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Sample records for julius danuseviius rimvydas

  1. Learning from Julius' Star, *, ⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Gaetano

    2012-02-01

    While collecting some personal memories about Julius Wess, I briefly describe some aspects of my recent work on many particle quantum mechanics and second quantization on noncommutative spaces obtained by twisting, and their connection to him.

  2. Julius Rosenwald: Building Partnerships for American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Russell O.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932) made enormous contributions to African American education, rural education, and many aspects of American life. Even so, he remains a little known figure to many. To a large extent, his impact was the result of an ability to build and maintain effective partnerships. This brief history summarizes Rosenwald's thoughts on…

  3. Biographical sketch: Julius Wolff, 1836-1902.

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A

    2010-04-01

    This biographical sketch on Julius Wolff corresponds to a translation of the historic text, Zur Lehre von der Fracturenheilung, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1240-9 ; and a translation and abridgement of the historic text, Ueber die Innere Architectur der Knochen und ihre Bedeutung für die Frage vom Knochenwachstum, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1239-2 . (Supplemental materials are available with the online version of CORR.) An accompanying Editorial is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1238-3 . PMID:20151232

  4. Julius--a software framework for computer-aided-surgery.

    PubMed

    Burgielski, Z; Jansen, T; von Rymon-Lipinski, B; Hanssen, N; Keeve, E

    2002-01-01

    In the paper we introduce Julius--an extendable cross-platform software framework for medical visualization and surgical planning. Julius features a modular, cross-platform design using Qt and Vtk libraries and comes with a set of image analysis components, like semi-automatic segmentation, registration, visualization and navigation. We also present a 3D surface generation pipeline used in Julius for generating surfaces from volume data. The pipeline consists of image based filtering, marching cubes surface extraction algorithm, surface decimation and surface smoothing steps. We use this approach within different medical applications like craniofacial surgical planning and will also show the overall software framework within the paper. PMID:12451784

  5. The Julius Rosenwald Fund syphilis seroprevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Roy, B

    1996-05-01

    In 1929 the Julius Rosenwald Fund, in conjunction with the Public Health Service (PHS), sponsored a syphilis seroprevalence study in the South characterized as a humanitarian effort to benefit the health of rural African Americans. The study reported extraordinarily high rates of positive Wassermann tests, even among children. Despite the unreliability and nonspecificity of this test, modern authors continue to indict these subjects as syphilitic. However, there was no consistent relationship between syphilis and a positive Wassermann test. Additional treponemal pathogens that potentially caused false-positive tests could explain the results. After public outcry to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the Rosenwald study acquired new significance. It was used as evidence to bolster the argument that Tuskegee was a consequence of humanitarian motives that became captive to misguided methods of researchers at the Venereal Disease Division of the PHS. Humanitarianism implies the acknowledgement of a right invested in the recipient; health is an end in itself. However, African Americans were necessary as a source of cheap labor for competition in the world cotton markets and as a restraint on the market value of white labor in manufacturing. The administrative structure of the PHS, not zealous individuals, adopted utilitarianism as its paradigm for human research. Syphilis seroprevalence was a calculated use of public health as a means to economic development. PMID:8667443

  6. The Julius Rosenwald Fund syphilis seroprevalence studies.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, B.

    1996-01-01

    In 1929 the Julius Rosenwald Fund, in conjunction with the Public Health Service (PHS), sponsored a syphilis seroprevalence study in the South characterized as a humanitarian effort to benefit the health of rural African Americans. The study reported extraordinarily high rates of positive Wassermann tests, even among children. Despite the unreliability and nonspecificity of this test, modern authors continue to indict these subjects as syphilitic. However, there was no consistent relationship between syphilis and a positive Wassermann test. Additional treponemal pathogens that potentially caused false-positive tests could explain the results. After public outcry to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the Rosenwald study acquired new significance. It was used as evidence to bolster the argument that Tuskegee was a consequence of humanitarian motives that became captive to misguided methods of researchers at the Venereal Disease Division of the PHS. Humanitarianism implies the acknowledgement of a right invested in the recipient; health is an end in itself. However, African Americans were necessary as a source of cheap labor for competition in the world cotton markets and as a restraint on the market value of white labor in manufacturing. The administrative structure of the PHS, not zealous individuals, adopted utilitarianism as its paradigm for human research. Syphilis seroprevalence was a calculated use of public health as a means to economic development. PMID:8667443

  7. Julius Streicher and the Rhetorical Foundations of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bytwerk, Randall L.; Brooks, Robert D.

    Julius Streicher, the German publisher sentenced to death in the Nuremberg trials for rhetorical crimes against humanity, published the widely-read and virulently anti-semitic weekly tabloid "Der Stuermer" from 1923 to 1945. Through Streicher's rhetoric and through the publication's cartoons, Jews were depicted as bacilli, vampires, rats, and…

  8. JULIUS CAESAR. PLUTARCH'S LIVES. AUTOBIOGRAPHY. LITERATURE CURRICULUM IV, STUDENT VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THIS 10TH-GRADE STUDENT GUIDE POSED SOME QUESTIONS AND CLARIFIED OTHERS ON SHAKESPEARE'S "JULIUS CAESAR," AND PRESENTED SHORT SELECTIONS FROM PLUTARCH'S "LIVES" (ON CAESAR, BRUTUS, AND MARK ANTONY) WITH ACCOMPANYING DISCUSSION QUESTIONS. A UNIT OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL READINGS OF EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCES WAS ALSO OUTLINED. BY PRESENTING BOTH THE PLAY,…

  9. JULIUS CAESAR. PLUTARCH'S LIVES. AUTOBIOGRAPHY. LITERATURE CURRICULUM IV, TEACHER VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THIS 10TH-GRADE ENGLISH CURRICULUM GUIDE WAS PREPARED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN THE PRESENTATION OF AN ENRICHED READING AND STUDY PROGRAM OF SHAKESPEARE'S "JULIUS CAESAR," GIVING SOME ATTENTION TO PLUTARCH'S BIOGRAPHIES OF CAESAR, BRUTUS, AND MARK ANTONY WHICH BEAR DIRECTLY ON SHAKESPEARE'S PLAY. AN INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT ON "AUTOBIOGRAPHY" WAS INCLUDED…

  10. LITERATURE CURRICULUM IV--TESTS FOR "JULIUS CAESAR" AND "AUTOBIOGRAPHY."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THESE TWO TESTS--"JULIUS CAESAR" AND "AUTOBIOGRAPHY"--WERE DESIGNED BY THE OREGON CURRICULUM STUDY CENTER FOR A 10TH-GRADE LITERATURE CURRICULUM. THEY ARE INTENDED TO ACCOMPANY CURRICULUM UNITS AVAILABLE AS ED 010 817 AND ED 010 818. (MM)

  11. Julius Caesar's late onset epilepsy: a case of historic proportions.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Richard S

    2010-09-01

    This is a case report of Julius Caesar's epilepsy that onset when he was 54-years-old. The differential diagnosis of late onset epilepsy is discussed and the rationale presented for concluding from the clinical presentation that the cause was neurocysticercosis. That this man's disease and its consequences altered the course of history is a very real possibility. PMID:21059498

  12. Doctor Julius Robert Mayer and Energy Processes in Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlichson, Herman

    2007-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of important papers in physics are written by physicists. But the physician Julius Robert Mayer (1814-1878, see photo) did a valid theoretical calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat just before Joule reported on his results from his well-known paddle-wheel experiments. Joule is well-known to physics people and…

  13. Understanding Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" Online: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Thomas

    This casebook of materials about William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" will enrich students' understanding of the historical context of the play and encourage interpretations of its cultural meaning. Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" reflects perennial cultural concerns about order and freedom, particularly as they clash in the figures of Caesar and…

  14. Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar": The Initial Classroom Presentation. An Introduction to Theatre, Volume 2. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoetker, James; Englesman, Alan

    A set of lessons to introduce "Julius Caesar" to secondary school students unfamiliar with Shakespeare is provided in this teaching guide. Only a critical fraction of the play is covered in the lessons. First, a synopsis of a modern high school situation whose conflicts parallel those in "Julius Caesar" is presented; then, directions are given for…

  15. Julius Sachs (1832–1897) and the Unity of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other “vegetable” organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria). PMID:26359706

  16. Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the Unity of Life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other "vegetable" organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria). PMID:26359706

  17. Julius Wess — a Scientist in Global Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Over several years the author co-operated closely with Julius Wess at the University of Munich in supporting re-establishing scientific links between physicists of the countries of South-East Europe and between these and the rest of the world. Major achievements have been the SinYu project leading to high-speed internet at the Serbian universities as well as re-establishing two series of conferences and summer schools. This is the first time, that the short history of the "WIGV initiative" has been written up.

  18. Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to a brain tumor?

    PubMed

    Gomez, J G; Kotler, J A; Long, J B

    1995-03-01

    Two thousand thirty-eight years later, in the setting of a similar care presentation, a physician would take a detailed history and perform a clinical and neurological examination. A preliminary diagnosis would be entertained and followed by electroencephalography and magnetic resonance of the brain with and without paramagnetic contrast for diagnostic confirmation. The proper medical or surgical treatment would then be instituted. A reconstruction of the clinical history of Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) has been attempted from available information from literature. Although a definite conclusion obviously cannot be made, a differential diagnosis provided with a tentative hypothesis is presented. The patient had late onset of seizures in the last two years of his life, headaches, personality changes. Upon reexamination of existing Julius Caesar iconography, busts, statues and minted coins no skull deformities have been noted. Identification of a skull deformity as described by Suetonius would have confirmed the suspicion of meningioma involving the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres. Meningioma or slow-growing supratentorial glioma may well have been responsible for this man's illness. Who knows how the course of history might have been changed... Probably not at all. PMID:7738524

  19. Noncommutativity and Humanity — Julius Wess and his Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2012-03-01

    A personal view on Julius Wess's human and scientific legacy in Serbia and the Balkan region is given. Motivation for using noncommutative and nonarchimedean geometry on very short distances is presented. In addition to some mathematical preliminaries, we present a short introduction in adelic quantum mechanics in a way suitable for its noncommutative generalization. We also review the basic ideas and tools embedded in q-deformed and noncommutative quantum mechanics. A rather fundamental approach, called deformation quantization, is noted. A few relations between noncommutativity and nonarchimedean spaces, as well as similarities between corresponding quantum theories, in particular, quantum cosmology are pointed out. An extended Moyal product in a frame of an adelic noncommutative quantum mechanics is also considered.

  20. Spicy science: David Julius and the discovery of temperature-sensitive TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Diana M

    2015-01-01

    This invited biographical review covers the career of Dr. David Julius and his discovery of thermosensitive TRP channels. Dr. Julius is currently the Morris Herzstein Chair in Molecular Biology and Medicine and Professor and Chair of Physiology at the University of California, San Francisco Medical School. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has received many distinguished awards for his landmark discoveries of the molecular basis of pain and thermosensation. PMID:27227012

  1. Julius Caesar's Epilepsy: Was It Caused by A Brain Arteriovenous Malformation?

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Nicola; Benet, Arnau; Lawton, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) was one of the most charismatic political figures in history. Best remembered for his military achievements, he was also a writer, historian, and statesman. Through his constitutional reforms, he played an important role in the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire. Historical sources reveal that Julius Caesar suffered from headaches, seizures, and personality changes. In this essay, we highlight the life of Julius Caesar, with emphasis on the potential origin of his sickness. Although a definitive diagnosis obviously cannot be made, as new published studies showed a possible cerebrovascular etiology, a new hypothetical diagnosis is presented. PMID:26118720

  2. Julius Bernstein (1839-1917): pioneer neurobiologist and biophysicist.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bernstein belonged to the Berlin school of "organic physicists" who played a prominent role in creating modern physiology and biophysics during the second half of the nineteenth century. He trained under du Bois-Reymond in Berlin, worked with von Helmholtz in Heidelberg, and finally became Professor of Physiology at the University of Halle. Nowadays his name is primarily associated with two discoveries: (1) The first accurate description of the action potential in 1868. He developed a new instrument, a differential rheotome (= current slicer) that allowed him to resolve the exact time course of electrical activity in nerve and muscle and to measure its conduction velocity. (2) His 'Membrane Theory of Electrical Potentials' in biological cells and tissues. This theory, published by Bernstein in 1902, provided the first plausible physico-chemical model of bioelectric events; its fundamental concepts remain valid to this day. Bernstein pursued an intense and long-range program of research in which he achieved a new level of precision and refinement by formulating quantitative theories supported by exact measurements. The innovative design and application of his electromechanical instruments were milestones in the development of biomedical engineering techniques. His seminal work prepared the ground for hypotheses and experiments on the conduction of the nervous impulse and ultimately the transmission of information in the nervous system. Shortly after his retirement, Bernstein (1912) summarized his electrophysiological work and extended his theoretical concepts in a book Elektrobiologie that became a classic in its field. The Bernstein Centers for Computational Neuroscience recently established at several universities in Germany were named to honor the person and his work. PMID:16341542

  3. Mwalimu Julius Nyerere: A Critical Review of His Contributions to Adult Education and Postcolonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenga, Derek C.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Tanzanian educator Julius Nyerere's works concludes that his philosophy of adult education and lifelong learning was very progressive and his ideas on education for liberation were consistent with Paulo Freire's. He provided a sustained critique of colonialism and racism and linked principles of education for liberation to the goal of…

  4. Julius Eichberg: String and Vocal Instruction in Nineteenth-Century Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sondra Wieland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the career and contributions of Julius Eichberg (1824-93), a pioneer in string and vocal instruction in Boston (Massachusetts). Eichberg founded the Boston Conservatory, supervised music education for the Boston public school system, and taught teacher-training courses. In addition, he composed choral works and operas, and edited several…

  5. Emanuel Haldeman-Julius and the Education of the Poor of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    2006-01-01

    Emanuel Haldeman-Julius was born in Philadelphia in 1889, the son of poor Russian immigrants. Emanuel did not achieve much at school and worked in various jobs until he found his niche as a reporter for a variety of socialist newspapers. He married a wealthy heiress, became a publisher and eventually achieved fame and wealth. The cornerstone of…

  6. Scripture in the Sky: Jeremias Drexel, Julius Schiller, and the Christianizing of the Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.; Shapiro, A.

    2011-06-01

    From the times of early Christians up to the Enlightenment, the twelve ancient signs of the zodiac were challenged as highly inappropriate pagan images. The most concerted efforts to replace those signs with names, mottos, and images taken from Holy Scripture occurred in the early decades of the 17th century. We review the background that led to the proposed use of sacred mottos by Jeremias Drexel, and then of the names and images of the Twelve Apostles by Julius Schiller. The reaction of a leading seventeenth-century astronomer is presented to suggest why such changes were never adopted. Finally, we address issues of conflict and motivation that might have led to efforts to Christianize the Heavens.

  7. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling due to Atmospheric Tides (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.

    2016-04-01

    Within the last decade, a new realization has arrived on the scene of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) science: terrestrial weather significantly influences space weather. The aspect of space weather referred to here consists of electron density variability that translates to uncertainties in navigation and communications systems, and neutral density variability that translates to uncertainties in orbital and reentry predictions. In the present context "terrestrial weather" primarily refers to the meteorological conditions that determine the spatial-temporal distribution of tropospheric water vapor and latent heating associated with tropical convection, and the middle atmosphere disturbances associated with sudden stratosphere warmings. The net effect of these processes is a spatially- and temporally-evolving spectrum of waves (gravity waves, tides, planetary waves, Kelvin waves) that grows in amplitude with height and enters the IT system near ~100 km. Some members of the wave spectrum penetrate all the way to the base of the exosphere (ca. 500 km). Along the way, nonlinear interactions between different wave components occur, modifying the interacting waves and giving rise to secondary waves. Finally, the IT wind perturbations carried by the waves can redistribute ionospheric plasma, either through the electric fields generated via the dynamo mechanism between 100 and 150 km, or directly by moving plasma along magnetic field lines at higher levels. Additionally, the signatures of wave-driven dynamo currents are reflected in magnetic perturbations observed at the ground. This is how terrestrial atmospheric variability, through the spectrum of vertically- propagating waves that it produces, can effectively drive IT space weather. The primary objective of this Julius Bartels Lecture is to provide an overview of the global observational evidence for the IT consequences of these upward-propagating waves. In honor of Julius Bartels, who performed much research (including

  8. Dictator Perpetuus: Julius Caesar--did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2004-10-01

    The "Dictator Perpetuus" of the Roman Empire, the great Julius Caesar, was not the one for whom the well-known cesarean operation was named; instead, this term is derived from a Latin word meaning "to cut." Caesar likely had epilepsy on the basis of four attacks that were probably complex partial seizures: (1) while listening to an oration by Cicero, (2) in the Senate while being offered the Emperor's Crown, and in military campaigns, (3) near Thapsus (North Africa) and (4) Corduba (Spain). Also, it is possible that he had absence attacks as a child and as a teenager. His son, Caesarion, by Queen Cleopatra, likely had seizures as a child, but the evidence is only suggestive. His great-great-great grandnephews Caligula and Britannicus also had seizures. The etiology of these seizures in this Julio-Claudian family was most likely through inheritance, with the possibility of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in his great grandfather and also his father. Our best evidence comes from the ancient sources of Suetonius, Plutarch, Pliny, and Appianus. PMID:15380131

  9. Julius Caesar Scaliger on plant generation and the question of species constancy.

    PubMed

    Blank, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The sixteenth-century physician and philosopher Julius Caesar Scaliger combines the view that living beings are individuated by a single substantial form with the view that the constituents of the organic body retain their identity due to the continued existence and operation of their own substantial forms. This essay investigates the implications of Scaliger's account of subordinate and dominant substantial forms for the question of the constancy of biological species. According to Scaliger, biological mutability involves not only change on the ontological level of accidents but, in some cases, also change on the level of substantial forms. While he shares the received view that substantial forms themselves cannot undergo change, he maintains that relations of domination and subordination between substantial forms can undergo change. He uses his theory of how such changes can occur to explain cases of revertible plant degeneration. Moreover, in his view plants that belong to previously unknown biological species can emerge from changes in the relations between the many forms contained in plant seeds. PMID:20695395

  10. Basic versus applied research: Julius Sachs (1832–1897) and the experimental physiology of plants

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The German biologist Julius Sachs was the first to introduce controlled, accurate, quantitative experimentation into the botanical sciences, and is regarded as the founder of modern plant physiology. His seminal monograph Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) was published 150 y ago (1865), when Sachs was employed as a lecturer at the Agricultural Academy in Poppelsdorf/Bonn (now part of the University). This book marks the beginning of a new era of basic and applied plant science. In this contribution, I summarize the achievements of Sachs and outline his lasting legacy. In addition, I show that Sachs was one of the first biologists who integrated bacteria, which he considered to be descendants of fungi, into the botanical sciences and discussed their interaction with land plants (degradation of wood etc.). This “plant-microbe-view” of green organisms was extended and elaborated by the laboratory botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer (1845–1920), so that the term “Sachs-Pfeffer-Principle of Experimental Plant Research” appears to be appropriate to characterize this novel way of performing scientific studies on green, photoautotrophic organisms (embryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria). PMID:26146794

  11. Basic versus applied research: Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the experimental physiology of plants.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The German biologist Julius Sachs was the first to introduce controlled, accurate, quantitative experimentation into the botanical sciences, and is regarded as the founder of modern plant physiology. His seminal monograph Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) was published 150 y ago (1865), when Sachs was employed as a lecturer at the Agricultural Academy in Poppelsdorf/Bonn (now part of the University). This book marks the beginning of a new era of basic and applied plant science. In this contribution, I summarize the achievements of Sachs and outline his lasting legacy. In addition, I show that Sachs was one of the first biologists who integrated bacteria, which he considered to be descendants of fungi, into the botanical sciences and discussed their interaction with land plants (degradation of wood etc.). This "plant-microbe-view" of green organisms was extended and elaborated by the laboratory botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer (1845-1920), so that the term "Sachs-Pfeffer-Principle of Experimental Plant Research" appears to be appropriate to characterize this novel way of performing scientific studies on green, photoautotrophic organisms (embryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria). PMID:26146794

  12. [The plant physiologist Julius von Sachs and the academic education of women].

