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Sample records for jules horowitz experimental

  1. Jules Horowitz Reactor, a new irradiation facility: Improving dosimetry for the future of nuclear experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoire, G.; Beretz, D.; Destouches, C.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is an experimental reactor under construction at the French Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA) facility at Cadarache. It will achieve its first criticality by the end of 2014. Experiments that will be conducted at JHR will deal with fuel, cladding, and material behavior. The JHR will also produce medical radio-isotopes and doped silicon for the electronic industry. As a new irradiation facility, its instrumentation will benefit from recent improvements. Nuclear instrumentation will include reactor dosimetry, as it is a reference technique to determine neutron fluence in experimental devices or characterize irradiation locations. Reactor dosimetry has been improved with the progress of simulation tools and nuclear data, but at the same time the customer needs have increased: Experimental results must have reduced and assessed uncertainties. This is now a necessary condition to perform an experimental irradiation in a test reactor. Items improved, in the framework of a general upgrading of the dosimetry process based on uncertainty minimization, will include dosimeter, nuclear data, and modelling scheme. (authors)

  2. Experimental validation of photon-heating calculation for the Jules Horowitz Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, M.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Di Salvo, J.; Gruel, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the next Material-Testing Reactor (MTR) under construction at CEA Cadarache. High values of photon heating (up to 20 W/g) are expected in this MTR. As temperature is a key parameter for material behavior, the accuracy of photon-heating calculation in the different JHR structures is an important stake with regard to JHR safety and performances. In order to experimentally validate the calculation of photon heating in the JHR, an integral experiment called AMMON was carried out in the critical mock-up EOLE at CEA Cadarache to help ascertain the calculation bias and its associated uncertainty. Nuclear heating was measured in different JHR-representative AMMON core configurations using ThermoLuminescent Detectors (TLDs) and Optically Stimulated Luminescent Detectors (OSLDs). This article presents the interpretation methodology and the calculation/experiment (C/E) ratio for all the TLD and OSLD measurements conducted in AMMON. It then deals with representativeness elements of the AMMON experiment regarding the JHR and establishes the calculation biases (and its associated uncertainty) applicable to photon-heating calculation for the JHR.

  3. Power transient analyses of experimental in-reflector devices during safety shutdown in Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Camprini, P. C.; Sumini, M.; Artioli, C.; Gonnier, C.; Pouchin, B.; Bourdon, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is designed to be a 100 MW material testing reactor (MTR) and it is expected to become the reference facility in the framework of European nuclear research activity. As the core neutron spectrum is quite fast, several experimental devices concerning fuel studies have been conceived to be placed in the reflector in order to exploit a proper thermal neutron flux irradiation. Since the core power is relatively high, the neutronic coupling between the reactor core and the reflector devices has to be taken into account for different rod insertions. In fact the thermal power produced within the fuel samples is considerable. Heat removal during shutdown is a main topic in nuclear safety and it is worth to analyse thermal power transients in fuel samples as well. Here a thermal hydraulic model for JHR core is proposed aiming at a simple and representative description as far as reactivity feedbacks are concerned. Then it is coupled with a neutronic pointwise kinetics analysis by means of the DULCINEE code to compute core power transient calculations. Moreover, some reflector-core coupling evaluations are performed through Monte Carlo method using the TRIPOLI 4.7 code. The JHR equilibrium cycle is considered with respect to four fuel compositions namely Beginning of Cycle (BOC), Xenon Saturation Point (XSP), Middle of Cycle (MOC) and End of Cycle (EOC). Then thermal power transients in the experimental reflector devices are evaluated during safety shutdowns and they are verified for all these cycle steps. (authors)

  4. Combined analysis of neutron and photon flux measurements for the Jules Horowitz reactor core mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J. P.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J. Y.; Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Merroun, O.; Brun, J.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.

    2011-07-01

    We study the combined analysis of nuclear measurements to improve the knowledge of the irradiation conditions in the experimental locations of the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The goal of the present work is to measure more accurately neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating in the reactor. In a Material Testing Reactor (MTR), nuclear heating is a crucial parameter to design the experimental devices to be irradiated in harsh nuclear conditions. This parameter drives the temperature of the devices and of the samples. The numerical codes can predict this parameter but in-situ measurements are necessary to reach the expected accuracy. For this reason, one objective of the IN-CORE program [1] is to study the combined measurements of neutron and photon flux and their cross advanced interpretation. It should be reminded that both neutron and photon sensors are not totally selective as their signals are due to neutron and photon interactions. We intend to measure the neutron flux by three different kinds of sensors (Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber and Self Powered Neutron Detector), the photon flux by two different sensors (Ionization chamber and Self Powered Gamma Detector) and the nuclear heating by two different ones (Differential calorimeter and Gamma Thermometer). For the same parameter, we expect that the use of different kinds of sensors will allow a better estimation of the aimed parameter by mixing different spectrum responses and different neutron and gamma contributions. An experimental test called CARMEN-1 is scheduled in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France) at the end of 2011, with the goal to map irradiation locations in the reactor reflector to get a first validation of the analysis model. This article focuses on the sensor selection for CARMEN-1 experiment and to the way to link neutron and photon flux measurements in view to reduce their uncertainties but also to better assess the neutron and photon contributions to nuclear

  5. Emission and transmission tomography systems to be developed for the future needs of Jules Horowitz material testing reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotiluoto, Petri; Wasastjerna, Frej; Kekki, Tommi; Sipilä, Heikki; Banzuzi, Kukka; Kinnunen, Petri; Heikinheimo, Liisa

    2009-08-01

    The new 100 MW Jules Horowitz material testing reactor will be built in Cadarache, France. It will support, for instance, research on new types of innovative nuclear fuel. As a Finnish in-kind contribution, 3D emission and transmission tomography equipment will be delivered for both the reactor and the active component storage pool. The image reconstruction of activities inside the used nuclear fuel will be based on gamma spectrometry measurements. A new type of underwater digital X-ray linear detector array is under development for transmission imaging, based on GaAs and direct conversion of X-rays into an electrical signal. A shared collimator will be used for both emission and transmission measurements. Some preliminary design has been performed. For the current design, the expected gamma spectrometric response of a typical high-purity germanium detector has been simulated with MCNP for minimum and maximum source activities (specified by CEA) to be measured in future.

  6. Djordje Stanojevic in Works of Jules Janssen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.

    2009-09-01

    Jules Janssen (Paris 1824 - Meudon 1907) is well known as the founder of the "Observatoire d'Astronomie Physique de Paris (sisá Meudon)". He was also teacher and coworker of Djordje Stanojević, who was the first Serbian astrophysicist, rector of the Belgrade University and the second person on the head of Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, the first builder of hydro power plants in Serbia, the author of the first color photography in Serbia and the book with colored photographies ("Srbija u slikama" - Serbia in photos), pioneer of electrification and industrialization of our country. His articles in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences) are in the Serbian Astronomy the first modern scientific papers. They are presented and commented in Academy by Jules Janssen, who also mentions Stanojevi{ć} in his works in various contexts. In this contribution, the presence of Djordje Stanojevi{ć} in works of Jules Janssen, and his comments on Stanojevi{ć}'s work in Comptes Rendus are analyzed. Also, the work and life of Jules Janssen are presented.

  7. Geophysicists: Jules Aarons (1921-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Jules Aarons, a pioneer in satellite radio beacon studies of the ionosphere, died peacefully at his home in Newton, Mass., on 21 November 2008 at age 87. When considering his college career, Jules was drawn toward the humanities, an interest subsequently redirected by his parents toward science as a more suitable way to earn a living, and then by the U.S. Army Air Corps toward radio technology as a more suitable way to win World War II. Both goals were readily accomplished, perhaps instilling in Jules the value of proper mentorship, that central aspect of his life that so dominates our recollections of him. After the war, and with a variety of options before him, Jules decided upon civilian government service at the U.S. Air Force's then new field station in Cambridge, Mass. This was the founding entity of the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (AFCRL), and those five famous letters became identified with his professional career (1946-1981). With Russia's launch of Sputnik in 1957, the era of space-based radio communications began, and with it the need to understand the sporadic crackling and fading (``scintillations'') of radio transmissions from satellites to ground receiving stations. Wartime efforts also gave birth to radio astronomy. Jules fostered ways to fund the synergies he saw between the radio technologies of space science and those of ground-based radio astronomy in ways almost unimaginable today (and certainly not by former U.S. senator Mike Mansfield, whose 1973 amendment to the U.S. Congress's defense appropriations bill limited the financing of basic research by military agencies only to projects that have direct military consequences; the amendment resulted in a permanent restructuring of how U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) agencies fund university-based research).

  8. improved vegetation phenology in the JULES land-surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, S. O.

    2013-12-01

    Sietse Los, Steven Hancock, Peter North, Jose Gomez-Dans Introduction: Land-surface properties such as albedo, soil moisture and vegetation biophysical parameters affect water, energy and carbon fluxes from the land to the atmosphere an this can alter weather patterns. Here we use globally consistent satellite observations to improve modelling of the vegetation seasonal cycle in the JULES land-surface model (LSM) to better represent these fluxes. JULES model: The JULES LSM is the land surface component of the suite of UK MetOffice general circulation models. JULES is used both in operational weather forecasting and for simulations of future climate. Within JULES, seasonal changes in surface albedo are controlled by snow (not covered here) and vegetation dynamics (phenology). Vegetation phenology is controlled by temperature and water availability, with timings and rates set by a number of trigger thresholds and leaf growth/death rates. Satellite data: The ability of JULES to represent vegetation, in terms of its seasonal cycle as well as the interannual variation, was tested on normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI = (near-infrared - red) / (near-infrared + red)) data. JULES uses a 1D radiative transfer model to predict hemispheric surface albedo for a given leaf area whilst satellites measure reflectance from a single view direction and this may not match the hemispheric albedo. To test this, JULES predictions were compared to the FLIGHT (a 3D radiative transfer model) simulations for different view directions. This revealed that either NDVI profiles need to be normalised to allow a direct comparison (as done here) or else the JULES 1D model must be replaced by a full 3D radiative transfer model, which is computationally expensive. Experiments: The original phenology module in JULES was optimised against NDVI observations using a Monte-Carlo Markov chain method. This optimisation was unsuccessful; and we therefore concluded that the JULES phenology cannot

  9. Jules Gonin. Pioneer of retinal detachment surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolfensberger, Thomas J

    2003-12-01

    Before the turn of the 20th century, eyes with a retinal detachment were considered doomed. Contrary to other branches of ophthalmology, such as cataract extraction, the surgical treatment of retinal detachment was still in its infancy, and the surgical success rates were less than five percent. From 1902 to 1921 Jules Gonin almost single handedly changed the landscape of retinal detachment surgery forever. He recognised that the retinal break was the cause--and not the consequence as it was largely believed at the time--of the retinal detachment, and that the treatment had at all costs to comprise the closure of the break by cauterisation. He named the procedure ignipuncture, as he cauterised the retina through the sclera with a very hot pointed instrument. Despite rigorously detailed clinical observations and increasing success rates, his discovery was not readily accepted and sometimes openly opposed by a large part of the ophthalmic establishment. It was not until 1929 that he received worldwide acclaim at the International Ophthalmological Congress in Amsterdam for his surgical technique. His legacy lives on in the eye hospital in Lausanne that bears his name, in the Gonin Medal awarded by the International Council of Ophthalmology every four years for the highest achievement in ophthalmology, and in a street named after him, the very street that he used to walk from his home to the hospital every day. PMID:14750617

  10. Coupled carbon-nitrogen land surface modelling for UK agricultural landscapes using JULES and JULES-ECOSSE-FUN (JEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comyn-Platt, Edward; Clark, Douglas; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    The UK is required to provide accurate estimates of the UK greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions for the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Process based land surface models (LSMs), such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), attempt to provide such estimates based on environmental (e.g. land use and soil type) and meteorological conditions. The standard release of JULES focusses on the water and carbon cycles, however, it has long been suggested that a coupled carbon-nitrogen scheme could enhance simulations. This is of particular importance when estimating agricultural emission inventories where the carbon cycle is effectively managed via the human application of nitrogen based fertilizers. JULES-ECOSSE-FUN (JEF) links JULES with the Estimation of Carbon in Organic Soils - Sequestration and Emission (ECOSSE) model and the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN) model as a means of simulating C:N coupling. This work presents simulations from the standard release of JULES and the most recent incarnation of the JEF coupled system at the point and field scale. Various configurations of JULES and JEF were calibrated and fine-tuned based on comparisons with observations from three UK field campaigns (Crichton, Harwood Forest and Brattleby) specifically chosen to represent the managed vegetation types that cover the UK. The campaigns included flux tower and chamber measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O amongst other meteorological parameters and records of land management such as application of fertilizer and harvest date at the agricultural sites. Based on the results of these comparisons, JULES and/or JEF will be used to provide simulations on the regional and national scales in order to provide improved estimates of the total UK emission inventory.

  11. STS-75 Pilot Horowitz with wife and daughter at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 Pilot Scott J. Horowitz is greeted by wife Lisa Marie and their newborn daughter Arielle after he and six fellow crew members arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The second Shuttle flight of 1996 will be highlighted by the re-flight of the Italian Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R). Liftoff is slated to occur during a two-and-a-half window opening at 3:18 p.m. EST, Feb. 22.

  12. Jules Bernard Luys in Charcot's penumbra.

    PubMed

    Parent, Martin; Parent, André

    2011-01-01

    Jules Bernard Luys (1828-1897) is a relatively unknown figure in 19th century French neuropsychiatry. Although greatly influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), Luys worked in the shadow of the 'master of La Salpêtrière' for about a quarter of a century. When he arrived at this institution in 1862, he used microscopy and photomicrography to identify pathological lesions underlying locomotor ataxia and progressive muscular atrophy. He later made substantial contributions to our knowledge of normal human brain anatomy, including the elucidation of thalamic organization and the discovery of the subthalamic nucleus. Luys's name has long been attached to the latter structure (corps de Luys), which is at the center of our current thinking about the functional organization of basal ganglia and the physiopathology of Parkinson's disease. As head of the Maison de santé d'Ivry, Luys developed a highly original view of the functional organization of the normal human brain, while improving our understanding of the neuropathological and clinical aspects of mental illnesses. In 1886, Luys left La Salpêtrière and became chief physician at La Charité hospital. Following Charcot, whom he considered as the father of scientific hypnotism, Luys devoted the last part of his career to hysteria and hypnosis. However, Luys ventured too deeply into the minefield of hysteria. He initiated experiments as unconventional as the distant action of medication, and became one of the most highly caricatured examples of the fascination that hysteria exerted upon neurologists as well as laypersons at the end of the 19th century. PMID:20938152

  13. Charged scalar perturbations around Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Zhang, Shao-Jun; Wang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    We examine the stability of the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GHS) black hole under charged scalar perturbations. Employing the appropriate numerical methods, we show that the GHS black hole is always stable against charged scalar perturbations. This is different from the results obtained in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter black holes. Furthermore, we argue that in the GHS black hole background there is no amplification of the incident charged scalar wave to cause the superradiance, so that the superradiant instability cannot exist in this spacetime.

  14. STS-75 Cmmdr and Pilot greets Horowitz's wife and daughter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 Pilot Scott J. Horowitz is greeted by wife Lisa Marie and their newborn daughter Arielle after he and six fellow crew members -- including Mission Commander Andrew M. Allen at right - - arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The second Shuttle flight of 1996 will be highlighted by the re-flight of the Italian Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R). Liftoff is slated to occur during a two-and-a-half window opening at 3:18 p.m. EST, Feb. 22.

  15. STS-105 Commander Horowitz suits up for another launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz is helped with his launch and entry suit for the second launch attempt after a 24-hour weather delay. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off at about 5:12 p.m. Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Launch is currently scheduled for 5:15 p.m. EDT Aug. 10. Highlighting the mission will be the rotation of the International Space Station crew, the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Included in the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS will be installed on the P6 truss, which holds the Station'''s giant U.S. solar arrays, batteries and the cooling radiators. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

  16. STS-101 Commander Halsell and Pilot Horowitz practice emergency exit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Seated in a slidewire basket at the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39A, are (left to right) STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz. Halsell is reaching to pull the release lever that will send the basket shooting down the 1,200-foot slidewire to a bunker west of the launch pad. The crew is practicing emergency egress from the orbiter as part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration (TCDT) activities that include a simulated launch countdown and familiarization with the payload. During their mission to the International Space Station, the STS-101 crew will be delivering logistics and supplies, plus preparing the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. STS-101 is scheduled to launch April 24 at 4:15 p.m. from Launch Pad 39A.

  17. 2nd Charles Richet et Jules Héricourt Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Daguet, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The Charles Richet and Jules Héricourt workshops honor the memory of Jules Héricourt (1850–1938) and Charles Richet (1850–1935) who described the principle of serotherapy in 1888 and made the very first attempts to fight cancer with serotherapy in 1895. In 1902, Charles Richet and Paul Portier described “anaphylaxis,” a discovery awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The first workshop, “Towards the clinical use of monoclonal antibodies with higher cytolytic efficacy in cancer” was held in Tours, France on November 20–21, 2008. The second Charles Richet and Jules Héricourt workshop, held May 31–June 1, 2011 at the University of Tours, France, was also organized by the Cancéropôle Grand Ouest. The topic of the workshop was therapeutic antibodies and anaphylaxis, a subject rarely addressed in congresses focused on mAbs. To have discussions about mAb side effects with complete objectivity, the congress was organized independently of any sponsorship from pharmaceutical companies. This academic event was motivated by the high incidence of shocks to cetuximab and the need to compile and evaluate scattered information. This growing public health concern was thus analyzed from different scientific and medical angles. The first session was devoted to acute infusion reactions, with an emphasis on deconvolution of the terms “cytokine-release syndrome,” “cytokine storms,” “anaphylaxis” and their epidemiology. This session concluded with the Charles Richet lecture on cetuximab anaphylaxis and anti-αGal IgE by Thomas Platts-Mills, its discoverer. In the next session, the involvement of anti-glycan antibodies in both anaphylaxis and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to therapeutic antibodies was discussed. A gala dinner was held in the gardens of the beautiful château of Villandry, which was acquired and restored by Joachim Carvalho, a pupil of Charles Richet's and great-grandfather of the present owner. The final session focused on strategies to

  18. Jules Verne Voyager: A Web Interactive Tool for Comparative Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estey, L.; Pappalardo, R.; Meertens, C.

    2004-12-01

    A Web interactive map tool called "Jules Verne Voyager" was originally developed in 1999 by UNAVCO and continues to evolve. The Voyager tool can easily be used for comparative planetology studies by grades 8-14. Thematic mapping datasets, now totaling about 70 Gb, can be accessed by the tool and include global-scale maps of the inner solar system planets and moons, plus Jupiter and the Galilean moons. The map images are viewed on a Web browser created on demand by the server system. On the client-side, only a Java-enabled browser is required, and the Voyager Java applet runs well with common browsers like Netscape, Mozilla, Opera, and Internet Explorer. The applet sends a key-value pair URL to the http://jules.unavco.org server which queues incoming requests and sends them to a bank of computers dedicated to map image creation. The engine for map image creation makes use of the "Generic Mapping Tools" (GMT) software of Paul Wessel and Walter Smith, followed by image conversion of the GMT-created PostScript to GIF for raster image export and display back on the client browser. Because of the GMT-based engine on the server system, the student user can easily create the same type of images from real planetary data that researchers create. The tool also gives a student the ability to switch background datasets and overlay certain other thematic datasets, thus providing a minimal GIS capability. To our knowledge, the map tool has not yet formally been used in a 8-14 classroom environment, though informal use by students and teachers in these grades suggest that it would be well received. The server system is currently capable of handing a moderate level of requests that would result from classroom use; for example, as a system benchmark, over 800 Voyager images were created and served in about an hour during a DLESE 2003 annual meeting workshop. The Voyager map tool is being used by instructors in earth science and comparative planetology as a means to create customized

  19. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 2: Carbon fluxes and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. B.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Jones, C. D.; Gedney, N.; Best, M. J.; Pryor, M.; Rooney, G. G.; Essery, R. L. H.; Blyth, E.; Boucher, O.; Harding, R. J.; Huntingford, C.; Cox, P. M.

    2011-09-01

    The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is a process-based model that simulates the fluxes of carbon, water, energy and momentum between the land surface and the atmosphere. Many studies have demonstrated the important role of the land surface in the functioning of the Earth System. Different versions of JULES have been employed to quantify the effects on the land carbon sink of climate change, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, changing atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone, and the response of methane emissions from wetlands to climate change. This paper describes the consolidation of these advances in the modelling of carbon fluxes and stores, in both the vegetation and soil, in version 2.2 of JULES. Features include a multi-layer canopy scheme for light interception, including a sunfleck penetration scheme, a coupled scheme of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, representation of the effects of ozone on leaf physiology, and a description of methane emissions from wetlands. JULES represents the carbon allocation, growth and population dynamics of five plant functional types. The turnover of carbon from living plant tissues is fed into a 4-pool soil carbon model. The process-based descriptions of key ecological processes and trace gas fluxes in JULES mean that this community model is well-suited for use in carbon cycle, climate change and impacts studies, either in standalone mode or as the land component of a coupled Earth system model.

  20. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), Model description - Part 2: Carbon fluxes and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. B.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Jones, C. D.; Gedney, N.; Best, M. J.; Pryor, M.; Rooney, G. G.; Essery, R. L. H.; Blyth, E.; Boucher, O.; Harding, R. J.; Cox, P. M.

    2011-03-01

    The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is a process-based model that simulates the fluxes of carbon, water, energy and momentum between the land surface and the atmosphere. Past studies with JULES have demonstrated the important role of the land surface in the Earth System. Different versions of JULES have been employed to quantify the effects on the land carbon sink of separately changing atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone, and the response of methane emissions from wetlands to climate change. There was a need to consolidate these and other advances into a single model code so as to be able to study interactions in a consistent manner. This paper describes the consolidation of these advances into the modelling of carbon fluxes and stores, in the vegetation and soil, in version 2.2 of JULES. Features include a multi-layer canopy scheme for light interception, including a sunfleck penetration scheme, a coupled scheme of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, representation of the effects of ozone on leaf physiology, and a description of methane emissions from wetlands. JULES represents the carbon allocation, growth and population dynamics of five plant functional types. The turnover of carbon from living plant tissues is fed into a 4-pool soil carbon model. The process-based descriptions of key ecological processes and trace gas fluxes in JULES mean that this community model is well-suited for use in carbon cycle, climate change and impacts studies, either in standalone mode or as the land component of a coupled Earth system model.

  1. Local free-fall temperature of Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Choi, Jaedong; Park, Young-Jai

    2014-02-01

    We obtain a (5+1)-dimensional global flat embedding of the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger spacetime in the Einstein frame and a (5+2)-dimensional global flat embedding in the string frame. We show that the local free-fall temperatures for freely falling observers in each frame are finite at the event horizons, while the local temperatures for fiducial observers are divergent. We also observe that the local free-fall temperatures differ between the two frames.

  2. On the Verbal Art of a Modern Painter: The Work of Jules Kirschenbaum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Claude

    1989-01-01

    Notes that Jules Kirschenbaum, a modern American artist whose work integrates inscriptions and figurative painting, studied under the masters of abstract expressionism yet exhibited with protagonists of "magic realism." States that his later work took a wholly different turn--it became art about meaning and the "meaning of meaning." (RS)

  3. Towards a Process-based Representation of Annual Crops Within the Land Surface Model JULES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoof, C.; Vidale, P.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce a generic crop structure within the Joint UK Land surface Exchange Scheme JULES (Cox, 1998) that is able to evaluate the interaction between growing crops and the environment at large scales for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. JULES was designed to simulate land surface processes in natural ecosystems. The importance of representing agricultural land within global biosphere models has been pointed out in many studies (De Noblet-Ducoudre et al., 2004; Bondeau 2005 et al.). Prior to any model development, the sensitivity of JULES to morphological and physiological differences between natural vegetation and crops has been investigated by reparameterising a natural C3 grass into a C3 crop. For a case study of fallow versus wheat at Grignon (France), the model output shows important soil water savings after crop harvest at the beginning of the summer. Owing to the lack of a rooting system, the deeper soil moisture cannot contribute anymore to the moisture flux to the atmosphere. On a shorter timescale, the harvest, and by consequence the sudden appearance of bare soil, also disrupt the energy and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere. Having established the sensitivity of the JULES system to a crop-like forcing, some components from the crop model SUCROS (Goudriaan and van Laar, 1994) that are relevant to the global water, energy and carbon cycles, have been introduced in JULES. The new version of JULES, denoted by JULES-SUCROS, incorporates crops and natural vegetation within a single modelling framework, without discontinuity in the photosynthesis-assimilation scheme between both vegetation types. Simulations have been performed with JULES-SUCROS for wheat at the Grignon site in current and doubled CO2 atmospheric conditions. Changing atmospheric conditions in JULES-SUCROS affects the sowing date and the length of the growing season. The results show that the positive effect of the CO2 fertilisation partly

  4. Multi-site evaluation of the JULES land surface model using global and local data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slevin, D.; Tett, S. F. B.; Williams, M.

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM) to simulate photosynthesis using local and global data sets at 12 FLUXNET sites. Model parameters include site-specific (local) values for each flux tower site and the default parameters used in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) climate model. Firstly, gross primary productivity (GPP) estimates from driving JULES with data derived from local site measurements were compared to observations from the FLUXNET network. When using local data, the model is biased with total annual GPP underestimated by 16% across all sites compared to observations. Secondly, GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from global parameter and atmospheric reanalysis (on scales of 100 km or so) were compared to FLUXNET observations. It was found that model performance decreases further, with total annual GPP underestimated by 30% across all sites compared to observations. When JULES was driven using local parameters and global meteorological data, it was shown that global data could be used in place of FLUXNET data with a 7% reduction in total annual simulated GPP. Thirdly, the global meteorological data sets, WFDEI and PRINCETON, were compared to local data to find that the WFDEI data set more closely matches the local meteorological measurements (FLUXNET). Finally, the JULES phenology model was tested by comparing results from simulations using the default phenology model to those forced with the remote sensing product MODIS leaf area index (LAI). Forcing the model with daily satellite LAI results in only small improvements in predicted GPP at a small number of sites, compared to using the default phenology model.

  5. Multi-site evaluation of the JULES land surface model using global and local data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slevin, D.; Tett, S. F. B.; Williams, M.

    2014-08-01

    Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapour change the energy balance of the atmosphere and thus climate. One important influence on these greenhouse gases is the land surface. Land Surface Models (LSMs) represent the interaction between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere in Global Climate Models (GCMs). As LSMs become more advanced, there is a need to test their accuracy. Uncertainty from LSMs contributes towards uncertainty in carbon cycle simulations and thus uncertainty in future climate change. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the JULES LSM to simulate photosynthesis using local and global datasets at 12 FLUXNET sites. Model parameters include site-specific (local) values for each flux tower site and the default parameters used in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) climate model. Firstly, we compare Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) estimates from driving JULES with data derived from local site measurements with driving JULES with data derived from global parameter and atmospheric reanalysis (on scales of 100 km or so). We find that when using local data, a negative bias is introduced into model simulations with yearly GPP underestimated by 16% on average compared to observations while when using global data, model performance decreases further with yearly GPP underestimated by 30% on average. Secondly, we drive the model using global meteorological data and local parameters and find that global data can be used in place of FLUXNET data with only a 7% reduction in total annual simulated GPP. Thirdly, we compare the global meteorological datasets, WFDEI and PRINCETON, to local data and find that the WATCH dataset more closely matches the local meteorological measurements (FLUXNET). Finally, we compare the results from forcing JULES with the remote sensing product MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI). JULES was modified to accept MODIS LAI at daily timesteps. We show that forcing the model with daily satellite LAI results in

  6. The climate responses of tropical and boreal ecosystems with an improved land surface model (JULES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Anna; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Cox, Peter; Wiltshire, Andy; Jones, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is the land surface of the next generation UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). Recently, JULES was updated with new plant functional types and physiology based on a global plant trait database. These developments improved the simulation of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity on local and global scales, and enabled a more realistic representation of the global distribution of vegetation. In this study, we explore the present-day distribution of ecosystems and their vulnerability to climate change in JULES with these improvements, focusing on tropical and boreal ecosystems. Changes to these ecosystems will have implications for biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change and need to be understood. First, we examine the simulated and observed rainforest-savannah boundary, which is strongly related to annual precipitation and the maximum climatological water deficit. Second, we assess the length of growing season and biomass stored in boreal ecosystems, where 20th century warming has likely extended the growing season. In each case, we first evaluate the ability of JULES to capture observed climate-vegetation relationships and trends. Finally, we run JULES to 2100 using climate data from 3 models and 2 RCP scenarios, and examine potential 21st century changes to these ecosystems. For example, do the tropical forests shrink in response to changes in tropical rainfall seasonality? And, how does the composition of boreal ecosystems change in response to climate warming? Given the potential for climate feedbacks and the inherent value in these ecosystems, it is essential to assess their responses to a range of climate change scenarios.

  7. JULES-crop: a parametrisation of crops in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, T.; Gornall, J.; Hooker, J.; Williams, K.; Wiltshire, A.; Betts, R.; Wheeler, T.

    2014-10-01

    Studies of climate change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere have been completed without recognition of the integrated nature of the biosphere. Improved assessment of the impacts of climate change on food and water security requires the development and use of models not only representing each component but also their interactions. To meet this requirement the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model has been modified to include a generic parametrisation of annual crops. The new model, JULES-crop, is described and evaluation at global and site levels for the four globally important crops; wheat, soy bean, maize and rice is presented. JULES-crop demonstrates skill in simulating the inter-annual variations of yield for maize and soy bean at the global level, and for wheat for major spring wheat producing countries. The impact of the new parametrisation, compared to the standard configuration, on the simulation of surface heat fluxes is largely an alteration of the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes during the later part of the growing season. Further evaluation at the site level shows the model captures the seasonality of leaf area index and canopy height better than in standard JULES. However, this does not lead to an improvement in the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The performance of JULES-crop from both an earth system and crop yield model perspective is encouraging however, more effort is needed to develop the parameterisation of the model for specific applications. Key future model developments identified include the specification of the yield gap to enable better representation of the spatial variability in yield.

  8. JULES-crop: a parametrisation of crops in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, T.; Gornall, J.; Hooker, J.; Williams, K.; Wiltshire, A.; Betts, R.; Wheeler, T.

