Pricing turbo warrants under mixed-exponential jump diffusion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jianfeng; Xu, Weidong
2016-06-01
Turbo warrant is a special type of barrier options in which the rebate is calculated as another exotic option. In this paper, using Laplace transforms we obtain the valuation of turbo warrant under the mixed-exponential jump diffusion model, which is able to approximate any jump size distribution. The numerical Laplace inversion examples verify that the analytical solutions are accurate. The results of simulation confirm the argument that jump risk should not be ignored in the valuation of turbo warrants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, L. Z. J.; Lemmens, D.; Tempere, J.
2010-06-01
Path integral techniques for the pricing of financial options are mostly based on models that can be recast in terms of a Fokker-Planck differential equation and that, consequently, neglect jumps and only describe drift and diffusion. We present a method to adapt formulas for both the path-integral propagators and the option prices themselves, so that jump processes are taken into account in conjunction with the usual drift and diffusion terms. In particular, we focus on stochastic volatility models, such as the exponential Vasicek model, and extend the pricing formulas and propagator of this model to incorporate jump diffusion with a given jump size distribution. This model is of importance to include non-Gaussian fluctuations beyond the Black-Scholes model, and moreover yields a lognormal distribution of the volatilities, in agreement with results from superstatistical analysis. The results obtained in the present formalism are checked with Monte Carlo simulations.
Convergence of the binomial tree method for Asian options in jump-diffusion models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kwang Ik; Qian, Xiao-Song
2007-06-01
The binomial tree methods (BTM), first proposed by Cox, Ross and Rubinstein [J. Cox, S. Ross, M. Rubinstein, Option pricing: A simplified approach, J. Finan. Econ. 7 (1979) 229-264] in diffusion models and extended by Amin [K.I. Amin, Jump diffusion option valuation in discrete time, J. Finance 48 (1993) 1833-1863] to jump-diffusion models, is one of the most popular approaches to pricing options. In this paper, we present a binomial tree method for Asian options in jump-diffusion models and show its equivalence to certain explicit difference scheme. Employing numerical analysis and the notion of viscosity solution, we prove the uniform convergence of the binomial tree method for European-style and American-style Asian options.
Parameters estimation using the first passage times method in a jump-diffusion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaldi, K.; Meddahi, S.
2016-06-01
The main purposes of this paper are two contributions: (1) it presents a new method, which is the first passage time (FPT method) generalized for all passage times (GPT method), in order to estimate the parameters of stochastic Jump-Diffusion process. (2) it compares in a time series model, share price of gold, the empirical results of the estimation and forecasts obtained with the GPT method and those obtained by the moments method and the FPT method applied to the Merton Jump-Diffusion (MJD) model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Yongzeng; Zeng, Yan; Xi, Xiaojing
2011-11-01
In this paper, we discuss control variate methods for Asian option pricing under exponential jump diffusion model for the underlying asset prices. Numerical results show that the new control variate XNCV is much more efficient than the classical control variate XCCV when used in pricing Asian options. For example, the variance reduction ratios by XCCV are no more than 120 whereas those by XNCV vary from 15797 to 49171 on average over sample sizes 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384 and 32768.
Pricing equity warrants with a promised lowest price in Merton's jump-diffusion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Weilin; Zhang, Xili
2016-09-01
Motivated by the empirical evidence of jumps in the dynamics of firm behavior, this paper considers the problem of pricing equity warrants in the presence of a promised lowest price when the price of the underlying asset follows the Merton's jump-diffusion process. Using the Martingale approach, we propose a valuation model of equity warrants based on the firm value, its volatility, and parameters of the jump component, which are not directly observable. To implement our pricing model empirically, this paper also provides a promising estimation method for obtaining these desired variables based on observable data, such as stock prices and the book value of total liability. We conduct an empirical study to ascertain the performance of our proposed model using the data of Changdian warrant collected from 25 May 2006 (the listing date) to 29 January 2007 (the expiration date). Furthermore, the comparison of traditional models (such as the Black-Scholes model, the Noreen-Wolfson model, the Lauterbach-Schultz model, and the Ukhov model) with our model is presented. From the empirical study, we can see that the mean absolute error of our pricing model is 16.75%. By contrast, the Black-Scholes model, the Noreen-Wolfson model, the Lauterbach-Schultz model, and the Ukhov model applied to the same warrant produce mean absolute errors of 92.24%, 45.38%, 87.34%, 76.12%, respectively. Thus both the dilution effect and the jump feature cannot be ignored in determining the valuation of equity warrants.
Simple jumping process with memory: Transport equation and diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamińska, A.; Srokowski, T.
2004-06-01
We present a stochastic jumping process, defined in terms of jump-size probability density and jumping rate, which is a generalization of the well-known kangaroo process. The definition takes into account two process values: after and before the jump. Therefore, the process is able to preserve memory about its previous values. It possesses a simple stationary limit. Its master equation is interpreted as the kinetic equation with variable collision rate. The process can be easily applied to model systems which relax to distributions other than Maxwellian. The case of a constant jumping rate corresponds to the diffusion process, either normal or ballistic.
Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Yates, C A
2014-01-01
In this paper we explore lattice-based position-jump models of diffusion, and the implications of introducing non-local jumping; particles can jump to a range of nearby boxes rather than only to their nearest neighbours. We begin by deriving conditions for equivalence with traditional local jumping models in the continuum limit. We then generalize a previously postulated implementation of the Robin boundary condition for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length, and present a novel implementation of flux boundary conditions, again generalized for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length. In both these cases we validate our results using stochastic simulation. We then proceed to consider two variations on the basic diffusion model: a hybrid local/non-local scheme suitable for models involving sharp concentration gradients, and the implementation of biased jumping. In all cases we show that non-local jumping can deliver substantial time savings for stochastic simulations. PMID:25514045
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, P. R.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.
2015-02-01
In this paper we explore lattice-based position-jump models of diffusion, and the implications of introducing non-local jumping; particles can jump to a range of nearby boxes rather than only to their nearest neighbours. We begin by deriving conditions for equivalence with traditional local jumping models in the continuum limit. We then generalize a previously postulated implementation of the Robin boundary condition for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length, and present a novel implementation of flux boundary conditions, again generalized for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length. In both these cases we validate our results using stochastic simulation. We then proceed to consider two variations on the basic diffusion model: a hybrid local/non-local scheme suitable for models involving sharp concentration gradients, and the implementation of biased jumping. In all cases we show that non-local jumping can deliver substantial time savings for stochastic simulations.
Implementation of jump-diffusion algorithms for understanding FLIR scenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.
1995-07-01
Our pattern theoretic approach to the automated understanding of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images brings the traditionally separate endeavors of detection, tracking, and recognition together into a unified jump-diffusion process. New objects are detected and object types are recognized through discrete jump moves. Between jumps, the location and orientation of objects are estimated via continuous diffusions. An hypothesized scene, simulated from the emissive characteristics of the hypothesized scene elements, is compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. The jump-diffusion process empirically generates the posterior distribution. Both the diffusion and jump operations involve the simulation of a scene produced by a hypothesized configuration. Scene simulation is most effectively accomplished by pipelined rendering engines such as silicon graphics. We demonstrate the execution of our algorithm on a silicon graphics onyx/reality engine.
Theory of classical diffusion jumps in solids. II. Isotope effect and first-order anharmonic terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacucci, G.; de Lorenzi, G.; Marchese, M.; Flynn, C. P.; Toller, M.
1987-08-01
Diffusion in solids, including the isotope effect, is discussed within the short-memory augmented-rate theory recently introduced by Toller, Jacucci, De Lorenzi, and Flynn. Terms in the jump rate for an anharmonic expansion of the barrier potential are presented complete to first order in β-1 and evaluated for vacancy diffusion in models of Ar, Ag, and Cu.
Jump rates for surface diffusion of large molecules from first principles
Shea, Patrick Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen
2015-04-21
We apply a recently developed stochastic model for the surface diffusion of large molecules to calculate jump rates for 9,10-dithioanthracene on a Cu(111) surface. The necessary input parameters for the stochastic model are calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT). We find that the inclusion of van der Waals corrections to the DFT energies is critical to obtain good agreement with experimental results for the adsorption geometry and energy barrier for diffusion. The predictions for jump rates in our model are in excellent agreement with measured values and show a marked improvement over transition state theory (TST). We find that the jump rate prefactor is reduced by an order of magnitude from the TST estimate due to frictional damping resulting from energy exchange with surface phonons, as well as a rotational mode of the diffusing molecule.
Anomalous diffusion for a correlated process with long jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srokowski, Tomasz
2011-09-01
We discuss diffusion properties of a dynamical system, which is characterised by long-tail distributions and finite correlations. The particle velocity has the stable Lévy distribution; it is assumed as a jumping process (the kangaroo process) with a variable jumping rate. Both the exponential and the algebraic form of the covariance-defined for the truncated distribution-are considered. It is demonstrated by numerical calculations that the stationary solution of the master equation for the case of power-law correlations decays with time, but a simple modification of the process makes the tails stable. The main result of the paper is a finding that-in contrast to the velocity fluctuations-the position variance may be finite. It rises with time faster than linearly: the diffusion is anomalously enhanced. On the other hand, a process which follows from a superposition of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck-Lévy processes always leads to position distributions with a divergent variance which means accelerated diffusion.
Multiscale integration schemes for jump-diffusion systems
Givon, D.; Kevrekidis, I.G.
2008-12-09
We study a two-time-scale system of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations. We analyze a class of multiscale integration methods for these systems, which, in the spirit of [1], consist of a hybridization between a standard solver for the slow components and short runs for the fast dynamics, which are used to estimate the effect that the fast components have on the slow ones. We obtain explicit bounds for the discrepancy between the results of the multiscale integration method and the slow components of the original system.
Velocity-jump models with crowding effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treloar, Katrina K.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.
2011-12-01
Velocity-jump processes are discrete random-walk models that have many applications including the study of biological and ecological collective motion. In particular, velocity-jump models are often used to represent a type of persistent motion, known as a run and tumble, that is exhibited by some isolated bacteria cells. All previous velocity-jump processes are noninteracting, which means that crowding effects and agent-to-agent interactions are neglected. By neglecting these agent-to-agent interactions, traditional velocity-jump models are only applicable to very dilute systems. Our work is motivated by the fact that many applications in cell biology, such as wound healing, cancer invasion, and development, often involve tissues that are densely packed with cells where cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects can be important. To describe these kinds of high-cell-density problems using a velocity-jump process we introduce three different classes of crowding interactions into a one-dimensional model. Simulation data and averaging arguments lead to a suite of continuum descriptions of the interacting velocity-jump processes. We show that the resulting systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations predict the mean behavior of the stochastic simulations very well.
Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.
Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L
2016-06-01
This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength. PMID:26712510
A jump persistent turning walker to model zebrafish locomotion
Mwaffo, Violet; Anderson, Ross P.; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio
2015-01-01
Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the investigation of several functional and dysfunctional biological processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour are expected to considerably aid in the design of hypothesis-driven studies by enabling preliminary in silico tests that can be used to infer possible experimental outcomes without the use of zebrafish. This study is motivated by observations of sudden, drastic changes in zebrafish locomotion in the form of large deviations in turn rate. We demonstrate that such deviations can be captured through a stochastic mean reverting jump diffusion model, a process that is commonly used in financial engineering to describe large changes in the price of an asset. The jump process-based model is validated on trajectory data of adult subjects swimming in a shallow circular tank obtained from an overhead camera. Through statistical comparison of the empirical distribution of the turn rate against theoretical predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of describing zebrafish as a jump persistent turning walker. The critical role of the jump term is assessed through comparison with a simplified mean reversion diffusion model, which does not allow for describing the heavy-tailed distributions observed in the fish turn rate. PMID:25392396
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jingtao
2014-04-01
This paper is concerned with the relationship between maximum principle and dynamic programming for zero-sum stochastic differential games of jump diffusions. Under the assumption that the value function is smooth enough, relations among the adjoint processes, the generalised Hamiltonian function and the value function are given. A portfolio optimisation problem under model uncertainty in an incomplete financial market is discussed to show the applications of our result.
General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.
1997-04-01
To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.
Credit risk—A structural model with jumps and correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer, Rudi; Sjölin, Markus; Sundin, Andreas; Wolanski, Michal; Guhr, Thomas
2007-09-01
We set up a structural model to study credit risk for a portfolio containing several or many credit contracts. The model is based on a jump-diffusion process for the risk factors, i.e. for the company assets. We also include correlations between the companies. We discuss that models of this type have much in common with other problems in statistical physics and in the theory of complex systems. We study a simplified version of our model analytically. Furthermore, we perform extensive numerical simulations for the full model. The observables are the loss distribution of the credit portfolio, its moments and other quantities derived thereof. We compile detailed information about the parameter dependence of these observables. In the course of setting up and analyzing our model, we also give a review of credit risk modeling for a physics audience.
Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina
2010-11-01
In this paper we present an approach to anomalous diffusion based on subordination of stochastic processes. Application of such a methodology to analysis of the diffusion processes helps better understanding of physical mechanisms underlying the nonexponential relaxation phenomena. In the subordination framework we analyze a coupling between the very large jumps in physical and two different operational times, modeled by under- and overshooting subordinators, respectively. We show that the resulting diffusion processes display features by means of which all experimentally observed two-power-law dielectric relaxation patterns can be explained. We also derive the corresponding fractional equations governing the spatiotemporal evolution of the diffusion front of an excitation mode undergoing diffusion in the system under consideration. The commonly known type of subdiffusion, corresponding to the Mittag-Leffler (or Cole-Cole) relaxation, appears as a special case of the studied anomalous diffusion processes. PMID:21230450
Control Improvement for Jump-Diffusion Processes with Applications to Finance
Baeuerle, Nicole; Rieder, Ulrich
2012-02-15
We consider stochastic control problems with jump-diffusion processes and formulate an algorithm which produces, starting from a given admissible control {pi}, a new control with a better value. If no improvement is possible, then {pi} is optimal. Such an algorithm is well-known for discrete-time Markov Decision Problems under the name Howard's policy improvement algorithm. The idea can be traced back to Bellman. Here we show with the help of martingale techniques that such an algorithm can also be formulated for stochastic control problems with jump-diffusion processes. As an application we derive some interesting results in financial portfolio optimization.
A unified model for the long and high jump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helene, O.; Yamashita, M. T.
2005-10-01
A simple model based on the maximum energy that an athlete can produce in a small time interval is used to describe the high and long jump. Conservation of angular momentum is used to explain why an athlete should run horizontally to perform a vertical jump. Our results agree with world records.
Experimental investigation on single person's jumping load model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jun; Wang, Haoqi; Wang, Ling
2015-12-01
This paper presents a modified half-sine-squared load model of the jumping impulses for a single person. The model is based on a database of 22,921 experimentally measured single jumping load cycles from 100 test subjects. Threedimensional motion capture technology in conjunction with force plates was employed in the experiment to record jumping loads. The variation range and probability distribution of the controlling parameters for the load model such as the impact factor, jumping frequency and contact ratio, are discussed using the experimental data. Correlation relationships between the three parameters are investigated. The contact ratio and jumping frequency are identified as independent model parameters, and an empirical frequency-dependent function is derived for the impact factor. The feasibility of the proposed load model is established by comparing the simulated load curves with measured ones, and by comparing the acceleration responses of a single-degree-of-freedom system to the simulated and measured jumping loads. The results show that a realistic individual jumping load can be generated by the proposed method. This can then be used to assess the dynamic response of assembly structures.
Numerical simulations and modeling for stochastic biological systems with jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Xiaoling; Wang, Ke
2014-05-01
This paper gives a numerical method to simulate sample paths for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by Poisson random measures. It provides us a new approach to simulate systems with jumps from a different angle. The driving Poisson random measures are assumed to be generated by stationary Poisson point processes instead of Lévy processes. Methods provided in this paper can be used to simulate SDEs with Lévy noise approximately. The simulation is divided into two parts: the part of jumping integration is based on definition without approximation while the continuous part is based on some classical approaches. Biological explanations for stochastic integrations with jumps are motivated by several numerical simulations. How to model biological systems with jumps is showed in this paper. Moreover, method of choosing integrands and stationary Poisson point processes in jumping integrations for biological models are obtained. In addition, results are illustrated through some examples and numerical simulations. For some examples, earthquake is chose as a jumping source which causes jumps on the size of biological population.
Analysis and Model Tests of Autogiro Jump Take-off
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheatley, John B; Bioletti, Carlton
1936-01-01
An analysis is made of the autogiro jump take-off, in which the kinetic energy of the rotor turning at excess speed is used to effect a vertical take-off. By the use of suitable approximations, the differential equation of motion of the rotor during this maneuver is reduced to a form that can be solved. Only the vertical jump was studied; the effect of a forward motion during the jump is discussed briefly. The results of model tests of the jump take-off have been incorporated in the paper and used to establish the relative accuracy of the results predicted from the analysis. Good agreement between calculation and experiment was obtained by making justifiable allowances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Nagraj Sheshgiri
A multicomponent, single-phase, diffusion simulation based on Darken's treatment of intrinsic diffusion has been developed, which provides all the information available from an intrinsic diffusion experiment, including composition profiles and diffusion paths, lattice shifts and velocities, intrinsic and interdiffusion fluxes, as well as fluxes and mean velocities in different frames of reference. The various steps involved in the simulation are discussed and the self-consistency of the simulation is tested with the aid of model systems having constant and variable molar volumes. After an examination of the historical development of the Darken-Manning theories and a brief discussion of previous tests in the literature, a systematic procedure for the comprehensive assessment of these theories is proposed in which the intrinsic diffusion simulation developed in this work occupies a central role. This procedure is then utilized to perform an assessment of the Darken-Manning relations for four binary systems: Ag-Cd, Au-Ni, Cu-Zn and Cu-Ni. It is shown that the Darken-Manning relations that provide the connection between the tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion coefficients, are unsatisfactory. Hence, it is suggested that the development of multicomponent diffusion databases, which often use the Darken relations for the evaluation of the phenomenological coefficients, may be compromised. As an alternative to the traditional phenomenological formalism of multicomponent diffusion, a kinetic formalism based on atom jump frequencies is proposed. An expression for the intrinsic flux in terms of an unbiased and a biased component is derived. It is demonstrated with the aid of the simulation for the Cu-Zn system, that the biased flux may be evaluated from the experimental intrinsic flux and the unbiased flux (obtained from the tracer jump frequency). An unbiased jump frequency formalism that utilizes effective rather than tracer jump frequencies and avoids the complexities
Two-level parabolic model with phase-jump coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehto, J. M. S.; Suominen, K.-A.
2016-07-01
We study the coherent dynamics of a two-level parabolic model and ways to enhance population transfer and even to obtain complete population inversion in such models. Motivated by the complete population inversion effect of zero-area pulses found in [Phys. Rev. A 73, 023416 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.023416], we consider a scheme where a given coupling function is transformed to a zero-area coupling by performing a phase jump in the middle of the evolution. With a phase-jump coupling, complete population inversion can be achieved with relatively small coupling. In the case of Zener tunneling, complete population inversion is obtained for strong-enough coupling regardless of the height of the tunneling barrier. We also derive a universal formula for the effect of the phase jump.
Insider Models with Finite Utility in Markets with Jumps
Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Yamazato, Makoto
2011-10-15
In this article we consider, under a Levy process model for the stock price, the utility optimization problem for an insider agent whose additional information is the final price of the stock blurred with an additional independent noise which vanishes as the final time approaches. Our main interest is establishing conditions under which the utility of the insider is finite. Mathematically, the problem entails the study of a 'progressive' enlargement of filtration with respect to random measures. We study the jump structure of the process which leads to the conclusion that in most cases the utility of the insider is finite and his optimal portfolio is bounded. This can be explained financially by the high risks involved in models with jumps.
UPDATING APPLIED DIFFUSION MODELS
Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Socie...
Effect of turbulence models on the submerged hydraulic jump simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shekari, Y.; Javan, M.; Eghbalzadeh, A.
2015-05-01
This study presents a numerical investigation and prediction of the flow field in threedimensional submerged hydraulic jumps. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the free surface. The turbulent structure is simulated by using different turbulence models, such as the standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, realizable k-ɛ model, and Reynolds-stress model (RSM) closure schemes. The capabilities of the turbulence models are investigated with the standard wall functions and enhanced wall treatment methods. A comparison between the numerical and experimental results shows that the numerical model is adequate for predicting the flow pattern and free surface of submerged hydraulic jumps. The RNG k-ɛ turbulence model with the enhanced wall treatment method ensures the highest accuracy in the water surface simulation. Near the channel bed of a fully developed region, the RSM model with the enhanced wall treatment method shows better agreement with the experimental longitudinal velocity than the other turbulence models. The standard k-ɛ model predicts the longitudinal velocity more accurately than the RNG and realizable k-ɛ models.
Pricing American put option on zero-coupon bond in a jump-extended CIR model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Guohe
2015-05-01
This paper presents a jump extension to the CIR model of the short interest rate with exponential distribution jumps. We derive an approximated price of an American put option on a defaultable-free, zero-coupon bond using the two-GJ approach based on combining an European put option and a Bermudan option with two possible exercise dates. Closed-form solutions for both the European put option and the Bermudan option are obtained by using multivariate Fourier transforms and characteristic functions. The accuracy and efficiency of the approximation are examined using the least-square Monte Carlo simulation as the benchmarks. Finally several numerical examples illustrating the results have been presented and the prices have been compared to the corresponding prices for American option in the pure diffusion model.
Spatially Varying Coefficient Model for Neuroimaging Data with Jump Discontinuities
Zhu, Hongtu; Fan, Jianqing; Kong, Linglong
2014-01-01
Motivated by recent work on studying massive imaging data in various neuroimaging studies, we propose a novel spatially varying coefficient model (SVCM) to capture the varying association between imaging measures in a three-dimensional (3D) volume (or 2D surface) with a set of covariates. Two stylized features of neuorimaging data are the presence of multiple piecewise smooth regions with unknown edges and jumps and substantial spatial correlations. To specifically account for these two features, SVCM includes a measurement model with multiple varying coefficient functions, a jumping surface model for each varying coefficient function, and a functional principal component model. We develop a three-stage estimation procedure to simultaneously estimate the varying coefficient functions and the spatial correlations. The estimation procedure includes a fast multiscale adaptive estimation and testing procedure to independently estimate each varying coefficient function, while preserving its edges among different piecewise-smooth regions. We systematically investigate the asymptotic properties (e.g., consistency and asymptotic normality) of the multiscale adaptive parameter estimates. We also establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated spatial covariance function and its associated eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Our Monte Carlo simulation and real data analysis have confirmed the excellent performance of SVCM. PMID:25435598
The naked toy model of a jumping ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive analytical model of the well-known jumping ring—in fact an improved version of that system--as well as the experimental results that validate the model. Particular attention is paid to the magnetic driving force, whose explicit dependences upon the phase, amplitude and frequency of the exciting current we manage to separate experimentally and plot, so that it becomes evident how the magnetic force on the ring actually arises and evolves in time. We are able to measure not only the large Foucault currents that arise in the ring, but also the magnetic field generated by the ring itself in spite of the presence of the comparable magnetic field in which the ring moves.
Modeling complex diffusion mechanisms in L1 2 -structured compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacate, M. O.; Lape, M.; Stufflebeam, M.; Evenson, W. E.