    PubMed

    Gimmler, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The attitude of the famous plant physiologist Julius von Sachs (1832-1897) to higher education of women is described on the basis of some new documents. Generally, Sachs was in favour of academic education of women at universities, but initially wanted to exclude females from the study of medicine. However, by the example of a bright young Russian lady, who studied medicine in St. Petersburg and who worked 1871 in his laboratory in Würzburg on lower fungi for some time (presumably illegally, since the access for woman to the university was at that time officially forbidden in Würzburg), he changed his mind: 1) In contrast to many colleagues of his time he granted females similar intelligence and skills as males and stated that women had legal rights for the access to the university. 2) He favoured the general necessity of higher education (in particular in science) for women and did not see any contrast in respect to this to the role of women in the society as wives, mothers, and housewives. 3) Access to the university would stimulate the development of young women and thereby would be an improvement for our society. However, in conclusion he asked himself, whether the higher education of females should take place at special women colleges (not existing at that time in Germany) or at universities and whether girl students should preferentially become teachers at high schools for daughters of the high society. He admitted that he also felt uncomfortable because of the threatening job competition between young academic male (traditionally the majority of students in science) and female students. The liberal view of Sachs in respect to higher education of women is compared to the rather conservative view of his former student and friend Hugo Thiel. PMID:17153314

  13. Julius Caesar Arantius (Giulio Cesare Aranzi, 1530-1589) and the hippocampus of the human brain: history behind the discovery.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Ambekar, Sudheer; Kukreja, Sunil; Nanda, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Julius Caesar Arantius is one of the pioneer anatomists and surgeons of the 16th century who discovered the different anatomical structures of the human body. One of his prominent discoveries is the hippocampus. At that time, Arantius originated the term hippocampus, from the Greek word for seahorse (hippos ["horse"] and kampos ["sea monster"]). Arantius published his description of the hippocampus in 1587, in the first chapter of his work titled De Humano Foetu Liber. Numerous nomenclatures of this structure, including "white silkworm," "Ammon's horn," and "ram's horn" were proposed by different scholars at that time. However, the term hippocampus has become the most widely used in the literature. PMID:25574573

  14. ["100 rats and 20 children!"--Julius Moses and the debate over human experiments in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Reuland, A

    2002-01-01

    In 1900, the Prussian ministry of cultural affairs for the first time issued ethical guidelines on human experimentation. These guidelines were not able to prevent questionable human experiments in Germany during the Weimar Republic. In 1928 the testing of a vitamin-D-medication in the Berlin "Kaiserin Auguste Victoria-Haus" led to a public scandal. The physician and active social democrat Julius Moses played a decisive role in the disclosure of this scandal and of other inadmissible experiments. Subsequently in 1930, the "Reichsgesundheitsrat" developed improved guidelines distinguishing between scientific and therapeutic experiments. PMID:11862686

  15. Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940): Introducing fever therapy in the treatment of neurosyphilis.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, M; Liappas, I; Antoniou, Ch; Androutsos, G; Lykouras, E

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, heat has been used in various ways for the cure of mental diseases. Hippocrates noted that malarial fever could have a calming effect in epileptics. Centuries later, Galen described a case of melancholy cured as a result of an attack of quartan fever. In 19th century, the eminent French psychiatrist Philippe Pinel, in his treatise on insanity referred to the beneficial effect of fever. An opinion expressed few years later by his pupil Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol in his treatise entitled Des maladies mentales considérées sous les rapports médical, hygiénique et médico-légal. However, in 1917, the Austrian neuro-psychiatrist Julius Wagner Jauregg pointed out the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica. In 1927, Wagner Jauregg received for this work the Nobel Prize in Medicine, being actually the first psychiatrist to win the Nobel Prize. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna and received his doctorate in 1880. In 1889, he was appointed Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Graz's Psychiatric Clinic, a position that he held until 1928. Working in the asylum, Wagner Jauregg noted that insane patients with general paralysis occasionally became sane after some febrile episode. After experimenting with several artificial methods (streptococci, tuberculin) to induce fever, he concluded that malaria was the most satisfactory. Actually, malaria infection was an acceptable risk for the patients, as quinine would be administered as soon as syphilis was cured. In 1917, he reported the first favorable results of his study. Patients were inoculated via intravenous injections with malaria. Some physicians were starting the administration of anti-syphilitic treatment (bismuth, salvarsan and later penicillin) after 10-12 febrile paroxysms, while others initiated the regimen the first febrile-free day after 8 malarial paroxysms. The therapeutic regimen was completed with the administration of quinine

  16. Julius Wagner-Jauregg and the legacy of malarial therapy for the treatment of general paresis of the insane.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Cynthia J

    2013-06-01

    Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a preeminent Austrian psychiatrist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1927 for the development of malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis, or general paresis of the insane. Despite being only one of three psychiatrists to win a Nobel Prize, he has faded from public consciousness and his name recognition pales in comparison to his contemporary and fellow Austrian, Sigmund Freud. This paper explores his contributions to the field of biological psychiatry and also touches upon reasons, such as the growing bioethics movement, his controversial affiliation with the Nazi Party, and the evolution of neurosyphilis, that explain why Wagner-Jauregg is not more widely celebrated for his contributions to the field of psychiatry, even though his malarial treatment could be considered the earliest triumph of biological psychiatry over psychoanalysis. PMID:23766744

  17. Julius Wagner-Jauregg and the Legacy of Malarial Therapy for the Treatment of General Paresis of the Insane

    PubMed Central

    Tsay, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a preeminent Austrian psychiatrist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1927 for the development of malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis, or general paresis of the insane. Despite being only one of three psychiatrists to win a Nobel Prize, he has faded from public consciousness and his name recognition pales in comparison to his contemporary and fellow Austrian, Sigmund Freud. This paper explores his contributions to the field of biological psychiatry and also touches upon reasons, such as the growing bioethics movement, his controversial affiliation with the Nazi Party, and the evolution of neurosyphilis, that explain why Wagner-Jauregg is not more widely celebrated for his contributions to the field of psychiatry, even though his malarial treatment could be considered the earliest triumph of biological psychiatry over psychoanalysis. PMID:23766744

  18. Early Conquest of the Rock: Julius Lempert's Life and the Complete Apicectomy Technique for the Treatment of Suppurative Petrous Apicitis

    PubMed Central

    Krisht, Khaled M.; Shelton, Clough; Couldwell, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Julius Lempert (1891–1968) was one of the most revolutionary and innovative neuro-otologists of the 20th century. He had a remarkable role in advancing the field of otolaryngology to its modern shape and form, especially through his groundbreaking introduction of the fenestration procedure for the treatment of otosclerosis. Although he is highly celebrated by many neuro-otologists for his contributions to our surgical and anatomical understanding of the petrous bone, he is not well known to the neurosurgical community. In this article, we give a detailed account of Dr. Lempert's life and discuss his invaluable contribution to skull base petrous bone anatomy and surgery through his pioneering work on the complete apicectomy for the treatment of suppurative petrous apicitis. PMID:25844295

  19. Neuropathology in Germany during World War II: Julius Hallervorden (1882-1965) and the Nazi programme of 'euthanasia'.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J T

    2007-05-01

    In Germany, during World War II, more than 120,000 handicapped children and adults were murdered for the convenience of the State. To gain scientific knowledge, the brains of many of these patients were examined by German neuropathologists. Some 698 of these specimens were examined in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Hirnforschung in Berlin-Buch by Julius Hallervorden, whose career is reviewed together with that of his superior, Hugo Spatz. Hallervorden also oversaw the examination of cases of mental handicap by W-J Eiche at a laboratory at the Hospital Brandenburg-Gorden. Also in Berlin was Berthold Ostertag, neuropathologist at the Rudolf-Virchow-Hospital, who examined cases from the Children's Ward at Wiesengrund. Smaller but significant numbers of brains were examined in Munich, Heidelberg, Hamburg and Schleswig. Some brains of similar origin were examined in Vienna and in Lubliniecz. Jürgen Peiffer has estimated that German neuropathologists examined 2097 brains arising from the Nazi Programme of 'Euthanasia'. PMID:17551614

  20. Beginning of modern concept of inflammation: the work of Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen and Julius Friedrich Cohnheim.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Bahner, Udo

    2009-01-01

    In Rudolf Virchow's concept of inflammation, the basic alterations were derived from connective tissue cells, which underwent a marked metamorphosis. This cell-based and static conception was fundamentally broadened and, in part, refuted in the ensuing decade by 2 of his scholars. Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen characterized the pus cells in acute inflammation and made the seminal observation of their contractility and mobility. He was the first who described the wandering leukocytes which were demonstrated in particular in experimental keratitis. He also showed that pus cells could migrate from the places of their origin in the interstitium to other tissues and epithelial cells. Von Recklinghausen in addition contributed to the concept of phagocytosis. The work of Julius Friedrich Cohnheim was focused on the mechanisms involved in the extravasation of leukocytes from the blood vessels in the inflamed mesentery of the frog and carefully described the time-dependent alterations: dilatation of the arteries and veins, adhesion of colorless cells to the endothelial cells, and the subsequent transmigration from the capillaries and venules into the interstitial space. In the last few decades, experimental and clinical studies using modern techniques have fully confirmed and extended these basic observations made by von Recklinghausen and Cohnheim more than 100 years ago. PMID:20013736

  1. Challenges to the implementation of International Health Regulations (2005) on Preventing Infectious Diseases: experience from Julius Nyerere International Airport, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Edith; Frumence, Gasto

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO) member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs) have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases across borders. The agreement postulates that member states will strengthen core capacities detailed in the IHR (2005), including those specified for the POE. This study intended to assess the challenges faced in implementing the IHR (2005) requirements at Julius Nyerere International Airport (JNIA), Dar es Salaam. Design A cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing qualitative methods, was conducted at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW), WHO, and JNIA. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and documentary reviews were used to obtain relevant information. Respondents were purposively enrolled into the study. Thematic analysis was used to generate study findings. Results Several challenges that hamper implementation of the IHR (2005) were identified: (1) none of the 42 Tanzanian POEs have been specifically designated to implement IHR (2005). (2) Implementation of the IHR (2005) at the POE was complicated as it falls under various uncoordinated government departments. Although there were clear communication channels at JNIA that enhanced reliable risk communication, the airport lacked isolated rooms specific for emergence preparedness and response to public health events. Conclusions JNIA is yet to develop adequate core capacities required for implementation of the IHR (2005). There is a need for policy managers to designate JNIA to implement IHR (2005) and ensure that public health policies, legislations, guidelines, and practice at POE are harmonized to improve international travel and trade. Policy makers and implementers should also ensure that implementation of

  2. [Antisemitism in science and the health politics of the Weimar Republic--with special remembrance of Julius Moses (1868-1942)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, S

    1989-05-15

    Fifty years after the Jew-baitings in Fascist Germany the phenomenon of race-hatred and race-separation remains politically actual up to now and commits ourselves to remembrance, meditation and active attitude aginst all its forms. The events after 1933 appear as an appalling escalation of antisemitism which was practised already in the period of the Weimar Republic. A particular appreciation of all those persons who recognized this danger at the right time, came up against it and finally became victims is left to us. Thereby the humanistic activities of Julius Moses (1868-1942) are made mention of. PMID:2669386

  3. The pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - the physicians: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) and Karel Wenckebach (1864-1940).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Three physicians are discussed. Sigmund Freud, probably the best-known member of the Vienna School of Medicine, was the path-breaking pioneer in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Julius Wagner-Jauregg was a psychiatrist who discovered the link between iodine deficiency and goitre and also developed malaria therapy to treat progressive paralysis caused by syphilis for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Karel Wenckebach, the pioneering Dutch cardiologist, is best known for the Wenckebach block. After the Anschluss, fate dealt very different hands to these three physicians. Freud fled to London where he soon died. Wagner-Jauregg, who had some pan-Germanic sympathies as well as views on eugenics, left a controversial legacy. The Dutch cardiologist Wenckebach died in Vienna shortly after his homeland had been invaded in 1940 by that of his hosts. PMID:25052152

  4. Ernst Julius Öpik's (1916) note on the theory of explosion cratering on the Moon's surface—The complex case of a long-overlooked benchmark paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racki, Grzegorz; Koeberl, Christian; Viik, Tõnu; Jagt-Yazykova, Elena A.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-10-01

    High-velocity impact as a common phenomenon in planetary evolution was ignored until well into the twentieth century, mostly because of inadequate understanding of cratering processes. An eight-page note, published in Russian by the young Ernst Julius Öpik, a great Estonian astronomer, was among the key selenological papers, but due to the language barrier, it was barely known and mostly incorrectly cited. This particular paper is here intended to serve as an explanatory supplement to an English translation of Öpik's article, but also to document an early stage in our understanding of cratering. First, we outline the historical-biographical background of this benchmark paper, and second, a comprehensive discussion of its merits is presented, from past and present perspectives alike. In his theoretical research, Öpik analyzed the explosive formation of craters numerically, albeit in a very simple way. For the first time, he approximated relationships among minimal meteorite size, impact energy, and crater diameter; this scaling focused solely on the gravitational energy of excavating the crater (a "useful" working approach). This initial physical model, with a rational mechanical basis, was developed in a series of papers up to 1961. Öpik should certainly be viewed as the founder of the numerical simulation approach in planetary sciences. In addition, the present note also briefly describes Nikolai A. Morozov as a remarkable man, a forgotten Russian scientist and, surprisingly, the true initiator of Öpik's explosive impact theory. In fact, already between 1909 and 1911, Morozov probably was the first to consider conclusively that explosion craters would be circular, bowl-shaped depressions even when formed under different impact angles.

  5. Authorities and foundation of the orthopaedic school in Germany in the 19th century: part II: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, Friedrich Trendelenburg and other German authors.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The national achievements of the orthopaedic school of Germany became international in the second part of the 19th century, and from 1860 through 1914 its educational system attracted many physicians and surgeons from all over the world. During this period of 50 years, German surgeons asserted their dominance in orthopaedic surgery, particularly with four famous surgeons: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, and Friedrich Trendelenburg. They held annual meetings, during which papers were read and discussed. We also present contributions to orthopaedic sciences of the other German authors during 19th century according to different cities. PMID:26585866

  6. Oppenheimer, Julius Robert (1904-67)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear physicist, born in New York City, joined the Manhattan Project and directed the Los Alamos Laboratory, where he became known as the `father of the atomic bomb'. He directed the Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ. He worked on cosmic rays and calculated theoretically the structure of neutron stars, remarking that it seemed unlikely that they existed. Neutron stars were discovere...

  7. Julius Axelrod: 20 May 1912 - 29 December 2004.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Julie Axelrod was a laboratory technician until the age of 42, when he finally achieved his PhD and independence. He worked at the National Institutes of Health for most of his career. Among his early pioneering research achievements in applying chemical and biochemical approaches to neuroscience were the discoveries of the painkiller acetaminophen (Tylenol, Paracetamol) and the liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes, and the establishment of catechol-O-methyltransferase as an important enzyme in catecholamine metabolism. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his discovery that the reuptake of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into the nerve endings from which it was released represented a novel method of neurotransmitter inactivation. An important corollary was the finding that antidepressant drugs acted as inhibitors of this uptake process. Subsequent work in his laboratory on the control of melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland provided new insights into the way in which the nervous system controls circadian rhythms, and offered an early model system in which to study the rapid control of mammalian gene expression. Axelrod continued actively in research until shortly before his death, and trained many students who have gone on to become leaders of the new field of biochemical neuropharmacology. PMID:18543469

  8. Ernst Julius Öpik, Solar Variability and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    This paper covers some aspects of the life and work of the Estonian astronomer Ernst Öpik (1893--1985), who contributed to a very wide range of astronomical disciplines, and whose publications span more than 70 years. He worked in Estonia, the Soviet Union, the United States, Germany and Northern Ireland. His visions on the role of solar variability in global climate change are emphasized, and his opinions on modelling in science are explained, in addition to his views about scientific refereeing and publishing.

  9. Perspectivism and Form in Drama: A Burkean Analysis of "Julius Caesar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weier, Gary M.

    1996-01-01

    Employs a critical application of Kenneth Burke's notions of form and perspectivism. Argues for the potential of a complementary relationship between form and perspectivism in the appeal of rhetorical artifacts. Claims that form is perspectival, limiting possibilities for appropriate interpretations within a text. Applies this theoretical…

  10. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize: Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Emergent Behavior in Quantum Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, David

    We live in an emergent universe in which interactions between the basic building blocks of matter and their environment give rise to unpredicted and unexpected emergent behavior at every scale. As physicists we seek to identify the organizing principles responsible for that behavior, construct soluble models that incorporate these, and explain experiment. In this lecture, I illustrate this approach to understanding emergent behavior in quantum matter through three examples: collective modes in electron, helium, and nuclear liquids; the emergence of superconductivity in conventional and unconventional superconductors, nuclei, and neutron stars; and the emergence of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials.

  11. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Talk: Quantum spintronics: abandoning perfection for new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awschalom, David D.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in exploiting the quantum properties of electronic and nuclear spins for the manipulation and storage of information in the solid state. Such schemes offer qualitatively new scientific and technological opportunities by leveraging elements of standard electronics to precisely control coherent interactions between electrons, nuclei, and electromagnetic fields. We provide an overview of the field, including a discussion of temporally- and spatially-resolved magneto-optical measurements designed for probing local moment dynamics in electrically and magnetically doped semiconductor nanostructures. These early studies provided a surprising proof-of-concept that quantum spin states can be created and controlled with high-speed optoelectronic techniques. However, as electronic structures approach the atomic scale, small amounts of disorder begin to have outsized negative effects. An intriguing solution to this conundrum is emerging from recent efforts to embrace semiconductor defects themselves as a route towards quantum machines. Individual defects in carbon-based materials possess an electronic spin state that can be employed as a solid state quantum bit at and above room temperature. Developments at the frontier of this field include gigahertz coherent control, nanofabricated spin arrays, nuclear spin quantum memories, and nanometer-scale sensing. We will describe advances towards quantum information processing driven by both physics and materials science to explore electronic, photonic, and magnetic control of spin. Work supported by the AFOSR, ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  12. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize: Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Emergent Behavior in Quantum Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, David

    We live in an emergent universe in which interactions between the basic building blocks of matter and their environment give rise to unpredicted and unexpected emergent behavior at every scale. As physicists we seek to identify the organizing principles responsible for that behavior, construct soluble models that incorporate these, and explain experiment. In this lecture, I illustrate this approach to understanding emergent behavior in quantum matter through three examples: collective modes in electron, helium, and nuclear liquids; the emergence of superconductivity in conventional and unconventional superconductors, nuclei, and neutron stars; and the emergence of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials.

  13. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize: Chaotic Dynamics in the Physical Sciences: Some Comments and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Chaos was first discovered by Poincare in his famous 1887 work on the motion of N >2 bodies interacting through gravitational attraction. Although steady progress was made by mathematicians following Poincare's work, widespread impact and development of chaos in the physical sciences is only comparatively recent, i.e., approximately starting in the 1970's. This talk will review this history and give some examples illustrating the types of questions, problems and results arising from perspectives resulting from widespread participation of physical scientists.

  14. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Mapping the Universe: Physics Writ Large

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    The age of mapping the universe began in earnest in the late twentieth century. I will describe the enormous strides we have made in mapping the galaxy distribution and in understanding its nature and history. I will show how techniques for measuring the (primarily dark) matter distribuion in massive systems of galaxies are an astrophysical route to tests of fundamental physics.

  15. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize: The RG and me: love at first bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Ramamurti

    2009-03-01

    From the time I took the first bite out of that cut-off, I have been in love with the Renormalization Group, returning to it over and over again to apply it to classical and quantum problems, in clean as well as disordered systems. This talk, aimed at non-experts, introduces and illustrates the RG ideas, with a favorite application, understanding Landau's Fermi liquid.

  16. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Did Cosmic Structure Originate from Quantum Mechanical Fluctuations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1997-04-01

    The hot big-bang cosmology provides a reliable account of the Universe from about 0.01 sec until the present. It holds that the cosmic structure that we see today -- galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids and great walls -- arose through the gravitational amplification of small (part in 10^5) variations in the density of matter which were present very early on. The theory of big-bang nucleosynthesis, which is one of the pillars of the hot big-bang model, indicates that ordinary matter (baryons) accounts for only about 5% of the critical density, while observations indicate that the total matter density, the bulk of which exists in the form of the ubiquitous and mysterious dark matter, is at least 20% of the critical density (and perhaps as high as the critical density). The origin of the density inhomogeneities and the nature of the dark matter are the two most pressing issues in cosmology today. Inflation is an expansive theory of the early Universe that squarely addresses both. Inflation holds that bulk of the dark matter exists in the form of slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments (referred to as cold dark matter) and that the density inhomogeneities originated as quantum fluctuations on scales of around 10-23 cm and were stretched to astrophysical scales by the tremendous expansion that took place during inflation. This bold hypothesis is being tested by a flood of cosmological observations, including measurements of the temperature anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation, large (redshift) surveys of the distribution of galaxies, deep images of the Universe provided by the Hubble Space and Keck Telescopes, and direct searches for the particle dark matter in our own Milky Way galaxy. Should inflation and cold dark matter prove correct, our understanding of the Universe would be extended back to 10-32 sec and a window on physics at energies of 10^14 GeV would be opened.

  17. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: The Higgs Boson, String Theory, and the Real World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I'll describe how string theory is exciting because it can address most, perhaps all, of the questions we hope to understand about our world: why quarks and leptons make up our world, what forces form our world, cosmology, parity violation, and much more. I'll explain why string theory is testable in basically the same ways as the rest of physics, and why much of what is written about that is misleading. String theory is already or soon being tested in several ways, including correctly predicting the recently observed Higgs boson properties and mass, and predictions for dark matter, LHC physics, cosmological history, and more, from work in the increasingly active subfield ``string phenomenology.''

  18. [Quo vadis cardiologia? Or: An nescis, mi fili, quantilla prudentia mundus regatur? (Pope Julius III)].

    PubMed

    Kübler, W

    2003-02-01

    In order to recognize and to solve problems, a look in the future is essential despite many uncertainties. Besides sound bed side-teaching, the main aim in the education of the students should be to acquire self-responsiveness and an attitude of permanent learning. It is more than doubtful whether the high expectations of health politicians will be met to limit the cost of in-patient treatment by introducing diagnosis-related groups in combination with evidence-based medicine, as this method has several severe limitations in order to fulfill this duty. The new financial system based on diagnosis-related groups will be in favor of private investors compared to the government-dependent university hospitals. The changing population pyramid implies not only higher costs but in addition severe medical problems. Within the changing society, alterations in the patient's behavior are to be expected. Several factors will contribute to make the doctor's profession less attractive. In the developing countries a rapid increase in the non-communicative diseases, i.e., in coronary heart disease, has to be expected. Apart from the prolongation of life - especially during its terminal phase - it is mainly the allocation of resources between industrialized and developing countries which will determine the ethical discussion. Germany has lost its leading position of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century in medical sciences. This was based on the liberal university system introduced by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Several pioneering innovations of German cardiologists during the 20th century have not strengthened German industry - in contrast to the situation in the 19th century. The general conditions in Germany, which are not research oriented, have prompted the majority of the pharmaceutical firms to transfer their research activities into foreign countries. In addition Germany's cardiological research has lost basic sciences partners for clinically orientated basic research, as many institutes which formerly worked in the cardiovascular field, are now devoted to other specialties. Restrictive legal regulations--such as the law regulating working hours, anti-corruption laws and the new legal university framework--are not conducive to internationally competitive research. Creative and innovative research requires liberal general conditions and cannot be planed. PMID:12596072

  19. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Talk: The Fermi Pasta Ulam (FPU) Problem and The Birth of Nonlinear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, David K.