    2015-04-01

    Studies of climate change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere have been completed without recognition of the integrated nature of the biosphere. Improved assessment of the impacts of climate change on food and water security requires the development and use of models not only representing each component but also their interactions. To meet this requirement the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model has been modified to include a generic parametrisation of annual crops. The new model, JULES-crop, is described and evaluation at global and site levels for the four globally important crops; wheat, soybean, maize and rice. JULES-crop demonstrates skill in simulating the inter-annual variations of yield for maize and soybean at the global and country levels, and for wheat for major spring wheat producing countries. The impact of the new parametrisation, compared to the standard configuration, on the simulation of surface heat fluxes is largely an alteration of the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes during the later part of the growing season. Further evaluation at the site level shows the model captures the seasonality of leaf area index, gross primary production and canopy height better than in the standard JULES. However, this does not lead to an improvement in the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The performance of JULES-crop from both an Earth system and crop yield model perspective is encouraging. However, more effort is needed to develop the parametrisation of the model for specific applications. Key future model developments identified include the introduction of processes such as irrigation and nitrogen limitation which will enable better representation of the spatial variability in yield.

  9. Nuclear Heating Measurement in Critical Facilities and Experimental Validation of Code and Libraries - An Application to Prompt and Delayed γ Nuclear Data Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, P.; Di Salvo, J.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Bernard, D.; Amharrak, H.; Lemaire, M.; Ravaux, S.

    Energy from prompt and delayed gammas in actual and future nuclear systems are more and more taken into account into design studies as they play an important role in the assessment of performance and safety concerns. Their incomplete knowledge (both prompt and delayed) require to take conservative design margins on local dimensioning parameters, thus reducing the awaited performances or flexibility of these facilities, with costs that are far from being negligible. The local energy photon deposit must be accurately known for Generation-III (Gen-III), Generation-IV (Gen-IV) or the new MTR Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The last 2 decades has seen the realization, in Zero Power Reactors (ZPR), of several programs partially devoted to γ-heating measurements. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), and later in MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III reactors). The adequacy of the γ-heating calculation was compared to experimental data using thermo-luminescent (TL) detectors and γ-fission chambers. Inconsistencies in C/E and associated uncertainties led to improvement of both libraries and experimental techniques. For these last one, characterization for TL and optically stimulated (OSL) detectors (calibration, individual response), and Monte Carlo calculation of charge repartition in those detectors and their environment were carefully checked and optimized. This step enabled to reduce the associated experimental uncertainty by a factor of 2 (8% at 2σ). Nevertheless, interpretation of integral experiment with updated calculation schemes and improved experimental techniques still tend to prove that there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data, mainly in structural and absorbing materials. New integral and differential measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts, which could benefit from consolidated theoretical and experimental modeling techniques.

  10. STS-105 Commander Horowitz tries on gas mask at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At Launch Pad 39A, STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz puts on a gas mask as part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which also include emergency egress, a simulated launch countdown and familiarization with the payload. Mission STS-105 will be transporting the Expedition Three crew, several payloads and scientific experiments to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Discovery. The current Expedition Two crew members on the Station will return to Earth on Discovery. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Aug. 9, 2001.

  11. Assimilation of land surface temperature into the land surface model JULES with an ensemble Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.; Kaduk, J.; Remedios, J.; Ardö, J.; Balzter, H.

    2010-10-01

    Land surface models have uncertainties due to their approximation of physical processes and the heterogeneity of the land surface. These can be compounded when key variables are inadequately represented. Land surface temperature (LST) is critical as it forms an integral component in the surface energy budget, water stress evaluation, fuel moisture derivation, and soil moisture-climate feedbacks. A reduction in the uncertainty of surface energy fluxes, and moisture quantification, is assumed to be achievable by constraining simulations of LST with observation data. This technique is known as data assimilation and involves the adjustment of the model state at observation times with measurements of a predictable uncertainty. In this paper, the validity of LST simulations in a regionalized parameterization of the land surface model Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) for Africa is assessed by way of a multitemporal intercomparison study with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) thermal products, with a two-thirds reduction in model bias found when soil properties are reparameterized. A data assimilation experiment of SEVIRI LST into the JULES model via an ensemble Kalman filter shows an improvement in the modeled LST, soil moisture, and latent and sensible heat fluxes. This paper presents the first investigation into reducing the uncertainty in modeling energy and water fluxes with the United Kingdom's most important land surface model, JULES, by means of data assimilation of LST.

  12. The effect of arctic mosses on the simulation of permafrost by the JULES land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadburn, S.; Burke, E.; Cox, P.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thawing permafrost is a potential source of large quantities of carbon, which could lead to significant climate feedbacks in the future, so it is important to include this effect in climate models. JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) is the land surface model used in the Hadley Centre climate model, as well as a land model in its own right, which will soon be used to quantify the magnitude of carbon release from permafrost thaw. It is therefore imperative that JULES simulates permafrost realistically. It has been shown that the model currently overestimates the permafrost active layer thickness, suggesting that its summer soil temperatures in permafrost regions are too high. One possible reason for this is that the physical properties of organic soil content such as moss and peat are not currently included. This organic matter is abundant at high latitudes and provides thermal insulation to the soil. In this work we include a routine to represent moss cover on the land surface, and find that it significantly improves the modelled soil temperatures. We quantify the effect of this new process on the large-scale representation of permafrost in JULES, including the active layer thickness.

  13. Supreme Court of the United States Syllabus. Board of Curators of the University of Missouri et al. v. Charlotte Horowitz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court of a case involving the dismissal for academic reasons of a student from the University of Missouri-Kansas City Medical School is presented. The Court upheld that Charlotte Horowitz had been afforded all rights by the fourteenth amendment and that the decision of the Court of Appeals, which held that the…

  14. Jule from the fish Xiphophorus is the first complete vertebrate Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon from the Mag family.

    PubMed

    Volff, J N; Körting, C; Altschmied, J; Duschl, J; Sweeney, K; Wichert, K; Froschauer, A; Schartl, M

    2001-02-01

    Jule is the second complete long-terminal-repeat (LTR) Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon identified to date in vertebrates. Jule, first isolated from the poeciliid fish Xiphophorus maculatus, is 4.8 kb in length, is flanked by two 202-bp LTRs, and encodes Gag (structural core protein) and Pol (protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase, in that order) but no envelope. There are three to four copies of Jule per haploid genome in X. maculatus. Two of them are located in a subtelomeric region of the sex chromosomes, where they are associated with the Xmrk receptor tyrosine kinase genes, of which oncogenic versions are responsible for the formation of hereditary melanoma in Xiphophorus. One almost intact copy of Jule was found in the first intron of the X-chromosomal allele of the Xmrk proto-oncogene, and a second, more corrupted copy is present only 56 nt downstream of the polyadenylation signal of the Xmrk oncogene. Jule-related elements were detected by Southern blot hybridization with less than 10 copies per haploid genome in numerous other poeciliids, as well as in more divergent fishes, including the medakafish Oryzias latipes and the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Database searches also identified Jule-related sequences in the zebrafish Danio rerio and in both genome project pufferfishes, Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Jule is the first member of the Mag family of Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons described to date in vertebrates. This family includes the silkworm Mag and sea urchin SURL retrotransposons, as well as sequences from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Additional related elements were identified in the genomes of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Phylogeny of Mag-related elements suggested that the Mag family of retrotransposons is polyphyletic and is constituted of several ancient lineages that diverged before their host genomes more than 600 MYA. PMID

  15. STS-101 Pilot Horowitz during suitup in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Pilot Scott 'Doc' Horowitz grins during suitup activities before heading to Launch Pad 39A for the fourth attempt at launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk and will reboost the space station from 230 statute miles to 250 statute miles. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis for the 10-day mission is scheduled for about 6:11 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A. Landing is targeted for May 29 at 2:19 a.m. EDT.

  16. Measurement-induced-nonlocality for Dirac particles in Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilation space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Ye, Liu

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the quantum correlation via measurement-induced-nonlocality (MIN) for Dirac particles in Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GHS) dilation space-time. It is shown that the physical accessible quantum correlation decreases as the dilation parameter increases monotonically. Unlike the case of scalar fields, the physical accessible correlation is not zero when the Hawking temperature is infinite owing to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Meanwhile, the boundary of MIN related to Bell-violation is derived, which indicates that MIN is more general than quantum nonlocality captured by the violation of Bell-inequality. As a by-product, a tenable quantitative relation about MIN redistribution is obtained whatever the dilation parameter is. In addition, it is worth emphasizing that the underlying reason why the physical accessible correlation and mutual information decrease is that they are redistributed to the physical inaccessible regions.

  17. Black hole complementarity with local horizons and Horowitz-Maldacena's proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han; Zoe, Heeseung

    2008-12-01

    To implement the consistent black hole complementarity principle, we need two assumptions: first, there exists a singularity near the center, and second, global horizons are the same as local horizons. However, these assumptions are not true in general. In this paper, the authors study a charged black hole in which the second assumption may not hold. From the previous simulations, we have argued that the event horizon is quite close to the outer horizon, and it seems not harmful to black hole complementarity; however, the Cauchy horizon can be different from the inner horizon, and a violation of complementarity will be possible. To maintain complementarity, we need to assume a selection principle between the singularity and the Hawking radiation generating surface; we suggest that Horowitz-Maldacena's proposal can be useful for this purpose. Finally, we discussed some conditions under which the selection principle may not work.

  18. Jules Verne Voyager, Jr: An Interactive Map Tool for Teaching Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburger, M. W.; Meertens, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present an interactive, web-based map utility that can make new geological and geophysical results accessible to a large number and variety of users. The tool provides a user-friendly interface that allows users to access a variety of maps, satellite images, and geophysical data at a range of spatial scales. The map tool, dubbed 'Jules Verne Voyager, Jr.', allows users to interactively create maps of a variety of study areas around the world. The utility was developed in collaboration with the UNAVCO Consortium for study of global-scale tectonic processes. Users can choose from a variety of base maps (including "Face of the Earth" and "Earth at Night" satellite imagery mosaics, global topography, geoid, sea-floor age, strain rate and seismic hazard maps, and others), add a number of geographic and geophysical overlays (coastlines, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, earthquake and volcano locations, stress axes, etc.), and then superimpose both observed and model velocity vectors representing a compilation of 2933 GPS geodetic measurements from around the world. A remarkable characteristic of the geodetic compilation is that users can select from some 21 plates' frames of reference, allowing a visual representation of both 'absolute' plate motion (in a no-net rotation reference frame) and relative motion along all of the world's plate boundaries. The tool allows users to zoom among at least three map scales. The map tool can be viewed at http://jules.unavco.org/VoyagerJr/Earth. A more detailed version of the map utility, developed in conjunction with the EarthScope initiative, focuses on North America geodynamics, and provides more detailed geophysical and geographic information for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The ‘EarthScope Voyager’ can be accessed at http://jules.unavco.org/VoyagerJr/EarthScope. Because the system uses pre-constructed gif images and overlays, the system can rapidly create and display maps to a large number of users

  19. Hawking radiation from Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger and nonextremal D1-D5 black holes via covariant anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-01

    We apply the method of Banerjee and Kulkarni [R. Banerjee and S. Kulkarni, Phys. Rev. D 77, 024018 (2008).PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.77.024018] to provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (stringy) black hole which falls in the class of the most general spherically symmetric black holes (-g≠1) and also the nonextremal D1-D5 black hole using only covariant gravitational anomalies.

  20. Hawking radiation from Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger and nonextremal D1-D5 black holes via covariant anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-15

    We apply the method of Banerjee and Kulkarni [R. Banerjee and S. Kulkarni, Phys. Rev. D 77, 024018 (2008).] to provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (stringy) black hole which falls in the class of the most general spherically symmetric black holes ({radical}(-g){ne}1) and also the nonextremal D1-D5 black hole using only covariant gravitational anomalies.

  1. Jules-Auguste Soury (1842-1915): A Centennial Call to Mind.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2016-01-01

    Jules-Auguste Soury (1842-1915), a Parisian theorist and historian of science, was the author of 'The Central Nervous System', one of the most comprehensive and original accounts, until 1900, of the history of brain research. A contemporary of Jules Déjerine (1849-1917), Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), and other pioneers of neurology, with whom he maintained contact, Soury is a rare case of a French philosopher with solid foundations in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. A quaint savant, Soury has been depicted as a strange hybrid produced by nature. His odd personality was coupled with an elegance, solidity and thoroughness in his neurological works. His prodigious facility for assimilating and discoursing the ideas of others has been somewhat clouded by his lamentable ideological tenets. Nevertheless, in his neurological writings, he bequeathed a unique anatomical and physiological history of intelligence, a natural history of the human mind or, as he conceived it, a neurophilosophical sketch of the universe considered a cerebral phenomenon. PMID:26731282

  2. SHARP, a first step towards a full sized Jules Verne Launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L.R.; Hunter, J.W.; Powell, J.R.; Tidman, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    A vital element for space exploration and utilization is the ability to affordably place large quantities of consumables and building material into low earth orbit. Calculations and supportive data indicate this can be done with a large hydrogen gas gun referred to as the Jules Verne Launcher (JVL). We present a design for the JVL based upon the concept of side injecting preheated hydrogen along a long barrel. This dramatically reduces the peak pressures in the launcher as well as the pressures and g-loads at the vehicle. The JVL has the promise of reducing payload delivery costs to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to below $500/kg. The Super High Altitude Research Project (SHARP) is a conventional two-stage hydrogen gas gun which is configured to launch 5 kg packages on suborbital trajectories. It is the first step towards the much larger Jules Verne system and will demonstrate several important features of the larger system. SHARP is currently in the middle of a series of tests aimed at its first milestone. This is to launch 5 kg at 4 km/sec horizontally. In its inclined configuration SHARP should launch vehicles to apogees in excess of 400 km and ranges in excess of 700 km.

  3. STS-105 MS Barry, Commander Horowitz and Pilot Sturckow give a thumbs up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. Following the landing of mission STS-105, from left, Mission Specialist Daniel Barry, Commander Scott 'Doc' Horowitz, and Pilot Frederick 'Rick' Sturckow give a thumbs up in front of Space Shuttle Discovery on KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility runway 15, as post-landing safing operations continue on the orbiter. Main gear touchdown was at 2:22:58 p.m. EDT; wheel stop, at 2:24:06 p.m. EDT. The 11-day, 21-hour, 12-minute STS-105 mission accomplished the goals set for the 11th flight to the International Space Station: swapout of the resident Station crew; delivery of equipment, supplies and scientific experiments; and installation of the Early Ammonia Servicer and heater cables for the S0 truss on the Station. Discovery traveled 4.3 million miles on its 30th flight into space, the 106th mission of the Space Shuttle program. The landing was the first of five in 2001 to occur in daylight at KSC.

  4. Jules Bordet (1870-1961): a bridge between early and modern immunology.

    PubMed

    Schmalstieg, Frank C; Goldman, Armond S

    2009-11-01

    Jules Bordet, a pioneering immunologist, lived until the dawn of molecular immunology. He was born in Belgium in 1870, obtained a medical degree in 1892, worked at l'Institut Pasteur in Paris from 1894 to 1901 and then established the Pasteur Institute of Brabant in Brussels. Before World War I, Bordet found that complement binds to antibody-antigen complexes regardless of the antigen or antibodies involved. Subsequently he developed the complement fixation test that was of diagnostic importance for several decades. For his research concerning complement he was awarded the 1919 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. During that period he also discovered anaphylatoxin, conglutinin, and the cause of whooping cough (Bordetella pertussis). After World War I he found how thrombin forms, how platelets participate in clotting, lysozyme in human milk and much of the biology of bacteriophages. In addition, Bordet worked fervently to limit weapons of mass destruction and promote peace until his death in 1961. PMID:20029083

  5. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  6. Love stories can be unpredictable: Jules et Jim in the vortex of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dercole, Fabio; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Love stories are dynamic processes that begin, develop, and often stay for a relatively long time in a stationary or fluctuating regime, before possibly fading. Although they are, undoubtedly, the most important dynamic process in our life, they have only recently been cast in the formal frame of dynamical systems theory. In particular, why it is so difficult to predict the evolution of sentimental relationships continues to be largely unexplained. A common reason for this is that love stories reflect the turbulence of the surrounding social environment. But we can also imagine that the interplay of the characters involved contributes to make the story unpredictable—that is, chaotic. In other words, we conjecture that sentimental chaos can have a relevant endogenous origin. To support this intriguing conjecture, we mimic a real and well-documented love story with a mathematical model in which the environment is kept constant, and show that the model is chaotic. The case we analyze is the triangle described in Jules et Jim, an autobiographic novel by Henri-Pierre Roché that became famous worldwide after the success of the homonymous film directed by François Truffaut.

  7. Love stories can be unpredictable: Jules et Jim in the vortex of life.

    PubMed

    Dercole, Fabio; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Love stories are dynamic processes that begin, develop, and often stay for a relatively long time in a stationary or fluctuating regime, before possibly fading. Although they are, undoubtedly, the most important dynamic process in our life, they have only recently been cast in the formal frame of dynamical systems theory. In particular, why it is so difficult to predict the evolution of sentimental relationships continues to be largely unexplained. A common reason for this is that love stories reflect the turbulence of the surrounding social environment. But we can also imagine that the interplay of the characters involved contributes to make the story unpredictable-that is, chaotic. In other words, we conjecture that sentimental chaos can have a relevant endogenous origin. To support this intriguing conjecture, we mimic a real and well-documented love story with a mathematical model in which the environment is kept constant, and show that the model is chaotic. The case we analyze is the triangle described in Jules et Jim, an autobiographic novel by Henri-Pierre Roché that became famous worldwide after the success of the homonymous film directed by François Truffaut. PMID:24985448

  8. Jules Verne's Journey to the centre of the Earth: the secret of counterdepressive narratives.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cardenas, Michel

    2005-12-01

    The author interprets Jules Verne's Journey to the centre of the Earth with the help of Matte Blanco's theoretical framework, which describes the principle of symmetry and the principle of generalization. The first states that, from the moment an element or a proposition becomes conscious, it coexists in the unconscious with its symmetrically opposite form. The second refers to the confusion of elements once they have been apprehended by thought as containing a common point; they are put into larger and larger groups which merge into an indivisible whole. Verne's novel is built on paired elements which become symmetrized (e.g. distinct minerals vs molten lava; scientific rationality vs madness; the living vs the dead, etc.). These elements in turn become confused with one another, thanks largely to the novel's atmosphere of oral incorporation. This allows the fusion between subject and object, and, in particular, between the orphaned hero and his dead (Earth) mother. The novel's narrative evolution through three stages (separation, fusion and de-fusion, which are paralleled by rational, irrational and rational thought) can thus be understood as a mourning process. Similar processes can be found in other literary works. PMID:16318945

  9. A Walk through Graduate Education: Selected Papers and Speeches of Jules B. LaPidus, President of the Council of Graduate Schools, 1984-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Jane A., Ed.

    This book was created to honor Jules B. LaPidus, retiring president of the Council of Graduate Education, and to preserve his writings and speeches. The papers and speeches of Part 1 show how the author addressed the topical issues of graduate education, moving from observation to direction on research, funding, and preparation of faculty. Part 2…

  10. Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Identifiability of the Land Surface Model JULES at the point scale in permeable catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulou, C.; Bulygina, N.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are recognised as important components of Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Simulating exchanges of the moisture, carbon and energy between land surface and atmosphere in a consistent manner requires physics-based LSMs of high complexity, fine vertical resolution and a large number of parameters that need to be estimated. The "physics" that is incorporated in such models is generally based on our knowledge of point (or very small) scale hydrological processes. Therefore, while larger GCM grid-scale performance may be the ultimate goal, the ability of the model to simulate the point-scale processes is, intuitively, a pre-requisite for its reliable use at larger scales. Critical evaluation of model performance and parameter uncertainty at point scales is therefore a rational starting point for critical evaluation of LSMs; and identification of optimal parameter sets at the point scale is a significant stage of the model evaluation at larger scales. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is a complex LSM, which is used to represent surface exchanges in the UK Met Office's forecast and climate change models. This complexity necessitates a large number of model parameters (in total 108) some of which are incapable of being measured directly at large (i.e. kilometer) scales. For this reason, a parameter sensitivity analysis is a vital confidence building process within the framework of every LSM, and as a part of the calibration strategy. The problem of JULES parameter estimation and uncertainty at the point scale with a view to assessing the accuracy and the uncertainty in the default parameter values is addressed. The sensitivity of the JULES output of soil moisture is examined using parameter response surface analysis. The implemented technique is based on the Regional Sensitivity Analysis method (RSA), which evaluates the model response surface over a region of parameter space using Monte Carlo sampling. The modified version of RSA

  11. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  12. Further evaluation of wetland emission estimates from the JULES land surface model using SCIAMACHY and GOSAT atmospheric column methane measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Garry; Comyn-Platt, Edward; McNorton, Joey; Chipperfield, Martyn; Gedney, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric concentration of methane began rising again in 2007 after a period of near-zero growth [1,2], with the largest increases observed over polar northern latitudes and the Southern Hemisphere in 2007 and in the tropics since then. The observed inter-annual variability in atmospheric methane concentrations and the associated changes in growth rates have variously been attributed to changes in different methane sources and sinks [2,3]. Wetlands are generally accepted as being the largest, but least well quantified, single natural source of CH4, with global emission estimates ranging from 142-284 Tg yr‑1 [3]. The modelling of wetlands and their associated emissions of CH4 has become the subject of much current interest [4]. We have previously used the HadGEM2 chemistry-climate model to evaluate the wetland emission estimates derived using the UK community land surface model (JULES, the Joint UK Land Earth Simulator) against atmospheric observations of methane, including SCIAMACHY total methane columns [5] up to 2007. We have undertaken a series of new HadGEM2 runs using new JULES emission estimates extended in time to the end of 2012, thereby allowing comparison with both SCIAMACHY and GOSAT atmospheric column methane measurements. We will describe the results of these runs and the implications for methane wetland emissions. References [1] Rigby, M., et al.: Renewed growth of atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22805, 2008; [2] Nisbet, E.G., et al.: Methane on the Rise-Again, Science 343, 493, 2014; [3] Kirschke, S., et al.,: Three decades of global methane sources and sinks, Nature Geosciences, 6, 813-823, 2013; [4] Melton, J. R., et al.: Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP), Biogeosciences, 10, 753-788, 2013; [5] Hayman, G.D., et al.: Comparison of the HadGEM2 climate-chemistry model against in situ and SCIAMACHY atmospheric methane data, Atmos

  13. Improved representation of plant functional types and physiology in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES v4.2) using plant trait information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Anna B.; Cox, Peter M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Wiltshire, Andy J.; Jones, Chris D.; Sitch, Stephen; Mercado, Lina M.; Groenendijk, Margriet; Robertson, Eddy; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Atkin, Owen K.; Bahn, Michael; Cornelissen, Johannes; Niinemets, Ülo; Onipchenko, Vladimir; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Lourens; Reich, Peter B.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadjeda A.; van Bodegom, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are used to predict the response of vegetation to climate change. They are essential for planning ecosystem management, understanding carbon cycle-climate feedbacks, and evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on global ecosystems. JULES (the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) represents terrestrial processes in the UK Hadley Centre family of models and in the first generation UK Earth System Model. Previously, JULES represented five plant functional types (PFTs): broadleaf trees, needle-leaf trees, C3 and C4 grasses, and shrubs. This study addresses three developments in JULES. First, trees and shrubs were split into deciduous and evergreen PFTs to better represent the range of leaf life spans and metabolic capacities that exists in nature. Second, we distinguished between temperate and tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. These first two changes result in a new set of nine PFTs: tropical and temperate broadleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needle-leaf evergreen and deciduous trees, C3 and C4 grasses, and evergreen and deciduous shrubs. Third, using data from the TRY database, we updated the relationship between leaf nitrogen and the maximum rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax), and updated the leaf turnover and growth rates to include a trade-off between leaf life span and leaf mass per unit area.Overall, the simulation of gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP, respectively) is improved with the nine PFTs when compared to FLUXNET sites, a global GPP data set based on FLUXNET, and MODIS NPP. Compared to the standard five PFTs, the new nine PFTs simulate a higher GPP and NPP, with the exception of C3 grasses in cold environments and C4 grasses that were previously over-productive. On a biome scale, GPP is improved for all eight biomes evaluated and NPP is improved for most biomes - the exceptions being the tropical forests, savannahs, and extratropical mixed forests where simulated NPP is too

  14. Diagnosing hydrological limitations of a Land Surface Model: application of JULES to a deep-groundwater chalk basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vine, N.; Butler, A.; McIntyre, N.; Jackson, C.

    2015-08-01

    Land Surface Models (LSMs) are prospective starting points to develop a global hyper-resolution model of the terrestrial water, energy and biogeochemical cycles. However, there are some fundamental limitations of LSMs related to how meaningfully hydrological fluxes and stores are represented. A diagnostic approach to model evaluation is taken here that exploits hydrological expert knowledge to detect LSM inadequacies through consideration of the major behavioural functions of a hydrological system: overall water balance, vertical water redistribution in the unsaturated zone, temporal water redistribution and spatial water redistribution over the catchment's groundwater and surface water systems. Three types of information are utilised to improve the model's hydrology: (a) observations, (b) information about expected response from regionalised data, and (c) information from an independent physics-based model. The study considers the JULES (Joint UK Land Environmental Simulator) LSM applied to a deep-groundwater chalk catchment in the UK. The diagnosed hydrological limitations and the proposed ways to address them are indicative of the challenges faced while transitioning to a global high resolution model of the water cycle.

  15. Diagnosing hydrological limitations of a land surface model: application of JULES to a deep-groundwater chalk basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vine, N.; Butler, A.; McIntyre, N.; Jackson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are prospective starting points to develop a global hyper-resolution model of the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. However, there are some fundamental limitations of LSMs related to how meaningfully hydrological fluxes and stores are represented. A diagnostic approach to model evaluation and improvement is taken here that exploits hydrological expert knowledge to detect LSM inadequacies through consideration of the major behavioural functions of a hydrological system: overall water balance, vertical water redistribution in the unsaturated zone, temporal water redistribution, and spatial water redistribution over the catchment's groundwater and surface-water systems. Three types of information are utilized to improve the model's hydrology: (a) observations, (b) information about expected response from regionalized data, and (c) information from an independent physics-based model. The study considers the JULES (Joint UK Land Environmental Simulator) LSM applied to a deep-groundwater chalk catchment in the UK. The diagnosed hydrological limitations and the proposed ways to address them are indicative of the challenges faced while transitioning to a global high resolution model of the water cycle.

  16. The location of the thermodynamic atmosphere-ice interface in fully coupled models - a case study using JULES and CICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Alex E.; McLaren, Alison J.; Hewitt, Helene T.; Best, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    In fully coupled climate models, it is now normal to include a sea ice component with multiple layers, each having their own temperature. When coupling this component to an atmosphere model, it is more common for surface variables to be calculated in the sea ice component of the model, the equivalent of placing an interface immediately above the surface. This study uses a one-dimensional (1-D) version of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) thermodynamic solver and the Met Office atmospheric surface exchange solver (JULES) to compare this method with that of allowing the surface variables to be calculated instead in the atmosphere, the equivalent of placing an interface immediately below the surface. The model is forced with a sensible heat flux derived from a sinusoidally varying near-surface air temperature. The two coupling methods are tested first with a 1 h coupling frequency, and then a 3 h coupling frequency, both commonly used. With an above-surface interface, the resulting surface temperature and flux cycles contain large phase and amplitude errors, and have a very blocky shape. The simulation of both quantities is greatly improved when the interface is instead placed within the top ice layer, allowing surface variables to be calculated on the shorter timescale of the atmosphere. There is also an unexpected slight improvement in the simulation of the top-layer ice temperature by the ice model. The surface flux improvement remains when a snow layer is added to the ice, and when the wind speed is increased. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results to three-dimensional modelling. An appendix examines the stability of the alternative method of coupling under various physically realistic scenarios.

  17. Using novel Earth observation products to characterise wetland extend and methand dynamics in the Jules Land surface model: the ESA ALANIS-Methane Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, G.; Clark, D.; Blyth, E.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, C.; Schlaffer, S.; Reschke, J.; Prigent, C.; Aires, F.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Burrows, J.; O'Connor, F.; Gedney, N.

    2012-04-01

    The role of wetlands in the global methane cycle continues to be the subject of much current interest [1-3]. Wetlands are generally accepted as being the largest, but least well quantified, single source of methane (CH4), with emission estimates ranging from 105-278 Tg yr-1 [4]. Although the emissions of methane from the wetlands and lakes of the boreal region are smaller than those from tropical wetlands, the size and remoteness of the boreal region pose a significant challenge to the quantification of both terrestrial ecosystem processes and their feedbacks to regional and global climate. Earth Observation (EO) data have become an important tool for characterizing the main processes and estimating key variables governing the land-atmosphere interface. To that end, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated the Atmosphere-LANd Interactions Study (ALANIS), in collaboration with the Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS). One of the three ALANIS themes is investigating wetland dynamics and methane emissions (denoted ALANIS methane, www.alanis-methane.info). The ALANIS methane project has a focus on the boreal Eurasia region. There are two main goals: to produce a suite of relevant datasets derived from Earth Observation (EO): a regional wetland extent dynamics product characterizing spatial changes of inundated areas over time at low spatial resolution; a local wetland extent dynamics product characterizing spatial changes of lake and wetland surface over time at high/medium spatial resolution; a snowmelt onset/duration/end product suitable for determining when methane emissions from wetlands restart after the winter season; a freeze onset product suitable for determining when lake/wetland methane emissions stop after the summer season; and, atmospheric column CH4 concentrations. to use these (and other) EO products to evaluate and improve the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES, http://www.jchmr.org/jules), a state-of-the-art land

  18. [Jules Baretta and the secrets of modeling in pathology in the 19th century. Analysis of wax No. 1364 at the Museum of the Saint Louis hospital].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    The Museum of the Saint-Louis hospital in Paris presents life casts produced by Jules Baretta in the 19th century: the casts seem incredible as they captured the complex forms of illness. How could Baretta cast in plaster an irregular epithelium or lupus without damaging the pathology or causing deep pains? From this observation, an investigation on those casts took place and especially one on an epithelium of the nose (no 1364) in order to understand the trade secrets. This investigation shows that Baretta used protective films on these pathologies and that he then interpreted them by modelling. The scientific and artistic interest of this discovery is to revise the mechanical objectivity of the casting through the modelling. PMID:25230526

  19. Zoobiquity: What Animals Can Teach Us About Health and the Science of Healing. By Barbara Natterson-Horowitz and Kathryn Bowers. Knopf Doubleday Publishing: New York, NY, USA, 2012; Hardback, 320 pp;16.23; ISBN-10: 0307593487.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Zoobiquity: What Animals Can Teach Us About Health and the Science of Healing (Knopf 2012) is an easy to read and entertaining book co-written by Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, MD and Kathryn Bowers. Natterson-Horowitz is a practicing cardiologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) David Geffen School of Medicine, who also has training in psychiatry. Kathryn Bowers is a professional writer who teaches writing at UCLA. The book addresses traits shared by nonhuman animals (hereafter referred to simply as animals) and humans that have medical relevance. The authors are to be commended for discussing matters that should be obvious in the 21st century, but sadly still are not universally accepted. Humans share our lineage with animals and this has implications for the origin of traits. Clearly, animals have emotions, preferences, and suffer from diseases that are similar on some levels to the ones humans suffer from. The Cartesian view of animals has been debunked and the authors give many examples supporting a more scientifically advanced view of animals. PMID:26791670

  20. Development of a multi-physics calculation platform dedicated to irradiation devices in a material testing reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaccorsi, T.; Di Salvo, J.; Aggery, A.; D'Aletto, C.; Doederlein, C.; Sireta, P.; Willermoz, G.; Daniel, M.