2010-04-01
We report on a procedure developed to create stochastic models of hyperfine interactions for complex diffusion mechanisms and demonstrate its application to simulate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the divacancy and 6-jump cycle diffusion mechanisms in L12-structured compounds.
Vogl, G.; Sepiol, B. . Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik)
1994-09-01
The authors have studied the quasielastic broadening of the [sup 57]Fe Moessbauer resonance in the intermetallic compound FeAl in order to determine the diffusion jump mechanism of the Fe atoms. From the angular dependence of the line broadening relative to an oriented single crystal they deduce that the Fe atoms jump effectively to different neighbor sites on the Fe sublattice. The jump is, however, not a direct one, but rather a combination of a jump into a nearest neighbor vacancy--leading to short-time occupation of an antistructure site on the Al sublattice--and a jump into a vacancy back on the Fe sublattice.
Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J
1985-10-01
A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719
Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range
Bukonte, L. Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.
2014-03-28
The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10{sup 15} Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T{sub m}, resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures.
Pivovarov, Sergey
2009-04-01
This work presents a simple solution for the diffuse double layer model, applicable to calculation of surface speciation as well as to simulation of ionic adsorption within the diffuse layer of solution in arbitrary salt media. Based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficient for uni-bivalent exchange on clay, K(GT)(Me(2+)/M(+))=(Q(Me)(0.5)/Q(M)){M(+)}/{Me(2+)}(0.5), (Q is the equivalent fraction of cation in the exchange capacity, and {M(+)} and {Me(2+)} are the ionic activities in solution) may be calculated as [surface charge, mueq/m(2)]/0.61. The obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation was applied to calculation of ionic exchange on clays and to simulation of the surface charge of ferrihydrite in 0.01-6 M NaCl solutions. In addition, a new model of acid-base properties was developed. This model is based on assumption that the net proton charge is not located on the mathematical surface plane but diffusely distributed within the subsurface layer of the lattice. It is shown that the obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation makes such calculations possible, and that this approach is more efficient than the original diffuse double layer model. PMID:19159896
Computational model of maximal-height single-joint jumping predicts bouncing as an optimal strategy.
van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J
2013-04-01
Maximal-height single-joint jumping, in which only the ankle muscles are used for propulsion, is a useful paradigm for joint-specific investigation of the mechanisms underlying optimal performance. In this study, we used a combination of computational modeling and experiments to determine the optimal strategy for this task. We hypothesized that our computer simulation and subjects would use a countermovement in order to maximize jump height. Our model was actuated by only a lumped plantarflexor and a lumped dorsiflexor, and we simulated maximal-height jumping using parameter optimization to determine the control excitations driving these muscles. Experimental data were collected from eight subjects who wore braces to limit knee motion during jumps. The model did not jump as high as the subjects did, but its jump height (12.8 cm) was similar to that found for subjects, 16.3±4.6 cm. The model jumped highest when it "bounced" by executing several countermovements in succession. Four of the subjects jumped highest when they also bounced; these subjects were also the highest jumpers and they bounced at 2.53±0.47 Hz, a value similar to that employed by the computational model, 2.78 Hz. The other four subjects, who failed to jump highest when bouncing, bounced at only 1.46±0.45 Hz when they attempted to do so. Simulation results indicated that subjects who used a bouncing strategy to record their highest jump made use of mechanical resonance to facilitate elastic energy storage in the Achilles tendon. Simulation results also showed that multiple bounces allowed the model to reach an optimal state in which potential energy was maximized prior to the final pushoff. PMID:23466176
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Eunjin; Kim, Ho-Young
2012-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of an elastic hoop as a model of the jumps of small insects. During a jump the initial elastic strain energy is converted to translational, gravitational, and vibrational energy, and is dissipated by interaction with the floor and the ambient air. We show that the strain energy is initially divided into translational, vibrational, and dissipation energies with a ratio that is constant regardless of the dimension, initial deflection, and the properties of a hoop. This novel result enables us to accurately predict the maximum jump height of a hoop with known initial conditions and drag coefficient without resorting to a numerical computation. Our model reduces the optimization of the hoop geometry for maximizing the jump height to a simple algebraic problem.
Analytical and multibody modeling for the power analysis of standing jumps.
Palmieri, G; Callegari, M; Fioretti, S
2015-01-01
Two methods for the power analysis of standing jumps are proposed and compared in this article. The first method is based on a simple analytical formulation which requires as input the coordinates of the center of gravity in three specified instants of the jump. The second method is based on a multibody model that simulates the jumps processing the data obtained by a three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system and the dynamometric measurements obtained by the force platforms. The multibody model is developed with OpenSim, an open-source software which provides tools for the kinematic and dynamic analyses of 3D human body models. The study is focused on two of the typical tests used to evaluate the muscular activity of lower limbs, which are the counter movement jump and the standing long jump. The comparison between the results obtained by the two methods confirms that the proposed analytical formulation is correct and represents a simple tool suitable for a preliminary analysis of total mechanical work and the mean power exerted in standing jumps. PMID:24960184
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holzapfel, C.; Chakraborty, S.; Rubie, D. C.; Frost, D. J.
2009-01-01
The limited stability range of wadsleyite seriously impedes our ability to constrain kinetic parameters (e.g. activation energy, activation volume) using experiments carried out over a wide range of temperature and pressure. We have carried out a new measurement to extend the experimental temperature range of the dataset of Chakraborty et al. [Chakraborty, S., Knoche, R., Schulze, H., Rubie, D.C., Dobson, D., Ross, N.L., Angel, R.J., 1999. Enhancement of cation diffusion rates across the 410-kilometer discontinuity in Earth's mantle. Science 283, 362-365] to the maximum possible limit for that experimental setup. This result allows us to (i) obtain a better constrained value for activation energy for Fe-Mg diffusion in wadsleyite at 15 GPa (˜230 kJ/mol), and (ii) characterize the compositional dependence of Fe-Mg diffusion in wadsleyite. Evaluation of all data available in the literature [i.e. this study; Chakraborty et al., 1999; Farber, D.L., Williams, Q., Ryerson, F.J., 2000. Divalent cation diffusion in Mg 2SiO 4 spinel (ringwoodite), β-phase (wadsleyite), and olivine: implications for the electrical conductivity of the mantle. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 513-529; Kubo, T., Shimojuko, A., Ohtani, E., 2004. Fe-Mg interdiffusion rates in wadsleyite and the diffusivity jump at the 410 km discontinuity. Phys. Chem. Miner. 31, 456-464] reveals that there is a strong pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficient (activation volume ≈14 cm 3/mol). The expression D (m/s)=1.24×10-6 exp[11.8(0.86-X)] exp{-[]229,000+(P-15)×13.9×10 J/mol}/{RT} is an excellent description of all experimentally measured diffusion coefficients in wadsleyite and points to consistency between the various studies from different laboratories that used different methods. This expression should provide a robust basis for extrapolation of diffusion data for wadsleyite to conditions removed from the experimental ones, e.g. for modeling processes in the interiors of cold subducting slabs. Moreover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Stano, Geoffery T.; Kozlowski, Danielle M.; Goodman, Steven
2012-01-01
Key points that this analysis will begin to address are: 1)What physically is going on in the cloud when there is a jump in lightning? - Updraft variations, ice fluxes. 2)How do these processes fit in with severe storm conceptual models? 3)What would this information provide an end user (i.e., the forecaster)? - Relate LJA to radar observations, like changes in reflectivity, MESH, VIL, etc. based multi-Doppler derived physical relationships 4) How do we best transistionthis algorithm into the warning decision process. The known relationship between lightning updraft strength/volume and precipitation ice mass production can be extended to the concept of the lightning jump. Examination of the first lightning jump times from 329 storms in Schultz et al. shows an increase in the mean reflectivity profile and mixed phase echo volume during the 10 minutes prior to the lightning jump. Limited dual-Doppler results show that the largest lightning jumps are well correlated in time with increases in updraft strength/volume and precipitation ice mass production; however, the smaller magnitude lightning jumps appear to have more subtle relationships to updraft and ice mass characteristics.
Lagrangian model of copepod dynamics: Clustering by escape jumps in turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardeshiri, H.; Benkeddad, I.; Schmitt, F. G.; Souissi, S.; Toschi, F.; Calzavarini, E.
2016-04-01
Planktonic copepods are small crustaceans that have the ability to swim by quick powerful jumps. Such an aptness is used to escape from high shear regions, which may be caused either by flow perturbations, produced by a large predator (i.e., fish larvae), or by the inherent highly turbulent dynamics of the ocean. Through a combined experimental and numerical study, we investigate the impact of jumping behavior on the small-scale patchiness of copepods in a turbulent environment. Recorded velocity tracks of copepods displaying escape response jumps in still water are here used to define and tune a Lagrangian copepod (LC) model. The model is further employed to simulate the behavior of thousands of copepods in a fully developed hydrodynamic turbulent flow obtained by direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. First, we show that the LC velocity statistics is in qualitative agreement with available experimental observations of copepods in turbulence. Second, we quantify the clustering of LC, via the fractal dimension D2. We show that D2 can be as low as ˜2.3 and that it critically depends on the shear-rate sensitivity of the proposed LC model, in particular it exhibits a minimum in a narrow range of shear-rate values. We further investigate the effect of jump intensity, jump orientation, and geometrical aspect ratio of the copepods on the small-scale spatial distribution. At last, possible ecological implications of the observed clustering on encounter rates and mating success are discussed.
Regression models of sprint, vertical jump, and change of direction performance.
Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Keogh, Justin W L; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur D
2014-07-01
It was the aim of the present study to expand on previous correlation analyses that have attempted to identify factors that influence performance of jumping, sprinting, and changing direction. This was achieved by using a regression approach to obtain linear models that combined anthropometric, strength, and other biomechanical variables. Thirty rugby union players participated in the study (age: 24.2 ± 3.9 years; stature: 181.2 ± 6.6 cm; mass: 94.2 ± 11.1 kg). The athletes' ability to sprint, jump, and change direction was assessed using a 30-m sprint, vertical jump, and 505 agility test, respectively. Regression variables were collected during maximum strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] deadlift and squat) and performance of fast velocity resistance exercises (deadlift and jump squat) using submaximum loads (10-70% 1RM). Force, velocity, power, and rate of force development (RFD) values were measured during fast velocity exercises with the greatest values produced across loads selected for further analysis. Anthropometric data, including lengths, widths, and girths were collected using a 3-dimensional body scanner. Potential regression variables were first identified using correlation analyses. Suitable variables were then regressed using a best subsets approach. Three factor models generally provided the most appropriate balance between explained variance and model complexity. Adjusted R values of 0.86, 0.82, and 0.67 were obtained for sprint, jump, and change of direction performance, respectively. Anthropometric measurements did not feature in any of the top models because of their strong association with body mass. For each performance measure, variance was best explained by relative maximum strength. Improvements in models were then obtained by including velocity and power values for jumping and sprinting performance, and by including RFD values for change of direction performance. PMID:24345969
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, C. J.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, E. V.; Stano, G. T.; Blakeslee, R.; Goodman, S. J.
2014-01-01
The purpose of the total lightning jump algorithm (LJA) is to provide forecasters with an additional tool to identify potentially hazardous thunderstorms, yielding increased confidence in decisions within the operational warning environment. The LJA was first developed to objectively indentify rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") that occur prior to the observance of severe and hazardous weather (Williams et al. 1999, Schultz et al. 2009, Gatlin and Goodman 2010, Schultz et al. 2011). However, a physical and framework leading up to and through the time of a lightning jump is still lacking within the literature. Many studies infer that there is a large increase in the updraft prior to or during the jump, but are not specific on what properties of the updraft are indeed increasing (e.g., maximum updraft speed vs volume or both) likely because these properties were not specifically observed. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to physically associate lightning jump occurrence to polarimetric and multi-Doppler radar measured thunderstorm intensity metrics and severe weather occurrence, thus providing a conceptual model that can be used to adapt the LJA to current operations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.
2014-01-01
The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; AMS 10th Satellite Symposium) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014; this conference) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end to end physical and dynamical basis for relating lightning rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relation to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, relation specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler techniques to
Physical and Dynamical Linkages between Lightning Jumps and Storm Conceptual Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.
2014-01-01
The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; this conference) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014; this conference) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling total lightning flash rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relationship to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, their relationship specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler and
Physical and Dynamical Linkages Between Lightning Jumps and Storm Conceptual Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.
2014-01-01
The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; this conference) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling total lightning flash rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relationship to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, their relationship specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler and polarimetric
Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.
2011-12-01
Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A
Framework for non-coherent interface models at finite displacement jumps and finite strains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottosen, Niels Saabye; Ristinmaa, Matti; Mosler, Jörn
2016-05-01
This paper deals with a novel constitutive framework suitable for non-coherent interfaces, such as cracks, undergoing large deformations in a geometrically exact setting. For this type of interface, the displacement field shows a jump across the interface. Within the engineering community, so-called cohesive zone models are frequently applied in order to describe non-coherent interfaces. However, for existing models to comply with the restrictions imposed by (a) thermodynamical consistency (e.g., the second law of thermodynamics), (b) balance equations (in particular, balance of angular momentum) and (c) material frame indifference, these models are essentially fiber models, i.e. models where the traction vector is collinear with the displacement jump. This constraints the ability to model shear and, in addition, anisotropic effects are excluded. A novel, extended constitutive framework which is consistent with the above mentioned fundamental physical principles is elaborated in this paper. In addition to the classical tractions associated with a cohesive zone model, the main idea is to consider additional tractions related to membrane-like forces and out-of-plane shear forces acting within the interface. For zero displacement jump, i.e. coherent interfaces, this framework degenerates to existing formulations presented in the literature. For hyperelasticity, the Helmholtz energy of the proposed novel framework depends on the displacement jump as well as on the tangent vectors of the interface with respect to the current configuration - or equivalently - the Helmholtz energy depends on the displacement jump and the surface deformation gradient. It turns out that by defining the Helmholtz energy in terms of the invariants of these variables, all above-mentioned fundamental physical principles are automatically fulfilled. Extensions of the novel framework necessary for material degradation (damage) and plasticity are also covered.
Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad
2015-07-21
Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms
DiffuseModel: Modeling the diffuse ultraviolet background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murthy, Jayant
2015-12-01
DiffuseModel calculates the scattered radiation from dust scattering in the Milky Way based on stars from the Hipparcos catalog. It uses Monte Carlo to implement multiple scattering and assumes a user-supplied grid for the dust distribution. The output is a FITS file with the diffuse light over the Galaxy. It is intended for use in the UV (900 - 3000 A) but may be modified for use in other wavelengths and galaxies.
Option pricing for stochastic volatility model with infinite activity Lévy jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Xiaoli; Zhuang, Xintian
2016-08-01
The purpose of this paper is to apply the stochastic volatility model driven by infinite activity Lévy processes to option pricing which displays infinite activity jumps behaviors and time varying volatility that is consistent with the phenomenon observed in underlying asset dynamics. We specially pay attention to three typical Lévy processes that replace the compound Poisson jumps in Bates model, aiming to capture the leptokurtic feature in asset returns and volatility clustering effect in returns variance. By utilizing the analytical characteristic function and fast Fourier transform technique, the closed form formula of option pricing can be derived. The intelligent global optimization search algorithm called Differential Evolution is introduced into the above highly dimensional models for parameters calibration so as to improve the calibration quality of fitted option models. Finally, we perform empirical researches using both time series data and options data on financial markets to illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Gatlin, Patrick N.
2013-01-01
The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. In order to become a viable option for operational forecasters to incorporate into their severe storm monitoring process, the total lightning jump must be placed into the framework of several severe storm conceptual models (e.g., radar evolution, storm morphology) which forecasters have built through training and experience. Thus, one of the goals of this study is to examine and relate the lightning jump concept to often used radar parameters (e.g., dBZ vertical structure, VIL, MESH, MESO/shear) in the warning environment. Tying lightning trends and lightning jump occurrences to these radar based parameters will provide forecasters with an additional tool that they can use to build an accurate realtime depiction as to what is going on in a given environment. Furthermore, relating the lightning jump concept to these parameters could also increase confidence in a warning decision they have already made, help tip the scales on whether or not to warn on a given storm, or to draw the forecaster s attention to a particular storm that is rapidly developing. Furthermore the lightning information will add vital storm scale information in regions that are not well covered by radar, or when radar failures occur. The physical basis for the lightning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, Chris; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Elise V.; Stano, Geoffrey; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Kozlowski, Danielle M.; Blakeslee, Rich J.; Goodman, Steve
2013-01-01
Key points this analysis will address: 1) What physically is going on in the cloud when there is a jump in lightning? -- Updraft variations, Ice fluxes 2) How do these processes fit in with severe storm conceptual models? 3) What would this information provide an end user? --Relate LJA to radar observations, like changes in reflectivity, MESH, VIL, etc. based multi -Doppler derived physical relationships
Optimizing Thomson's jumping ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjossem, Paul J. H.; Brost, Elizabeth C.
2011-04-01
The height to which rings will jump in a Thomson jumping ring apparatus is the central question posed by this popular lecture demonstration. We develop a simple time-averaged inductive-phase-lag model for the dependence of the jump height on the ring material, its mass, and temperature and apply it to measurements of the jump height for a set of rings made by slicing copper and aluminum alloy pipe into varying lengths. The data confirm a peak jump height that grows, narrows, and shifts to smaller optimal mass when the rings are cooled to 77 K. The model explains the ratio of the cooled/warm jump heights for a given ring, the reduction in optimal mass as the ring is cooled, and the shape of the mass resonance. The ring that jumps the highest is found to have a characteristic resistance equal to the inductive reactance of the set of rings.
The exit-time problem for a Markov jump process
Burch, N.; D'Elia, Marta; Lehoucq, Richard B.
2014-12-15
The purpose of our paper is to consider the exit-time problem for a finite-range Markov jump process, i.e, the distance the particle can jump is bounded independent of its location. Such jump diffusions are expedient models for anomalous transport exhibiting super-diffusion or nonstandard normal diffusion. We refer to the associated deterministic equation as a volume-constrained nonlocal diffusion equation. The volume constraint is the nonlocal analogue of a boundary condition necessary to demonstrate that the nonlocal diffusion equation is well-posed and is consistent with the jump process. A critical aspect of the analysis is a variational formulation and a recently developed nonlocal vector calculus. Furthermore, this calculus allows us to pose nonlocal backward and forward Kolmogorov equations, the former equation granting the various moments of the exit-time distribution.
The exit-time problem for a Markov jump process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burch, N.; D'Elia, M.; Lehoucq, R. B.
2014-12-01
The purpose of this paper is to consider the exit-time problem for a finite-range Markov jump process, i.e, the distance the particle can jump is bounded independent of its location. Such jump diffusions are expedient models for anomalous transport exhibiting super-diffusion or nonstandard normal diffusion. We refer to the associated deterministic equation as a volume-constrained nonlocal diffusion equation. The volume constraint is the nonlocal analogue of a boundary condition necessary to demonstrate that the nonlocal diffusion equation is well-posed and is consistent with the jump process. A critical aspect of the analysis is a variational formulation and a recently developed nonlocal vector calculus. This calculus allows us to pose nonlocal backward and forward Kolmogorov equations, the former equation granting the various moments of the exit-time distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mascia, Corrado
2016-01-01
This paper examines a class of linear hyperbolic systems which generalizes the Goldstein-Kac model to an arbitrary finite number of speeds vi with transition rates μij. Under the basic assumptions that the transition matrix is symmetric and irreducible, and the differences vi -vj generate all the space, the system exhibits a large-time behavior described by a parabolic advection-diffusion equation. The main contribution is to determine explicit formulas for the asymptotic drift speed and diffusion matrix in term of the kinetic parameters vi and μij, establishing a complete connection between microscopic and macroscopic coefficients. It is shown that the drift speed is the arithmetic mean of the velocities vi. The diffusion matrix has a more complicate representation, based on the graph with vertices the velocities vi and arcs weighted by the transition rates μij. The approach is based on an exhaustive analysis of the dispersion relation and on the application of a variant of the Kirchoff's matrix tree Theorem from graph theory.
A new experimental model to study force depression: the Drosophila jump muscle
Koppes, Ryan A.; Swank, Douglas M.
2014-01-01
Force depression (FD) is a decrease in isometric force following active muscle shortening. Despite being well characterized experimentally, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. To develop a new, genetically manipulatable experimental model that would greatly improve our ability to study the underlying mechanism(s) of FD, we tested the Drosophila jump muscle for classical FD behavior. Steady-state force generation following active shortening decreased by 2, 8, and 11% of maximum isometric force with increasing shortening amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20% of optimal fiber length, and decreased by 11, 8, and 5% with increasing shortening velocities of 4, 20, and 200% of optimal fiber length per second. These steady-state FD (FDSS) characteristics of Drosophila jump muscle mimic those observed in mammalian skeletal muscle. A double exponential fit of transient force recovery following shortening identified two separate phases of force recovery: a rapid initial force redevelopment, and a slower recovery toward steady state. This analysis showed the slower rate of force redevelopment to be inversely proportional to the amount of FDSS, while the faster rate did not correlate with FDSS. This suggests that the mechanism behind the slower, most likely cross-bridge cycling rate, influences the amount of FDSS. Thus the jump muscle, when coupled with the genetic mutability of its sarcomere proteins, offers a unique and powerful experimental model to explore the underlying mechanism behind FD. PMID:24790016
A new experimental model to study force depression: the Drosophila jump muscle.
Koppes, Ryan A; Swank, Douglas M; Corr, David T
2014-06-15
Force depression (FD) is a decrease in isometric force following active muscle shortening. Despite being well characterized experimentally, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. To develop a new, genetically manipulatable experimental model that would greatly improve our ability to study the underlying mechanism(s) of FD, we tested the Drosophila jump muscle for classical FD behavior. Steady-state force generation following active shortening decreased by 2, 8, and 11% of maximum isometric force with increasing shortening amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20% of optimal fiber length, and decreased by 11, 8, and 5% with increasing shortening velocities of 4, 20, and 200% of optimal fiber length per second. These steady-state FD (FDSS) characteristics of Drosophila jump muscle mimic those observed in mammalian skeletal muscle. A double exponential fit of transient force recovery following shortening identified two separate phases of force recovery: a rapid initial force redevelopment, and a slower recovery toward steady state. This analysis showed the slower rate of force redevelopment to be inversely proportional to the amount of FDSS, while the faster rate did not correlate with FDSS. This suggests that the mechanism behind the slower, most likely cross-bridge cycling rate, influences the amount of FDSS. Thus the jump muscle, when coupled with the genetic mutability of its sarcomere proteins, offers a unique and powerful experimental model to explore the underlying mechanism behind FD. PMID:24790016
Jump of the minimal site and a new correlation function in the Bak-Sneppen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, C. B.; Cai, X.
2001-08-01
A new type of spatio-temporal correlation function for the process approaching the self-organized criticality is investigated within the Bak-Sneppen model for biological evolution. In terms of the ``directional shorter distance'' between the two sites with minimum fitness at two successive updates, the correlation function is defined and studied numerically for the nearest- and random-neighbor versions of the model. Qualitatively different behaviors of the jump of the minimal site in the two models are presented, and the behaviors of the correlation functions are shown also different.