    2010-03-01

    In 1953, Enrico Fermi, John Pasta, and Stan Ulam initiated a series of computer studies aimed at exploring how simple, multi-degree of freedom nonlinear mechanical systems obeying reversible deterministic dynamics evolve in time to an equilibrium state describable by statistical mechanics. Their expectation was that this would occur by mixing behavior among the many linear modes. Their intention was then to study more complex nonlinear systems, with the hope of modeling turbulence computationally. The results of this first study of the so-called Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem, which were published in 1955 and characterized by Fermi as a ``little discovery,'' showed instead of the expected mixing of linear modes a striking series of (near) recurrences of the initial state and no evidence of equipartition. This work heralded the beginning of both computational physics and (modern) nonlinear science. In particular, the work marked the first systematic study of a nonlinear system by digital computers (``experimental mathematics'') and led directly to the discovery of ``solitons,'' as well as to deep insights into deterministic chaos and statistical mechanics. In this talk, I will review the original FPU studies and show how they led to the understanding of two key paradigms of nonlinear science. Specifically, I will show how a continuum approximation to the original discrete system led to the discovery of ``solitions'' whereas a low-mode approximation led to an early example of ``deterministic chaos.'' I will close with a brief indication of how the recurrence phenomenon observed by behavior by FPU can be reconciled with mixing, equipartition, and statistical mechanics.

  20. Social background of the discovery and the reception of the periodic law of the elements: recognizing the contributions of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Masanori

    2003-05-01

    The favorable and relatively rapid reception of Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements can be attributed, in part at least, to his social connections. These connections were evident in the recently organized Russian Chemical Society. In addition, Mendeleev enjoyed the support of the editorial board of the journal of the German Chemical Society. PMID:12796115

  1. [Introduction and transformation of the psychiatric term "anancasm". From Gyula (Julius) Donáth via Kurt Schneider to ICD-10].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H

    2014-09-01

    The conceptual history of "anancasm" in psychiatry remains almost unexplored and this article will help to remove this deficit. It was the Budapest-based neuropsychiatrist Gyula Donáth (1849-1944) who first proposed this Greek-rooted term in 1897 as an international term for compulsive symptoms and as an independent mental illness similar to present-day obsessive compulsive disorders (ICD-10). By suggesting this term Donáth wanted to extend the concept of compulsion as proposed by his teacher Carl Westphal to other compulsive phenomena, psychomotor impulses and restrictions including echolalia, coprolalia, echokinesis, echopraxia, contemporary maladie des tics (present day Tourette's syndrome) and even intermittent dipsomania (craving for alcohol), paraphilias, sexual fetishes and homosexuality. In 1923 Kurt Schneider used this term for a subgroup of psychopathic personalities, the so-called insecure anancastic psychopaths. His concept was much different to that suggested by Donáth, with the only thing in common being the compulsory component. Schneider's anancasts suffered from feelings of insecurity and insufficiency and were forced to try to overcompensate by being excessively careful, meticulous and hyper-correct. Based on Schneider's concept anancasm has survived as a name for a subdivision of compulsive personality disorders in ICD-10; however, these rather complex personality defects were not what Donáth had in mind when he first suggested the term anancasm. The paper discusses further discrepancies between Donáth, Schneider and ICD-10. PMID:24036702

  2. Shall We Bury "Caesar" or Praise Him? Ideas for the Revitalization of an Old Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklar, Stacey M.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that "Julius Caesar" is required in nearly every high school curriculum, but that making the play accessible to students is not easy. Tries new teaching ideas to see whether students would more readily take to "Julius Caesar" using a more interdisciplinary approach. Describes three of these ideas that were particularly successful. (SG)

  3. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  4. "How Many Ages Hence..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebbeck, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Ninth graders explored the theme of power and ambition by reading William Shakespeare's play "Julius Caesar," studying daily life in ancient Rome, comparing the play's plot to the attempted overthrow of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, examining other power struggles, and developing scripts for modern-day "Julius Caesar" videotape productions.…

  5. Review Essay: Recent Additions to the Rosenwald Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilke, Jayne R.

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on Julius Rosenwald and the Rosenwald Fund and places them within the historiography of the Fund. "Julius Rosenwald: The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South," is a biography written by Peter M. Ascoli. The book entitled "The Rosenwald Schools of the American…

  6. Noncommutative QFT and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, H.; Wulkenhaar, R.

    2006-03-01

    It was a great pleasure for me (Harald Grosse) to be invited to talk at the meeting celebrating the 70th birthday of Prof. Julius Wess. I remember various interactions with Julius during the last years: At the time of my studies at Vienna with Walter Thirring, Julius left already Vienna, I learned from his work on effective chiral Lagrangians. Next we met at various conferences and places like CERN (were I worked with Andre Martin, an old friend of Julius), and we all learned from Julius' and Bruno's creation of supersymmetry, next we realized our common interests in noncommutative quantum field theory and did have an intensive exchange. Julius influenced our perturbative approach to gauge field theories were we used the Seiberg-Witten map after his advice. And finally I lively remember the sad days when during my invitation to Vienna Julius did have the serious heart attack. So we are very happy, that you recovered so well, and we wish you all the best for the forthcoming years. Many happy recurrences.

  7. 78 FR 7780 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC Announces Further Details for the First Post-Superstorm Sandy Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Hearing, Tuesday, February 5, 2013 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Sunshine notice. SUMMARY: In the wake of Superstorm Sandy, Federal Communications Chairman Julius Genachowski...

  8. History into Drama: The Perspective of "1 Henry IV."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Larry S.

    1978-01-01

    Contrasts Shakespeare's "Henry V" and "Henry IV" series, in which human interaction becomes history, with plays such as "Julius Caesar," which focus on psychological analysis and the internalized protagonist. (MB)

  9. And Then They Asked for Hamlet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    A teacher in an inner-city London school describes how she involves low income, minority group students in learning classics such as Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." Emphasizes cooperative learning and active student involvement using their urban background. (FMW)

  10. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  11. Use it or lose it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatheway, Alson E.

    2014-11-01

    Brutus to Cassius in Julius Caesar: "There is a tide in the affairs of men which taken at the flood leads on to fortune. Omitted, all the voyage of their life is bound in shallows and in miseries." - W. Shakespeare

  12. 12. Photocopy of map from Atlas of Westchester County by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of map from Atlas of Westchester County by Joseph E. Bien, published by Julius Bien & Company, New York, 1893 - Moquette Row Housing, Moquette Row North & Moquette Row South, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  13. A Symposium on Pre-1900 Classics Worth Using in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Various contributors recommend "The Odyssey,""Julius Caesar,""A Dog's Tale,""Ivanhoe,""Star Wars,""The Red Badge of Courage,""Demian,""Antigone,""Children of Crisis," and "Frankenstein" for use in literature classes and justify their recommendations. (JL)

  14. South Africa: ANC Youth League President found guilty of hate speech.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 15 March 2010, the Johannesburg Equality Court found African National Congress (ANC) Youth League President Julius Malema guilty of hate speech and harassment for his comments regarding rape survivors. PMID:21188953

  15. The birth of Caesar and the cesarean misnomer.

    PubMed

    Raju, Tonse N K

    2007-11-01

    Although cesarean section is one of the most ancient surgical procedures, the origin of its name remains obscure. The term, however, did not originate because of the birth of the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar through this route. In fact, historians are certain that Julius Caesar was not delivered by the dangerous cesarean section. The evidence for this comes from indirect inferences. Cesarean sections were rarely attempted on living women until the early 17th century, and Julius Caesar's mother was alive and well through her son's adult life. Two other possible reasons for the origin of the term are discussed in this article. Mention is also made of the cesarean birth histories of some mythological characters and a few historical personalities. PMID:17893840

  16. Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall Summers);…

  17. Scholarly Appraisals of Literary Works Taught in High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Stephen, Ed.; Sams, Henry W., Ed.

    Critical essays on eight literary works--four from the conventional literature curriculum and four less widely taught--are collected in this publication. Each o f the four standard selections--"Great Expectations,""Julius Caesar,""The Scarlet Letter," and "Macbeth"--is treated in two essays and a bibliography; and each of the less widely taught…

  18. Shakespeare among Schoolchildren: Approaches for the Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    Making connections for teachers between Shakespeare and his historical context on the one hand and secondary students on the other, this book presents background information, commentary, resources, and classroom ideas to enliven students' encounters with Shakespeare. The book concentrates on "Romeo and Juliet,""Julius Caesar,""Macbeth," and…

  19. Shakespeare on Film in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Michael

    A course at the University of Illinois entitled "Shakespeare on Film" is discussed briefly, and an annotated list of Shakespeare films for the classroom teacher is provided in this paper. Thirteen films are listed: three versions of "Hamlet,""Henry V,""Julius Caesar," four versions of "Macbeth,""A Midsummer Night's Dream,""Othello,""Romeo and…

  20. Shakespeare: Kabuki-Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turse, Paul Leonard, Jr.

    This study examines the theatrical and thematic aspects of Kabuki and provides recommendations for using these aspects in the production of plays by Shakespeare. Sequences from "Hamlet,""Macbeth," and "Julius Caesar" were chosen because they are adaptable to Kabuki design. In order to help a director view these plays in terms of Kabuki, an…

  1. Health Is Academic. A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Eva, Ed.; Wooley, Susan Frelick, Ed.; Northrop, Daphne, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of papers that define comprehensive school health programs and their components and provide action steps for their implementation at the local, state, and national levels: (1) "Linking Health and Learning: An Overview of Coordinated School Health Programs" (Floretta Dukes McKenzie and Julius B. Richmond); (2)…

  2. Spotlight on Day Care. Proceedings of the National Conference on Day Care Services (Washington, D.C., May 13-15, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The proceedings of the National Conference on Day Care Services are reported. Addresses before general sessions were: (1)"The Nation Looks at Day Care Services" by Hubert H. Humphrey; (2) "Spotlight on Day Care" by Ellen Winston; (3) "Education and Welfare: Allies Against Poverty" by Francis Keppel; (4) "Twenty Percent of the Nation" by Julius B.…

  3. The State of Black America 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewart, Janet, Ed.

    This book consists of 12 papers on current issues affecting black Americans. Titles (and authors) are the following: (1) "Black America 1986: An Overview" (John E. Jacob); (2) "The Law and Black Americans: Retreat from Civil Rights" (Julius L. Chambers); (3) "Taking Charge: An Approach to Making the Educational Problems of Blacks Comprehensible…

  4. The Monk's Tale: Nero's Nets and Caesar's Father -- An Inquiry into the Transformations of Classical Roman History in Medieval Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Martha S.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the lack of consistent accuracy about historical figures in Chaucer's "Monk's Tale." The story of Nero fishing in the Tiber with golden nets is corroborated by many other ancient and medieval authors; however, the reference to Julius Caesar as being of lowly birth is peculiar only to Chaucer and a few medieval English authors. (AV)

  5. Veni, vidi, vici: in vivo molecular imaging of immune response.

    PubMed

    Gross, Shimon; Moss, Britney L; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2007-10-01

    "I came, I saw, I conquered," Julius Caesar proclaimed, highlighting the importance of direct visualization as a winning strategy. Continuing the "From the Field" series (see Editorial [2007] 26, 131), Gross et al. summarize how modern molecular imaging techniques can successfully dissect the complexities of immune response in vivo. PMID:17967405

  6. HISTORY OF ENGLISH, PART TWO. LANGUAGE CURRICULUM IV, STUDENT VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A DISCUSSION OF THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE WAS CONTINUED (PART 1 IS ED 010 823) TO GIVE THE 10TH-GRADE STUDENT AN ACCURATE PICTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT AN IMPORTANT STAGE IN ITS DEVELOPMENT. THE TIME CHOSEN WAS THE 17TH CENTURY, AND THE EXAMPLE WAS SHAKESPEARE'S "JULIUS CAESAR." THIS PLAY WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXAMPLE BECAUSE OF THE…

  7. The Comet Of 44 B.C. and Caesar's Funeral Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, John T.; Licht, A. Lewis

    1997-05-01

    Using insights from physics and classics, this book explores the social and cultural implications of the spectacular, daylight comet that was observed in 44 B.C. during the games that the future emperor Augustus gave in honor of the late Julius Caesar.

  8. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric references in Ovid's Metamorphoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, A. D.; McBeath, A.

    2003-10-01

    Three sections of Ovid's Metamorphoses are examined, providing further information on meteoric beliefs in ancient Roman times. These include meteoric imagery among the portents associated with the death of Julius Caesar, which we mentioned previously from the works of William Shakespeare (McBeath and Gheorghe, 2003b).

  9. Sosigenes of Alexandria (c. 50 or 90 BC-?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Peripatetic Greek philosopher, born in Alexandria, astronomer and mathematician who advised Julius Caesar on calendar reform. He recommended a year of 365.25 days, and inserted extra days into the year 46 BC to bring the calendar back in register with the seasons. His account of Eudoxus's planetary system is the most complete surviving account....

  10. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pencek, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of five books are presented. Topics are public property and private power (Hartog, 1983), essays on Julius Caesar (Blits, 1982), changes in the American political system (Shafer, 1983), the spiritual crisis in western civilizations (Harrington, 1983), and justice, pluralism and equality (Walzer, 1983). (JDH)

  11. Educators Weigh E-Textbook Cost Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2012-01-01

    During the first-ever Digital Learning Day, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and Federal Communications Commission chief Julius Genachowski unveiled an ambitious plan earlier this year to get schools to switch from print to digital textbooks by 2017. Dubbed the Digital Textbook Playbook, it's a recommendation for how schools could transform…

  12. Chances only 50-50 for "Superfund" Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the Surgeon General Julius B. Richmond, report, "Health Effects of Toxic Pollution: A Report from the Surgeon General," which considers toxic chemicals as "adding to the disease burden of the U.S. in a significant, although ill-defined, way." The reports ramifications are deliberated in view of future funding and legislation. (DS)

  13. Reframing Alice's Restaurant: Reflections on Globalisation, Adult Education, and Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etmanski, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, the foundations of Participatory Research were being laid in Tanzania and around the world through the work of muckraking adult educators--President Julius Nyerere, Marja-Liisa Swantz, Orlando Fals Borda, Rajesh Tandon, Budd Hall and many more of their friends and colleagues. At the same time, a bunch of American kids were over…

  14. Appropriate Technology: Value Adding Application for Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate Technology (AT) concepts have been discussed throughout this past century by notable leaders and scholars such as Mohandas Gandhi and Julius Nyerere; however, the undisputed founder of the AT movement was E. F. Schumacher, a British economist who worked extensively in India and Burma during the 1950s and 60s. Schumacher encapsulated…

  15. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch Debate over Communism, 1940-1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Daniel W.

    The liberal bias of the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" has been well-documented, but memoranda between editor-publisher Joseph Pulitzer II and two of his key editors, Julius Klyman and Irving Dilliard, reveal a tug-of-war over the newspaper's liberal treatment of communism from 1940 to 1955. Klyman, editor of the "Pictures" magazine, was a labor…

  16. East Meets West: Rome. Grade 6 Model Lesson for Unit V. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    This unit for sixth-grade students provides a fuller understanding of Julius Caesar's significance. Before students delve into the sample topic, they need an understanding of Roman values, lore, republican ideals, and structure of early Roman history. The first few activities in this lesson are to be taught prior to beginning the actual study of…

  17. Notes on the Emergence of Protestant Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The movement of the Germanic peoples from the barbaric state that the Romans found them in during the days of Julius Caesar to the highly civilized and educated condition of today is a long and complex history. At the heart of that development over the centuries was first the shift to Roman culture; then the slow adoption of Roman Catholicism and…

  18. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  19. Racemization of Isobornyl Chloride via Carbocations: A Nonclassical Look at a Classic Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.; Allan, Charlotte S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of carbonium ions as intermediates in chemical reaction mechanisms derives from the early work of Julius Stieglitz and the more famous Hans Meerwein, the latter studying the racemization of isobornyl chloride when treated with Lewis acids. This review analyzes how key mechanistic concepts for this reaction evolved and gives the…

  20. Distorting the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klehr, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Many historians on the left are unwilling to renounce communism and the agents in this country who ran its insidious errands. Despite damning evidence from Soviet archives, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Alger Hiss, and other traitors remain the darlings of many leaders of the profession. Harvey Klehr documents how, in journals and recent textbooks,…

  1. More than Blue Skies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granat, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts to find and preserve some 5,000 Rosenwald schools. These buildings were funded with seed money during the 1920s from Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company, and served as schools and public buildings for black residents in the rural South. (EV)

  2. The Rosenberg Trial: Uncovering the Layers of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on charges of conspiring to spy for the Soviet Union remains one of the defining moments of the Cold War era. The dramatic allegations of stolen atomic secrets and networks of Communist spies riveted the public's attention. The determination of government prosecutors reflected a widely shared belief…

  3. John Henry: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikola-Lisa, W.

    1998-01-01

    Compares three children's books retelling the legend of John Henry: "John Henry: An American Legend" by Ezra Jack Keats (1965), "John Henry" by Julius Lester (1994), and "The Legend of John Henry" by Terry Small (1994). Differences in imagery, language, symbolism, and themes are discussed. (MAK)

  4. South Africa: ANC Youth League President issues apology following conviction for hate speech.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shalini

    2011-10-01

    In June 2011, fifteen months after he had been found guilty of hate speech and discrimination, African National Congress (ANC)Youth President Julius issued a formal apology and agreed to pay a R50,000 (CAN$7,120) fine that was part of the conviction. PMID:22165280

  5. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  6. [Social politics and health--Germany and Austria at the time of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Sablik, K

    1989-04-01

    The article contributes to the development of health-welfare in Austria in the first third of the 20th century. The various relations to such activities of health protection in Germany and the efforts and merits of the Vienna physician, anatomist and social politician Julius Tandler (1869-1936) are accentuated. PMID:2662652

  7. Bacterial Chemotaxis: The Early Years of Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hazelbauer, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495

  8. Female-targeted drug therapies may propel migraine DM efforts.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    Julius Caesar, Thomas Jefferson, and even Sigmund Freud had this ailment, and Alice is thought to have described it in Wonderland. But make no mistake, migraine headaches are not the stuff of fairy tales for the 45 million migraine sufferers of the disabling and costly disorder. Here are the disease management guidelines you need to reduce migraine-related expense and minimize your patient's pain. PMID:10178017

  9. The early days of caesarian section.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-05-01

    The story of the early days of caesarian section is shrouded in mystery, myths and old folk tales. The very name itself is the subject of debate. One thing is certain--it is nothing at all to do with Julius Caesar; his mother was still alive when he invaded Britain in 55BC. The most probable explanation of the term is the law promulgated by King Numa Pompillius of Rome in the year 715BC. PMID:20521579

  10. Incorporating a medical spa into a physician-run practice.

    PubMed

    Katz, Bruce; McBean, Jason

    2008-07-01

    The age-old spa concept is no less valuable today than it was during the time of Julius Caesar. Over the centuries, there have been many iterations of the concept of the spa. The most recent is the medical spa, which has become the fastest-growing segment of the spa industry. Many physicians including dermatologists wish to incorporate a medical spa into their practices. This article discusses the key elements that should be considered to make this venture successful. PMID:18555948

  11. The Mayer-Joule Principle: The Foundation of the First Law of Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Leff, Harvey S.

    2011-11-01

    To most students today the mechanical equivalent of heat, called the Mayer-Joule principle, is simply a way to convert from calories to joules and vice versa. However, in linking work and heat—once thought to be disjointed concepts—it goes far beyond unit conversion. Heat had eluded understanding for two centuries after Galileo Galilei constructed an early thermometer. Independently, Julius Robert Mayer and James Prescott Joule found the connection between heat and work, the Mayer-Joule principle.

  12. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail. PMID:3548583

  13. The difference between “giving a rose” and “giving a kiss”: Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eva; Paczynski, Martin; Wiese, Heike; Jackendoff, Ray; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with processing light verb constructions such as “give a kiss”. These constructions consist of a semantically underspecified light verb (“give”) and an event nominal that contributes most of the meaning and also activates an argument structure of its own (“kiss”). This creates a mismatch between the syntactic constituents and the semantic roles of a sentence. Native speakers read German verb-final sentences that contained light verb constructions (e.g., “Julius gave Anne a kiss”), non-light constructions (e.g., “Julius gave Anne a rose”), and semantically anomalous constructions (e.g., *“Julius gave Anne a conversation”). ERPs were measured at the critical verb, which appeared after all its arguments. Compared to non-light constructions, the light verb constructions evoked a widely distributed, frontally focused, sustained negative-going effect between 500 and 900 ms after verb onset. We interpret this effect as reflecting working memory costs associated with complex semantic processes that establish a shared argument structure in the light verb constructions. PMID:24910498

  14. The difference between "giving a rose" and "giving a kiss": Sustained neural activity to the light verb construction.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Eva; Paczynski, Martin; Wiese, Heike; Jackendoff, Ray; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-05-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with processing light verb constructions such as "give a kiss". These constructions consist of a semantically underspecified light verb ("give") and an event nominal that contributes most of the meaning and also activates an argument structure of its own ("kiss"). This creates a mismatch between the syntactic constituents and the semantic roles of a sentence. Native speakers read German verb-final sentences that contained light verb constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a kiss"), non-light constructions (e.g., "Julius gave Anne a rose"), and semantically anomalous constructions (e.g., *"Julius gave Anne a conversation"). ERPs were measured at the critical verb, which appeared after all its arguments. Compared to non-light constructions, the light verb constructions evoked a widely distributed, frontally focused, sustained negative-going effect between 500 and 900 ms after verb onset. We interpret this effect as reflecting working memory costs associated with complex semantic processes that establish a shared argument structure in the light verb constructions. PMID:24910498

  15. Combinatorics of the christian calendar (French Title: Combinatoire du calendrier chretien)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoli, J.