    2006-07-01

    The physical phenomena involved in irradiation devices within material testing reactors are complex (neutron and photon interactions, nuclear heating, thermal hydraulics, ...). However, the simulation of these phenomena requires a high precision in order to control the condition of the experiment and the development of predictive models. Until now, physicists use different tools with several approximations at each interface. The aim of this work is to develop a calculation platform dedicated to numerical multi-physics simulations of irradiation devices in the future European Jules Horowitz Reactor [1], This platform is based on a multi-physics data model which describes geometries, materials and state parameters associated with a sequence of thematic (neutronics, thermal hydraulics...) computations of these devices. Once the computation is carried out, the results can be returned to the data model (DM). The DM is encapsulated in a dedicated module of the SALOME platform [2] and exchanges data with SALOME native modules. This method allows a parametric description of a study, independent of the code used to perform the simulation. The application proposed in this paper concerns neutronic calculation of a fuel irradiation device with the new method of characteristics implemented in the APOLLO2 code [3]. The device is located at the periphery of the OSIRIS core. This choice is motivated by the possibility to compare the calculation with experimental results, which cannot be done for the Jules Horowitz Reactor, currently in design study phase. (authors)

  1. First feedback with the AMMON integral experiment for the JHR calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Leray, O.; Lemaire, M.; Colombier, A. C.; Hudelot, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    The innovative design of the next international Material Testing Reactor, the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), induced the development of a new neutron and photon calculation formular HORUS3D/P&N, based on deterministic and stochastic codes and the European nuclear data library JEFF3.1.1. A new integral experiment, named the AMMON experiment, was designed in order to make the experimental validation of HORUS3D. The objectives of this experimental program are to calibrate the biases and uncertainties associated with the HORUS3D/N&P calculations for JHR safety and design calculations, but also the validation of some specific nuclear data (concerning mainly hafnium and beryllium isotopes). The experiment began in 2010 and is currently performed in the EOLE zero-power critical mock-up at CEA Cadarache. This paper deals with the first feedback of the AMMON experiments with 3D Monte Carlo TRIPOLI4©/JEFF3.1.1 calculations.

  2. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed. PMID:26903373

  3. Experimental Pi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corris, G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of pi by means of experimental methods. Polygon circle ratios, Archimedes' method, Buffon's needles, a Monte Carlo method, and prime number approaches are used. Presents three BASIC programs for the calculations. (YP)

  4. Experimental philosophy.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious? PMID:21801019

  5. Analysis of gamma-ray dosimetry experiments in the zero power MINERVE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Di Salvo, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Roche, A.; Masson-Fauchier, M.; Bosq, J. C.; Carette, M.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop nuclear heating measurement methods in zero power experimental reactors. These developments contribute to the qualification of photonics calculation schemes for the assessment of gamma heating in the future Jules Horowitz Material Testing Reactor. This paper presents the analysis of thermoluminescent detector (TLD) experiments in the UO{sub 2} core of the MINERVE Research Reactor at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission center in Cadarache. The experimental sources of uncertainty in the gamma dose have been reduced by improving the measurement conditions and the repeatability of the calibration step for each individual TLD. The interpretation of these measurements needs to take into account the calculation of cavity correction factors related to calibration and irradiation configurations, as well as neutron correction calculations. These calculations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport coupled particles. The comparison between calculated and measured integral gamma-ray absorbed doses in the aluminum material surrounding the TLD shows that calculations slightly overestimate the measurement, with a calculated versus experimental ratio equal to 1.04 {+-} 5.7 % (k=2). (authors)

  6. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  7. Experimental macroevolution†

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  8. Experimental macroevolution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-13

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  9. Experimental tectonophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Handin, J.; Logan, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Because virtually all tectonophysical processes are marked by the overburden, or occur to slowly for adequate observation in anthropocentric time, or both, they must be studied in carefully controlled laboratory experiments that simulate the natural environment as realistically as is practicable. Extrapolations of laboratory data in space and time are invalid unless the experimental and natural phenomenologies are essentially the same. The size of conventional specimens is of the order of 10 cm, whereas the discontinuities (defects in a continuum) in real rock-masses are often much larger, of the order of 1 m or more. Furthermore, such discontinuities as macrofractures (joints) may well dominate the mechanical and fluid-transport properties in nature. Adequate sampling of rock-mass properties will probably always require in-situ testing, but testing machines much larger than any now available could provide useful data at least at intermediate scale.

  10. Experimental Tachyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soli, George

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of potential superluminal information transfer, causality is preserved by the experimental identification of the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) rest frame, as the preferred inertial frame in which potential superluminal information transfer is isotropic [Rembielinski] (http://arxiv.org/PScache/quant-ph/pdf/0010/0010026v2.pdf). Potential superluminal information transfer is engineered by tunneling through two successive barriers [Olkhovsky] (http://arxiv.org/PScache/quant-ph/pdf/0002/0002022v5.pdf). In our experiment we use two meter wavelength photons tunneling through two water-tank barriers, separated by an air-gap length [Soli] (http://www.siderealdilaton.com/). The data presented in this talk demonstrates that if the air-gap length is adjusted for subluminal information transfer, then the democracy of inertial frames is recovered, and no preferred frame is measured. The one-way subluminal tunneling group velocity of light is shown to be isotropic to accuracy below the CMB rest frame velocity. It has already been argued in the literature that Einstein's special relativity with tachyons predicts the existence of antimatter [Recami] (http://arxiv.org/PScache/arxiv/pdf/0709/0709.2453v1.pdf). We conjecture that the dilaton scalar particle is discovered by any sidereal data producible by this instrument.

  11. Poincaré, Jules Henri (1854-1912)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Nancy, Lorraine, France, became professor of mathematics at the Sorbonne in Paris, contributed to all areas of mathematics, including the three-body problem of celestial mechanics and studies of the stability of the solar system. He was first to consider the possibility of chaos in planetary orbits, foreshadowing the modern study that restarted in 1963. His work began as the answer to a q...

  12. Etienne-Jules Marey: a short biography and appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddleton, Graham P.

    2003-07-01

    As a "son" of Beaune it seems appropriate to give a short appreciation of the work of Marey, as a pioneer in the field of high speed and motion recording photography, at this Congress held in his birthplace. Not only was he a notable physicist but he was a very often under appreciated pioneer of scientific photography, especially as applied to motion recording and analysis. It can be rightfully claimed that his work makes him an important element in the discovery of cinematography in general. His contemporary (and at times collaborator) Muybridge seems to have been credited with much of the acclaim in this field, possible because of his more extrovert character, and possible because of Marey's many other notable scientific achievements. Marey had invented a high-speed camera capable of 700 pps by 1894!

  13. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  14. Experimental Summary and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Bosted

    2005-02-01

    A brief experimental overview of the workshop is given, with emphasis on polarized targets from the experimental equipment perspective, and kinematic coverage, precision, and newly investigated channels from the experimental results perspective.

  15. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Edward B.

    With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

  16. Definition of "experimental procedures".

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    This Practice Committee Opinion provides a revised definition of "experimental procedures." This version replaces the document "Definition of Experimental" that was published most recently in November 2008. PMID:19836733

  17. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton Meis, Roberto

    1970-01-01

    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies of Cu(II) and Zn(II) coordination compounds with N,O donor bidentate Schiff base ligand containing amino phenol moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmariya, Brajendra S.; Tiwari, Anjali; Mishra, A. P.; Naikoo, Gowhar Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    We report here two mononuclear Cu(II) and Zn(II) coordination compounds of general formula [CuII(L)2].2H2O (1) and [ZnII(L)2].3H2O (2) derived from bidentate 2-chloro-6-{[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}-4 nitrophenol ligand (HL). These compounds were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, uv-vis, 1H NMR, molar conductance, thermal, PXRD, SEM-EDX and electrochemical studies. The PXRD and SEM analysis shows the amorphous/nanocrystalline nature of 1 and crystalline nature of 2. The diffraction peak broadening was explained in terms of domain size and the crystallite lattice strain. Thermogravimetric analysis in the range of 300-1172 K has been performed to determine the thermal stability of synthesized compounds. The non-isothermal kinetic parameters of degradation process were calculated using Coats-Redfern (C-R), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Horowitz-Metzger (H-M) methods assuming first order degradation and proposed a random nucleation mechanism of thermal decomposition for both compounds. The cyclic voltammetric studies reveal the irreversibility of the oxidation/reduction process of synthesized compounds. To support the experimental findings theoretical calculations by means of DFT and TD-DFT at B3LYP level were incorporated. In addition; frequency calculations, HOMO-LUMO, energy gap (ΔE), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), spin density and crystal packing were also computed at the same level of theory.

  19. Experimentation in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Selby, R. W.; Hutchens, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimentation in software engineering supports the advancement of the field through an iterative learning process. In this paper, a framework for analyzing most of the experimental work performed in software engineering over the past several years is presented. A variety of experiments in the framework is described and their contribution to the software engineering discipline is discussed. Some useful recommendations for the application of the experimental process in software engineering are included.

  20. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  1. 7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST GARAGE, AND FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST RESIDENCE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  2. The Experimental Hydrology Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; van Meerveld, Ilja; Graeff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The "Experimental Hydrology Wiki" is a forum for hydrologists to learn about, recommend, question and discuss new and established, basic and advanced methods and equipment for hydrological research. As a database of "lessons learned" it does not only contain short descriptions of specific experimental equipment but also information on encountered errors and problems and recommendations on how to deal with them. This makes valuable personal field experience accessible to a wider audience. The Wiki allows experimentalists to share and find solutions for common problems and thus helps us in not making the same mistakes others have made before us. At the same time modellers can use this platform to find information on sources of error and uncertainty in the data they use for model validation and calibration. The general idea and layout of the Experimental Hydrology Wiki is presented here along with an invitation to all experimental hydrologists to contribute their knowledge and experiences! http://www.experimental- hydrology.net/

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic generator experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The results for an experimental study of a one wavelength MHD induction generator operating on a liquid flow are presented. First the design philosophy and the experimental generator design are summarized, including a description of the flow loop and instrumentation. Next a Fourier series method of treating the fact that the magnetic flux density produced by the stator is not a pure traveling sinusoid is described and some results summarized. This approach appears to be of interest after revisions are made, but the initial results are not accurate. Finally, some of the experimental data is summarized for various methods of excitation.

  4. Experimental Semiotics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21369364

  5. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis applied to the JHR reactivity prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Leray, O.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Hudelot, J. P.; Santamarina, A.; Noguere, G.; Di-Salvo, J.

    2012-07-01

    The on-going AMMON program in EOLE reactor at CEA Cadarache (France) provides experimental results to qualify the HORUS-3D/N neutronics calculation scheme used for the design and safety studies of the new Material Testing Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). This paper presents the determination of technological and nuclear data uncertainties on the core reactivity and the propagation of the latter from the AMMON experiment to JHR. The technological uncertainty propagation was performed with a direct perturbation methodology using the 3D French stochastic code TRIPOLI4 and a statistical methodology using the 2D French deterministic code APOLLO2-MOC which leads to a value of 289 pcm (1{sigma}). The Nuclear Data uncertainty propagation relies on a sensitivity study on the main isotopes and the use of a retroactive marginalization method applied to the JEFF 3.1.1 {sup 27}Al evaluation in order to obtain a realistic multi-group covariance matrix associated with the considered evaluation. This nuclear data uncertainty propagation leads to a K{sub eff} uncertainty of 624 pcm for the JHR core and 684 pcm for the AMMON reference configuration core. Finally, transposition and reduction of the prior uncertainty were made using the Representativity method which demonstrates the similarity of the AMMON experiment with JHR (the representativity factor is 0.95). The final impact of JEFF 3.1.1 nuclear data on the Begin Of Life (BOL) JHR reactivity calculated by the HORUS-3D/N V4.0 is a bias of +216 pcm with an associated posterior uncertainty of 304 pcm (1{sigma}). (authors)

  6. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  7. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies of two Co(II) and Ni(II) coordination complex with N,O donor 2-chloro-6-{[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}-4 nitrophenol ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmariya, Brajendra S.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Tiwari, Anjali; Mishra, A. P.; Naikoo, Gowhar Ahmad; Pandit, Umar J.

    2016-07-01

    Here we report two mononuclear Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of general formula [M(L)2(H2O)].2H2O; {M = CoII & NiII} derived from bidentate 2-chloro-6-{[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}-4 nitrophenol ligand (HL). These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (FT-IR, electronic and 1H-NMR), molar conductance, thermal, PXRD, SEM and electrochemical studies. Distorted octahedral geometry was proposed around the metal center with ligand (HL). The PXRD and SEM analysis shows the crystalline nature of complexes. The broadening of diffraction peaks were explained in terms of domain size and the lattice strain according to Scherrer and Williamson-Hall method. TG of the synthesized complexes illustrates their general decomposition pattern and thermal stability. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters viz. activation energy (E∗), pre-exponential factor (Z), entropy of activation (ΔS∗), enthalpy of activation (ΔH∗) and free energy of activation (ΔG∗) of degradation process were also evaluated using Coats-Redfern (C-R), Piloyan-Novikova (P-N) and Horowitz-Metzger (H-M) methods for both complexes assuming first order degradation. The optical band gap values of complexes were found to be in good agreement with calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap (ΔE) and lie in semiconducting range. The cyclic voltammetric studies of synthesized compounds were carried out in order to examine their electrochemical behavior. In addition theoretical calculations by means of DFT at B3LYP level were incorporated to support the experimental findings.

  9. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  10. Chexal-Horowitz flow-accelerated corrosion model -- Parameters and influences

    SciTech Connect

    Chexal, V.K.; Horowitz, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) continues to cause problems in nuclear and fossil power plants. Thinning caused by FAC has lead to many leaks and complete ruptures. These failures have required costly repairs and occasionally have caused lengthy shutdowns. To deal with FAC, utilities have instituted costly inspection and piping replacement programs. Typically, a nuclear unit will inspect about 100 large bore piping components plus additional small bore components during every refueling outage. To cope with FAC, there has been a great deal of research and development performed to obtain a greater understanding of the phenomenon. Currently, there is general agreement on the mechanism of FAC. This understanding has lead to the development of computer based tools to assist utility engineers in dealing with this issue. In the United States, the most commonly used computer program to predict and control is CHECWORKS{trademark}. This paper presents a description of the mechanism of FAC, and introduces the predictive algorithms used in CHECWORKS{trademark}. The parametric effects of water chemistry, materials, flow and geometry as predicted by CHECWORKS{trademark} will then be discussed. These trends will be described and explained by reference to the corrosion mechanism. The remedial actions possible to reduce the rate of damage caused by FAC will also be discussed.

  11. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  12. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  13. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  14. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  15. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  16. Experimental fluvial geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, S.A.; Mosley, M.P.; Weaver, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors bring together the results of several years of experimental work in drainage basin evolution, hydrology, river-channel morphology, and sedimentology. These investigations are related to real-world applications, particularly geological exploration and mapping. This text shows how awareness of natural phenomena can improve management of the natural environment, such as the control of rivers and eroding gullies.

  17. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  18. Teaching experimental design.

    PubMed

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. PMID:25541547

  19. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion. PMID:25862639

  20. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2010-01-08

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  1. Blois V: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  2. MSFC Skylab experimenter's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined in the main text and amplified, as appropriate, in appendixes. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  3. Structural femtochemistry: experimental methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J C; Zewail, A H

    1991-01-01

    The experimental methodology for structural femtochemistry of reactions is considered. With the extension of femtosecond transition-state spectroscopy to the diffraction regime, it is possible to obtain in a general way the trajectories of chemical reactions (change of internuclear separations with time) on the femtosecond time scale. This method, considered here for simple alkali halide dissociation, promises many applications to more complex reactions and to conformational changes. Alignment on the time scale of the experiments is also discussed. Images PMID:11607189

  4. SAA drift: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  5. Electrodeless Experimental Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Brainerd, Jerome J.; Reisz, Al

    2009-03-16

    An electrodeless experimental electric thruster has been built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The plasma is formed by Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) absorption of RF waves (microwaves). The RF source operates in the 1 to 2 kW range. The plasma is overdense and is confined radially by an applied axial dc magnetic field. The field is shaped by a strong magnetic mirror on the upstream end and a magnetic nozzle on the downstream end. Argon is used as the propellant. The velocity profile in the exhaust plume has been measured with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An unusual bimodal velocity profile has been measured.

  6. Electric propulsion: Experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes from electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  7. Electric Propulsion: Experimental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Keefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes experimental electric propulsion research which was carried out at the University of Tennessee Space Institute with support from the Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. Specifically, a multiplexed LIF technique for obtaining vector velocities, Doppler temperatures, and relative number densities in the exhaust plumes form electric propulsion devices is described, and results are presented that were obtained on a low power argon arcjet. Also, preliminary Langmuir probe measurements on an ion source are described, and an update on the vacuum facility is presented.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  9. Experimental turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Pavel; Milčák, Petr; Noga, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The experimental air turbine VT400 is located in hall laboratories of the Department of Power System Engineering. It is a single-stage air turbine located in the suction of the compressor. It is able to solve various problems concerning the construction solution of turbine stages. The content of the article will deal mainly with the description of measurements on this turbine. The up-to-now research on this test rig will be briefly mentioned, too, as well as the description of the ongoing reconstruction.

  10. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  11. Experimentation in machine discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    KEKADA, a system that is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments on problems from the history of science, is described. The system incorporates a set of experimentation strategies that were extracted from the traces of the scientists' behavior. It focuses on surprises to constrain its search, and uses its strategies to generate hypotheses and to carry out experiments. Some strategies are domain independent, whereas others incorporate knowledge of a specific domain. The domain independent strategies include magnification, determining scope, divide and conquer, factor analysis, and relating different anomalous phenomena. KEKADA represents an experiment as a set of independent and dependent entities, with apparatus variables and a goal. It represents a theory either as a sequence of processes or as abstract hypotheses. KEKADA's response is described to a particular problem in biochemistry. On this and other problems, the system is capable of carrying out a complex series of experiments to refine domain theories. Analysis of the system and its behavior on a number of different problems has established its generality, but it has also revealed the reasons why the system would not be a good experimental scientist.

  12. Experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Joison, Julio; Gilmour, David P.; Molokhia, Farouk A.; Pegg, C. A. S.; Hood, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The hemodynamic effects of tachycardia induced by atrial pacing were investigated in left ventricular failure of acute and healing experimental myocardial infarction in 20 intact, conscious dogs. Myocardial infarction was produced by gradual inflation of a balloon cuff device implanted around the left anterior descending coronary artery 10-15 days prior to the study. 1 hr after acute myocardial infarction, atrial pacing at a rate of 180 beats/min decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 19 to 8 mm Hg and left atrial pressure from 17 to 12 mm Hg, without change in cardiac output. In the healing phase of myocardial infarction 1 wk later, atrial pacing decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 17 to 9 mm Hg and increased the cardiac output by 37%. This was accompanied by evidence of peripheral vasodilation. In two dogs with healing anterior wall myocardial infarction, left ventricular failure was enhanced by partial occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery. Both the dogs developed pulmonary edema. Pacing improved left ventricular performance and relieved pulmonary edema in both animals. In six animals propranolol was given after acute infarction, and left ventricular function deteriorated further. However the pacing-induced augmentation of cardiac function was unaltered and, hence, is not mediated by sympathetics. The results show that the spontaneous heart rate in left ventricular failure of experimental canine myocardial infarction may be less than optimal and that maximal cardiac function may be achieved at higher heart rates. Images PMID:4395910

  13. Experimental immunogenic rubeosis iridis.

    PubMed

    Shabo, A L; Maxwell, D S; Shintaku, P; Kreiger, A E; Straatsma, B R

    1977-04-01

    We have developed a primate model of rubeosis iridis in monkeys systemically sensitized to crystalline beef insulin. After intravitreal insulin injection, the dose-related immunogenic inflammation includes cells, flare, fibrin, and blood in the anterior chamber. With more severe inflammation, posterior synechiae, iris bombé, and cataracts occur. Of particular importance, new blood vessels develop within the stroma and on the anterior surface of the iris. Following injection of small amounts of insulin, the anterior surface vessels may regress over time, and the iris regains its normal appearance and coloration. However, the new stromal vessels persist and are cuffed by inflammatory cells including plasma cells. After injection of large amounts of insulin, more extensive structural alterations develop as noted above in conjunction with persistent iris anterior surface and stromal neovascularization. The relationship of rubeosis iridis to clinical inflammatory syndromes and to previous laboratory studies is discussed. Stromal neovascularization was a consistent finding in this experimental model even when anterior surface vessels regressed. On the basis of these experimental data and a review of publications describing human pathology, we believe that a broadening of the classic definition of rubeosis iridis is waranted to include a recognition of the stromal component of the clinical and pathologic findings. PMID:403154

  14. Experimental melioidosis in hens.

    PubMed

    Vesselinova, A; Najdenski, H; Nikolova, S; Kussovski, V

    1996-08-01

    Experimental intramuscular infection of hens with Pseudomonas pseudomallei, strain 2796 (1 x 10(9) CFU from a 24-h culture) was reproduced. Clinical, paraclinical and pathomorphological findings were followed from 1 to 30 days after challenge. Haemagglutinin titre, bacterial dissemination in the viscera, number of leucocytes, alveolar (aMa) and peritoneal (pMa) macrophages and their phagocytic activity in vitro were studied. During the course of infection a leucocytosis as well as an increased haemagglutinin titre (1:256) were established. The number of bacteria per gram tissue in the spleen and liver was highest at 1 day post-infection (p.i.). Melioidose bacteria from egg yolk were isolated at 15 and 30 days p.i. Leucocyte and pMa phagocytic activity was maximal at 3 days p.i. unlike the activity of aMa which increased gradually until the end of the study. Inflammatory-necrotic changes were found in the viscera and brain at 3 and 15 days p.i. The investigation of experimental melioidosis infection in hens showed that they are susceptible to P. pseudomallei and this disease takes a generalized subacute course. PMID:8794700

  15. Experimental Quantum Coin Tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, G.; Vaziri, A.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin-tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of “two-party” cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits, resulting in a higher security than using qubits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.

  16. Experimental Quantum Error Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047

  17. Planetary impact experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Schultz, Peter H.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of impact processes in low- and microgravity environments would be advanced significantly by the construction and use of an impact facility on the Space Station. It is proposed that initial studies begin as soon as possible in ground-based impact laboratories, on the NASA KC-135 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft, and in existing drop towers. The resulting experience and information base could then be applied toward an experiment package designed for use on Shuttle orbiters to support pilot studies in orbital environments. These experiments, as well as the first efforts made on the IOC Space Station, should involve the impact of various free-floating targets; such studies would yield a substantial scientific return while providing valuable experience and engineering information for use in refining the design of the dedicated Space Station Impact Facility. The dedicated facility should be designed to support impact experimentation, including but not limited to cratering, asteroid and ring-particle dynamics, and accretional processes.

  18. Experimental evolution gone wild.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, M; Riebesell, U; Rynearson, T A; Lohbeck, K T; Collins, S

    2015-05-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  19. Characterization of experimental dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peffley, Nicholas L.; Goumilevski, Alexei G.; Cawthrone, A. B.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory models of geophysical magnetic field production require new experi-mental characterization methods. Self-generating liquid metal magnetic dynamos are explored using two new experiments. Kinematic dynamo studies lead us to charac-terize the magnetic field dynamics in terms of eigenvalues and eigenfrequencies of the induction equation. Observing the decay of magnetic field pulses indicates the real part of the leading eigenvalue of the induction equation, while a chirp magnetic field diagnoses the imaginary part of the eigenvalue. Finally, a single-frequency applied magnetic field characterizes the structure of the velocity field. These measurements provide a new means to characterize and measure the approach to self-generation. We present data from numerical simulations and laboratory experiments using these techniques.

  20. Experimental evolution gone wild

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, M.; Riebesell, U.; Rynearson, T. A.; Lohbeck, K. T.; Collins, S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change. PMID:25833241

  1. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  2. Experimenter bias and subliminal perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul J.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    1975-01-01

    It has been suggested that subliminal perception phenomena may be in part due to experimenter bias effects. Two studies that obtained positive evidence of subliminal perception were therefore replicated with experimenters tested under blind and not blind conditions. (Editor)

  3. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment

  4. Experimental impact crater morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  5. Experimental Harmonic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, G. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.

  6. Experimental Autoimmune Breast Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kesaraju, Pavani; Jaini, Ritika; Johnson, Justin M.; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Gruden, Jessica J.; Sakalar, Cagri; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a substantial clinical problem in lactating women that may result in severe pain and abrupt termination of breastfeeding, thereby predisposing infants to long-term health risks. Many cases of mastitis involve no known infectious agent and may fundamentally be due to autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the breast. Herein, we develop a murine model of autoimmune mastitis and provide a detailed characterization of its resulting phenotype of breast failure and lactation insufficiency. To generate breast-specific autoimmunity, we immunized SWXJ mice with recombinant mouse α-lactalbumin, a lactation-dependent, breast-specific differentiation protein critical for production of lactose. Mice immunized with α-lactalbumin showed extensive T-cell–mediated inflammation in lactating normal breast parenchyma but none in nonlactating normal breast parenchyma. This targeted autoimmune attack resulted in breast failure characterized by lactation insufficiency and decreased ability to nurture offspring. Although immunization with α-lactalbumin had no effect on fertility and birth numbers, pups nursed by α-lactalbumin–immunized mice showed significantly disrupted growth often accompanied by kwashiorkor-like nutritional abnormalities, including alopecia, liver toxicity, and runting. This experimental model of autoimmune breast failure has useful applications for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination and for addressing inflammatory complications during breastfeeding. In addition, this model is suited for investigating nutritionally based “failure-to-thrive” issues, particularly regarding the long-term implications of postnatal nutritional deprivation. PMID:22901749

  7. Experimental chloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, M; Ohkuma, M; Tsukahara, I

    1986-01-01

    Chloroquine retinopathy was produced experimentally in the eye of the albino corydoras (one of the tropical fish) by daily administration of chloroquine (0.1 mg per os). The enucleated eyes were examined from the 14th day to 3 months after the beginning of drug administration under light and electron microscopy. The first change of retina was the appearance of membraneous cytoplasmic body (MCB) in the cytoplasm of ganglion, amacrine, bipolar and horizontal cells. MCB might be degenerated lysosome. They showed lamellar figures or crystalline lattice-like structures. Secondarily, these MCB appeared in the inner segments of photoreceptor cells. The outer segments of rod cells disappeared, and then those of cone cells. Although photoreceptor cells were diminished in number in advanced degeneration, the cells of inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells were maintained in number. The presence of MCB dose not mean death of cells. The retinal pigment epithelial cells contained MCB in its cytoplasm only in severe degenerative cases, and did not show other remarkable changes. MCB also appeared in the cytoplasm of pericytes of retinal vessels. Chloroquine is considered to damage directly photoreceptor cells most severely. PMID:3018650

  8. Experimental quantum data locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  9. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  10. X-38 Experimental Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Fitzgerald, Steve M.

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 program seeks to demonstrate an autonomously returned orbital test flight vehicle to support the development of an operational Crew Return Vehicle for the International Space Station. The test flight, anticipated in 2002, is intended to demonstrate the entire mission profile of returning Space Station crew members safely back to earth in the event of medical or mechanical emergency. Integral to the formulation of the X-38 flight data book and the design of the thermal protection system, the aerothermodynamic environment is being defined through a synergistic combination of ground based testing and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the X-38 development. Global and discrete surface heat transfer force and moment, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on scaled models of the proposed X-38 configuration in different test gases at Mach 6, 10 and 20. The test parametrics include angle of attack from 0 to 50 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10 (exp 6) to 16 x 10 (exp 6)/ ft, rudder deflections of 0, 2, and 5 deg. and body flap deflections from 0 to 30 deg. Results from hypersonic aerodynamic screening studies that were conducted as the configuration evolved to the present shape at, presented. Heavy gas simulation tests have indicated that the primary real gas effects on X-38 aerodynamics at trim conditions are expected to favorably influence flap effectiveness. Comparisons of the experimental heating and force and moment data to prediction and the current aerodynamic data book are highlighted. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition were investigated at Mach 6 and the development of a transition correlation for the X-38 vehicle is described. Extrapolation of ground based heating measurements to flight radiation equilibrium wall temperatures at Mach 6 and 10 were

  11. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  12. Needs of Accurate Prompt and Delayed γ-spectrum and Multiplicity for Nuclear Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimpault, G.; Bernard, D.; Blanchet, D.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Ravaux, S.; Santamarina, A.

