of iddingsite veins in the Lafayette meteorite and in terrestrial basalts demonstrates a

  7. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  8. Deformations in VLBI antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of deformations in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key deformations and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected deformations are given.

  9. Driving forces for metamorphic vein filling during bauxite dehydration: insights from Li and Al transfer illustrated by LIBS compositional profiles (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaguet, Anne; Brunet, Fabrice; Goffé, Bruno; Menut, Denis; Findling, Nathaniel; Poinssot, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In subduction zones, the significant amounts of aqueous fluid released in the course of the successive dehydration reactions occurring during prograde metamorphism are expected to strongly influence the rock rheology, as well as kinetics of metamorphic reactions and mass transfer efficiency. Mineralized veins, ubiquitous in metamorphic rocks, can be seen as preserved witnesses of fluid and mass redistribution that partly accommodate the rock deformation (lateral segregation). However, the driving forces and mechanisms of mass transfer towards fluid-filled open spaces remain somewhat unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the vein-forming processes and the modalities of mass transfer during local fluid-rock interactions, and their links with fluid production and rock deformation, with new insights from Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) profiles. This study focuses on karstic pockets (metre scale) of Triassic metabauxites embedded in thick carbonate units, that have been isolated from large-scale fluid flow during HP-LT Alpine metamorphism (W. Vanoise, French Alps). These rocks display several generations of metamorphic veins containing various Al-bearing minerals, which give particular insights into mass transfer processes. It is proposed that the internally-derived fluid (~13 vol% produced by successive dehydration reactions) has promoted the opening of fluid-filled open spaces (euhedral habits of vein minerals) and served as medium for diffusive mass transfer from rock to vein. Based on mineralogical and textural features, two vein types can be distinguished: (1) some veins are filled with newly formed products of either prograde (chloritoid) or retrograde (chlorite) metamorphic reactions; in this case, fluid-filled open spaces seem to offer energetically favourable nucleation/growth sites; (2) the second vein type is filled with cookeite (Li-Al-rich chlorite) or pyrophyllite, which were present in the host-rock prior to the vein formation. In

  10. Investigation of the effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on jugular venous oxygen saturation in anesthetized pigs: implications for their mechanism of acute antimigraine action.

    PubMed

    Létienne, Robert; Verscheure, Yvan; John, Gareth W

    2003-10-01

    The effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carotid hemodynamics were compared in the anesthetized pig. Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in systemic arterial and jugular venous blood as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation were determined by conventional blood gas analysis. Vehicle (n = 19) or naratriptan, rizatriptan, or sumatriptan (0.63, 2.5, 10, 40, 160, 630, and 2,500 microg/kg i.v.; n = 7/group) were infused cumulatively. In naratriptan-, rizatriptan-, and sumatriptan-treated animals, jugular venous oxygen saturation decreased dose dependently (geometric mean ED50 values of 3.1, 17.9, and 16.0 microg/kg, respectively) concomitantly with increases in carotid vascular resistance. Rizatriptan significantly and dose dependently, from 160 microg/kg, increased PvCO2 (P < 0.05 versus vehicle). Naratriptan and sumatriptan also tended to increase PvCO2 albeit nonstatistically significantly. All three triptans consistently evoked quantitatively similar carotid vasoconstriction, whereas decreases in jugular venous oxygen saturation (VOS) and increases in PvCO2 had different magnitudes and occurred only in around one-half of the animals studied. Maximal variations in PvCO2 were found to correlate highly with those in PvO2 (P = 0.002), but maximal variations in carotid resistance failed to correlate with those in PvCO2 (P = 0.76) or PvO2 (P = 0.28). The results demonstrate that the triptans investigated robustly produced carotid vasoconstriction, but elicited less consistent decreases in VOS and increases in jugular PvCO2, possibly suggestive of distinct mechanisms. Collectively, the data suggest that triptan-induced increases in arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carbon dioxide partial pressure in venous blood draining the head are class effects. PMID:12954804

  11. Biometric Authentication Using Infrared Imaging of Hand Vein Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Shrotri, A.; Rethrekar, S. C.; Patil, M. H.; Alisherov, Farkhod A.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches for vein authentication, these are hand dorsa and hand ventral. Currently we are working on hand dorsa vein patterns. Here we are putting forward the new approach for low cost hand dorsa vein pattern acquisition using low cost device and proposing a algorithm to extract features from these low quality images.

  12. Integration of jugular venous return and circle of Willis in a theoretical human model of selective brain cooling.

    PubMed

    Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2007-11-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model was developed to examine the induction of selective brain cooling (SBC) in the human brain by intracarotid cold (2.8 degrees C) saline infusion (ICSI) at 30 ml/min. The Pennes bioheat equation was used to propagate brain temperature. The effect of cooled jugular venous return was investigated, along with the effect of the circle of Willis (CoW) on the intracerebral temperature distribution. The complete CoW, missing A1 variant (mA1), and fetal P1 variant (fP1) were simulated. ICSI induced moderate hypothermia (defined as 32-34 degrees C) in the internal carotid artery (ICA) territory within 5 min. Incorporation of the complete CoW resulted in a similar level of hypothermia in the ICA territory. In addition, the anterior communicating artery and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery distributed cool blood to the contralateral anterior and ipsilateral posterior territories, respectively, imparting mild hypothermia (35 and 35.5 degrees C respectively). The mA1 and fP1 variants allowed for sufficient cooling of the middle cerebral territory (30-32 degrees C). The simulations suggest that ICSI is feasible and may be the fastest method of inducing hypothermia. Moreover, the effect of convective heat transfer via the complete CoW and its variants underlies the important role of CoW anatomy in intracerebral temperature distributions during SBC. PMID:17761787

  13. Tracing of Paleoseismic Events in the Eastern Mediterranean: U-series Dating and Stable Isotope Studies of Syntectonic Carbonate Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuriel, P.; Weinberger, R.; Rosenbaum, G.; Golding, S. D.; Zhao, J.; Uysal, T. I.; Gross, M. R.; Karabacak, V.

    2008-12-01

    We analysed syntectonic carbonate-filled fissures and veins from three key localities in the eastern Mediterranean, including the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) in SW Turkey, and the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) in northern and southern Israel. Fracture mineralization formed in two ways. Carbonates were precipitated from earthquake-mobilized fluids in syntectonic fissures, or from carbonate-enriched meteoric water in opening-mode fractures. By studying the isotopic records and ages of mineralized fractures, one may differentiate between these two mechanisms, which in turn may contribute to the understanding of paleoseismic activity along these major plate-boundary faults. Field observations indicate that all of the fissures and veins are related to fault-zone deformation along the adjacent plate boundary transforms. We observed fault planes with slickenlines and syntectonic fissure and vein structures filled with carbonate material in the central EAFZ, in SW Turkey. In the DSFZ in northern Israel, a carbonate-filled vein system strikes ~ E-W. The veins are 2 to 60 cm thick and several meters to >20 m high. They are characterized by vertical bands of calcite crystals aligned parallel to vein walls and show no evidence of shearing, thus, reflecting ~N-S extension. We also sampled carbonate minerals from tension gashes and other asymmetrical features from the DSFZ in southern Israel. Our U-Th dating results from the three localities sampled along the DSFZ and EAFZ systems indicate that active deformation occurred between 450 ka and 17 ka ago. The maximum opening rate of veins in northern Israel is on the order of 0.45 mm/ka, and likely represents an extensional response to convergent strike-slip motion along the sinistral Dead Sea fault. Results from the stable isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) indicate that water-rock interaction occurred at various temperatures and/or involved different types of fluids. Petrographic observations of calcite-filled veins in samples

  14. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  15. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  16. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  17. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  18. Stent fracture in the left brachiocephalic vein.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Shiba, Masanori; Tsuji, Takahiro; Iijima, Raisuke; Nakajima, Rintaro; Yoshitama, Takashi; Hara, Hidehiko; Hara, Hisao; Tsunoda, Taro; Nakamura, Masato

    2007-01-01

    A 68-year-old male hemodialysis patient presented with severe congestion in his left arm. Left arm venography showed a completely occluded left brachiocephalic vein. We chose a self-expandable stent for treating this vein. However, restenosis occurred once at 8 months and again after six additional months. The cause of the restenosis was considered to be a stent fracture. On the first restenosis, we performed redilation with a balloon; on the second restenosis, we chose stent-in-stent with a balloon-expandable stent. At least 9 months after the stent-in-stent procedure, there has been no edema in his left arm. Therefore, stent-in-stent is one of the useful strategies for stent fracture in central venous obstruction. PMID:17574169

  19. Emergency intravenous access through the femoral vein.

    PubMed

    Swanson, R S; Uhlig, P N; Gross, P L; McCabe, C J

    1984-04-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of femoral venous catheterization for resuscitation of critically ill patients in the emergency department setting. From May 1982 to April 1983, 100 attempts were made at percutaneous insertion of a large-bore catheter into the femoral veins of patients presenting to our emergency department in cardiac arrest or requiring rapid fluid resuscitation. Eighty-nine attempts were successful. Insertion was generally considered easy, and flow rates were excellent. The only noted complications were four arterial punctures and one minor groin hematoma. This study suggests that short-term percutaneous catheterization of the femoral vein provides rapid, safe, and effective intravenous access. PMID:6703430

  20. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-26

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  1. [How to do: central vein catheterization].

    PubMed

    Allgäuer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The cannulation of a central vein is a standard acces to the vascular system of critically ill patients. It can be used for administration of medication and parenteral nutrition, haemodynamic monitoring as well as hemodialsis via Shaldon catheter.The technique of implantation of a central venous catheter is described step by step in this article. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques and puncture sites as well as indications and contraindications are critically discussed regarding the most recent literature. PMID:26939103

  2. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K

    2006-05-12

    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  3. Percutaneous Transumbilical Portal Vein Embolization in a Patient with a Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by the portal vein that was successfully treated with portal vein embolization via a percutaneous transumbilical approach. A contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed the presence of a large hypervascular tumor on portal venous phase as well as right hepatic vein thrombosis and hemoperitoneum that prevented portal vein embolization by the use of the percutaneous and transjugular transhepatic approach. The use of percutaneous transumbilical portal vein embolization can be an alternative option in this situation.

  4. Comparison between mechanical properties of human saphenous vein and umbilical vein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a main cause of mortality in developed countries, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is known as silent killer with a considerable cost to be dedicated for its treatment. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is a common remedy for CAD for which different blood vessels are used as a detour. There is a lack of knowledge about mechanical properties of human blood vessels used for CABG, and while these properties have a great impact on long-term patency of a CABG. Thus, studying these properties, especially those of human umbilical veins which have not been considered yet, looks utterly necessary. Methods Umbilical vein, as well as human Saphenous vein, are respectively obtained after cesarean and CABG. First, histological tests were performed to investigate different fiber contents of the samples. Having prepared samples carefully, force-displacement results of samples were rendered to real stress–strain measurements and then a fourth-order polynomial was used to prove the non-linear behavior of these two vessels. Results Results were analyzed in two directions, i.e. circumferentially and longitudinally, which then were compared with each other. The comparison between stiffness and elasticity of these veins showed that Saphenous vein’s stiffness is much higher than that of umbilical vein and also, it is less stretchable. Furthermore, for both vessels, longitudinal stiffness was higher than that of circumferential and in stark contrast, stretch ratio in circumferential direction came much higher than longitudinal orientation. Conclusion Blood pressure is very high in the region of aorta, so there should be a stiff blood vessel in this area and previous investigations showed that stiffer vessels would have a better influence on the flow of bypass. To this end, the current study has made an attempt to compare these two blood vessels’ stiffness, finding that Saphenous vein is stiffer than umbilical vein which is somehow as stiff as rat aortic vessels. As

  5. The vertebral venous plexuses: the internal veins are muscular and external veins have valves.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Mark D; Restieaux, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda L; Crosado, Brynley

    2012-07-01

    The internal and external vertebral venous plexuses (VVP) extend the length of the vertebral column. Authoritative sources state that these veins are devoid of valves, permitting bidirectional blood flow and facilitating the hematogenous spread of malignant tumors that have venous connections with these plexuses. The aim of this investigation was to identify morphologic features that might influence blood flow in the VVP. The VVP of 12 adult cadavers (seven female, mean age 79.5 years) were examined by macro- and micro-dissection and representative veins removed for histology and immunohistochemistry (smooth muscle antibody staining). A total of 26, mostly bicuspid, valves were identified in 19 of 56 veins (34%) from the external VVP, all orientated to promote blood flow towards the internal VVP. The internal VVP was characterized by four main longitudinal channels with transverse interconnections; the maximum caliber of the longitudinal anterior internal VVP veins was significantly greater than their posterior counterparts (P < 0.001). The luminal architecture of the internal VVP veins was striking, consisting of numerous bridging trabeculae (cords, thin membranes and thick bridges) predominantly within the longitudinal venous channels. Trabeculae were composed of collagen and smooth muscle and also contained numerous small arteries and nerve fibers. A similar internal venous trabecular meshwork is known to exist within the dural venous sinuses of the skull. It may serve to prevent venous overdistension or collapse, to regulate the direction and velocity of venous blood flow, or is possibly involved in thermoregulation or other homeostatic processes. PMID:21976364

  6. Evolution of the three-dimensional collagen structure in vascular walls during deformation: an in situ mechanical testing under multiphoton microscopy observation.