    2005-09-01

    The main goal of the Roman calendar of Julius Caesar was to fix the dates of the seasons by introducing leap years. Christians adopted this calendar, but associated to it the Judaic cycle of the week for reference to some events of Christ's life. This paper defines some problems which arose from the empiric association of the two chronological scales. Solutions to these problems can be obtained by exhaustive computer generated enumeration. Here we will solve these problems by matrix analysis which displays all arithmetical operations involved thereby making the solutions verifiable.

  16. [Karl Sudhoff and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on files in the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, this paper illuminates the Nobel Prize nominations for and by Karl Sudhoff from 1918 to 1923. He was nominated by Max Cloetta and Max Neuburger, and Sudhoff himself put forward Julius Hirschberg, Erwin Payr and Georg Sticker. Even though none of the proposals led to a prize, the nomination letters offer insights in the relationships between leading historians of medicine in the immediate post-war years. The study is part of a project exploring the construction and enactment of scientific excellence. PMID:26821496

  17. [Images of epilepsy in Shakespeare].

    PubMed

    Breuer, Horst

    2002-01-01

    Epilepsy and the "falling sickness" are mentioned three times in Shakespeare, in Julius Caesar, I.ii, Othello, IV.i., and figuratively in King Lear, II.ii. The present article surveys these passages in the context of modern research findings, literary as well as medico-historical. It adds further material from Renaissance texts and concludes that epilepsy is an omnibus term for a variety of symptoms and pathological conditions, and that Shakespeare's idea of epilepsy is closer to popular stereotypes than has hitherto been assumed. PMID:12365348

  18. The rhythm of rest and excess.

    PubMed

    Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2005-05-01

    There is a stark contrast between our attitudes to sleep and those of the pre-industrial age. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar we are told to "Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber". There seems little chance of this today, as we crave more, work more and expect more, and, in the process, abandon sleep. Our occupation of the night is having unanticipated costs for both our physical and mental health, which, if continued, might condemn whole sectors of our society to a dismal future. PMID:15861183

  19. Fast generation of stereolithographic models.

    PubMed

    Raic, K; Jansen, T; von Rymon-Lipinski, B; Tille, C; Seitz, H; Keeve, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a work-in-progress method for fast and efficient generation of stereolithographic models. The overall approach is embedded in our general software framework Julius, which runs on high-end-graphic systems as well as on low-level PCs. The design of the support structures needed for the stereolithographic process will allow semiautomatic generation of the model. We did produce support structures for stereolithographic models with this fast data processing pipeline and will show future perspectives in this paper. PMID:12451779

  20. Venus - Crater Aurelia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Magellan image shows a complex crater, 31.9 kilometers (20 miles) in diameter with a circular rim, terraced walls, and central peaks, located at 20.3 degrees north latitude and 331.8 degrees east longitude. Several unusual features are evidenced in this image: large dark surface up range from the crater; lobate flows emanating from crater ejecta, and very radar-bright ejecta and floor. Aurelia has been proposed to the International Astronomical Union, Subcommittee of Planetary Nomenclature as a candidate name. Aurelia is the mother of Julius Caesar.

  1. Intraocular implants for the surgical correction of presbyopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Rol, Pascal O.; Tahi, Hassan; Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Hamaoui, Marie; Ho, Arthur; Holden, Brien

    2000-06-01

    The surgical techniques proposed to restore accommodation past the onset of presbyopia can be categorized in two classes, those based of scleral expansion and those based on intraocular lens implantation and lens capsule refilling. This paper describes and discusses the different techniques and summarizes the results of clinical and experimental animal trials. Restoration of accommodation has been demonstrated by at least two different teams in non-human senile primates using modifications of the lens capsule refilling technique originally described by Julius Kessler in the late fifties. The advent of recent advances in microsurgery, devices, and injectable polymers are very promising and human clinical trials may soon be envisaged.

  2. The reconstructive microsurgery ladder in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Scott M; Levin, L Scott

    2013-03-01

    Since the advent of the operating microscope by Julius Jacobson in 1960, reconstructive microsurgery has become an integral part of extremity reconstruction and orthopaedics. During World War I, with the influx of severe extremity trauma Harold Gillies introduced the concept of the reconstructive ladder for wound closure. The concept of the reconstructive ladder goes from simple to complex means of attaining wound closure. Over the last half century microsurgery has continued to evolve and progress. We now have a microsurgical reconstructive ladder. The microsurgical reconstruction ladder is based upon the early work on revascularization and replantation extending through the procedures that are described in this article. PMID:23352571

  3. My Journey as a Surgeon-Scientist Ten Years after Receiving the Inaugural Jacobson Promising Investigator Award.

    PubMed

    Longaker, Michael T

    2015-10-01

    The First Joan L and Julius H Jacobson Promising Investigator Awardee, Michael T Longaker MD, FACS In 2005, the research committee of the American College of Surgeons was tasked with selecting the recipient of a newly established award, "The Joan L and Julius H Jacobson Promising Investigator Award." According to the Jacobsons, the $30,000 award funded by Dr Jacobson should be given at least once every 2 years to a surgeon investigator at "the tipping point," who can demonstrate that his/her research shows the promise of leading to a significant contribution to the practice of surgery and patient safety. Every year, the research committee receives many excellent nominations and has the difficult task of selecting 1 awardee. In 2005, the awardee was a young promising investigator, Michael T Longaker, MD, FACS. Ten years later, Dr Longaker, a prominent researcher in the field of "scar formation," presents his journey in research and the impact of the Jacobson award on his career. Dr Longaker is now a national and international figure in the field of wound healing, tissue regeneration, and stem cell research. Kamal MF Itani, MD, FACS and Gail Besner, MD, FACS, on behalf of the Research Committee of the American College of Surgeons. PMID:26304185

  4. Perception of the Relevance of Organic Chemistry in a German Pharmacy Students' Course.

    PubMed

    Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program. PMID:27170811

  5. Species-specific cell mobility of bacteria-feeding myxamoebae in plasmodial slime molds

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Thomas; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    On decaying wood or litter in forests, plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes) represent a large fraction of eukaryotic protists that feed on bacteria. In his seminal book Experimental Physiology of Plants (1865), Julius Sachs referred to the multinucleate plasmodium of myxomycetes, which were considered at that time as primitive plants (or fungi). Today it is well established that myxomycetes are members of the Amoebozoa (Protista). In this study we compare the mobility of myxamoebae of 3 European species, Lycogala epidendrum (order Liceales), Tubulifera arachnoidea, and Trichia decipiens (order Trichiales). Using agar plates, on which 3 separate bacterial species were cultivated as prey organisms (Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens), we document large differences in cell motility between the myxomycetes investigated. In addition, we show that the 3 species of myxamoebae can be distinguished based on their average cell size. These data shed light on the mode of co-occurrence via differential substrate utilization in these members of the Amoebozoa. PMID:26357877

  6. Schizotypy and creativity in visual artists.

    PubMed

    Burch, Giles St J; Pavelis, Christos; Hemsley, David R; Corr, Philip J

    2006-05-01

    'Every work of art is an uncommitted crime' Adorno (1951). Cited in Julius (2002). Given the putative relationship between creativity and schizotypy/psychoticism, the current study set out to investigate differences in scores on a range of personality and creativity measures between visual artists and non-artists. Results found that the visual artists group scored higher on measures of positive-schizotypy, disorganized-schizotypy, asocial-schizotypy, neuroticism, openness and divergent thinking (uniqueness) than did the non-artist group and lower on agreeableness. These findings lend support to other studies reporting higher schizotypy scores in artistic and creative cohorts, although provide some of the first evidence of higher unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity scores on the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) in visual artists. The relationship between creativity and schizotypy is discussed in terms of unusual ideas and a propensity to endorse socially undesirable responses. PMID:16613648

  7. Suffodit inguina.

    PubMed

    Betzig, Laura

    2014-01-01

    When Julius Caesar was stabbed, 23 times, on the Ides of March, at least one of the daggers is supposed to have gone into his groin. He wasn't the last Roman to have his privates attacked. And he wasn't the last primate. In competition for sexual access, gonads are occasionally targeted: canine incisions in monkey and ape scrota are not uncommon; and rumors had a number of Roman emperors--from Caligula and Nero, to Galba, Vitellius, Domitian, Commodus, Caracalla, Elagabalus, to Balbinus, Pupienus and Valerian over the course of the third century crisis--done in with their genitals at risk, or with their genitals cut off. PMID:25514523

  8. [The discovery of the nerve impulse. A chapter in the history of physiology].

    PubMed

    From, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this essay is the discovery of the nerve impulse and its historical background. The main focus is on two important physician- scientists: Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and Julius Bernstein (1838-1917). Du Bois-Reymond is considered the first scientist in his- tory who noticed what he called the "negative variation" during the stimulation of a nerve - the action potential in the language of today. Bernstein's main contribution was a theory called the membrane theory, which explains the activity in nerve cells as a phenomenon caused by differences in ion-concentrations in the interior versus the exterior of the cell. Bernstein's theory was based on the available knowledge from chemistry and cell biology in the late 19th century, in particular the Nernst equation. Bernstein's membrane theory paved the way for further investigations in the 20th century. PMID:25639071

  9. Plant sulfur nutrition: From Sachs to Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Kopriva, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Together with water and carbon dioxide plants require 14 essential mineral nutrients to finish their life cycle. The research in plant nutrition can be traced back to Julius Sachs, who was the first to experimentally prove the essentiality of mineral nutrients for plants. Among those elements Sachs showed to be essential is sulfur. Plant sulfur nutrition has been not as extensively studied as the nutrition of nitrogen and phosphate, probably because sulfur was not limiting for agriculture. However, with the reduction of atmospheric sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur deficiency has become common. The research in sulfur nutrition has changed over the years from using yeast and algae as experimental material to adopting Arabidopsis as the plant model as well as from simple biochemical measurements of individual parameters to system biology. Here the evolution of sulfur research from the times of Sachs to the current Big Data is outlined. PMID:26305261

  10. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  11. Special regulatory T cell review: The suppression problem!

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The concept of T-cell mediated suppression evolved more than 30 years ago. At that time it spawned many claims that have not stood the test of time. The rediscovery of suppression phenomena and regulatory T cells over the past 15 years created schizophrenic responses amongst immunologists. Some claimed that the new proponents of suppression were, once again, bringing immunology into disrepute, whilst others have embraced the field with great enthusiasm and novel approaches to clarification. Without faithful repetition of the “old” experiments, it is difficult to establish what was right and what was wrong. Nevertheless, immunologists must now accept that a good number of the old claims were overstated, and reflected poor scientific discipline. “I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know” Shakespeare. Julius Caesar Act 3, Scene 2. PMID:18154612

  12. Special regulatory T cell review: The suppression problem!

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The concept of T-cell mediated suppression evolved more than 30 years ago. At that time it spawned many claims that have not stood the test of time. The rediscovery of suppression phenomena and regulatory T cells over the past 15 years created schizophrenic responses amongst immunologists. Some claimed that the new proponents of suppression were, once again, bringing immunology into disrepute, whilst others have embraced the field with great enthusiasm and novel approaches to clarification. Without faithful repetition of the "old" experiments, it is difficult to establish what was right and what was wrong. Nevertheless, immunologists must now accept that a good number of the old claims were overstated, and reflected poor scientific discipline. "I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know" Shakespeare. Julius Caesar Act 3, Scene 2. PMID:18154612

  13. Dangerous people or dangerous situations? Some further thoughts.

    PubMed

    Prins, H

    1991-01-01

    The author enlarges upon and develops some observations upon the assessment of dangerousness which appeared in this journal a decade ago. In the present contribution, particular attention is paid to identifying the type of person at risk of committing further acts of serious personal harm to persons and or property and to the factors or circumstances that may be conducive to this. Finally, the author puts forward some views on why cues and clues may be missed and how these omissions might be overcome. 'Between the acting of a dreadful thing And the first motion, all the interim is Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream' Julius Caesar, Act II Scene 1. PMID:2005765

  14. 'Magic coins' and 'magic squares': the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-09-20

    Enclosed in a 1673 letter to Henry Oldenburg were two drawings of a series of astrological sigils, coins and amulets from the collection of Strasbourg mathematician Julius Reichelt (1637-1719). As portrayals of particular medieval and early modern sigils are relatively rare, this paper will analyse the role of these medals in medieval and early modern medicine, the logic behind their perceived efficacy, and their significance in early modern astrological and cabalistic practice. I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos. The evolving perception of the purpose of sigils mirrored changing early modem beliefs in the occult influences of the heavens upon the body and the natural world, as well as the growing interests among virtuosi in collecting, numismatics and antiquities. PMID:19244856

  15. Patent foramen ovale and paradoxical embolization: a historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, H.; Rafferty, T.

    1993-01-01

    The use of transesophageal echocardiography for intraoperative management of critically ill patients allows for routine evaluation of foramen ovale patency. The high prevalence of preoperatively unrecognized flow-patency of this structure has led investigators to emphasize the potential for paradoxical embolization in any patient undergoing anesthesia. This perspective led us to research earliest documentation of paradoxical embolization through a patent foramen ovale as a historical issue with present day relevance. This report examines the 1877 text of Julius Cohnheim in which he described a fatal case of paradoxical embolization to the middle meningeal artery. The 1880 manuscript of Moritz Litten documenting paradoxical embolization to the lower extremity is also presented. Both translations, to our knowledge, represent the first such representations of both the original 1877 edition of Cohnheim's work and Litten's journal article. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8256459

  16. Species-specific cell mobility of bacteria-feeding myxamoebae in plasmodial slime molds.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Thomas; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    On decaying wood or litter in forests, plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes) represent a large fraction of eukaryotic protists that feed on bacteria. In his seminal book Experimental Physiology of Plants (1865), Julius Sachs referred to the multinucleate plasmodium of myxomycetes, which were considered at that time as primitive plants (or fungi). Today it is well established that myxomycetes are members of the Amoebozoa (Protista). In this study we compare the mobility of myxamoebae of 3 European species, Lycogala epidendrum (order Liceales), Tubulifera arachnoidea, and Trichia decipiens (order Trichiales). Using agar plates, on which 3 separate bacterial species were cultivated as prey organisms (Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens), we document large differences in cell motility between the myxomycetes investigated. In addition, we show that the 3 species of myxamoebae can be distinguished based on their average cell size. These data shed light on the mode of co-occurrence via differential substrate utilization in these members of the Amoebozoa. PMID:26357877

  17. [Treatment of syphilis with malaria or heat].

    PubMed

    Verhave, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the Second World War, syphilis was a common sexually transmitted infection. This stigmatising infectious disease caused mental decline, paralysis and eventually death. The history of syphilis was given public attention because of 'malaria therapy', which had been applied from the First World War onwards in patients with paralytic dementia. In 1917, the Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) induced fever in these patients by infecting them with malaria parasites; in 1927, he received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the healing properties of malarial fever. One source, not cited anywhere, is an interview that the American bacteriologist and science writer/medical journalist Paul de Kruif conducted with Wagner-Jauregg in 1930. The reporting of this meeting, and De Kruif's later involvement in the mechanical heat treatment of patients with syphilis, form the inspiration for this article. When penicillin became available, both treatments became obsolete. PMID:27165455

  18. Plant sulfur nutrition: From Sachs to Big Data.

    PubMed

    Kopriva, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Together with water and carbon dioxide plants require 14 essential mineral nutrients to finish their life cycle. The research in plant nutrition can be traced back to Julius Sachs, who was the first to experimentally prove the essentiality of mineral nutrients for plants. Among those elements Sachs showed to be essential is sulfur. Plant sulfur nutrition has been not as extensively studied as the nutrition of nitrogen and phosphate, probably because sulfur was not limiting for agriculture. However, with the reduction of atmospheric sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur deficiency has become common. The research in sulfur nutrition has changed over the years from using yeast and algae as experimental material to adopting Arabidopsis as the plant model as well as from simple biochemical measurements of individual parameters to system biology. Here the evolution of sulfur research from the times of Sachs to the current Big Data is outlined. PMID:26305261

  19. In memoriam: Wolfgang Kiowski, M.D. (1949-2012)--pioneer in clinical endothelin research.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2014-11-24

    Wolfgang Kiowski, M.D. (1949-2012) was a German physician-scientist who made exemplary contributions to clinical research in human physiology, heart failure, arterial hypertension, and endothelin science. His academic career took him from Heinz Losse, M.D. at the University of Münster, Germany, to the University of Michigan, U.S.A., to work with Stevo Julius, M.D. In 1979, Kiowski was recruited to the University of Basel in Switzerland and ultimately moved to the Hospital of the University of Zürich in Switzerland. Twenty years ago, Kiowski published a landmark study pioneering the use of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) in patients (Lancet 1995; 346: 732-736), which introduced a new therapeutic principle to human medicine. During his career, he published numerous studies in the area of pathophysiology, clinical pharmacology (particularly calcium channel blockers, ERAs, and PDE5 inhibitors), heart failure, cardiac transplantation, coronary artery disease, and many case reports from his clinical work. Kiowski was an active mentor and trained many young physicians and physician-scientists. He died unexpectedly in Zürich during the planning stages of the Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin to be held in Tokyo in 2013. This article summarizes Kiowski's achievements, his role as a mentor and as the human being he was. He will be remembered as a role model of an outstanding, curious clinician who was highly successful as a physician, scientist, and teacher, and at the same time managed to enjoy many hobbies and life with his family. Referring to Wolfgang Kiowski, the article closes with a "It can be done!"-message to young physician-scientists by Dr. Stevo Julius. PMID:25152472

  20. ThermoTRP channels as modular proteins with allosteric gating.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Ramon; Brauchi, Sebastian; Orta, Gerardo; Zaelzer, Cristián; Vargas, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels activate by sensing stimuli such as membrane voltage, ligand binding or temperature and transduce this information into conformational changes that open the channel pore. Thus, a key question in understanding ion channel function is how do the protein domains involved in sensing stimuli (sensors) and opening the pore (gates) communicate. In this regard, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that confer thermosensation [A. Dhaka, V. Viswanath, A. Patapoutian, TRP ion channels and temperature sensation, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 29 (2006) 135-161; I.S. Ramsey, M. Delling, D.E. Clapham, An introduction to TRP channels, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 68 (2006) 619-647] (thermoTRP; Q(10)>10) are unique to the extent that they integrate a variety of physical and chemical stimuli. In some cases such as, for example, the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 [M.J. Caterina, M.A. Schumacher, M. Tominaga, T.A. Rosen, J.D. Levine, D. Julius, The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway, Nature 389 (1997) 816-824] and TRPA1 [G.M. Story, A.M. Peier, A.J. Reeve, S.R. Eid, J. Mosbacher, T.R. Hricik, T.J. Earley, A.C. Hergarden, D.A. Andersson, S.W. Hwang, P. McIntyre, T. Jegla, S. Bevan, A. Patapoutian, ANKTM1, a TRP-like channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, is activated by cold temperatures, Cell 112 (2003) 819-829; S. Jordt, D. Julius, Molecular basis for species-specific sensitivity to "hot" chilli peppers, Cell 108 (2002) 421-430] the integration of these stimuli elicit pain [M. Tominaga, M.J. Caterina, A.B. Malmberg, T.A. Rosen, H. Gilbert, K. Skinner, B.E. Raumann, A.I. Basbaum, D. Julius, The cloned capsaicin receptor integrates multiple pain-producing stimuli, Neuron 21 (1998) 531-543; M. Bandell, A. Dubin, M. Petrus, A. Orth, J. Mathur, S. Hwang, A. Patapoutian, High-throughput random mutagenesis screen reveals TRPM8 residues specifically required for activation by menthol, Nat. Neurosci. 9 (2006) 466-468; S. Zurborg, B. Yurgionas, JA. Jira, O

  1. Representations of epilepsy on the stage: From the Greeks to the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Michael; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder that has been used by dramatists in various ways over the ages and therefore highlights the views of the disorder as people saw it at the time the plays were written and performed. In the 6th century BC, links between tragedy and epilepsy were developed by Greek playwrights, especially Euripides, in Iphigenia among the Taureans and Heracles where epilepsy and madness associated with extreme violence occur together. Both Heracles and Orestes have episodes after a long period of physical exhaustion and nutritional deprivation. During the Renaissance, Shakespeare wrote plays featuring different neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Epilepsy plays a crucial part in the stories of Julius Caesar and Othello. Julius Caesar is a play about politics, and Caesar's epilepsy is used to illustrate his weakness and vulnerability which stigmatizes him and leads to his assassination. Othello is a play about jealousy, and Othello, an outsider, is stigmatized by his color, his weakness, and his 'seizures' as a form of demonic possession. In modern times, Night Mother portrays the hard life of Jessie, who lives with her mother. Jessie has no friends, her father has abandoned the family, and she has no privacy and is ashamed. Stigma and social pressures lead her to commit suicide. Henry James' novella, The Turn of the Screw, portrays a governess with dream-like states, déjà vu, and loss of temporal awareness who has been sent to the country to look after two small children and ends up killing one. This novella was turned into an opera by Benjamin Britten. Most recently, performance art has been portraying epilepsy as the reality of a personally provoked seizure. Both Allan Sutherland and Rita Marcalo have purposely provoked themselves to have a seizure in front of an audience. They do this to show that seizures are just one disability. Whether this provokes stigma in audiences is unknown. Whether the performance artists understand the potential for

  2. Michelangelo's eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

  3. Listening to the whispers of matter through Arabic hermeticism: new studies on The Book of the Treasure of Alexander.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Jubran, Safa Abou Chahla

    2008-07-01

    The Jabirian Corpus refers to the K. Thahirat Al-'Iskandar, "The Book of the Treasure of Alexander" (hereafter BTA), as one of several forgeries suggesting that alchemical secrets were hidden in inscriptions in various places. The book was neglected until 1926, when Julius Ruska discussed it in his work on the Emerald Tablet, placing the BTA within the literature related to the development of Arabic alchemy. His preliminary study became an essential reference and encouraged many scholars to work on the BTA in the following decades. Some years ago, we completed the first translation of the BTA into a Western language. The work was based on the acephalous Escorial manuscript, which we identified as a fourteenth-century copy of the BTA. This manuscript is peculiar, as part of it is encoded. After finishing our translation, we started to establish the text of the BTA. At present, the text is in process of fixation--to be followed by textual criticism--and has been the main focus of a thorough study of ours on medieval hermeticism and alchemy. A sample of the work currently in progress is presented in this paper: an analysis of the variations between different manuscripts along with a study and English translation of its alchemical chapter. PMID:19048971

  4. [Illustrations of of alchemy vessels in a manuscript of Pseudo-Geber].