    The local energy photon deposit must be accounted accurately for Gen-IV fast reactors, advanced light-water nuclear reactors (Gen-III+) and the new experimental Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The γ energy accounts for about 10% of the total energy released in the core of a thermal or fast reactor. The γ-energy release is much greater in the core of the reactor than in its structural sub-assemblies (such as reflector, control rod followers, dummy sub-assemblies). However, because of the propagation of γ from the core regions to the neighboring fuel-free assemblies, the contribution of γ energy to the total heating can be dominant. For reasons related to their performance, power reactors require a 7.5% (1σ) uncertainty for the energy deposition in non-fuelled zones. For the JHR material-testing reactor, a 5% (1 s) uncertainty is required in experimental positions. In order to verify the adequacy of the calculation of γ-heating, TLD and γ-fission chambers were used to derive the experimental heating values. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III+ reactors). The comparison of calculated and measured γ-heating values shows an underestimation in all experimental programs indicating that for the most γ-production data from 239Pu in current nuclear-data libraries is highly suspicious.The first evaluation priority is for prompt γ-multiplicity for U and Pu fission but similar values for otheractinides such as Pu and U are also required. The nuclear data library JEFF3.1.1 contains most of the photon production data. However, there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data which need to be completed or modified. A review of the data available shows a lack of measurements for conducting serious evaluation efforts. New measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts which benefit from consolidated modeling techniques.

  13. Experimental nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in (sup 86)Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone (sup 84)Sr and with (sup 84)Zr. The K=14 (t(sub 1/2) = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in (sup 176)W was found to have a 13 percent branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for (sup 14)O+(alpha) and (sup 17)F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the (sup 19)F ((sup 3)He,t) (sup 19)Ne(alpha) (sup 15)O and (sup 19)F ((sup 3)He,t) (sup 19)Ne(p) (sup 18)F reactions in order to determine the rates of the (sup 18)F(p,(alpha)) (sup 15)O and (sup 18)F(p,(gamma)) (sup 19)Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of (beta)n(alpha) coincidences from the (sup 15)N(d,p) (sup 16)N((beta)- (nu)) (sup 16)O((alpha)) (sup 12)C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the (sup 12)C((alpha),(gamma)) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e(sup +) triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  14. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  15. Prospects for Universal Heat Mining: from a Jules Verne vision to a 21st century reality

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Herzog, H.J.; Chen, Z.; Potter, R.M.; Frank, M.G.

    1994-01-20

    The extraction of heat or thermal energy from the Earth -- heat mining -- has the potential to play a major role as an energy supply technology for the 21st century. However, even if reservoir stimulation goals are achieved, the role of heat mining with today's energy prices and development costs is limited to only a small fraction of the earth's surface, specifically to geologically active regions where geothermal gradients are high. This paper examines the prospects for universal heat mining and the types of developments required to make it a reality. A generalized multi-parameter economic model was developed for optimizing the design and performance of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal systems by linking an SQP nonlinear programming algorithm with a generalized HDR economic model. HDR system design parameters selected for optimization include well depth (or initial rock temperature), geofluid flow rate, number of fractures and injection temperature. The sensitivities of the optimized design parameters, HDR system performance, and levelized electricity price to average geothermal gradient, fractured area/volume, maximum allowable geofluid temperature, reservoir flow impedance, well deviation, and fracture separation have been investigated. Key technical and institutional obstacles to universal heat mining are discussed in a more general context. These include (1) developing methods for stimulating low permeability formations to provide sustained productivity with acceptable flow/pressure losses (2) dealing with barriers to change primary energy supply options when fossil energy resources are abundant and prices are low and (3) lowering the high drilling costs for developing the deep (>5 km) reservoirs required in low gradient areas. Advanced concepts in drilling technology that could lead to a linear as opposed to exponential relationship between cost and depth are discussed in light of their potential impact on heat mining.

  16. Controversy over the etiology and therapy of retinal detachment: the struggles of Jules Gonin.

    PubMed

    Gloor, Balder P; Marmor, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Retinal tears were recognized as soon as ophthalmoscopy became available. They were initially considered to be secondary events, from choroidal exudation and pressure behind the detached retina. This led von Graefe and others to recommend cuts in the retina to drain subretinal fluid into the vitreous cavity. De Wecker (1875, 1879) and Leber (1882) first proposed that intrinsic tears within the retina are the cause of retinal detachment, but they faced extreme and long lasting opposition for this view. Surgical results at this time were uniformly disastrous, and therapeutic nihilism still prevailed when Dufour and Gonin became convinced around 1904-1906 that the retinal tear was indeed the origin of the detachment. It took ten years, however, before Gonin figured out how to close tears by exact placement of heat coagulation ("thermopuncture") and provide therapeutic evidence for his beliefs. When he first presented his results in 1921, colleagues jeered at him, especially Deutschmann and Sourdille who, like the other ophthalmic surgeons, denied the role of the tear (and still made "therapeutic" incisions through the detached retina). Recognition of Gonin's approach finally came at the International Congresses in Amsterdam 1928 and in Madrid in 1933. Sourdille modified his approach when his son Gabriel convinced him to change after 1930, but Deutschmann stuck to his horrific procedure until his death in 1935. Then a new generation of retinal surgeons took over, with subsequent discussion focused on finding the best methods to close the tears. PMID:23257154

  17. Jules Verne Network: Extending and federating efforts to promote Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmorduc, V.; Bonnefond, P.; Stewart, R.

    2003-04-01

    Earth sciences are a key element of the many issues concerning the environment, natural resource management and the place of humankind on Earth today. Earth science disciplines have taken a giant leap with the emergence of space-based observation techniques, but the benefits of advances achieved have not always been felt outside specialist circles. Our aim is to develop, encourage and raise awareness of these achievements, through outreach actions and educational programs, by informing persons likely to use and exploit results, as well as decision-makers and elected representatives, and by communicating to scientists working in related disciplines. We propose, within an international framework, to bring together scientists, engineers, teachers and science communicators to raise awareness among a broad spectrum of audiences of the current state of Earth science knowledge, especially what we have learned through space-based observations. By Earth sciences we mean all sciences studying the lithosphere, oceans, atmosphere, cryosphere, biosphere and other components of our planet and the way they interact.

  18. Big Sisters: An Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Fredrick W.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the effects of participation in a Big Sisters' Program. The first part consisted of interviews (N=20) with pairs of Big Sisters-Little Sisters. The second part evaluated program effectiveness experimentally. Findings indicated positive relationships between pairs, and improved behavior of experimental girls versus controls. (RC)

  19. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  20. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  1. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

  2. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  3. Experimental Laboratory Research in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Stanley R.

    In spite of the potential which experimental research methods affords counselors in the development of effective counseling services, such methods are seldom used. After briefly reviewing the arguments against experimental research and their underlying beliefs, the author sets out: (1) to explore the implications of using the laboratory to conduct…

  4. New evaluation of photon production for JEFF-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaux, S.; Bernard, D.; Santamarina, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, new gamma production evaluations are proposed for JEFF-3 for crucial nuclei for power reactors and Jules Horowitz Reactor: Fe, Ag, In, Cd and Gd. We specifically work on two nuclear reactions: the inelastic scattering and the radiative capture. We performed gamma production multiplicities, angular distributions and energy spectrum for incident neutron energies between 10-11 and 20 MeV by simulating the whole intranuclear gamma cascade. For this simulation, the discrete part of the nuclei level schemes came from the RIPL2.0 library and the latest EGAF measurements carried out at Budapest facility. The EGAF measurements are available in the adopted IAEA library. The continuum level scheme part has been estimated with a level density model: the Gilbert-Cameron model and a strength function model: the Generalized Lorentzian model. Then, the gamma cascade has been simulated using TALYS which is a nuclear reaction modeling code.

  5. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  6. An Experimental Text-Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joan

    1976-01-01

    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  7. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  8. The experimental status of |Vub|

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Eunil

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation, we review the current experimental status in the measurements of |Vcb| from semileptonic B??? decays to DX ℓv???. Over 10 years of impressive progress in both theoretical and experimental approaches, now less than 2% precision is achieved. In order to further improve these measurements to test standard model, one expects to have better understanding of theoretical uncertainties and to have much more data from future higher luminosity B-factories and LHCb experiment.

  9. Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlich, Philipp; Bill, Eckhard; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    In this chapter, we present the principles of conventional Mössbauer spectrometers with radioactive isotopes as the light source; Mössbauer experiments with synchrotron radiation are discussed in Chap. 9 including technical principles. Since complete spectrometers, suitable for virtually all the common isotopes, have been commercially available for many years, we refrain from presenting technical details like electronic circuits. We are concerned here with the functional components of a spectrometer, their interaction and synchronization, the different operation modes and proper tuning of the instrument. We discuss the properties of radioactive γ-sources to understand the requirements of an efficient γ-counting system, and finally we deal with sample preparation and the optimization of Mössbauer absorbers. For further reading on spectrometers and their technical details, we refer to the review articles [1-3].

  10. Experimental verification of dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yae, K. Harold; Hwang, Howyoung; Chern, Su-Tai

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics model here is a backhoe, which is a four degree of freedom manipulator from the dynamics standpoint. Two types of experiment are chosen that can also be simulated by a multibody dynamics simulation program. In the experiment, recorded were the configuration and force histories; that is, velocity and position, and force output and differential pressure change from the hydraulic cylinder, in the time domain. When the experimental force history is used as driving force in the simulation model, the forward dynamics simulation produces a corresponding configuration history. Then, the experimental configuration history is used in the inverse dynamics analysis to generate a corresponding force history. Therefore, two sets of configuration and force histories--one set from experiment, and the other from the simulation that is driven forward and backward with the experimental data--are compared in the time domain. More comparisons are made in regard to the effects of initial conditions, friction, and viscous damping.

  11. Experimental Models for Neurotrauma Research.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    Physical trauma in the central nervous system (CNS) is usually the result of a number of forces in different directions and dimensions. A large number of experimental models have been developed to improve the possibilities to understand the outcome of CNS trauma. In this chapter, we will describe the need for a variety of experimental models for research on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Models can serve different needs, such as: to test new treatments for injuries, to reveal thresholds for injuries, to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms, or to test tools and methods for translation between experiments and clinical data. In this chapter, we will discuss on the validation of models and translation between experimental and clinical studies. PMID:27604724

  12. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  13. Experimental observation of heat transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2014-05-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally observed heat diffusion transparency with the heat diffusion device we fabricated, which can measure time-dependent temperature. Utilizing the effective medium theory, we fabricated an isotropic spherical shell with an isotropic spherical core, as well as a multilayer isotropic spherical shell with an isotropic spherical core as neutral inclusions. We measured the temperatures and temperature gradients outside the neutral inclusions with the self-made heat diffusion device and analyzed the heat transparent conditions. The experimental results show that the temperature gradients are parallel and equal outside the neutral inclusion, and the iso-temperature lines are also parallel outside the neutral inclusion.

  14. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  15. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  16. The drawing of experimental curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of how to determine the location of a line or surface from experimental data. What we desire to know practically is the number of ordinates required to obtain a certain probable precision in drawing a line or surface.

  17. An experimenter and his methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonovich, S. R.

    1990-12-01

    A review of experimental works by Ernst Mach has been given. The works reffer to optics and acoustics. The author is representing Ernst Mach as a physicist rather than a phylosopher, which contradicts the point of view obviously accepted in Soviet history of sciences and philosophy.

  18. Experimental medicine 1000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the roots of experimental medicine in its modern form, including clinical trials and drug-potency studies, first started during the European Renaissance in the 16th to the 18th centuries. This study is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary primary-source investigation of the original Arabic works of 11 Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9th and the 13th centuries. The study critically evaluated and documented their contributions to the development of the scientific method and experimental medicine during that medieval Islamic era in several areas including critical appraisal of previous knowledge, clinical observations and case reports, clinical therapeutic trials, drug potency trials, experimentation on animals, dissection and dissection experiments as well as postmortem examinations. In each of the above-mentioned areas, significant contributions were made during the Medieval Islamic era from as early as the ninth century AD. PMID:21747591

  19. Experimental medicine 1000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the roots of experimental medicine in its modern form, including clinical trials and drug-potency studies, first started during the European Renaissance in the 16(th) to the 18(th) centuries. This study is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary primary-source investigation of the original Arabic works of 11 Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9(th) and the 13(th) centuries. The study critically evaluated and documented their contributions to the development of the scientific method and experimental medicine during that medieval Islamic era in several areas including critical appraisal of previous knowledge, clinical observations and case reports, clinical therapeutic trials, drug potency trials, experimentation on animals, dissection and dissection experiments as well as postmortem examinations. In each of the above-mentioned areas, significant contributions were made during the Medieval Islamic era from as early as the ninth century AD. PMID:21747591

  20. Experimental investigations of ICRF effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Phaedrus program is to establish the relative efficiency of helicity and momentum current drive for rf near and below omega{sub ci} and compare to theory. This paper discusses major accomplishments in the rf program; extension of operating parameters; facility improvements; and additional experimental activities. (LSP)

  1. Evaluating E-Labs' Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisent, Michel; Maguiraga, Lassana; Bernard, Prosper; Larhrib, Samir

    2004-01-01

    This communication discusses preliminary results on an experimentation of e-Learning with MIS students, mainly in order to cope with the logistics of lab organization. A learning management software was installed which changed completely the learning process, from content to logistics. Students have expressed their satisfaction with the e-Learning…

  2. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  3. An Experimental Approach To… Everything!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Taylor; Flowers, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The goal of formal education is student learning. By emphasizing experimentation in the classroom or lab, students learn about the results of a particular inquiry. But more importantly, they learn to refine their approach to learning by creating new knowledge rather than merely remembering what they have been told. An inquiry approach where…

  4. On the New Experimental Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents an experimental secondary school curriculum as drafted by the Soviet Union's Ministry of Education in 1987. Intended for implementation (after modifications) by the year 2000, as part of perestroika and educational reform. Examines the curriculum's rationale. Lists school subjects, indicating number of hours and grades in which they…

  5. Analysis of fission gas release kinetics by on-line mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zerega, Y.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Parrat, D.; Carette, M.; Brkic, B.; Lyoussi, A.; Bignan, G.; Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Taylor, S.

    2011-07-01

    a gamma spectrometer in the fission product laboratory of the future Jules Horowitz Material Test Reactor. An intermediate step will consist of testing first equipment on an existing experimental facility in the LECA-STAR Hot Cell Laboratory of the CEA Cadarache. This paper presents the scientific and operational stakes linked to fission gas issues, resumes the current state of art for analyzing them in nuclear facilities, then presents the skills gathered through this collaboration to overcome technological bottlenecks. Finally it describes the implementation strategy in nuclear research facilities of the CEA Cadarache. (authors)

  6. Experimental Nuclear Physics with INFN

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, Angela

    2009-05-04

    An overview of the experimental activities in Nuclear Physics carried out by Italian researchers and funded by INFN is presented. The experimental program addresses a number of key problems of modern nuclear physics in the fields of hadron dynamics, quark gluon plasma, nuclear structure and reaction dynamics and nuclear astrophysics. The experiments are performed at the four national laboratories, at CERN and several other laboratories abroad. In particular, LNL is mainly dedicated to nuclear structure, LNS is strongly involved in the study of equation of state and nuclear astrophysics, LNF has a program on hypernuclei and kaonic atoms and LNGS has a facility for measurements of cross sections of astrophysical interest. The large community working on the problem of quark gluon plasma is very active in the ALICE experiment which will use the ultrarelativisc heavy ion collisions of LHC. Interdisciplinary researches are also supported. A brief outline of the future perspectives is here given.

  7. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  8. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  9. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-10

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints. PMID:24483878

  10. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  11. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  12. Melioration and self-experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Neuringer, Allen

    1984-01-01

    Operant researchers rarely use the arena of applied psychology to motivate or to judge their research. Absence of tests by application weakens the field of basic operant research. Early in their development, the physical and biological sciences emphasized meliorative aspects of research. Improvement of human life was a major goal of these young sciences. This paper argues that if basic operant researchers analogously invoked a melioration criterion, the operant field might avoid its tendency toward ingrowth and instead generate a broadly influential science. Operant researchers could incorporate melioration by (a) creating animal models to study applied problems; (b) confronting questions raised by applied analysts and testing hypotheses in applied settings; or (c) performing self-experiments—that is, using experimental methods and behavioral techniques to study and change the experimenter's behavior. PMID:16812398

  13. Experimental multilocation remote state preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rådmark, Magnus; Wieśniak, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of quantum states is a central task in quantum information science. Remote state preparation (RSP) has the same goal as teleportation, i.e., transferring quantum information without sending physically the information carrier, but in RSP the sender knows the state which is to be transmitted. We present experimental demonstrations of RSP for two and three locations. In our experimental scheme Alice (the preparer) and her three partners share four and six photon polarization entangled singlets. This allows us to perform RSP of two or three copies of a single-qubit state, a two-qubit Bell state, and a three-qubit W, or W¯ state. A possibility to prepare two-qubit nonmaximally entangled and GHZ states is also discussed. The ability to remotely prepare an entangled states by local projections at Alice is a distinguishing feature of our scheme.

  14. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  15. Experimental Cardiac Necrosis and Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Prioreschi, P.

    1967-01-01

    In recent years evidence has been brought forward supporting the hypothesis that myocardial infarction is not due to thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery but to a metabolic derangement in a myocardium “conditioned” by coronary atherosclerosis. The author briefly reviews metabolic necroses experimentally induced in the animal and discusses the action of potassium in preventing their development. The basis for the clinical use of potassium and magnesium salts for the prevention of myocardial infarction is also discussed. PMID:5336956

  16. Multiphase combustion experimentation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the need for and implementation of microgravity combustion studies of two phase media. Experimental and analytical aspects of several heterogeneous kinetic systems are discussed. These include: flame propagation and extinction for quiescent clouds of uniformly premixed fuel particulates in an oxidizing atmosphere; autoignition of clouds of uniformly premixed fuel particulates in a quiescent oxidizing atmosphere; and the roles of catalytically significant surfaces in gaseous autoignition processes.

  17. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  18. Experimental realization of invisibility cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelokova, A. V.; Melchakova, I. V.; Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Yankovskaya, E. A.; Simovski, C. R.; Belov, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    Advances in the studies of metamaterials have pushed the development of invisibility cloaks, which suppress scattering by objects within certain frequency ranges. During recent years, there has been a transition from a purely theoretical consideration of the cloaking effect to its practical implementation. This paper is an overview of the current state of the art in the area of invisibility cloaks. Special emphasis is put on experimental realizations of such devices.

  19. Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfan, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics are discussed in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ continuum, in pp and anti p p collisions, in measurements of ..cap alpha../sub s/ from UPSILON decays, in deep inelastic lepton scattering, and in the measurement of the photon structure function. A large body of data relating to the testing of quantum chromodynamics is reviewed, showing qualitative agreement between the data from a wide range of processes and QCD. 66 refs., 79 figs. (LEW)

  20. Does experimental research support psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Cohen, David

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether a psychodynamic view is compatible with experimental research is still a challenging issue-especially for child and adolescent psychopathology-despite the influence of psychoanalytic theory in this field until the 1980s. In this article, is explored the relationship between psychodynamic theory and experimental research using examples of evidence-based studies in the fields of (i) psychotherapeutic intervention assessment, (ii) placebo response in children and adolescents, (iii) unconscious lasting traumatic effects in children and adolescents, (iv) psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing. There are now a sufficient number of evidence-based studies to support the use of psychodynamic therapy in mental disorders, particularly in personality disorder and anxious/depressive disorder. In addition, placebo responses in children and adolescents with internalizing disorders are significantly higher in major depression compared to obsessive-compulsive disorder or other anxiety disorders, which highlights differential psychopathologies regarding the experience of loss. Also, using an experimental task, psychoanalysts are able to identify, without explicit knowledge and above the level of chance, healthy adults whose siblings had experienced cancer during childhood. This experiment suggests that implicit information regarding a participant's history is conveyed in interpersonal exchanges that can be intuitively perceived by judges experienced in listening to free associations from a psychodynamic perspective. Finally, psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing may predict the transition to schizophrenia in adolescents with a history of manic/mixed episodes. It can be concluded that there are no discrepancies between psychodynamic views and experimental data, whether one tests psychotherapeutic approaches, discusses data from other fields such as psychopharmacology, or designs experiments based on psychodynamic theory. PMID:21963530

  1. Experimental Crystallization of Yamato 980459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.; Galenas, M. G.; Danielson, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, only two martian meteorites QUE 94201 (QUE) and Yamato 980459 (Y98) have been experimentally shown to me true melt compositions. Most martian meteorites are instead, cumulates or partial cumulates. We have performed experiments on a Y98 composition to assess whether QUE could be related to Y98 by some fractionation process [1]. Y98 is a basaltic shergottite from the SNC (Shergotty, Nakhla, Chassigny) meteorite group. Y98 is composed of 26% olivine, 48% pyroxene, 25% mesostasis, and no plagioclase [2]. The large size of the olivine megacrysts and absence of plagioclase suggest that the parental melt which formed this meteorite had begun cooling slowly until some mechanism, such as magma ascent, caused rapid cooling [3]. Y98 s olivines have the highest Mg content of all the shergottites suggesting that it is the most primitive [4]. Y98 has been determined to be a melt composition by comparing the composition of experimental liquidus olivines with the composition of the cores of Y98 olivines [4]. The liquidus of Y98 is predicted by MELTS [5] and by experimentation [6] to be 1450 C. Analyses of Y98 show it to be very depleted in LREEs and it has similar depleted patterns as other shergottites such as QUE [7].

  2. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  3. Nonisothermal hydrologic transport experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1992-09-01

    A field heater experimental plan is presented for investigating hydrologic transport processes in unsaturated fractured rock related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground repository. The experimental plan provides a methodology for obtaining data required for evaluating conceptual and computer models related to HLW isolation in an environment where significant heat energy is produced. Coupled-process models are currently limited by the lack of validation data appropriate for field scales that incorporate relevant transport processes. Presented in this document is a discussion of previous nonisothermal experiments. Processes expected to dominate heat-driven liquid, vapor, gas, and solute flow during the experiment are explained, and the conceptual model for nonisothermal flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock is described. Of particular concern is the ability to confirm the hypothesized conceptual model specifically, the establishment of higher water saturation zones within the host rock around the heat source, and the establishment of countercurrent flow conditions within the host rock near the heat source. Field experimental plans are presented using the Apache Leap Tuff Site to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology. Both small-scale preliminary experiments and a long-term experiment are described.

  4. Experimental understanding of wildland fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeoni, A.

    2012-04-01

    The experimental study of natural fires to better understand their behaviour and develop fire-spread models is the topic of a very large literature. Experimental activities cover many subjects related to wildland fires including among others: fire behaviour, fire impact, fuel characterization, fire emissions and fire detection. This presentation is focused on the experiments, particularly the spreading and burning dynamic of the flame front. It does not intent to be exhaustive but aims to an overview of research in the the last decades. The experimental approach in wildland fire behaviour follows the classical empirical scientific approach: observe the phenomenon to understand it, develop models to describe it and use experiments to implement and test the models. Therefore, experiments are intimately linked with the development of modelling. Experiments are developed to increase our understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena that drive fire ignition, spread and extinction, upon which fire spread models are built. Other experiments are developed to set model parameters and to validate the predictions. The work is divided into the different scales of the physical and chemical phenomena: the micro-scale, the small and large-scale laboratory scale and the field-scale.

  5. 47 CFR 73.1510 - Experimental authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... experimental transmissions. (d) The FCC may request a report of the research, experimentation and results at... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Experimental authorizations. 73.1510 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1510 Experimental authorizations....

  6. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  7. EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING OF AORTIC ANEURYSMS

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry J; Corbett, Timothy J; Cloonan, Aidan J; O’Donnell, Michael R; Walsh, Michael T; Vorp, David A; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    A range of silicone rubbers were created based on existing commercially available materials. These silicones were designed to be visually different from one another and have distinct material properties, in particular, ultimate tensile strengths and tear strengths. In total, eleven silicone rubbers were manufactured, with the materials designed to have a range of increasing tensile strengths from approximately 2-4MPa, and increasing tear strengths from approximately 0.45-0.7N/mm. The variations in silicones were detected using a standard colour analysis technique. Calibration curves were then created relating colour intensity to individual material properties. All eleven materials were characterised and a 1st order Ogden strain energy function applied. Material coefficients were determined and examined for effectiveness. Six idealised abdominal aortic aneurysm models were also created using the two base materials of the study, with a further model created using a new mixing technique to create a rubber model with randomly assigned material properties. These models were then examined using videoextensometry and compared to numerical results. Colour analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship (p<0.0009) with both tensile strength and tear strength, allowing material strength to be determined using a non-destructive experimental technique. The effectiveness of this technique was assessed by comparing predicted material properties to experimentally measured methods, with good agreement in the results. Videoextensometry and numerical modelling revealed minor percentage differences, with all results achieving significance (p<0.0009). This study has successfully designed and developed a range of silicone rubbers that have unique colour intensities and material strengths. Strengths can be readily determined using a non-destructive analysis technique with proven effectiveness. These silicones may further aid towards an improved understanding of the

  8. Theoretical and Experimental DNA Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Martyn

    This book provides a broad overview of the entire field of DNA computation, tracing its history and development. It contains detailed descriptions of all major theoretical models and experimental results to date, which are lacking in existing texts, and discusses potential future developments. It also provides a useful reference source for researchers and students, and an accessible introduction for people new to the field. The field of DNA computation has flourished since the publication of Adleman's seminal article, in which he demonstrated for the first time how a computation may be performed at a molecular level by performing standard operations on a tube of DNA strands.

  9. Experimental studies of glass refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.; Kondos, P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic components of the experimental apparatus were selected and acquired. Techniques were developed for the fabrication of the special crucibles necessary for the experiments. Arrangements were made for the analysis of glass and gas bubble samples for composition information. Donations of major equipment were received for this project from Owens, Illinois where a similar study had been conducted a few year ago. Decisions were made regarding the actual glass composition to be used, the gas to be used in the first experiments, and the temperatures at which the experiments should be conducted. A microcomputer was acquired, and work was begun on interfacing the video analyzer to it.

  10. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  11. The updated experimental proteinoid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.; Przybylski, A.; Syren, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism. The finding of membrane and action potentials in proteinoid microspheres, with or without added lecithin, is reported. The crucial nature of a nonrandom matrix for protocells is developed.

  12. Experimental Trauma Models: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Frink, Michael; Andruszkow, Hagen; Zeckey, Christian; Krettek, Christian; Hildebrand, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals. PMID:21331361

  13. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  14. Experimental Cryosurgery Investigations In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gage, A.A.; Baust, J.M.; Baust, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cryosurgery is the use of freezing temperatures to elicit an ablative response in a targeted tissue. This review provides a global overview of experimentation in vivo which has been the basis of advancement of this widely applied therapeutic option. The cellular and tissue-related events that underlie the mechanisms of destruction, including direct cell injury (cryolysis), vascular stasis, apoptosis and necrosis, are described and are related to the optimal methods of technique of freezing to achieve efficacious therapy. In vivo experiments with major organs, including wound healing, the putative immunological response following thawing, and the use of cryoadjunctive strategies to enhance cancer cell sensitivity to freezing, are described. PMID:19833119

  15. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. (Specialized Interface)

  16. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  17. Experimental test accelerator (ETA) II

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Birx, D.L.

    1981-03-06

    The Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) is designed to produce a 10 kAmp electron beam at an energy of 4.5 MeV in 40 nsec pulses at an average rate of 2 pps. The accelerator also operates in bursts of 5 pulses spaced by as little as one millisec at an average rate of 5 pps. The machine is currently operating near 80% of its design values and has accumulated over 2.5 million pulses - mostly at a rate of one pps. The plasma cathode electron source, the remainder of the accelerator, and the operating characteristics of the machine are discussed.

  18. Experimental Modeling of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. An Experimental Morphological Study.

    PubMed

    Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Leparskaya, N L; Nabieva, M M; Andreeva, L D

    2015-05-01

    A model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy induced by simultaneous intravitreal injection of recombinant IL-1β and platelet concentrate is created and its main morphological manifestations are studied on Chinchilla rabbits. The model reflects pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy: epiretinal membrane with the formation of retinal plication, traction detachment of the retina; moderate inflammatory reaction in the uveal tract, in the optic nerve infundibulum, in the vitreous body; intact structural elements of the retina, dissociation of the retinal pigmented epithelium cells with their subsequent migration. The model is adequate to the clinical picture of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in humans, which recommends it for experimental studies of the efficiency of drug therapy and prevention of this disease. PMID:26033599

  19. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Hans P.; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R.; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  20. Bacterial translocation in experimental uremia.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Duarte, Joãn Bosco; de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Mariana; Nochi, Rubens Jardim

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not experimental uremia would induce bacterial translocation. Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups: uremic (n = 20) and control (n = 20). Under anesthesia, the upper and lower left renal poles and the marginal lateral parenchyma were excised in uremic group. Seven days later, in a second operation, the liver, spleen and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were excised and cultured. Blood samples were sent for biochemical analysis (BUN, creatinine, sodium and potassium) and cultured. Specimens of the jejunum (1 cm below the Treitz angle) and ileum (1 cm above the ileocecal valve) were collected and sent for histological examination and scored for the degree of inflammation of the mucosa using a classification proposed by Chiu et al. in 1970. Uremic rats presented higher BUN, creatinine and potassium than controls. Bacterial translocation was more frequent in uremic than in control animals (8/20 (40%) vs. 1/20 (5%); p = 0.02). Translocation in uremic rats was observed mainly at the MLN (all eight cases). Both at the jejunum (uremic = 3 [0-5] vs. control = 2 [0-4]; p = 0.04) and the ileum (uremic - 2 [0-5] vs. control = 0 [0-3]; p = 0.01), inflammation score was higher in uremic rats than in controls. The intestinal mucosa barrier is impaired and bacterial translocation occurs in experimental uremia. PMID:15497213

  1. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Hans P; Parijs, Ilse; Foster, Kevin R; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Biofilms are a major form of microbial life in which cells form dense surface associated communities that can persist for many generations. The long-life of biofilm communities means that they can be strongly shaped by evolutionary processes. Here, we review the experimental study of evolution in biofilm communities. We first provide an overview of the different experimental models used to study biofilm evolution and their associated advantages and disadvantages. We then illustrate the vast amount of diversification observed during biofilm evolution, and we discuss (i) potential ecological and evolutionary processes behind the observed diversification, (ii) recent insights into the genetics of adaptive diversification, (iii) the striking degree of parallelism between evolution experiments and real-life biofilms and (iv) potential consequences of diversification. In the second part, we discuss the insights provided by evolution experiments in how biofilm growth and structure can promote cooperative phenotypes. Overall, our analysis points to an important role of biofilm diversification and cooperation in bacterial survival and productivity. Deeper understanding of both processes is of key importance to design improved antimicrobial strategies and diagnostic techniques. PMID:26895713

  2. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

  3. Experimental approach to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Leifels, Yvonne

    2014-05-09

    The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is of fundamental importance in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics In the laboratory, there are different means to study the nuclearmatter equation of state and its density dependence in particular: nuclear masses, neutron skins, pygmy resonance, and nuclear structure at the drip line give access to nuclear matter properties at densities lower than and at saturation density ρ0. Heavy ion reactions at energies above 0.1 AGeV are the only means to study nuclear matter at densities larger than normal nuclear matter density ρ0. In the beamenergy range of 0.1 to 2A GeV nuclear matter is compressed upto three times ρ0. Access to nuclear matter properties is achieved by simulating nuclear collisions by means of microscopic transport codes, or statistical or hydrodynamicalmodels. Characteristics of heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and experimental observables which allow to constrain nuclear matter properties by comparing experimental results with those of transport codes are presented. Special emphasis will be given to the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is the most relevant connection between neutron stars and heavy ion collisions.