    PubMed

    Nierenberger, Mathieu; Fargier, Guillaume; Ahzi, Saïd; Rémond, Yves

    2015-08-01

    The collagen fibers' three-dimensional architecture has a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of biological tissues. To accurately model this behavior, it is necessary to get some knowledge about the structure of the collagen network. In the present paper, we focus on the in situ characterization of the collagenous structure, which is present in porcine jugular vein walls. An observation of the vessel wall is first proposed in an unloaded configuration. The vein is then put into a mechanical tensile testing device. As the vein is stretched, three-dimensional images of its collagenous structure are acquired using multiphoton microscopy. Orientation analyses are provided for the multiple images recorded during the mechanical test. From these analyses, the reorientation of the two families of collagen fibers existing in the vein wall is quantified. We noticed that the reorientation of the fibers stops as the tissue stiffness starts decreasing, corresponding to the onset of damage. Besides, no relevant evolutions of the out of plane collagen orientations were observed. Due to the applied loading, our analysis also allowed for linking the stress relaxation within the tissue to its internal collagenous structure. Finally, this analysis constitutes the first mechanical test performed under a multiphoton microscope with a continuous three-dimensional observation of the tissue structure all along the test. It allows for a quantitative evaluation of microstructural parameters combined with a measure of the global mechanical behavior. Such data are useful for the development of structural mechanical models for living tissues. PMID:25358413

  7. Conditions for veining in the Barrandian Basin (Lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic: evidence from fluid inclusion and apatite fission track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, V.; Dobes, P.; Filip, J.; Stejskal, M.; Zeman, A.

    2002-04-01

    The interplay between fracture propagation and fluid composition and circulation has been examined by deciphering vein sequences in Silurian and Devonian limestones and shales at Kosov quarry in the Barrandian Basin. Three successive vein generations were recognised that can be attributed to different stages of a basinal cycle. Almost all generations of fracture cements host abundant liquid hydrocarbon inclusions that indicate repeated episodes of petroleum migration through the strata during burial, tectonic compression and uplift. The earliest veins that propagated prior to folding were displacive fibrous "beef" calcite veins occurring parallel to the bedding of some shale beds. Hydrocarbon inclusions within calcite possess homogenisation temperatures between 58 and 68 °C and show that the "beef" calcites originated in the deeper burial environment, during early petroleum migration from overpressured shales. E-W-striking extension veins that postdate "beef" calcite formed in response to Variscan orogenic deformations. Based on apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) data and other geological evidence, the veins probably formed 380-315 Ma ago, roughly coinciding with peak burial heating of the strata, folding and the intrusion of Variscan synorogenic granites. The veins that crosscut diagenetic cements and low-amplitude stylolites in host limestones are oriented semi-vertically to the bedding plane and are filled with cloudy, twinned calcite, idiomorphic smoky quartz and residues of hardened bitumen. Calcite and quartz cements contain abundant blue and blue-green-fluorescing primary inclusions of liquid hydrocarbons that homogenise between 50 and 110 °C. Geochemical characteristics of the fluids as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, particularly the presence of olefins and parent aromatic hydrocarbons (phenonthrene), suggest that the oil entrapped in the inclusions experienced intense but geologically fast heating that resulted in thermal pyrolysis

  8. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Ryuhei; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Jun; Deguchi, Juno; Miyata, Tetsuro

    2009-04-14

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm{sup 2}, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10{sup -5}. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  9. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  10. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  11. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist® was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  12. Auxin Is Required for Leaf Vein Pattern in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Sieburth, Leslie E.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate possible roles of polar auxin transport in vein patterning, cotyledon and leaf vein patterns were compared for plants grown in medium containing polar auxin transport inhibitors (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) and in medium containing a less well-characterized inhibitor of auxin-mediated processes, 2-(p-chlorophynoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid. Cotyledon vein pattern was not affected by any inhibitor treatments, although vein morphology was altered. In contrast, leaf vein pattern was affected by inhibitor treatments. Growth in polar auxin transport inhibitors resulted in leaves that lacked vascular continuity through the petiole and had broad, loosely organized midveins, an increased number of secondary veins, and a dense band of misshapen tracheary elements adjacent to the leaf margin. Analysis of leaf vein pattern developmental time courses suggested that the primary vein did not develop in polar auxin transport inhibitor-grown plants, and that the broad midvein observed in these seedlings resulted from the coalescence of proximal regions of secondary veins. Possible models for leaf vein patterning that could account for these observations are discussed. PMID:10594105

  13. Auxin is required for leaf vein pattern in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sieburth, L E

    1999-12-01

    To investigate possible roles of polar auxin transport in vein patterning, cotyledon and leaf vein patterns were compared for plants grown in medium containing polar auxin transport inhibitors (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) and in medium containing a less well-characterized inhibitor of auxin-mediated processes, 2-(p-chlorophynoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid. Cotyledon vein pattern was not affected by any inhibitor treatments, although vein morphology was altered. In contrast, leaf vein pattern was affected by inhibitor treatments. Growth in polar auxin transport inhibitors resulted in leaves that lacked vascular continuity through the petiole and had broad, loosely organized midveins, an increased number of secondary veins, and a dense band of misshapen tracheary elements adjacent to the leaf margin. Analysis of leaf vein pattern developmental time courses suggested that the primary vein did not develop in polar auxin transport inhibitor-grown plants, and that the broad midvein observed in these seedlings resulted from the coalescence of proximal regions of secondary veins. Possible models for leaf vein patterning that could account for these observations are discussed. PMID:10594105

  14. On the phenomenology of the perforating vein of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    The perforating veins, as the name suggests, are the veins that perforate the muscular aponeuroses ensuring communication between the superficial and the deep veins. Located at the bend of the elbow, almost constantly, there is a vein, named perforating vein of the elbow, which is of great interest to the nephrologist who is responsible for the management of vascular access for hemodialysis (HD). It represents, in fact, because of its intrinsic characteristics and topographical reasons, a valuable resource for the creation of a vascular access for HD, especially in obese patients, elderly patients, diabetics, and patients affected by peripheral vasculopathy. Arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) constructed with the perforating vein of the elbow are relatively easy to perform, have an excellent patency rate, a low incidence of early thrombosis, adequate flows, and a low incidence of the steal syndrome. In other types of AVFs, the perforating vein of the elbow subtracts flow to the superficial veins slowing or preventing their full maturation, and can become a problem in measuring the blood flow of the AVF. But still, its presence can maintain patent a fistula in case of poor compliance of the superficial veins, while awaiting for interventional procedures able to accelerate a subsequent maturation. This review intends to explore the role that the perforating vein of the elbow plays in the physiology and pathology of the AVF, in relation to the issues that most frequently occur in clinical practice. PMID:19573011

  15. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as

  16. Endovenectomy of the common femoral vein and intraoperative iliac vein recanalization for chronic iliofemoral venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Comerota, Anthony J; Grewal, Nina K; Thakur, Subhash; Assi, Zacaria

    2010-07-01

    Chronic postthrombotic occlusion of the iliofemoral venous segments produces severe morbidity, which can be alleviated if venous drainage is restored. The common femoral vein (CFV) cannot always be fully recanalized with percutaneous endovenous techniques alone. We report the technique combining operative endovenectomy and patch venoplasty of the CFV with intraoperative iliac vein venoplasty and stenting to restore unobstructed venous drainage from the infrainguinal venous system to the vena cava. This procedure led to reduced pain, edema, and healing of a long-standing venous ulcer, with a marked reduction in postthrombotic morbidity. PMID:20620770

  17. Short- and Long-Term Prognostic Implications of Jugular Venous Distension in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Fernando; Berkovitch, Anat; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Rott, David; Arbel, Yaron; Elis, Avishai; Klempfner, Robert

    2016-07-15

    The present study was designed to assess the role of jugular venous distension (JVD) as a predictor of short- and long-term mortality in a "real-life" setting. The independent association between the presence of admission JVD and the 30-day, 1- and 10-year mortality was assessed among 2,212 patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) who were enrolled in the Heart Failure Survey in Israel (2003). Independent predictors of JVD finding in study patients included: the presence of significant hyponatremia (odds ratio [OR] 1.48; p = 0.03), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction ([LVEF] OR 1.24; p = 0.03), anemia (OR 1.3; p = 0.01), New York Heart Association III to IV (OR 1.34; p <0.01) and age >75 years (OR 1.32; p = 0.01). The presence of JVD versus its absence at the time of HF hospitalization was associated with increased 30-day mortality (7.2% vs 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.02), 1-year (33% vs 28%, respectively; p <0.001), and greater 10-year mortality (91.8% vs 87.2%, respectively; p <0.001). Consistently, interaction term analysis demonstrated that the presence of JVD at the time of the index HF hospitalization was independently associated with a significant increased risk for 10-year mortality, with a more pronounced effect among younger patients, patients with reduced LVEF, preserved renal function, and chronic HF. In conclusion, in patients admitted with HF, JVD is associated with specific risk factors and is independently associated with increased risk of both short- and long-term mortality. These findings can be used for improved risk assessment and management of this high-risk population. PMID:27287063

  18. Stereotactic LINAC-Radiosurgery for Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Long-Term Follow-Up of 27 Patients

    PubMed Central

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Hunsche, Stefan; Igressa, Alhadi; Kocher, Martin; Sturm, Volker; Maarouf, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) remains controversial. Due to the critical location, microsurgery still provides high treatment-related morbidity and a decreased quality of life. Thus, we performed stereotactical radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of GJTs and evaluated the long-term outcome. Methods Between 1991 and 2011, 32 patients with GJTs underwent SRS using a linear accelerator (LINAC) either as primary or salvage therapy. Twenty-seven patients (median age 59.9 years, range 28.7–79.9 years) with a follow-up greater than five years (median 11 years, range 5.3–22.1 years) were selected for retrospective analysis. The median therapeutic single dose applied to the tumor surface was 15 Gy (range 11–20 Gy) and the median tumor volume was 9.5 ml (range 2.8–51 ml). Results Following LINAC-SRS, 10 of 27 patients showed a significant improvement of their previous neurological complaints, whereas 12 patients remained unchanged. Five patients died during follow-up due to old age or other, not treatment-related reasons. MR-imaging showed a partial remission in 12 and a stable disease in 15 patients. No tumor progression was observed. The actuarial overall survival rates after five, ten and 20 years were 100%, 95.2% and 79.4%, respectively. Conclusions Stereotactic LINAC-Radiosurgery can achieve an excellent long-term tumor control beside a low rate of morbidity in the treatment of GJTs. It should be considered as an alternative therapy regime to surgical resection or fractionated external beam radiation either as primary, adjuvant or salvage therapy. PMID:26069957

  19. Analysis of Pulmonary Vein Antrums Motion with Cardiac Contraction Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    de Guise, Jacques; Vu, Toni; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Blais, Danis; Lebeau, Martin; Nguyen, Nhu-Tram; Roberge, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of displacement of the pulmonary vein antrums resulting from the intrinsic motion of the heart using 4D cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Methods: Ten consecutive female patients were enrolled in this prospective planning study. In breath-hold, a contrast-injected cardiac 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) synchronized to the electrocardiogram was obtained using a prospective sequential acquisition method including the extreme phases of systole and diastole. Right and left atrial fibrillation target volumes (CTVR and CTVL) were defined, with each target volume containing the antral regions of the superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Four points of interest were used as surrogates for the right superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (RSPVA and RIPVA) and the left superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (LSPVA and LIPVA). On our 4D post-processing workstation (MIM Maestro™, MIM Software Inc.), maximum displacement of each point of interest from diastole to systole was measured in the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions. Results: Median age of the enrolled patients was 60 years (range, 56-71 years). Within the CTVR, the mean displacements of the superior and inferior surrogates were 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.002), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 0 mm (p=0.00001), in the ML, AP, and SI directions, respectively. On the left, mean absolute displacements of the LSPVA vs. LIPVA were similar at 4 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.0008), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.00001) in the ML, AP, and SI directions. Conclusion: When isolated from breathing, cardiac contraction is associated with minimal inferior pulmonary veins motion and modest (1-6 mm) motion of the superior veins. Target deformation was thus of a magnitude similar or greater than target motion, limiting the potential gains of cardiac tracking. Optimal strategies for cardiac

  20. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  1. Microstructural Character and Stable Isotope Signatures of Calcite Veins in the Mis and SMS Sedimentary Rock Cores, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Paulsen, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    The two drilling projects in the ANDRILL portfolio, the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project and the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) project, successfully recovered 1285 and 1138 m respectively of Neogene sedimentary core from the Victoria Land rift basin in Antarctica. The MIS core contains 1475 faults, veins, and clastic dikes, with veins making nearly half of this population. Of the 1050 natural fractures logged in the SMS core, just over half of them were characterized as veins. This study combines microscopic study of textures and crosscutting relationships between veins, cements, and microstructures to determine the evolution of fluid sources relative to the deformation history during rifting. Isotopic analysis of carbonate fracture fills has been completed in order to discriminate whether fluids precipitated from the glacial melt-waters or from some other hydrological regime. Opening-mode fibrous veins, pressure shadows on clast margins and small and diffuse, anastomosing vein swarms are common. Most veins are filled by calcite, although zeolite and late-stage pyrite are also common. Many calcite veins are associated with discrete faults and have conjugate geometries, dip-slip slickenfibers, and calcite filled voids along pull-aparts, indicating veins formed during fault displacement. In the MIS core, fibrous opening-mode are commonly wavy to tightly folded, indicating the host sediment was cohesive enough to fracture but was not fully lithified, and accommodated vein buckling during compaction. Veins commonly exhibit multiple generations of calcite fill and many are strongly twinned. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows minor changes in color and intensity and minimal zoning of calcite vein fill, suggesting relatively rapid crystallization of fluids of similar chemistry. However, stable isotope analyses reveal large variations in values: in the MIS core, oxygen values range from -5.35 to -11.97 (VPDB) and carbon values range from -7.15 to -21.91 (VPDB); the SMS