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Manuscript ric. 933 "Geber de investigatione perfectionis magisterii", kept in the Libreria Riccardiana in Florence, is a 13th century Latin version of the "Book of the Secret of the Secrets" ("kitab sirr al-asrar") by the Arabian alchemist al-Razi (865-925). The manuscript shows on page 25r a series of drawings of alchemistic vessels and apparatus which do not figure in the Arabian original but which are of particular interest as they date from as early as the 13th century and are numbered amongst the earliest drawings of this kind which we possess. The publication of the manuscript by Julius Ruska in 1935 shows only copied drawings with his interpretations of the legends. There was considerable interest in the publication of the original page 25r and in the course of further study it became clear that these interpretations had to be revised. These new interpretations presented in detail in this paper are justified and put into an alchemistic context. In some cases they give a new understanding and differ considerably from Ruska's versions. PMID:21898979

  5. Ambiguous cells: the emergence of the stem cell concept in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-12-20

    This paper elucidates the origins of scientific work on stem cells. From the late nineteenth century onwards, the notion of stem cells became customary in scientific communities of Imperial Germany. Adopting the term Stammzelle from Ernst Haeckel, Theodor Boveri was influential in introducing the concept in embryological studies and early genetics around 1900, describing a capacity of stem cells for self-renewal as well as differentiation. At the same time, blood stem cells were conceptualized by histologists such as Ernst Neumann and Artur Pappenheim in studies of physiological haematopoiesis and various forms of leukaemia. Furthermore, building on Julius Cohnheim's theory that tumours arise from 'embryonic remnants' in the adult body, pathologists aimed at identifying the cells of origin, particularly in the embryo-like teratomas. Embryonic stem cells thus assumed an ambiguous status, partly representing common heritage and normal development, and partly being seen as potential causes of cancer if they had been left behind or displaced during ontogeny. In the 1950s and 1960s experimental research on teratocarcinomas by Leroy Stevens and Barry Pierce in the USA brought together the strands of embryological and pathological work. Alongside the work of Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the Ontario Cancer Institute from the early 1960s on stem cells in haematopoiesis, this led into the beginnings of modern stem cell research. PMID:22332468

  6. Quantum Calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Caroline Kilbourne; McCammon, Dan; Irwin, Kent D.

    1999-01-01

    Your opponent's serve was almost perfect, but you vigorously returned it beyond his outstretched racquet to win the point. Now the tennis ball sits wedged in the chain-link fence around the court. What happened to the ball's kinetic energy? It has gone to heat the fence, of course, and you realize that if the fence were quite colder, you might be able to measure that heat and determine just how energetic your swing really was. Calorimetry has been a standard measurement technique since James Joule and Julius von Mayer independently concluded, about 150 years ago, that heat is a form of energy. But only in the past 15 years or so has calorimetry been applied, at millikelvin temperatures, to the measurement of the energy of individual photons and particles with exquisite sensitivity. In this article, we have tried to show that continuing research in low-temperature physics leads to a greater understanding of high-temperature astrophysics. Adaptations of the resulting spectrometers will be useful tool for fields of research beyond astrophysics.

  7. Noncommutative Gravity and Quantum Field Theory on Noncommutative Curved Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    The focus of this PhD thesis is on applications, new developments and extensions of the noncommutative gravity theory proposed by Julius Wess and his group. In part one we propose an extension of the usual symmetry reduction procedure to noncommutative gravity. We classify in the case of abelian Drinfel'd twists all consistent deformations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies and of the Schwarzschild black hole. The deformed symmetry structure allows us to obtain exact solutions of the noncommutative Einstein equations in many of our models. In part two we develop a new formalism for quantum field theory on noncommutative curved spacetimes by combining methods from the algebraic approach to quantum field theory with noncommutative differential geometry. We also study explicit examples of deformed wave operators and find that there can be noncommutative corrections even on the level of free field theories. The convergent deformation of simple toy models is investigated and it is found that these theories have an improved behaviour at short distances, i.e. in the ultraviolet. In part three we study homomorphisms between and connections on noncommutative vector bundles. We prove that all homomorphisms and connections of the deformed theory can be obtained by applying a quantization isomorphism to undeformed homomorphisms and connections. The extension of homomorphisms and connections to tensor products of bimodules is clarified. As a nontrivial application of the new mathematical formalism we extend our studies of exact noncommutative gravity solutions to more general deformations.

  8. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  9. Evaluation of free non-diagnostic DICOM software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei; Deserno, Thomas M.; Spitzer, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    A variety of software exists to interpret files or directories compliant to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and display them as individual images or volume rendered objects. Some of them offer further processing and analysis features. The surveys that have been published so far are partly not up-to-date anymore, and neither a detailed description of the software functions nor a comprehensive comparison is given. This paper aims at evaluation and comparison of freely available, non-diagnostic DICOM software with respect to the following aspects: (i) data import; (ii) data export; (iii) header viewing; (iv) 2D image viewing; (v) 3D volume viewing; (vi) support; (vii) portability; (viii) workability; and (ix) usability. In total, 21 tools were included: 3D Slicer, AMIDE, BioImage Suite, DicomWorks, EViewBox, ezDICOM, FPImage, ImageJ, JiveX, Julius, MedImaView, MedINRIA, MicroView, MIPAV, MRIcron, Osiris, PMSDView, Syngo FastView, TomoVision, UniViewer, and XMedCon. Our results in table form can ease the selection of appropriate DICOM software tools. In particular, we discuss use cases for the inexperienced user, data conversion, and volume rendering, and suggest Syngo FastView or PMSDView, DicomWorks or XMedCon, and ImageJ or UniViewer, respectively.

  10. Harpacticoida (crustacea: copepoda) from the California continental shelf. Final report, September 1990-October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, P.A.; Burgess, R.; Fiers, F.

    1995-10-01

    Specimens of new Harpacticoida species were obtained during the California Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Phase II, Monitoring Program (CAMP) between November 1986 and May 1989. The CAMP project was a multidisciplinary study to detect and evaluate the long-term biological impacts of continental shelf oil drilling and production. The study was centered around a proposed platform site named Julius, which was never put into service. Samples were collected in the Santa Maria Basin on a regional scale (10-20 km). Harpacticoids are the second most abundant meiofaunal taxa in the Santa Maria Basin. Harpacticoids have been intensively studied in the Atlantic OCS. However, Pacific studies are limited to collections made in shallow water. There are a great number of undescribed species in the CAMP samples taken from the Santa Maria Basin. The present study is rather limited in scope and only touches on some of the dominate species found. It contains full taxonomic descriptions of six species, a pictorial key of 18 dominant species, and drawings of 42 other unknown species.

  11. The history of tissue tension.

    PubMed

    Peters, W S; Tomos, A D

    1996-06-01

    In recent years the phenomenon of tissue tension and its functional connection to elongation growth has regained much interest. In the present study we reconstruct older models of mechanical inhomogenities in growing plant organs, in order to establish an accurate historical background for the current discussion. We focus on the iatromechanic model developed in Stephen Hales' Vegetable Staticks, Wilhelm Hofmeister's mechanical model of negative geotropism, Julius Sachs' explanation of the development of tissue tension, and the differential-auxin-response-hypothesis by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider. Each of these models is considered in the context of its respective historic and theoretical environment. In particular, the dependency of the biomechanical hypotheses on the cell theory and the hormone concept is discussed. We arrive at the conclusion that the historical development until the middle of our century is adequately described as a development towards more detailed explanations of how differential tensions are established during elongation growth in plant organs. Then we compare with the older models the structure of more recent criticism of hormonal theories of tropic curvature, and particularly the epidermal-growth-control hypothesis of Ulrich Kutschera. In contrast to the more elaborate of the older hypotheses, the recent models do not attempt an explanation of differential tensions, but instead focus on mechanical processes in organs, in which tissue tension already exists. Some conceptual implications of this discrepancy, which apparently were overlooked in the recent discussion, are briefly evaluated. PMID:11541099

  12. In memoriam Dimitrios Trichopoulos: an argonaut in search of the golden fleece of medicine (1938-2014).

    PubMed

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2015-02-01

    On December 1, 2014, the epidemiology community bade farewell to one of its most distinguished members. Dimitrios Trichopoulos passed away leaving several colleagues and students in both sides of the Atlantic and all over the world saddened by the loss of a great scientist, mentor and friend. Dimitrios Trichopoulos was Professor of Cancer Prevention and Professor of Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health, Member of the Athens Academy and President of the Hellenic Health Foundation in Greece. He had served as director of the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention; chairman of the Epidemiology Departments at the University of Athens and at Harvard; and adjunct professor of medical epidemiology at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. He had published the first study linking passive smoking to lung cancer, had done early work on the association of hepatitis B and C infections and tobacco smoking with hepatocellular carcinoma, and conducted key studies on the role of intrauterine exposures in breast cancer etiology. He received several awards and distinctions, including honorary Doctorates, the Brinker International Award for Breast Cancer Clinical Research, the Julius Richmond Award for the documentation of the role of involuntary smoking in the etiology of lung cancer, and the Medal of Honor of the International Agency for Research on Cancer for his contributions in cancer epidemiology and etiology. He was the teacher and mentor of legions of epidemiologists, medical doctors and other health scientists across the world. PMID:25773754

  13. Giulio Cesare Aranzio (Arantius) (1530-89) in the pageant of anatomy and surgery.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Shafighi, Maziar; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Cavdar, Safiye

    2011-05-01

    Giulio Cesare Aranzio in Italian (Julius Caesar Arantius in Latin) has not received full acclaim for his achievements in the field of anatomy and surgery that remain unknown to most physicians. His anatomical books Observationes Anatomicas, and De Humano Foetu Opusculum and surgical books De Tumoribus Secundum Locos Affectos and Hippocratis librum de vulneribus capitis commentarius brevis printed in Latin and additional existing literature on Aranzio from medical history books and journals were analysed extensively. Aranzio became Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the University of Bologna in 1556. He established anatomy as a distinguished branch of medicine for the first time in medical history. Aranzio combined anatomy with a description of pathological processes. He discovered the 'Nodules of Aranzio' in the semilunar valves of the heart. He gave the first description of the superior levator palpebral and the coracobrachialis muscles. Aranzio wrote on surgical techniques for a wide spectrum of conditions that range from hydrocephalus, nasal polyp, goitre and tumours to phimosis, ascites, haemorrhoids, anal abscess and fistulae, and much more. Aranzio had an extensive knowledge in surgery and anatomy based in part on the ancient Greek and his contemporaries in the 16th century but essentially on his personal experience and practice. PMID:21558532

  14. Vocal projection in actors: the long-term average spectral features that distinguish comfortable acting voice from voicing with maximal projection in male actors.

    PubMed

    Pinczower, Rachel; Oates, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    This study explored whether acoustic and perceptual features could distinguish comfortable from maximally projected acting voice. Thirteen professional male actors performed a passage from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar twice. The first delivery used their comfortably projected voices, whereas the second used maximal projection. Acoustic measures, expert ratings, and self-ratings of projection and voice quality were investigated. Long-term average spectra (LTAS) and sound pressure level (SPL) analyses were conducted. Perceptual variables included projection, breathiness, roughness, and strain. When comparing the intensity difference between the higher (2-4 kHz) and lower (0-2 kHz) regions of the spectrum in voice samples from the maximal projected condition, LTAS analyses demonstrated increased acoustic energy in the higher part of the spectrum. This LTAS pattern was not as evident in the comfortable projected condition. These findings offered some preliminary support for the existence of an actor's formant (prominent peak in the upper part of the spectrum) during maximal projection. PMID:16102670

  15. Some major events in the development of the scientific study of loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, I. J.; Jefferson, I. F.; Dijkstra, T. A.; Derbyshire, E.

    2001-06-01

    A European view of loess history is presented. The major events, or 'great moments', considered are (1) Karl Caesar von Leonhard names loess; (2) Charles Lyell popularises loess; (3) Richthofen solves 'The Loess Problem'; (4) John Hardcastle relates loess to climate; (5) Pavel Tutkovskii makes clear the role of glaciers in loess genesis; (6) V.A. Obruchev makes the case for desert loess; (7) L.S. Berg propounds the 'in-situ' theory of loess formation; (8) Rudolf Grahmann maps loess in 'Europa'; (9) R.J. Russell adopts the 'in-situ' idea; (10) Liu Tungsheng pioneers Chinese loess stratigraphy; (11) Julius Fink focuses loess research in the INQUA Loess Commission; and (12) George Kukla reshapes the Quaternary by way of loess research. The need for Chinese, Russian, and North American accounts to balance an authoritative view of loess history is recognized. The truly critical moment in the 20th century was the discovery by Liu Tungsheng and his colleagues of multiple palaeosols within the Chinese loess and the associated realization that these implied a multi-event Quaternary.

  16. Epilepsy: A Disruptive Force in History.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rohaid; Connolly, Ian D; Feroze, Abdullah H; Awad, Ahmed J; Choudhri, Omar A; Grant, Gerald A

    2016-06-01

    Since it was first described in a Mesopotamian text in 2000 bc, countless individuals have offered their perspectives on epilepsy's cause, treatment, and even deeper spiritual significance. However, despite the attention the disease has received through the millennia, it has only been within the past half-century that truly effective treatment options have been available. As a result, for the vast majority of recorded history, individuals with epilepsy have not only had to deal with the uncertainty of their next epileptic seizure but also the concomitant stigma and ostracization. Interestingly, these individuals have included several prominent historical figures, including Julius Caesar, Vladimir Lenin, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The fact that epilepsy has appeared in the lives of influential historical people means that the disease has played some role in affecting the progress of human civilization. Epilepsy has cut short the lives of key political leaders, affected the output of talented cultural icons, and, especially within the past half century, influenced the collective understanding of neuroscience and the human nervous system. In this article, the authors review how epilepsy throughout history has manifested itself in the lives of prominent figures and how the disease has helped shape the course of humanity's political, cultural, and scientific evolution. PMID:26709155

  17. A history of caesarean section: from ancient world to the modern era.

    PubMed

    Todman, Donald

    2007-10-01

    Caesarean section has been recorded in history since ancient times in both Western and non-Western literature. Although the first use of the term in obstetrics was from the seventeenth century, its early history is obscured by mythology. The origin of the term caesarean is believed to be from the birth of Julius Caesar; however, this is unlikely considering his mother Aurelia Cotta lived for many years afterwards. In ancient times, it was performed only when the woman was dead or dying as an attempt to rescue the fetus. With few exceptions, this was the pattern until the era of anaesthesia in the nineteenth century. Developments in surgical technique from the later nineteenth century and through the twentieth century have refined the procedure, with resulting low morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, the objectives of caesarean section have evolved from rescuing the fetus or for cultural or religious reasons towards concerns for the safety of mother and child as well as considering the mother's preferences. PMID:17877591

  18. [Cesarean section through history].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Ashwal, Eran; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2014-11-01

    According to historic documents, delivery by abdominal and uterine incision was already known to mankind at the beginning of the second millennium BC. This delivery method was eventually referred to as "Cesarean Section" because it was wrongfully attributed to the way by which Julius Caesar was born. The indications for cesarean sections performed in ancient cultures and to the end of the medieval period were mainly kings law, that mandated burial of the fetus separately from his mother, legal rights regarding inheritance of the father or religious motives mandating baptism of the newborn in order to ensure him eternal life in heaven. As from the second half of the 19th century AD, and with improvement in surgical techniques, as well as in the perioperative environment (asepsis, antibiotics, anaesthesia, blood transfusion, etc.), the obstetric outcome of cesarean sections was dramaticay improved, both in terms of maternal, as well as fetal, outcome. Hence, it became very prevalent throughout the world. The emergence of medico-legal medicine and medical ethics issues, have further contributed to the use of cesarean sections as the ultimate solution of every unusual delivery. PMID:25563029

  19. Death of a president and his assassin--errors in their diagnosis and autopsies.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2006-06-01

    On July 2, 1881, Charles Julius Guiteau shot President James Abram Garfield in the right flank. The President died because of infection produced by the unsterile fingers and probes repeatedly inserted into the wound. The major complaint of the wounded President was intractable pain in his legs and feet. This symptom failed to alert the doctors to the possibility of vertebral and spinal cord injury. Garfield died with sepsis after 80 days of intense national concern, and for the patient there was psychological, physical, and nutritional deprivation. His autopsy revealed the bullet was not in the pelvis as his doctors had expected, but adjacent to the first lumbar vertebra it had shattered. The trial and execution of Guiteau split the medical community into those that considered him insane and those who felt execution was justified. Guiteau was delusional and his brain revealed chronic inflammation and histological features suggestive of syphilis. At the time, and since, the propriety of the execution has been questioned. PMID:16608737

  20. The INQUA Loess Commission as a Central European Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Ian J.; Markovic, Slobodan B.; O'Hara-Dhand, Ken

    2010-03-01

    The International Union of Quaternary Research (INQUA) organized the study and consideration of the Quaternary Period (the last 2.6 million years in Earth's history) via a set of commissions, sub-commissions, working groups, projects and programmes. One of the most successful and best records was the Loess Commission (LC) which functioned assub-commission and then commission from 1961 to 2003, resulting in 40 years of useful activity. The history of the LC can be divided into three phases: 1, from 1961-1977 when the President was Julius Fink; 2, from 1977-1991, with President Marton Pecsi; 3, from 1991-2003 with Presidents An Zhi-Sheng and Ian Smalley. Fink, from Vienna, and Pecsi, from Budapest, gave the LC a distinctly Central European aspect. The nature of loess in Central Europe influenced the nature of the LC but the settings for phases 1 and 2 were quite distinct. Phase 1 was a small scale academic operation, carried out in German. As phase 2 began in 1977 the scope expanded and Central Europe became a base for worldwide loess studies. where the LC language changed to English. Phase 2 was run from a National Geographical Institute and demonstrated a different approach to loess research, although the basic programmes of continent-wide mapping and stratigraphy remained the same. The Commission benefited from this change of style and emphasis. In phase 3 the administration moved away from Central Europe but the Finkian ethos remained solid.

  1. Cajal's first steps in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Castro, P J; Garcia-Torrecillas, J M

    2012-08-16

    More than 125 years ago, Santiago Ramón y Cajal was able to draft and prove the neuron doctrine, and later, to develop prophetic theories about neural function and plasticity, many of which have been proven by current neuroscience. It was chance that made Cajal, during his doctorate studies, have his first contact with histology and force him to study the then current theories about pathogenesis of inflammation. Thus, he gained knowledge of the vascular hypothesis, by Julius Cohnheim, a German pathologist who, opposing the opinion of his teacher and father of cellular pathology, Rudolf Virchow, made leukocytes the protagonists of inflammation, given their ability to develop ameboid movements directed by chemical signals. Cohnheim's chemotactic theory deeply influenced Cajal's conception of biology. So, the basic postulates of chemotaxis can be identified at different moments in Cajal's research, from the description of the "growth cone" in embryonic neuroblasts, the origin of the neurotrophic theory, to the proposal of the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuronal plasticity. From Cajal's point of view, the neurons move during their development and also adapt to different external circumstances. Chemical endogenous substances can stimulate this movement in a similar way to leukocytes during the process of inflammation. PMID:22588002

  2. [Samuel Hahnemann: physician and adviser to the Princess Luise of Prussia from 1829 to 1835].