  4. SAA drift:experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Kudela, K.; Romashova, V. V.; Drozdov, A. Yu.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth's magnetic field connected with magnetic momentum changing. Besides these variations affects on the trapped belt South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations including Space Shuttle short-time flights approved the existence SAA westward drift with speed 0.1-1.0 (deg/year) and northward drift with speed approximately 0.1 (deg/year). In this work we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in SINP MSU in 1972-2003 from different satellites. There were analyzed the fluxes of protons with energy > 50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy > 500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1-1.0 MeV in SAA area and their maxima location. The data about fluxes were obtained onboard the orbital stations ``Salut-6'' (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the identical experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact of the SAA westward drift. Moreover the same analysis of maximum flux location of electrons with hundreds keV energy (satellites ``Kosmos-484'' (1972), ``Interkosmos-17'' (1977) and ``Activny'' (``Interkosmos-24'', 1991)) confirmed not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  5. X-38 Experimental Controls Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Steve; Estes, Jay; Bordano, Aldo J.

    2000-01-01

    X-38 Experimental Control Laws X-38 is a NASA JSC/DFRC experimental flight test program developing a series of prototypes for an International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle, often called an ISS "lifeboat." X- 38 Vehicle 132 Free Flight 3, currently scheduled for the end of this month, will be the first flight test of a modem FCS architecture called Multi-Application Control-Honeywell (MACH), originally developed by the Honeywell Technology Center. MACH wraps classical P&I outer attitude loops around a modem dynamic inversion attitude rate loop. The dynamic inversion process requires that the flight computer have an onboard aircraft model of expected vehicle dynamics based upon the aerodynamic database. Dynamic inversion is computationally intensive, so some timing modifications were made to implement MACH on the slower flight computers of the subsonic test vehicles. In addition to linear stability margin analyses and high fidelity 6-DOF simulation, hardware-in-the-loop testing is used to verify the implementation of MACH and its robustness to aerodynamic and environmental uncertainties and disturbances.

  6. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  7. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-10-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  8. 'Impulsar': Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2008-04-28

    The Objective of the 'Impulsar' project is to accomplish a circle of experimental, engineering and technological works on creation of a high efficiency laser rocket engine. The project includes many organizations of the rocket industry and Academy of Sciences of Russia. High repetition rate pulse-periodic CO{sub 2} laser system project for launching will be presented. Optical system for 15 MW laser energy delivery and optical matrix of laser engine receiver will by discussed as well. Basic characteristics of the laser-based engine will be compared with theoretical predictions and important stages of further technology implementation (low frequency resonance). Relying on a wide cooperation of different branches of science and industry organizations it is very possible to use the accumulated potential for launching of nano-vehicles during the upcoming 4-5 years.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Microstructured Evaporators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibel, W.; Westermann, S.; Maikowske, S.; Brandner, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Microfluidic devices have become more and more popular over the last decades [1]. Cooling is a topic where microstructures offer significant advantages compared to conventional techniques due the much higher possible surface to volume ratios and short heat transfer lengths. By evaporating of a fluid in microchannels, compact, fast and powerful cooling devices become possible [2]. Experimental results for different designs of microstructured evaporators are presented here. They have been obtained either using water as evaporating coolant or the refrigerant R134a (Tetrafluoroethane). A new microstructured evaporator design consisting of bended microchannels instead of straight channels for a better performance is shown and compared to previous results [2] for the evaporation of R134a in straight microchannels.

  10. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma☆

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L.; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

  11. Sexually antagonistic genes: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Rice, W R

    1992-06-01

    When selection differs between the sexes, a mutation beneficial to one sex may be harmful to the other (sexually antagonistic). Because the sexes share a common gene pool, selection in one sex can interfere with the other's adaptive evolution. Theory predicts that sexually antagonistic mutations should accumulate in tight linkage with a new sex-determining gene, even when the harm to benefit ratio is high. Genetic markers and artificial selection were used to make a pair of autosomal genes segregate like a new pair of sex-determining genes in a Drosophila melanogaster model system. A 29-generation study provides experimental evidence that sexually antagonistic genes may be common in nature and will accumulate in response to a new sex-determining gene. PMID:1604317

  12. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  13. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Tom

    2006-12-13

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  14. Experimental modeling of pulmonary barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Siermontowski, Piotr; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Pedrycz, Agnieszka; Krefft, Karolina; Kaczerska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of pulmonary barotrauma include loss of consciousness or panic attack of a diver and emergence from underwater with a constricted glottis. However, numerous publications and our observations indicate that the majority of fully symptomatic cases of pulmonary barotrauma develop without any evident errors in the ascending technique. Therefore, an attempt was made to examine such cases using the experimental model of pulmonary barotrauma designed by the authors. The experiment was conducted on 32 rabbits divided into three groups: Group C--not subjected to any treatment; Group E--with induced pulmonary barotrauma; and Group CT--subjected only to compression followed by quick decompression. In Groups E and CT, the same morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were detected in the lungs, although their severity varied. Morphological markers of pulmonary barotrauma were observed both in the group where the tube was not ob-structed (E) and in animals exposed only to rapid decompression (CT) PMID:26094289

  15. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  16. α-Synuclein: Experimental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein, which is present as a small, soluble, cytosolic protein in healthy subjects, is converted to amyloid-like fibrils in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Bulk synthesis of purified α-synuclein has made it more convenient to study the nature of the normal protein and the mechanism of its conversion to an abnormal form in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic α-synuclein fibrils and pathological α-synuclein from diseased brains can act as triggers to convert normal α-synuclein to an abnormal form via prion-like mechanisms. In this article, we describe the experimental pathologies of α-synuclein both in vitro and in vivo in human and animal models. Prion-like spreading of abnormal α-synuclein from cell to cell can account for the progression of these α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27481772

  17. Experimental computation with oscillatory integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-06-26

    A previous study by one of the present authors, together with D. Borwein and I. Leonard [8], studied the asymptotic behavior of the p-norm of the sinc function: sinc(x) = (sin x)/x and along the way looked at closed forms for integer values of p. In this study we address these integrals with the tools of experimental mathematics, namely by computing their numerical values to high precision, both as a challenge in itself, and also in an attempt to recognize the numerical values as closed-form constants. With this approach, we are able to reproduce several of the results of [8] and to find new results, both numeric and analytic, that go beyond the previous study.

  18. Experimental strategies for frost analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Daniel D.

    An area of increasing importance in the field of refrigeration is the study of frosting and defrosting. Frosting poses a concern to many refrigeration systems, as frost growth both obstructs airflow through low temperature heat exchangers and increases heat transfer resistance. Drastic decreases in system efficiency result from the compounding of these problems, and because it is difficult to prevent the frosting process, refrigeration systems must be defrosted periodically to restore optimal operating conditions. A deeper understanding of the complex physical processes of frosting and defrosting will lead to more efficient refrigeration system designs; an idea which has driven a rise in frost growth research over recent decades. Although research has shown great progress, there remain significant challenges associated with predicting the frosting and defrosting processes accurately under wide ranges of conditions. The equations governing such behavior still remain insoluble by exact analytical methods. Numerical approaches have shown the most promising results, but are yet in an early stage of development. Most research has instead been concerned with developing correlations for frost properties and growth, though few are applicable to varying conditions. The most commonly used correlations are shown to have widely different results, perhaps owing to different experimental methods used to acquire data and a lack of deeper level analysis. A new thickness correlation is proposed which attempts to reconcile to some degree the gap between theory and application. Broader ranges of data are used for fitment which enables the application of the correlation to a wider range of conditions. To improve the consistency of results in frost research, it is suggested that new forms of data acquisition be explored. Proposed alternative methods utilize high magnification imaging equipment in combination with computer based measurements, which are shown to be capable of improving

  19. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research. PMID:26047667

  20. Experimental models of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research. PMID:26047667

  1. Experimental studies with palygorskite dusts.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J C; Griffiths, D M; Munday, D E

    1987-11-01

    As the preliminary results of experimental studies on dust from the palygorskite group have led to some confusion a detailed description of the completed investigation is given for clarification. As in other experiments the biological effects have been shown to be associated with the physical characteristics of the fibres in these specimens. Samples of sepiolite and attapulgite from Spain and a single sample of palygorskite from the United Kingdom have been studied. Serious abnormalities were produced only by the palygorskite and one of the attapulgite dusts. The palygorskite is of no commercial interest and the attapulgite was from one small deposit and was used only in the preparation of drilling mud in the exploration of oil deposits. PMID:2961365

  2. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  3. Experimental cochlear hydrops in cats.

    PubMed

    Eby, T L

    1986-11-01

    An experimental model of cochlear hydrops was created in cats. Ten cats underwent surgical procedures to obliterate the saccule, and their temporal bones were studied by light microscopy after sacrifice at 10 weeks. In one group the saccules were destroyed by maceration and aspiration. However, in these ears the saccular lumens were not obliterated and endolymphatic hydrops did not develop. Obliteration of the saccules was achieved in the second group after fascia was introduced into the area of the injured saccules. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was a consistent finding in these ears except when a fistula of the membranous labyrinth was present. However, in addition to fibrosis and new bone formation in the vestibules there were also degenerative changes in the hair cells, tectorial membranes, and striae vasculares of these cochleae. The results supported the longitudinal flow theory of endolymph and are consistent with the reported examples of cochlear endolymphatic hydrops in man. PMID:3812642

  4. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  5. Overview of Experimental Capabilities - Supersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of experimental capabilities applicable to the area of supersonic research. The contents include: 1) EC Objectives; 2) SUP.11: Elements; 3) NRA; 4) Advanced Flight Simulator Flexible Aircraft Simulation Studies; 5) Advanced Flight Simulator Flying Qualities Guideline Development for Flexible Supersonic Transport Aircraft; 6) Advanced Flight Simulator Rigid/Flex Flight Control; 7) Advanced Flight Simulator Rapid Sim Model Exchange; 8) Flight Test Capabilities Advanced In-Flight Infrared (IR) Thermography; 9) Flight Test Capabilities In-Flight Schlieren; 10) Flight Test Capabilities CLIP Flow Calibration; 11) Flight Test Capabilities PFTF Flowfield Survey; 12) Ground Test Capabilities Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics (LITA); 13) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); 14) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); and 15) Ground Test Capabilities EDL Optical Measurement Capability (PIV) for Rigid/Flexible Decelerator Models.

  6. Compound chondrules: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1994-07-01

    Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

  7. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    ScienceCinema

    Roberts, Tom [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2009-09-01

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  8. Interactive robots in experimental biology.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jens; Winfield, Alan F T; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Interactive robots have the potential to revolutionise the study of social behaviour because they provide several methodological advances. In interactions with live animals, the behaviour of robots can be standardised, morphology and behaviour can be decoupled (so that different morphologies and behavioural strategies can be combined), behaviour can be manipulated in complex interaction sequences and models of behaviour can be embodied by the robot and thereby be tested. Furthermore, robots can be used as demonstrators in experiments on social learning. As we discuss here, the opportunities that robots create for new experimental approaches have far-reaching consequences for research in fields such as mate choice, cooperation, social learning, personality studies and collective behaviour. PMID:21496942

  9. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M

    2008-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

  10. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  11. Experimental subjects are not different

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M.; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this “particular” subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  12. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Petter, W.

    1976-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee. PMID:966259

  13. Experimental subjects are not different.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this "particular" subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  14. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  15. Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Ferlito, Marcella; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A; Iwama, Shintaro; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Ladenson, Paul W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco smoking favorably influences the course of Hashimoto thyroiditis, possibly through the antiinflammatory proprieties of nicotine. In this study we tested anatabine, another tobacco alkaloid, in a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by different doses of thyroglobulin, to produce a disease of low, moderate, or high severity, in 88 CBA/J female mice: 43 drank anatabine supplemented water and 45 regular water. Mice were bled after immunization and killed to assess thyroid histopathology, thyroglobulin antibodies, T(4), and thyroid RNA expression of 84 inflammatory genes. We also stimulated in vitro a macrophage cell line with interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide plus or minus anatabine to quantitate inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. Anatabine reduced the incidence and severity of thyroiditis in the moderate disease category: only 13 of 21 mice (62%) developed thyroid infiltrates when drinking anatabine as compared with 22 of 23 (96%) controls (relative risk 0.59, P = 0.0174). The median thyroiditis severity was 0.5 and 2.0 in anatabine and controls, respectively (P = 0.0007 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). Anatabine also reduced the antibody response to thyroglobulin on d 14 (P = 0.029) and d 21 (P = 0.045) after immunization and improved the recovery of thyroid function on d 21 (P = 0.049). In the thyroid transcriptome, anatabine restored expression of IL-18 and IL-1 receptor type 2 to preimmunization levels. Finally, anatabine suppressed in a dose-dependent manner macrophage production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Anatabine ameliorates disease in a model of autoimmune thyroiditis, making the delineation of its mechanisms of action and potential clinical utility worthwhile. PMID:22807490

  16. Experimental "evolutional machines": mathematical and experimental modeling of biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilkov, A. V.; Loginov, I. A.; Morozova, E. V.; Shuvaev, A. N.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Experimentalists possess model systems of two major types for study of evolution continuous cultivation in the chemostat and long-term development in closed laboratory microecosystems with several trophic structure If evolutionary changes or transfer from one steady state to another in the result of changing qualitative properties of the system take place in such systems the main characteristics of these evolution steps can be measured By now this has not been realized from the point of view of methodology though a lot of data on the work of both types of evolutionary machines has been collected In our experiments with long-term continuous cultivation we used the bacterial strains containing in plasmids the cloned genes of bioluminescence and green fluorescent protein which expression level can be easily changed and controlled In spite of the apparent kinetic diversity of evolutionary transfers in two types of systems the general mechanisms characterizing the increase of used energy flow by populations of primer producent can be revealed at their study According to the energy approach at spontaneous transfer from one steady state to another e g in the process of microevolution competition or selection heat dissipation characterizing the rate of entropy growth should increase rather then decrease or maintain steady as usually believed The results of our observations of experimental evolution require further development of thermodynamic theory of open and closed biological systems and further study of general mechanisms of biological

  17. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  18. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  19. The 1986 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium will provide a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that will be flown in the future.

  20. Control design for the SERC experimental testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, Robert; Blackwood, Gary; Macmartin, Douglas G.; How, Jonathan; Anderson, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on control design for the Space Engineering Research Center experimental testbeds are presented. Topics covered include: SISO control design and results; sensor and actuator location; model identification; control design; experimental results; preliminary LAC experimental results; active vibration isolation problem statement; base flexibility coupling into isolation feedback loop; cantilever beam testbed; and closed loop results.

  1. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.191 Experimental certificates. Experimental certificates are issued for the following purposes: (a) Research and development. Testing...

  2. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.191 Experimental certificates. Experimental certificates are issued for the following purposes: (a) Research and development. Testing...

  3. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific research may, without payment of tax, produce, receive, blend, treat, and store wine for experimental...

  4. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.191 Experimental certificates. Experimental certificates are issued for the following purposes: (a) Research and development. Testing...

  5. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific research may, without payment of tax, produce, receive, blend, treat, and store wine for experimental...

  6. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.191 Experimental certificates. Experimental certificates are issued for the following purposes: (a) Research and development. Testing...

  7. Experimental constraints on ureilite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singletary, Steven; Grove, Timothy L.

    2006-03-01

    This experimental study explores the petrogenesis of ureilites by a partial melting/smelting process. Experiments have been performed over temperature (1150-1280 °C), pressure (5-12.5 MPa), and low oxygen fugacity (graphite-CO gas) conditions appropriate for a hypothetical ureilite parent body ˜200 km in size. Experimental and modeling results indicate that a partial melting/smelting model of ureilite petrogenesis can explain many of the unique characteristics displayed by this meteorite group. Compositional information preserved in the pigeonite-olivine ureilites was used to estimate the composition of melts in equilibrium with the ureilites. The results of 20 experiments saturated with olivine, pyroxene, metal, and liquid with appropriate ureilite compositions are used to calibrate the phase coefficients and pressure-temperature dependence of the smelting reaction. The calibrated coefficients are used to model the behavior of a hypothetical residue that is experiencing fractional smelting. The residue is initially olivine-rich and smelting progressively depletes the olivine content and enriches the pyroxene and metal contents of the residues. The modeled residue composition at 1260 °C best reproduces the trend of ureilite bulk compositions. The model results also indicate that as a ureilite residue undergoes isothermal decompression smelting over a range of temperatures, Ca/Al values and Cr 2O 3 contents are enriched at lower temperatures (below ˜1240 °C) and tend to decrease at higher temperatures. Therefore, fractional smelting can account for the high Ca/Al and Cr 2O 3 wt% values observed in ureilites. We propose that ureilites were generated from an olivine-rich, cpx-bearing residue. Smelting began when the residue was partially melted and contained liquid, olivine, and carbon. These residues experienced varying degrees of fractional smelting to produce the compositional variability observed within the pigeonite-bearing ureilites. Variations in mineral

  8. Experimental Modelling of Debris Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleo Cageao, P.; Turnbull, B.; Bartelt, P.

    2012-04-01

    Debris flows are gravity-driven mass movements typically containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements combine to give a flow complex phenomenology that exhibits characteristics common to diverse geophysical flows from dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) to viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The exceptional speeds and range debris flows can achieve motivate the need for a co-ordinated modelling approach that can provide insight into the key physical processes that dictate the hazard associated with the flows. There has been recent progress in theoretical modelling approaches that capture the details of the multi-component nature of debris flows. The promise of such models is underlined by their qualitatively successful comparison with field-scale experimental data. The aim of the present work is to address the technical difficulties in achieving a controlled and repeatable laboratory-scale experiment for robust testing of these multi-component models. A laboratory experiment has been designed and tested that can provide detailed information of the internal structure of debris flows. This constitutes a narrow Perspex chute that can be tilted to any angle between 0° and ≈ 60°. A mixture of glycerine and glass balls was initially held behind a lock-gate, before being released down the chute. The evolving flow was captured through high speed video, analysed with a Particle Image Velocimetry algorithm to provide the changing velocity field. A wide parameter space has been tested, allowing variations in particle size, dispersity, surface roughness, fluid viscosity, slope angle and solid volume fraction. While matching key similarity criteria, such as Froude number, with a typical field event, these experiments allow close examination of a wide range of physical scenarios for the robust testing of new multi-component flow models. Further diagnostics include force plate and pore pressure measurements, with a view

  9. Experimental Implementations of Quantum Paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, G. A. D.

    Remarkable progress is being made in experiments that highlight the distinctive predictions of quantum mechanics. The Leggett-Garg inequality was devised to test for macrorealism (Leggett and Garg in Phys. Rev. Lett. 54:857-860, 1985). Various experiments have been performed, including one with non-invasive measurements in the kind of way that was originally envisaged, using spins in phosphorous impurities in silicon (Knee et al. in Nat. Commun. 3:606, 2012). This has led to fresh understanding of what kind of realism is excluded by the result. The quantum three-box paradox (Aharonov and Vaidman in J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 24:2315-2328, 1991) provides a further test, which can be re-expressed in terms of the Leggett-Garg inequality. This has been experimentally implemented with projective measurements using an NV- centre in diamond, yielding results 7.8 standard deviations beyond a classical bound (George et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:3777-3781, 2013). [Editor's note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Briggs at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-18.

  10. Micas in experimentally shocked gneiss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, P.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Powder-propellant guns are used to shock biotites and muscovites from a gneiss at pressures between 18 and 70 GPa. It is shown that shock in biotite and muscovite can produce homogeneous and devolatilized glasses within microseconds. Shock-deformed micas are found to exhibit fracturing, kinking, and complex extinction patterns over the entire pressure range investigated. Localized melting of micas commences at 33 GPa and reaches completion at 70 GPa. Even though melted biotite and muscovite are opaque optically, they exhibit extensive microvesiculation and flow when observed with the SEM. It is confirmed through electron diffraction that biotite and muscovite have transformed to a glass. The distribution of vesicles in shock-vitrified mica reveals escape of volatiles within the short duration of the shock experiment. It is noted that experimentally shocked biotite and muscovite undergo congruent melting. It is noted that the compositions of the glasses are similar to the unshocked micas except for volatiles (H2O loss and and K loss). These unusual glasses produced from mica can be quenched by rapid cooling conditions during the shock experiment. On the basis of the results, it is pointed out that the extremely low H2O content of tektites can be reconciled with a terrestrial origin by impact.

  11. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  12. Experimental Surveys for Submerged Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Vasilije; Taskinoglu, Ezgi; Elliott, Gregory; Knight, Doyle

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the study is to define the Pareto set of designs for a subsonic submerged inlet that minimizes flow distortion and swirl at the engine face. A series of experimental surveys are performed to validate the accompanying computations and to provide additional information regarding the Pareto set. A stainless steel model with a removable submerged inlet (built using an FDM system) has been fabricated and installed in the Rutgers University subsonic wind tunnel. Boundary layer measurements upstream of the inlet are obtained by a computer-controlled traversing pitot tube. The estimated boundary layer thickness agrees closely with the computed profile. Detailed experiments are focused on the measurement of total pressure three diameters downstream of the exit of the inlet. A rotating multi-element pitot rack is fabricated and installed in the model, which is attached to the suction side of a blower to yield the appropriate mass flow rate through the inlet. Motion control, pressure and temperature data acquisition as well as management of the wind tunnel operations for all experiments are controlled by a LabView program developed at Rutgers University.

  13. [HERNIOPLASTIC MORFOLOGICAL FEATURES (EXPERIMENTAL STADY)].

    PubMed

    Gogoladze, M; Kiladze, M; Chkhikvadze, T; Tsivtsivadze, L; Jiqia, D

    2016-05-01

    Despite many years of experience in the field of hernia surgical treatment there still exist many unsolved problems such as a safe and non infected closure of defects of abdominal cavity wall. The aim of the study was to improve the result of treatment of abdominal wall hernias with the use of new antiseptic polymer, bio-composite protective mesh membrane covered with coladerm+chlorhexidine. Experimental study involved 21 rabbits. Meshes were fixed on anterior abdominal wall according to the following schewe: Option I: mesh size 10-20mm was put into both the groin area of the rabbits. Option II: A light standart mesh grid size 10-20mm covered with coladerm was placed on both sides of abdominal wall of the rabbits. Option III: A light mesh, covered with oladerm+Chlorhexidine was placed in to the abdominal wall of the rabbits. Removal dates of taking the animals from experiments were 14th, 30th, 45th, 90th and 180th days for further histomorpological and bacteriological research. The best result from these options was when implants we covered with coladerm+Chlorhexidine, which was shown on follow up period. In third control group experessed strong connective tissue formatting stromis picture,wich is the main task of modern hernia plastic. It is expected that new bio-composite meshes, covered with coladerm+Chlorhexidine, may be succesfuly used in clinical practice, which will reduce infectious complications of meshes and problems associated with them. PMID:27348172

  14. Angiogenesis and experimental hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Queli Teixeira; Andrade, Zilton A

    2010-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a basic change occurring during repair by granulation tissue. This process seems to precede fibrosis formation in most types of chronic liver disease. To examine its presence and significance in different types of hepatic insults, this paper sought to identify the presence, evolution and peculiarities of angiogenesis in the most common experimental models of hepatic fibrosis. The characterization of cells, vessels and extracellular matrix and the identification of factors associated with endothelium (factor VIII RA), vascular basement membrane, other components of the vascular walls (actin, elastin) and the presence of the vascular-endothelial growth factor were investigated. The models examined included Capillaria hepatica septal fibrosis, whole pig serum injections, carbon tetrachloride administration, main bile duct ligation and Schistosoma mansoni infection. The first four models were performed in rats, while the last used mice. All models studied exhibited prominent angiogenesis. The most evident relationship between angiogenesis and fibrosis occurred with the C. hepatica model due to circumstances to be discussed. Special attention was paid to the presence of pericytes and to their tendency to become detached from the vascular wall and be transformed into myofibroblasts, which is a sequence of events that explains the decisive role angiogenesis plays in fibrosis. PMID:20835605

  15. Teaching experimental design to biologists.

    PubMed

    Zolman, J F

    1999-12-01

    The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs. PMID:10644236

  16. The Experimental MJO Prediction Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane; Weickmann, Klaus; Dole, Randall; Schubert, Siegfried; Alves, Oscar; Jones, Charles; Newman, Matthew; Pan, Hua-Lu; Roubicek, Andres; Saha, Suranjana; Smith, Cathy; VanDenDool, Huug; Vitart, Frederic; Wheeler, Matthew; Whitaker, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Weather prediction is typically concerned with lead times of hours to days, while seasonal-to-interannual climate prediction is concerned with lead times of months to seasons. Recently, there has been growing interest in 'subseasonal' forecasts---those that have lead times on the order of weeks (e.g., Schubert et al. 2002; Waliser et al. 2003; Waliser et al. 2005). The basis for developing and exploiting subseasonal predictions largely resides with phenomena such as the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), mid-latitude blocking, and the memory associated with soil moisture, as well as modeling techniques that rely on both initial conditions and slowly varying boundary conditions (e.g., tropical Pacific SST). An outgrowth of this interest has been the development of an Experimental MJO Prediction Project (EMPP). Th project provides real-time weather and climate information and predictions for a variety of applications, broadly encompassing the subseasonal weather-climate connection. Th focus is on the MJO because it represents a repeatable, low-frequency phenomenon. MJO's importance among the subseasonal phenomena is very similar to that of El Nino-Southern Oscillation(ENSO) among the interannual phenomena. This note describes the history and objectives of EMPP, its status,capabilities, and plans.

  17. Experimental investigation of plasmofluidic waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Bonwoo; Kwon, Min-Suk; Shin, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-16

    Plasmofluidic waveguides are based on guiding light which is strongly confined in fluid with the assistance of a surface plasmon polariton. To realize plasmofluidic waveguides, metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, are employed. The insulator of the MISIM waveguide is removed to form 30-nm-wide channels, and they are filled with fluid. The plasmofluidic waveguide has a subwavelength-scale mode area since its mode is strongly confined in the fluid. The waveguides are experimentally characterized for different fluids. When the refractive index of the fluid is 1.440, the plasmofluidic waveguide with 190-nm-wide silicon has propagation loss of 0.46 dB/μm; the coupling loss between it and an ordinary silicon photonic waveguide is 1.79 dB. The propagation and coupling losses may be reduced if a few fabrication-induced imperfections are removed. The plasmofluidic waveguide may pave the way to a dynamically phase-tunable ultracompact device.

  18. Experimental investigations of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various experimental studies of elastohydrodynamic lubrication have been reviewed. The various types of machines used in these investigations, such as the disc, two and four ball, crossed-cylinders, and crossed-axes rolling disc machine, are described. The measurement of the most important parameters, such as film shape, film thickness, pressure, temperature, and traction, is considered. Determination of the film thickness is generally the most important of these effects since it dictates the extent to which the asperities on opposing surfaces can come into contact and thus has a direct bearing on wear and fatigue failure of the contacting surfaces. Several different techniques for measuring film thickness have been described, including electrical resistance, capacitance, X-ray, optical interferometry, laser beam diffraction, strain gage, and spring dynamometer methods. An attempt has been made to describe the basic concepts and limitations of each of these techniques. These various methods have been used by individual researchers, but there is no universally acceptable technique for measuring elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Capacitance methods have provided most of the reliable data for nominal line or rectangular conjunctions, but optical interferometry has proved to be the most effective procedure for elliptical contacts. Optical interferometry has the great advantage that it reveals not only the film thickness, but also details of the film shape over the complete area of the conjunction.

  19. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  20. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-12-17

    Objective The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  1. Experimental Quantum Optics with Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2005-10-01

    Our group is engaged primarily in experimental quantum optics and related research involving single photon detection that may have future applications. There are six graduate students involved, of whom three are women. We have recently completed the first successful demonstration of correlated two-photon imaging and sub-wavelength interference with true thermal light from a hollow cathode lamp. The object was a pair of pinholes, and the corresponding thin lens equation was well satisfied. Although the visibility is substantially lower than in the case of entangled photons, it is conceivable that if the background could be removed by some means (e.g., digitally), there could be many applications for correlated imaging with thermal light. We have also built a quantum key distribution system based on two polarization beam splitters that cancel out the phase modulator's polarization dependence. A high key generation rate has been obtained for the first time at 1310 nm transmitted over a 25-km-long fiber, with a fringe visibility of 99.4%. A sifted key rate of about 0.6 kbits/s and quantum bit error rate of about 0.5% have been obtained.

  2. Experimental Studies in Ice Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Timothy Peter

    Ice nuclei play a critical role in the formation of precipitation in mixed phase clouds. Modification of IN concentrations can lead to changes in cloud lifetimes and precipitation size. Presented in this study are experimental investigations into ice nuclei in an ongoing effort to reduce the uncertainties that ice nuclei have on cloud processes and climate. This research presents a new version of the cold stage drop freezing assay to investigate the time-dependence of heterogeneous nucleation. The temperature range for the instrument spans from the melting point of water to the homogeneous freezing limit of ˜-38 deg C. Temperature stability for the instrument allowed for experimental operation for up to four days while interrogating the same sample. Up to a one hundred fold increase in the number of analyzed drops was accomplished through an in-house written automated drop freezing detection software package. Combined instrument design improvements allow for the analysis of IN concentrations down to ˜10-8 ice nuclei per picoliter of sample water. A new variant of the multiple-component stochastic model for heterogeneous ice nucleation was used to investigate the time dependence of heterogeneous freezing processes. This was accomplished by analyzing how the changes in the cooling rate can impact the observed nucleation rate. The model employed four material-dependent parameters to accurately capture the observed freezing of water drops containing Arizona Test Dust. The parameters were then used to accurately predict the freezing behavior of the drops in time dependent experiments. The time dependence freezing of a wide range of materials was then investigated. These materials included the minerals montmorillonite and kaolinite, the biological proxy ice nuclei contained within the product Icemax, and flame soot generated from the incomplete combustion of ethylene gas. The time dependence for ice nuclei collected from rainwater samples was also investigated. The

  3. [Regeneration of planarians: experimental object].