  2. Chemical gradients and progressive veining in a partly serpentinized harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther; Caddick, Mark; Beard, James; Bodnar, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks constitute a major part of the oceanic lithosphere. They form when water interacts with olivine and pyroxene to produce a dense network of veins comprised of secondary minerals: Serpentine + brucite ± magnetite veins occur in olivine, Al-rich serpentine + talc veins occur in orthopyroxene, and Al-rich serpentine ± talc ± brucite veins occur at the boundary between orthopyroxene and olivine. Here, we present a detailed study on a harzburgite from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica that is ~30% serpentinized in order to provide new constraints on the effect of variable water (H2O) and silica (SiO2) activities on vein formation in peridotites. The studied sample records 1) mineralogical and chemical zonations in olivine-hosted veins that show a distinct pattern with increasing width of the veins (consumption of olivine), 2) varying brucite composition depending on whether or not it is associated with magnetite, and 3) chemical gradients in Si, Al, Cr, and Ca at the boundary between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. These observed chemical variations suggest fluid mediated mass transport within and between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. We use thermodynamic models to show that an increase in vein width and progressive evolution of olivine-hosted veins is accompanied by an increase in water-rock ratios. This is associated with the development of chemical gradients (e.g. gradients in water and silica activity) between the fluid-rich center of serpentine veins and the olivine grain boundaries as typically expressed by the abundance of brucite in the vein center and a dominance of serpentine at the boundary with olivine. The increase in water-rock ratios within the vein center also leads to the formation of magnetite from Fe-rich brucite ± Fe-rich serpentine. Mass transfer between vein core and vein rim may exist on the submicron-scale along grain boundaries of the finely intergrown serpentine-brucite mixture. We

  3. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  4. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, P O

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium. PMID:18517590

  5. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  6. Tracing the evolution of crustal-scale, transient permeability in a tectonically active, mid-crustal, low-permeability environment by means of quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, M.

    2013-12-01

    In mid-crustal, low-permeability environments pervasive fluid flow is primarily driven by the production of internally-derived metamorphic fluids, causing a near permanent state of near-lithostatic fluid-pressure conditions. In a tectonically active crust, these overpressured fluids will generate intermittently an enhanced permeability that will facilitate fluid flow through the crust. The High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, France, Germany) can be considered as a fossil (late Palaeozoic) analogue of such mid-crustal, low-permeability environment at the brittle-plastic transition (depth range from 7 to 15 km). Low-grade metamorphic (250°C-350°C), predominantly fine-grained, siliciclastic metasediments were affected by a contraction-dominated deformation, materialized by a pervasive slaty cleavage. Quartz veins, abundantly present in the slate belt, are used as a proxy for the enhanced permeability. Detailed structural, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical studies of different quartz-vein occurrences has enabled to reconstruct the evolution of the crustal-scale permeability , as well as to constrain the coupled fluid-pressure and stress-state evolution throughout the orogenic history. Extensive veining on a regional scale seems confined to periods of tectonic stress inversion, both at the onset (compressional stress inversion) and in the final stages (extensional stress inversion) of orogeny. Firstly, compressional stress inversion is expressed by pre-orogenic bedding-normal extension veins, consistently arranged in parallel arrays, followed by early orogenic bedding-parallel hybrid veins. Fluid-inclusion studies demonstrate near-lithostatic to supralithostatic fluid pressures, respectively. Secondly, discordant veins, transecting the pre-existing cleavage fabric, are interpreted to be initiated shortly after the extensional stress inversion, reflecting the late-orogenic extensional destabilisation of the slate belt. Veining again occurred at high fluid

  7. Incomplete transposition of the common femoral artery and vein.

    PubMed

    Leite, J O; Carvalho Ventura, I; Botelho, F E; Costa Galvao, W

    2010-02-01

    Anatomical variations of the great saphenous vein, femoral artery and femoral vein at the inguinal level are rare. Modifications in the anatomical relationships among theses vessel can cause technical difficulties. There are two reports in the literature of the complete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Both patients had large varicose veins only in the limb that presented the variation, which suggested an extrinsic compression. In the present paper, we report a case study of a patient with an incomplete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Specifically, the common femoral vein and the saphenofemoral junction were completely overlapped by the common femoral artery. Although this anatomical variation did not present any clinical signs, it required a more complex surgical procedure. PMID:20224538

  8. Frictional melting processes and the generation of shock veins in terrestrial impact structures: Evidence from the Steen River impact structure, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Erin L.; Sharp, Thomas G.; Hu, Jinping

    2016-05-01

    Shock-produced melt within crystalline basement rocks of the Steen River impact structure (SRIS) are observed as thin (1-510 μm wide), interlocking networks of dark veins which cut across and displace host rock minerals. Solid-state phase transformations, such as ferro-pargasite to an almandine-andradite-majorite garnet and amorphization of quartz and feldspar, are observed in zones adjacent to comparatively wider (50-500 μm) sections of the shock veins. Shock pressure estimates based on the coupled substitution of Na+, Ti4+ and Si4+ for divalent cations, Al3+ and Cr3+ in garnet (14-19 GPa) and the pressure required for plagioclase (Ab62-83) amorphization at elevated temperature (14-20 GPa) are not appreciably different from those recorded by deformation effects observed in non-veined regions of the bulk rock (14-20 GPa). This spatial distribution is the result of an elevated temperature gradient experienced by host rock minerals in contact with larger volumes of impact-generated melt and large deviatoric stresses experienced by minerals along vein margins. Micrometer-size equant crystals of almandine-pyrope-majorite garnet define the shock vein matrix, consistent with rapid quench (100-200 ms) at 7.5-10 GPa. Crystallization of the vein occurred during a 0.1-0.15 s shock pressure pulse. Majoritic garnet, formed during shock compression by solid state transformation of pargasite along shock vein margins, is observed in TEM bright field images as nanometer-size gouge particles produced at strain rates in the supersonic field (106-108). These crystals are embedded in vesiculated glass, and this texture is interpreted as continued movement and heating along slip planes during pressure release. The deformation of high-pressure minerals formed during shock compression may be the first evidence of oscillatory slip in natural shock veins, which accounts for the production of friction melt via shear when little or no appreciable displacement is observed. Our observations

  9. Science Linking Pulmonary Veins and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Saagar; Sacher, Frederic; Derval, Nicolas; Berte, Benjamin; Yamashita, Seigo; Hooks, Darren; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic basis of atrial fibrillation (AF). One of the most important discoveries in this context has been that pulmonary veins (PV) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AF. PV isolation has since become the most widely used technique for treatment of paroxysmal AF. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of PVs create a proarrhythmogenic substrate. The following review discusses the mechanistic links between PVs and AF. PMID:26835098

  10. Science Linking Pulmonary Veins and Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mahida, Saagar; Sacher, Frederic; Derval, Nicolas; Berte, Benjamin; Yamashita, Seigo; Hooks, Darren; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic basis of atrial fibrillation (AF). One of the most important discoveries in this context has been that pulmonary veins (PV) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AF. PV isolation has since become the most widely used technique for treatment of paroxysmal AF. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of PVs create a proarrhythmogenic substrate. The following review discusses the mechanistic links between PVs and AF. PMID:26835098

  11. Saphenous vein graft aneurysm: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Ahmet Seyfeddin; Ozturk, Semi; Acar, Emrah; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kilicgedik, Alev; Kirma, Cevat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Saphenous vein graft aneurysms (SVGAs) are rare seen issues after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation which may lead to major complications including compression of adjacent structure, myocardial ischemia, rupture, and even death. CASE REPORT We report a patient with recurrent SVGA and its treatment by percutaneous intervention with a covered stent, the diagnostic and treatment procedure were based on contrast enhanced computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). CONCLUSION Multimodality imaging is required to demonstrate the true size and complications of the SVGA, the relationship among the adjacent structure, and to assess ischemia and size of myocardial territory supplied by the aneurysmal graft to decide treatment strategy.

  12. Switching deformation mode during natural faulting in Carrara marbles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molli, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A study on meso- and microstructural features of a high angle normal fault observed in the Alpi Apuane NW Tuscany (Italy) is presented to document switching in the deformation mode during different evolutionary stages of a fault zone growth in naturally deformed Carrara marble. The studied fault was formed at c.3 Km of depth and belongs to structures related to the most recent deformation history of the Alpi Apuane metamorphic core (from c.4 Ma until now, Fellin et al. 2007; Molli, 2008). On the basis of deformation mechanisms and their chronology interpreted from cross-cutting relationships, different stages of the fault zone evolution have been recognized. An early stage of deformation (stage 1) was associated with extensional and shear veins now observable in both hangingwall and footwall blocks as part of the deformation zone developed at decameter-scale. Geochemical data indicate vein-development in a locally closed system where a "stationary" fluid phase migrates over meter scale distances (Molli et al., in press). During stage 2, a localization of the deformation, possibly in precursory coarse grained calcite/quartz shear veins of stage 1, took place. During this second stage crystal-plastic deformation affected areas at the head and along the hanging wall rim of fractures accommodating fault tip distorsions in a way recalling the mode-II geometry of stable crack propagation (Atkinson, 1987; Vermilye and Scholtz, 1993; Kim et al., 2004). Following pervasive cataclasis (stage 3) characterizes a plurimeter-wide dilational jog between two non-parallel main slip surfaces with brecciation and far-derived fluids channelling leading to significant geochemical alteration of the fault rocks with respect to the protolith (Molli et al., in press). Cataclastic deformation produced a grain size refinement and a decimetric thick fault core asymmetrically bounded by the upper main slip surface. Deformation was then localized within ultracataclasite of the fault core where

  13. Computed tomography findings in pseudothrombosis of the iliofemoral vein.

    PubMed

    Desai, Gaurav; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Webb, Emily M; Coakley, Fergus V

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography findings in 3 patients with apparent thrombosis of an iliofemoral vein due to mixing artifact related to venous collateral formation are presented, 1 with portosystemic collaterals and 2 with collaterals secondary to subclavian vein thrombosis. Mixing artifact or asymmetric enhancement related to collateral formation should be considered for an apparent thrombus in the iliofemoral vein. Examination of axial and reformatted images may facilitate recognition and help avoid an erroneous diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. PMID:20118738

  14. Endovenous saphenous vein ablation in patients with acute isolated superficial-vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The possible benefits of endovenous saphenous ablation (EVSA) as initial treatment in patients presenting with isolated superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT) and saphenous vein reflux include: (1) definitive treatment of the underlying pathology and (2) elimination of the saphenous vein as a path for pulmonary emboli, which (3) may eliminate the need for anticoagulation. Methods: In a ten-year review of 115 limbs presenting with acute isolated SVT, 72 limbs (71 patients) with saphenous reflux were given a choice of two treatments following an explanation of the risks and benefits of each. Group I limbs (n = 41) were treated with office EVSA using radiofrequency or laser with or without thrombophlebectomy if performed within 45 days of diagnosis. Post-treatment anticoagulants were not given. Group II limbs (n = 31) were treated with compression hose and repeat Duplex within one week, with added anticoagulants if SVT extended into the thigh. Results: In group I, mean interval from diagnosis to treatment was 13.7 days. One calf deep vein thrombosis was noted. In group II no complications were noted. In late follow-up of group II patients, 12/29 underwent EVSA more than 45 days after initial presentation. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of EVSA and thrombophlebectomy appear indistinguishable from conservative measures and may be offered as initial treatment to patients presenting with SVT and saphenous reflux. PMID:24307241

  15. The fate of calf perforator veins after saphenous vein laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess hemodynamic changes in calf perforator veins (PVs) after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of saphenous veins. METHODS The series comprised 60 limbs of 41 patients (27 female, 14 male; median age, 43 years [range, 22–78 years]) who underwent EVLA for varicose veins. All patients were prospectively evaluated by means of color Doppler ultrasonography before and after the procedure. RESULTS EVLA did not change the rate of incompetent PVs (preoperatively, 154/483 [32%] vs. postoperatively, 167/501 [33%]; P = 0.173), but significantly increased the total number of all PVs (n=483 vs. n=501, P = 0.036). Following EVLA, 28% of the limbs had thrombosis of PVs, 34% had new US-detectable PVs, 42% showed new competency, and 52% showed new incompetency. New competent PVs were found more commonly in the medial leg (ablation site) than the lateral leg (nonablation site) (28.3% vs. 11.7%, P = 0.016), while new incompetent PVs were found more commonly in nonablation site than ablation site (31.7% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.086). Additionally, new competent PVs in the posterior leg were found more often in patients who had small saphenous vein ablation than patients who did not (30% vs. 0%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION EVLA induces numerous changes in calf PVs. These changes seem to result from flow offloading in ablation site and onloading in nonablation site in the early postablation period. PMID:26268299

  16. [Role of embryogenesis of the left renal vein and spermatic veins in etiopathogenesis of idiopathic varicocele].