    PubMed

    Heinz, Inge Christine

    2009-01-01

    The nearly 500 pages of letters (edited and commented in a medical dissertation by the author), written by a Prussian Princess in the 19th century to Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homoeopathy, provide a fairly complete patient history thanks to the homoeopathic method which obliges patients to observe and describe the complaints and the changes they experience during treatment. The achievements of Hahnemann's therapy were so remarkable that the patient engaged his disciple Dr.Julius Aegidi as her court physician during the years 1831 to 1834. In no other of Hahnemann's published case histories so many dreams are described. The diagnosis within the historical context could be hysteria, hypochondria and melancholy. The therapy consisted in the prescription of homoeopathic remedies but also, among other prescriptions, in taking placebos, application of mesmerism, diet and life style advice. Hahnemann was opposed to vaccination. The doctor-patient-relationship became very intense. It can be said that Hahnemann acted as a psychotherapist. As the Princess rather liked speaking about her complaints her compliance in describing symptoms was excellent. It was less so in taking verum, applying mesmerism and changing her lifestyle. The success of the treatment was limited by the Princess's court and family circumstances and probably by Hahnemann's restriction to psora theory and C30 potencies. The dissertation is the most extensive patient history from Hahnemann's medical practice ever published. PMID:20506731

  3. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 11. (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The contributions deal with astronomical concepts, historical observatories and biographical studies. Newly found copies of Copernicus' principal work are described, the development of the concepts "sphaera" and "orbis coelestis" from ancient times via Copernicus to Kepler is investigated. The concept of harmonical cosmology of Kepler and A. Kircher is analyzed in a major paper. A rediscovered letter by Kepler is interpreted. Other papers deal with the university observatory of Bützow (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), the observatories installed in Strasbourg in the 17th and early 19th centuries, and the Jesuit observatory which existed in Graz (Styria) in the 18th century, as well as the unrealized plans for an observing station of Vienna University Observatory in the 1940s. Einstein's thoughts about Friedmann's cosmological papers are presented. Biographical sketches on Philipp Feselius (1565-1610), Ferdinand Adolph Freiherr von Ende (1760-1816), Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) and Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) are supplemented by an analysis of the social background of the important Astronomers of the 20th century. The claim that Jupiter's moons were described already 105 years before Galilei is contradicted in a discussion. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  4. Seedling development in buckwheat and the discovery of the photomorphogenic shade-avoidance response.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, U; Briggs, W R

    2013-11-01

    Numerous botanists of the early 19th century investigated the effect of sunlight on plant development, but no clear picture developed. One hundred and fifty years ago, Julius Sachs (1863) systematically analysed the light-plant relationships, using developing garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) and seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyron esculentum) as experimental material. From these studies, Sachs elucidated the phenomenon of photomorphogenesis (plant development under the influence of daylight) and the associated 'shade-avoidance response'. We have reproduced the classical buckwheat experiments of Sachs (1863) and document the original shade-avoidance syndrome with reference to hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon development in darkness (skotomorphogenesis), white light and shade induced by a canopy of green leaves. In subsequent publications, Sachs elaborated his concepts of 1863 and postulated the occurrence of 'flower-inducing substances'. In addition, he argued that the shade-avoidance response in cereals, such as wheat and maize, is responsible for lodging in crowded plant communities. We discuss these processes with respect to the red- to far-red light/phytochrome B relationships. Finally, we summarise the phytochrome B-phytohormone (auxin, brassinosteroids) connection within the cells of shaded Arabidopsis plants, and present a simple model to illustrate the shade-avoidance syndrome. In addition, we address the relationship between plant density and health of the corresponding population, a topic that was raised for the first time by Sachs (1863) in his seminal paper and elaborated in his textbooks. PMID:24112603

  5. Demetrios Eginitis: Restorer of the Athens Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E. Th.; Manimanis, V. N.; Mantarakis, P.

    2007-07-01

    Demetrios Eginitis (1862-1934), one of the most eminent modern Greek astronomers, directed the National Observatory of Athens for 44 years (1890-1933). He was the fourth director since its founding, and was responsible for the restoration and modernization of the Observatory, which was in a state of inactivity after the death of Julius Schmidt in 1884. Eginitis ordered the purchase of modern instruments, educated the personnel, enriched the library with necessary and up-to-date books and arranged for new buildings to be built to house new telescopes and accommodate the personnel. Moreover, he divided the National Observatory of Athens into three separate Departments: the Astronomical, the Meteorological and the Geodynamic. D. Eginitis' contribution to Greek society went beyond his astronomical accomplishments. He was instrumental in the adoption of the Eastern European time zone for local time in Greece, and he succeeded in changing the official calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian. Having served twice as Minister of Education, he created many schools, founded the Academy of Athens and the Experimental School of the University of Athens. Eginitis was fluent in French, German and English, and therefore was the official representative of his country in numerous international conferences and councils.

  6. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, Lobna; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. However, the detection of Vip3Aa16 on Western blot showed in addition to the toxin two other strips (62 and 180 kDa) recognized by the anti-Vip3Aa16 polyclonal antibodies prepared at the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax Tunisia. For that reason and in order to develop a technique for reliable quantification of the toxin, we have considered the production of polyclonal antibodies at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany. These antibodies were the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the protein produced by the Vip3Aa16 recombinant strain Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). These monoclonal antibodies were tested by plate-trapped antigen (PTA) and triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The selection of hybridoma supernatants gave us four positive clones producing monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25492687

  7. [The incredible story about the cesarean section from ancient times till nowadays].

    PubMed

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Kedar, Reuven; Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit; Lavie, Ofer

    2014-08-01

    During its evolution the cesarean section has meant different things to different people. The indications for it have changed throughout the course of history. From the initial purpose to retrieve an infant from a dead or dying mother in order to bury the child separately from his mother, to contemporary indications. This article strives to follow the roots of this common procedure--starting from the descriptions in the ancient Greek mythology, through the imperial Roman law, aspects of Judaism and the evolution of the procedure throughout modern history. Major improvements in the surgical techniques, the introduction of anesthesia and aseptic procedures contributed to the decline in mortality and morbidity rates. We will attempt to find the etymology for the expression "cesarean section" which has commonly been accounted to Julius Caesar's name, although history denies it. This review takes us on a historical journey, from ancient times to nowadays, in which we follow the course and nature of a procedure being performed daily in thousands of hospitals. PMID:25286639

  8. [«A most strange instance of illness in several siblings»--first description of a rare neurological disease in 1830?].

    PubMed

    Nylenna, Magne; Breivik, Noralv; Heiberg, Arvid; Larsen, Øivind

    2016-03-15

    Was district medical officer Jensen the first doctor to describe patients with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) in Volda in 1830? A case series of four siblings with the same disease written by district medical officer Peter Jensen (1799-1832) in Aalesund in 1830, was published in the Norwegian medical journal Eyr in 1832. The children, who were healthy almost up to school age, developed dystonic involuntary movements and deformities in all extremities, lost their ability to speak and were emaciated before they died at around the age of nine years. Further information about the family and a fifth affected child has been found in the parish records. The clinical picture is consistent with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN), a rare condition with basal ganglia iron deposition, described in 1922 by the German neuropathologists Julius Hallervorden (1882-1965) and Hugo Spatz (1888-1969). The disease was formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, but because of the medical activities undertaken by these two researchers before and during the Second World War, this eponym is no longer recommended. PMID:26983149

  9. UV-A/Blue-Light responses in algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senger, Horst; Hermsmeier, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there is a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL (red light) region as well as in the UV-A/BL (blue light) region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogenetically the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered.

  10. Supersymmetry and supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Wess, J.; Bagger, J.

    1992-01-01

    The first edition of this book appeared in 1983 and was based on a series of lectures given at Princeton in 1983 by Julius Wess. Since the appearance of the first edition much work has been done on the development of phenomenological models of particle behavior based on the supergravity multiplet. Some experimental searches have been carried out and others are planned for the future. For this reason the second edition of the book goes substantially beyond the first. Six new chapters have been added for a total of twenty-six and five new appendices for a total of seven. The new chapters and appendices are primarily aimed at deriving the most general supersymmetric gauge invariant theory of chiral fields interacting with supergravity and expressing it in component form. The book is divided into three sections. After a brief introduction, the first part of the book deals with a description of N=1 supersymmetric non-abelian rigid gauge theory of chiral fields. The second part of the book develops a local supersymmetric theory which is supergravity. The final part describes the coupling of supersymmetric chiral fields to supergravity in a gauge invariant way. The book may be recommended as a pedagogical introduction to the theory of N=1 supergravity. Together with the appendices is is completely self-contained, both in notation and in the concepts used, requiring only some knowledge of field theory as a background.

  11. John Bardeen and transistor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Howard R.

    2001-01-01

    John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact semiconductor amplifier (transistor action) in polycrystalline germanium (also observed in polycrystalline silicon) on Dec. 15, 1947, for which they received a patent on Oct. 3, 1950. Bill Shockley was not a co-patent holder on Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier patent since Julius Lilienfeld had already received a patent in 1930 for what would have been Shockley's contribution; namely, the field-effect methodology. Shockley received patents for both his minority-carrier injection concept and junction transistor theory, however, and deservedly shared the Nobel prize with Bardeen and Brattain for his seminal contributions of injection, p-n junction theory and junction transistor theory. We will review the events leading up to the invention of Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier during the magic month of November 17-December 16, 1947 and the invention of Shockley's junction semiconductor amplifier during his magic month of December 24, 1947-January 23, 1948. It was during the course of Bardeen and Brattain's research in November, 1947 that Bardeen also patented the essence of the MOS transistor, wherein the induced minority carriers were confined to the inversion layer enroute to the collector. C. T. Sah has described this device as a sourceless MOS transistor. Indeed, John Bardeen, co-inventor of the point-contact semiconductor amplifier and inventor of the MOS transistor, may rightly be called the father of modern electronics.

  12. Histopathology slides from medical research to medical practice in interwar Strasbourg.

    PubMed

    Close-Koenig, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Histopathologists have been interested in cancer since the beginning of cellular theory. Rudolf Virchow and Julius Cohnheim defined cancer as a disease due to specific changes in tissues; cancer was thus considered a "pathologist's disease." Virchow emphasized the principles of biopsy and its value in the diagnosis of malignant tumours, but he himself did not promote it as an instrument for diagnosis. In the nineteenth century, in fact, cancer was a pathologists' disease in research only, not in diagnosis. By the mid-twentieth century, pathologists figured in medical practice as mediators between alternative therapeutic solutions. Histopathology entered a new arena, medical practice. In this paper, the process through which microscope slides moved from histopathology research to medical practice will be explored in detail with the aim of understanding how medical research integrates routine medical practices. The quasi-inherent character of scientific knowledge as relevant to medical practice is not taken for granted here. Through a study of medical school laboratory records from the interwar period in Strasbourg, I argue that pathologists could direct patients to specific forms of therapy on the basis of microscopic slides of cancer cells because they had defined (and re-defined) cancers by contributing to establishing radiation therapy practices. PMID:24779106

  13. Mind Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific styles vary tremendously. For me, research is largely about the unfettered pursuit of novel ideas and experiments that can test multiple ideas in a day, not a year, an approach that I learned from my mentor Julius “Julie” Axelrod. This focus on creative conceptualizations has been my métier since working in the summers during medical school at the National Institutes of Health, during my two years in the Axelrod laboratory, and throughout my forty-five years at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Equally important has been the “high” that emerges from brainstorming with my students. Nothing can compare with the eureka moments when, together, we sense new insights and, better yet, when high-risk, high-payoff experiments succeed. Although I have studied many different questions over the years, a common theme emerges: simple biochemical approaches to understanding molecular messengers, usually small molecules. Equally important has been identifying, purifying, and cloning the messengers' relevant biosynthetic, degradative, or target proteins, at all times seeking potential therapeutic relevance in the form of drugs. In the interests of brevity, this Reflections article is highly selective, and, with a few exceptions, literature citations are only of findings of our laboratory that illustrate notable themes. PMID:21543333

  14. [Brief history of lead poisoning: from Egyptian civilization to the Renaissance].

    PubMed

    Robles-Osorio, María Ludivina; Sabath, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The exposition to lead in the Antiquity is one of the first environmental health risks in the history of the mankind. In the ancient cultures of Egypt, Crete and Sumer there was no reports of an important exposition to this metal. The first clinical data is described in the Corpus Hipocraticcus, however was Nicandrus of Colophon the first to make a thorough description of the clinical manifestations of this disease. There was an increase in the exposition to this metal in times of the Roman empire and even some researchers propose that Julius Cesar and Octavio had clinical manifestations associated with lead poisoning. Paul of Aegina in the 7th century (a.C.) describes the first epidemic associated with lead intoxication, however in the Middle Ages the use of lead decrease until the Renaissance period in which lead poisoning affects mostly painters, metal-smithers and miners. Some studies done in the ice-layers of Greenland showed that the environmental pollution by lead during the Roman empire and the Renaissance was important. PMID:24762730

  15. Photosynthesis: 1900-1930.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century Julius von Sachs established the main principles of the photosynthetic production of sugars. From then, a growing number of biochemists and physiologists attended to the process, that appeared like a "black box", in order to detect what came in and what went out of it. The English group of Frederick Blackman gave a remarkable contribution in individuating the close connection between temperature, light and CO2 concentration. Later, the great importance of light was stressed by Otto Warburg, who evaluated the radiant energy necessary to the process in terms of quantum theory. The biochemical mechanism of photosynthesis was interpreted by the main European schools on the basis of Adolf Baeyer's suggestion which posed formaldehyde as the core of the process. Formaldehyde's theory hold engaged the biochemists for about fifty years although some voices rose up against it. However, nobody could put forward more coherent theories until the 1940s, when Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen individuated the cyclic pattern of the process. Ultimately, the first thirty years of the 20th century must be seen as a preliminary stage studded with light and shade even if, in spite of controversial trends, several findings of remarkable interest became to disclose that "black box" as we know today chlorophyll photosynthesis. PMID:18278741

  16. [out of scope].

    PubMed

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses several still unsettled and not systematically investigated questions concerning the situation of Jewish scientists, among them mathematicians, in the Republic of Weimar. Contemporary statements by the well-known leftist and liberal journalists Carl von Ossietzky (1932) and Rudolf Olden (1934) are used to describe the general political situation. A wide-spread feeling of a social and political crisis and changes and perturbations in international scientific communication provide explanatory background for the conditions within academia in the 1920s. A comparison of appointments of Jewish mathematicians to full professorships before and after World War I does not give significant differences. Attitudes of Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Bernstein, Richard Courant, Emil Julius Gumbel, Edmund Landau, Richard von Mises, Johann von Neumann and Adolf A. Fraenkel, but also of non-Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Klein, Walther von Dyck and Theodor Vahlen will be discussed, providing some unpublished material. One statement by Felix Klein (1920), which shows his undecided stance with respect to the problem of anti-Semitism, and an excerpt from Richard von Mises' diary (1933), where he reflects on his status as a Jewish mathematician and as a refugee, are particularly valuable as points of reference for necessary further research. PMID:18693641

  17. Events Leading to J. J. Thomson's Electron in 1897

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Per F.

    1997-03-01

    The electron had its genesis in the glow discharge studies of the German school of Julius Plucker and company, who viewed their Kathodenstrahlen as a form of aetheral wave propagation. Next on the scene came the Victorian amateur scientists, personified by the incomparable William Crookes, who interpreted the rays in terms of material particulate behavior. Back on the Continent, meanwhile, there was Heinrich Hertz and his disciple Philipp Lenard--the latter with his metallic ``window'' and all it stood for. In England, an experimental rivalry ensued between J. J. Thomson and Arthur Schuster, who nearly beat ``J.J.'' to his corpuscle in 1890, while in Paris, about then, Jean Perrin's cathode ray studies were provoked by the lingering anti-atomic stance of his academic countrymen. The chronicle culminated in the charge-to-mass experiments of 1896-97, in which Emil Wiechert and Walter Kaufmann narrowly missed the electron in favor of Thomson and his classic e/m determinations.

  18. John Tyndall and the Early History of Diamagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Summary John Tyndall, Irish-born natural philosopher, completed his PhD at the University of Marburg in 1850 while starting his first substantial period of research into the phenomenon of diamagnetism. This paper provides a detailed analysis and evaluation of his contribution to the understanding of magnetism and of the impact of this work on establishing his own career and reputation; it was instrumental in his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1852 and as Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institution in 1853. Tyndall's interactions and relationships with Michael Faraday, William Thomson, Julius Plücker and others are explored, alongside his contributions to experimental practice and to emerging theory. Tyndall's approach, challenging Faraday's developing field theory with a model of diamagnetic polarity and the effect of magnetic forces acting in couples, was based on his belief in the importance of underlying molecular structure, an idea which suffused his later work, for example in relation to the study of glaciers and to the interaction of substances with radiant heat. PMID:26221835

  19. Perception of the Relevance of Organic Chemistry in a German Pharmacy Students’ Course

    PubMed Central

    Wehle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students’ attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students’ attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU’s pharmacy program. PMID:27170811

  20. John Tyndall and the Early History of Diamagnetism.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Roland

    2015-01-01

    John Tyndall, Irish-born natural philosopher, completed his PhD at the University of Marburg in 1850 while starting his first substantial period of research into the phenomenon of diamagnetism. This paper provides a detailed analysis and evaluation of his contribution to the understanding of magnetism and of the impact of this work on establishing his own career and reputation; it was instrumental in his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1852 and as Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institution in 1853. Tyndall's interactions and relationships with Michael Faraday, William Thomson, Julius Plücker and others are explored, alongside his contributions to experimental practice and to emerging theory. Tyndall's approach, challenging Faraday's developing field theory with a model of diamagnetic polarity and the effect of magnetic forces acting in couples, was based on his belief in the importance of underlying molecular structure, an idea which suffused his later work, for example in relation to the study of glaciers and to the interaction of substances with radiant heat. PMID:26221835

  1. Fitness to stand trial under international criminal law: the historical context.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Decision-making about fitness to stand trial and the consequences of a finding of unfitness are fundamental to the integrity of any criminal justice system. They create thresholds for when mentally and physically unwell people are mandated to participate in criminal proceedings and they address the outcomes of such decisions for unwell accused persons. The jurisprudence relating to fitness to stand trial under international criminal law has particular challenges and complexities. The origins of contemporary controversies and the bases for modern decisions lie in rulings by the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. The decisions relating to Gustav Krupp, Rudolf Hess, Julius Streicher and Shumei Okawa wrestled with issues that have since recurred in respect of how trial systems should respond to unwellness going to the heart of whether persons can participate meaningfully in their own trials but dealing too with the temptation for persons accused of matters as serious as crimes against humanity and genocide to malinger, exaggerate symptomatology and to generate delays for strategic objectives. PMID:25087357

  2. Ambiguous Cells: The Emergence of the Stem Cell Concept in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper elucidates the origins of scientific work on stem cells. From the late nineteenth century onwards, the notion of stem cells became customary in scientific communities of Imperial Germany. Adopting the term ‘Stammzelle’ from Ernst Haeckel, Theodor Boveri was influential in introducing the concept in embryological studies and early genetics around 1900, describing a capacity of stem cells for self-renewal as well as differentiation. Blood stem cells were at the same time conceptualized by histologists such as Ernst Neumann and Artur Pappenheim in studies of physiological haematopoiesis and various forms of leukaemia. Furthermore, building on Julius Cohnheim’s theory that tumours arise from ‘embryonic remnants’ in the adult body, pathologists aimed at identifying the cells of origin, particularly in the embryo-like teratomas. Embryonic stem cells thus assumed an ambiguous status, partly representing common heritage and normal development, partly being seen as potential causes of cancer if they had been left behind or displaced during ontogeny. In the 1950s and 1960s experimental research on teratocarcinomas by Leroy Stevens and Barry Pierce in the USA brought the strands of embryological and pathological work together. Alongside the work of Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the Ontario Cancer Institute, from the early 1960s, on stem cells in haematopoiesis, this led into the beginnings of modern stem cell research. PMID:22332468

  3. Legends about Legends: Abraham Eleazar's Adaptation of Nicolas Flamel.

    PubMed

    Priesner, Claus

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the relationship between three illustrated alchemical treatises, all of which are associated with Jewish adepts: the famous Le Livre des figures hieroglyphiques attributed to Nicolas Flamel, and two treatises published in 1735 in Erfurt-the Uraltes Chymisches Werckh and the Donum Dei. The Werckh is supposedly written by Rabbi Abraham Eleazar, while the Donum Dei is attributed to an ancient alchemist-cabalist, Rabbi Samuel Baruch. I argue that these authors are fictitious, and that both works were in fact written in the early eighteenth century by their supposed editor, the probably pseudonymous Julius Gervasius. Gervasius connects the Werckh with the legend of Nicolas Flamel by suggesting that it is based on the original, Jewish manuscript which helped Flamel to find the Stone of the Sages. Gervasius used various strategies to confer a sense of Jewish "authenticity" on these works, borrowing from contemporary (non-Jewish) perceptions of Jewish ritual, Hebrew language, and Christian Cabala. The Werckh also borrows and adapts a sequence of allegorical illustrations from those in pseudo-Flamel's Livre, and I compare the two sets of figures and, where possible, interpret them. I conclude that the later works in fact teach us far more about the state of alchemy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than they do about either medieval alchemy or Judaism. PMID:27376176

  4. The Kosice meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, J.; Svoren, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sciences (under the leadership of the second author), Comenius University in Bratislava (under the leadership of the first author), and the Czech Academy of Sciences (under the leadership of Pavel Spurny) started to sweep meadows and forests at the calculated area. The first meteorite was discovered by Juraj Toth on March 20th. By October 6th, 77 meteorite fragments were found. The heaviest fragment weighs 2.17 kg and was found by Tereza Krejcova; the smallest pieces were only about 0.5 g (finder Julius Koza). The total mass recovered is 4.3 kg. There were 28 finders: Juraj Toth, Diana Buzova, Marek Husarik, Tereza Krejcova, Jan Svoren, Julius Koza, David Capek, Pavel Spurny, Stanislav Kaniansky, Eva Schunova, Marcel Skreka, Dusan Tomko, Pavol Zigo, Miroslav Seben, Jiri Silha, Leonard Kornos, Marcela Bodnarova, Peter Veres, Jozef Nedoroscik, Zuzana Mimovicova, Zuzana Krisandova, Jaromir Petrzala, Stefan Gajdos, Tomas Dobrovodsky, Peter Delincak, Zdenko Bartos, Ales Kucera, and Jozef Vilagi. Preliminary as well as complex mineralogic analysis implies that the recovered meteorite is classified as an ordinary H5 chondrite (Dr. J. Haloda, Czech Geological Survey, D. Ozdin, and P. Uher, Comenius University in Bratislava). The authors are grateful to all collaborators mentioned above. More details about the meteorite will be published in the near future.