    PubMed

    Sheĭman, I M; Kreshchenko, I D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the expediency of using invertebrates, such as flatworms and planarians, as experimental objects. Free-living planarian flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria) are invertebrate animals in which a bilateral symmetry appears for the first time in evolution and organs and tissues form. As the highest ecological link of the food chain--predators--these animals are characterized by a set of behavioral reactions controlled by a differentiated central nervous system. Planarians have unsurpassed ability to regenerate lost or damaged body parts. Owing to the ease of their breeding and their convenience for manipulations, these animals are used to study the influence of chemical and physical factors on the processes of life, growth, and reproduction. Currently, planarians are recognized as a model for biological research in the field of regeneration, stem cell biology, study of their proliferation and differentiation, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The genome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea was fully sequenced, which opened up the opportunity to work with this object at the molecular biological level. Furthermore, planarians are used in neurobiological and toxicological studies, in studying the evolutionary aspects of centralization of the nervous system, mechanisms of muscle contraction, and in the development of new antiparasitic drugs. This review aims to demonstrate the relevance and diversity of research conducted on simple biological objects--planarians--to awider audience to show the historical continuity of these studies and their wide geographical distribution and to focus on the studies carried out in Russia, which, as a rule, are not included in the foreign reviews on planarian regeneration. PMID:25898529

  4. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  5. Experimental techniques for multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Robert L.

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses experimental techniques that provide an accurate spatial and temporal measurement of the fields used to describe multiphase systems for a wide range of concentrations, velocities, and chemical constituents. Five methods are discussed: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry (UPDV), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), x-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. All of the techniques are capable of measuring the distribution of solids in suspensions. The most versatile technique is MRI, which can be used for spatially resolved measurements of concentration, velocity, chemical constituents, and diffusivity. The ability to measure concentration allows for the study of sedimentation and shear-induced migration. One-dimensional and two-dimensional velocity profiles have been measured with suspensions, emulsions, and a range of other complex liquids. Chemical shift MRI can discriminate between different constituents in an emulsion where diffusivity measurements allow the particle size to be determined. UPDV is an alternative technique for velocity measurement. There are some limitations regarding the ability to map complex flow fields as a result of the attenuation of the ultrasonic wave in concentrated systems that have high viscosities or where multiple scattering effects may be present. When combined with measurements of the pressure drop, both MRI and UPDV can provide local values of viscosity in pipe flow. EIT is a low cost means of measuring concentration profiles and has been used to study shear-induced migration in pipe flow. Both x-ray and neutron radiographes are used to image structures in flowing suspensions, but both require highly specialized facilities.

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  7. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  8. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life. PMID:26685518

  9. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    the plume that emerge as the key variables in volcanic lightning generation. A proportionality between fine ash content of the jet and number of lightning strikes is also evident in our experiments. This first recorded experimental generation of volcanic lightning means that rapid progress can now be expected (under controlled laboratory conditions) in understanding electrical phenomena produced during explosive volcanic eruptions. This in turn may aid the development of lightning monitoring systems for the forecasting of volcanic ash emissions into the atmosphere. Furthermore, our experiments are significant for the investigation of self-charging mechanism of particles that are relevant for atmospheric phenomena (such as dust storms) on Earth and other planetary bodies.

  10. Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to

  11. [Experimental antitriatomic program in Santiago].

    PubMed

    Neghme, A; Schenone, H; Villarroel, F; Rojas, A

    1991-01-01

    The rural migration to urban centers occurred since the 40s in many Latin American countries, including Santiago the capital city of Chile, originated a growing belt of premises built with light poor material (the rests of previous rural habitations, mud, pieces of timber, plastic and cardboard for walls, and cane stalks and artificial clinkstones for roofs) giving raise to many types of slums. This situation facilitated the passive transport of the different instars, including eggs, of triatomine bugs. Due to the fact that in the 1959-1960 warm seasons, the Santiago province health institutions had received an increasing reported number of triatomine bugs (Triatoma infestans) in dwellings from different periurban, even urban and rural sections of the province, the central local health authorities with the advise of the University of Chile, Department of Parasitology decided to carry out an experimental program against these vectors of Chagas' disease. The program consisted basically in an spray and thorough application of liquid forms (emulsion, suspension, solution) of 1% lindane (average > or = 500 mg per 1 m2), depending on the material of the constructions, to all the surfaces of walls, ceilings, attics and peridomiciliary structures of all the infested dwellings in a sector and those located less than 100 m around. In order to reach triatomine bugs not affected, for different reasons, in the first spraying, a second application, identical to the first was performed to the total number of premises between 30 and 120 days later. Periodical evaluations were made, and positive dwellings found and neighboring ones were sprayed again. During insecticide applications adequate protection measures for spraying workers, inhabitants, domestic animals, household goods and food were adopted. All the steps of the program were accompanied by health education activities directed to individuals, families, school teachers and community institutions, tending to motivate the

  12. Experimental reproduction of tsunami deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, T.; Matsuyama, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2015-12-01

    in reproducing tsunami deposit and would show typical pattern of topography change and deposition caused by the tsunami incursion. The experimental method used in this study and the obtained deposition patterns will help understanding the relationship between hydraulic condition and resulting tsunami deposition.

  13. Charge of the containerless experimentation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    The experimentation was undertaken to study the elimination or reduction of surface contamination for which there is adequate Earth-based technology along with the reduction of dynamic nucleation for which there a paucity of reliable data. One objective is to delineate scientific justification of the U.S. Containerless Experimentation Program in Microgravity for the next decade and beyond. Another objective is for the guidance of NASA to define the next generation of containerless experimentation instruments in microgravity.

  14. Experimental investigation of new neutron moderator materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal; Daemen, Luke L; Hartl, Monika; Huegle, Thomas; Muhrer, Guenter

    2010-01-01

    In this study we present experimental investigation of thermal neutron energy spectra produced by lead and bismuth hydroxides (Pb(OH){sub 2}, and Bi(OH){sub 3}). The experimental energy spectra are compared with a thermal neutron energy spectrum of water measured in the same geometry. We present an MCNPX geometry model used to help with the experimental data interpretation. We demonstrate a very good reproduction of the experimental thermal neutron energy spectrum produced by the water moderator. We show a sensitivity study with the Pb(OH){sub 2}, and Bi(OH){sub 3} materials on different combinations of thermal neutron scattering kernels.

  15. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... red crab), N (tilefish), and O (skates) of this part for the conduct of experimental fishing... international accreditation body); international treaty organization; or scientific institution. (3)...

  16. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... red crab), N (tilefish), and O (skates) of this part for the conduct of experimental fishing... international accreditation body); international treaty organization; or scientific institution. (3)...

  17. Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms in fibrous composites are studied. Methods to identify failure in composite materials includes interferometry, holography, fractography and ultrasonics.

  18. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    PubMed

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  19. Assessing Students' Experimentation Processes in Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emden, Markus; Sumfleth, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In recent science education, experimentation features ever more strongly as a method of inquiry in science classes rather than as a means to illustrate phenomena. Ideas and materials to teach inquiry abound. Yet, tools for assessing students' achievement in their processes of experimentation are lacking. The present study assumes a basal,…

  20. The 1985 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. R. (Editor); Mosier, F. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium provided a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus is on payloads that have been flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the near future.

  1. Experimental methodologies to support aircraft icing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kirby, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental methodologies are illustrated by graphs, charts and line drawings. Typical ultrasonic echo signals for dry and wet ice growth, ice accretion rates for various tunnel configurations, the experimental configuration for flight tests of the ultrasonic measuring system and heat balance models used to predict ice growth are among the topics that are illustrated and briefly discussed.

  2. 14 CFR 21.191 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.191 Section 21.191 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.191 Experimental...

  3. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  4. Experimental Mathematics for the First Year Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    We describe a course that highlights mathematical experimentation as an introductory course for first year mathematics majors. We discuss the benefits of an experimental approach as an alternate pathway into the mathematics major. We also explain how this course serves as a gentle lead-in to later research experiences.

  5. The 1988 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium was held to provide a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that have been flown on shuttle missions and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future. Experiment design and payload integration issues are also examined.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Adolescent years of experimental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braginskiĭ, Vladimir B.

    2003-01-01

    Examples of outstanding achievements in several fields of experimental physics over the past fifty years are presented. It is argued that a considerable sensitivity margin exists for experiments involving the measurement of small displacements, forces (accelerations), and frequency shifts. Achievements expected in a number of experimental programs over the next twenty years are listed.

  7. The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelme, Neal (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's symposium provides a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium was on payloads that were flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future.

  8. Optimizing Experimental Designs: Finding Hidden Treasure.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical experimental design theory, the predominant treatment in most textbooks, promotes the use of blocking designs for control of spatial variability in field studies and other situations in which there is significant variation among heterogeneity among experimental units. Many blocking design...

  9. A new dimension in space experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space experimentation, cosmic origins, the long-term effects of the space environment on living things, the long-term effects of space environment on materials and hardware, seeds in space, power generation in space, experimentation with crystals, and thermal control are discussed.

  10. FELIX construction status and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Praeg, W.F.; Knott, M.J.; Lari, R.J.; McGhee, D.G.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    FELIX (Fusion Electromagnetic Induction Experiment) is an experimental test facility being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the study of electromagnetic effects in the first wall/blanket/shield (FWBS) systems of fusion reactors. The facility design, construction status, experimental program, instrumentation, and associated computer-code comparisons are described.

  11. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77 Section 24.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any...

  12. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77 Section 24.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any...

  13. 14 CFR 21.275 - Experimental certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.275 Section 21.275 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... certificates. (a) The manufacturer shall, before issuing an experimental certificate, obtain from...

  14. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77 Section 24.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any...

  15. Experimental chaos detection in the Duffing oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyebe Fouda, J. S. Armand; Bodo, Bertrand; Djeufa, Guy M. D.; Sabat, Samrat L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of four algorithms namely the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE), 0-1 test, conditional entropy of ordinal patterns (CPE) and recently developed permutation largest slope entropy (PLSE) algorithm for experimental chaos detection in the Duffing oscillator. We consider an electrical model of the Duffing oscillator and its equivalent electronic circuit for generating the data to validate the effectiveness of the algorithms. The performance of the PLSE is compared with the 0-1 test and the CPE algorithms on the data set obtained from the simulated circuit; and with the MLE for the data collected from the experimental circuit. The experimental data are acquired using a digital oscilloscope with 1 MHz sampling frequency. From the comparison of the experimental spectra of the four methods with the analog phase portraits of the real system, it appears that the PLSE is the more reliable algorithm for chaos detection from experimental data.

  16. Mainstreaming Caenorhabditis elegans in experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jeremy C.; Cutter, Asher D.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evolution provides a powerful manipulative tool for probing evolutionary process and mechanism. As this approach to hypothesis testing has taken purchase in biology, so too has the number of experimental systems that use it, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The depth of biological knowledge about Caenorhabditis nematodes, combined with their laboratory tractability, positions them well for exploiting experimental evolution in animal systems to understand deep questions in evolution and ecology, as well as in molecular genetics and systems biology. To date, Caenorhabditis elegans and related species have proved themselves in experimental evolution studies of the process of mutation, host–pathogen coevolution, mating system evolution and life-history theory. Yet these organisms are not broadly recognized for their utility for evolution experiments and remain underexploited. Here, we outline this experimental evolution work undertaken so far in Caenorhabditis, detail simple methodological tricks that can be exploited and identify research areas that are ripe for future discovery. PMID:24430852

  17. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  18. Experimental area power monitoring during shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Pathiyil, J.

    1989-03-01

    The power consumption at the site is increasing every year and the power consumption in the fixed target beam lines is constantly changing for each run. Since we do not have an energy monitoring program in effect in the experimental areas; we are not in a position to tell whether we are using the electrical energy efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the summer and winter base load of the three experimental areas while the beamlines are off and also to identify what kind loads are on. The most important purpose was to find the base loads in each of the big experimental halls during the shutdown.

  19. Drought Adaptation Mechanisms Should Guide Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew E; Medina, Viviana

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism, or hypothesis, of how a plant might be adapted to drought should strongly influence experimental design. For instance, an experiment testing for water conservation should be distinct from a damage-tolerance evaluation. We define here four new, general mechanisms for plant adaptation to drought such that experiments can be more easily designed based upon the definitions. A series of experimental methods are suggested together with appropriate physiological measurements related to the drought adaptation mechanisms. The suggestion is made that the experimental manipulation should match the rate, length, and severity of soil water deficit (SWD) necessary to test the hypothesized type of drought adaptation mechanism. PMID:27090148

  20. EXFOR Library of Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The EXFOR library contains an extensive compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data up to 1 GeV. Neutron reactions have been compiled systematically since the discovery of the neutron, while charged particle(up to carbon) and photon reactions have been covered less extensively. Files contain nuclear reaction data such as cross sections, spectra, angular distributions, polarizations, etc, along with information on experimental technique, error analysis, and applied standards. Numerous search parameters include: target, beam, product, experimental method, and even author and publication names. The library contains data from more than 20,000 experiments. (Specialized Interface)

  1. An experimental analysis of human straight walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental analysis of human straight walking has been presented. Experiments on human walking were carried out by using Cassino tracking system which is a passive cable-based measuring system. This system is adopted because it is capable of both pose and wrench measurements with fairly simple monitoring of operation. By using experimental results, trajectories of a human limb extremity and its posture have been analyzed; forces that are exerted against cables by the limb of a person under test have been measured by force sensors as well. Furthermore, by using experimental tests, modeling and characterization of the human straight walking gait have been proposed.

  2. In Silico Experimental Modeling of Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trisilowati; Mallet, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    In silico experimental modeling of cancer involves combining findings from biological literature with computer-based models of biological systems in order to conduct investigations of hypotheses entirely in the computer laboratory. In this paper, we discuss the use of in silico modeling as a precursor to traditional clinical and laboratory research, allowing researchers to refine their experimental programs with an aim to reducing costs and increasing research efficiency. We explain the methodology of in silico experimental trials before providing an example of in silico modeling from the biomathematical literature with a view to promoting more widespread use and understanding of this research strategy. PMID:22523709

  3. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  4. Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: Pathophysiology and Experimental Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kimberly A.; Brandon, Debra H.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication affecting full term infants: 40–60% of affected infants die by 2 years of age or have severe disabilities. The majority of the underlying pathologic events of HIE are a result of impaired cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain with resulting primary and secondary energy failure. In the past, treatment options were limited to supportive medical therapy. Currently, several experimental treatments are being explored in neonates and animal models to ameliorate the effects of secondary energy failure. This review discusses the underlying pathophysiologic effects of a hypoxic-ischemic event and experimental treatment modalities being explored to manage infants with HIE. Further research is needed to better understand if the long-term impact of the experimental treatments and whether the combinations of experimental treatments can improve outcomes in infants with HIE. PMID:21927583

  5. Fuzzy modal analysis: Prediction of experimental behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, F.; Tison, T.; Lallemand, B.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to numerically predict the modal behaviours of a two-plate steel structure defined with variable parameters and to validate this prediction experimentally. First, the test structure, in which geometrical and material variability has been identified, is studied using a Fuzzy Finite Element Method. This method, named PAEM, allows the fuzzy numerical eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors to be calculated. Second, the test structure is analyzed experimentally to quantify the possible variation of the eigensolutions' modal behaviours and to build the experimental fuzzy sets. Finally, the fuzzy numerical quantities are compared with the experimental quantities to highlight the efficiency of our non-deterministic model for predicting the behavioural modifications of the test structure.

  6. The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC), Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormö, J.; Melero-Asensio, I.; Housen, K.; Wünnemann, K.; Elbeshausen, D.; Collins, G.

    2015-09-01

    We show that EPIC dry sand experiments are consistent with previous experimental work within the pi-group scaling framework, and use the craters as ground truth for the validation of numerical impact models, before moving forward with wet targets.

  7. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Weng, C.K.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  8. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  9. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  10. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  11. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke. PMID:15238063

  12. Experimental Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigations of flow past spinning cylinders is presented in the context of their application and relevance to flow past projectiles. A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on flow past spinning cylinders that are sting-mounted and oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number range of up to 300000 and rotation numbers of up to 2 (based on cylinder diameter). The experimental validation of the tunnel characteristics and the benchmarking of the flow field in the tunnel are described. The experimental results for spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented along with available computational and experimental findings. This work was funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC.

  13. Experimental Evidence of Chaos from Memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Gale, Ella

    Until now, most memristor-based chaotic circuits proposed in the literature are based on mathematical models which assume ideal characteristics such as piecewise-linear or cubic nonlinearities. The idea, illustrated here and originating from the experimental approach for device characterization, is to realize a chaotic system exploiting the nonlinearity of only one memristor with a very simple experimental set-up using feedback. In this way, a simple circuit is obtained and chaos is experimentally observed and is confirmed by the calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. Numerical results using the Strukov model support the existence of robust chaos in our circuit. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of chaos in a real memristor circuit and suggests that memristors are well placed for hardware encryption.

  14. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  15. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  16. Physics at hadron colliders: Experimental view

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    The physics of the hadron-hadron collider experiment is considered from an experimental point of view. The problems encountered in determination of how well the standard model describes collider results are discussed. 53 refs., 58 figs.

  17. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  18. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  20. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EFP will be governed by 15 CFR part 904 subpart D. Other sanctions available under the statute will be... experimental fishing for crustacean MUS may be conducted unless a NMFS observer is aboard the vessel....

  1. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EFP will be governed by 15 CFR part 904 subpart D. Other sanctions available under the statute will be... experimental fishing for crustacean MUS may be conducted unless a NMFS observer is aboard the vessel....

  2. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EFP will be governed by 15 CFR part 904 subpart D. Other sanctions available under the statute will be... experimental fishing for crustacean MUS may be conducted unless a NMFS observer is aboard the vessel....

  3. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EFP will be governed by 15 CFR part 904 subpart D. Other sanctions available under the statute will be... experimental fishing for crustacean MUS may be conducted unless a NMFS observer is aboard the vessel....

  4. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EFP will be governed by 15 CFR part 904 subpart D. Other sanctions available under the statute will be... experimental fishing for crustacean MUS may be conducted unless a NMFS observer is aboard the vessel....

  5. New experimental techniques for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenk, R.

    1993-01-01

    Solar cell capacitance has special importance for an array controlled by shunting. Experimental measurements of solar cell capacitance in the past have shown disagreements of orders of magnitude. Correct measurement technique depends on maintaining the excitation voltage less than the thermal voltage. Two different experimental methods are shown to match theory well, and two effective capacitances are defined for quantifying the effect of the solar cell capacitance on the shunting system.

  6. Flutter Calculations for an Experimental Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    2003-01-01

    During testing, an experimental forward-swept fan encountered flutter at part-speed conditions. A three-dimensional propulsion aeroelasticity code, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, was used to model the aeroelastic behavior of this fan. This paper describes the flutter calculations and compares the results to the experimental measurements. Results of sensitivity studies are also presented that show the relative importance of different aspects of aeroelastic modeling.

  7. An Experimental Analysis of Another Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okouchi, Hiroto

    2006-01-01

    The present article discusses how events outside a subject's skin and not accessible to another subject but to an experimenter may contribute to experimental analyses of private events. Of 16 undergraduates, 8, referred to as instructors, first learned conditional discriminations (i.e., B1C1, B2C2, B3C3, and B4C4) in a standard matching-to-sample…

  8. Experimental insight into b-hadron lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J. P.; Flores-Castillo, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    A review on the experimental status of the measurement of b-hadron lifetimes is presented. After a brief introduction to the Standard Model, the work done by theorists about b-hadron lifetimes is put in context. The core of the review is devoted to explain the ingredients that are necessary to make a lifetime measurement, from the detector infrastructure and requirements to the statistical treatment of the data. Finally, an overview of current experimental results and future prospects is presented.

  9. An experimental study on microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    We report both the simulation and experimental results of using a ring cathode instead of the solid cathode to reduce the back bombardment effect of a thermionic cathode microwave electron gun. The result shows that the back bombardment power is decreased about 2/3 without changing the beam quality apparently which allows operation at higher repetition rate. Experimental results are compared with the simulation with good agreement.

  10. Efficiency wages in an experimental labor market.

    PubMed

    Rigdon, Mary L

    2002-10-01

    There has been recent experimental support for efficiency wage theories of the labor market. This short paper initiates the larger process of evaluating the boundary conditions of the gift- exchange phenomenon. In particular, we will see whether behavior consistent with the fair wage-effort hypothesis can emerge and be sustained under conditions in which there is (i) a nontrivial marginal cost to providing effort and (ii) increased social distance between subject and experimenter. PMID:16578880

  11. Managing experimental data using FuGE.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew R; Lister, Allyson L

    2010-01-01

    Data management and sharing in omics science is highly challenging due to the constant evolution of experimental techniques, the range of instrument types and software used for analysis, and the high volumes of data produced. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE) Model was created to provide a model for capturing descriptions of sample processing, experimental protocols and multidimensional data for any kind of omics experiment. FuGE has two modes of action: (a) as a storage architecture for experimental workflows and (b) as a framework for building new technology-specific data standards.FuGE is an object model that is converted into an XML implementation for data exchange. Software toolkits have been developed for data handling and for bridging between XML data files and relational database implementations. FuGE has been adopted by the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI, http://www.psidev.info ) for building several new data formats, and it is being used in a variety of other experimental contexts, thus allowing data to be integrated across a range of experimental types to support Systems Biology approaches. This chapter provides a practical guide for laboratories or groups wishing to manage their data, and for developers wishing to create new data formats using FuGE. PMID:20013382

  12. Modeling biomedical experimental processes with OBI

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experimental descriptions are typically stored as free text without using standardized terminology, creating challenges in comparison, reproduction and analysis. These difficulties impose limitations on data exchange and information retrieval. Results The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI), developed as a global, cross-community effort, provides a resource that represents biomedical investigations in an explicit and integrative framework. Here we detail three real-world applications of OBI, provide detailed modeling information and explain how to use OBI. Conclusion We demonstrate how OBI can be applied to different biomedical investigations to both facilitate interpretation of the experimental process and increase the computational processing and integration within the Semantic Web. The logical definitions of the entities involved allow computers to unambiguously understand and integrate different biological experimental processes and their relevant components. Availability OBI is available at http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi/2009-11-02/obi.owl PMID:20626927

  13. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  14. Towards experimental demonstration of shaken lattice interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental progress towards performing interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. That is, we load Rb-87 atoms into the ground state of a red-detuned optical lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] . By changing ϕ(t) , we wish to implement the standard interferometric sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination. In order to find the desired ϕ(t) , we implement a closed-loop learning algorithm which provides a guess for ϕ(t) , analyzes experimental data, then modifies the guess in order to converge upon an optimal shaking function that results in transformation of the initial wavefunction to the desired atomic state. For example, splitting of the atom wavefunction, with equal populations of atoms in the +/- 2 ℏk momentum states may be implemented. The experimental implementation of such a system is described and progress towards the full interferometric sequence is detailed.

  15. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it possible to determine these values, and thereby identify an optimal experimental design. After describing the method, it is demonstrated in two content areas in cognitive psychology in which models are highly competitive: retention (i.e., forgetting) and categorization. The optimal design is compared with the quality of designs used in the literature. The findings demonstrate that design optimization has the potential to increase the informativeness of the experimental method. PMID:19618983

  16. Modern Experimental Techniques in Turbine Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Bencic, T. J.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes application of two modern experimental techniques, thin-film thermocouples and pressure sensitive paint, to measurement in turbine engine components. A growing trend of using computational codes in turbomachinery design and development requires experimental techniques to refocus from overall performance testing to acquisition of detailed data on flow and heat transfer physics to validate these codes for design applications. The discussed experimental techniques satisfy this shift in focus. Both techniques are nonintrusive in practical terms. The thin-film thermocouple technique improves accuracy of surface temperature and heat transfer measurements. The pressure sensitive paint technique supplies areal surface pressure data rather than discrete point values only. The paper summarizes our experience with these techniques and suggests improvements to ease the application of these techniques for future turbomachinery research and code verifications.

  17. Achieving optimal SERS through enhanced experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Heidi; Westley, Chloe; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the current limitations surrounding surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is the perceived lack of reproducibility. SERS is indeed challenging, and for analyte detection, it is vital that the analyte interacts with the metal surface. However, as this is analyte dependent, there is not a single set of SERS conditions that are universal. This means that experimental optimisation for optimum SERS response is vital. Most researchers optimise one factor at a time, where a single parameter is altered first before going onto optimise the next. This is a very inefficient way of searching the experimental landscape. In this review, we explore the use of more powerful multivariate approaches to SERS experimental optimisation based on design of experiments and evolutionary computational methods. We particularly focus on colloidal‐based SERS rather than thin film preparations as a result of their popularity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Experimental phasing: best practice and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    Developments in protein crystal structure determination by experimental phasing are reviewed, emphasizing the theoretical continuum between experimental phasing, density modification, model building and refinement. Traditional notions of the composition of the substructure and the best coefficients for map generation are discussed. Pitfalls such as determining the enantiomorph, identifying centrosymmetry (or pseudo-symmetry) in the substructure and crystal twinning are discussed in detail. An appendix introduces com­bined real–imaginary log-likelihood gradient map coefficients for SAD phasing and their use for substructure completion as implemented in the software Phaser. Supplementary material includes animated probabilistic Harker diagrams showing how maximum-likelihood-based phasing methods can be used to refine parameters in the case of SIR and MIR; it is hoped that these will be useful for those teaching best practice in experimental phasing methods. PMID:20382999

  19. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  20. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  1. Experimental bound entanglement through a Pauli channel

    PubMed Central

    Amselem, Elias; Sadiq, Muhammad; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of a quantum systems when affected by noise is one of the biggest challenges for quantum technologies. The general Pauli error channel is an important lossless channel for quantum communication. In this work we consider the effects of a Pauli channel on a pure four-qubit state and simulate the Pauli channel experimentally by studying the action on polarization encoded entangled photons. When the noise channel acting on the photons is correlated, a set spanned by four orthogonal bound entangled states can be generated. We study this interesting case experimentally and demonstrate that products of Bell states can be brought into a bound entangled regime. We find states in the set of bound entangled states which experimentally violate the CHSH inequality while still possessing a positive partial transpose. PMID:23752651

  2. Simulation as an aid to experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, J.W.; Balaban, D.J.; Wang, J.L.

    1983-05-01

    A simulator of chemical reactions can aid the scientist in the design of experimentation. They are of great value when studying enzymatic kinetic reactions. One such simulator is a numerical ordinary differential equation solver which uses interactive graphics to provide the user with the capability to simulate an extremely wide range of enzyme reaction conditions for many types of single substrate reactions. The concentration vs. time profiles of any subset or all nine states of a complex reaction can be displayed with and without simulated instrumental noise. Thus the user can estimate the practicality of any proposed experimentation given known instrumental noise. The experimenter can readily determine which state provides the most information related to the proposed kinetic parameters and mechanism. A general discussion of the program including the nondimensionalization of the set of differential equations is included. Finally, several simulation examples are shown and the results discussed.

  3. Experimental demonstration of spinor slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriašov, Viačeslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; JuzeliÅ«nas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been a continuing interest in slow and stored light based on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect, because of their potential applications in quantum information manipulation. However, previous experimental works all dealt with the single-component slow light which cannot be employed as a qubit. In this work, we report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The oscillations between the two components, similar to the Rabi oscillation of a two-level system or a qubit, were observed. Single-photon SSL can be considered as two-color qubits. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory and quantum rotator for the two-color qubits. This work opens up a new direction in the slow light research.

  4. Experimental Models of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Janice C

    2010-01-01

    Despite being a leading cause of death in the West, the pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is still incompletely understood. Pharmacotherapy to reduce the growth of small AAAs is limited and techniques for repairing aneurysms continue to evolve. Experimental models play a key role in AAA research, as they allow a detailed evaluation of the pathogenesis of disease progression. This review focuses on in vivo experimental models, which have improved our understanding of the potential mechanisms of AAA development and contributed to the advancement of new treatments. PMID:21270944

  5. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  6. Experimental study of uncentralized squeeze film dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration response of a rotor system supported by a squeeze film damper (SFD) was experimentally investigated in order to provide experimental data in support of the Rotor/Stator Interactive Finite Element theoretical development. Part of the investigation required the designing and building of a rotor/SFD system that could operate with or without end seals in order to accommodate different SFD lengths. SFD variables investigated included clearance, eccentricity mass, fluid pressure, and viscosity and temperature. The results show inlet pressure, viscosity and clearance have significant influence on the damper performance and accompanying rotor response.

  7. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  8. Experimental modal analysis. [for vibrating structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allemang, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental modal analysis is extremely important with regard to verification of analytical models, identification of vibration and acoustic problems, and structural modification and sensitivity analysis. With the expanding access of the testing environment to computational power, the complexity of existing approaches, as well as the development of new approaches, to the estimation of modal parameters has grown tremendously. Currently, the state of the art in experimental modal analysis involves methods that can be grouped in four categories: forced normal mode excitation method, frequency response function method, damped complex exponential function method, and mathematical input-output model methods. The theoretical basis of each of these general approaches, with appropriate references, is reviewed briefly.

  9. Experimental evidence for Abraham pressure of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; She, Weilong; Peng, Nan; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    The question of how much momentum light carries in media has been debated for over a century. Two rivalling theories, one from 1908 by Hermann Minkowski and the other from 1909 by Max Abraham, predict the exact opposite when light enters an optical material: a pulling force in Minkowski's case and a pushing force in Abraham's. Most experimental tests have agreed with Minkowski's theory, but here we report the first quantitative experimental evidence for Abraham's pushing pressure of light. Our results matter in optofluidics and optomechanics, and wherever light exerts mechanical pressure.

  10. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  11. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    SciTech Connect

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B.

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  12. Review: avian models for experimental myopia.