Kargo, William J; Nelson, Frank; Rome, Lawrence C
2002-06-01
Comparative musculoskeletal modeling represents a tool to understand better how motor system parameters are fine-tuned for specific behaviors. Frog jumping is a behavior in which the physical properties of the body and musculotendon actuators may have evolved specifically to extend the limits of performance. Little is known about how the joints of the frog contribute to and limit jumping performance. To address these issues, we developed a skeletal model of the frog Rana pipiens that contained realistic bones, joints and body-segment properties. We performed forward dynamic simulations of jumping to determine the minimal number of joint degrees of freedom required to produce maximal-distance jumps and to produce jumps of varied take-off angles. The forward dynamics of the models was driven with joint torque patterns determined from inverse dynamic analysis of jumping in experimental frogs. When the joints were constrained to rotate in the extension-flexion plane, the simulations produced short jumps with a fixed angle of take-off. We found that, to produce maximal-distance jumping, the skeletal system of the frog must minimally include a gimbal joint at the hip (three rotational degrees of freedom), a universal Hooke's joint at the knee (two rotational degrees of freedom) and pin joints at the ankle, tarsometatarsal, metatarsophalangeal and iliosacral joints (one rotational degree of freedom). One of the knee degrees of freedom represented a unique kinematic mechanism (internal rotation about the long axis of the tibiofibula) and played a crucial role in bringing the feet under the body so that maximal jump distances could be attained. Finally, the out-of-plane degrees of freedom were found to be essential to enable the frog to alter the angle of take-off and thereby permit flexible neuromotor control. The results of this study form a foundation upon which additional model subsystems (e.g. musculotendon and neural) can be added to test the integrative action of the
In Vivo Facilitated Diffusion Model
Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf
2013-01-01
Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model. PMID:23349772
Cosmic ray anisotropy in fractional differential models of anomalous diffusion
Uchaikin, V. V.
2013-06-15
The problem of galactic cosmic ray anisotropy is considered in two versions of the fractional differential model for anomalous diffusion. The simplest problem of cosmic ray propagation from a point instantaneous source in an unbounded medium is used as an example to show that the transition from the standard diffusion model to the Lagutin-Uchaikin fractional differential model (with characteristic exponent {alpha} = 3/5 and a finite velocity of free particle motion), which gives rise to a knee in the energy spectrum at 10{sup 6} GeV, increases the anisotropy coefficient only by 20%, while the anisotropy coefficient in the Lagutin-Tyumentsev model (with exponents {alpha} = 0.3 and {beta} = 0.8, a long stay of particles in traps, and an infinite velocity of their jumps) is close to one. This is because the parameters of the Lagutin-Tyumentsev model have been chosen improperly.
Quantum jump model for a system with a finite-size environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suomela, S.; Kutvonen, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.
2016-06-01
Measuring the thermodynamic properties of open quantum systems poses a major challenge. A calorimetric detection has been proposed as a feasible experimental scheme to measure work and fluctuation relations in open quantum systems. However, the detection requires a finite size for the environment, which influences the system dynamics. This process cannot be modeled with the standard stochastic approaches. We develop a quantum jump model suitable for systems coupled to a finite-size environment. We use the method to study the common fluctuation relations and prove that they are satisfied.
Markov Jump-Linear Performance Models for Recoverable Flight Control Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Hong; Gray, W. Steven; Gonzalez, Oscar R.
2004-01-01
Single event upsets in digital flight control hardware induced by atmospheric neutrons can reduce system performance and possibly introduce a safety hazard. One method currently under investigation to help mitigate the effects of these upsets is NASA Langley s Recoverable Computer System. In this paper, a Markov jump-linear model is developed for a recoverable flight control system, which will be validated using data from future experiments with simulated and real neutron environments. The method of tracking error analysis and the plan for the experiments are also described.
Field-induced magnetization jumps and quantum criticality in the 2D J-Q model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders
The J-Q model is a `designer hamiltonian' formed by adding a four spin `Q' term to the standard antiferromagnetic S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg model. The Q term drives a quantum phase transition to a valence-bond solid (VBS) state: a non-magnetic state with a pattern of local singlets which breaks lattice symmetries. The elementary excitations of the VBS are triplons, i.e. gapped S=1 quasiparticles. There is considerable interest in the quantum phase transition between the Néel and VBS states as an example of deconfined quantum criticality. Near the phase boundary, triplons deconfine into pairs of bosonic spin-1/2 excitations known as spinons. Using exact diagonalization and the stochastic series expansion quantum monte carlo method, we study the 2D J-Q model in the presence of an external magnetic field. We use the field to force a nonzero density of magnetic excitations at T=0 and look for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation of spinons. At higher magnetic fields, there is a jump in the induced magnetization caused by the onset of an effective attractive interaction between magnons on a ferromagnetic background. We characterize the first order quantum phase transition and determine the minimum value of the coupling ratio q ≡ Q / J required to produce this jump. Funded by NSF DMR-1410126.
Hill, A. A.; Dewé, T.; Kosmider, R.; Von Dobschuetz, S.; Munoz, O.; Hanna, A.; Fusaro, A.; De Nardi, M.; Howard, W.; Stevens, K.; Kelly, L.; Havelaar, A.; Stärk, K.
2015-01-01
The scientific understanding of the driving factors behind zoonotic and pandemic influenzas is hampered by complex interactions between viruses, animal hosts and humans. This complexity makes identifying influenza viruses of high zoonotic or pandemic risk, before they emerge from animal populations, extremely difficult and uncertain. As a first step towards assessing zoonotic risk of influenza, we demonstrate a risk assessment framework to assess the relative likelihood of influenza A viruses, circulating in animal populations, making the species jump into humans. The intention is that such a risk assessment framework could assist decision-makers to compare multiple influenza viruses for zoonotic potential and hence to develop appropriate strain-specific control measures. It also provides a first step towards showing proof of principle for an eventual pandemic risk model. We show that the spatial and temporal epidemiology is as important in assessing the risk of an influenza A species jump as understanding the innate molecular capability of the virus. We also demonstrate data deficiencies that need to be addressed in order to consistently combine both epidemiological and molecular virology data into a risk assessment framework. PMID:26473042
Hill, A A; Dewé, T; Kosmider, R; Von Dobschuetz, S; Munoz, O; Hanna, A; Fusaro, A; De Nardi, M; Howard, W; Stevens, K; Kelly, L; Havelaar, A; Stärk, K
2015-09-01
The scientific understanding of the driving factors behind zoonotic and pandemic influenzas is hampered by complex interactions between viruses, animal hosts and humans. This complexity makes identifying influenza viruses of high zoonotic or pandemic risk, before they emerge from animal populations, extremely difficult and uncertain. As a first step towards assessing zoonotic risk of influenza, we demonstrate a risk assessment framework to assess the relative likelihood of influenza A viruses, circulating in animal populations, making the species jump into humans. The intention is that such a risk assessment framework could assist decision-makers to compare multiple influenza viruses for zoonotic potential and hence to develop appropriate strain-specific control measures. It also provides a first step towards showing proof of principle for an eventual pandemic risk model. We show that the spatial and temporal epidemiology is as important in assessing the risk of an influenza A species jump as understanding the innate molecular capability of the virus. We also demonstrate data deficiencies that need to be addressed in order to consistently combine both epidemiological and molecular virology data into a risk assessment framework. PMID:26473042
A model of the human triceps surae muscle-tendon complex applied to jumping.
Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J
1986-01-01
The purpose of this study was to gain more insight into the behavior of the muscle-tendon complex of human m. triceps surae in jumping. During one-legged vertical jumps of ten subjects ground reaction forces as well as cinematographic data were registered, and electromyograms were recorded from m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius. A model was developed of m. triceps surae, incorporating assumptions concerning dimensions, architecture, force-length and force-velocity relationships of muscle fibers, as well as assumptions concerning dimensions and elastic behavior of tendinous tissue in series with the muscle fibers. The velocity with which origin approaches insertion (V OI) was calculated for m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius using cine film data, and served as input of the model. During the last part of the push-off phase EMG-levels were found to be more or less constant, V OI of m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius rapidly increased, and the plantar flexing moment obtained by solving equations concerning a free body diagram of the foot rapidly declined. A similar decline was observed in the plantar flexing moment obtained by multiplying force calculated with help of the model by estimated moment arm at the ankle. As a result of the decline of exerted force tendon length decreases. According to the model the shortening velocity of tendon reaches higher values than that of muscle fibers. The results of a kinetic analysis demonstrate that during the last part of the push-off phase a combination of high angular velocities with relatively large plantar flexing moments is required. It is concluded that without a compliant tendon m. triceps surae would not be able to satisfy this requirement. PMID:3793737
Achard de Leluardière, F; Hajri, L N; Lacouture, P; Duboy, J; Frelut, M L; Peres, G
2006-02-01
There may be concerns about the validity of kinetic models when studying locomotion in obese subjects (OS). The aim of the present study was to improve and validate a relevant representation of obese subject from four kinetic models. Fourteen teenagers with severe primary obesity (BMI = 40 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2)), were studied during jumping. The jumps were filmed by six cameras (synchronized, 50 Hz), associated with a force-plate (1,000 Hz). All the tested models were valid; the linear mechanical analysis of the jumps gave similar results (p > 0.05); but there were significantly different segment inertias when considering the subjects' abdomen (p < 0.01), which was associated with a significantly higher mechanical internal energy expenditure (p < 0.01) than that estimated from Dempster's and Hanavan's model, by about 40 and 30%. The validation of a modelling specifically for obese subjects will enable a better understanding of their locomotion. PMID:16399510
Finite-dimensional models of diffusion chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.
2010-05-01
Some parabolic systems of the reaction-diffusion type exhibit the phenomenon of diffusion chaos. Specifically, when the diffusivities decrease proportionally, while the other parameters of a system remain fixed, the system exhibits a chaotic attractor whose dimension increases indefinitely. Various finite-dimensional models of diffusion chaos are considered that represent chains of coupled ordinary differential equations and similar chains of discrete mappings. A numerical analysis suggests that these chains with suitably chosen parameters exhibit chaotic attractors of arbitrarily high dimensions.
Numerical modelling of microdroplet self-propelled jumping on micro-textured surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attarzadeh, S. M. Reza; Dolatabadi, Ali; Chun Kim, Kyung
2015-11-01
Understanding various stages of single and multiple droplet impact on a super-hydrophobic surface is of interest for many industrial applications such as aerospace industry. In this study, the phenomenon of coalescence induced droplets self-propelled jumping on a micro-textured super-hydrophobic surface is numerically simulated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. This model mimics the scenario of coalescing cloud-sized particles over the surface structure of an aircraft. The VOF coupled with a dynamic contact angle model is used to simulate the coalescence of two equal size droplets, that are initially placed very closed to each other with their interface overlapping with each other's which triggers the incipience of their coalescence. The textured surface is modeled as a series of equally spaced squared pillars, with 111° as the intrinsic contact angle all over the solid contact area. It is shown that the radial velocity of coalescing liquid bridge is reverted to upward direction due to the counter action of the surface to the basal area of droplet in contact. The presence of air beneath the droplet inside micro grooves which aimed at repelling water droplet is also captured in this model. The simulated results are found in good agreement with experimental observations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Consortium de Recherche et d'innovation en Aerospatiale au Quebec (CRIAQ), Bombardier Aerospace, Pratt Whitney Canada.
Stress diffusion in models for shear banding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masnada, Elian; Olmsted, Peter
Understanding shear banding is of utmost importance from both theoretical and experimental point of view and consequently it has been studied for several decades. Despite this study numerous aspects of shear banding remains poorly understood. Because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity in the shear banded state, applicable constitutive models must be include spatial inhomogeneities, leading to a so-called 'diffusive' term in the equation of motion for the slow variables that carry stress. Such terms are also vital in describing the interaction of bulk shear banding flows with walls and incorporation of wall slip. In this work, we consider different sources of 'diffusion' in polymer models in which concentration degrees of freedom are negligible. The simplest models used are consistent with diffusive terms whose origin is intrinsically dissipative, such as due to hydrodynamic interactions. By contrast, models in which elastic effects such as finite chain stiffness contribute to stress diffusion are inconsistent with simple diffusive models, and we propose alternative consistent models
A model of oceanic development by ridge jumping: Opening of the Scotia Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado, Andrés; Bohoyo, Fernando; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Hernández-Molina, Fº. Javier; Lobo, Francisco J.; Lodolo, Emanuele; Martos, Yasmina M.; Pérez, Lara F.; Schreider, Anatoly A.; Somoza, Luis
2014-12-01
, where an accretionary prism is identified. Such tectonics, locally affecting up to the most recent deposits, imply that a portion of the primitive oceanic crust is absent. Based on the stratigraphy of the deposits and the magnetic anomalies, an age of 44 Ma is postulated for the initiation of oceanic spreading in the eastern Ona basin, while spreading in the western Ona Basin would have occurred during the early Oligocene. The tectonics, depositional units and the age of the oceanic crust provide additional evidence regarding the Eocene opening of Drake Passage. The initial tectonic fragmentation of the South America-Antarctic Bridge, followed by oceanic spreading, was characterized by jumping of the spreading centers. An Eocene spreading center in the eastern Ona Basin was the precursor of the Scotia Sea. A model comprising four tectonic evolutionary phases is proposed: Phase I, Pacific subduction - Paleocene to middle Eocene; Phase II, eastern Ona back-arc spreading - middle to late Eocene; Phase III, ridge jumping and western Ona back-arc spreading - early Oligocene; and Phase IV, ridge jumping and West Scotia Ridge spreading - early Oligocene to late Miocene. The development of shallow gateways allowed for an initial connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and, hence, initiated the thermal isolation of Antarctica during the middle and late Eocene. Deep gateways that enhanced the full isolation of Antarctica developed in Drake Passage from the Eocene/Oligocene transition onward. A significant correlation is observed between the tectonics, stratigraphic units and major climate events, thereby indicating the influence of the local tectonic and paleoceanographic events of the Southern Ocean on global evolution.
Persistent search in single and multiple confined domains: a velocity-jump process model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poll, Daniel B.; Kilpatrick, Zachary P.
2016-05-01
We analyze velocity-jump process models of persistent search for a single target on a bounded domain. The searcher proceeds along ballistic trajectories and is absorbed upon collision with the target boundary. When reaching the domain boundary, the searcher chooses a random direction for its new trajectory. For circular domains and targets, we can approximate the mean first passage time (MFPT) using a Markov chain approximation of the search process. Our analysis and numerical simulations reveal that the time to find the target decreases for targets closer to the domain boundary. When there is a small probability of direction-switching within the domain, we find the time to find the target decreases slightly with the turning probability. We also extend our exit time analysis to the case of partitioned domains, where there is a single target within one of multiple disjoint subdomains. Given an average time of transition between domains < T> , we find that the optimal rate of transition that minimizes the time to find the target obeys {β\\text{min}}\\propto 1/\\sqrt< T> .
Skender, Marina; Vrsnak, Bojan; Martinis, Mladen
2003-10-01
We present an analytic solution of the complete set of jump relations at the rotational discontinuity and the slow-mode shock in a two-and-half-dimensional (2 1/2D) symmetric reconnection model. The solution is used for analyzing the outflow jet characteristics in dependence on the speed and the incidence angle of the inflowing plasma, for a given shear of the inflow magnetic field. It is found that the magnetosonic Mach number of the outflow depends significantly on the incidence angle, the effect being more prominent at larger reconnection rates. The compression increases weakly with increasing reconnection rate. Dynamical changes in the flow/field geometry are found in the transition to the 2D regime: In the region between the rotational discontinuity and the slow-mode shock the direction of flow and the magnetic field become extremely sensitive to the degree of the magnetic field shear in the inflow. Implications for evolutionary systems such as solar flares are discussed. PMID:14683052
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muller, Andreas
2013-01-01
On October 14,2012, Felix Baumgartner, an Austrian sky-diver, set some new world records for his discipline. Jumping from a height of about 39 km, he reached a top speed of 1342 km/h, becoming the first human being to break the sound barrier in free fall. In order to understand some essential physics aspects of this remarkable feat, we wonder why…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Blagovest; Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz
2016-05-01
Luminous blue variables (LBVs) have been suggested to be the direct progenitors of supernova Types IIb and IIn, with enhanced mass loss prior to explosion. However, the mechanism of this mass loss is not yet known. Here, we investigate the qualitative behaviour of theoretical stellar wind mass loss as a function of Teff across two bi-stability jumps in blue supergiant regime and also in proximity to the Eddington limit, relevant for LBVs. To investigate the physical ingredients that play a role in the radiative acceleration we calculate blue supergiant wind models with the CMFGEN non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere code over an effective temperature range between 30 000 and 8800 K. Although our aim is not to provide new mass-loss rates for BA supergiants, we study and confirm the existence of two bi-stability jumps in mass-loss rates predicted by Vink et al. However, they are found to occur at somewhat lower Teff (20 000 and 9000 K, respectively) than found previously, which would imply that stars may evolve towards lower Teff before strong mass loss is induced by the bi-stability jumps. When the combined effects of the second bi-stability jump and the proximity to Eddington limit are accounted for, we find a dramatic increase in the mass-loss rate by up to a factor of 30. Further investigation of both bi-stability jumps is expected to lead to a better understanding of discrepancies between empirical modelling and theoretical mass-loss rates reported in the literature, and to provide key inputs for the evolution of both normal AB supergiants and LBVs, as well as their subsequent supernova Type II explosions.
Hickox, Lauren J; Ashby, Blake M; Alderink, Gordon J
2016-05-01
Most previous standing long jump studies have been based on the assumption of two-dimensional sagittal plane motion with bilateral symmetry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of this assumption. Standing long jump trials were collected using six adult male participants. Each participant stood with a foot on each of two force plates and performed eight standing long jumps for maximal distance. Inverse dynamics analyses were performed for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models, and joint moments, powers, and work values were compared. The differences between these models with respect to the validity of the common planar jumping assumption were analyzed. Good agreement was observed between 2D and 3D methods for the lower body, with minimal differences in sagittal plane moments, power, and work for the ankle, knee, and lower back. There were significant, but relatively small differences in the sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics at the hip. For the upper body, the results contradicted the sagittal plane assumption in that significant moments and power were generated about the abduction/adduction axis of the shoulder and a similar amount of work was performed about both abduction/adduction and flexion/extension axes of the shoulder. The elbow also showed significant differences in power and work. These results indicate that an assumption of planar motion should be sufficient for many studies of the standing long jump that only examine lower body movement. However, for studies that include upper body motion, diagnosing injury risk, or investigating gender differences, a 3D model may be more appropriate. PMID:26949101
Modeling of hydrogen diffusion in metals
Yang, K.; Cao, M.Z.; Wan, X.J.; Shi, C.X.
1989-02-01
The study of the diffusion of hydrogen in metals is very important to further understand the hydrogen embrittlement of metals. To describe the diffusion of hydrogen in metals the diffusion equation deduced from Fick's law under an ideal condition has been generally used and the effect of hydrogen trapping in metals has been neglected. In the process of hydrogen diffusion through a metal, hydrogen fills the traps continuously and the fraction of the traps filled by hydrogen, which have only little effect on the diffusion of hydrogen, may be different at different places because the distribution of hydrogen concentration may be different at different places. Thus the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the metal may also be different at different positions, i.e., the diffusion coefficient should be affected by time in a dynamic process of hydrogen diffusion through a metal. But in the previous analyses, the above fact is not considered and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient is generally taken as a constant. In the present paper a new model of hydrogen diffusion in metals in which the effect of time is taken into account is developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter
2016-04-01
Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the thickness of lithospheric jumps and corresponding tectonic stress. We analysed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and reasonable assumptions about densities these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. They reveal a small asymmetry between the African and S-American crusts and lithospheres by a few kilometers. On both sides, the continental lithosphere is about 15 - 30km thicker than the oceanic lithosphere. To keep such geoid jumps stable over O(100Ma) fully dynamic models show that lithospheric viscosities must be of the order of 1e23 Pa s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.
2014-01-01
As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.
Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics
Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Garde, Shekhar
2000-09-18
The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Diffusion Decision Model: Current Issues and History.
Ratcliff, Roger; Smith, Philip L; Brown, Scott D; McKoon, Gail
2016-04-01
There is growing interest in diffusion models to represent the cognitive and neural processes of speeded decision making. Sequential-sampling models like the diffusion model have a long history in psychology. They view decision making as a process of noisy accumulation of evidence from a stimulus. The standard model assumes that evidence accumulates at a constant rate during the second or two it takes to make a decision. This process can be linked to the behaviors of populations of neurons and to theories of optimality. Diffusion models have been used successfully in a range of cognitive tasks and as psychometric tools in clinical research to examine individual differences. In this review, we relate the models to both earlier and more recent research in psychology. PMID:26952739
Dispersing V-type asteroids during the planetary instability in the jumping Jupiter model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brasil, P. I.
2015-12-01
V-type asteroids are a particular class of asteroids whose surface mineralogy is associated to a basaltic composition. Currently, the only known source of these asteroids in the Main Belt is (4) Vesta. This asteroid is located in the inner belt (2.1 < a < 2.5 AU), and has associated a dynamical family formed by the impact ejecta of two large craters excavated on its basaltic surface some 2 and 1 Gyr ago, respectively. Thus, many V-type asteroids belong to the Vesta family. However, an increasing number of V-type asteroids is found outside the limits of the family. Some of these asteroids, especially those located in the inner belt, are explained as dynamical fugitives from the family. Others cannot be linked to the Vesta family nor to (4) Vesta, neither dynamically nor mineralogically. The most paradoxal cases are the V-type asteroids found beyond 2.5 AU, in the central (2.5 < a < 2.8 AU) and outer (2.8 < a < 3.2 AU) parts of the Main Belt, where no local source of basaltic material is recognized. In this work, we propose a coherent dynamical mechanism to explain the delivery of V-type asteroids originated in the inner belt to the central and outer belt. This mechanism involves the planetary instability during the epoch when the outer planets were migrating due to their interaction with a disk of planetesimals, some 4 Gyr ago. The instability is caused by mutual planetary encounters in the framework of the jumping Jupiter model with initially five outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn and three ice giants. As a consequence of this instability, an ice giant is temporarily scattered into the asteroid belt and helps to disperse the asteroids in semimajor axis by up to ~0.5 AU. The V-type asteroids dispersed by this mechanism could have originated either in an older cratering event on the surface of (4) Vesta, or in the fragmentation of another basaltic asteroid in the inner belt that likely have existed during the epoch of planetary migration. We tested several
Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules
Shea, Patrick Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen
2014-07-28
We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.
Koppes, Ryan A; Swank, Douglas M; Corr, David T
2015-10-15
The increase in steady-state force after active lengthening in skeletal muscle, termed force enhancement (FE), has been observed for nearly one century. Although demonstrated experimentally at various structural levels, the underlying mechanism(s) remain unknown. We recently showed that the Drosophila jump muscle is an ideal model for investigating mechanisms behind muscle physiological properties, because its mechanical characteristics, tested thus far, duplicate those of fast mammalian skeletal muscles, and Drosophila has the advantage that it can be more easily genetically modified. To determine if Drosophila would be appropriate to investigate FE, we performed classic FE experiments on this muscle. Steady-state FE (FESS), following active lengthening, increased by 3, 7, and 12% of maximum isometric force, with increasing stretch amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20% of optimal fiber length (FLOPT), yet was similar for stretches across increasing stretch velocities of 4, 20, and 200% FLOPT/s. These FESS characteristics of the Drosophila jump muscle closely mimic those observed previously. Jump muscles also displayed typical transient FE characteristics. The transient force relaxation following active stretch was fit with a double exponential, yielding two phases of force relaxation: a fast initial relaxation of force, followed by a slower recovery toward steady state. Our analyses identified a negative correlation between the slow relaxation rate and FESS, indicating that there is likely an active component contributing to FE, in addition to a passive component. Herein, we have established the Drosophila jump muscle as a new and genetically powerful experimental model to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of FE. PMID:26289752
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stura, Enrico A.; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Taussig, Michael J.