  5. Michelangelo's Apollo and pathos: an anatomical and anthropometric interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2010-06-01

    Michelangelo was a complex personality with strong conflicting emotions. Most prevalent, in both his life and subsequently his work, were the contrasting feelings of grandeur (Apollo) and pathos. He used his extensive knowledge of anatomy to convey expressions of justice, power and awe in works like David, Moses, and Christ in the Last Judgment. In his more mature years he gravitates to works depicting suffering (pathos) and the physical decline of the human body as seen in the captives for the tomb of Pope Julius II and the female subjects in the Medici Chapel. The Renaissance belief in humanism, influenced by the study of antiquity, put man at the centre of the universe. Michelangelo, more than any other artist of the time, was an ardent exponent of this trend. His interest in the human body, though paramount, ranged far beyond the mere depiction of anatomical details or naturalism in art. The human body, which no artist since the ancient Greeks held in such high esteem, was the vehicle through which he sought to portray the inner life of the spirit. He was more interested in the universal spirit shining through the individual. It is this quality that enables him to speak to us across the boundaries of time and space. He never says, "I want you to recognize this man." Instead, he says, "I want you to recognize yourself and through yourself all mankind". Some of the outward manifestations of the life of the spirit were, to Michelangelo and to men of his time, beauty, justice, noble courage and awe-inspiring righteousness. It is not surprising, therefore, that two of the most important themes expressed in his art are Apollo (beauty and justice) and pathos (the spiritual struggle of man on earth) and that the sole form he deemed appropriate for embodiment of these lofty ideas was the human nude. PMID:20977150

  6. Kleiber's Law: How the Fire of Life ignited debate, fueled theory, and neglected plants as model organisms

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Size is a key feature of any organism since it influences the rate at which resources are consumed and thus affects metabolic rates. In the 1930s, size-dependent relationships were codified as “allometry” and it was shown that most of these could be quantified using the slopes of log-log plots of any 2 variables of interest. During the decades that followed, physiologists explored how animal respiration rates varied as a function of body size across taxa. The expectation was that rates would scale as the 2/3 power of body size as a reflection of the Euclidean relationship between surface area and volume. However, the work of Max Kleiber (1893–1976) and others revealed that animal respiration rates apparently scale more closely as the 3/4 power of body size. This phenomenology, which is called “Kleiber's Law,” has been described for a broad range of organisms, including some algae and plants. It has also been severely criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. Here, we review the history of the analysis of metabolism, which originated with the works of Antoine L. Lavoisier (1743–1794) and Julius Sachs (1832–1897), and culminated in Kleiber's book The Fire of Life (1961; 2. ed. 1975). We then evaluate some of the criticisms that have been leveled against Kleiber's Law and some examples of the theories that have tried to explain it. We revive the speculation that intracellular exo- and endocytotic processes are resource delivery-systems, analogous to the supercellular systems in multicellular organisms. Finally, we present data that cast doubt on the existence of a single scaling relationship between growth and body size in plants. PMID:26156204

  7. The basis and basics of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bone, R C; Eubanks, D H

    1991-06-01

    The development of mechanical ventilators and the procedures for their application began with the simple foot pump developed by Fell O'Dwyer in 1888. Ventilators have progressed through three generations, beginning with intermittent positive pressure breathing units such as the Bird and Bennett device in the 1960s. These were followed by second-generation units--represented by the Bennett MA-2 ventilator--in the 1970s, and the third-generation microprocessor-controlled units of today. During this evolutionary process clinicians recognized Types I and II respiratory failure as being indicators for mechanical ventilatory support. More recently investigators have expanded, clarified, and clinically applied the physiology of the work of breathing (described by Julius Comroe and other pioneers) to muscle fatigue, requiring ventilatory support. A ventilator classification system can help the clinician understand how ventilators function and under what conditions they may fail to operate as desired. Pressure-support ventilation is an example of how industry has responded to a clinical need--that is, to unload the work of breathing. All positive pressure ventilators generate tidal volumes by using power sources such as medical gas cylinders, air compressors, electrically driven turbines, or piston driven motors. Positive end-expiratory pressures, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, pressure release ventilation, and mandatory minute ventilation, are examples of the special functions available on modern ventilators. Modern third-generation ventilators use microprocessors to control operational functions and monitors. Because these units have incorporated the experience learned from earlier ventilators, it is imperative that clinicians understand basic ventilator operation and application in order to most effectively prescribe and assess their use. PMID:2036934

  8. Antitrust exemptions for international energy program participants, and schools and hospitals energy-conservation programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session on H. R. 4445, July 16, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The text of H.R. 4445, a bill to amend the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), is presented. The hearings were conducted to examine the activities of the oil companies that participated in voluntary agreements to carry out the international energy program. The conduct of that program by the governmental agencies and appropriate statutes are investigated. Under the provisions of EPCA, the voluntary agreements must be approved by the Attorney General. The law also requires that meetings of oil companies that participate in these agreements be closely monitored by Federal officials, that transcripts be made of all such meetings, and that all necessary steps are taken to insure that such activities have the minimum possible anticompetitive effects. If all of these procedures are followed, the law provides a limited antitrust immunity for the activities of the oil companies in carrying out these voluntary agreements. In general, the activities of the oil companies have two major roles in carrying out the international energy program: (1) they supply information to the International Energy Agency to aid it in analyzing the world oil supplies; (2) they establish the mechanisms that would be used by the agency if oil-sharing agreements under the program are triggered. Congressman John D. Dingell, presiding chairman at the hearings, expressed concern with the international energyprogram and the participation of the oil companies; the secrecy that surrounds the meetings of the oil companies; and the nature of the participation of the oil companies in the oil-sharing agreements. Witnesses testifying included Harry E. Bergold, DOE; Ky P. Ewing, Department of Justice; Robert Goodwin, DOE; Kamp, Steven, Lobel, Novins, and Lamont; Julius L. Katz, DOS; William J. Lamont, attorney; Willian B. McGurn, III and Charles D. Mahaffie, Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen, and Hamilton; Ronald B. Rowe and Marc G. Schildkraut, Federal Trade Commission.

  9. Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Duncan

    2000-12-01

    "If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time."--American Scientist "No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium."--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years. Acclaimed author Duncan Steel explores each major step in creating the current calendar along with the many different systems for defining the number of days in a week, the length of a month, and the number of days in a year. From the definition of the lunar month by Meton of Athens in 432 b.c. to the roles played by Julius Caesar, William the Conqueror, and Isaac Newton to present-day proposals to reform our calendar, this entertaining read also presents "timely" tidbits that will take you across the full span of recorded history. Find out how and why comets have been used as clocks, why there is no year zero between 1 b.c. and a.d. 1, and why for centuries Britain and its colonies rang in the New Year on March 25th. Marking Time will leave you with a sense of awe at the haphazard nature of our calendar's development. Once you've read this eye-opening book, you'll never look at the calendar the same way again.

  10. Spitzka and Spitzka on the brains of the assassins of presidents.

    PubMed

    Haines, D E

    1995-01-01

    Although four American Presidents have been assassinated (Lincoln, Garfield, McKinley, Kennedy), only the assassins of Garfield (Charles Julius Guiteau) and McKinley (Leon Franz Czolgosz) were tried, convicted, and executed for their crime. In 1882 Edward Charles Spitzka, a young New York neurologist with a growing reputation as an alienist, testified at the trial of Guiteau. He was the only expert witness who was asked, based on his personal examination of the prisoner, a direct question concerning the mental state of Guiteau. Spitzka maintained the unpopular view that Guiteau was insane. In spite of aggressive and spirited testimony on Spitzka's part, Guiteau was convicted and hanged. However, even before the execution it was acknowledged, by some experts, that Spitzka was undoubtedly right. About 20 years later, in 1901, Edward Anthony Spitzka, the son of Edward Charles Spitzka, was invited to conduct the autopsy on Czologsz, the assassin of McKinley. At the time Spitzka the younger, who had just published a detailed series of papers on the human brain, was in the fourth year of his medical training. It was an unusual series of fortuitous events that presumably led to Edward A. Spitzka conducting the autopsy on the assassin of the President of the United States while still a medical student. This, in light of the fact that other experts were available. Each Spitzka went on to a career of note and each made a number of contributions in their respective fields. It is however, their participation in the 'neurology', as broadly defined, of the assassins of Presidents Garfield and McKinley that remains unique in neuroscience history. Not only were father and son participants in these important events, but these were the only times that assassins of US Presidents were tried and executed. PMID:11619027

  11. Spaceflight and the skeleton: lessons for the earthbound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of bone during extended space flight has long been a concern that could limit the ability of humans to explore the universe. Surprisingly the available data do not support the concept that weightlessness leads inexorably to a depleted skeleton unable to withstand the stress of a return to a 1g environment. Nevertheless, some bone loss does occur especially in those bones most stressed by gravity prior to flight, providing confirmation of the proposal formulated over a century ago by Julius Wolff that mechanical stress determines the form and function of bone. Although the phenomenon of bone loss with skeletal unloading, whether by space flight or immobilization or just taking a load off your feet (literally) is well established, the mechanisms by which bone senses load and adjusts to it are not so clear. What actually is the stimulus and what are the sensors? What are the target cells? How do the sensors communicate the message into the cells, and by what pathways do the cells respond? What is the role of endocrine factors versus paracrine or autocrine factors in mediating or modulating the response? None of these questions has been answered with certainty, but as will become apparent in this review, we have some clues directing us to the answers. Although the focus of this review concerns space flight, it seems highly likely that the mechanisms mediating the transmission of mechanical load to changes in bone formation and resorption apply equally well to all forms of disuse osteoporosis, and are likely to be the same mechanisms affected by other etiologies of osteoporosis.

  12. Space flight and the skeleton: lessons for the earthbound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of bone during extended space flight has long been a concern that could limit the ability of humans to explore the universe. Surprisingly, the available data do not support the concept that weightlessness leads inexorably to a depleted skeleton unable to withstand the stress of a return to a 1-g environment. Nevertheless, some bone loss does occur, especially in those bones most stressed by gravity prior to flight, which provides confirmation of the proposal formulated over a century ago by Julius Wolff that mechanical stress determines the form and function of bone. Although the phenomenon of bone loss with skeletal unloading, whether by space flight or immobilization or just taking a load off your feet (literally) is well established, the mechanisms by which bone senses load and adjusts to it are not so clear. What actually is the stimulus, and what are the sensors? What are the target cells? How do the sensors communicate the message into the cells, and by what pathways do the cells respond? What is the role of endocrine, factors vs. paracrine or autocrine factors in mediating or modulating the response? None of these questions has been answered with certainty, but, as will become apparent in this review, we have some clues directing us to the answers. Although the focus of this review concerns space flight, it seems highly likely that the mechanisms mediating the transmission of mechanical load to changes in bone formation and resorption apply equally well to all forms of disuse osteoporosis and are likely to be the same mechanisms affected by other etiologies of osteoporosis.

  13. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: the aftermath].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich. (2) In the subsequent practice of wide amnestying and reintegration of former Nazi followers during the 1950s, neurologists were no exception as its elite continued in their positions. The year 1953 was the year of the Lisbon scandal, when chiefly Dutch representatives protested against the participation of Julius Hallervorden in the International Congress of Neurology. The newly founded societies, the German Society for Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie, DGN) and the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, DGPN), unanimously supported their member. (3) The next period was characterized by a nascent criticism of the prevailing attitude of covering up the crimes committed by physicians during the Nazi period. The discovery of incriminating brain sections at various Max Planck Institutes brought neurology to the focus of the debate. (4) Since the 1980s and 1990s historians (of medicine) have been systematically examining medicine's Nazi past in a professional way, which resulted in a noticeable increase of knowledge. Additionally, a new generation of scholars provoked a change of mind insofar as they recognized medicine's responsibility for the crimes committed between 1933 and 1945. We expect that future historical research will further elucidate the history of neurology during the NS regime and have consequences for our current understanding of research

  14. Eternal Rome: Guardian of the Heavenly Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latura, G.

    2016-01-01

    The power of the Roman Empire did not come solely by way of brutal force. A spiritual vision inherited from the Greeks inspired the Romans—an ascent through the classical Planets to the intersections with the Milky Way, where stood the gates of heaven. This vision stretches back, through Macrobius and Cicero, to Plato's Republic and Timaeus. The Eternal City, capital of the Empire for four centuries, claimed control over the celestial portals, a tradition that is traced on Roman coins and medals over thousands of years. Julius Caesar borrowed enormous sums to campaign for the office of Pontifex Maximus—high priest of Rome—spending a fortune on “bread and circuses” to secure the support of the masses. Consolidating power at every turn, Caesar as dictator-for-life became absolute master of Rome, the city that, according to its coins, ruled the cosmos. Though his mortal frame fell to the knives of the senators, Caesar's soul was seen ascending to heaven as a comet. Thus was born the myth of Divvs Ivlivs—the divine avatar of the Roman Empire, whose name would become synonymous with the title of emperor over millennia (German Kaiser, Hungarian Csaszar, Russian Tsar, to name a few). Caesar's heir, Octavian, piously waited for Lepidus to die of old age before grabbing the office of Pontifex Maximus for himself, a title that would define the celestial authority of the ruler of Rome until Gratian renounced it four centuries later. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, convinced Gratian that such a pagan title was not fit for a Christian. Once the Roman emperor discarded the title Pontifex Maximus, the bishop of Rome picked it up and placed it above his own head, as can be seen on coins and medals of the Vatican to this day. In Jubilee years, the Pope knocks down the brick wall that has kept closed the Holy Door for a generation, a ceremony that reaffirms Rome's control of the celestial gates.

  15. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? There is a long tradition of astronomical methods employed to analyze works of art, to understand historical events, and to elucidate passages in literature. Both Edmond Halley and George Biddell Airy calculated lunar phases and tide tables in attempts to determine the landing beach where Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C. Henry Norris Russell computed configurations of Jupiter and Saturn to determine a date for a 14th-century celestial event mentioned in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. In this tradition, our Texas State group has published a series of articles in Sky & Telescope over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature. Don Osterbrock worked with us 3 years ago when my students and I calculated dates for moonrise photographs taken by Ansel Adams in Yosemite National Park. The peaks of the Sierra Nevada crest in Yosemite are more than 125 miles from Lick Observatory, but the mountains can become visible from Lick on clear winter days and were photographed from there on early infrared-sensitive plates during the 1920s and 1930s. As we tested our topographic software by identifying the peaks that appear in the Lick plates, it was a pleasure to come to know Don, a former director of Lick Observatory and the person in whose honor this talk is dedicated.

  16. ["With all measures...". Appeal proceedings and political specialty disputes about orthopedics at the Berlin University and the Charité during the time of the Kaiser Empire, the Weimar Republic and national socialism].

    PubMed

    Philipp, Osten

    2012-01-01

    In 1934 the NSDAP University-Commission forced the president of the German Society of Surgery and the chairman of the German Orthopaedic Society to sign a reconciliation agreement. First of all, orthopaedists and surgeons were ordered to refrain from attacking each other in public. In the future, in the event of any complaints, they were to address the 'Reichsärzteführung' at the Ministry of the Interior. On the basis of papers and documents from the archives of the medical faculty, the East German Ministry for State Security and the former Berlin Document Centre, this article describes the history of the emerging medical specialty orthopaedics at the University of Berlin and the Charité hospital. It covers a period from 1890 through 1945 and focuses on the varying relations between political authorities, medical associations and the faculty. The main attention is given to ethical and economic disputes and to the way in which professors for orthopaedics were appointed. The two pioneers of orthopaedic surgery, Julius Wolff and Albert Hoffa had to overcome less resistance than their successors Georg Joachimsthal and Hermann Gocht. Gocht's fate changed, when the NSDAP took Power. As a protégé of the regime he represented the medical faculty during the period of political cleansing. In 1937 the appointment of the orthopaedist Lothar Kreuz as a full member of the medical faculty was no longer a university matter anymore. His appointment was negotiated entirely within the organisations of the NSDAP. Politically approved, Kreuz served as dean of the medical faculty and later was to be the last rector of the University of Berlin. For the first time, this article documents the connections between Kreuz, the paramilitary squadron of the party SS, and key political figures. PMID:23155755

  17. Moon-Struck: Artists Rediscover Nature And Observe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    We discuss rare early depictions of the Moon by artists who actually observed Earth's nearest neighbor rather than relying on stylized formulas. The earliest, from the 14th and 15th centuries, reveal that revolutionary advances in both pre-telescopic astronomy and naturalistic painting could go hand-in-hand. This link suggests that when painters observed the world, their definition of world could also include the heavens and the Moon. Many of the artists we discuss - e.g., Pietro Lorenzetti, Giotto, and Jan Van Eyck - actually studied the Moon, incorporating their studies into several works. We also consider the star map on the dome over the altar in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, Florence (c. 1442), whose likely advisor was Toscanelli. In addition, we examine representations by artists who painted for Popes Julius II and Leo X - Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, both of whom were influenced by individuals at the papal court, such as the astronomer, painter, and cartographer Johann (Giovanni) Ruysch and Leonardo da Vinci. We also discuss Leonardo's pre-telescopic notes and lunar drawings as they impacted on art and science in Florence, where Galileo would study perspective and chiaroscuro. Galileo's representations of the Moon (engraved in his Sidereus Nuncius, 1610) are noted, together with those by Harriot and Galileo's friend, the painter Cigoli. During the 17th century, the Moon's features were telescopically mapped by astronomers with repercussions in art, e.g., paintings by Donati Creti and Raimondo Manzini as well as Adam Elsheimer. Ending with a consideration of the 19th-century artists/astronomers John Russell and John Brett and early lunar photography, we demonstrate that artistic and scientific visual acuity belonged to the burgeoning empiricism of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries that eventually yielded modern observational astronomy.

  18. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-06-01

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and mineral processing operations. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through the optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify energy savings. In the current project, the primary objective is to adapt the JKMRC Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The second phase of this project is being carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry located south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. This quarry is owned by 3M Corporation and operated by Luck Stone. Based on lessons learned from the first phase work, long-term monitoring ({approx} three months) of all quarry operations is being carried out to minimize the impact of geological changes during the mining process. To date, the blasting and processing operations have been audited and modeled, the long-term monitoring of current Luck Stone practice has been completed, and a modified blasting approach has been implemented based on the results of simulations using JKSimBlast and JKSimPlant. The modified blasting approach is expected to increase the primary throughput by 15% and the secondary throughput by approximately 6%, with an overall specific energy reduction of around 1%. Long-term monitoring is currently underway to evaluate the impact the modified blasting approach. This report summarizes the current status of work at the Pittsboro Quarry.

  19. Kleiber's Law: How the Fire of Life ignited debate, fueled theory, and neglected plants as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Size is a key feature of any organism since it influences the rate at which resources are consumed and thus affects metabolic rates. In the 1930s, size-dependent relationships were codified as "allometry" and it was shown that most of these could be quantified using the slopes of log-log plots of any 2 variables of interest. During the decades that followed, physiologists explored how animal respiration rates varied as a function of body size across taxa. The expectation was that rates would scale as the 2/3 power of body size as a reflection of the Euclidean relationship between surface area and volume. However, the work of Max Kleiber (1893-1976) and others revealed that animal respiration rates apparently scale more closely as the 3/4 power of body size. This phenomenology, which is called "Kleiber's Law," has been described for a broad range of organisms, including some algae and plants. It has also been severely criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. Here, we review the history of the analysis of metabolism, which originated with the works of Antoine L. Lavoisier (1743-1794) and Julius Sachs (1832-1897), and culminated in Kleiber's book The Fire of Life (1961; 2. ed. 1975). We then evaluate some of the criticisms that have been leveled against Kleiber's Law and some examples of the theories that have tried to explain it. We revive the speculation that intracellular exo- and endocytotic processes are resource delivery-systems, analogous to the supercellular systems in multicellular organisms. Finally, we present data that cast doubt on the existence of a single scaling relationship between growth and body size in plants. PMID:26156204

  20. ``But I am constant as the North Star*'' - The Return of Polaris as a Low Amplitude Classical Cepheid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. J.; Tracey, J. C.; Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2002-12-01

    * Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare Polaris ( ≈ +2.0 mag; B-V = +0.60; F7 Ib) is a low amplitude Classical Cepheid with a pulsation period of P = 3.97 days. Polaris is one of the nearest (dHipparcos = 132 +/- 8 pc) and brightest Cepheid. This Cepheid (Polaris A) is the luminous member of the multiple star system (ADS 1477). Over the last century amazing changing have been occurring for this famous star. The pulsation period has been increasing a rate of dP/dt = +3.2 sec/yr while the light amplitude has decreased from ~0.12 mag (1900s) to ~0.02 mag (early1990s). A recent summary and thorough discussion of Polaris's interesting properties are given by Evans et al. (2002, ApJ, 567, 1121). We have been carrying out photoelectric photometry of Polaris starting in early 2002. This photometry is a continuation of the work done on Polaris by Kamper and Fernie. Our observations were made to obtain new epochal light curves and accurate times of maximum light. We secured well defined 450 nm and 550 nm light curves from which we extracted accurate measures of light amplitudes of 0.033 +/- 0.004 mag and 0.028 +/- 0.003 mag, respectively. These light amplitudes are slightly larger than those observed during the early 1990s. So it appears that the century long decrease in the light amplitude has halted (or paused). Our time of maximum light was combined with previous timings and reaffirms the increase in period of +3.2 sec/yr. These observations lend strong support to overtone nature of Polaris's pulsations, whose transition from moderate to low amplitude pulsator will be discussed in more detail in this poster. In addition to the long-term secular increase in the Polaris's pulsation period, an analysis of the O-Cs indicates +/-0.25 day cyclic oscillations in the apparent period with time scale of 11-12 years. The nature of these period oscillations is being investigated and will be discussed. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST 00

  1. Record of metal workshops in peat deposits: history and environmental impact on the Mont Lozère Massif, France.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Lavoie, M; Ploquin, A; Carignan, J; Pulido, M; De Beaulieu, J L

    2005-07-15

    This study aims to document the history of the metallurgical activities on the Mont Lozère massif in the Cévennes Mountains in Southern France. Many medieval sites of metallurgical wastes (slags) have been reported on the massif. These sites are thought to represent ancient lead workshops. The impact of past metallurgical activity on the environment was studied using geochemical and palynological techniques on a core collected in the Narses Mortes peatland near medieval smelting area. Two main periods of smelting activities during the last 2200 years were revealed bythe lead concentration and isotopic composition along the core profile: the first period corresponds to the Gallic period (approximately ca. 300 B.C. to ca. 20 A.D.) and the second one to the Medieval period (approximately ca. 1000-1300 A.D.). Forest disturbances are associated with lead anomalies for the two metallurgical activities described. The impact of the first metallurgy was moderate during the Gallic period, during which beech and birch were the tree species most affected. The second period corresponds to the observed slag present in the field. Along with agropastoral activities, the medieval smelting activities led to the definitive disappearance of all tree species on the summit zones of Mont Lozère. The abundance of ore resources and the earlier presence of wood on the massif justify the presence of workshops at this place. The relationship between mines and ores has been documented for the Medieval period. There is no archaeological proof concerning the Gallic activity. Nevertheless, 2500-2100 years ago, the borders of the Gallic Tribe territory, named the Gabales, were the same as the present-day borders of the Lozère department. Julius Caesar reported the existence of this tribe in 58 B.C. in "De Bello Gallico", and in Strabon (Book IV, 2.2) the "Gabales silver" and a "treasure of Gabales" are mentioned, but to this day, they have not been found. PMID:16082940

  2. Schizotypy and leadership: a contrasting model for deficit symptoms, and a possible therapeutic role for sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Alias, A G

    2000-04-01

    Associational loosening, slow and faulty information processing, poor gating of irrelevant stimuli, poor ability to shift attention, poor working memory, passivity, ambivalence, anhedonia, and impaired motor coordination are cardinal features of schizophrenia but, unlike delusions and hallucinations, they are related more to negative/deficit symptoms. As summarized by Bass, numerous studies have correlated leadership with 'ambition, initiative and persistence' (opposite of passivity), 'speed and accuracy of thought', 'finality of decision,' or decisiveness (the opposite of ambivalence), 'mood control, optimism and sense of humor' (opposite of anhedonia), etc. Andreasen et al postulate that a disruption in the circuitry among nodes located in the prefrontal regions, the thalamic nuclei, and the cerebellum produces 'cognitive dysmetria', meaning difficulty in prioritizing, coordinating, and responding to information, and that it can account for the broad diversity of symptoms of schizophrenia. A relationship between cognitive processes and cerebellar and basal ganglia functions, and a role of neocerebellum in rapidly shifting attention, have been demonstrated. The cognitive styles, including a proficiency to quickly shift attention, of several famous leaders are used as examples of this contrasting model. Julius Caesar and Napoleon, for instance, could dictate to up to six secretaries simultaneously, using their exceptional working memories, and proficiency in quickly and effortlessly shifting attention while flawlessly gating irrelevant external and internal stimuli. It is suggested that specific brain imaging studies could illustrate this contrast. Gray et al noted positive correlations between 'dominance', an important leadership trait, and serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), but not of more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in over 1700 older men. Though not scientifically rigorous, the author noted positive correlations (P = 0

  3. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"].