    PubMed

    Gioffrè, L; Bosco, M R; Meloni, V

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this work was to clearly illustrate that the haemodynamic pathogenesis of the varicocele can be a consequence of a retrograde flux along the internal spermatic vein. The reflux is due to the use of a different path of drainage along the internal spermatic vein, which uses some collateral routes of the vessel, and mainly the nephrogenital branch. The diminishing pressure in the final segment of the internal spermatic vein is the focal points of the pathogenesis of the disease. The ontogenetic processes that lead to the formation of the left renal vein help in explaining the almost general one-sidedness of the disorder, its frequency and the fact that it is mostly the young who are affected by it. In fact, the variability of the timing and of the extension of the involution of the primitive venous system and of the processes of evolution which lead to the morphological definition of the tracts of the genital flow down, lead to the various manifestations of the idiopathic varicocele. This theory which also takes into account the physiological mechanisms of the venous drainage to the testicle in an anti-gravitation sense is part of the patterns that, under the diaphragm, rule the entire venous return of the blood toward to the heart. PMID:11816942

  17. Gene therapy for the prevention of vein graft disease

    PubMed Central

    Southerland, Kevin W.; Frazier, Sarah B.; Bowles, Dawn E.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in the medical management of atherosclerosis over the past several decades, many patients require arterial revascularization to reduce mortality and alleviate ischemic symptoms. Technological advancements have led to dramatic increases in the use of percutaneous and endovascular approaches, yet surgical revascularization (bypass surgery) with autologous vein grafts remains a mainstay of therapy for both coronary and peripheral artery disease. Although bypass surgery is highly efficacious in the short-term, long-term outcomes are limited by relatively high failure rates as a result of intimal hyperplasia, which is a common feature of vein graft disease. The supply of native veins is limited, and many individuals require multiple grafts and repeat procedures. The need to prevent vein graft failure has led to great interest in gene therapy approaches to this problem. Bypass grafting presents an ideal opportunity for gene therapy, as surgically harvested vein grafts can be treated with gene delivery vectors ex vivo, thereby maximizing gene delivery while minimizing the potential for systemic toxicity and targeting the pathogenesis of vein graft disease at its onset. Here we will review the pathogenesis of vein graft disease and discuss vector delivery strategies and potential molecular targets for its prevention. We will summarize the preclinical and clinical literature on gene therapy in vein grafting and discuss additional considerations for future therapies to prevent vein graft disease. PMID:23274305

  18. Portal vein involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma: dynamic CT features

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, D.; Grenier, P.; Larde, D.; Vasile, N.

    1984-07-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective examination of 62 hepatocellular carcinomas, taking dynamic CT scans of selected sections after an intravenous contrast bolus. The proximal portal vein was involved in 40% of cases and distal segment in 16%. Angiographic correlation was available in 23 patients. The characteristic appearance of tumor within the portal vein was noted in many cases; in others, distinction between tumor and bland thrombus could not be made. Peripheral portal vein obstruction was suggested when a small, hypervascular tumor became hypodense during the portal phase of CT. The frequency and significance of these CT signs of portal vein involvement are discussed.

  19. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  20. Finger-Vein Verification Based on Multi-Features Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  1. Multiple deformation mechanisms operating at seismogenic depths: Tectonic pseudotachylyte and associated deformation from the central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prante, M. R.; Evans, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Description and identification of fault-related deformation products that are diagnostic of seismic slip have implications for the energy budget of earthquakes, fault strength, and fault-rock assemblages. We describe tectonic pseduotachylyte, cataclastic rocks, crystal-plastic deformation, and hydrothermal alteration form faults exhumed from seismogenic depths in the Volcanic Lakes area, in northern Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, CA, USA. Fault rock protoliths include Mesozoic granite and granodiorite plutonic and limited metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. These plutonic and metamorphic rocks are cross-cut by the E-W striking, steeply dipping, left-lateral strike-slip Granite Pass (GPF) and Glacier Lakes faults (GLF). Cross-cutting relationships and microstructural data suggest that the GPF is the oldest fault in the area and preserves evidence for coeval brittle and plastic crystal deformation, and hydrothermal fluid-flow. Tectonic pseudotachylyte from the area has been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method at 76.6 ± 0.3 Ma; when placed into a thermochronologic framework for the plutonic host rock it can be inferred that the pseudotachylyte formed at depths between 2.4-6.0 km with ambient temperatures between 110-160°C. Exceptionally well preserved tectonic pseudotachylyte from the GLF and GPF contain evidence for a frictional melt origin including: 1) plagioclase spherulites and microlites, 2) injection vein morphology, 3) amygdules, 4) viscous flow banding and folds, and 5) embayed and corroded clasts. Pseudotachylyte from the GPF and GLF is associated with brittle and plastic deformation in the damage zone of the faults. Evidence for plastic deformation includes undulose extinction, deformation lamellae, subgrain development, and grain boundary bulging in quartz; and limited undulose extinction in feldspar. Additionally, abundant hydrothermal alteration and mineralization has been documented in the GPF and GLF fault zones, including, chlorite

  2. Impact-induced brittle deformation, porosity loss, and aqueous alteration in the Murchison CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Romy D.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Zolensky, Mike; Behr, Whitney M.

    2015-12-01

    X-ray computed tomographic scanning of a 44 g Murchison stone (USNM 5487) reveals a preferred alignment of deformed, partially altered chondrules, which define a prominent foliation and weak lineation in 3D. The presence of a lineation and evidence for a component of rotational, noncoaxial shear suggest that the deformation was caused by impact. Olivine optical extinction indicates that the sample can be classified as shock stage S1, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron microscopy reveal that plastic deformation within the chondrules was minimal and that brittle deformation in the form of fracturing, cataclasis, and grain boundary sliding was the dominant microstructural strain-accommodating mechanism. Textural evidence such as serpentine veins parallel to the foliation fabric and crosscutting alteration veins strongly suggest that some aqueous alteration post-dated or was contemporaneous with the deformation and that multiple episodes of fracturing and mineralization occurred. Finally, using the deformed shape of the chondrules we estimate that the strain experienced by Murchison was 17-43%. This combined with the current measured porosity of Murchison suggests that the original bulk porosity of Murchison prior to its deformation was 32.2-53.4% and likely at the upper end of this range due to chondrule compressibility, providing a unique estimate of pre-deformation porosity for a carbonaceous chondrite. Our findings suggest that significant porosity loss, deformation, and compaction from impact can occur on chondrite parent bodies whose samples may record only a low level of shock, and that significant chondrule deformation resulting in a chondrite foliation fabric can occur primarily through brittle processes and does not require plastic deformation of grains.

  3. [Postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis--case report].

    PubMed

    Paulowitz, H P; Fenzl, G; Spitzer, D; Sattlegger, P; Lundwall, K

    1994-01-01

    Because of the low incidence and the lack of clinical symptomatology, puerperal ovarian vein thrombophlebitis has constituted a diagnostic problem now as ever, and diagnostic errors are frequent. With the help of US and CT, however, the chances of early detection have improved. On the 26-year old patient P. C. a section had to be performed in the 34th week of pregnancy because of premature rupture of the bag of waters. On the 7th postoperative day, the patient developed pyrexia inspite of antibiotic therapy. Sonographical examinated lead us to suspect a floating thrombus in the vena cava inferior. It was in the CT that the diagnosis of ovarian vein thrombosis was made for the first time. On the 13th day post partum a laparotomy and exstirpation of the v.ovarica dextra with removal of the thrombus plug from the v.cava inferior infrarenally was performed. Primarily, conservative treatment is given preference if the development is uncomplicated; operative sanitation is undertaken in case of difficulties only. PMID:7856209

  4. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  5. Preserved saphenous vein allografts for vascular access.

    PubMed

    Piccone, V A; Sika, J; Ahmed, N; LeVeen, H H; DiScala, V

    1978-09-01

    Preserved venous allografts were used as an alternate access procedure in 70 patients receiving dialysis during a three year period. The clinical experience with allograft fistulas revealed an extremely high initial patency rate; absence of infection postoperatively and during three years of dialysis; suitability for dialysis a week after implantation, thus greatly obviating the need for Silastic shunts; a low long term thrombosis rate and the weakly antigenic allograft veins produced no accelerated rejection of subsequently transplanted kidneys. Surviving patients average 172 dialysis treatments per allograft. Allograft fistulas constituted 45 per cent of the last 100 vascular procedures, an indication of the extent of usage. Microscopic examination of grafts retrieved from patients who died during the late follow-up period demonstrated that structural components of the wall of the vein were still identifiable. Allograft venous fistulas offer dependable, safe vascular access, especially in the infection prone patient with diabetes who is receiving dialysis treatment. The clinical results of allograft fistulas suggests a major role for this technique in vascular access operations. PMID:684591

  6. Complications of cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Canhâo, P

    2008-01-01

    Thrombosis of the dural sinus and encephalic veins (CVT) is an infrequent condition accounting for less than 1% of all strokes. Several recent prospective series, in particular the large International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis cohort, definitely have shown a more benign prognosis compared with that of arterial strokes: CVT has an acute case fatality of less than 5%, and almost 80% of patients recover without sequelae. However, patients surviving the acute phase of CVT are at risk of a number of complications such as recurrence of any thrombotic events in about 7%, recurrence of CVT in about 2-12%, seizures in 5 to 32%, visual loss due to optic atrophy in percentages that range from less than 1 to 5%, presence of dural fistula (there are no data available about exact frequency) and neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric sequelae characterized by aphasia, abulia and depression. However, there is only little information on the long-term neuropsychological outcome. Studies investigating professional status, cognitive performance, depressive symptoms and quality of life evidenced depression and anxiety in 2/3 of CVT patients despite an apparent good recovery in 87% of these patients. Thus, patients should be encouraged to return to previous occupations and hobbies and reassured about the very low risk of recurrence. PMID:18004061

  7. Proteoglycans from human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Griesmacher, A; Hennes, R; Keller, R; Greiling, H

    1987-10-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with [35S]sulphate and investigated for their proteoglycan production. By gel chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and CsCl density-gradient centrifugation we obtained preparative amounts of the endothelial proteoheparan sulphate HSI and of proteochondroitin sulphate from the conditioned medium of mass-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Approximately 90% of the 35S-labeled material in the endothelial cell conditioned medium was proteochondroitin sulphate. This molecule, with a molecular mass of 180-200 kDa, contains four side-chains of 35-40 kDa and a core protein of 35-40 kDa. Two proteoheparan sulphate forms (HSI and HSII) from the conditioned medium were distinguished by molecular mass and transport kinetics from the cell layer to the medium in pulse-chase experiments. One major form (HSI), with an approximate molecular mass of 160-200 kDa a core protein of 55-60 kDa and three to four polysaccharide side-chains of 35 kDa each, was found enriched in the cellular membrane pellet. Another proteoheparan sulphate (HSII), with polysaccharide moieties of 20 kDa, is enriched in the subendothelial matrix (substratum). PMID:2959475

  8. Resurgent deformation quantisation

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Mauricio; Goursac, Axel de; Straten, Duco van

    2014-03-15

    We construct a version of the complex Heisenberg algebra based on the idea of endless analytic continuation. The algebra would be large enough to capture quantum effects that escape ordinary formal deformation quantisation. -- Highlights: •We construct resurgent deformation quantisation. •We give integral formulæ. •We compute examples which show that hypergeometric functions appear naturally in quantum computations.

  9. Neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm with thrombosis: prompt treatment should be needed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Yu, Hyeong Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jo, Heui Seung

    2015-12-01

    Vitelline veins are a pair of embryonic structures. The veins develop the portal vein system. Serious problems occur if the vitelline vein does not regress and becomes an aneurysm. Thrombus formation in the vitelline vein aneurysm could lead to portal vein thrombosis and portal hypertension unless promptly and correctly treated. Though vitelline vein aneurysm is an extremely rare anomaly, it rapidly progresses to portal vein thrombosis that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We reported a case of neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm and thrombosis that was cured by prompt operation. PMID:26665130

  10. Arterialization and anomalous vein wall remodeling in varicose veins is associated with upregulated FoxC2-Dll4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sumi; S Ramegowda, Kalpana; Suresh, Aarcha; Binil Raj, S S; Lakkappa, Ravi Kumar B; Kamalapurkar, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, N; C Kartha, Chandrasekharan

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins of lower extremities are a heritable common disorder. Mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still vague. Structural failures such as valve weakness and wall dilatation in saphenous vein result in venous retrograde flow in lower extremities of body. Reflux of blood leads to distal high venous pressure resulting in distended veins. In an earlier study, we observed a positive association between c.-512C>T FoxC2 gene polymorphism and upregulated FoxC2 expression in varicose vein specimens. FoxC2 overexpression in vitro in venous endothelial cells resulted in the elevated mRNA expression of arterial endothelial markers such as Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 2 (Hey2). We hypothesized that an altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling underlies saphenous vein wall remodeling in patients with varicose veins. Saphenous veins specimens were collected from 22 patients with varicose veins and 20 control subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections were immunostained for Dll4, Hey2, EphrinB2, α-SMA, Vimentin, and CD31 antigens and examined under microscope. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. An examination of varicose vein tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry indicated an elevated expression of Notch pathway components, such as Dll4, Hey2, and EphrinB2, and smooth muscle markers, which was further confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses. We conclude that the molecular alterations in Dll4-Hey2 signaling are associated with smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in varicose veins. Our observations substantiate a significant role for altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling in structural alterations of saphenous veins in patients with varicose veins. PMID:26808710

  11. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  12. Towards a quantitative description of fracture sealing: Phase-field modeling of mineral precipitation in veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, F.; Blum, P.; Thaler, H.; Nestler, B.; Okamoto, A.