1999-01-01
By a combination of seeding and changing the growth medium new crystal forms may be obtained. The procedure is called an epitaxial jump. The seeds used in the seeding are from crystals of the same or related protein. For example, seeding followed by an increase in precipitant concentration has given higher diffracting crystals of the complex between tissue factor, factor VIIa and the inhibitor 5L15. For both an anti-steroid antibody fragment and human placental alkaline phosphatase a polymorph was obtained by changing a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) with one of a higher molecular weight. In the first case, in one direction and in the latter case, in the other direction. A change of conformation could also have contributed to this. A DsbA mutant illustrates how such changes, result in a different packing from that for the wild-type. Seeding from crystals of wild-type protein yields crystals which appear to be morphologically different from both the wild-type and mutant crystal forms.
Mathematical modeling of molecular diffusion through mucus
Cu, Yen; Saltzman, W. Mark
2008-01-01
The rate of molecular transport through the mucus gel can be an important determinant of efficacy for therapeutic agents delivered by oral, intranasal, intravaginal/rectal, and intraocular routes. Transport through mucus can be described by mathematical models based on principles of physical chemistry and known characteristics of the mucus gel, its constituents, and of the drug itself. In this paper, we review mathematical models of molecular diffusion in mucus, as well as the techniques commonly used to measure diffusion of solutes in the mucus gel, mucus gel mimics, and mucosal epithelia. PMID:19135488
Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro
2015-09-01
An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.
MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.
Assessment of diffuse radiation models in Azores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magarreiro, Clarisse; Brito, Miguel; Soares, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo
2014-05-01
Measured irradiance databases usually consist of global solar radiation data with limited spatial coverage. Hence, solar radiation models have been developed to estimate the diffuse fraction from the measured global irradiation. This information is critical for the assessment of the potential of solar energy technologies; for example, the decision to use photovoltaic systems with tracking system. The different solar radiation models for this purpose differ on the parameters used as input. The simplest, and most common, are models which use global radiation information only. More sophisticated models require meteorological parameters such as information from clouds, atmospheric turbidity, temperature or precipitable water content. Most of these models comprise correlations with the clearness index, kt (portion of horizontal extra-terrestrial radiation reaching the Earth's surface) to obtain the diffuse fraction kd (portion of diffuse component from global radiation). The applicability of these different models is related to the local atmospheric conditions and its climatic characteristics. The models are not of general validity and can only be applicable to locations where the albedo of the surrounding terrain and the atmospheric contamination by dust are not significantly different from those where the corresponding methods were developed. Thus, models of diffuse fraction exhibit a relevant degree of location dependence: e.g. models developed considering data acquired in Europe are mainly linked to Northern, Central or, more recently, Mediterranean areas. The Azores Archipelago, with its particular climate and cloud cover characteristics, different from mainland Europe, has not yet been considered for the development of testing of such models. The Azorean climate reveals large amounts of cloud cover in its annual cycle, with spatial and temporal variabilities more complex than the common Summer/Winter pattern. This study explores the applicability of different
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qiong; Li, Shu-Suo; Ma, Yue; Gong, Sheng-Kai
2012-10-01
The diffusion coefficients of several alloying elements (Al, Mo, Co, Ta, Ru, W, Cr, Re) in Ni are directly calculated using the five-frequency model and the first principles density functional theory. The correlation factors provided by the five-frequency model are explicitly calculated. The calculated diffusion coefficients show their excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Both the diffusion pre-factor (D0) and the activation energy (Q) of impurity diffusion are obtained. The diffusion coefficients above 700 K are sorted in the following order: DAl > DCr > DCo > DTa > DMo > DRu > DW > DRe. It is found that there is a positive correlation between the atomic radius of the solute and the jump energy of Ni that results in the rotation of the solute-vacancy pair (E1). The value of E2-E1 (E2 is the solute diffusion energy) and the correlation factor each also show a positive correlation. The larger atoms in the same series have lower diffusion activation energies and faster diffusion coefficients.
Modelling Diffusion of a Personalized Learning Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karmeshu; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema
2012-01-01
A new modelling approach for diffusion of personalized learning as an educational process innovation in social group comprising adopter-teachers is proposed. An empirical analysis regarding the perception of 261 adopter-teachers from 18 schools in India about a particular personalized learning framework has been made. Based on this analysis,…
Results from Modeling the Diffuse Ultraviolet Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murthy, Jayant
2016-07-01
I have used a Monte Carlo model for dust scattering in our Galaxy with multiple scattering to study the diffuse emission seen by the GALEX mission. I find that the emission at low and mid latitudes is fit well by scattering from dust grains with an albedo of 0.4. However, only about 30% of the diffuse radiation at high Galactic latitudes is due to dust scattering. There is an additional component of 500 - 600 ph cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} Å^{-1} at all latitudes of an unknown origin.
Generalized Drift-Diffusion Model In Semiconductors
Mesbah, S.; Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.
2008-09-23
A new drift-diffusion model is proposed based on the computation of the stationary nonlocal current density. The semi classical Boltzmann equation is solved keeping all the anisotropies of the distribution function with the use of the continued fractions. The conductivity is calculated in the linear approximation and for arbitrary collision frequency with respect to Kv{sub t} where K{sup -1} is the characteristic length scale of the system and V{sub t} is the thermal velocity. The nonlocal conductivity can be used to close the generalized drift-diffusion equations valid for arbitrary collisionality.
Anomalous Diffusion in a Trading Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khidzir, Sidiq Mohamad; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin
2009-07-01
The result of the trading model by Chakrabarti et al. [1] is the wealth distribution with a mixed exponential and power law distribution. Based on the motivation of studying the dynamics behind the flow of money similar to work done by Brockmann [2, 3] we track the flow of money in this trading model to observe anomalous diffusion in the form of long waiting times and Levy Flights.
Measuring Psychometric Functions with the Diffusion Model
Ratcliff, Roger
2014-01-01
The diffusion decision model (Ratcliff, 1978) was used to examine discrimination for a range of perceptual tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, brightness discrimination, motion discrimination, speed discrimination, and length discrimination. The model produces a measure of the quality of the information that drives decision processes, a measure termed “drift rate” in the model. As drift rate varies across experimental conditions that differ in difficulty, a psychometric function that plots drift rate against difficulty can be constructed. Psychometric functions for the tasks in this article usually plot accuracy against difficulty, but for some levels of difficulty, accuracy can be at ceiling. The diffusion model extends the range of difficulty that can be evaluated because drift rates depend on response times (RTs) as well as accuracy and when RTs decrease across conditions that are all at ceiling in accuracy, then drift rates will distinguish among the conditions. Signal detection theory assumes that the variable driving performance is the z-transform of the accuracy value and somewhat surprisingly, this closely matches drift rate extracted from the diffusion model when accuracy is not at ceiling, but not sometimes when accuracy is high. Even though the functions are similar in the middle of the range, the interpretations of the variability in the models (e.g., perceptual variability, decision process variability) are incompatible. PMID:24446719
Modeling Demic and Cultural Diffusion: An Introduction.
Fort, Joaquim; Crema, Enrico R; Madella, Marco
2015-07-01
Identifying the processes by which human cultures spread across different populations is one of the most topical objectives shared among different fields of study. Seminal works have analyzed a variety of data and attempted to determine whether empirically observed patterns are the result of demic and/or cultural diffusion. This special issue collects articles exploring several themes (from modes of cultural transmission to drivers of dispersal mechanisms) and contexts (from the Neolithic in Europe to the spread of computer programming languages), which offer new insights that will augment the theoretical and empirical basis for the study of demic and cultural diffusion. In this introduction we outline the state of art in the modeling of these processes, briefly discuss the pros and cons of two of the most commonly used frameworks (equation-based models and agent-based models), and summarize the significance of each article in this special issue. PMID:26932566
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyer, D.; Romo-Cruz, J. C. R.
2014-10-01
Motivated by studies on the recurrent properties of animal and human mobility, we introduce a path-dependent random-walk model with long-range memory for which not only the mean-square displacement (MSD) but also the propagator can be obtained exactly in the asymptotic limit. The model consists of a random walker on a lattice, which, at a constant rate, stochastically relocates at a site occupied at some earlier time. This time in the past is chosen randomly according to a memory kernel, whose temporal decay can be varied via an exponent parameter. In the weakly non-Markovian regime, memory reduces the diffusion coefficient from the bare value. When the mean backward jump in time diverges, the diffusion coefficient vanishes and a transition to an anomalous subdiffusive regime occurs. Paradoxically, at the transition, the process is an anticorrelated Lévy flight. Although in the subdiffusive regime the model exhibits some features of the continuous time random walk with infinite mean waiting time, it belongs to another universality class. If memory is very long-ranged, a second transition takes place to a regime characterized by a logarithmic growth of the MSD with time. In this case the process is asymptotically Gaussian and effectively described as a scaled Brownian motion with a diffusion coefficient decaying as 1 /t .
A Stochastic Cellular Automaton Model of Non-linear Diffusion and Diffusion with Reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brieger, Leesa M.; Bonomi, Ernesto
1991-06-01
This article presents a stochastic cellular automaton model of diffusion and diffusion with reaction. The master equations for the model are examined, and we assess the difference between the implementation in which a single particle at a time moves (asynchronous dynamics) and one implementation in which all particles move simultaneously (synchronous dynamics). Biasing locally each particle's random walk, we alter the diffusion coefficients of the system. By appropriately choosing the biasing function, we can impose a desired non-linear diffusive behaviour in the model. We present an application of this model, adapted to include two diffusing species, two static species, and a chemical reaction in a prototypical simulation of carbonation in concrete.
The circular internal hydraulic jump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorpe, S. A.; Kavcic, I.
Circular hydraulic jumps are familiar in single layers. Here we report the discovery of similar jumps in two-layer flows. A thin jet of fluid impinging vertically onto a rigid horizontal plane surface submerged in a deep layer of less-dense miscible fluid spreads radially, and a near-circular internal jump forms within a few centimetres from the point of impact with the plane surface. A jump is similarly formed as a jet of relatively less-dense fluid rises to the surface of a deep layer of fluid, but it appears less stable or permanent in form. Several experiments are made to examine the case of a downward jet onto a horizontal plate, the base of a square or circular container. The inlet Reynolds numbers, Re, of the jet range from 112 to 1790. Initially jumps have an undular, laminar form with typically 2-4 stationary waves on the interface between the dense and less-dense layers but, as the depth of the dense layer beyond the jump increases, the transitions become more abrupt and turbulent, resulting in mixing between the two layers. During the transition to a turbulent regime, single and sometimes moving multiple cusps are observed around the periphery of jumps. A semi-empirical model is devised that relates the parameters of the laboratory experiment, i.e. flow rate, inlet nozzle radius, kinematic viscosity and reduced gravity, to the layer depth beyond the jump and the radius at which an undular jump occurs. The experiments imply that surface tension is not an essential ingredient in the formation of circular hydraulic jumps and demonstrate that stationary jumps can exist in stratified shear flows which can be represented as two discrete layers. No stationary circular undular jumps are found, however, in the case of a downward jet of dense fluid when the overlying, less-dense, fluid is stratified, but a stationary turbulent transition is observed. This has implications for the existence of stationary jumps in continuously stratified geophysical flows: results
A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation
Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos
2013-01-01
A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207
A diffusion model for tungsten powder carburization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCarty, Lewis V.; Donelson, Richard; Hehemann, Robert f.
1991-01-01
A mathematical model describes the carburization kinetics of tungsten powders mixed with carbon and heated in hydrogen. It is based on diffusion of carbon through a shell of WC growing into particles which are modeled as spheres. The activation energy is 58 kcal/mole in the temperature range 1056 to 1833 °C. Hydrogen gas is important to transport carbon as methane or acetylene, but increased hydrogen pressure increases the rate of carburization so little that an adsorbed species such as CH probably controls the carbon concentration at the particle surface.
Radiosity diffusion model in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin
2001-11-01
We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.
Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model
Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.
2006-06-16
Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase
Diffusion through thin membranes: Modeling across scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aho, Vesa; Mattila, Keijo; Kühn, Thomas; Kekäläinen, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Otto; Minussi, Roberta Brondani; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Timonen, Jussi
2016-04-01
From macroscopic to microscopic scales it is demonstrated that diffusion through membranes can be modeled using specific boundary conditions across them. The membranes are here considered thin in comparison to the overall size of the system. In a macroscopic scale the membrane is introduced as a transmission boundary condition, which enables an effective modeling of systems that involve multiple scales. In a mesoscopic scale, a numerical lattice-Boltzmann scheme with a partial-bounceback condition at the membrane is proposed and analyzed. It is shown that this mesoscopic approach provides a consistent approximation of the transmission boundary condition. Furthermore, analysis of the mesoscopic scheme gives rise to an expression for the permeability of a thin membrane as a function of a mesoscopic transmission parameter. In a microscopic model, the mean waiting time for a passage of a particle through the membrane is in accordance with this permeability. Numerical results computed with the mesoscopic scheme are then compared successfully with analytical solutions derived in a macroscopic scale, and the membrane model introduced here is used to simulate diffusive transport between the cell nucleus and cytoplasm through the nuclear envelope in a realistic cell model based on fluorescence microscopy data. By comparing the simulated fluorophore transport to the experimental one, we determine the permeability of the nuclear envelope of HeLa cells to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Eunjin; Kim, Ho-Young
2015-11-01
Small aquatic arthropods, such as water striders and fishing spiders, are able to jump off water to a height several times their body length. Inspired by the unique biological motility on water, we study a simple model using a flexible hoop to provide fundamental understanding and a mimicking principle of small jumpers on water. Behavior of a hoop on water, which is coated with superhydrophobic particles and initially bent into an ellipse from an equilibrium circular shape, is visualized with a high speed camera upon launching it into air by releasing its initial elastic strain energy. We observe that jumping of our hoops is dominated by the dynamic pressure of water rather than surface tension, and thus it corresponds to the dynamic condition experienced by fishing spiders. We calculate the reaction forces provided by water adopting the unsteady Bernoulli equation as well as the momentum loss into liquid inertia and viscous friction. Our analysis allows us to predict the jumping efficiency of the hoop on water in comparison to that on ground, and to discuss the evolutionary pressure rendering fishing spiders select such dynamic behavior.
Distributed Wind Diffusion Model Overview (Presentation)
Preus, R.; Drury, E.; Sigrin, B.; Gleason, M.
2014-07-01
Distributed wind market demand is driven by current and future wind price and performance, along with several non-price market factors like financing terms, retail electricity rates and rate structures, future wind incentives, and others. We developed a new distributed wind technology diffusion model for the contiguous United States that combines hourly wind speed data at 200m resolution with high resolution electricity load data for various consumer segments (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial), electricity rates and rate structures for utility service territories, incentive data, and high resolution tree cover. The model first calculates the economics of distributed wind at high spatial resolution for each market segment, and then uses a Bass diffusion framework to estimate the evolution of market demand over time. The model provides a fundamental new tool for characterizing how distributed wind market potential could be impacted by a range of future conditions, such as electricity price escalations, improvements in wind generator performance and installed cost, and new financing structures. This paper describes model methodology and presents sample results for distributed wind market potential in the contiguous U.S. through 2050.
Multilayer model of photon diffusion in skin
Schmitt, J.M.; Zhou, G.X.; Walker, E.C.; Wall, R.T. )
1990-11-01
A diffusion model describing the propagation of photon flux in the epidermal, dermal, and subcutaneous tissue layers of the skin is presented. Assuming that the skin is illuminated by a collimated, finite-aperture source, we develop expressions relating photon flux density within the skin and intensities re-emitted from the skin surface to the optical properties of the individual layers. Model simulations show that the rate at which re-emitted intensities diminish with radial distance away from the source can provide information about absorption and scattering in underlying tissues. Re-emitted intensities measured from homogeneous and two-layer tissue phantoms compare favorably with model predictions. We demonstrate potential applications of the model by estimating the absorption (sigma a) and transport-corrected scattering (sigma's) coefficients of dermis and subcutis from intensities measured from intact skin and by predicting the magnitude of the optical-density variations measured by a photoplethysmograph.
Diffuse Interface Model for Microstructure Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nestler, Britta
A phase-field model for a general class of multi-phase metallic alloys is proposed which describes both, multi-phase solidification phenomena as well as polycrystalline grain structures. The model serves as a computational method to simulate the motion and kinetics of multiple phase boundaries and enables the visualization of the diffusion processes and of the phase transitions in multi-phase systems. Numerical simulations are presented which illustrate the capability of the phase-field model to recover a variety of complex experimental growth structures. In particular, the phase-field model can be used to simulate microstructure evolutions in eutectic, peritectic and monotectic alloys. In addition, polycrystalline grain structures with effects such as wetting, grain growth, symmetry properties of adjacent triple junctions in thin film samples and stability criteria at multiple junctions are described by phase-field simulations.
A diffusion-diffusion model for percutaneous drug absorption.
Kubota, K; Ishizaki, T
1986-08-01
Several theories describing percutaneous drug absorption have been proposed, incorporating the mathematical solutions of differential equations describing percutaneous drug absorption processes where the vehicle and skin are regarded as simple diffusion membranes. By a solution derived from Laplace transforms, the mean residence time MRT and the variance of the residence time VRT in the vehicle are expressed as simple elementary functions of the following five pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing the percutaneous drug absorption: kd, which is defined as the normalized diffusion coefficient of the skin, kc, which is defined as the normalized skin-capillary boundary clearance, the apparent length of diffusion of the skin 1d, the effective length of the vehicle lv, and the diffusion coefficient of the vehicle Dv. All five parameters can be obtained by the methods proposed here. Results of numerical computation indicate that: concentration-distance curves in the vehicle and skin approximate two curves which are simply expressed using trigonometric functions when sufficient time elapses after an ointment application; the most suitable condition for the assumption that the concentration of a drug in the uppermost epidermis can be considered unchanged is the case where the partition coefficient between vehicle and skin is small, and the constancy of drug concentration is even more valid when the effective length of the vehicle is large; and the amount of a drug in the vehicle or skin and the flow rate of the drug from vehicle into skin or from skin into blood becomes linear on a semilogarithmic scale, and the slopes of those lines are small when Dv is small, when the partition coefficient between vehicle and skin is small, when lv is large, or when kc is small. A simple simulation method is also proposed using a biexponential for the concentration-time curve for the skin near the skin-capillary boundary, that is, the flow rate-time curve for drug passing from skin
Pereverzev, Yuriy V; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Thomas, Wendy E; Sokurenko, Evgeni V
2005-07-01
The receptor-ligand unbinding in the biological catch bond is analyzed within a simple model that comprises a single bound state and two unbinding pathways. This model is investigated in detail for the jump-ramp force regime, where the pulling force quickly jumps to a finite value and then is ramped linearly with time. Two qualitative criteria are identified that distinguish the catch bond from the slip bond. First, the rupture force probability density of the catch-bond exhibits a maximum-minimum pair, which develops at finite forces. In contrast, the slip bond produces a maximum that first appears at zero force. Second, the catch bond can be identified over a wide range of ramp rates by high rupture probabilities at low forces relative to the probability at the maximum, in contrast to the slip bond, where the probability at the maximum always corresponds to the most likely rupture force. Both distinctive features of the catch bond are masked by large jump forces, indicating that the catch bond is best identified in experiments with moderate loading rates and small jump forces. The catch-bond lifetime in the constant force regime is related to the probability density in the jump-ramp regime, allowing one to determine the bond lifetime for a constant force by measuring the initial probability density in the jump-ramp experiments with different jump forces and a fixed ramp rate. The key analytic results are illustrated with the P -selectin/P-selectin glucoprotein ligand-1 bond. PMID:16089930
Databases for Computational Thermodynamics and Diffusion Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kattner, U. R.; Boettinger, W. J.; Morral, J. E.
2002-11-01
Databases for computational thermodynamics and diffusion modeling can be applied to predict phase diagrams for alloy design and alloy behavior during processing and service. Databases that are currently available to scientists, engineers and students need to be expanded and improved. The approach of the workshop was to first identify the database and information delivery tool needs of industry and education. The workshop format was a series of invited talks given to the group as a whole followed by general discussions of needs and benefits to provide a roadmap of future activities.
Genomics Analogy Model for Educators (GAME): From Jumping Genes to Alternative Splicing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corn, Joanie; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Orvis, Kathryn S.
2004-01-01
Studies have shown that there is usually a lack of understanding concerning the fields of genetics and genomics among high school students (Lewis and Wood-Robinson, 2000). A recent article (Kirkpatrick et al, 2002) introduced the GAME (Genomics Analogy Model for Educators) model and two of its components: (1) explaining sequencing technology with…
Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksoy, H.; Unal, N. E.; Eris, E.; Yuce, M. I.
2013-06-01
In the 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological data shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, stochastic models are proposed for simulating monthly water level data. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The models are derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the dataset. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. In the so-called mono-trend model, the time series is treated as a whole under the hypothesis that the lake water level has an increasing trend. In the second model (so-called multiple-trend), the time series is divided into a number of segments to each a linear trend can be fitted separately. Application on the lake water level data shows that four segments, each fitted with a trend line, are meaningful. Both the mono- and multiple-trend models are used for simulation of synthetic lake water level time series under the hypothesis that the observed mono- and multiple-trend structure of the lake water level persist during the simulation period. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning the future infrastructural projects in surrounding areas of the lake as it generates higher maxima for the simulated lake water level.
Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksoy, H.; Unal, N. E.; Eris, E.; Yuce, M. I.
2013-02-01
In 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, a stochastic model is generated using the measured monthly water level data of the lake. The model is derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the data set. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. For the multiple-trend, the time series is first divided into homogeneous segments by means of SEGMENTER, segmentation software. Four segments are found meaningful practically each fitted with a trend line. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning future development in surrounding areas of the lake.
Analysis of stochastic two-prey one-predator model with Lévy jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Meng; Bai, Chuanzhi; Deng, Meiling; Du, Bo
2016-03-01
Taking white noises and Lévy noises into account, a two-prey one-predator model in random environments is proposed and investigated. Under some simple assumptions, the critical value between persistence in the mean and extinction for each population is obtained. Then sufficient conditions for stability in distribution of the model are established. Finally, some numerical examples are introduced to validate the analytical findings.
Diffusion model for lightning radiative transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.; Phanord, Dieudonne D.; Blakeslee, Richard J.
1994-01-01
A one-speed Boltzmann transport theory, with diffusion approximations, is applied to study the radiative transfer properties of lightning in optically thick thunderclouds. Near-infrared (lambda = 0.7774 micrometers) photons associated with a prominent oxygen emission triplet in the lightning spectrum are considered. Transient and spatially complex lightning radiation sources are placed inside a rectangular parallelepiped thundercloud geometry and the effects of multiple scattering are studied. The cloud is assumed to be composed of a homogeneous collection of identical spherical water droplets, each droplet a nearly conservative, anisotropic scatterer. Conceptually, we treat the thundercloud like a nuclear reactor, with photons replaced by neutrons, and utilize standard one-speed neutron diffusion techniques common in nuclear reactor analyses. Valid analytic results for the intensity distribution (expanded in spherical harmonics) are obtained for regions sufficiently far from sources. Model estimates of the arrival-time delay and pulse width broadening of lightning signals radiated from within the cloud are determined and the results are in good agreement with both experimental data and previous Monte Carlo estimates. Additional model studies of this kind will be used to study the general information content of cloud top lightning radiation signatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Charles A.