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are

  4. The brain on itself: Nobel laureates and the history of fundamental nervous system function.

    PubMed

    Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2007-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been given in recognition of work in the neurosciences a number of times. Laureates have been awarded for work on both fundamental and more complex nervous system functions. This review is restricted to contributions by 20th century laureates to the understanding of fundamental nervous system function on the cellular level. In 1906, Camillo Golgi and Ramón y Cajal were awarded for their work on the microscopic structure of the nervous system. Their achievement and those of others within this field, coupled with technological progress, gradually allowed more complex physiological studies. In 1932, the prize was awarded to Charles Sherrington and Edgar Adrian for their discoveries of how neurons function. They were followed in 1944 by Herbert Gasser and Joseph Erlanger who uncovered the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley were awarded for the detection of the ionic mechanism of the action potential and its mathematical explanation in 1963. In 1991, Erwin Neher and Bernd Sakmann were awarded for their work on single ion channels. Although the scientists who proved the hypothesis (Fridjof Nansen, Wilhelm His, and August Forel) were never awarded by the Nobel Committee, their studies gave rise to one of the most fundamental questions in 20th century neuroscience: How is information carried from one neuron to another or to an effector cell? This was first solved in the vegetative nervous system, and, in 1936, Henry Dale and Otto Loewi received the prize for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses. In 1963, John Eccles was awarded the prize for his work on the physiology of synapses. In 1970, Bernhard Katz received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of quantal release. Katz shared the prize with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler, who were central in finding that transmitters are stored in presynaptic vesicles and that the effect in many synapses is

  5. The Tenth Frederick H. Verhoeff lecture. What else did 1864 contribute to ophthalmology?

    PubMed

    Blodi, F C

    1989-01-01

    In summary we can say that the AOS was founded at a time when ophthalmology established itself as an independent scientific medical specialty. A hundred years earlier, in 1750, ophthalmology became an independent surgical specialty when Jacques Daviel of Marseille had begun extracting a cataract instead of merely couching or dislocating the lens. Now in the middle of the 19th century a new era dawned on the ophthalmic horizon. An era which Julius Hirschberg calls "the reform of ophthalmology." It was effected mainly by a group of unusual, gifted and genial scholars. Hermann v. Helmholtz, who not only invented the ophthalmoscope, but established with his handbook physiologic optics as an advanced, sophisticated branch of optics and mathematics; F.C. Donders, who put refraction, refractive errors and accommodation on a sound scientific footing, the great A. v. Graefe, who contributed so much to the concept and treatment of glaucoma, to strabismus, to various diseases of the fundus, to neuro-ophthalmology and to many other fields and finally William Bowman, the great investigator, clinician and surgeon. It was during this time of reform, of fermentation, of maturation, that a group of farsighted American ophthalmologists decided to establish a society to further the aims and objectives of our specialty in America. The time was right; the effort succeeded and our society developed into one of the decisive forces of American ophthalmology. I hope that my address has met the objectives which I had outlined earlier: To present and illuminate the circumstances and external conditions which were effective in 1864 when our society was founded. At the same time I hope I have done justice to the memory of this outstanding American ophthalmologist, Frederick Verhoeff, who contributed so much to the American Ophthalmological Society. On this the quasquicentennial jubilee of the AOS we find the Society healthy and flourishing. May it continue as an association of the most

  6. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  7. [Obstetrics--a gear in the machinery of history].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    1998-01-01

    It was not Julius Caesar who was born by Caesarean section, as generally assumed, but Scipio Cornelius Africanus, who subdued Spain 100 years before Caesar's time. In chambers with walls of porphyrite, the Byzantine empresses used to give birth to the heirs to the throne. In England, the infertility of Queen Anne, who suffered from porphyria, led to the succession of the Protestant House of Hannover following the Catholic Stuarts. Christina of Sweden, called 'queen of baroque, rebel and scholar', was born in the 'caul'. At the age of 39 years, Johanna of Pfirt, married to Albrecht the Lame, secured the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty by giving birth to Rudolf the Founder. Maria Theresia, who had 16 children, was called 'mother-in-law of Europe'. She was delivered of her first child at the age of 19. The death of her sister Maria-Anna in childbed was one of the reasons why Gerard van Swieten was called to Vienna. Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Franz I of Austria, died, not as a consequence of. but after a forceps operation carried out by Johann Lukas Boër. In England, Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, and her baby son died at the delivery; Sir Richard Croft, who had not used the forceps, committed suicide after this tragic incident. Being the next in succession, Victoria ascended the throne. The term 'narcose au chloroforme' (first used by James Young Simpson) was changed to 'narcose à la reine' after this method had been used at the birth of Victoria's eighth child by John Snow. It was Queen Victoria, who passed on haemophilia in European dynasties. When Marie Louise of Habsburg had her first child, Napoleon's son, the later Duke of Reichstadt, Antoine Dubois had to perform a turning of the transverse presentation and use the forceps on the head following after. The birth of Napoleon himself was a case of precipitate labour. Johann Klein, the successor of Boër, applied the forceps when Archduchess Sophie was delivered of her first child

  8. Eclipses and the Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  9. The Tenth Frederick H. Verhoeff lecture. What else did 1864 contribute to ophthalmology?

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, F C

    1989-01-01

    In summary we can say that the AOS was founded at a time when ophthalmology established itself as an independent scientific medical specialty. A hundred years earlier, in 1750, ophthalmology became an independent surgical specialty when Jacques Daviel of Marseille had begun extracting a cataract instead of merely couching or dislocating the lens. Now in the middle of the 19th century a new era dawned on the ophthalmic horizon. An era which Julius Hirschberg calls "the reform of ophthalmology." It was effected mainly by a group of unusual, gifted and genial scholars. Hermann v. Helmholtz, who not only invented the ophthalmoscope, but established with his handbook physiologic optics as an advanced, sophisticated branch of optics and mathematics; F.C. Donders, who put refraction, refractive errors and accommodation on a sound scientific footing, the great A. v. Graefe, who contributed so much to the concept and treatment of glaucoma, to strabismus, to various diseases of the fundus, to neuro-ophthalmology and to many other fields and finally William Bowman, the great investigator, clinician and surgeon. It was during this time of reform, of fermentation, of maturation, that a group of farsighted American ophthalmologists decided to establish a society to further the aims and objectives of our specialty in America. The time was right; the effort succeeded and our society developed into one of the decisive forces of American ophthalmology. I hope that my address has met the objectives which I had outlined earlier: To present and illuminate the circumstances and external conditions which were effective in 1864 when our society was founded. At the same time I hope I have done justice to the memory of this outstanding American ophthalmologist, Frederick Verhoeff, who contributed so much to the American Ophthalmological Society. On this the quasquicentennial jubilee of the AOS we find the Society healthy and flourishing. May it continue as an association of the most

  10. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Simon J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Rutten, Guy EHM; Sandbæk, Annelli; Sharp, Stephen J; Simmons, Rebecca K; van den Donk, Maureen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Foundation for General Practice, Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment, Danish National Board of Health, Danish Medical Research Council, Aarhus University Research Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, UK NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme, UK National Health Service R&D, UK National Institute for Health Research, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Novo Nordisk, Astra, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Servier, HemoCue, Merck. PMID:21705063

  11. Electrotherapeutic disputes: the 'Frankfurt Council' of 1891.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2011-04-01

    Since the 1980s and 1990s, vagus nerve and deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and cranial electrotherapy stimulation have found their way into neurology as therapeutic approaches to epilepsy, Morbus Parkinson and other central nervous symptoms. Moreover, these methods have proven useful and provided hope in the therapy of other diseases, most of all in psychiatry. From a historic perspective, this new emphasis on somatic therapies in the case of transcranial magnetic stimulation and cranial electrotherapy stimulation represents the return of therapeutic methods widely used in the 19th century and based on very similar techniques. Against the background of a general rise in the importance of neurobiological concepts in the neurosciences, we are now in a new situation of change. Yet, as in the 1880s and 1990s, many epistemic questions remain unresolved, the methods not yet having been standardized. In particular, the inability to explain which way and precisely how electricity induces healing processes in the body continues to put the neurosciences, which have always regarded themselves as exact and scientific in nature, in a rather uncomfortable position. There was a similar situation in the 1880s and 1990s, when positivist scientific dogmas prevailed. For ideological and professional reasons, neurologists strongly rejected the notion pioneered by Leipzig neuropsychiatrist Paul Julius Möbius that curative effects of electrotherapy were based on suggestion. One should see, however, that Möbius's actual concern was not to raise opposition towards or question electrotherapy as such, but rather to sensitize his colleagues in view of the prevailing solely materialistic-somatic approach in order that they should not neglect the psychological component of all illness, both in clinical practice and in research. A singular and very special event illustrates the heated debate among German-speaking neurologists on the psychological/suggestive effects

  12. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    As early as 1609 Galileo's first telescope showed the Moon to be another world. The Moon has thus been the object of intense study not only since the 1960s but for at least the previous three and a half centuries. The first "race to the Moon" was not undertaken by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts but by German and British selenographers in the nineteenth century, who mapped lunar detail so painstakingly that by 1878 - the year Julius Schmidt of the Athens Observatory published his great Moon map. In part, the reason for the long preoccupation with lunar surface details lay in the fact that the mapping of the Moon provided a form of therapy for astronomically inclined obsessive personalities. In part, too, it lay in the partiality of selenographers for the project - first systematically pursued by Johann Schroeter at the end of the eighteenth century - of discovering evidence of minor changes in the lunar surface. What became a Promethean quest for changes - veils, clouds, landslips, eruptions - was initially tied in with the theory that the lunar surface features had been formed by volcanic eruptions; however, it curiously survived the demise of the volcanic theory and still shows intermittent gasps of life in the largely amateur-driven search for transient lunar phenomena, or TLP. The long era of pre-Apollo lunar studies is a fascinating subject that has never been told in detail. Though there was a lapse of interest in the Moon in the immediate post-Apollo era, there has been a recent "return to the Moon" with the successful Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions. There is also growing evidence of a return of amateur observers to the Moon as an object worthy of their attentions. This is understandable inasmuch as the Moon remains the most accessible planetary realm; it is, moreover, the only alien world open to geological prospecting from the eyepiece of the backyard telescope. In that sense, this book is - like the Moon itself - both timely and

  13. Comparison of COSMIC RO Data with European Digisondes and GPS TEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Shagimuratov, Irk; Krankowski, Andrzej; Lagovsky, Anatoly

    FormoSat-3/COSMIC now provides unprecedented global coverage of GPS occultations mea-surements, each of which yields the ionosphere electron density information with high vertical resolution. However systematic validation work is still needed before using the powerful RO technique for sounding the ionosphere on a routine basis. In the given study electron density profiles retrieved from the Formosat-3/COSMIC RO measurements were compared with differ-ent kinds of ground-based observations. We used the ionospheric data recorded by European digisondes of DIAS network (Rome, Ebro, Arenosillo, Athens, Chilton, Pruhonice and Julius-ruh) for temporal interval of 2007-2009 and compare these ground measured data with the GPS COSMIC RO ionospheric profiles. It was revealed that in general the form of COSMIC profile in the bottom side is in a good agreement with ionosonde profiles, the heights of the peak density value are also good comparable. Special attention was focused to the question of the topside part of electron density profile. Practically for all analyzed cases there are observed the understated values of electron density in the topside part of the ionosonde profiles in compare with RO profiles. As the topside ionosonde profile is obtained by fitting a model to the peak electron density value, the COSMIC radio occultation measurements can make an important contribution to the investigation of the topside part of the ionosphere. In order to assess the ac-curacy of the COSMIC ionospheric electron density retrievals, coincidences of ionosonde data with COSMIC NmF2 values have been examined. NmF2 was calculated from the observed critical plasma frequency foF2 of the F2 layer. Values of foF2 have been scaled manually from ionograms for all considered time-location cases to avoid the evident risks related with using of the autoscaled data. The created scatter plots show a high degree of correlation between two independent estimates of NmF2. Also it was analyzed the

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihvola, Ari

    2005-03-01

    `Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin! `It canÂ't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where everything seems to work well with the `old

  15. Adapting coastal structures to a moving relative sea level: Roman Time geoarchaeological evidence from Posillipo promontory (Naples, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelli, Pietro; Cinque, Aldo; Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Pappone, Gerardo; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Posillipo promontory belongs to the southern periphery the active volcanic complex called Campi Flegrei. Especially the central caldera of CF is well known for offering a rich geoarchaeological record of the vertical ground movements it has been suffering since Roman times; which includes the ruins of Portus Julius (built in 37 BC) presently found between 10 and 5 m bsl and the Middle Ages Lithophaga perforations at about 7m asl on the marble columns of the Serapeo building (Morhange, 2006 and references therein). In order to better constraint the vertical movements suffered by the Posillipo promontory during the last two millennia, we selected three geoarcaeolgical coastal sites (Nisida Roman port, Marechiaro Roman port and Villa Robery) and we studied them by means of both geomorphological observations and geophysical surveys (Side Scan Sonar and Single Beam echo-sounder). Within the submerged Roman port of Nisida, built in the 1st AD, we found two pilae of the ancient pier. The submersion measuring of the well-preserved one provided a palaeo-sea level at 3.1±0.30 m bsl. In the submerged Roman port of Marechiaro, we recognized a still preserved breakwater connected to the tuffaceous sea cliff, and submerged foundations of a 1st century small sea-side villa. Nearby there is also a two-storeyed Roman building (Palazzo degli Spiriti), built in the 1st cent. BC and later restructured to adapt to a phase of subsidence (Gunther 1908). From our submersion measurements, two different paleo-sea levels can be deduced: one for the 1st cent. BC at -4.4 + -0.50 m and another for the 1st cent. AD at -3 + - 0.30 m. Finally, in front of the modern Villa Rosebery the sea bottom shows a sub-horizontal element at -3m to -3.5m bsl, emerged during the 1st BC century. In fact, at least three houses were erected there during said century (Gunther, 1908). As the area was very little elevated, an alignment of pilae was also constructed to protect those houses from the breakers. By

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos

    2010-11-01

    Physics Milos Lokajicek (co-chair), Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague Vojtech Petracek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering and especially the Programme Committee for their careful choice of conference contributions and their enormous work with organization of 340 post conference proceedings paper review Ludek Matyska (chair), CESNET Online Computing Volker Gülzow, DESY Jiri Masik, University of Manchester/on leave from Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Event Processing Elizabeth Sexton-Kennedy, FNAL Tomas Davidek, Charles University, Prague Software Components, Tools and Databases Paolo Calafiura, LBNL Julius Hrivnac, LAL Track 4 Hardware and Computing Fabrics Takashi Sasaki, KEK Jiri Chudoba, Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies Francesco Giacomini, CERN Ales Krenek, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Distributed Processing and Analysis Latchezar Betev, CERN Simon Lin, ASGC, Taipei Dagmar Adamova, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague Collaborative Tools Eva Hladka, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Thank you to all who made CHEP'09 a success. Jan Gruntorad and Milos Lokajicek CHEP'09 Conference Chairs Prague, March 2010 The PDF and HTML files contain a list of all CHEP'09 contributions.

  17. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-09-30

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and processing. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Center in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify benefits. In the current project, the primary objective was to adapt Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The first phase of this work was carried out at the Bealeton Quarry near Fredericksburg, Virginia. The second phase was carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Both quarries are operated by Luck Stone Corporation of Richmond, Virginia. As a result of the work, several conclusions can be drawn from the project which should assist DOE in assessing the applicability of the Mine-to-Mill approach to the aggregates industry. 1. Implementation of MTM guidelines at Pittsboro has resulted in tangible improvements in productivity. It is clear that MTM guidelines represent an energy savings of around 5% (primary and secondary) and an overall energy savings of 1%. This 1-5% energy savings is also consistent with simulated results for Bealeton had side-by-side shots used to evaluate the technology been carried out in the same rockmass. 2. Luck Stone clearly runs their operations at a high standard. Hence the percentage improvement realized in this project may represent the lower end of what might be expected overall in the aggregates industry. 3. Variability in ore types across both Bealeton and Pittsboro suggests a 2:1 difference in hardness which contradicts the misconception that quarry rock is homogenous. Therefore, the idea of comparing side-by-side blasts

  18. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihvola, Ari

    2005-03-01

    `Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin! `It canÂ't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where everything seems to work well with the `old

  20. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    from the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the US tackle this challenge by demonstrating a top-down method for fabricating nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) nanowires or nanolines. The work demonstrates a constant room temperature electrical resistivity of the NiSi nanowires as the line widths are reduced to as low as 23 nm [5]. The field effect transistor, the closest device under current research to that comprising the transistor first patented by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in Canada in 1925, has become the focus of a large proportion of research in nanoscale science and technology. Up to now, most devices have been based on natural n-type transition metal oxides, but synthesis of p-type metal oxide nanowires enables the development of novel complementary nanowire devices and circuits, including LEDs, electrically driven nanolasers and multiplexing biosensors. Doping is the most common means of producing p-type semiconductor nanowires but the stability and reproducibility of these structures are often poor. A collaboration of researchers in China and Singapore has demonstrated that CuO nanowires could be a promising candidate for a p-type field-effect transistor [6]. The sensitivity of nanowires to gases in their surroundings has stimulated considerable interest for applications in sensing, and the CuO nanowires in this report also exhibit a high response to CO gas in air at 200 °C. In this issue, researchers in Korea and the US provide an overview of the use of nanomaterials in memory technology [7]. The review provides details of the current status and future prospects of alternatives that may become available in the near future for phase-change RAM, ferroelectric RAM and magnetic RAM, as well as other novel architectures under investigation such as molecular memory and devices based on carbon nanotubes. Nanowires feature here as well. Although, as pointed out in the review the use of nanowires in phase-change RAM is still far from being at the

  1. FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George

    2006-12-01

    the CORFU2005:

  2. European Research Training Network: The Third Generation as a Probe for New Physics: Experimental and Technological Approach; The Quest for Unification Theory Confronts Experiment; Constituents Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe
  3. Greek Ministry of Education
  4. Municipality of Corfu and the Municipal Development Enterprise (ANEDK)
  5. Latsis Institution
  6. National Technical University and Ionian University
  7. CERN
  8. DESY
  9. Max--Planck--Institute for Physics, Munich
  10. Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics
  11. National Center of Scientific Research ``Demokritos'' and the Greek Atomic Energy Commission
  12. Olympic Airlines
  13. The Companies: Educational Tetras, Infoware, Kleos, Terra Kerkyra
  14. The telecommunication companies OTE and FORTHNET
  15. Konstantinos Anagnostopoulos, Ignatios Antoniadis, George Fanourakis, Alexandros Kehagias, Aurore Savoy-Navarro, Julius Wess and George Zoupanos Editors

  16. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  17. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we