    2013-12-01

    Alongside with calcite the growth of quartz establishes the most important mineralization processes in fractures and determines the fluid-rock interaction in the earth's crust. Tectonically caused deformation, fracturing and fluid transport leaves clear detectable traces in the microstructure of the mineralized veins. The underlying physical processes such as diffusion, advection, heat transport and crystal growth have to be captured at the mesoscale (or pore/grain scale). Any analysis is complicated by the facts that these processes are highly nonlinear, and geological boundary conditions as well as many of the kinetic growth parameters are not precisely known. As the microstructures and compositional inhomogeneity of veins could be used to enravel the history of the rock deformation process and the fluid pathways through former fracture networks, spatio-temporal models of vein mineral growth are of special interest. Different from previous approaches to simulate vein growth, we adapt a thermodynamically consistent phase-field model (PFM) which combines irreversible thermodynamics of interfaces and bulk phases with a kinetic growth law and mass transport equations (Wendler et al. 2011). Here, we study the simplest case where preexisting grains of a fracture surface are the seeds for epitaxial overgrowth. Each grain in a 3D domain is captured by a phase field with individual orientation. The model evolves in discrete time steps using a finite difference algorithm on a regular grid, optimized for large grain assemblies. In the present study we provide a brief overview, how the PFM is configured using thermodynamic data from established models for growth and dissolution, kinetic information from in and ex situ microstructural observations and dihedral angles from equilibration experiments. In the case of quartz, previously conducted hydrothermal batch flow growth experiments were analysed to calibrate the model (Okamoto & Sekine 2011). Results from 3D simulations

  13. Extrinsic and intrinsic veins of the equine hoof wall.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, P C; Leach, D H

    1983-01-01

    The extrinsic and intrinsic venous drainage of the equine hoof have previously been poorly described. There is also an absence of information about the venous organisation of both primary and secondary dermal lamellae of the hoof wall. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal venous pattern of the horse hoof, especially that associated with the dermal lamellae of the wall. The venous organisation of 46 pairs of hooves from clinically healthy horses was studied using standard plastic vascular corrosion casts and histological sections. A consistent pattern of venous organisation was observed in the toe, quarter and heel regions. Veins in the proximal half of the wall corium form an exteriorly and an interiorly located venous plexus, while in the distal wall corium only an exteriorly located venous plexus is present. The wall corium of the toe and quarters is drained primarily by veins contributing to the coronary venous plexus and to the circumflex vein. In the heel regions this venous drainage network is supplemented by tributaries of the caudal hoof vein, independent superficial vein and anastomotic branches from the circumflex vein to the inner venous plexus. Because of this supplementary venous return the heel region is apparently better drained than other areas of the hoof wall. The wall corium is drained distally by the circumflex vein. The coronary venous plexus is composed of an exteriorly situated short superficial collecting venous plexus and an interiorly situated deep collecting venous plexus. The short superficial collecting veins, which drain the proliferating zone of epidermis of the coronary border, connect directly to the coronary and subcoronary veins. The deep collecting veins drain only the proximal wall corium. Most of the veins that drain the major portions of venous blood from the hoof are situated at the palmar aspect of the digit. These veins drain venous blood from the coronary venous plexus, the inner venous plexus and the

  14. Distribution of saphenous vein valves and its pratical importance

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, Isabella Batista Martins; Ribeiro, Igor de Lima; de Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando; Monte-Bispo, Rodrigo Freitas; da Rocha, Amauri Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among the veins used as a graft in myocardial revascularizations and ends, great saphenous vein is the most used. Knowing the presence and location of valves has great importance when evaluating the surgical anatomy of the great saphenous vein. Despite major surgical application and many works involving great saphenous vein, the number of valves present in it from the saphenous hiatus to the medial epicondyle of the femur is still described inaccurately. The objective of this study is to quantify the valves of the great saphenous vein from the saphenous hiatus to the medial epicondyle of the femur to determine the best portion of the great saphenous vein to perform revascularization surgeries. Methods This is a crosssectional observational study in which it was analyzed great saphenous vein extracted from 30 cadavers. It was measured the length of the veins; (diameter) at its proximal, middle and distal, quantifying the number of valves in each one and the total number of valves at the great saphenous vein. Results The frequency of valves in the great saphenous vein taken from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the saphenous hiatus was 4.82, ranging between 2 and 9. Moreover, there is a significant difference in the number of valves in the proximal and distal relative to the average. Conclusion the median and distal portions of the saphenous vein in the thigh, are the best options for the realization of bridges due to the fact that these portions have fewer valves which therefore would tend to decrease the risk of complications connected with the valves in these grafts. PMID:25714210

  15. Multi-surface Earthquake Rupture Recorded in Pseudotachylyte Vein Geometries, Norumbega Shear Zone, southern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Pollock, S. G.; Swanson, M.; Tarling, M.; Backeberg, N. R.; Coulson, S.; Barshi, N.; Bate, C.; Dascher-Cousineau, K.; Scibek, J.; Harrichhausen, N.; Timofeev, A.; Rakoczy, P.; Nisbet, H.; Castro, A.; Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture surfaces are typically treated as single rupture planes. However, the observation of four linked, non-parallel to sub-parallel slip surfaces on a mining induced earthquake in 2004 shows that rupture geometries may be more complicated (Heesakkers et al., 2011). Multiple pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surfaces are exposed within a 1.1 km wide mylonite zone of the Paleozoic Norumbega fault system. The pseudotachylytes are present in two juxtaposed mylonite zones: the Ray Corner mylonite and a mylonite derived from Scarboro Formation metavolcanics. The Ray Corner mylonite crosscuts pelitic schists of the Cape Elizabeth Formation, at upper greenschist-facies conditions (quartz + feldspar + chlorite + muscovite ± titanite ± pyrite). The pseudotachylyte veins formed late in the deformational history, during a period of predominantly brittle dextral offset. The pseudotachylytes are cryptocrystalline and have rounded porphyroclasts of quartz and feldspar. Microstructural observations show evidence for static and dynamic recrystallization overprinting the primary quench textures, suggesting that previous generations of rupture surfaces have been recycled into the mylonitic fabric (Price et al., 2012). Many of the pseudotachylyte veins have a sharp boundary on one side and are poorly defined on the other, providing insight to the propagation direction. This confirms that the paleo-earthquake ruptures occurred at conditions where quartz and feldspar were able to deform plastically, near the base of the seismogenic zone. Using differential GPS, we mapped the geometry of pseudotachylyte fault veins, injection veins, and slip surface intersections. At Ray Corner, there are 7 layer-parallel pseudotachylytes in a 4 m wide zone with linking and subsequent oblique pseudotachylytes. Some intersections between pseudotachylytes are dilational, depending on the intersection angle and relative displacement on the two faults. At these sites, pseudotachylyte melt sourced

  16. Deformational History and Rotation of the Leeward Antilles Island Arc: Results of the BOLIVAR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, A. G.; Avé Lallemant, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Leeward Antilles island arc is located offshore northern Venezuela and includes Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire (ABCs). The ABCs trend WNW-ESE parallel to the obliquely convergent Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone. Field work on the ABCs has provided new structural data supporting a minimum of 90° clockwise rotation of the islands within the diffuse plate boundary zone. Analysis of faulting, bedding, and cleavages suggest three phases of deformation (D1-D3). The oldest phase of deformation, D1, is characterized by northeast trending normal faults, northwest trending fold axes and cleavages, and northeast striking dextral strike-slip faults. East striking sinstral strike-slip faults are rare. The second phase of deformation, D2, is represented by west-northwest trending thrust faults, north-northeast striking normal faults, northwest trending dextral strike-slip faults, and northeast striking sinstral strike-slip faults. Finally, the youngest phase of deformation, D3, is characterized by northeast striking thrust faults, northwest striking normal faults, east-west dextral strike-slip faults, and north-northwest sinstral strike-slip faults. Quartz and calcite veins were also studied on the ABCs. Cross-cutting relationships in outcrop suggest three phases of veining (V1-V3). The oldest veins, V1, trend northeastward; V2 veins trend northward; and the youngest veins, V3, trend northwestward. Additionally, joints were measured on the ABCs. On Bonaire and Curaçao, joints trend approximately northeast while joints on Aruba are almost random with a slight preference for west-northwest. Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz and calcite veins provides additional information about the pressure and temperature conditions of the deformation phases. Preliminary results from the earliest veins (V1) show a single deformational event on Aruba and Bonaire. On Bonaire, they exhibit both hydrostatic and lithostatic pressure conditions. This new data supports three stages of

  17. Strength recovery and vein growth during self-sealing of experimentally-induced faults in Westerly granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that crustal deformation in the presence of a chemically-active pore fluid is commonly accompanied by self-sealing processes that can occur relatively rapidly compared with geological timescales. This is consistent with earthquake models involving transient fluid flow on faults during seismic slip, followed by self-sealing which may occur through the physico-chemical process of the crack-seal mechanism. In this mechanism, brittle deformation of water-saturated rock produces new fracture surfaces that are out of chemical equilibrium with the pore fluid, leading to mineral dissolution, mass transport and precipitation in a cycle of coupled deformation and fluid flow. Here, we present direct experimental evidence for the rapid development of dilatant crack-seal quartz veins during sequential stressing of pre-faulted rock samples. Right-cylindrical, pre-faulted samples of Westerly granite were held at a constant temperature of 400°C and an effective confining pressure in the range 100 to 160 MPa in a triaxial deformation apparatus. An differential axial stress was then applied cyclically to the samples at a strain rate of 10-5 s-1 to induce frictional sliding under either saturated (λ = 0.4) or dry (λ = 0) conditions using distilled water as the pore fluid. The samples were broken a number of times (5 to 7 depending on the test) over periods of up to several months, and left to cook between loading cycles at constant temperature and hydrostatic pressure for hold times varying between 1 hour and 78 days. On re-loading, all the saturated samples exhibited substantial strength recovery for hold times greater than about 100 hours, while dry samples showed no increase in strength for any hold time up to the maximum of 34 days. The reason for the strength recovery becomes clear from post-test microstructural analysis of the deformed samples. All of the saturated samples showed evidence of the development of quartz veins in the fault zones

  18. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  19. The Incidence and Ecology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of vein yellowing and bush decline in blackberry were attributed to infection by a novel crinivirus named Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV). The disease is an emerging threat to blackberry production as it can cause substantial yield loss. The objective of this study was to id...

  20. [Hemostasis of the preprostatic veins in total cystoprostatectomy. Anatomical bases].

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Quillard, J; Delmas, V; Gillot, C; Steg, A

    1984-05-26

    An anatomical study has enabled the authors to propose a diagrammatic description of pre-prostatic veins, the haemostasis of which is one of the difficult stages in total cystoprostatectomy for cancer. These veins are surrounded by the pubovesical ligaments but they are separated from the membranous urethra by a cleavage plane which can be used to control venous bleeding. PMID:6233576

  1. Increased distensibility in dependent veins following prolonged bedrest.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2009-07-01

    Displacement of blood to the lower portion of the body that follows a postural transition from recumbent to erect is augmented by a prolonged period of recumbency (bedrest). Information is scarce as to what extent this augmented blood-volume shift to dependent veins is attributable to increased distensibility of the veins. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 5 weeks of horizontal bedrest on the pressure-distension relationship in limb veins. Elevation of venous distending pressure was induced by exposure of the body except the tested limb to supra-atmospheric pressure with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm, or supine with a lower leg, protruding through a hole in the chamber door. Diameter changes in response to an increase of intravenous pressure (distensibility) from 60 to about 140 mmHg were measured in the brachial and posterior tibial veins using ultrasonographic techniques. Prior to bedrest, the distensibility was substantially less in the tibial than in the brachial vein. Bedrest increased (P < 0.01) pressure distension in the tibial vein by 86% from 7 +/- 3% before to 13 +/- 3% after bedrest. In the brachial vein, bedrest increased (P < 0.05) pressure distension by 36% from 14 +/- 5% before to 19 +/- 5% after bedrest. Thus, removal of the gravity-dependent pressure components that act along the blood vessels in erect posture increases the distensibility of dependent veins. PMID:19347352

  2. Perivascular mast cells regulate vein graft neointimal formation and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Grassia, Gianluca; Cambrook, Helen; Ialenti, Armando; MacRitchie, Neil; Carberry, Jaclyn; Lawrence, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emerging evidence suggests an important role for mast cells in vein graft failure. This study addressed the hypothesis that perivascular mast cells regulate in situ vascular inflammatory and proliferative responses and subsequent vein graft neointimal lesion formation, using an optimized local mast cell reconstitution method. Methods and Results. Neointimal hyperplasia was induced by insertion of a vein graft into the right carotid artery in wild type and mast cell deficient KitW−sh/W−sh mice. In some experiments, mast cells were reconstituted systemically (tail vein injection of bone marrow-derived mast cells) or locally (directly into the right neck area) prior to vein grafting. Vein graft neointimal lesion formation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in KitW−sh/W−sh mice. Mast cell deficiency reduced the number of proliferating cells, and inhibited L-selectin, CCL2, M-CSF and MIP-3α expression in the vein grafts. Local but not systemic mast cell reconstitution restored a perivascular mast cell population that subsequently promoted neointimal formation in mast cell deficient mice. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that perivascular mast cells play a key role in promoting neointima formation by inducing local acute inflammatory and proliferative responses. These results suggest that ex vivo intraoperative targeting of mast cells may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of pathological vein graft remodeling. PMID:26312183