1983-05-01
Continental rift jumps, analogous to jumps of oceanic spreading ridges, are here proposed to be common. Good examples exist in Iceland and Afar (both transitional from ridge to rift jumps), West Africa (Benue Trough and Cameroon Volcanic Line), and Kenya. Indeed, the Kenya rift appears to have jumped c. 100 km eastward c. 10 m.y. ago and is currently jumping further to the east. Possible jumps exist in the Baikal rift, the Limagne-Bresse rift pair, and parallel to ancient continental margins (e.g., the Triassic basins of the eastern U.S. to Baltimore Canyon and Georges Bank). Continental rifts jump distances that are approximately equal to local lithosphere thickness, suggesting that jumped rifts are controlled by lithosphere fracturing, but there appears to be no reason for the fracturing except migration of hot spots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oláh, K.; Korhonen, H.; Kővári, Zs.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Strassmeier, K. G.
2006-06-01
Aims.Time-series spot modelling was used to follow the longitude changes of active regions responsible for the light variability of FK Com between 1987-2004. Methods: .The photometric data are analysed in the time-series mode of a spot modelling code. A scenario of one polar and two low-latitude active regions (hereafter spots, for simplicity) depicts the light variations very well. The role of the polar spot remains unclear because photometry in general does not provide direct latitudinal surface resolution, however, Doppler imaging results of FK Com also show very high latitude or even polar spots besides the low-latitude ones. We also used a light-curve inversion method to confirm some of the results. Results: .The two low-latitude spots slowly migrate around 90° and 270° longitudes with quasiperiods of 5.8 and 5.2 years. The spots prefer to stay alternately on one or the other, but on the same hemisphere of the star, with a separation of typically 90-140°. We monitored a flip-flop in the light curve of FK Comae in 1999. The two low-latitude spots, being ≈140-180° from each other during the season, gradually decreased until they both practically vanished. Shortly thereafter, two new spots appeared and started to grow. One of the new spots was near the location of the old one, whereas the other turned up 90° shifted in longitude; consequently, the activity as a whole was shifted to the other hemisphere of the star. We followed a phase jump in 1997, when the two low-latitude spots got closer in longitude and finally merged, or else one of them vanished. A new spot appeared soon, shifted by 100° in longitude, but the activity remained on the same hemisphere. Conclusions: .The difference between flip-flops and phase jumps is demonstrated. The derived longitude changes of activity centres may allow us to better constrain the theoretical modelling on the time-behaviour of stellar magnetic activity.
Azimi, Mohammad; Jamali, Yousef; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.
2011-01-01
Diffusion plays a key role in many biochemical reaction systems seen in nature. Scenarios where diffusion behavior is critical can be seen in the cell and subcellular compartments where molecular crowding limits the interaction between particles. We investigate the application of a computational method for modeling the diffusion of molecules and macromolecules in three-dimensional solutions using agent based modeling. This method allows for realistic modeling of a system of particles with different properties such as size, diffusion coefficients, and affinity as well as the environment properties such as viscosity and geometry. Simulations using these movement probabilities yield behavior that mimics natural diffusion. Using this modeling framework, we simulate the effects of molecular crowding on effective diffusion and have validated the results of our model using Langevin dynamics simulations and note that they are in good agreement with previous experimental data. Furthermore, we investigate an extension of this framework where single discrete cells can contain multiple particles of varying size in an effort to highlight errors that can arise from discretization that lead to the unnatural behavior of particles undergoing diffusion. Subsequently, we explore various algorithms that differ in how they handle the movement of multiple particles per cell and suggest an algorithm that properly accommodates multiple particles of various sizes per cell that can replicate the natural behavior of these particles diffusing. Finally, we use the present modeling framework to investigate the effect of structural geometry on the directionality of diffusion in the cell cytoskeleton with the observation that parallel orientation in the structural geometry of actin filaments of filopodia and the branched structure of lamellipodia can give directionality to diffusion at the filopodia-lamellipodia interface. PMID:21966493
Extended source model for diffusive coupling.
González-Ochoa, Héctor O; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Luz M; Femat, Ricardo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the prevailing approach to diffusion coupling phenomena which considers point-like diffusing sources, we derived an analogous expression for the concentration rate of change of diffusively coupled extended containers. The proposed equation, together with expressions based on solutions to the diffusion equation, is intended to be applied to the numerical solution of systems exclusively composed of ordinary differential equations, however is able to account for effects due the finite size of the coupled sources. PMID:26802012
Modeling of diffusion controlled drug delivery.
Siepmann, Juergen; Siepmann, Florence
2012-07-20
Mathematical modeling of drug release can be very helpful to speed up product development and to better understand the mechanisms controlling drug release from advanced delivery systems. Ideally, in silico simulations can quantitatively predict the impact of formulation and processing parameters on the resulting drug release kinetics. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the current state of the art of modeling drug release from delivery systems, which are predominantly controlled by diffusional mass transport. The inner structure of the device, the ratio "initial drug concentration:drug solubility" as well as the device geometry determine which type of mathematical equation must be applied. A straightforward "road map" is given, explaining how to identify the appropriate equation for a particular type of drug delivery system. The respective equations for a broad range of devices are indicated, including reservoir and matrix systems, exhibiting or not an initial excess of drug and the geometry of slabs, spheres and cylinders. The assumptions the models are based on as well as their limitations are pointed out. Practical examples illustrate the usefulness of mathematical modeling of diffusion controlled drug delivery. Due to the advances in information technology the importance of in silico optimization of advanced drug delivery systems can be expected to significantly increase in the future. PMID:22019555
Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chen; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang
2015-06-01
The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM) to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newhouse, Randal Leslie
Atomic jump frequencies were determined in a variety of intermetallic compounds through analysis of nuclear relaxation of spectra measured using the nuclear hyperfine technique, perturbed angular correlation (PAC) of gamma rays. Observed at higher temperatures, this relaxation is attributed to fluctuations in the orientation or magnitude of electric field gradients (EFG) at nuclei of 111In/Cd probe atoms as the atoms make diffusive jumps. Jump frequencies were obtained by fitting dynamically relaxed PAC spectra using either an empirical relaxation function or using
Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from bungee jumping.
Manos, Daria; Hamer, Okka; Müller, Nestor L
2007-11-01
Pulmonary hemorrhage is a relatively common complication of blunt chest trauma. Occasionally, it may result from pulmonary barotrauma after scuba diving or from sports activities not associated with barotrauma such as long breath-hold diving. We report a case of symmetric diffuse upper lobe hemorrhage resulting from a bungee jump in a previously healthy man. Bungee jumping is an increasingly popular sport with relatively few reported injuries. To our knowledge pulmonary hemorrhage in this setting has not yet been described. PMID:18043394
Modeling of hydrogen-air diffusion flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isaac, K. M.
1988-01-01
Work performed during the first six months of the project duration for NASA Grant (NAG-1-861) is reported. An analytical and computational study of opposed jet diffusion flame for the purpose of understanding the effects of contaminants in the reactants and thermal diffusion of light species on extinction and reignition of diffusion flames is in progress. The methodologies attempted so far are described.
Some Problems in Using Diffusion Models for New Products
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bernhardt, Irwin; Mackenzie, Kenneth D.
1972-01-01
Analyzes some of the problems involved in using diffusion models to formulate marketing strategies for introducing new products. Six models, which remove some of the theoretical and methodological restrictions inherent in current models of the adoption and diffusion process, are presented. (Author/JH)
Performance analysis of jump-gliding locomotion for miniature robotics.
Vidyasagar, A; Zufferey, Jean-Christohphe; Floreano, Dario; Kovač, M
2015-04-01
Recent work suggests that jumping locomotion in combination with a gliding phase can be used as an effective mobility principle in robotics. Compared to pure jumping without a gliding phase, the potential benefits of hybrid jump-gliding locomotion includes the ability to extend the distance travelled and reduce the potentially damaging impact forces upon landing. This publication evaluates the performance of jump-gliding locomotion and provides models for the analysis of the relevant dynamics of flight. It also defines a jump-gliding envelope that encompasses the range that can be achieved with jump-gliding robots and that can be used to evaluate the performance and improvement potential of jump-gliding robots. We present first a planar dynamic model and then a simplified closed form model, which allow for quantification of the distance travelled and the impact energy on landing. In order to validate the prediction of these models, we validate the model with experiments using a novel jump-gliding robot, named the 'EPFL jump-glider'. It has a mass of 16.5 g and is able to perform jumps from elevated positions, perform steered gliding flight, land safely and traverse on the ground by repetitive jumping. The experiments indicate that the developed jump-gliding model fits very well with the measured flight data using the EPFL jump-glider, confirming the benefits of jump-gliding locomotion to mobile robotics. The jump-glide envelope considerations indicate that the EPFL jump-glider, when traversing from a 2 m height, reaches 74.3% of optimal jump-gliding distance compared to pure jumping without a gliding phase which only reaches 33.4% of the optimal jump-gliding distance. Methods of further improving flight performance based on the models and inspiration from biological systems are presented providing mechanical design pathways to future jump-gliding robot designs. PMID:25811417
Picker, Mike; Colville, Jonathan F; Burrows, Malcolm
2012-06-23
We report on a newly discovered cockroach (Saltoblattella montistabularis) from South Africa, which jumps and therefore differs from all other extant cockroaches that have a scuttling locomotion. In its natural shrubland habitat, jumping and hopping accounted for 71 per cent of locomotory activity. Jumps are powered by rapid and synchronous extension of the hind legs that are twice the length of the other legs and make up 10 per cent of the body weight. In high-speed images of the best jumps the body was accelerated in 10 ms to a take-off velocity of 2.1 m s(-1) so that the cockroach experienced the equivalent of 23 times gravity while leaping a forward distance of 48 times its body length. Such jumps required 38 µJ of energy, a power output of 3.4 mW and exerted a ground reaction force through both hind legs of 4 mN. The large hind legs have grooved femora into which the tibiae engage fully in advance of a jump, and have resilin, an elastic protein, at the femoro-tibial joint. The extensor tibiae muscles contracted for 224 ms before the hind legs moved, indicating that energy must be stored and then released suddenly in a catapult action to propel a jump. Overall, the jumping mechanisms and anatomical features show remarkable convergence with those of grasshoppers with whom they share their habitat and which they rival in jumping performance. PMID:22158737
Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations
Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.
1981-09-01
A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.
James Biggs; Mary Mullen; Kathryn Bennett
1999-11-01
The New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) is currently listed as a state threatened species in New Mexico and has been identified as potentially occurring within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) boundary. We describe the development of a model to identify and rank habitat at LANL that may be suitable for occupation by this species. The model calculates a habitat suitability ranking (HSR) based on total plant cover, plant species composition, total number of plant species, and plant height. Input data for the model is based on the measurement of these variables at known locations where this species has been found within the Jemez Mountains. Model development included the selection of habitat variables, developing a probability distribution for each variable, and applying weights to each variable based on their overall importance in defining the suitability of the habitat. The habitat variables (HV) include plant cover (HV1), grass/forb cover (HV2), plant height (HV3), number of forbs (HV4), number of grasses (HV5), and sedge/rush cover (HV6). Once the HVs were selected, probability values were calculated for each. Each variable was then assigned a ''weighting factor'' to reflect the variables' importance relative to one another with respect to contribution to quality of habitat. The least important variable, sedge/rush cover, was assigned a weight factor of ''1'' with increasing values assigned to each remaining variable as follows: number of forbs = 3, number of grasses = 3, plant height = 5, grass/forb cover = 6, and total plant cover = 7. Based on the probability values and weighting factors, a HSR is calculated as follows: HSR = (P{sub HV1}(7) + P{sub HV2}(6) + P{sub HV3}(5) + P{sub HV4}(3) + P{sub HV5}(3) + P{sub HV6}(1)). Once calculated, the HSR values are placed into one of four habitat categorical groupings by which management strategies are applied.
Simulation of stochastic diffusion via first exit times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lötstedt, Per; Meinecke, Lina
2015-11-01
In molecular biology it is of interest to simulate diffusion stochastically. In the mesoscopic model we partition a biological cell into unstructured subvolumes. In each subvolume the number of molecules is recorded at each time step and molecules can jump between neighboring subvolumes to model diffusion. The jump rates can be computed by discretizing the diffusion equation on that unstructured mesh. If the mesh is of poor quality, due to a complicated cell geometry, standard discretization methods can generate negative jump coefficients, which no longer allows the interpretation as the probability to jump between the subvolumes. We propose a method based on the mean first exit time of a molecule from a subvolume, which guarantees positive jump coefficients. Two approaches to exit times, a global and a local one, are presented and tested in simulations on meshes of different quality in two and three dimensions.
A Comparison of Competing Models of the News Diffusion Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, Michael E.; And Others
1990-01-01
Investigates the diffusion of information about the space shuttle Challenger explosion by comparing loglinear models of the diffusion process. Finds that the most parsimonious model with adequate goodness of fit was a linear one in which a person's location affected how the information was heard, which in turn affected when the information was…
Parameter Variability and Distributional Assumptions in the Diffusion Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ratcliff, Roger
2013-01-01
If the diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) is to account for the relative speeds of correct responses and errors, it is necessary that the components of processing identified by the model vary across the trials of a task. In standard applications, the rate at which information is accumulated by the diffusion process is assumed to be normally…
Diffusion in Condensed Matter: Methods, Materials, Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heitjans, Paul; Kärger, Jög
This comprehensive, handbook-style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. It is understood and presented as a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. In this book, all aspects of the theoretical fundamentals, experimental techniques, highlights of current developments and results for solids, liquids and interfaces are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nye, Susan B.
2010-01-01
Jumping rope is an activity that can be fun and enjoyable for all students. It requires minimal activity space, can be performed individually or in small groups, and is an inexpensive way to engage students in a lifelong physical activity. Jumping rope is commonly used by coaches and athletes for training purposes to improve aerobic endurance,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rebilas, Krzysztof
2013-01-01
Consider a skier who goes down a takeoff ramp, attains a speed "V", and jumps, attempting to land as far as possible down the hill below (Fig. 1). At the moment of takeoff the angle between the skier's velocity and the horizontal is [alpha]. What is the optimal angle [alpha] that makes the jump the longest possible for the fixed magnitude of the…
Neuromechanical simulation of the locust jump.
Cofer, D; Cymbalyuk, G; Heitler, W J; Edwards, D H
2010-04-01
The neural circuitry and biomechanics of kicking in locusts have been studied to understand their roles in the control of both kicking and jumping. It has been hypothesized that the same neural circuit and biomechanics governed both behaviors but this hypothesis was not testable with current technology. We built a neuromechanical model to test this and to gain a better understanding of the role of the semi-lunar process (SLP) in jump dynamics. The jumping and kicking behaviors of the model were tested by comparing them with a variety of published data, and were found to reproduce the results from live animals. This confirmed that the kick neural circuitry can produce the jump behavior. The SLP is a set of highly sclerotized bands of cuticle that can be bent to store energy for use during kicking and jumping. It has not been possible to directly test the effects of the SLP on jump performance because it is an integral part of the joint, and attempts to remove its influence prevent the locust from being able to jump. Simulations demonstrated that the SLP can significantly increase jump distance, power, total energy and duration of the jump impulse. In addition, the geometry of the joint enables the SLP force to assist leg flexion when the leg is flexed, and to assist extension once the leg has begun to extend. PMID:20228342
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader
2016-07-01
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Thersites: a `jumping' Trojan?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsiganis, K.; Dvorak, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.
2000-02-01
In this paper, we examine the dynamical evolution of the asteroid (1868) Thersites, a member of the Trojan belt. Thersites is librating around the Lagrangian point L_4, following, however, a chaotic orbit. The equations of motion for Thersites as well as for a distribution of neighboring initial conditions are integrated numerically for 50 million years in the Outer Solar System model (OSS), which consists of the Sun and the four giant planets. Our results indicate that the probability that this asteroid will eventually escape from the Trojan swarm is rather high. In fact, 20% from our initial distribution escaped within the integration time. Many of the remaining ones also show characteristic `jumps' in the orbital elements, especially the inclination. Secular resonances involving the nodes of the outer planets are found to be responsible for this chaotic behavior. The width of libration and eccentricity values that lead to grossly unstable orbits are calculated and compared with previously known results on the stability of the Trojans. Finally, a very interesting behavior has been observed for one of the escaping asteroids as he `jumped' from L_4 to L_5 where he remained performing a highly inclined libration for ~ 2 Myrs before escaping from the Trojan swarm. According to Homer, Thersites was not only the ugliest of all Greeks that took part in the Trojan war, but also had the most intolerable personality. His nasty habit of making fun of everybody cost him his life, as the last person for whom he spoke ironically about was Achilles, the mightiest warrior of all Greeks, who killed Thersites with just one punch!
Diffusion model of the non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Emily; Guéneau, Christine; Crocombette, Jean-Paul
2013-07-01
Uranium dioxide (UO2), which is used in light water reactors, exhibits a large range of non-stoichiometry over a wide temperature scale up to 2000 K. Understanding diffusion behavior of uranium oxides under such conditions is essential to ensure safe reactor operation. The current understanding of diffusion properties is largely limited by the stoichiometric deviations inherent to the fuel. The present DICTRA-based model considers diffusion across non-stoichiometric ranges described by experimentally available data. A vacancy and interstitial model of diffusion is applied to the U-O system as a function of its defect structure derived from CALPHAD-type thermodynamic descriptions. Oxygen and uranium self and tracer diffusion coefficients are assessed for the construction of a mobility database. Chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen are derived with respect to the Darken relation and migration energies of defects are evaluated as a function of stoichiometric deviation.
Modeling diffusion and adsorption in compacted bentonite: a critical review.
Bourg, Ian C; Bourg, Alain C M; Sposito, Garrison
2003-03-01
The current way of describing diffusive transport through compacted clays is a simple diffusion model coupled to a linear adsorption coefficient (K(d)). To fit the observed results of cation diffusion, this model is usually extended with an adjustable "surface diffusion" coefficient. Description of the negative adsorption of anions calls for a further adjustment through the use of an "effective porosity". The final model thus includes many fitting parameters. This is inconvenient where predictive modeling is called for (e.g., for waste confinement using compacted clay liners). The diffusion/adsorption models in current use have been derived from the common hydrogeological equation of advection/dispersion/adsorption. However, certain simplifications were also borrowed without questioning their applicability to the case of compacted clays. Among these simplifications, the assumption that the volume of the adsorbed phase is negligible should be discussed. We propose a modified diffusion/adsorption model that accounts for the volume of the adsorbed phase. It suggests that diffusion through highly compacted clay takes place through the interlayers (i.e., in the adsorbed phase). Quantitative prediction of the diffusive flux will necessitate more detailed descriptions of surface reactivity and of the mobility of interlayer species. PMID:12598111
A new indirect measure of diffusion model error
Kumar, A.; Morel, J. E.; Adams, M. L.
2013-07-01
We define a new indirect measure of the diffusion model error called the diffusion model error source. When this model error source is added to the diffusion equation, the transport solution for the angular-integrated intensity is obtained. This source represents a means by which a transport code can be used to generate information relating to the adequacy of diffusion theory for any given problem without actually solving the diffusion equation. The generation of this source does not relate in any way to acceleration of the iterative convergence of transport solutions. Perhaps the most well-known indirect measure of the diffusion model error is the variable-Eddington tensor. This tensor provides a great deal of information about the angular dependence of the angular intensity solution, but it is not always simple to interpret. In contrast, our diffusion model error source is a scalar that is conceptually easy to understand. In addition to defining the diffusion model error source analytically, we show how to generate this source numerically relative to the S{sub n} radiative transfer equations with linear-discontinuous spatial discretization. This numerical source is computationally tested and shown to reproduce the Sn solution for a Marshak-wave problem. (authors)
Exact curvilinear diffusion coefficients in the repton model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buhot, A.
2005-10-01
The Rubinstein-Duke or repton model is one of the simplest lattice model of reptation for the diffusion of a polymer in a gel or a melt. Recently, a slightly modified model with hardcore interactions between the reptons has been introduced. The curvilinear diffusion coefficients of both models are exactly determined for all chain lengths. The case of periodic boundary conditions is also considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matte, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; Lucas-Picher, P.
2015-12-01
Many studies have shown the importance of choosing the domain size adequately for dynamical downscaling with nested regional climate models. It is well known that domain should not be too large to avoid large departure from the driving data, and not be too small to provide sufficient distance from the lateral inflow to allow a full development of the small-scale features resolved by the increase resolution. Although practitioners of dynamical downscaling are well aware that the jump of resolution between the driving data and the nested regional climate model impacts the simulated climate, the issue has never been properly study. Larger is the jump of resolution, larger is the distance from the lateral inflow to fully develop the small-scale features permitted by the increase resolution. Our investigation compares direct nesting to achieve a grid mesh of 0.15o from driving data at 3.6°, 1.8o, 0.45° and 0.15° using the perfect-prognostic approach of the Big-Brother protocol. The results show that the small-scale transient-eddy component struggles to be fully developed with reduced resolution of the driving data. Overall, this study suggests that domain location (i.e. domain of interest or subsequent nested domains) must be chosen carefully according to the jump of resolution to allow the optimal development of small-scale features allowed by the increase resolution of the nested model.
Diffusivity and short-time dynamics in two models of silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lascaris, Erik; Hemmati, Mahin; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Angell, C. Austen
2015-03-01
We discuss the dynamic behavior of two silica models, the BKS model (by van Beest, Kramer, and van Santen) and the WAC model (by Woodcock, Angell, and Cheeseman). Although BKS is considered the more realistic model for liquid silica, the WAC model has the unique property that it is very close to having a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP), and this makes it particularly useful in studying the dynamics of models that do have a LLCP. We find that the diffusivity is a good indicator of how close a liquid is to criticality—the Si diffusivity shows a jump of 3-4 orders of magnitude when the pressure is reduced, which may be interpreted as an abrupt (though not first-order) transition from a high-density liquid state to a low-density liquid state. We show that this transition is captured by the Adam-Gibbs relation, which also allows us to estimate the configurational entropy of the system.
Diffusivity and short-time dynamics in two models of silica.
Lascaris, Erik; Hemmati, Mahin; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Stanley, H Eugene; Angell, C Austen
2015-03-14
We discuss the dynamic behavior of two silica models, the BKS model (by van Beest, Kramer, and van Santen) and the WAC model (by Woodcock, Angell, and Cheeseman). Although BKS is considered the more realistic model for liquid silica, the WAC model has the unique property that it is very close to having a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP), and this makes it particularly useful in studying the dynamics of models that do have a LLCP. We find that the diffusivity is a good indicator of how close a liquid is to criticality--the Si diffusivity shows a jump of 3-4 orders of magnitude when the pressure is reduced, which may be interpreted as an abrupt (though not first-order) transition from a high-density liquid state to a low-density liquid state. We show that this transition is captured by the Adam-Gibbs relation, which also allows us to estimate the configurational entropy of the system. PMID:25770550
Rope Jumping: A Preliminary Developmental Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wickstrom, Ralph L.