    PubMed

    Lauber, J K

    1991-01-01

    Myopia poses a serious threat to unaided vision among the human population, affecting as much as fifty per cent or more of individuals in some subpopulations and at some age levels. Because the etiology of the condition remains obscure, attention has been directed toward a search for experimental animal models for myopia: the hope is that any environmental or experimental intervention found to increase eye size, especially axial length, or to lead to negative refractive error, may suggest some parallels in clinical experience. As well, the availability of myopic animal subjects affords the opportunity to test the efficacy of both preventative and pharmacological measures as they become available. PMID:1783857

  13. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. PMID:26078494

  14. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  15. Experimental evaluation of earthquake induced relay chattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of relay performance under vibratory environments is discussed in this paper. Single frequency excitation was used for most tests. Limited tests were performed with random multifrequency inputs. The capacity of each relay was established based on a two-millisecond chatter criterion. The experimental techniques are described and the effects of parameters in controlling the relay capacity levels are illustrated with test data. A wide variation of the capacity levels was observed due to the influence of parameters related to the design of the relay and nature of the input motion. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Experimental demonstration of simplified quantum process tomography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Li, S; Zheng, W; Peng, X; Feng, M

    2013-01-14

    The essential tool to characterize dynamics of an open quantum system is quantum process tomography (QPT). Although standard QPT methods are hard to be scalable, simplified QPT approach is available if we have the prior knowledge that the system Hamiltonian commutes with the system-environment interaction Hamiltonian. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum simulator, we experimentally simulate dephasing channels to demonstrate the simplified QPT as well as the standard QPT method as a comparison. The experimental results agree well with our predictions which confirm the validity and better efficiency of the simplified QPT. PMID:23320694

  17. Experimental measurement-device-independent entanglement detection.

    PubMed

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  18. AN EXPERIMENTALLY ROBUST TECHNIQUE FOR HALO MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, J.; Pellico, W.; Spentzouris, P.; Sullivan, T.; Spentzouris, Linda; /IIT, Chicago

    2006-03-01

    We propose a model-independent quantity, L/G, to characterize non-Gaussian tails in beam profiles observed with the Fermilab Booster Ion Profile Monitor. This quantity can be considered a measure of beam halo in the Booster. We use beam dynamics and detector simulations to demonstrate that L/G is superior to kurtosis as an experimental measurement of beam halo when realistic beam shapes, detector effects and uncertainties are taken into account. We include the rationale and method of calculation for L/G in addition to results of the experimental studies in the Booster where we show that L/G is a useful halo discriminator.

  19. Validation of an Experimentally Derived Uncertainty Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Cox, D. E.; Balas, G. J.; Juang, J.-N.

    1996-01-01

    The results show that uncertainty models can be obtained directly from system identification data by using a minimum norm model validation approach. The error between the test data and an analytical nominal model is modeled as a combination of unstructured additive and structured input multiplicative uncertainty. Robust controllers which use the experimentally derived uncertainty model show significant stability and performance improvements over controllers designed with assumed ad hoc uncertainty levels. Use of the identified uncertainty model also allowed a strong correlation between design predictions and experimental results.

  20. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1999-01-01

    This termination report covers the latter part of a single research effort spanning several grant cycles. During this time there was a single title, "Experimental and Modeling Studies of Massif Anorthosites", but there were several contract numbers as the mode and location of NASA contract administration changed. Initially, the project was funded as an increment to the PI's other grant, "Early Differentiation of the Moon: Experimental and Modeling Studies", but subsequently it became an independent grant. Table 1 contains a brief summary of the dates and contract numbers.

  1. Experimental validation of VESTA 2.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeck, W.; Cochet, B.; Bernard, F.; Tymen, A.

    2014-06-01

    Depletion codes such as VESTA are used to calculate the evolution of a material subjected to radiation (be it neutrons or another type of particle) for a wide variety of applications in the fields of nuclear safety, radiation protection and environmental health safety. For these applications, experimental validation is paramount. In this paper we will describe the experimental validation of the latest version of VESTA using a set of 76 samples consisting of radiochemical assay data and decay heat measurements. We will describe the general calculation procedure that has been applied to determine the uncertainty on each individual nuclide measurement as well as the general tendencies and detailed results.

  2. Selectivity and the production of experimental results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, A.

    1998-12-01

    The author studies possible relations between the application of selection criteria in analyzing and interpreting the results of physical experiments and the mental preconceptions and expectations of the experimenters. He presents a detailed account of five famous cases of purported experimental results and the controversies following their publication. These cases include Joseph Weber's 1969 claim to have detected gravitational radiation - possibly originating in the center of the Milky Way, and the controversy arising from the 1985 "detection" of the 17 keV (heavy) neutrino by Simpson. Extensive bibliographical references are given for each case.

  3. 47 CFR 74.102 - Uses of experimental broadcast stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uses of experimental broadcast stations. 74.102... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental Broadcast Stations § 74.102 Uses of experimental broadcast stations. A license for an experimental...

  4. Children's Understanding of Experimental Contrast and Experimental Control: An Inventory for Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Experimentation skills are a central component of scientific thinking, and many studies have investigated whether and when primary-school children develop adequate experimentation strategies. However, the answers to these questions vary substantially depending on the type of task that is used: while discovery tasks, which require children to…

  5. Didactic Objects for Development of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poddiakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers' experimental thinking and to study young children's thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children…

  6. Reconciling Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Chloe

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to interpret evidence on the impact of full-day kindergarten resulting from different study designs, and provides guidance on how this evidence taken in tandem may inform the design and implementation of full-day kindergarten policies. Incorporating both experimental and quasi-experimental estimates on…

  7. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  8. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  9. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  10. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  11. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....12 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... (Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog), F (NE multispecies and monkfish), G (summer flounder), H (scup), I...) Experimental fishing for surfclams or ocean quahogs will not require an allocation permit. (d)...

  12. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....12 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... (Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog), F (NE multispecies and monkfish), G (summer flounder), H (scup), I...) Experimental fishing for surfclams or ocean quahogs will not require an allocation permit. (d)...

  13. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  14. Strategies of Communication in Recent Experimental Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jerrold A.

    Because it focuses on questions of communication, the experimental theatre of the 1970s, particularly that created by Robert Wilson and Richard Foreman, can be analyzed according to two distinct theories regarding the communication process. The first theory defines communication as a process in which the communicator selects and transmits messages…

  15. [Pharmacokinetics of lincomycin in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Koroleva, V G; Fomina, I P

    1976-12-01

    When administered parentally, lincomycin satisfactorily penetrated into the organs and tissues of experimental animals. Pronounced tropism of the antibiotic in the bone tissue was observed which provided its recommendation for the treatment of osteomyelitis. The antibiotic was excreted with urine and bile. PMID:1020942

  16. The water dimer I: Experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anamika; Cole, William T. S.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-07-01

    As the archetype of water hydrogen bonding, the water dimer has been studied extensively by both theory and experiment for nearly seven decades. In this article, we present a detailed chronological review of the experimental dimer studies and the insights into the complex nature of water and hydrogen bonding gained from them. A subsequent letter will review the corresponding theoretical advances.

  17. Experimental validation of structural optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of validating structural optimization methods by use of experimental results is addressed. The need for validating the methods as a way of effecting a greater and an accelerated acceptance of formal optimization methods by practicing engineering designers is described. The range of validation strategies is defined which includes comparison of optimization results with more traditional design approaches, establishing the accuracy of analyses used, and finally experimental validation of the optimization results. Examples of the use of experimental results to validate optimization techniques are described. The examples include experimental validation of the following: optimum design of a trussed beam; combined control-structure design of a cable-supported beam simulating an actively controlled space structure; minimum weight design of a beam with frequency constraints; minimization of the vibration response of helicopter rotor blade; minimum weight design of a turbine blade disk; aeroelastic optimization of an aircraft vertical fin; airfoil shape optimization for drag minimization; optimization of the shape of a hole in a plate for stress minimization; optimization to minimize beam dynamic response; and structural optimization of a low vibration helicopter rotor.

  18. An Experience of the Czechoslovakian Experimental Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vysin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences is sponsoring an experimental approach to the modernization of the geometry curriculum. Geometry is viewed as ancillary to other parts of the curriculum and is taught as appropriate to other subjects (e.g., algebra). Combinatorial geometry is taught formally. (SD)

  19. An experimental 100 kilowatt wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Puthoff, R. L.; Savino, J. M.; Johnson, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental generator consists of two blades mounted on 100 foot tower, driving transmission train and electric generator mounted on top of tower. Machine generates 100 kW of electricity at wind speeds from 18 to 60 miles per hour. Yaw control mechanism automatically orients machine into wind.

  20. Multiple Drafts of Experimental Laboratory Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, James F.

    Students could gain considerable insight into the philosophy and methods of scientific experimentation if instructors adopted procedures based on an understanding of and respect for writing as a process. Laboratory courses in psychology offer such an opportunity. These courses usually involve a heavy workload for both students and faculty, for, in…

  1. Growing Plants Without Soil for Experimental Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankendaal, M.; And Others

    Much of the current research in experimental plant biology requires highly uniform plants. To achieve this, many plants are grown under conditions in which the environment is carefully manipulated. This pamphlet has been prepared, therefore, to present and describe growth procedures which will produce vigorous, healthy, uniform plant material in…

  2. Experimental Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krist, Amy C.; Showsh, Sasha A.

    2007-01-01

    Evolution is typically measured as a change in allele or genotype frequencies over one or more generations. Consequently, evolution is difficult to show experimentally in a semester-long lab course because most organisms have longer generation times than 15 weeks. In this article, the authors present an experiment to demonstrate and study…

  3. Experimental interstellar organic chemistry - Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of some explicit experimental simulation of interstellar organic chemistry consisting in low-temperature high-vacuum UV irradiation of condensed simple gases known or suspected to be present in the interstellar medium. The results include the finding that acetonitrile may be present in the interstellar medium. The implication of this and other findings are discussed.

  4. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  5. GCFR shielding design and supporting experimental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.G.; Hamilton, C.J.; Bartine, D.

    1980-05-01

    The shielding for the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) is described, and the component exposure design criteria which determine the shield design are presented. The experimental programs for validating the GCFR shielding design methods and data (which have been in existence since 1976) are also discussed.

  6. How experimental trial context affects perceptual categorization

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Thomas J.; Mack, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions. PMID:25745412

  7. Investigations on Experimental Impellers for Axial Blowers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Encke, W.

    1947-01-01

    A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.

  8. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  9. Women and Development: Three Experimental Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clason, Carla

    1975-01-01

    A review of three experimental projects implemented by Unesco in the late 1960's to improve the status and equal educational opportunities of women includes: (1) Upper Volta, education for rural women; (2) Nepal, training primary school teachers; and (3) Chile, access of women to technical education. (LH)

  10. Covert Behavior Modification: An Experimental Analogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Michael J.; And Others

    Data are presented from two experiments investigating whether covert responses can be modified. Imagery was chosen as a target because of its significant role in behavior therapy techniques. Resent evidence on the facilitative effects of imagery in paired-associate learning suggested to the experimenters the use of performance on a…

  11. Experimental evidence of quantum randomness incomputability

    SciTech Connect

    Calude, Cristian S.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Dumitrescu, Monica; Svozil, Karl

    2010-08-15

    In contrast with software-generated randomness (called pseudo-randomness), quantum randomness can be proven incomputable; that is, it is not exactly reproducible by any algorithm. We provide experimental evidence of incomputability--an asymptotic property--of quantum randomness by performing finite tests of randomness inspired by algorithmic information theory.

  12. Experimenter Bias Effects: A Direct Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Waite, Vicki A.

    1980-01-01

    This study replicates previous research by Kent and O'Leary assessing the effects of experimenter bias on behavioral recordings. Behaviors targeted for biased statements evidenced more change in observers' scorings from "baseline" to "treatment" tape segments than control behaviors. Additional analyses of observers' scorings indicated an increase…

  13. An Experimental Investigation of Cognitive Defusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilecki, Brian C.; McKay, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared cognitive defusion with other strategies in reducing the impact of experimentally induced negative emotional states. Sixty-seven undergraduates were assigned to one of three conditions (cognitive defusion, thought suppression, or control) and instructed in standardized approaches relevant to each condition before viewing…

  14. Experimentally Evoking Nonbelieved Memories for Childhood Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report on the 1st experimental elicitation of nonbelieved memories for childhood events in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these events during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…

  15. Experimental investigation of 4-dimensional superspace crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rasing, T.; Janner, A.

    1983-09-01

    The symmetry of incommensurate crystals can be described by higher dimensional space groups in the so called superspace approach. The basic ideas are explained and used for showing that superspace groups provide an adequate frame for analyzing experimental results on incommensurate crystals.

  16. Experimental Results in DIS from Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    We are summarizing the experimental program of Jefferson Lab (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA) in deep inelastic electron scattering. We show recent results and discuss future plans for both the present 6 GeV era and the 12 GeV energy-upgraded facility.

  17. Transitional Employment Experimental Model (TEEM). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Personnel Board, Sacramento.

    The final report of the Transitional Employemnt Experimental Model (TEEM) Project, a research and development project providing a potential model for a large scale manpower absorption program in times of economic need, is presented. One major purpose of the project was to demonstrate the viability of providing suitable job placement for the…

  18. The analysis of high pressure experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    This letter is concerned with the analysis of high pressure experimental data. It is demonstrated that ln H plots based on the Vinet et al. (1988) universal equation of state are a simple sensitive means for identifying anomalous P-V data in high pressure experiments and for detecting structural and phase transitions in solids subjected to high pressure.

  19. A novel experimentally validated Stirling cycle simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rix, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    This paper presents an entirely new method of Stirling cycle simulation and its application to a laboratory Stirling machine. Specimen predicted results are given for this machine and a comparison is made with results experimentally measured over a wide range of speed and mean pressure values.

  20. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

  1. Experimental evolution in fungi: An untapped resource.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kaitlin J; Lang, Gregory I

    2016-09-01

    Historically, evolutionary biology has been considered an observational science. Examining populations and inferring evolutionary histories mold evolutionary theories. In contrast, laboratory evolution experiments make use of the amenability of traditional model organisms to study fundamental processes underlying evolution in real time in simple, but well-controlled, environments. With advances in high-throughput biology and next generation sequencing, it is now possible to propagate hundreds of parallel populations over thousands of generations and to quantify precisely the frequencies of various mutations over time. Experimental evolution combines the ability to simultaneously monitor replicate populations with the power to vary individual parameters to test specific evolutionary hypotheses, something that is impractical or infeasible in natural populations. Many labs are now conducting laboratory evolution experiments in nearly all model systems including viruses, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, and fruit flies. Among these systems, fungi occupy a unique niche: with a short generation time, small compact genomes, and sexual cycles, fungi are a particularly valuable and largely untapped resource for propelling future growth in the field of experimental evolution. Here, we describe the current state of fungal experimental evolution and why fungi are uniquely positioned to answer many of the outstanding questions in the field. We also review which fungal species are most well suited for experimental evolution. PMID:27375178

  2. Physical Science Laboratory Manual, Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative General Science Project, Atlanta, GA.

    Provided are physical science laboratory experiments which have been developed and used as a part of an experimental one year undergraduate course in general science for non-science majors. The experiments cover a limited number of topics representative of the scientific enterprise. Some of the topics are pressure and buoyancy, heat, motion,…

  3. Parameter estimation and optimal experimental design.

    PubMed

    Banga, Julio R; Balsa-Canto, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models are central in systems biology and provide new ways to understand the function of biological systems, helping in the generation of novel and testable hypotheses, and supporting a rational framework for possible ways of intervention, like in e.g. genetic engineering, drug development or treatment of diseases. Since the amount and quality of experimental 'omics' data continue to increase rapidly, there is great need for methods for proper model building which can handle this complexity. In the present chapter we review two key steps of the model building process, namely parameter estimation (model calibration) and optimal experimental design. Parameter estimation aims to find the unknown parameters of the model which give the best fit to a set of experimental data. Optimal experimental design aims to devise the dynamic experiments which provide the maximum information content for subsequent non-linear model identification, estimation and/or discrimination. We place emphasis on the need for robust global optimization methods for proper solution of these problems, and we present a motivating example considering a cell signalling model. PMID:18793133

  4. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  5. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental purposes. 40.232 Section 40.232 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations...

  6. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  7. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  8. Experimental and computational study of thaumasite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtzová, Eva; Kucková, Lenka; Kožíšek, Jozef; Pálková, Helena; Tunega, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The structure of thaumasite has been studied experimentally by means of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and FTIR methods, and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) method. Very good agreement was achieved between calculated and experimental structural parameters. In addition, calculations offered the refinement of the positions of the hydrogen atoms. The detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds existing in the thaumasite structure has been performed. Several types of hydrogen bonds have been classified. The water molecules coordinating Ca{sup 2+} cation act as proton donors in moderate O-H···O hydrogen bonds formed with CO₃⁻²and SO₄⁻² anions. The multiple O-H···O hydrogen bonds exist among water molecules themselves. Finally, relatively weak hydrogen bonds form water molecules with the OH groups from the coordination sphere of the Si(OH)₆⁻² anion. Further, calculated vibrational spectrum allowed complete assignment of all vibrational modes which are not available from the experimental spectrum that has a complex structure with overlapped bands, especially below 1500 cm⁻¹. Highlights: • The thaumasite structure was studied experimentally and using DFT method. • We used DFT method for the refinement of the positions of hydrogen atoms. • A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds was done. • A complete assignment of all bands to particular types of vibrations was done.

  9. 27 CFR 40.232 - Experimental purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as their chemical content; (2) Use by producers of packaging machines to test the operation of... purposes in a factory. (d) Use outside factory. A manufacturer may remove tobacco products in bond for... § 40.183, a manufacturer who removes tobacco products in bond for experimental purposes outside...

  10. Experimental Stream Facility: Design and Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Experimental Stream Facility (ESF) is a valuable research tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) laboratories in Cincinnati, Ohio. This brochure describes the ESF, which is one of only a handful of research facilit...

  11. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-01-01

    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin M.; Wickstrom, Katherine F.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Brown, Shelaina M.; Schuka, Jeffrey R.; Therrien, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental analysis of academic responding has emerged as one approach to strengthening decisions related to problem analysis and treatment design. This study provided an example of how both brief and extended assessments can be used within a data based, problem solving approach to addressing reading fluency concerns. For six children with…

  13. Comparing fluid mechanics models with experimental data.

    PubMed Central

    Spedding, G R

    2003-01-01

    The art of modelling the physical world lies in the appropriate simplification and abstraction of the complete problem. In fluid mechanics, the Navier-Stokes equations provide a model that is valid under most circumstances germane to animal locomotion, but the complexity of solutions provides strong incentive for the development of further, more simplified practical models. When the flow organizes itself so that all shearing motions are collected into localized patches, then various mathematical vortex models have been very successful in predicting and furthering the physical understanding of many flows, particularly in aerodynamics. Experimental models have the significant added convenience that the fluid mechanics can be generated by a real fluid, not a model, provided the appropriate dimensionless groups have similar values. Then, analogous problems can be encountered in making intelligible but independent descriptions of the experimental results. Finally, model predictions and experimental results may be compared if, and only if, numerical estimates of the likely variations in the tested quantities are provided. Examples from recent experimental measurements of wakes behind a fixed wing and behind a bird in free flight are used to illustrate these principles. PMID:14561348

  14. Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed: A Historical Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed was established in north central Mississippi by U.S. Congressional action and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Sedimentation Laboratory has operated the watershed since October, 1981. Since then, the watershed has provided a platform for research ...

  15. Collective Experimentation: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiko, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document smallholder experiences during a participatory experimental initiative and draw useful lessons for field practitioners. The main methods used to collect data were participant observation, in-depth interviews among 40 farmers, and analyses of notes taken during participatory monitoring and evaluation. These…

  16. EXPERIMENTAL RESPIRATORY CARCINOGENESIS IN SMALL LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies designed to test the ability of environmental pollutants to induce lung cancer in experimental animals by chronic inhalation exposure are summarized in this review. The studies are limited to those published in peer-reviewed journals and may not include all experiments co...

  17. Experimental Approaches to Studying Biological Electron Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Provides an overview on biological electron-transfer reactions, summarizing what is known about how distance, spatial organization, medium, and other factors affect electron transfer. Experimental approaches, including studies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions (electrostatic effects and precursor complexes), are considered. (JN)

  18. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  19. The National Ignition Facility: Experimental Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H

    2003-09-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} bar, conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars, planets and in nuclear weapons. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules of infrared light and over 16 kJ at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper discusses NIF's current and future experimental capability, plans for facility diagnostics, cryogenic target systems, specialized optics for experiments, and potential enhancements to NIF such as green laser operation and high-energy short pulse operation.

  20. VALIDATION DATA FOR PHOTOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The smog chamber facility of the University of North Carolina (UNC) was used to provide experimental data for the EPA and atmospheric model developers for testing and validating kinetic mechanisms of photochemical smog formation. In the study, 71 dual-experiments were performed u...

  1. Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

  2. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mackerel, squid, and butterfish), D (Atlantic sea scallop), E (Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog), F (NE... vessel seeking the benefit of such exemption. (c) Experimental fishing for surf clams or ocean quahogs... § 648.12, the introductory text was amended by removing the words “surf clam” and adding the...

  3. Experimental Studies on Biosensing by SPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun; Shiokawa, Showko; Matsui, Yosikazu

    1989-09-01

    Biosensing using surface plasmon resonance is experimentally studied. The results obtained by detecting the bioresponse of the α-Feto protein system and cyclic experiments show that this technique has potential application in the field of biosensing. The effects of an organic layer on detecting sensitivity and restoration of sensors are also discussed.

  4. Brief Experimental Analysis of Early Reading Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna-Lind; McMaster, Kristen; McComas, Jennifer J.; Bradfield, Tracy; Braganza, Viveca; Koch-McDonald, Julie; Rodriguez, Roxana; Scharf, Haley

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how brief experimental analyses (BEAs) could be used to identify effective interventions for Kindergartners (2 girls and 2 boys, 5 years and 7-10 months old) with low performance and/or growth slope in letter sound fluency (LSF). Interventions were tested within a multielement design with brief…

  5. Essays on Experimental Economics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Scott Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I consider three separate explanations for how price affects the usage rate of a purchased product: Screening, signaling, and sunk-cost bias. I propose an experimental design that disentangles the three effects. Furthermore, in order to quantify and compare these effects I introduce a simple structural model and show that the…

  6. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469]. PMID:19786177

  7. Experimental investigation of NIRS spatial sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Amol V.; Safaie, Javad; Moghaddam, Hamid Abrishami; Wallois, Fabrice; Grebe, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is regarded as a potential medical diagnostic technique for investigation of hemodynamic changes. However, uncertainties pertaining to the origin of NIRS signals have hampered its clinical interpretation. The uncertainities in NIRS measurements especially in case of living tissues are due to lack of rigorous combined theoretical-experimental studies resulting in clear understanding of the origin of NIRS signals. For their reliable interpretation it is important to understand the relationship between spatial changes in optical properties and corresponding changes in the NIRS signal. We investigated spatial sensitivity of near infrared optical measurements using an experimental approach. It uses a liquid optical phantom as tissue equivalent, which is explored under robot-control by a small, approximately point like perturbation of desired optical properties, and a NIRS instrument for trans-illumination/reflection measurements. The experimentally obtained sensitivity has been analyzed and compared with numerical simulations. In preliminary experiments we investigated the influence of various optical properties of the medium and of source/detector distances on the spatial sensitivity distribution. The acquired sensitivity maps can be used to define characteristic parameters. As an example, we used a 25% threshold to define a penetration depth measure which provides values in good accordance with published ones. To the best of our knowledge this is the first experimental study of NIRS spatial sensitivity. The presented method will allow in depth experimental investigation of the influence of various conditions pertaining to medium such as optical properties of tissue (scattering and absorption) and of the source/detector configuration. PMID:21698012

  8. Traceds: An Experimental Trace Element Partitioning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this project, which is part of the EARTHCHEM initiative, is to compile the existing experimental trace element partitioning data, and to develop a transparent, accessible resource for the community. The primary goal of experimental trace element partitioning studies is to create a database that can be used to develop models of how trace elements behave in natural geochemical systems. The range of approaches as to how this is accomplished and how the data are reported differs dramatically from one system to another and one investigator to another. This provides serious challenges to the creation of a coherent database - and suggests the need for a standard format for data presentation and reporting. The driving force for this compilation is to provide community access to the complete database for trace element experiments. Our new effort includes all the published analytical results from experimental determinations. In compiling the data, we have set a minimum standard for the data to be included. The threshold criteria include: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without a knowledge of the actual concentrations or the temperature and pressure of formation. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. Our ultimate goal is to produce a database together with a flexible user interface that will be useful for experimentalists to set up their work and to build

  9. The EUROSEISTEST Experimental Test Site in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitilakis, K.; Manos, G.; Raptakis, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Makra, K.; Manakou, M.

    2009-04-01

    The European experimental site EUROSEISTEST has been established since 1993 in the epicentral area of the June 20th 1978 earthquake (40.8˚ N, 23.2˚ E, Ms 6.5, Imax VIII+ MSK, Papazachos et al., 1979), located in the active tectonic Mygdonian basin, 30km NNE from Thessaloniki, Greece. Euroseistest has been funded by the European Commission - Directorate General for Research and Development under the framework of consecutive EC research projects (EuroseisTest, EuroseisMod and Eurroseisrisk). It is specially designed and dedicated to conduct experimental and theoretical studies on site effects, soil and site characterization and soil-foundation-structure interaction phenomena. The geological, geophysical and geotechnical conditions of the Euroseistest valley (Mygdonian graben) is very well constrained through numerous in situ campaigns and laboratory tests. The permanent accelerometric network comprises 21 digital 3D stations, including vertical arrays down to 200m (schist bedrock), covering a surface of about 100 sq Km. The site is also covered by a permanent seismological network. A number of high quality recordings, from temporary and permanent arrays, gave the possibility to perform advanced experimental and theoretical studies on site effects (e.g. Raptakis et al., 1998; Pitilakis et al., 1999; Raptakis et al., 2000; Chávez-García et al., 2000; Makra, 2000; Makra et al., 2001 & 2005). The main advantage of Euroseistest is the detailed knowledge of the 3D geological-geotechnical structure of the basin (Manakou, 2007) and its dense permanent accelerometric network. For this reason the site has been recently selected by CEA to validate and check the advanced numerical codes to be used in Cadarache ITER project. Besides the study of site effects, Euroseistest offers interesting possibilities to study SSI problems through two model structures (scaled 1:3). A 6-storey building and a bridge pier, which have been constructed and instrumented in the centre of the

  10. In vitro experimental investigation of voice production

    PubMed Central

    Horáčcek, Jaromír; Brücker, Christoph; Becker, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The process of human phonation involves a complex interaction between the physical domains of structural dynamics, fluid flow, and acoustic sound production and radiation. Given the high degree of nonlinearity of these processes, even small anatomical or physiological disturbances can significantly affect the voice signal. In the worst cases, patients can lose their voice and hence the normal mode of speech communication. To improve medical therapies and surgical techniques it is very important to understand better the physics of the human phonation process. Due to the limited experimental access to the human larynx, alternative strategies, including artificial vocal folds, have been developed. The following review gives an overview of experimental investigations of artificial vocal folds within the last 30 years. The models are sorted into three groups: static models, externally driven models, and self-oscillating models. The focus is on the different models of the human vocal folds and on the ways in which they have been applied. PMID:23181007

  11. Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams.

    PubMed

    Chille, Vanessa; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2016-05-30

    We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices 0 or 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB±0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. PMID:27410153

  12. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    PubMed

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. PMID:27524015

  13. Experimental nuclear reaction data collection EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Otuka, N.; Simakov, S. P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-07-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) constitutes a worldwide cooperation of 14 nuclear data centres. The main activity of the NRDC Network is collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction cross section data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases as well as dissemination of nuclear reaction data and associated documentation to users. The database contains information and numerical data from more than about 19000 experiments consisting of more than 140000 datasets. EXFOR is kept up to date by constantly adding newly published experimental information. Tools developed for data dissemination utilise modern database technologies with fast online capabilities over the Internet. Users are provided with sophisticated search options, a user-friendly retrieval interface for downloading data in different formats, and additional output options such as improved data plotting capabilities. The present status of the EXFOR database will be presented together with the latest development for data access and retrieval. (authors)

  14. Association between Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Souzhi; Guo, Jianbin; Huang, Yongling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and the pathogenesis of periodontitis, ovariectomized rats were generated and the experimental periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature. The inflammatory factors and bone metabolic markers were measured in the serum and periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats using an automatic chemistry analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. The bone mineral density of whole body, pelvis, and spine was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and image analysis. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical software. It was found that ovariectomy could upregulate the expression of interleukin- (IL-)6, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and downregulate IL-10 expression in periodontal tissues, which resulted in progressive alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. This study indicates that changes of cytokines and bone turnover markers in the periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats contribute to the damage of periodontal tissues. PMID:24683547

  15. Microwave radiometry for humanitarian demining: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel T.; Kim, Hyunjin; Wiggins, David R.; Cheon, Yonghun

    2002-08-01

    Previous modeling studies have indicated that a multi-frequency radiometer could prove advantageous for humanitarian demining due to the oscillatory patterns in brightness temperature versus frequency that would be observed in the presence of a sub-surface target. Initial experimental results are reported in this paper from a multi-frequency radiometer (MFRAD) system operating at 19 frequencies in the 2.1-6.5 GHz band. The basic design of MFRAD is reviewed, and the calibration and noise background removal procedures discussed. Experimental results with sub-surface metallic and styrofoam targets are then provided that demonstrate the predicted oscillatory behavior. An FFT-based detection algorithm is also described and applied to measured data. Further plans for experiments and tests with this system are also detailed.

  16. Experimental demonstration of an acoustic magnifying hyperlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jensen; Fok, Lee; Yin, Xiaobo; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate sound waves in surprising ways, which include collimation, focusing, cloaking, sonic screening and extraordinary transmission. Recent theories suggested that imaging below the diffraction limit using passive elements can be realized by acoustic superlenses or magnifying hyperlenses. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in underwater sonar sensing, medical ultrasound imaging and non-destructive materials testing. However, these proposed approaches suffer narrow working frequency bands and significant resonance-induced loss, which hinders them from successful experimental realization. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of an acoustic hyperlens that magnifies subwavelength objects by gradually converting evanescent components into propagating waves. The fabricated acoustic hyperlens relies on straightforward cutoff-free propagation and achieves deep-subwavelength resolution with low loss over a broad frequency bandwidth.