  3. Shear zones in the upper mantle - relation between geochemical enrichment and deformation in mantle peridotites

    SciTech Connect

    Downes, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Textural variations in mantle-derived spinel peridotites have previously been interpreted as evidence of the existence of asthenospheric mantle diapirs, indicating deformational heterogeneity on a large lateral scale (kilometers to tens of kilometers). However, many volcanic vents entrain both deformed and undeformed xenoliths, and field relations in peridotite massifs show the scale of alternation between deformed and undeformed peridotite to be small (centimeters to meters) because of the presence of numerous lithospheric shear zones. Some rare xenoliths contain both deformed and undeformed peridotite. These is also an apparent relation between deformation and the growth of metasomatic minerals; amphibole is often concentrated in strongly deformed zones in peridotite massifs and deformed xenoliths, although it is also found in crosscutting veins and aureoles around such veins. A relation can also be seen between deformation and indicators of geochemical enrichment. Clinopyroxenes from many deformed spinel peridotites show light rate earth element (REE) enrichment, whereas clinopyroxenes from undeformed spinel peridotites commonly have mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-type light REE-depleted patterns. Sr and Nd radiogenic isotopic compositions of undeformed peridotites are generally MORB-like, and have low {epsilon}Sr and high {epsilon}Nd. In contrast, deformed peridotites, with or without amphibole, often have higher {epsilon}Sr and low {epsilon}Nd values, indicating geochemical enrichment by large ion lithophile (LIL)- and light REE-enriched fluids or melts. These observations can be used to infer that the shallow mantle contains lithospheric ductile shear zones in which metasomatic fluids precipitated amphibole and clinopyroxene.

  4. Portal Vein Embolization: What Do We Know?

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, Alban; Prior, John; Bize, Pierre; Duran, Rafael; Baere, Thierry De; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas

    2012-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) has been developed to increase the size of the future remnant liver (FRL) left in place after major hepatectomy, thus reducing the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. PVE consist in embolizing preoperatively portal branches of the segments that will be resected. Indication is based on preoperative measurements of the FRL by computed tomography and its ratio with either the theoretical liver volume or by direct measurement of the functional liver volume. After PVE, the volume and function of the FRL increases in 3 to 6 weeks, permitting extensive resections in patients otherwise contraindicated for liver resection. The PVE technique is variable from one center to another; however n-butyl-cyano-acrylate provides an interesting compromise between hypertrophy rate and procedure risk.

  5. Functional total anomalous pulmonary venous connection via levoatriocardinal vein.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Taiyu; Ozawa, Katsusuke; Sugibayashi, Rika; Wada, Seiji; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report a fetal case of double outlet right ventricle, mitral atresia, and intact atrial septum. Although the pulmonary veins were connected to the left atrium, pulmonary venous blood drained into the right superior vena cava via the stenotic levoatriocardinal vein (LACV), which resulted in a circulation resembling total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) with pulmonary venous obstruction. Since the pulmonary veins were connected to both the stenotic LACV and the "dead-end" left atrium, the pulmonary venous flow had a to-and-fro pattern along with atrial relaxation and contraction. Postnatal echocardiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV. Surgical creation of an atrial septal defect on the day of birth successfully relieved pulmonary venous obstruction. Normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV should be considered for TAPVC differential diagnosis in fetuses with a left-side heart obstruction. PMID:27460400

  6. A novel technique for hepatic vein reconstruction during hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Surjan, Rodrigo C; Basseres, Tiago; Pajecki, Denis; Puzzo, Daniel B; Makdissi, Fabio F; Machado, Marcel A C; Battilana, Alexandre Gustavo Bellorio

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for malignant liver tumours. Nevertheless, surgical approach to tumours located close to the confluence of the hepatic veins is a challenging issue. Trisectionectomies are considered the first curative option for treatment of these tumours. However, those procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates primarily due to post-operative liver failure. Thus, maximal preservation of functional liver parenchyma should always be attempted. We describe the isolated resection of Segment 8 for the treatment of a tumour involving the right hepatic vein and in contact with the middle hepatic vein and retrohepatic vena cava with immediate reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with a vascular graft. This is the first time this type of reconstruction was performed, and it allowed to preserve all but one of the hepatic segments with normal venous outflow. This innovative technique is a fast and safe method to reconstruct hepatic veins. PMID:27076622

  7. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  8. Spontaneous common iliac vein rupture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    DePass, Ian E.

    1998-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman, admitted because of acute lower quadrant abdominal pain but no history of trauma, underwent laparotomy for a suspected ruptured aortic aneurysm. Exploration revealed a 20-mm longitudinal tear in the left iliac vein. The vein was repaired primarily. Her postoperative course was complicated by deep vein thrombosis. Spontaneous rupture of the iliac vein without trauma is rare. but occurs predominantly in healthy white women between the ages of 40 and 80 years. Various causative mechanisms have been described: inflammation of the vessel wall secondary to thrombophlebitis, proximal obstruction of the iliac vein and spontaneous rupture without obstruction or thrombosis. In many cases an increase in intra-abdominal pressure is noted. PMID:9854541

  9. Clinical Features and Developing Risks of Saphenous Vein Thrombophlebitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical features and the risks of 14 patients with 14 limbs affected by saphenous vein thrombophlebitis from April 2007 to May 2013 and compared the results with patients undergoing operative repair of varicose veins (127 patients, 193 limbs) during the study period. The frequency of patients with a body mass index over 25 (78.6% vs. 35.3%, p = 0.0018), varicose change in the saphenous vein (78.6% vs. 6.2%, p <0.0001), and concurrent thrombosis in another vein (50.0% vs. 7.1%, p <0.0001) were all significantly higher than those of the patients under operative repair for varicose veins. These patients with clinical features above may be at an elevated risk of thrombophlebitis of the saphenous trunk. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2014; 54: 151–157). PMID:27375800

  10. A novel technique for hepatic vein reconstruction during hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Surjan, Rodrigo C.; Basseres, Tiago; Pajecki, Denis; Puzzo, Daniel B.; Makdissi, Fabio F.; Machado, Marcel A.C.; Battilana, Alexandre Gustavo Bellorio

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for malignant liver tumours. Nevertheless, surgical approach to tumours located close to the confluence of the hepatic veins is a challenging issue. Trisectionectomies are considered the first curative option for treatment of these tumours. However, those procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates primarily due to post-operative liver failure. Thus, maximal preservation of functional liver parenchyma should always be attempted. We describe the isolated resection of Segment 8 for the treatment of a tumour involving the right hepatic vein and in contact with the middle hepatic vein and retrohepatic vena cava with immediate reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with a vascular graft. This is the first time this type of reconstruction was performed, and it allowed to preserve all but one of the hepatic segments with normal venous outflow. This innovative technique is a fast and safe method to reconstruct hepatic veins. PMID:27076622

  11. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrocky, Tomas; Kettenbach, Joachim; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben Kara, Levent

    2015-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.

  12. Polyphase deformation and fluid flow in the Internal Ligurian Units, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga-Vass, Anna; Daniel, Daniel; Molli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    We studied the Internal Ligurian Unit (ILU) of the Northern Apennines, Italy. Field observations, fold axes, stylolites and crenulation cleavages indicate that the first folding had a direction of NW-SE, whereas the second main folding was in the direction of NE-SW. These orientations are in accordance with previous studies attributing the first folding to a E-SE-dipping, early subduction, and the second (main) folding to the accretion of the sequence towards the NE in a W-SW-dipping subduction zone. The unfolding of conjugate veins along the second folding axes showed the rotation of the main horizontal stresses. Oldest conjugates formed during the deformation in the SE-dipping subduction zone. As the subduction polarity-flip occurred and the subduction zone migrated towards its current strike direction, NW-SE, the main horizontal stresses also rotated forming conjugates triggered by E-W, NE-SW and N-S compression. Tectonic stylolites found in the Val Lavagna Shale also reflect these compression directions. In addition to conjugates, several other vein types (e.g. bed-parallel and perpendicular, folding-related veins, blobs of mineralization) were observed in the Palombini and Val Lavagna Shale. As the veins intensity was increasing towards the Palombini-Val Lavagna boundary that is considered a fault-contact, we propose that fluid flow along the fault was responsible for the veining. Microstructural evidence, however, also suggested that diffusion from the host rock and dissolution of the veins could have contributed locally to material transport. Early veins show combinations of layer parallel and perpendicular veins and probably represent fluid overpressures. However these features are relatively local.

  13. Renal Arcuate Vein Microthrombi-Associated AKI

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, Andrew; Mahmoud, Huda; McCulloch, Tom; Shardlow, Adam; Hall, Matthew; Byrne, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and objectives This report describes six patients with AKI stages 2–3 (median admission creatinine level, 2.75 mg/dl [range, 1.58–5.44 mg/dl]), hematuria (five with hemoproteinuria), and unremarkable imaging with an unusual and unexplained histologic diagnosis on renal biopsy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The patients were young adults who presented to two neighboring United Kingdom nephrology centers over a 40-month period (between July 2010 and November 2013). Four were male, and the median age was 22.5 years (range, 18–27 years). Their principal symptoms were flank pain or lower back pain. All had consumed alcohol in the days leading up to admission. Results Renal biopsy demonstrated microthrombi in the renal arcuate veins with a corresponding stereotypical, localized inflammatory infiltrate at the corticomedullary junction. All patients recovered to baseline renal function with supportive care (median, 17 days; range, 6–60 days), and none required RRT. To date, additional investigations have not revealed an underlying cause for these histopathologic changes. Investigations have included screening for thrombophilic tendencies, renal vein Doppler ultrasonographic studies, and testing for recreational drugs and alcohol (including liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry of urine) to look for so-called designer drugs. Inquiries to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Centre have identified no other cases with similar presentation or histologic findings. Conclusions Increased awareness and additional study of future cases may lead to a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that caused AKI in these patients. PMID:25452224

  14. Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*

    PubMed Central

    LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

  15. Combined portal vein resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tao; Chen, Jie; Xie, Zhi-Bo; Ma, Liang; Liu, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the only curative therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). Combined portal vein resection (PVR) could achieve negative resection margins in HCCA patients with portal vein invasion. This systematic review aimed to analysis the efficiency of combined PVR for HCCA. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and clinical trial registries were searched through April 2015. Risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: The analysis included 21 retrospective studies, altogether involving 2403 patients (patients with PVR, n=637; patients without PVR, n=1766). Patients with PVR were likely to have more advanced HCCA (lymphatic invasion: RR=1.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28; perineural invasion: RR=1.31, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63) and suffered less curative resections (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). Postoperative morbidity was similar between patients with or without PVR (RR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02). Patients with PVR suffered higher mortality rate (RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.18), and worse 5-year survival rate (RR=0.67, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.91). Conclusion: Combined PVR for HCCA patients would not increase postoperative morbidity rate. However, ascribed to PVR group concluded more advanced HCCA patients; patients with PVR had increased postoperative mortality rate and worse survival rate. The results still need further high quality trails for validation. PMID:26885035

  16. What is effective care for varicose veins?

    PubMed

    Meissner, Mark H

    2016-03-01

    Varicose veins affect one-quarter to one-third of Western adult populations and consume an increasing amount of health care resources. Much of this increased utilization has been driven by the advent of minimally invasive technology including endovenous thermal ablation, foam sclerotherapy, and more recently mechanicochemical and cyanoacrylate glue ablation. This has largely been driven by patient and physician preferences in the absence of robust evidence that one therapy is truly superior to another. This partially arises from misunderstandings about appropriate outcomes measures and what truly constitutes effective treatment of varicose veins. Technical outcomes, such as saphenous closure rates, have frequently been used as surrogates for effective treatment but are poorly correlated with symptom improvement, quality of life, and risk of recurrence. Although there does appear to be a trend towards higher recurrence with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, the data are occasionally conflicting and there does not appear to be substantial differences between the various modalities. Similarly, there do not appear to be major differences in late quality of life measures between these treatment options. As long-term differences in recurrence and quality of life are small, overall cost effectiveness is driven primarily by initial treatment costs and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy is the most cost-effective strategy in many models. However, there continues to be substantial uncertainty surrounding cost estimates and other factors of importance to the patient may ultimately drive treatment decisions. The benefits of some adjuncts to the treatment of axial superficial reflux, such as the concurrent versus staged management of tributary varicosities, remain ill-defined while that of others, such as routine post-procedural ultrasound surveillance and compression, need critical re-evaluation. PMID:26916774

  17. Central retinal vein occlusion and pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Kontadakis, Georgios A; Klados, Nektarios E; Tsoumpris, Ioannis; Kandarakis, Artemios S; Parikakis, Efstratios A; Georgalas, Ilias; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) as a risk factor for the development of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods This was a retrospective, comparative study of the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation in three groups of patients: 48 patients with CRVO, 164 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and 70 control patients (70 eyes). All patients were phakic and had no previous diagnosis of glaucoma. Patients were matched in terms of age and systemic hypertension. All patients had normal intraocular pressure (IOP) at presentation (defined as less than or equal to 21 mmHg). Results In the CRVO group, 14 out of 48 patients were diagnosed as having PXF (29.17%). In the BRVO group, 14 out of 164 patients had PXF (8.5%), and in the control group, six out of 70 patients had PXF (8.6%). Differences of percentage between groups were statistically significant (P<0.001, χ2 test). When comparing patient subgroup with ischemic CRVO with subgroup with non-ischemic CRVO, we found that in the ischemic CRVO group, 13 out of 27 patients were diagnosed as having PXF (48.15%), and in the non-ischemic CRVO group, one out of 21 patients was diagnosed as having PXF (4.7%; P<0.001, χ2 test). The relative odds of having CRVO in patients with PXF versus patients without PXF were 4.406 (confidence interval [CI], 2.03–9.54). Conclusion PXF and CRVO, especially ischemic, are strongly associated in our study. Our results indicate that PXF might be an independent factor for CRVO, as it is related with CRVO independently from glaucoma. PMID:26056437

  18. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH ... of Contents Symptoms The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be related to DVT ...