The basic movement pattern used in skilled individual rope jumping performance was determined and used as a model against which to evaluate the rope jumping form used by children at various levels of skills development. The techniques of adults and nursery school children were filmed and analyzed. The specific causes of unsuccessful attempts were…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavička, H.; Potoček, V.; Kiss, T.; Lutz, E.; Jex, I.
2011-09-01
We analyze a special class of 1-D quantum walks (QWs) realized using optical multi-ports. We assume non-perfect multi-ports showing errors in the connectivity, i.e. with a small probability the multi-ports can connect not to their nearest neighbor but to another multi-port at a fixed distance - we call this a jump. We study two cases of QW with jumps where multiple displacements can emerge at one timestep. The first case assumes time-correlated jumps (static disorder). In the second case, we choose the positions of jumps randomly in time (dynamic disorder). The probability distributions of position of the QW walker in both instances differ significantly: dynamic disorder leads to a Gaussian-like distribution, while for static disorder we find two distinct behaviors depending on the parity of jump size. In the case of even-sized jumps, the distribution exhibits a three-peak profile around the position of the initial excitation, whereas the probability distribution in the odd case follows a Laplace-like discrete distribution modulated by additional (exponential) peaks for long times. Finally, our numerical results indicate that by an appropriate mapping a universal functional behavior of the variance of the long-time probability distribution can be revealed with respect to the scaled average of jump size.
Modeling atomic hydrogen diffusion in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagadei, Valerii A.; Nefyodtsev, E.
2004-05-01
The hydrogen diffusion model in GaAs in conditions of an intense flow of penetrating atoms has been developed. It is shown that the formation undersurface diffusion barrier layer from immobile interstitial molecules of hydrogen reduce probability of atoms penetration into crystal and rate of their diffusion in GaAs, and influence on the process of shallow- and/or deep-centers passivation. It is exhibited that the influence of diffusion barrier should be taken into account at optimum mode selection of GaAs structure hydrogenation.
A computational kinetic model of diffusion for molecular systems
Teo, Ivan; Schulten, Klaus
2013-01-01
Regulation of biomolecular transport in cells involves intra-protein steps like gating and passage through channels, but these steps are preceded by extra-protein steps, namely, diffusive approach and admittance of solutes. The extra-protein steps develop over a 10–100 nm length scale typically in a highly particular environment, characterized through the protein's geometry, surrounding electrostatic field, and location. In order to account for solute energetics and mobility of solutes in this environment at a relevant resolution, we propose a particle-based kinetic model of diffusion based on a Markov State Model framework. Prerequisite input data consist of diffusion coefficient and potential of mean force maps generated from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and their environment that sample multi-nanosecond durations. The suggested diffusion model can describe transport processes beyond microsecond duration, relevant for biological function and beyond the realm of molecular dynamics simulation. For this purpose the systems are represented by a discrete set of states specified by the positions, volumes, and surface elements of Voronoi grid cells distributed according to a density function resolving the often intricate relevant diffusion space. Validation tests carried out for generic diffusion spaces show that the model and the associated Brownian motion algorithm are viable over a large range of parameter values such as time step, diffusion coefficient, and grid density. A concrete application of the method is demonstrated for ion diffusion around and through the Eschericia coli mechanosensitive channel of small conductance ecMscS. PMID:24089741
A computational kinetic model of diffusion for molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teo, Ivan; Schulten, Klaus
2013-09-01
Regulation of biomolecular transport in cells involves intra-protein steps like gating and passage through channels, but these steps are preceded by extra-protein steps, namely, diffusive approach and admittance of solutes. The extra-protein steps develop over a 10-100 nm length scale typically in a highly particular environment, characterized through the protein's geometry, surrounding electrostatic field, and location. In order to account for solute energetics and mobility of solutes in this environment at a relevant resolution, we propose a particle-based kinetic model of diffusion based on a Markov State Model framework. Prerequisite input data consist of diffusion coefficient and potential of mean force maps generated from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of proteins and their environment that sample multi-nanosecond durations. The suggested diffusion model can describe transport processes beyond microsecond duration, relevant for biological function and beyond the realm of molecular dynamics simulation. For this purpose the systems are represented by a discrete set of states specified by the positions, volumes, and surface elements of Voronoi grid cells distributed according to a density function resolving the often intricate relevant diffusion space. Validation tests carried out for generic diffusion spaces show that the model and the associated Brownian motion algorithm are viable over a large range of parameter values such as time step, diffusion coefficient, and grid density. A concrete application of the method is demonstrated for ion diffusion around and through the Eschericia coli mechanosensitive channel of small conductance ecMscS.
Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping
2015-12-15
Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber. PMID:26291782
Modeling anomalous diffusion of dense fluids in carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gerald; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas
2015-11-01
Molecular diffusive mechanisms exhibited under nanoconfinement can differ considerably from the Fickian self-diffusion expected in a bulk fluid. We propose a theoretical description of this phenomenon in a nanofluidic system of considerable interest - namely, a dense fluid confined within a carbon nanotube (CNT). We show that the anomalous diffusion reported in the literature is closely related to the fluid layering widely observed in this system and recently theoretically described [Wang and Hadjiconstantinou, Physics of Fluids, 052006, 2015]. In particular, we find that the key to describing the anomalous molecular diffusion (within sufficiently large CNTs) lies in recognizing that the diffusion mechanism is spatially dependent: while fluid in the center of the nanotube (at least three molecular diameters away from the wall) exhibits Fickian diffusion, fluid near the CNT wall can demonstrate non-Fickian diffusive behavior. The previously reported anomalous diffusive behavior can be reproduced, to a good approximation level, by appropriately combining the bulk and near-wall behavior to form a model for the overall diffusion rate within the nanotube. Such models produce results in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulations.
Comparison of Turbulent Thermal Diffusivity and Scalar Variance Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.
2016-01-01
This paper will include a detailed comparison of heat transfer models that rely upon the thermal diffusivity. The goals are to inform users of the development history of the various models and the resulting differences in model formulations, as well as to evaluate the models on a variety of validation cases so that users might better understand which models are more broadly applicable.
Model calculations for diffuse molecular clouds. [interstellar hydrogen cloud model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassgold, A. E.; Langer, W. D.
1974-01-01
A steady state isobaric cloud model is developed. The pressure, thermal, electrical, and chemical balance equations are solved simultaneously with a simple one dimensional approximation to the equation of radiative transfer appropriate to diffuse clouds. Cooling is mainly by CII fine structure transitions, and a variety of heating mechanisms are considered. Particular attention is given to the abundance variation of H2. Inhomogeneous density distributions are obtained because of the attenuation of the interstellar UV field and the conversion from atomic to molecular hyrodgen. The effects of changing the model parameters are described and the applicability of the model to OAO-3 observations is discussed. Good qualitative agreement with the fractional H2 abundance determinations has been obtained. The observed kinetic temperatures near 80 K can also be achieved by grain photoelectron heating. The problem of the electron density is solved taking special account of the various hydrogen ions as well as heavier ones.
What can the diffusion model tell us about prospective memory?
Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Smith, Rebekah E
2011-03-01
Cognitive process models, such as Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model, are useful tools for examining cost or interference effects in event-based prospective memory (PM). The diffusion model includes several parameters that provide insight into how and why ongoing-task performance may be affected by a PM task and is ideally suited to analyse performance because both reaction time and accuracy are taken into account. Separate analyses of these measures can easily yield misleading interpretations in cases of speed-accuracy trade-offs. The diffusion model allows us to measure possible criterion shifts and is thus an important methodological improvement over standard analyses. Performance in an ongoing lexical-decision task was analysed with the diffusion model. The results suggest that criterion shifts play an important role when a PM task is added, but do not fully explain the cost effect on reaction time. PMID:21443332
Nonequilibrium drift-diffusion model for organic semiconductor devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felekidis, Nikolaos; Melianas, Armantas; Kemerink, Martijn
2016-07-01
Two prevailing formalisms are currently used to model charge transport in organic semiconductor devices. Drift-diffusion calculations, on the one hand, are time effective but assume local thermodynamic equilibrium, which is not always realistic. Kinetic Monte Carlo models, on the other hand, do not require this assumption but are computationally expensive. Here, we present a nonequilibrium drift-diffusion model that bridges this gap by fusing the established multiple trap and release formalism with the drift-diffusion transport equation. For a prototypical photovoltaic system the model is shown to quantitatively describe, with a single set of parameters, experiments probing (1) temperature-dependent steady-state charge transport—space-charge limited currents, and (2) time-resolved charge transport and relaxation of nonequilibrated photocreated charges. Moreover, the outputs of the developed kinetic drift-diffusion model are an order of magnitude, or more, faster to compute and in good agreement with kinetic Monte Carlo calculations.
Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Sprittles, James; Nolan, Kevin; Mitchell, Robert; Wang, Evelyn N
2014-10-28
Surface engineering at the nanoscale is a rapidly developing field that promises to impact a range of applications including energy production, water desalination, self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces, thermal management of electronics, microfluidic platforms, and environmental pollution control. As the area advances, more detailed insights of dynamic wetting interactions on these surfaces are needed. In particular, the coalescence of two or more droplets on ultra-low adhesion surfaces leads to droplet jumping. Here we show, through detailed measurements of jumping droplets during water condensation coupled with numerical simulations of binary droplet coalescence, that this process is fundamentally inefficient with only a small fraction of the available excess surface energy (≲ 6%) convertible into translational kinetic energy. These findings clarify the role of internal fluid dynamics during the jumping droplet coalescence process and underpin the development of systems that can harness jumping droplets for a wide range of applications. PMID:25171210
Increase bone strength and improve heart and other muscle endurance by performing jump training with a rope, both while stationary and moving. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitemen...
Beautrais, Annette
2007-01-01
Research on suicide by jumping is summarized. The incidence of suicide by this method varies but tends to be higher in cities, city states, or countries that have extensive high-rise housing. Most suicides by jumping occur from high-rise residential housing units. However, our knowledge about suicide by jumping tends to be limited to a small number of reports from sites, often bridges, which become well-known as places from which to take one's life. Media reports of newsworthy suicides from these sites appear to encourage imitative behavior. Prevention strategies have focused upon limiting suicides from iconic sites by surveillance, barriers, muted media reporting, and signage offering help and telephone hotlines. A small number of studies provides evidence that installing barriers at popular jumping sites reduces suicides from those sites. There are few reports of efforts to reduce suicides from high-rise residential buildings. PMID:26212196
Ribak, Gal; Weihs, Daniel
2011-01-01
To return to their feet, inverted click-beetles (Elateridae) jump without using their legs. When a beetle is resting on its dorsal side, a hinge mechanism is locked to store elastic energy in the body and releases it abruptly to launch the beetle into the air. While the functional morphology of the jumping mechanism is well known, the level of control that the beetle has over this jumping technique and the mechanical constraints governing the jumps are not entirely clear. Here we show that while body rotations in air are highly variable, the jumps are morphologically constrained to a constant "takeoff" angle (79.9°±1.56°, n = 9 beetles) that directs 98% of the jumping force vertically against gravity. A physical-mathematical model of the jumping action, combined with measurements from live beetle, imply that the beetle may control the speed at takeoff but not the jumping angle. In addition, the model shows that very subtle changes in the exact point of contact with the ground can explain the vigorous rotations of the body seen while the beetle is airborne. These findings suggest that the evolution of this unique non-legged jumping mechanism resulted in a jumping technique that is capable of launching the body high into the air but it is too constrained and unstable to allow control of body orientation at landing. PMID:21698194
Improved knowledge diffusion model based on the collaboration hypernetwork
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jiang-Pan; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo
2015-06-01
The process for absorbing knowledge becomes an essential element for innovation in firms and in adapting to changes in the competitive environment. In this paper, we present an improved knowledge diffusion hypernetwork (IKDH) model based on the idea that knowledge will spread from the target node to all its neighbors in terms of the hyperedge and knowledge stock. We apply the average knowledge stock V(t) , the variable σ2(t) , and the variance coefficient c(t) to evaluate the performance of knowledge diffusion. By analyzing different knowledge diffusion ways, selection ways of the highly knowledgeable nodes, hypernetwork sizes and hypernetwork structures for the performance of knowledge diffusion, results show that the diffusion speed of IKDH model is 3.64 times faster than that of traditional knowledge diffusion (TKDH) model. Besides, it is three times faster to diffuse knowledge by randomly selecting "expert" nodes than that by selecting large-hyperdegree nodes as "expert" nodes. Furthermore, either the closer network structure or smaller network size results in the faster knowledge diffusion.
Diffusion models for Jupiter's radiation belt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacques, S. A.; Davis, L., Jr.
1972-01-01
Solutions are given for the diffusion of trapped particles in a planetary magnetic field in which the first and second adiabatic invariants are preserved but the third is not, using as boundary conditions a fixed density at the outer boundary (the magnetopause) and a zero density at an inner boundary (the planetary surface). Losses to an orbiting natural satellite are included and an approximate evaluation is made of the effects of the synchrotron radiation on the energy of relativistic electrons. Choosing parameters appropriate to Jupiter, the electrons required to produce the observed synchrotron radiation are explained. If a speculative mechanism in which the diffusion is driven by ionospheric wind is the true explanation of the electrons producing the synchrotron emission it can be concluded that Jupiter's inner magnetosphere is occupied by an energetic proton flux that would be a serious hazard to spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myong, R. S.
2016-01-01
The Knudsen layer, found in the region of gas flow very close (in order of a few mean free paths) to the solid surfaces, plays a critical role in accurately modeling rarefied and micro-scale gases. In various previous investigations, abnormal behaviors at high Knudsen numbers such as nonlinear velocity profile, velocity gradient singularity, and pronounced thermal effect are identified to exist in the Knudsen layer. However, some behaviors, in particular, the velocity gradient singularity near the surface and higher temperature, remain elusive in the continuum framework. In this study, based on the second-order macroscopic constitutive equation recently derived from the kinetic Boltzmann equation via the balanced closure and cumulant expansion [R. S. Myong, "On the high Mach number shock structure singularity caused by overreach of Maxwellian molecules," Phys. Fluids 26(5), 056102 (2014)], the macroscopic second-order constitutive and slip-jump models that are able to explain qualitatively all the known non-classical and non-isothermal behaviors are proposed. As a result, new analytical solutions to the Knudsen layer in Couette flow, in conjunction with the algebraic nonlinearly coupled second-order constitutive and Maxwell velocity slip and Smoluchowski temperature jump models, are derived. It was shown that the velocity gradient singularity in the Knudsen layer can be explained within the continuum framework, when the nonlinearity of the constitutive model is morphed into the determination of the velocity slip in the nonlinear slip and jump model. Also, the smaller velocity slip and shear stress are shown to be caused by the shear-thinning property of the second-order constitutive model, that is, vanishing effective viscosity at high Knudsen number.
Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water models.
Tazi, Sami; Boţan, Alexandru; Salanne, Mathieu; Marry, Virginie; Turq, Pierre; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2012-07-18
We report the diffusion coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: two non-polarizable ones (SPC/E with three sites, and TIP4P/2005 with four sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, four sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size (Yeh and Hummer 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 15873) to obtain the size-independent value. This also provides an estimate of the viscosity of all water models, which we compare to the Green-Kubo result. In all cases, a good agreement is found. The TIP4P/2005 model is in better agreement with the experimental data for both diffusion and viscosity. The SPC/E and Dang-Chang models overestimate the diffusion coefficient and underestimate the viscosity. PMID:22739097
Addition of Diffusion Model to MELCOR and Comparison with Data
Brad Merrill; Richard Moore; Chang Oh
2004-06-01
A chemical diffusion model was incorporated into the thermal-hydraulics package of the MELCOR Severe Accident code (Reference 1) for analyzing air ingress events for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor.
Modelling oxygen self-diffusion in UO2 under pressure
Cooper, Michael William D.; Grimes, R. W.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Chroneos, A.
2015-10-22
Access to values for oxygen self-diffusion over a range of temperatures and pressures in UO2 is important to nuclear fuel applications. Here, elastic and expansivity data are used in the framework of a thermodynamic model, the cBΩ model, to derive the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in UO2 over a range of pressures (0–10 GPa) and temperatures (300–1900 K). Furthermore, the significant reduction in oxygen self-diffusion as a function of increasing hydrostatic pressure, and the associated increase in activation energy, is identified.
Mathematical modelling of diffusion and reaction in blocked zeolite catalysts
Sundaresan, S.; Hall, C.K.
1985-01-01
A mathematical model for diffusion and reaction in blocked zeolites is developed which takes into account nonidealities arising from interaction between sorbed molecules as well as the effect of pore and surface blocking. The model combines a microscopic approach, in which expressions for chemical potential and diffusive fluxes are calculated within the lattice-gas framework, with the more traditional continuum approach which takes into account the effect of surface blocking. The effect of pore blocking on the diffusive fluxes is accounted for through an effective medium approximation.
A model for diffusive systems: Beyond the Arrhenius mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, A. C. P.; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Mundim, Kleber C.; Moret, M. A.
2016-05-01
Diffusivity in supercooled liquids was observed to exhibit a non-Arrhenius behavior near the glass-transition temperature. This process, which occurs where the activation energy depends on the temperature, suggests the possibility of a metastable equilibrium. This peculiar phenomenon cannot be explained using the usual Markovian stochastic models. Based on a non-linear Fokker-Planck equation, we propose a diffusion coefficient that is proportional to the supercooled-liquid concentration. The proposed model allows us to explain the anomalous behavior of the diffusivity robustly. We demonstrate that this new approach is consistent with experimental patterns. Besides, it could be applied to non-Arrhenius chemical kinetics.
Internal hydraulic jumps with large upstream shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogden, Kelly; Helfrich, Karl
2015-11-01
Internal hydraulic jumps in approximately two-layered flows with large upstream shear are investigated using numerical simulations. The simulations allow continuous density and velocity profiles, and a jump is forced to develop by downstream topography, similar to the experiments conducted by Wilkinson and Wood (1971). High shear jumps are found to exhibit significantly more entrainment than low shear jumps. Furthermore, the downstream structure of the flow has an important effect on the jump properties. Jumps with a slow upper (inactive) layer exhibit a velocity minimum downstream of the jump, resulting in a sub-critical downstream state, while flows with the same upstream vertical shear and a larger barotropic velocity remain super-critical downstream of the jump. A two-layer theory is modified to account for the vertical structure of the downstream density and velocity profiles and entrainment is allowed through a modification of the approach of Holland et al. (2002). The resulting theory can be matched reasonably well with the numerical simulations. However, the results are very sensitive to how the downstream vertical profiles of velocity and density are incorporated into the layered model, highlighting the difficulty of the two layer approximation when the shear is large.
A discrete time random walk model for anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angstmann, C. N.; Donnelly, I. C.; Henry, B. I.; Nichols, J. A.
2015-07-01
The continuous time random walk, introduced in the physics literature by Montroll and Weiss, has been widely used to model anomalous diffusion in external force fields. One of the features of this model is that the governing equations for the evolution of the probability density function, in the diffusion limit, can generally be simplified using fractional calculus. This has in turn led to intensive research efforts over the past decade to develop robust numerical methods for the governing equations, represented as fractional partial differential equations. Here we introduce a discrete time random walk that can also be used to model anomalous diffusion in an external force field. The governing evolution equations for the probability density function share the continuous time random walk diffusion limit. Thus the discrete time random walk provides a novel numerical method for solving anomalous diffusion equations in the diffusion limit, including the fractional Fokker-Planck equation. This method has the clear advantage that the discretisation of the diffusion limit equation, which is necessary for numerical analysis, is itself a well defined physical process. Some examples using the discrete time random walk to provide numerical solutions of the probability density function for anomalous subdiffusion, including forcing, are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, D. J.; Chamberlain, K. J.; Kahl, M.; Potts, N. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.; Wilson, C. J. N.
2014-12-01
Over the past 20 years, diffusion chronometers have evolved from a niche tool into one of routine application, with more practitioners, new tools and increasingly large datasets. As we expand the horizons of diffusional geochronometry, it is worth taking stock of developments in methodologies and data acquisition, and taking time to revisit the underpinnings of the technique. Data collected as part of recent projects on Campi Flegrei, the Bishop Tuff and Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull are here used to investigate the initial state assumption, an absolutely vital aspect underpinning most diffusional work and one that is rarely evaluated despite its fundamental importance. To illustrate the nature of the problem we consider two widely-used element-mineral systems for felsic and mafic systems, respectively. First, barium and strontium profiles within sanidine crystals, modelled independently, can give strongly contrasting timescales from the same crystal zone. We can reconcile the datasets only for a situation where the initial boundary within the crystal was not a sharp step function, but relatively fuzzy before diffusion onset. This fuzziness effectively starts both chronometers off with an apparent, and false, pre-existing timescale, impacting the slower-diffusing barium much more strongly than the faster-diffusing strontium, yielding thousands of years of non-existent diffusion history. By combining both elements, a starting width of tens of microns can be shown, shortening the true diffusive timescales from tens of thousands of years to hundreds. Second, in olivine, we encounter different growth-related problems. Here, Fe-Mg interdiffusion occurs at a rate comparable to growth, with the compound nature of zonation making it difficult to extract the diffusion component. This requires a treatment of changing boundary conditions and sequential growth to generate the curvature seen in natural data, in order to recover timescales for anything but the outermost
Scaling in the Diffusion Limited Aggregation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menshutin, Anton
2012-01-01
We present a self-consistent picture of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) growth based on the assumption that the probability density P(r,N) for the next particle to be attached within the distance r to the center of the cluster is expressible in the scale-invariant form P[r/Rdep(N)]. It follows from this assumption that there is no multiscaling issue in DLA and there is only a single fractal dimension D for all length scales. We check our assumption self-consistently by calculating the particle-density distribution with a measured P(r/Rdep) function on an ensemble with 1000 clusters of 5×107 particles each. We also show that a nontrivial multiscaling function D(x) can be obtained only when small clusters (N<10000) are used to calculate D(x). Hence, multiscaling is a finite-size effect and is not intrinsic to DLA.
Update on Advection-Diffusion Purge Flow Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brieda, Lubos
2015-01-01
Gaseous purge is commonly used in sensitive spacecraft optical or electronic instruments to prevent infiltration of contaminants and/or water vapor. Typically, purge is sized using simplistic zero-dimensional models that do not take into account instrument geometry, surface effects, and the dependence of diffusive flux on the concentration gradient. For this reason, an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was recently developed to model contaminant infiltration and removal by purge. The solver uses a combined Navier-Stokes and Advection-Diffusion approach. In this talk, we report on updates in the model, namely inclusion of a particulate transport model.
SOLVING THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSION FLOW MODEL.
Hromadka, T.V., II; Lai, Chintu
1985-01-01
A simplification of the two-dimensional (2-D) continuity and momentum equations is the diffusion equation. To investigate its capability, the numerical model using the diffusion approach is applied to a hypothetical failure problem of a regional water reservoir. The model is based on an explicit, integrated finite-difference scheme, and the floodplain is simulated by a popular home computer which supports 64K FORTRAN. Though simple, the 2-D model can simulate some interesting flooding effects that a 1-D full dynamic model cannot.
Trivett, D.A.