  17. Helicopter impulsive noise - Theoretical and experimental status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of helicopter impulsive noise is reviewed. The two major source mechanisms of helicopter impulsive noise are addressed: high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise. A thorough physical explanation of both generating mechanism is presented together with model and full-scale measurements of the phenomena. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental findings of isolated rotor tests. The noise generating mechanism of high speed impulsive noise are fairly well understood - theory and experiment compare nicely over Mach number ranges typical of today's helicopters. For the case of blade-vortex interaction noise, understanding of noise generating mechanisms and theoretical comparison with experiment are less satisfactory. Several methods for improving theory-experiment are suggested.

  18. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  19. Sonic Boom Prediction Exercise: Experimental Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Eugene; Cheung, Samson; Edwards, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The success of a future High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) depends on the ability to accurately assess and, possibly, modify the sonic boom signatures of potential designs. In 1992, the Sonic Boom Steering Committee initiated a prediction exercise to assess the current computational capabilities for the accurate and efficient prediction of sonic boom signatures and loudness levels. A progress report of this effort was given at the Sonic Boom Workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in 1993 where predictions from CFD and Modified Linear Theory (MLT) methods were given. Comparisons between the methods were made at near-, mid- and far-field locations. However, at that time, experimental data from wind-tunnel tests were not available. The current paper presents a comparison of computational results with the now available experimental data. Further comparisons between the computational methods and analyses of the discrepancies in the results are presented.

  20. Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C. H.; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910

  1. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L

    2016-04-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease. PMID:27051507

  2. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

  3. Shock unsteadiness creation and propagation: experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benay, R.; Alaphilippe, M.; Severac, N.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of creating unsteady distortions of the tip shock by waves emitted from an aircraft is assessed experimentally. The model chosen is a cylindrical fore body equipped with a spike. This configuration is known for generating an important level of unsteadiness around the spike in supersonic regime. The wind tunnel Mach number is equal to 2. The experiments show that waves emitted from this source propagate along the tip shock and interact with it. It is then assessed that this interaction produces a periodic distortion of the shock that propagates to the external flow. Unsteady pressure sensors, high speed schlieren films, hot wire probing and laser Doppler velocimetry are used as complementary experimental means. The final result is a coherent representation of the complex mechanism of wave propagation that has been evidenced. The principle of creating unsteady shock deformation by onboard equipments could be examined as a possibly promising method of sonic boom control.

  4. Experimental demonstration of water based tunable metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odit, Mikhail; Kapitanova, Polina; Andryieuski, Andrei; Belov, Pavel; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2016-07-01

    A simple dynamically tunable metasurface (two-dimensional metamaterial) operating at microwave frequencies is developed and experimentally investigated. Conceptually, the simplicity of the approach is granted by reconfigurable properties of unit cells partially filled with distilled water. The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear and circular polarizations of the incident wave were experimentally measured under the metasurface rotation around a horizontal axis. The changes in the transmission coefficient magnitude up to 8 dB at 1.25 GHz are reported while rotating the metasurface by the 90° angle. The proposed approach manifests the cheap and accessible route for the electromagnetic wave control in the microwave region with the help of metasurfaces.

  5. Experimental observation of weak non-Markovianity.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Nadja K; Cuevas, Alvaro; Orieux, Adeline; Monken, C H; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Santos, Marcelo F

    2015-01-01

    Non-Markovianity has recently attracted large interest due to significant advances in its characterization and its exploitation for quantum information processing. However, up to now, only non-Markovian regimes featuring environment to system backflow of information (strong non-Markovianity) have been experimentally simulated. In this work, using an all-optical setup we simulate and observe the so-called weak non-Markovian dynamics. Through full process tomography, we experimentally demonstrate that the dynamics of a qubit can be non-Markovian despite an always increasing correlation between the system and its environment which, in our case, denotes no information backflow. We also show the transition from the weak to the strong regime by changing a single parameter in the environmental state, leading us to a better understanding of the fundamental features of non-Markovianity. PMID:26627910

  6. Description of Liquid Nitrogen Experimental Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Jacobs, Richard E.; Saiyed, Naseem H.

    1991-01-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Test Facility is a unique test facility for ground-based liquid nitrogen experimentation. The test rig consists of an insulated tank of approximately 12.5 cubic ft in volume, which is supplied with liquid nitrogen from a 300 gal dewar via a vacuum jacketed piping system. The test tank is fitted with pressure and temperature measuring instrumentation, and with two view ports which allow visual observation of test conditions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility, the initial test program is briefly described. The objective of the test program is to measure the condensation rate by injecting liquid nitrogen as a subcooled spray into the ullage of a tank 50 percent full of liquid nitrogen at saturated conditions. The condensation rate of the nitrogen vapor on the subcooled spray can be analytically modeled, and results validated and corrected by experimentally measuring the vapor condensation on liquid sprays.

  7. Description of liquid nitrogen experimental test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, J. M.; Jacobs, R. E.; Saiyed, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Liquid Nitrogen Test Facility is a unique test facility for ground-based liquid nitrogen experimentation. The test rig consists of an insulated tank of approximately 12.5 cubic ft in volume, which is supplied with liquid nitrogen from a 300 gal dewar via a vacuum jacketed piping system. The test tank is fitted with pressure and temperature measuring instrumentation, and with two view ports which allow visual observation of test conditions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility, the initial test program is briefly described. The objective of the test program is to measure the condensation rate by injecting liquid nitrogen as a subcooled spray into the ullage of a tank 50 percent full of liquid nitrogen at saturated conditions. The condensation rate of the nitrogen vapor on the subcooled spray can be analytically modeled, and results validated and corrected by experimentally measuring the vapor condensation on liquid sprays.

  8. Experimental Performance of a Novel Trochoidal Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, Bernard; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    In the quest for energy efficiency in marine transportation, a promising marine propulsor concept is the trochoidal propeller. We have designed and tested a novel trochoidal propeller using a sinusoidal blade pitch function. The main results presented are measurements of thrust and torque, as well as the calculated efficiency, for a range of advance coefficients. The experimental data show narrow 95% confidence bounds, demonstrating high accuracy and repeatability in the experimental methods. We compare our sinusoidal-pitch trochoidal propeller with prior cross-flow propellers, as well as a representative screw propeller. While the efficiency of our propeller exceeds that of the cycloidal-pitch trochoidal propeller, it is slightly lower than the efficiencies of the other propellers considered. We also present a theoretical model that can be used to further explore and optimize such trochoidal propellers, leading to new avenues for improvements in marine propulsion systems.

  9. Experimental implementation of maximally synchronizable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Buldú, J. M.; Boccaletti, S.; Papo, D.; Hwang, D.-U.; Huerta-Cuellar, G.; Gutiérrez, R.

    2016-04-01

    Maximally synchronizable networks (MSNs) are acyclic directed networks that maximize synchronizability. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of transforming networks of coupled oscillators into their corresponding MSNs. By tuning the weights of any given network so as to reach the lowest possible eigenratio λN /λ2, the synchronized state is guaranteed to be maintained across the longest possible range of coupling strengths. We check the robustness of the resulting MSNs with an experimental implementation of a network of nonlinear electronic oscillators and study the propagation of the synchronization errors through the network. Importantly, a method to study the effects of topological uncertainties on the synchronizability is proposed and explored both theoretically and experimentally.

  10. Recent Experimental Progress on Surrogate Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausang, Cornelius

    2014-09-01

    Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s-process rp- and p-processes etc.), for nuclear energy generation and for national security applications. Many such reactions occur on short-lived unstable nuclei. Even with the present generation of radioactive beam facilities, many such reactions are difficult, if not impossible, to measure directly. For these reactions, often the surrogate reaction technique provides the only option to provide some experimental guidance for the calculations. The experimental and theoretical techniques required are described in some detail in the recent review article by Escher et al.. Originally introduced in the 1970's the last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the surrogate technique. Various ratio techniques, external, internal and hybrid, have been developed to minimize the effect of target contamination. In the actinide region, a large number of surrogate (n,f) cross sections have been measured. In general, these show agreement to within 5--10%, with directly measured (n,f) data where these data exist (benchmarking), for equivalent neutron energies ranging from ~100 keV up to tens of MeV. For (n, γ) reactions, measurements have been attempted for select nuclei in various mass regions (A ~ 90, 150 and 235) and for these the agreement with directly measured data is less good. The various experimental techniques employed will be described as well as the current state of the experimental data. Some future directions will be described. Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s

  11. Transformative geomorphic research using laboratory experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Sean J.; Ashmore, Peter; Neuman, Cheryl McKenna

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory experiments in geomorphology is the theme of the 46th annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (BGS). While geomorphic research historically has been dominated by field-based endeavors, laboratory experimentation has emerged as an important methodological approach to study these phenomena, employed primarily to address issues related to scale and the analytical treatment of the geomorphic processes. Geomorphic laboratory experiments can result in transformative research. Several examples drawn from the fluvial and aeolian research communities are offered as testament to this statement, and these select transformative endeavors often share very similar attributes. The 46th BGS will focus on eight broad themes within laboratory experimentation, and a diverse group of scientists has been assembled to speak authoritatively on these topics, featuring several high-profile projects worldwide. This special issue of the journal Geomorphology represents a collection of the papers written in support of this symposium.

  12. Experimental Robust Control of Structural Acoustic Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.; Clark, Robert L.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This work addresses the design and application of robust controllers for structural acoustic control. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. H(infinity) and mu-synthesis design methods were used to design feedback controllers which minimize power radiated from a panel while avoiding instability due to unmodeled dynamics. Specifically, high order structural modes which couple strongly to the actuator-sensor path were poorly modeled. This model error was analytically bounded with an uncertainty model, which allowed controllers to be designed without artificial limits on control effort. It is found that robust control methods provide the control designer with physically meaningful parameters with which to tune control designs and can be very useful in determining limits of performance. Experimental results also showed, however, poor robustness properties for control designs with ad-hoc uncertainty models. The importance of quantifying and bounding model errors is discussed.

  13. [New experimental models in microbial ecology].

    PubMed

    Liz'ko, N N

    1989-06-01

    Peculiar features of dysbiosis development in persons under extreme conditions were studied. It was shown that a number of extreme factors participated in formation of dysbiotic disorders in intestinal microflora. Of paramount importance was the neuro-emotional stress. Lability of bifido- and lactoflora was considered as the starting mechanism in dysbacteriosis under the extreme conditions. In the experimental models with rats SPF and Primates during flights of biosatellites of the Kosmos series the role of indigenous++ microflora in maintaining the microecological homeostasis, as well as the need for development of artificial and controlled intestinal microflora promising in prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis under extreme conditions was shown. The theoretical and experimentally grounded necessity of maintaining constant intestine microbiocenosis was confirmed by the practice of using the system of measures for recovery, stabilization and optimization of microflora in persons under extreme conditions. PMID:2802876

  14. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  15. Helicopter impulsive noise - Theoretical and experimental status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of helicopter impulsive noise is reviewed. The two major source mechanisms of helicopter impulsive noise are addressed: high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise. A thorough physical explanation of both generating mechanisms is presented together with model and full-scale measurements of the phenomena. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental findings of isolated rotor tests. The noise generating mechanisms of high speed impulsive noise are fairly well understood - theory and experiment compare nicely over Mach number ranges typical of today's helicopters. For the case of blade-vortex interaction noise, understanding of noise generating mechanisms and theoretical comparison with experiment are less satisfactory. Several methods for improving theory/experiment are suggested.

  16. Helicopter impulsive noise: Theoretical and experimental status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of helicopter impulsive noise is reviewed. The two major source mechanisms of helicopter impulsive noise are addressed: high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise. A thorough physical explanation of both generating mechanism is presented together with model and full-scale measurements of the phenomena. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental findings of isolated rotor tests. The noise generating mechanism of high speed impulsive noise are fairly well understood - theory and experiment compare nicely over Mach number ranges typical of today's helicopters. For the case of blade-vortex interaction noise, understanding of noise generating mechanisms and theoretical comparison with experiment are less satisfactory. Several methods for improving theory-experiment are suggested.

  17. A hybrid approach to experimental control.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Peter

    2009-08-01

    In the present article, I describe a new, hybrid approach to experimental control that combines the best features of general-purpose programs and specific-experiment programs. First, experimental control objects are developed in an object-oriented programming environment. Then, an XML file is used to select and arrange those control objects in order to carry out an experiment. A wide range of experiments can be implemented by specifying the arrangement of the control objects in the XML file, while, at the same time, the set of control objects can be easily extended for more demanding applications. An overview of a system using this approach is provided, along with some examples. PMID:19587170

  18. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  19. Dr. von Braun With German Rocket Experimenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Dr. von Braun was among a famous group of rocket experimenters in Germany in the 1930s. This photograph is believed to be made on the occasion of Herman Oberth's Kegelduese liquid rocket engine being certified as to performance during firing. From left to right are R. Nebel, Dr. Ritter, Mr. Baermueller, Kurt Heinish, Herman Oberth, Klaus Riedel, Wernher von Braun, and an unidentified person.

  20. Experimenters' reference based upon Skylab experiment management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined and amplified, as appropriate. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  1. Experimental measurements on a single sweeping jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Damian; Graff, Emilio; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    ``Sweeping jets'' proved their effectiveness as Active Flow Control (AFC) actuators in improving the performance of vertical tails of generic and full-scale models. To gain further knowledge about the fundamental flow physics, the jets were investigated experimentally. The influence of a single jet on its surroundings was studied, especially the entrainment region. The results were compared to previous experiments to study the difference between a single isolated jet and multiple jets mounted on a vertical tail. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  2. PDX experimental results in FY82

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.; Bitter, M.; Buchenauer, D.; Budny, R.; Brau, K.; Crowley, T.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents a detailed summary of the major experimental results of PDX in FY82 and represents the efforts of the entire PDX group. Topics covered include ..beta..-scaling and fishbone studies, fluctuations, disruptions, impurities and impurity transport, power handling, limiter conditioning, edge studies, plasma fueling, counter-injection, and diagnostic development. A less detailed version will appear as the FY82 PDX contribution to the PPPL Annual Report.

  3. Pulsar-aided SETI experimental observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, J.; Biraud, F.; Tarter, J.

    1989-01-01

    The rotational frequencies of pulsars are used to select preferred radio frequencies for SETI. Pulsar rotational frequencies are converted into SETI frequencies in the 1-10 GHz Galactic radio window. Experimental observations using the frequencies are conducted for target stars closer than 25 parsecs, unknown targets in a globular cluster, and unknown targets in the Galaxy closer than 2.5 kpc. The status of these observations is discussed.

  4. Employer coverage of experimental medical procedures.

    PubMed

    Mora, J

    1986-01-01

    Should an employer's medical plan pay for organ transplants, in vitro fertilization or other "experimental" or "high-risk" procedures? Most employers have looked to insurance companies to decide, but the rising frequency and cost of such procedures, coupled with the litigation potential they pose, raise policy making issues that employers themselves must face. A Hewitt Associates Consultant describes some problems and some solutions for insured and self-funded medical plans. PMID:10279242

  5. Experimental demonstration of relativistic electron cooling.

    PubMed

    Nagaitsev, Sergei; Broemmelsiek, Daniel; Burov, Alexey; Carlson, Kermit; Gattuso, Consolato; Hu, Martin; Kroc, Thomas; Prost, Lionel; Pruss, Stanley; Sutherland, Mary; Schmidt, Charles W; Shemyakin, Alexander; Tupikov, Vitali; Warner, Arden; Kazakevich, Grigory; Seletskiy, Sergey

    2006-02-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons circulating in a storage ring. In our experiments, electron cooling, a well-established method at low energies (<500 MeV/nucleon), was carried out in a new region of beam parameters, requiring a multi-MeV dc electron beam and an unusual beam transport line. In this Letter, we present the results of the longitudinal cooling force measurements and compare them with theoretical predictions. PMID:16486833

  6. How Can We Test Seesaw Experimentally?

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-06-07

    The seesaw mechanism for the small neutrino mass has been a popular paradigm, yet it has been believed that there is no way to test it experimentally. We present a conceivable outcome from future experiments that would convince us of the seesaw mechanism. It would involve a variety of data from LHC, ILC, cosmology, underground, and low-energy flavor violation experiments to establish the case.

  7. Experimental millimeter-wave satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masaaaki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Arimoto, Yoshinori; Inoue, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Okubo, Naofumi

    A 43/38 GHz (mm-wave) bands satellite communications experimental system featuring GEO/LEO and GEO/GEO intersatellite communications and personal communications is discussed in light of detailed performance data on the electrical model of the mm-wave transponder. Attention is given to the state-of-the-art solid-state power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, and personal communications terminal employed in these experiments.

  8. Saturated solar ponds: 3. Experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Subhakar, D.; Murthy, S.S. )

    1994-12-01

    An experimental saturated solar pond is constructed using magnesium chloride salt. The temperature and concentration gradients are developed by heating the pond from the bottom and adding finely powdered salt from the top. The development of a temperature profile in the pond exposed to direct sunlight and its daily variation are studied. The predictions of the temperature profiles, using the authors' mathematical model, match the experiments better than the concentration profiles.

  9. Experimental Measurement of Low Energy Neutrino Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, Kate

    2011-11-23

    Neutrino interactions in the few to few tens of MeV range are of importance for several physics topics, including solar, supernova and reactor neutrinos, as well as future proposed oscillation and Standard Model test experiments. Although interaction cross-sections for some simple targets are well understood, very little experimental data exist for interactions with nuclei. This talk will discuss the motivation for measuring low energy neutrino interactions, the state of knowledge, and possible future strategies.

  10. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2016-08-01

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  11. Atomic masses from (mainly) experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Wapstra, A.H.; Audi, G.; Hoekstra, R.

    1988-07-01

    The present list of atomic masses is an update from the 1983 Atomic Mass Table. Two categories of mass values are represented in the tabulation: those derived purely from experimental data, and those calculated with the help of systematic trends also. In order to improve the reliability of the mass values of the latter category, a novel method of extrapolation has been added capitalizing on new formulas for neutron and proton pairing energies. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  12. Multiple-input experimental modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The development of experimental modal analysis techniques is reviewed. System and excitation assumptions are discussed. The methods examined include the forced normal mode excitation method, the frequency response function method, the damped complex exponential response method, the Ibrahim time domain approach, the polyreference approach, and mathematical input-output model methods. The current trend toward multiple input utilization in the estimation of system parameters is noted.

  13. A method for experimental modal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  14. Recently approved and experimental methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Franklin, M

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved two new contraceptive methods, and others are nearing approval. In addition, several innovative approaches to contraception are under investigation. This paper details the latest information on the following methods: Paragard Copper T 380A intrauterine device, cervical cap, NORPLANT, vaginal pouch, long-acting injectables, hormonal vaginal ring, transdermal patch, experimental male methods, inhibin, and contraceptive vaccines. PMID:2286850

  15. Transonic rotor noise: Theoretical and experimental comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two complementary methods of describing the high speed rotor noise problem are discussed. The first method uses the second order transonic potential equation to define and characterize the nature of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields and to explain the appearance of radiating shock waves. The second employs the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to successfully calculate the acoustic far field. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental waveforms is shown for transonic hover tip Mach numbers from 0.8 to 0.9.

  16. Experimental treatment of recurrent otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Mileva, M H; Pencheva, D V; Bryaskova, R G; Genova-Kalou, P D; Kantardjiev, T V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the hybrid material based on polyvinyl alcohol and silver nanoparticles (PVA/AgNps) in the treatment of the otitis externa as an additional component in the commercial product "Betazon Trio". It was established that the experimental creamy formula with silver concentration 600 mg/L is suitable for recovery of the microbial homeostasis when it is administrated once daily in dose 1 ml over a period of 14 days. PMID:26623362

  17. Experimental realization of an open cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaochen; He, Sailing

    2014-01-01

    The design and experimental demonstration of an open cavity in the microwave region is presented. The resonance condition is achieved through the cancellation of lightpaths in positive and negative refractive index materials. The positive index material is a structured aluminium surface supporting a spoof surface plasmon mode, and the negative index material is a photonic crystal made of alumina. A resonance peak is observed in the measured spectrum at which the electric field distribution agrees with numerical simulation. PMID:25096927

  18. Experimental investigation of cavitation in pump inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Roman; Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The article deals with experimental research of cavitation development in inlet tube of hydraulic pump. The pressures in inlet and outlet tube of the pump and flow rate were measured. Mineral oil was used as working fluid. The cavitation was visually evaluated in transparent inlet tube. The inlet tube underpressure was achieved by throttle valve. The relationship between the generation of bubbles and the inlet pressure is evaluated.

  19. [Experimental study of pinostrobine oxime biotransformation].

    PubMed

    Sariev, A K; Abaimov, D A; Tankevich, M V; Prokhorov, D I; Adekenov, S M; Arystan, L I; Seĭfulla, R D

    2014-01-01

    We have experimentally studied pathways of elimination of an oximized derivative of phytoflavonoid pinostrobine by HPLC/mass spectrometry. Four potential metabolites of pinostrobine oxime have been found and there was an attempt to determine their molecular structures on the basis of their fragmentation under positive electrospray ionization conditions. It is established that pinostrobine oxime is removed from the organism mainly unchanged and also in the form of glucuronated derivative. PMID:25335390

  20. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  1. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  2. Experimental Benchmarking of the Magnetized Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Galnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  3. Experimental chemotherapy and radiotherapy to paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, T.; Watanabe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental chemotherapy and radiotherapy were tried in transplanted tumors derived from a paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. There was no significant difference on the therapeutic effect between a combination chemotherapy composed of vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide, so-called VAC regimen, and a single therapy of radiation. However, morphologic analyses suggest that VAC is effective in embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas in which undifferentiated rhabdomyoblasts predominate, while radiotherapy is preferable for those containing variously differentiated rhabdomyoblasts.

  4. Experimental study of cadaver head transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagov, Vladislav V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Vilensky, Maxim A.; Savchenko, Eugeny P.; Efimov, Alexander A.; Lakodina, Nina A.; De Taboada, Luis; Reznik, Boris N.

    2005-06-01

    The results of measurements of transmittance of high power laser irradiation through skull bones and scalp are presented. Dependences of transmittance on sample thickness were received. Character of transmittance was investigated and characteristics of heterogeneity of the scattering structure of the skull bones are proposed. Besides that, variation of temperature of skull and scalp surfaces under exposure of high power laser irradiation during experiments was controlled. Experimental results were verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Experimental Study of Sterilizing Molds by Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jin-lian; Niu, Yong

    1998-02-01

    An ultrasound method of sterilizing aspergillus flavus and fusarium is proposed and demonstrated. The dependence of sterilizing effect on ultrasonic intensity, frequency, and treatment time is experimentally investigated. The density of surviving spores decreases first with increasing ultrasonic frequency and then increases with the further increase of the frequency, that is to say, there exists the optimum frequency 26 kHz at which the killing rate is near 100%. The killing rate seems proportional to the intensity and the time.

  6. Extremes of the nuclear landscape: experimental studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, W.

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly more intense beams of radioactive isotopes allow moving into unknown areas of the nuclear chart and exploring the limits in nuclear binding and proton-to-neutron ratio. New aspects of nuclear structure and important results for nuclear astrophysics are obtained. The paper provides some overview of experimental developments, facilities and research results; and is intended to set the stage for the many exciting examples of research presented in these proceedings.

  7. Experimental demonstration of relativistic electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Kroc, T.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Sutherland, M.; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-11-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons circulating in a storage ring. In our experiments, electron cooling, a well-established method at low energies (< 500 MeV/nucleon), was carried out in a new region of beam parameters, requiring a multi-MeV dc electron beam and an unusual beam transport line. In this letter we present the results of the longitudinal cooling force measurements and compare them with theoretical predictions.

  8. Experimental Test of Resonant Particle Transport Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    1999-11-01

    It has long been suggested that the single-particle resonant transport theory developed for tandem mirrors might be able to explain asymmetry-induced transport in Malmberg-Penning traps.(C.F. Driscoll and J.H. Malmberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50), 167 (1983). We have recently adapted this theory to non-neutral plasmas(D.L. Eggleston and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 6), 2699 (1999). and are attempting an experimental test under the simplest possible conditions. The experiment(D.L. Eggleston, Phys. Plasmas 4), 1196 (1997). employs forty wall sectors in order to apply an asymmetry consisting of a single Fourier mode: φ1 =φ _nlωexp [ i( fracnπ Lz+lθ -ω t) ] . The electron density is kept low enough to avoid complications due to collective effects (shielding and waves) while the usual azimuthal E× B drift is maintained by a negatively biased central wire. We have confirmed the dominant role played by resonant particlesfootnote D.L. Eggleston, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 43, 1805 (1998). and here report on an absolute comparison between experimental and theoretical values for the radial particle flux. Interestingly, our initial results indicate that the experimental flux is forty times smaller than the theoretical value.

  9. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  10. Correlates of diuretic renography in experimental hydronephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kekomaeki, M.R.; Rikalainen, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Bertenyi, C.

    1989-02-01

    We studied the correlations between diuretic renographs and kidney function in experimental hydronephrosis in rabbits. Features of furosemide-stimulated /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid renographs were compared to the growth rate, thirst test and endogenous creatinine clearance rate in a chronic solitary-kidney animal model. Intravenous pyelograms, done four weeks after laparotomy, left nephrectomy, bladder resection and constriction of the right pyeloureteric junction, showed signs of obstruction in all the 12 animals of the experimental group. An absent tracer washout after intravenous furosemide, found in five animals, was associated with retarded growth, isosthenuria and an abnormal creatinine clearance. In all of the other seven animals, a distinct tracer washout after intravenous furosemide was accompanied with a normal growth rate and creatinine clearance. However, no one of these seven animals had a normal ability to retain water and concentrate urine in the thirst test. We conclude that, in this experimental model, a furosemide-induced tracer washout from the kidney pelvis cannot be taken as a proof of the absence of any upper urinary tract obstruction.

  11. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  12. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  13. Experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Tate, R.E.; Henfling, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10[degree] half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap could be attached so that deflection angles of 10[degree], 20[degree] and 30[degree] could be obtained. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia Mach 8 hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Flow visualization results include shear stress sensitive liquid crystal photographs, surface streak flow photographs (using liquid crystals), and spark schlieren photographs and video. The liquid crystals were used as an aid in verifying that a laminar boundary layer existed over the entire body. The surface flow photo-graphs show attached and separated flow on both the leeside of the vehicle and near the flap. A detailed uncertainty analysis was conducted to estimate the contributors to body force and moment measurement uncertainty. Comparisons are made with computational results to evaluate both the experimental and numerical results. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of relevant computational aerodynamics codes.

  14. Experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Tate, R.E.; Henfling, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results are presented for a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degree} half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap could be attached so that deflection angles of 10{degree}, 20{degree} and 30{degree} could be obtained. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia Mach 8 hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Flow visualization results include shear stress sensitive liquid crystal photographs, surface streak flow photographs (using liquid crystals), and spark schlieren photographs and video. The liquid crystals were used as an aid in verifying that a laminar boundary layer existed over the entire body. The surface flow photo-graphs show attached and separated flow on both the leeside of the vehicle and near the flap. A detailed uncertainty analysis was conducted to estimate the contributors to body force and moment measurement uncertainty. Comparisons are made with computational results to evaluate both the experimental and numerical results. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of relevant computational aerodynamics codes.

  15. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  16. Experimental Evidence for a Wave Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Orvin

    1997-04-01

    I have previously reported (see Wagner Web Site) slow moving, charge and matter separating, longitudinal waves, threading through matter and space. The waves I report are apparently produced by oscillating sources such as the sun and the planets, electromagnetic sources, and experimentally using electromagnetic sources. Experimentally the excited wavelengths are found to be close to the dimensions of the electromagnetic source regardless of its frequency. Oscillations of these waves can explain the solar cycle and determine planet and other satellite locations: r=r0exp(0.625N) where N is an integer for a particular planet or satellite of a planet and r0 is the radius of the sun or planet when the satellites were placed. This equation describes waves that are speeding up as the density of the medium (dark matter?) decreases moving away from the source. These waves are found experimentally to produce standing waves around any source apparently due to special reflection from the medium. These observations are consistent with the idea that these waves produce a pattern around a star with matter tending to collect only at specific locations(N) to produce satellites.

  17. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  18. Experimental drag histories of shocked spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Orlicz, Greg; Martinez, Adam

    2015-11-01

    The horizontal shock tube (HST) facility at Los Alamos is used to investigate the drag forces on micrometer-sized particles dispersed in air when they are accelerated by a shock. Eight-frame, high-speed particle tracking velocimetry/accelerometry (PTVA) diagnostics are implemented to measure the trajectory of individual particles with high spatial and temporal resolution, and a shadowgraphy system is used to measure the shock position on each image. We present experiments over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, particle sizes, and particle densities that explore the drag forces on solid, spherical, non-deforming particles. Experimental drag coefficients are calculated from eight dynamic measurements of particle position versus time, for Mach 1.3 and Mach 1.2 experiments. Experimental results show drag coefficients significantly larger than those predicted by the standard drag model for solid, spherical particles. These results are consistent with measurements made by Rudinger (1970) and Sommerfeld (1985). We will present experimental results and analysis of unsteady drag as a function of particle Reynolds number, Mach number and Stokes number.

  19. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  20. Comparing simulated and experimental molecular cluster distributions.

    PubMed

    Olenius, Tinja; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Franchin, Alessandro; Junninen, Heikki; Ortega, Ismael K; Kurtén, Theo; Loukonen, Ville; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Formation of secondary atmospheric aerosol particles starts with gas phase molecules forming small molecular clusters. High-resolution mass spectrometry enables the detection and chemical characterization of electrically charged clusters from the molecular scale upward, whereas the experimental detection of electrically neutral clusters, especially as a chemical composition measurement, down to 1 nm in diameter and beyond still remains challenging. In this work we simulated a set of both electrically neutral and charged small molecular clusters, consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia molecules, with a dynamic collision and evaporation model. Collision frequencies between the clusters were calculated according to classical kinetics, and evaporation rates were derived from first principles quantum chemical calculations with no fitting parameters. We found a good agreement between the modeled steady-state concentrations of negative cluster ions and experimental results measured with the state-of-the-art Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF) in the CLOUD chamber experiments at CERN. The model can be used to interpret experimental results and give information on neutral clusters that cannot be directly measured. PMID:24600997