  19. Development of HIFU Treatment for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ≥5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.

  20. Double-lumen catheter in the right jugular vein induces two sub-endothelial abscesses in an unusual place, the transition between the superior vena cava and the right atrium: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endocarditis is a type of infection that is common in internal medicine wards and in haemodialysis clinics. The location that is most affected are the heart valves. Herein, we report a case of an uncommon abscess, a sub-endothelial abscess between the transition of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. There were several emboli to the lung and foot, and the agent was related to Staphylococcus aureus and a double-lumen catheter. Usually, this type of abscess is located in valves, either the tricuspid valve if related to catheters or injection drug use or the mitral valve if related to other causes. An exhaustive review was made, but we found no information about the location of this abscess and the rarity of the event motivating the report of infection. PMID:25110520

  1. U-vein compressor improves early haemodynamic outcomes in radiocephalic arterio-venous fistulae in under 2-mm superficial veins

    PubMed Central

    Seren, Mustafa; Cicek, Omer Faruk; Cicek, Mustafa Cuneyt; Yener, Ali Umit; Ulaş, Mahmut; Tola, Muharrem; Uzun, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim In this study, we sought to determine the early postoperative results of arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) created by U-vein compressors with veins between 1.5 and 2 mm in size. Methods Pre-operative venous mapping was done. The fistula tract was marked at 0-, 4-, 8- and 12-cm points; 0 cm was the estimated point where the anastomosis would be done. With Doppler ultrasonography, transverse diameters in the estimated fistula tract were measured at the 0-, 4-, 8- and 12-cm points. A superficial vein that would be used as the fistula tract was dilated using U-vein compressors. In the first postoperative hour, the flow in the anastomosis, and the transverse diameter of the fistula tract at the 0-, 4-, 8- and 12-cm points were measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Results Forty patients were included in the study. U-vein compressors were used for 20 patients. Postoperative expansion of vein diameters and postoperative flow velocities were found to be statistically significantly different in patients where a U-vein compressor had been used (p < 0.001). Conclusion We present a technique to dilate veins that are between 1.5 and 2 mm in diameter, which are generally accepted as poor vessels to create radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:25784317

  2. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  3. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study

    PubMed Central

    Bush, R. G.; Bush, P.; Flanagan, J.; Fritz, R.; Gueldner, T.; Koziarski, J.; McMullen, K.; Zumbro, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA) was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF) and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV). From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently). Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser. PMID:24592172

  4. Patient-specific liver deformation modeling for tumor tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Young-Taek; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Kim, Jung-Bae; Bang, Won-Chul; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2013-03-01

    We present a new method for patient-specific liver deformation modeling for tumor tracking. Our method focuses on deforming two main blood vessels of the liver - hepatic and portal vein - to utilize them as features. A novel centerline editing algorithm based on ellipse fitting is introduced for vessel deformation. Centerline-based blood vessel model and various interpolation methods are often used for generating a deformed model at the specific time t. However, it may introduce artifacts when models used in interpolation are not consistent. One of main reason of this inconsistency is the location of bifurcation points differs from each image. To solve this problem, our method generates a base model from one of patient's CT images. Next, we apply a rigid iterative closest point (ICP) method to the base model with centerlines of other images. Because the transformation is rigid, the length of each vessel's centerline is preserved while some part of the centerline is slightly deviated from centerlines of other images. We resolve this mismatch using our centerline editing algorithm. Finally, we interpolate three deformed models of liver, blood vessels, tumor using quadratic Bézier curves. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with the real patient data.

  5. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  6. Deformations of 3-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel

    2009-11-15

    We phrase deformations of n-Leibniz algebras in terms of the cohomology theory of the associated Leibniz algebra. We do the same for n-Lie algebras and for the metric versions of n-Leibniz and n-Lie algebras. We place particular emphasis on the case of n=3 and explore the deformations of 3-algebras of relevance to three-dimensional superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter.

  7. Recrystallization fabrics of sheared quartz veins with a strong pre-existing crystallographic preferred orientation from a seismogenic shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Nancy A.; Song, Won Joon; Johnson, Scott E.; Gerbi, Christopher C.; Beane, Rachel J.; West, David P.

    2016-07-01

    Microstructural investigations were carried out on quartz veins in schist, protomylonite, and mylonite samples from an ancient seismogenic strike-slip shear zone (Sandhill Corner shear zone, Norumbega fault system, Maine, USA). We interpret complexities in the microstructural record to show that: (1) pre-existing crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in the host rock may persist in the new CPO patterns of the shear zone and (2) the inner and outer parts of the shear zone followed diverging paths of fabric development. The host rocks bounding the shear zone contain asymmetrically-folded quartz veins with a strong CPO. These veins are increasingly deformed and recrystallized with proximity to the shear zone core. Matrix-accommodated rotation and recrystallization may position an inherited c-axis maximum in an orientation coincident with rhomb < a > or basal < a > slip. This inherited CPO likely persists in the shear zone fabric as a higher concentration of poles in one hemisphere of the c-axis pole figure, leading to asymmetric crossed girdle or paired maxima c-axis patterns about the foliation plane. Three observed quartz grain types indicate a general trend of localization with decreasing temperature: (1) large (> 100 μm), low aspect ratio (<~5) and (2) high aspect ratio (~ 5-20) grains overprinted by (3) smaller (<~80 μm), low aspect ratio (<~4) grains through subgrain rotation-dominated recrystallization. In the outer shear zone, subgrain rotation recrystallization led to a well-developed c-axis crossed girdle pattern. In the inner shear zone, the larger grains are completely overprinted by smaller grains, but the CPO patterns are relatively poorly developed and are associated with distinctively different misorientation angle histogram profiles ("flat" neighbor-pair profile with similar number fraction for angles from 10 to 90°). This may reflect the preferential activation of grain size sensitive deformation processes in the inner-most part of the

  8. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  9. Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Petra Holdstock, Judith M.; Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A.

    2008-03-15

    Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

  10. Formation of Archean batholith-hosted gold veins at the Lac Herbin deposit, Val-d'Or district, Canada: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Beaudoin, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The Lac Herbin deposit consists of a network of mineralized, parallel steep-reverse faults within the synvolcanic Bourlamaque granodiorite batholith at Val-d'Or in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt. There are two related quartz-tourmaline-carbonate fault-fill vein sets in the faults, which consist of subvertical fault-fill veins associated with subhorizontal veins. The paragenetic sequence is characterized by a main vein filling ore stage including quartz, tourmaline, carbonate, and pyrite-hosted gold, chalcopyrite, tellurides, pyrrhotite, and cubanite inclusions. Most of the gold is located in fractures in deformed pyrite and quartz in equilibrium with chalcopyrite and carbonates, with local pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, cobaltite, pyrite, or tellurides. Petrography and microthermometry on quartz from the main vein filling ore stage reveal the presence of three unrelated fluid inclusion types: (1) gold-bearing aqueous-carbonic inclusions arranged in three-dimensional intragranular clusters in quartz crystals responsible for the main vein filling stage, (2) barren high-temperature, aqueous, moderately saline inclusions observed in healed fractures, postdating the aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and considered as a remobilizing agent of earlier precipitated gold in late fractures, and (3) barren low-temperature, aqueous, high saline inclusions in healed fractures, similar to the crustal brines reported throughout the Canadian Shield and considered to be unrelated to the gold mineralization. At the Lac Herbin deposit, the aqueous-carbonic inclusions are interpreted to have formed first and to represent the gold-bearing fluid, which were generated contemporaneous with regional greenschist facies metamorphism. In contrast, the high-temperature aqueous fluid dissolved gold from the main vein filling ore stage transported and reprecipitated it in late fractures during a subsequent local thermal event.

  11. Recognising Paleoseismic Events and Slip Styles in Vein Microstructures - is Incrementality Enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.; Sibson, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    'Subduction channels', containing highly sheared, fluid-saturated, trench-fill sediments, are commonly present along subduction thrust interfaces. These shear zones accommodate fast plate boundary slip rates (1~-~10~cm/yr) and exhibit high levels of seismicity, accomplishing slip in a broad range of styles including standard earthquakes, slow slip, non-volcanic tremor and aseismic creep. Exhumed subduction channel fault rocks provide a time-integrated record of these varied slip modes though the degree of overprinting may be considerable. The Chrystalls Beach accretionary mélange, within the Otago Schist accretion-collision assemblage, New Zealand, is analogous to an active subduction channel assemblage. It contains asymmetric lenses of sandstone, chert and minor basalt enclosed within a relatively incompetent, cleaved pelitic matrix. This assemblage has been intensely sheared in a mixed continuous/discontinuous style within a flat-lying, <~4~km thick, shear zone. Ductile structures such as folds, S/C-like structures, and asymmetric boudins and clasts formed by soft sediment deformation and pressure solution creep. An extensive anastomosing vein system can be divided into mutually cross-cutting extension fractures (V1) and slickenfibre shear veins (V2). V1 commonly cut competent lenses within the mélange, while V2 mostly follow lithological contacts. Both vein sets are predominantly elongate-blocky with 'crack-seal' extension and shear increments of 10~- ~100~μm. Little sign of wall rock alteration or heating is present adjacent to V1 veins, which likely formed by incremental hydrofracture with episodic fluid influx. Post-fracture drop in Pf promoted solute precipitation from advecting fluids. This process may reflect fracture and fluid flow in a distributed fault-fracture mesh, an often inferred mechanism of non-volcanic tremor. In contrast, wall rock alteration and pressure solution seams are common adjacent to V2 veins. Slickenfibres on these shear surfaces

  12. [RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARICOSE VEINS].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Satoru; Miyade, Yoshio; Inaki, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in the endovenous technique for treating incompetent saphenous veins could change the surgical strategy in patients with varicose veins. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was approved as a new technique for the treatment of varicose veins in Japan in June 2014. In RFA, the ablation temperature is controlled by a sensor at the upper end of the catheter. The vein wall is heated with stable conductive power of 120 degrees C, resulting in endothelial denudation. The RFA method was approved in 1998 in Europe and in 1999 in the USA. The ClosurePLUS catheter was developed in 2003 and ClosureFAST in 2006. High occlusion rates and lower postoperative complication rates were reported with ClosureFAST than with ClosurePLUS. It is expected that this new ablation technique will control saphenous vein reflux with less pain and less ecchymosis after surgery. The treatment of varicose veins is less invasive with RFA devices and will become widely accepted as an alternative to conventional surgery for varicose veins in Japan. PMID:26281655

  13. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

  14. AGE AND ORIGIN OF BASE- AND PRECIOUS-METAL VEINS OF THE COEUR D'ALENE MINING DISTRICT, IDAHO

    SciTech Connect

    Fleck, R J; Criss, R E; Eaton, G F; Cleland, R W; Wavra, C S; Bond, W D

    2000-11-07

    Ore-bearing quartz-carbonate veins of the Coeur d'Alene mining district yield {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.74 to >1.60 for low-Rb/Sr, carbonate gangue minerals, similar to current ranges measured in Middle Proterozoic, high-Rb/Sr rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Stable-isotope and fluid-inclusion studies establish a genetic relationship between vein formation and metamorphic-hydrothermal systems of the region. These extraordinary {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios require accumulation of radiogenic {sup 87}Sr in a high Rb/Sr system over an extended period prior to incorporation of Sr into the veins by hydrothermal processes. Evaluation of the age and composition of potential sources of highly radiogenic Sr indicates that the ore-bearing veins of the Coeur d'Alene district formed within the last 200 Ma from components scavenged from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Belt Supergroup, the primary host-rocks of the district. These results are consistent with a Cretaceous or Early Tertiary age for these veins. Pb-Zn deposits that yield Pb isotope, K-Ar, and Ar-Ar results indicative of a Proterozoic age probably formed during deposition or diagenesis of the Belt Supergroup at 1350-1500 Ma, possibly as Sullivan-type syngenetic deposits. K-Ar and Rb-Sr apparent ages and {delta}{sup 18}O values of Belt Supergroup rocks decrease southward from the Coeur d'Alene district toward the Idaho batholith, normal to the trends of metamorphic isograds, fold axes, foliation, and the major reverse faults of the district. Isoclinal folding, thrust faulting, high-temperature metamorphism, granitic plutonism, and regional-scale metamorphic-hydrothermal activity is documented in the region between 140 Ma and 45 Ma, but no similar combination of events is recognized for Late Proterozoic time. Combined with Sr results from the veins, the evidence strongly favors formation of the ore-bearing carbonate veins of the district by fluids related to a complex metamorphic-hydrothermal system

  15. Effect Of Interaction On Apertures Of Multisegmented Natural Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Y.; Germanovich, L. N.; Vermilye, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Echelons of multisegmented fluid-driven natural fractures (such as dikes, veins, and sometimes joints) with consecutive overlapping are one of the most common types of structures in the Earth­_s crust. The mechanical behavior of these fractures is quite different from that of single fractures, because of the interaction between the segments. In this work we compute the apertures of a highly segmented calcite vein, with 71 segments, in siltstone (Culpeper Quarry, Virginia) described by Vermilye and Scholz [1995]. The effect of elastic interaction between the segments is considered at three different special scales and accurately evaluated by solving the corresponding system of singular integral equations. For comparison, the case of ignored interaction is also considered. Our results unambiguously suggest that the effect of interaction highly affects the vein apertures. By using two net pressures in the vein as fitting parameters, it is possible to obtain an excellent match of the computed and measured apertures (based on 3,000 data points). This indicates two episodes in the history of vein evolution. Based on the performed simulation, a concept of effective fracture (vein) has been suggested. This is a single fracture of the same overall size (length) as the real vein. It is also pressurized by two net pressures that are determined by fitting the field data. As a result, practically the same net pressures are obtained as by accounting for the full interaction between the vein segments. The concept of effective fracture allows the sufficiently accurate computation of the vein (fracture) apertures, but without considering the interaction between the multiple segments.