1994-09-01
This paper focuses on modeling the fate of effluent from diffuse seafloor hydrothermal activity after it has been vented into the water column. The model was formulated using a number of simplifying assumptions which permit direct application of this model to field measurements. I have limited the configurations to those where the hydrothermal outflow velocities are smaller than horizontal current. I assume that the entrainment of ambient seawater into the plume is constant over the length of the plume. This permits formulation of a first-order relation for the rise height and dilution in a diffuse hydrothermal plume as a function of downstream distance. The analytic model is compared with a simple laboratory simulation of the hydrothermal flow. The results suggest that diffuse hydrothermal effluent will penetrate to a height in the water column that is proportional to the overall dimension of the diffuse vent patch, multiplied by a dimensionless plume intensity parameter. I also ahow relations for plume dilution which will be compared with field data in part 2 of this work.
Innovation Diffusion Model in Higher Education: Case Study of E-Learning Diffusion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buc, Sanjana; Divjak, Blaženka
2015-01-01
The diffusion of innovation (DOI) is critical for any organization and especially nowadays for higher education institutions (HEIs) in the light of vast pressure of emerging educational technologies as well as of the demand of economy and society. DOI takes into account the initial and the implementation phase. The conceptual model of DOI in…
Gas-phase diffusion in porous media: Comparison of models
Webb, S.W.
1998-09-01
Two models are commonly used to analyze gas-phase diffusion in porous media in the presence of advection, the Advective-Dispersive Model (ADM) and the Dusty-gas Model (DGM). The ADM, which is used in TOUGH2, is based on a simple linear addition of advection calculated by Darcy`s law and ordinary diffusion using Fick`s law with a porosity-tortuosity-gas saturation multiplier to account for the porous medium. Another approach for gas-phase transport in porous media is the Dusty-Gas Model. This model applies the kinetic theory of gases to the gaseous components and the porous media (or dust) to combine transport due to diffusion and advection that includes porous medium effects. The two approaches are compared in this paper.
Diffusion of Li in olivine. Part I: Experimental observations and a multi species diffusion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dohmen, Ralf; Kasemann, Simone A.; Coogan, Laurence; Chakraborty, Sumit
2010-01-01
There are an increasing number of studies that focus on the systematics of the distribution of Li and its isotopes among different geochemical reservoirs. These studies have found that Li is relatively mobile compared to many other elements (e.g., Fe, Mg), and diffusion has been considered as a mechanism to generate large isotopic fractionations even at high temperatures. In order to quantify some of these aspects, we have measured Li diffusion rates experimentally along [0 0 1] of single crystals of olivines from San Carlos, Arizona and Pakistan, at 800-1200 °C at a total pressure of 100 kPa and fO 2 ≈ WM buffer. A complex diffusion behavior of Li is observed, indicating that two mechanisms of diffusion (a fast and a slower one) operate simultaneously. The behavior is well described by a model that partitions Li between two different sites in olivine - an octahedral site (Li Me) and an interstitial site (Li i). Transport of Li is a combination of hopping within and between each of these kinds of sites involving also vacancies on the octahedral site (V Me). It is assumed that the homogeneous reaction (Li Me = V Me + Li i) that maintains equilibrium distribution of Li between the sites is instantaneous compared to the timescales of all other processes associated with diffusive transport. One consequence of this mode of transport of Li in olivine is that the shape and length of diffusion profiles depend on the boundary conditions imposed at the surface of a crystal; i.e., the chemical environment (e.g., fO 2, aLi 4SiO 4), in addition to temperature and pressure. Our model describes the variable experimentally determined Li-profile shapes produced at different temperatures and with different boundary conditions, as well as their time evolution, quantitatively. Modeling the observed isotopic fractionation shows that 6Li diffuses about 5% faster than 7Li on the interstitial site. Inspection of published data on Li distribution in natural olivines that are available
Biomechanics of jumping in the flea.
Sutton, Gregory P; Burrows, Malcolm
2011-03-01
It has long been established that fleas jump by storing and releasing energy in a cuticular spring, but it is not known how forces from that spring are transmitted to the ground. One hypothesis is that the recoil of the spring pushes the trochanter onto the ground, thereby generating the jump. A second hypothesis is that the recoil of the spring acts through a lever system to push the tibia and tarsus onto the ground. To decide which of these two hypotheses is correct, we built a kinetic model to simulate the different possible velocities and accelerations produced by each proposed process and compared those simulations with the kinematics measured from high-speed images of natural jumping. The in vivo velocity and acceleration kinematics are consistent with the model that directs ground forces through the tibia and tarsus. Moreover, in some natural jumps there was no contact between the trochanter and the ground. There were also no observable differences between the kinematics of jumps that began with the trochanter on the ground and jumps that did not. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the tibia and tarsus have spines appropriate for applying forces to the ground, whereas no such structures were seen on the trochanter. Based on these observations, we discount the hypothesis that fleas use their trochantera to apply forces to the ground and conclude that fleas jump by applying forces to the ground through the end of the tibiae. PMID:21307071
Effects of microscopic diffusion and rotational mixing on stellar models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaboyer, Brian Charles
1993-01-01
We have calculated evolutionary tracks for halo stars and constructed isochrones with alpha-enhanced compositions which cover the entire globular cluster metallicity range and include the effects of the diffusion of He-4. We find that including the effects of helium diffusion has a negligible effect (less than 0.5 Gyr) on the derived ages of globular clusters. Regardless of the inclusion of helium diffusion, we find a significant age spread of 5 Gyr among the globular clusters. The oldest globular cluster studied was M92 with an age of 17 +/- 2 Gyr old. The stellar models may be tested by comparing the Li-7 depletion and surface rotation rates to observations in young clusters stars. The observed Li-7 abundances clearly indicate that standard or diffusive models do not deplete enough Li-7. Instabilities induced by rotation provide an additional mixing mechanism. For this reason the stellar evolution code was modified to include the combined effects of diffusion and rotational mixing of H-1, He-4 and the trace elements He-3, Li-7 and Be-9. The calibrated solar models have a convection zone depth of 0.709-0.714 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed depth of (0.713 +/- 0.003) solar radius. The rotational mixing inhibits the diffusion in the outer parts of the models, leading to a decrease in the envelope diffusion by 50-80 percent. These models are able to reproduce the Li-7 abundances and rotation velocities observed in young cluster stars. Observations of Li-7 abundances in extremely metal poor halo stars provide another test of the stellar models. Standard models do a good job of fitting the observed Li-7 abundances and predict a primordial Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models of hot stars which include microscopic diffusion, but not rotational mixing, deplete too much Li-7. The (Fe/H) = 2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the observations, and predict a primordial Li-7
Scaling in the diffusion limited aggregation model.
Menshutin, Anton
2012-01-01
We present a self-consistent picture of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) growth based on the assumption that the probability density P(r,N) for the next particle to be attached within the distance r to the center of the cluster is expressible in the scale-invariant form P[r/R{dep}(N)]. It follows from this assumption that there is no multiscaling issue in DLA and there is only a single fractal dimension D for all length scales. We check our assumption self-consistently by calculating the particle-density distribution with a measured P(r/R{dep}) function on an ensemble with 1000 clusters of 5×10{7} particles each. We also show that a nontrivial multiscaling function D(x) can be obtained only when small clusters (N<10 000) are used to calculate D(x). Hence, multiscaling is a finite-size effect and is not intrinsic to DLA. PMID:22304265
Cohabitation reaction-diffusion model for virus focal infections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim
2014-12-01
The propagation of virus infection fronts has been typically modeled using a set of classical (noncohabitation) reaction-diffusion equations for interacting species. However, for some single-species systems it has been recently shown that noncohabitation reaction-diffusion equations may lead to unrealistic descriptions. We argue that previous virus infection models also have this limitation, because they assume that a virion can simultaneously reproduce inside a cell and diffuse away from it. For this reason, we build a several-species cohabitation model that does not have this limitation. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis for the most relevant parameters of the model, and we compare the predicted infection speed with observed data for two different strains of the T7 virus.
A Novel Restricted Diffusion Model of Evoked Dopamine
2015-01-01
In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry provides high-fidelity recordings of electrically evoked dopamine release in the rat striatum. The evoked responses are suitable targets for numerical modeling because the frequency and duration of the stimulus are exactly known. Responses recorded in the dorsal and ventral striatum of the rat do not bear out the predictions of a numerical model that assumes the presence of a diffusion gap interposed between the recording electrode and nearby dopamine terminals. Recent findings, however, suggest that dopamine may be subject to restricted diffusion processes in brain extracellular space. A numerical model cast to account for restricted diffusion produces excellent agreement between simulated and observed responses recorded under a broad range of anatomical, stimulus, and pharmacological conditions. The numerical model requires four, and in some cases only three, adjustable parameters and produces meaningful kinetic parameter values. PMID:24983330
Comparing Fast Pressure Jump and Temperature Jump Protein Folding Experiments and Simulations
Prigozhin, Maxim B.; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin
2016-01-01
The unimolecular folding reaction of small proteins is now amenable to a very direct mechanistic comparison between experiment and simulation. We present such a comparison of microsecond pressure and temperature jump refolding kinetics of the engineered WW domain FiP35, a model system for beta sheet folding. Both perturbations produce experimentally a faster and a slower kinetic phase, the “slow” microsecond phase being activated. The fast phase shows differences between perturbation methods and is closer to the downhill limit by temperature jump, but closer to the transiently populated intermediate limit by pressure jump. These observations make more demands on simulations of the folding process than just a rough comparison of time scales. To complement experiments, we calculated several pressure jump and temperature jump all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories in explicit solvent, where FiP35 folded in five of the six simulations. We analyzed our pressure jump simulations by kinetic modeling and found that the pressure jump experiments and MD simulations are most consistent with a 4-state kinetic mechanism. Together, our experimental and computational data highlight FiP35’s position at the boundary where activated intermediates and downhill folding meet, and we show that this model protein is an excellent candidate for further pressure jump molecular dynamics studies to compare experiment and modeling at the folding mechanism level. PMID:25988868
Modeling mammary gland morphogenesis as a reaction-diffusion process.
Grant, Mark R; Hunt, C Anthony; Xia, Lan; Fata, Jimmie E; Bissell, Mina J
2004-01-01
Mammary ducts are formed through a process of branching morphogenesis. We present results of experiments using a simulation model of this process, and discuss their implications for understanding mammary duct extension and bifurcation. The model is a cellular automaton approximation of a reaction-diffusion process in which matrix metalloproteinases represent the activator, inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases represent the inhibitor, and growth factors serve as a substrate. We compare results from the simulation model with those from in-vivo experiments as part of an assessment of whether duct extension and bifurcation during morphogenesis may be a consequence of a reaction-diffusion mechanism mediated by MMPs and TIMPs. PMID:17271768
GUIDELINE FOR FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION
The fundamental principles for fluid modeling of flow and dispersion of pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer are reviewed. The usefulness of fluid models are evaluated from both scientific and engineering viewpoints. Because many detailed decisions must be made during the...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.
2009-01-01
The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance
2004-01-01
In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret
2012-01-01
Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marmottant, Philippe
2012-02-01
The Equisetum plants, more commonly called ``horsetail,'' emit 50-microns spores that are spherical in shape and present four hygroscopic arms. Under high humidity, the arms are retracted. But under lower humidity, less than 70%, the four arms deploy beautifully. With time-lapse image recordings, we show that under repeated cycles of dry and high humidity, the spores behave as random walkers, since they move by about their size in a different direction at every cycle. The process is apparently stochastic because of the complex shape of the arms and hysteretic friction of the arms on the ground. For some spores, a decrease in humidity level results in very fast jumps, the spores taking off at a typical velocity of a meter per second, as recorded on high-speed camera. With these jumps, they reach centimetric elevations, much larger than their size. The physical mechanism at the root of these ``Levy-flight'' jumps is still under investigation. The walking and jumping phenomena thus provide motility, which we believe is helpful for the understanding of the biological dispersion of the spores. It could also bring biomimetic inspiration to engineer new motile elastic structures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tretter, Thomas
2005-01-01
In the spirit of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), many teachers attempt to have their students experience science in a constructivist, inquiry-oriented manner. The egg bungee jump activity will certainly support that mode of teaching, and has the added benefit of providing a concrete context within which students can explore…
A combinatorial model of malware diffusion via bluetooth connections.
Merler, Stefano; Jurman, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
We outline here the mathematical expression of a diffusion model for cellphones malware transmitted through Bluetooth channels. In particular, we provide the deterministic formula underlying the proposed infection model, in its equivalent recursive (simple but computationally heavy) and closed form (more complex but efficiently computable) expression. PMID:23555677
An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model for Carbon Monoxide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, W. B.; And Others
1973-01-01
A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: in the synoptic mode and in the climatological mode. (Author/BL)
TURBULENT DIFFUSION BEHIND VEHICLES: EXPERIMENTS AND VERIFICATION OF ROADWAY MODELS
Tracer gas was released behind model vehicles in a moving floor wind tunnel and sampled extensively at various downwind distances. A numerical model was used to test various expressions for the eddy diffusion coefficients. The best formulation has been incorporated into the ROADW...
Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.
A Combinatorial Model of Malware Diffusion via Bluetooth Connections
Merler, Stefano; Jurman, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
We outline here the mathematical expression of a diffusion model for cellphones malware transmitted through Bluetooth channels. In particular, we provide the deterministic formula underlying the proposed infection model, in its equivalent recursive (simple but computationally heavy) and closed form (more complex but efficiently computable) expression. PMID:23555677
A three-dimensional spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics
Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hrkac, Gino; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter
2015-01-01
We solve a time-dependent three-dimensional spin-diffusion model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation numerically. The presented model is validated by comparison to two established spin-torque models: The model of Slonzewski that describes spin-torque in multi-layer structures in the presence of a fixed layer and the model of Zhang and Li that describes current driven domain-wall motion. It is shown that both models are incorporated by the spin-diffusion description, i.e., the nonlocal effects of the Slonzewski model are captured as well as the spin-accumulation due to magnetization gradients as described by the model of Zhang and Li. Moreover, the presented method is able to resolve the time dependency of the spin-accumulation. PMID:26442796
A three-dimensional spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics.
Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hrkac, Gino; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter
2015-01-01
We solve a time-dependent three-dimensional spin-diffusion model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation numerically. The presented model is validated by comparison to two established spin-torque models: The model of Slonzewski that describes spin-torque in multi-layer structures in the presence of a fixed layer and the model of Zhang and Li that describes current driven domain-wall motion. It is shown that both models are incorporated by the spin-diffusion description, i.e., the nonlocal effects of the Slonzewski model are captured as well as the spin-accumulation due to magnetization gradients as described by the model of Zhang and Li. Moreover, the presented method is able to resolve the time dependency of the spin-accumulation. PMID:26442796
A three-dimensional spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hrkac, Gino; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter
2015-10-01
We solve a time-dependent three-dimensional spin-diffusion model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation numerically. The presented model is validated by comparison to two established spin-torque models: The model of Slonzewski that describes spin-torque in multi-layer structures in the presence of a fixed layer and the model of Zhang and Li that describes current driven domain-wall motion. It is shown that both models are incorporated by the spin-diffusion description, i.e., the nonlocal effects of the Slonzewski model are captured as well as the spin-accumulation due to magnetization gradients as described by the model of Zhang and Li. Moreover, the presented method is able to resolve the time dependency of the spin-accumulation.
Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji
2016-07-01
Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool.
Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model.
Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji
2016-07-01
Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool. PMID:27575079
Modeling Copper Diffusion in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells
Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain
2014-06-06
It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystalline, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately
Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra-Santos, Teresa; Perez, Ruben; Szasz, Robert Z.; Gutkowski, Artur N.; Castro, Francisco
2016-03-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.
Modelling on cavitation in a diffuser with vortex generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jablonská, J.
2013-04-01
Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience, problem with the diffuser with vortex generator was defined. The problem describes unsteady multiphase flow of water. Different cavitation models were used when modelling in Fluent, flow condition is inlet and pressure condition is outlet. Boundary conditions were specified by Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan's Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. Numerical modelling is compared with experiment.
Evaluating the accuracy of diffusion MRI models in white matter.
Rokem, Ariel; Yeatman, Jason D; Pestilli, Franco; Kay, Kendrick N; Mezer, Aviv; van der Walt, Stefan; Wandell, Brian A
2015-01-01
Models of diffusion MRI within a voxel are useful for making inferences about the properties of the tissue and inferring fiber orientation distribution used by tractography algorithms. A useful model must fit the data accurately. However, evaluations of model-accuracy of commonly used models have not been published before. Here, we evaluate model-accuracy of the two main classes of diffusion MRI models. The diffusion tensor model (DTM) summarizes diffusion as a 3-dimensional Gaussian distribution. Sparse fascicle models (SFM) summarize the signal as a sum of signals originating from a collection of fascicles oriented in different directions. We use cross-validation to assess model-accuracy at different gradient amplitudes (b-values) throughout the white matter. Specifically, we fit each model to all the white matter voxels in one data set and then use the model to predict a second, independent data set. This is the first evaluation of model-accuracy of these models. In most of the white matter the DTM predicts the data more accurately than test-retest reliability; SFM model-accuracy is higher than test-retest reliability and also higher than the DTM model-accuracy, particularly for measurements with (a) a b-value above 1000 in locations containing fiber crossings, and (b) in the regions of the brain surrounding the optic radiations. The SFM also has better parameter-validity: it more accurately estimates the fiber orientation distribution function (fODF) in each voxel, which is useful for fiber tracking. PMID:25879933
Evaluating the Accuracy of Diffusion MRI Models in White Matter
Rokem, Ariel; Yeatman, Jason D.; Pestilli, Franco; Kay, Kendrick N.; Mezer, Aviv; van der Walt, Stefan; Wandell, Brian A.
2015-01-01
Models of diffusion MRI within a voxel are useful for making inferences about the properties of the tissue and inferring fiber orientation distribution used by tractography algorithms. A useful model must fit the data accurately. However, evaluations of model-accuracy of commonly used models have not been published before. Here, we evaluate model-accuracy of the two main classes of diffusion MRI models. The diffusion tensor model (DTM) summarizes diffusion as a 3-dimensional Gaussian distribution. Sparse fascicle models (SFM) summarize the signal as a sum of signals originating from a collection of fascicles oriented in different directions. We use cross-validation to assess model-accuracy at different gradient amplitudes (b-values) throughout the white matter. Specifically, we fit each model to all the white matter voxels in one data set and then use the model to predict a second, independent data set. This is the first evaluation of model-accuracy of these models. In most of the white matter the DTM predicts the data more accurately than test-retest reliability; SFM model-accuracy is higher than test-retest reliability and also higher than the DTM model-accuracy, particularly for measurements with (a) a b-value above 1000 in locations containing fiber crossings, and (b) in the regions of the brain surrounding the optic radiations. The SFM also has better parameter-validity: it more accurately estimates the fiber orientation distribution function (fODF) in each voxel, which is useful for fiber tracking. PMID:25879933
Hierarchical set of models to estimate soil thermal diffusivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkhangelskaya, Tatiana; Lukyashchenko, Ksenia
2016-04-01
Soil thermal properties significantly affect the land-atmosphere heat exchange rates. Intra-soil heat fluxes depend both on temperature gradients and soil thermal conductivity. Soil temperature changes due to energy fluxes are determined by soil specific heat. Thermal diffusivity is equal to thermal conductivity divided by volumetric specific heat and reflects both the soil ability to transfer heat and its ability to change temperature when heat is supplied or withdrawn. The higher soil thermal diffusivity is, the thicker is the soil/ground layer in which diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations are registered and the smaller are the temperature fluctuations at the soil surface. Thermal diffusivity vs. moisture dependencies for loams, sands and clays of the East European Plain were obtained using the unsteady-state method. Thermal diffusivity of different soils differed greatly, and for a given soil it could vary by 2, 3 or even 5 times depending on soil moisture. The shapes of thermal diffusivity vs. moisture dependencies were different: peak curves were typical for sandy soils and sigmoid curves were typical for loamy and especially for compacted soils. The lowest thermal diffusivities and the smallest range of their variability with soil moisture were obtained for clays with high humus content. Hierarchical set of models will be presented, allowing an estimate of soil thermal diffusivity from available data on soil texture, moisture, bulk density and organic carbon. When developing these models the first step was to parameterize the experimental thermal diffusivity vs. moisture dependencies with a 4-parameter function; the next step was to obtain regression formulas to estimate the function parameters from available data on basic soil properties; the last step was to evaluate the accuracy of suggested models using independent data on soil thermal diffusivity. The simplest models were based on soil bulk density and organic carbon data and provided different
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizia, Ronald E.; Clark, Denis E.; Glazoff, Michael V.; Lister, Tedd E.; Trowbridge, Tammy L.
2013-01-01
A research effort was made to evaluate the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools, Thermo-Calc and Dictra (Thermo_Calc Software, Inc., McMurray, PA), in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. This would achieve a substantial reduction in the overall number of experiments required to achieve optimal welding and post-weld heat treatment conditions. This problem is important because diffusion-welded components of Alloy 800H are being evaluated for use in assembling compact, micro-channel heat exchangers that are being proposed in the design of a high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor by the U.S. Department of Energy. The modeling was done in close contact with experimental work. The latter included using the Gleeble 3500 System (Dynamic Systems, Inc., Poestenkill, NY) for welding simulation, mechanical property measurement, and light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1423 K (1150 °C) for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using a 15- μm Ni foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved, and model refinements to account for the complexity of actual alloy materials are suggested.
A multiple mapping conditioning model for differential diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dialameh, L.; Cleary, M. J.; Klimenko, A. Y.
2014-02-01
This work introduces modeling of differential diffusion within the multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) turbulent mixing and combustion framework. The effect of differential diffusion on scalar variance decay is analyzed and, following a number of publications, is found to scale as Re-1/2. The ability to model the differential decay rates is the most important aim of practical differential diffusion models, and here this is achieved in MMC by introducing what is called the side-stepping method. The approach is practical and, as it does not involve an increase in the number of MMC reference variables, economical. In addition we also investigate the modeling of a more refined and difficult to reproduce differential diffusion effect - the loss of correlation between the different scalars. For this we develop an alternative MMC model with two reference variables but which also makes use of the side-stepping method. The new models are successfully validated against DNS results available in literature for homogenous, isotropic two scalar mixing.
Models of geochemical systems from mixture theory: diffusion
Kirwan, A.D. Jr; Kump, L.R.
1987-05-01
The problem of diffusion of a geochemical component in a natural environment is investigated from the standpoint of mixture theory. The approach here differs from previous diffusion studies in that both the conservation of mass and momentum for the component is considered. This approach avoids parameterizing the diffusive flux in the mass equation by Fick's law. It is shown that when the momentum equation is included with the mass equation, the linear approximation for the space-time distribution of a solute in a binary system is the telegraph equation, well known from electrodynamics. This contrasts with the diffusion equation, which relies on introducing the Fick's law assumption into the conservation of mass equation for the solute. Solutions for both the diffusion and telegraph equation models are obtained and compared for the case of migration of a minor component into the sea bed when the sediment-water interface concentration is a prescribed function of time. Although the stationary, steady state solutions of the telegraph and diffusion equations are identical, the former has a transient solution in which fluctuations propagate at finite speed. The Fickian assumption, in contrast, requires an infinite speed of propagation.
Evaluation of the Diffusive Equilibrium Models by the IMAGE RPI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozhogin, Pavel; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Tu, Jiannan
2013-04-01
Using measured field-aligned electron density profiles, this study investigates the validity of the diffusive equilibrium model in Earth's plasmasphere. This model which describes the electron and ion densities along a magnetic field line in the plasmasphere has been widely used for ray tracing and pitch-angle scattering calculations. It is based on the hydrostatic equilibrium with the electrostatic force that acts on ions and electrons along geomagnetic field lines while actually there is no motion or diffusion of the plasma involved. The model requires multiple input parameters: electron density and ion composition (H+, He+, O+) at a base level for a magnetic field line in the ionosphere, and the (electron or ion) temperature in the plasmasphere. It has been recognized that these input parameters have to be flexible from one field line to another so that the model output does not contradict some known observed relationships. However, while the flexibility provides the possibility to fit any individual observed density distribution which is measured across many different field lines, the model prediction becomes questionable along a single field line. Before the launch of the IMAGE satellite in 2000 no plasma density measurements along a single field line were available, and therefore the validity of the diffusive equilibrium models had not been independently verified. Our qualitative and quantitative analysis shows that the fundamental functional form of the diffusive equilibrium model is inconsistent with the large database of field-aligned electron density distributions obtained by the radio plasma imager (RPI) instrument onboard the IMAGE satellite. Review of the procedures used in the derivation of the original diffusive equilibrium model suggests that the physical processes described by the mathematical procedures are fundamentally incorrect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A three-region mathematical model of gas bubble dynamics has been shown suitable for describing diffusion-limited dynamics of more than one bubble in a given volume of extravascular tissue. The model is based on the dynamics of gas exchange between a bubble and a well-stirred tissue region through an intervening unperfused diffusion region previously assumed to have constant thickness and uniform gas diffusivity. As a result, the gas content of the diffusion region remains constant as the volume of the region increases with bubble growth, causing dissolved gas in the region to violate Henry's law. Earlier work also neglected the relationship between the varying diffusion region volume and the fixed total tissue volume, because only cases in which the diffusion region volume is a small fraction of the overall tissue volume were considered. We herein extend the three-region model to correct these theoretical inconsistencies by allowing both the thickness and gas content of the diffusion region to vary during bubble evolution. A postulated difference in gas diffusivity between an infinitesimally thin layer at the bubble surface and the remainder of the diffusion region leads to variation in diffusion region gas content and thickness during bubble growth and resolution. This variable thickness, differential diffusivity (VTDD) model can yield bubble lifetimes considerably longer than those yielded by earlier three-region models for given model and decompression parameters, and meets a need for theoretically consistent but relatively simple bubble dynamics models for use in studies of decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects, Keywords: decompression sickness, gas diffusion in tissue, diffusivity
A Microscopic Model for Diffusion of a Polymer Chain in the Entangled Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canpolat, Murat; Erzan, Ayþe; Pekcan, Önder
1997-01-01
In the entangled regime the reptation concept [1,2] is the most successful in describing the dynamical behavior of a single chain. Using scaling concepts some quantities such as translational diffussion coefficient for the polymer center of mass Dtr, and renewal time {t} [3] have been calculated in the reptation model. This model is used for representing the low-frequency motions of a polymer molecule in a fluid of entangled chains, neglecting rapid relaxation processes that are attributed to local conformal transitions of backbone. Helfand and collabrators have studied the kinetics of conformational transitions in chain molecules, and they find that single-bond rotations followed by the compensating rearrangement of neigboring units are predominantly responsible for local motions [4]. Such models have also been considered by Erman and co-workers [5]. The purpose of this study to understand reptation at a microscopic level. We consedir rapid relaxation processes, that are singlet- or double -bond rotations; motion along the contour of the chain is due to displacments caused by rearangements of the neighboring units. We recover the usual scaling behavior of the diffusion coefficients and relaxation times with the chain mass. Moreover, the effective activation energy that is found from the local jump model for translational motion of the chain center of mass compares favorably with experiment and is independent of the molecular weight for large enough chains [6]. We are also able to account for the apparent temperature of this "activation energy".
MAST-2D diffusive model for flood prediction on domains with triangular Delaunay unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aricò, C.; Sinagra, M.; Begnudelli, L.; Tucciarelli, T.
2011-11-01
A new methodology for the solution of the 2D diffusive shallow water equations over Delaunay unstructured triangular meshes is presented. Before developing the new algorithm, the following question is addressed: it is worth developing and using a simplified shallow water model, when well established algorithms for the solution of the complete one do exist? The governing Partial Differential Equations are discretized using a procedure similar to the linear conforming Finite Element Galerkin scheme, with a different flux formulation and a special flux treatment that requires Delaunay triangulation but entire solution monotonicity. A simple mesh adjustment is suggested, that attains the Delaunay condition for all the triangle sides without changing the original nodes location and also maintains the internal boundaries. The original governing system is solved applying a fractional time step procedure, that solves consecutively a convective prediction system and a diffusive correction system. The non linear components of the problem are concentrated in the prediction step, while the correction step leads to the solution of a linear system of the order of the number of computational cells. A semi-analytical procedure is applied for the solution of the prediction step. The discretized formulation of the governing equations allows to handle also wetting and drying processes without any additional specific treatment. Local energy dissipations, mainly the effect of vertical walls and hydraulic jumps, can be easily included in the model. Several numerical experiments have been carried out in order to test (1) the stability of the proposed model with regard to the size of the Courant number and to the mesh irregularity, (2) its computational performance, (3) the convergence order by means of mesh refinement. The model results are also compared with the results obtained by a fully dynamic model. Finally, the application to a real field case with a Venturi channel is presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henderson, Nancy
2010-01-01
This article profiles Jill Jayne, who was working as a registered nutritionist in the New York City public school system when she was assigned to a group of 25 urban students in an after-school program in East Harlem. In the spring of 2006, Jayne took her "Jump With Jill" show to the streets outside Central Park, collected tips in a tin pot and,…
GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL
KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.
2007-01-17
This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.
Computer modelling of nanoscale diffusion phenomena at epitaxial interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michailov, M.; Ranguelov, B.
2014-05-01
The present study outlines an important area in the application of computer modelling to interface phenomena. Being relevant to the fundamental physical problem of competing atomic interactions in systems with reduced dimensionality, these phenomena attract special academic attention. On the other hand, from a technological point of view, detailed knowledge of the fine atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces correlates with a large number of practical problems in materials science. Typical examples are formation of nanoscale surface patterns, two-dimensional superlattices, atomic intermixing at an epitaxial interface, atomic transport phenomena, structure and stability of quantum wires on surfaces. We discuss here a variety of diffusion mechanisms that control surface-confined atomic exchange, formation of alloyed atomic stripes and islands, relaxation of pure and alloyed atomic terraces, diffusion of clusters and their stability in an external field. The computational model refines important details of diffusion of adatoms and clusters accounting for the energy barriers at specific atomic sites: smooth domains, terraces, steps and kinks. The diffusion kinetics, integrity and decomposition of atomic islands in an external field are considered in detail and assigned to specific energy regions depending on the cluster stability in mass transport processes. The presented ensemble of diffusion scenarios opens a way for nanoscale surface design towards regular atomic interface patterns with exotic physical features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zuwei; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for accelerating population balance-Monte Carlo (PBMC) simulation of particle coagulation dynamics. By combining Markov jump model, weighted majorant kernel and GPU (graphics processing unit) parallel computing, a significant gain in computational efficiency is achieved. The Markov jump model constructs a coagulation-rule matrix of differentially-weighted simulation particles, so as to capture the time evolution of particle size distribution with low statistical noise over the full size range and as far as possible to reduce the number of time loopings. Here three coagulation rules are highlighted and it is found that constructing appropriate coagulation rule provides a route to attain the compromise between accuracy and cost of PBMC methods. Further, in order to avoid double looping over all simulation particles when considering the two-particle events (typically, particle coagulation), the weighted majorant kernel is introduced to estimate the maximum coagulation rates being used for acceptance-rejection processes by single-looping over all particles, and meanwhile the mean time-step of coagulation event is estimated by summing the coagulation kernels of rejected and accepted particle pairs. The computational load of these fast differentially-weighted PBMC simulations (based on the Markov jump model) is reduced greatly to be proportional to the number of simulation particles in a zero-dimensional system (single cell). Finally, for a spatially inhomogeneous multi-dimensional (multi-cell) simulation, the proposed fast PBMC is performed in each cell, and multiple cells are parallel processed by multi-cores on a GPU that can implement the massively threaded data-parallel tasks to obtain remarkable speedup ratio (comparing with CPU computation, the speedup ratio of GPU parallel computing is as high as 200 in a case of 100 cells with 10 000 simulation particles per cell). These accelerating approaches of PBMC are
Xu, Zuwei; Zhao, Haibo Zheng, Chuguang
2015-01-15
This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for accelerating population balance-Monte Carlo (PBMC) simulation of particle coagulation dynamics. By combining Markov jump model, weighted majorant kernel and GPU (graphics processing unit) parallel computing, a significant gain in computational efficiency is achieved. The Markov jump model constructs a coagulation-rule matrix of differentially-weighted simulation particles, so as to capture the time evolution of particle size distribution with low statistical noise over the full size range and as far as possible to reduce the number of time loopings. Here three coagulation rules are highlighted and it is found that constructing appropriate coagulation rule provides a route to attain the compromise between accuracy and cost of PBMC methods. Further, in order to avoid double looping over all simulation particles when considering the two-particle events (typically, particle coagulation), the weighted majorant kernel is introduced to estimate the maximum coagulation rates being used for acceptance–rejection processes by single-looping over all particles, and meanwhile the mean time-step of coagulation event is estimated by summing the coagulation kernels of rejected and accepted particle pairs. The computational load of these fast differentially-weighted PBMC simulations (based on the Markov jump model) is reduced greatly to be proportional to the number of simulation particles in a zero-dimensional system (single cell). Finally, for a spatially inhomogeneous multi-dimensional (multi-cell) simulation, the proposed fast PBMC is performed in each cell, and multiple cells are parallel processed by multi-cores on a GPU that can implement the massively threaded data-parallel tasks to obtain remarkable speedup ratio (comparing with CPU computation, the speedup ratio of GPU parallel computing is as high as 200 in a case of 100 cells with 10 000 simulation particles per cell). These accelerating approaches of PBMC are
Turing instability in reaction-diffusion models on complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ide, Yusuke; Izuhara, Hirofumi; Machida, Takuya
2016-09-01
In this paper, the Turing instability in reaction-diffusion models defined on complex networks is studied. Here, we focus on three types of models which generate complex networks, i.e. the Erdős-Rényi, the Watts-Strogatz, and the threshold network models. From analysis of the Laplacian matrices of graphs generated by these models, we numerically reveal that stable and unstable regions of a homogeneous steady state on the parameter space of two diffusion coefficients completely differ, depending on the network architecture. In addition, we theoretically discuss the stable and unstable regions in the cases of regular enhanced ring lattices which include regular circles, and networks generated by the threshold network model when the number of vertices is large enough.
Effects of Microscopic Diffusion and Rotational Mixing on Stellar Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaboyer, Brian
1994-02-01
Evolutionary tracks and isochrones were calculated with alpha-enhanced compositions which cover the entire globular cluster metallicity range and include the effects of the diffusion of ^4He. Including the effects of helium diffusion has a negligible effect (< 0.5 Gyr) on the derived ages of globular clusters. Regardless of the inclusion of helium diffusion, a significant age spread of ~5$ Gyr exists among the globular clusters. The oldest globular cluster studied was M92 with an age of 17 +/- 2 Gyr old. The stellar models may be tested by comparing the Li depletion and surface rotation rates to observations in young clusters stars. The observed Li abundances clearly indicate that standard or diffusive models do not deplete enough Li. Instabilities induced by rotation provide an additional mixing mechanism. For this reason the stellar evolution code was modified to include the combined effects of diffusion and rotational mixing on ^1H, ^4He and the trace elements ^3He, ^6Li, ^7Li, and ^9Be. The calibrated solar models have a convection zone depth of 0.709 - 0.714~R_odot, in excellent agreement with the observed depth of (0.713 +/- 0.003)~R_odot. The rotational mixing inhibits the diffusion in the outer parts of the models, leading to a decrease in the envelope diffusion by 30 - 50%. The combined models are able to simultaneously match the Li abundances observed in the Pleiades, UMaG, Hyades, NGC 752 and M67. They also match the observed rotation periods in the Hyades. However, these models are unable to explain the presence of the rapidly rotating G and K stars in the Pleiades. Observations of Li abundances in extremely metal poor halo stars provide another test of the stellar models. All models which use Kurucz (1992) model atmospheres to determine the surface boundary conditions are unable to match the observed Li depletion in cool halo stars. Models which use the gray atmosphere approximation provide a much better fit to the data. Standard models do a good job
Final Report - Experiments and Models for Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts
Richter, Frank
1999-10-01
The final report describes experimental measurements of chemical diffusion and self-diffusion in silicate melts. The data are then used to validate a theoretical model for calculating the diffusion matrix of non-ideal liquids.
A Mixed-Culture Biofilm Model with Cross-Diffusion.
Rahman, Kazi A; Sudarsan, Rangarajan; Eberl, Hermann J
2015-11-01
We propose a deterministic continuum model for mixed-culture biofilms. A crucial aspect is that movement of one species is affected by the presence of the other. This leads to a degenerate cross-diffusion system that generalizes an earlier single-species biofilm model. Two derivations of this new model are given. One, like cellular automata biofilm models, starts from a discrete in space lattice differential equation where the spatial interaction is described by microscopic rules. The other one starts from the same continuous mass balances that are the basis of other deterministic biofilm models, but it gives up a simplifying assumption of these models that has recently been criticized as being too restrictive in terms of ecological structure. We show that both model derivations lead to the same PDE model, if corresponding closure assumptions are introduced. To investigate the role of cross-diffusion, we conduct numerical simulations of three biofilm systems: competition, allelopathy and a mixed system formed by an aerobic and an anaerobic species. In all cases, we find that accounting for cross-diffusion affects local distribution of biomass, but it does not affect overall lumped quantities such as the total amount of biomass in the system. PMID:26582360
Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry
Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.
2006-01-01
We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072
Modeling intragranular diffusion in low-connectivity granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ewing, Robert P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Qinhong
2012-03-01
Characterizing the diffusive exchange of solutes between bulk water in an aquifer and water in the intragranular pores of the solid phase is still challenging despite decades of study. Many disparities between observation and theory could be attributed to low connectivity of the intragranular pores. The presence of low connectivity indicates that a useful conceptual framework is percolation theory. The present study was initiated to develop a percolation-based finite difference (FD) model, and to test it rigorously against both random walk (RW) simulations of diffusion starting from nonequilibrium, and data on Borden sand published by Ball and Roberts (1991a,b) and subsequently reanalyzed by Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) using a multirate mass transfer (MRMT) approach. The percolation-theoretical model is simple and readily incorporated into existing FD models. The FD model closely matches the RW results using only a single fitting parameter, across a wide range of pore connectivities. Simulation of the Borden sand experiment without pore connectivity effects reproduced the MRMT analysis, but including low pore connectivity effects improved the fit. Overall, the theory and simulation results show that low intragranular pore connectivity can produce diffusive behavior that appears as if the solute had undergone slow sorption, despite the absence of any sorption process, thereby explaining some hitherto confusing aspects of intragranular diffusion.
Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay.
Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C
2015-09-01
A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (T c) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at T c was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL(-1), and T c was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R (2) = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii. PMID:26405525
Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay
Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C
2015-01-01
A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (Tc) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at Tc was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL−1, and Tc was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R2 = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii. PMID:26405525
ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS
A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...
Decomposing Task-Switching Costs with the Diffusion Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmitz, Florian; Voss, Andreas
2012-01-01
In four experiments, task-switching processes were investigated with variants of the alternating runs paradigm and the explicit cueing paradigm. The classical diffusion model for binary decisions (Ratcliff, 1978) was used to dissociate different components of task-switching costs. Findings can be reconciled with the view that task-switching…
User's Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Diffusion Model Computer Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mancuso, R. L.; And Others
The APRAC-1A diffusion model was developed as a versatile and practical model for computing the concentrations of pollutants at any point within a city. The model calculates pollutant contributions from diffusion on various scales, including: extra-urban diffusion, mainly from sources in upwind cities; intra-urban diffusion from freeway, arterial,…
Modeling the diffusion of phosphorus in silicon in 3-D
Baker, K.R.
1994-12-31
The use of matrix preconditioning in semiconductor process simulation is examined. The simplified nonlinear single-species model for the diffusion of phosphorus into silicon is considered. The experimental three-dimensional simulator, PEPPER3, which uses finite differences and the numerical method of lines to implement the reaction-diffusion equation is modified to allow NSPCG to be called to solve the linear system in the inner Newton loop. Use of NSPCG allowed various accelerators such as Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) to be used in conjunction with preconditioners such as Richardson, Jacobi, and Incomplete Cholesky.
Auto-stratification in drying colloidal dispersions: a diffusive model.
Trueman, R E; Lago Domingues, E; Emmett, S N; Murray, M W; Routh, A F
2012-07-01
The mechanism by which the particles in a drying film come into close packing during solvent evaporation has an important role to play in the final film morphology. During drying the particles can develop non-uniform concentrations across the vertical height of the film, depending on their diffusion rate. By applying the principles of classical diffusion mechanics to a hard sphere system, a theory for this novel method of stratification during drying of a two component film has been derived. The model is dependent on the particle Peclet numbers and when one is above unity and the other below, maximum stratification is observed. PMID:22503626
Reaction-diffusion modelling of bacterial colony patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mimura, Masayasu; Sakaguchi, Hideo; Matsushita, Mitsugu
2000-07-01
It is well known from experiments that bacterial species Bacillus subtilis exhibit various colony patterns. These are essentially classified into five types in the morphological diagram, depending on the substrate softness and nutrient concentration. (A) diffusion-limited aggregation-like; (B) Eden-like; (C) concentric ring-like; (D) disk-like; and (E) dense branching morphology-like. There arises the naive question of whether the diversity of colony patterns observed in experiments is caused by different effects or governed by the same underlying principles. Our research has led us to propose reaction-diffusion models to describe the morphological diversity of colony patterns except for Eden-like ones.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri
2016-01-01
The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…
Modelling of the pressure-velocity correlation in turbulence diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Song
1993-05-01
In the context of second-moment closure, the mechanism of turbulence diffusion consists of mainly two parts: a triple velocity correlation and a pressure-velocity correlation. The first correlation is measurable and can be analyzed theoretically through its transport equation. The second correlation cannot, however, be obtained directly from experiments and knowledge about it is comparatively limited. Most current computations of turbulent flows adopt diffusion models which neglect the effect of the pressure-velocity correlation in the diffusion process. The importance of this correlation effect is elucidated; the neglect of this effect constitutes some of the major defects in the application of the second-moment closures. Through the relation between the two correlations, established by Lumley (1978), we propose a new type of turbulence diffusion model which takes into account the pressure effect. Application of this new model in the computation of the turbulence shearless mixing layer and plane- and round-jet flows shows that the spreading rates of these flows can be captured satisfactorily.
Transport Corrections in Nodal Diffusion Codes for HTR Modeling
Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Frederick N. Gleicher
2010-08-01
The cores and reflectors of High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) type are dominantly diffusive media from the point of view of behavior of the neutrons and their migration between the various structures of the reactor. This means that neutron diffusion theory is sufficient for modeling most features of such reactors and transport theory may not be needed for most applications. Of course, the above statement assumes the availability of homogenized diffusion theory data. The statement is true for most situations but not all. Two features of NGNP-type HTRs require that the diffusion theory-based solution be corrected for local transport effects. These two cases are the treatment of burnable poisons (BP) in the case of the prismatic block reactors and, for both pebble bed reactor (PBR) and prismatic block reactor (PMR) designs, that of control rods (CR) embedded in non-multiplying regions near the interface between fueled zones and said non-multiplying zones. The need for transport correction arises because diffusion theory-based solutions appear not to provide sufficient fidelity in these situations.
Fitting degradation of shoreline scarps by a nonlinear diffusion model
Andrews, D.J.; Buckna, R.C.
1987-01-01
The diffusion model of degradation of topographic features is a promising means by which vertical offsets on Holocene faults might be dated. In order to calibrate the method, we have examined present-day profiles of wave-cut shoreline scarps of late Pleistocene lakes Bonneville and Lahontan. A table is included that allows easy application of the model to scarps with simple initial shape. -from Authors
Atomic scale modeling of boron transient diffusion in silicon
Caturla, M. J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Foad, M.; Giles, M.; Johnson, M. D.; Law, M.; Lilak, A.
1998-06-17
We presents results from a predictive atomic level simulation of Boron diffusion in Silicon under a wide variety of implant and annealing conditions. The parameters for this simulation have been extracted from first principle approximation models and molecular dynamics simulations. The results are compared with experiments showing good agreement in all cases. The parameters and reactions used have been implemented into a continuum-level model simulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben, Igor; Layosh, Yonatan Y.; Granot, Er'el
2016-06-01
A Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to investigate a simple model for the transition between the ballistic and the diffusive regimes in diffusive media. The simulation focuses on the propagation of visible and near-infrared light in biological tissues. This research has mainly two findings: (1) the transition can be described, as was found experimentally, with good accuracy by only two terms (ballistic and diffusive). (2) The model can be utilized for cases where the absorption coefficient is not negligible compared to the scattering coefficient by adding a power-law prefactor to the diffusive term.
Particle jumps in structural glasses.
Ciamarra, Massimo Pica; Pastore, Raffaele; Coniglio, Antonio
2016-01-14
Particles in structural glasses rattle around temporary equilibrium positions, that seldom change through a process which is much faster than the relaxation time, known as particle jump. Since the relaxation of the system is due to the accumulation of many such jumps, it could be possible to connect the single particle short time motion to the macroscopic relaxation by understanding the features of the jump dynamics. Here we review recent results in this research direction, clarifying the features of particle jumps that have been understood and those that are still under investigation, and examining the role of particle jumps in different theories of the glass transition. PMID:26481331
Modeling aerosol formation in opposed-flow diffusion flames.
Violi, Angela; D'Anna, Andrea; D'Alessio, Antonio; Sarofim, Adel F
2003-06-01
The microstructures of atmospheric pressure, counter-flow, sooting, flat, laminar ethylene diffusion flames have been studied numerically by using a new kinetic model developed for hydrocarbon oxidation and pyrolysis. Modeling results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data in terms of concentration profiles of stable species and gas-phase aromatic compounds. Modeling results are used to analyze the controlling steps of aromatic formation and soot growth in counter-flow configurations. The formation of high molecular mass aromatics in diffusion controlled conditions is restricted to a narrow area close to the flame front where these species reach a molecular weight of about 1000 u. Depending on the flame configuration, soot formation is controlled by the coagulation of nanoparticles or by the addition of PAH to soot nuclei. PMID:12718969
A model of the diffuse galactic gamma ray emission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sreekumar, Parameswaran
1990-01-01
The galaxy was observed to be a source of high energy gamma rays as shown by the two successful satellite experiments, SAS-2 and COS-B. It is generally understood that these diffuse gamma rays result from interactions between energetic cosmic rays and interstellar gas. This work makes use of the most recent data on the distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the galaxy along with new estimates of gamma ray production functions to model the diffuse galactic gamma ray emission. The model allows various spatial distributions for cosmic rays in the Galaxy including non-axisymmetric ones. In the light of the expected data from EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope), an improved model of cosmic ray-matter-gamma ray interaction will provide new insights into the distribution of cosmic rays and the strength of its coupling to matter.