  16. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  17. Optic Nerve Sheath Melanoma Presenting as a Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Barash, Alexander; Sibony, Patrick A; Stippa, Nigel A; Boyle, Nariman S; Davis, James E

    2016-03-01

    A 64-year-old woman, with a history of diabetes and melanoma, developed a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in her left eye. On exam, she had severe disc edema with retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and anterior deformation of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch membrane layer (ppRPE/BM) toward the vitreous on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) suggesting an optic nerve sheath (ONS) meningioma. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and ONS biopsy later confirmed a metastatic melanoma. This case demonstrates that the shape of the RPE/BM on SD-OCT may aid in the decision to consider imaging in patients with isolated CRVO. PMID:26535468

  18. Transjugular Portal Venous Stenting in Inflammatory Extrahepatic Portal Vein Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, Rolf; Textor, Jochen; Decker, Pan; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans

    2002-12-15

    We report the case of a 37-year-old man with necrotizing pancreatitis associated with inflammatory extrahepatic portal vein stenosis and progressive ascites. Four months after the acute onset, when no signs of infection were present, portal decompression was performed to treat refractory ascites. Transjugulartranshepatic venoplasty failed to dilate the stenosis in the extrahepatic portion of the portal vein sufficiently. Therefore a Wallstent was implanted, resulting in almost normal diameter of the vessel. In follow-up imaging studies the stent and the portal vein were still patent 12 months after the intervention and total resolution of the ascites was observed.

  19. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Pope, Marc; Vucemilo, Ivica; Werneck, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Varicose veins are a common condition that can be treated surgically. Available operative modalities include saphenous venous ligation and stripping, phlebectomy, endovenous laser therapy and radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is the newest of these technologies, and to our knowledge our group was the first to use it in Canada. Our experience suggests that it is a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins, with high levels of patient satisfaction reported at short-term follow-up. More studies are needed to assess long-term effectiveness and compare the various available treatment options for varicose veins. PMID:25799244

  20. Cavernous Sinus Dural Fistula Treated by Transvenous Facial Vein Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, V.; Cizek, V.; Kacirova, R.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report on the endovascular treatment of the spontaneous indirect dural carotid cavernous sinus type D fistula in a 60-year-old woman, in whom ipsilateral facial, angular and superior ophthalmic veins catheterization was performed to get access to the fistula site for embolization treatment. Approach via the facial vein is helpful after inferior petrosal sinus treatment failure. Although this technique requires caution in the angular vein region it allows a safe and effective treatment of these lesions. 3D rotational digital angiography can obtain more information of the angioarchitecture of the cavernous plexus and venous outflow for the catheter navigation. PMID:20587267

  1. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis as a Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anu; Gupta, Natasha; Blankstein, Josef; Trester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of the postpartum period. It has never been reported as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of right ovarian vein thrombosis that occurred in the postoperative period after patient underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy for a right side ectopic pregnancy. She presented with 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. A complete workup for fever was performed and was found negative. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis. The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy and responded well. PMID:26788386

  2. A phyllosilicate-sulfide vein in Kaidun. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has

  3. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  4. A rare anomaly of left renal vein drainage into the left common iliac vein: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Kazushige; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Herein, we describe a case of sigmoid colon cancer with a rare anomaly of the left renal vein located between the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and the left common iliac artery. Case presentation A 57-year-old woman with sigmoid colon cancer underwent three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for a preoperative assessment; the results revealed a rare variant of the left renal vein. There were two left renal veins: one retroaortically drained into the inferior vena cava, and the other was located between the IMA and the left common iliac artery and drained into the left common iliac vein. Laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy was performed safely while carefully avoiding any injury to the left renal vein located posterior to the IMA. Discussion Several variations of the left renal vein have been reported, such as retroaortic or circumaortic left renal veins. The variants of renal vessels, which are frequently overlooked in the preoperative assessment, is rarely affected in colorectal surgery. However, if the surgeon is unaware of such renal vessel anomalies, an injury can occur, resulting in severe bleeding. Conclusion It is important that surgeons identify retroperitoneal vessel variants before performing colorectal surgery. PMID:26773205

  5. Retrograde venous invasion in renal cell carcinoma: a complication of sinus vein and main renal vein invasion.

    PubMed

    Bonsib, Stephen M; Bhalodia, Ami

    2011-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma, especially clear cell, gains access to the venous system as the initial route of extrarenal spread. Intravenous growth can involve extrarenal veins or renal veins in other portions of the kidney, referred to herein as retrograde venous invasion. This study investigates the incidence and defines the pathological features of retrograde venous invasion. Retrograde venous invasion is defined as rounded nodules of tumor separated from the primary tumor and in a location that conforms to the venous outflow. Nine cases of retrograde venous invasion were identified in a series of 115 renal cell carcinomas (8%). Two blocks from each case were stained with elastic van Gieson, Masson trichrome, CD31 and desmin to evaluate intravenous involvement. All cases were staged using the 2010 TNM staging schema. The tumors ranged in size from 4.2 to 17 cm. All cases showed sinus vein and main renal vein invasion (pT3a); three cases involved the vena cava (pT3b). Direct continuity between the primary tumor and tumor in the main renal vein was grossly evident in every case. Involved sinus veins could be followed retrograde to the cortex between renal pyramids with tumor nodules arrayed along the pyramid-cortex interface. Histologically, the involved parenchymal veins lacked a smooth muscle media and elastica. CD31 demonstrated an endothelial cell lining around many nodules. As intravenous nodules enlarged endothelium was lost, extra-venous invasion occurred and nodules coalesced and merged with the primary tumor. In conclusion, retrograde venous invasion occurred only with main renal vein involvement. Gross evaluation allowed detection in every case. Histological confirmation of intravenous nature is challenging due to the absence of smooth muscle in parenchymal veins. As retrograde growth becomes extensive nodules coalesce and merge with the primary tumor and may be included in measurement of primary tumor size if this process is unrecognized. PMID:21822202

  6. Splanchnic vein thrombosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Mallika; McVinnie, Kathryn; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2013-09-01

    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is one of the most important complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Although MPN are common causes of SVT, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this predisposition, their epidemiology and natural history are not fully understood. Studies have concentrated on the generalized prothrombotic environment generated by MPN and their relationship with abnormal blood counts, thereby furthering our knowledge of arterial and venous thrombosis in this population. In contrast, there are few studies that have specifically addressed SVT in the context of MPN. Recent research has demonstrated in patients with MPN the existence of factors increasing the risk of SVT such as the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation and its 46/1 haplotype. Features unique to the circulating blood cells, splanchnic vasculature and surrounding micro-environment in patients with MPN have been described. There are also abnormalities in local haemodynamics, haemostatic molecules, the spleen, and splanchnic endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells. This review considers these important advances and discusses the contribution of individual anomalies that lead to the development of SVT in both the pre-neoplastic and overt stage of MPN. Clinical issues relating to epidemiology, recurrence and survival in these patients have also been reviewed and their results discussed. PMID:23855810

  7. Two Scimitar Veins in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Schwill, Simon; Prete, Jennifer Del; Cooley, Denton A.; Morales, David L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Scimitar syndrome is a rare but serious congenital condition that consists of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava. The appearance on chest radiography resembles a curved Turkish sword, or scimitar. Scimitar syndrome is associated with other anomalies, including hypoplasia of the right lung, dextroposition of the heart, anomalous systemic arterial supply to the right lung, and atrial septal defect. Clinical manifestations in infants include severe tachypnea and cyanosis. Adult patients may present with dyspnea and increased fatigue. Few adult cases have been reported in the medical literature. Classical surgical repair involves diversion of the scimitar venous flow into the left atrium with a baffle, requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Herein, we report the case of a 42-year-old woman with 2 scimitar veins who underwent corrective surgery at our center without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. We also comment on the importance of a patient's lung hypoplasia in the decision to repair the defect through a right thoracotomy. PMID:20548823

  8. Mars Opportunity rover finds gypsum veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    Bright linear features about the width of a human thumb that were found on Mars by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity appear to be gypsum veins deposited by groundwater, a team of scientists announced at a 7 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. “To me, this is the single most powerful piece of evidence for liquid water on Mars that has been discovered by the Opportunity rover,” said Steve Squyres, a geoscientist at Cornell University in Ithaca, N. Y., and principal investigator for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit. “We have found sulfates before. Those sulfates were formed somewhere; we don't know where. They have been moved around by the wind, they've been mixed with other materials. It's a big, jumbled, fascinating mess. This stuff was formed right here. There was a fracture in the rock, water flowed through it, gypsum was precipitated from the water. End of story. Okay, there is no ambiguity about this. This is what makes it so cool.”

  9. Crustal deformation and earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    The manner in which the Earth's surface deforms during the cycle of stress accumulation and release along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal deformation associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal deformation pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.

  10. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  11. Vaporization of Deforming Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxing; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Dongjun; Yang, Vigor

    2012-11-01

    Droplet deformation is one of the most important factors influencing the evaporation rate. In the present study, high-fidelity numerical simulations of single evaporating droplets with deformation are carried out over a wide range of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for both the liquid and surrounding gas phases. A modified volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique that takes into account heat and mass transfer is used to track the behavior of the liquid/gas interface. Special attention is given to the property conservation, which can be realized by using an iterative algorithm that enforces a divergence constraint in cells containing the interface. The effect of the ambient flow on droplet dynamics and evaporation are investigated systematically. Various underlying mechanisms dictating the droplet characteristics in different deformation regimes are identified. Correlations for the droplet evaporation rate are established in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers.

  12. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Personal authentication using hand vein triangulation and knuckle shape.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K Venkata

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using triangulation of hand vein images and simultaneous extraction of knuckle shape information. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for the image normalization and extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages: (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of triangulation in the binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless palm dorsal-hand vein images are promising (equal error rate of 1.14%) and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification. PMID:19447728

  14. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Symptoms ... without the monitoring required for warfarin. Latest NIH Research The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  15. Left renal vein transposition is effective for posterior nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuedong; Xing, Jinchun; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl was enrolled in hospital with intermittent gross hematuria in a period of 3 years. Bloody efflux from the left ureteral orifice was diagnosed in this patient with urethrocystoscopy. A retroaortic left renal vein appeared to be compressed by the aorta as detected by computerized tomography. The left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the spine. A groove in the anterior surface of the left renal vein was detected. A transposition surgery of the left renal vein to a site in front of the aorta was performed for the patient. The patient was discharged after recovery and the hematuria symptom was not found during the 15-month follow-up investigation. PMID:25664135

  16. Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Solvig, Jan; Schroder, Henrik

    2000-07-15

    An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years.

  17. Axillary vein thrombosis in adolescent onset systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leak, A; Patel, K J; Tuddenham, E G; Pearson, J D; Woo, P

    1990-01-01

    A 16 year old girl with a two year history of systemic sclerosis developed left axillary vein thrombosis. Prolonged euglobulin clot lysis time, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, and raised von Willebrand factor antigen were shown. Images PMID:2383084

  18. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the legs, genital area, and rectum ( hemorrhoids are just a type of varicose veins). Varicose ... Recovering From Delivery How Do You Treat Pregnancy Hemorrhoids and Constipation? Medical Care During Pregnancy 10 Things ...

  19. Portal vein aneurysm demonstrated by blood pool SPECT.

    PubMed

    Fukui, H; Kashiwagi, T; Kimura, K; Goto, M; Takei, Y; Kasahara, A; Kawano, S; Fusamoto, H; Kozuka, T; Kamada, T

    1992-11-01

    Portal vein aneurysms are rare and are occasionally suggested by ultrasound and usually confirmed by invasive angiography. Such a case was diagnosed by scintigraphic studies, most importantly blood pool SPECT, which clearly separates it from hepatic cysts. PMID:1424375

  20. Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194