Sample records for jupiter mass planets

  1. Accretion of Jupiter-mass planets in the limit of vanishing viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Szulágyi, J.; Morbidelli, A.; Crida, A. [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, F-06304, Nice (France); Masset, F., E-mail: jszulagyi@oca.eu [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-02-20

    In the core-accretion model, the nominal runaway gas-accretion phase brings most planets to multiple Jupiter masses. However, known giant planets are predominantly Jupiter mass bodies. Obtaining longer timescales for gas accretion may require using realistic equations of states, or accounting for the dynamics of the circumplanetary disk (CPD) in the low-viscosity regime, or both. Here we explore the second way by using global, three-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamical simulations with eight levels of nested grids around the planet. In our simulations, the vertical inflow from the circumstellar disk (CSD) to the CPD determines the shape of the CPD and its accretion rate. Even without a prescribed viscosity, Jupiter's mass-doubling time is ?10{sup 4} yr, assuming the planet at 5.2 AU and a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. However, we show that this high accretion rate is due to resolution-dependent numerical viscosity. Furthermore, we consider the scenario of a layered CSD, viscous only in its surface layer, and an inviscid CPD. We identify two planet-accretion mechanisms that are independent of the viscosity in the CPD: (1) the polar inflow—defined as a part of the vertical inflow with a centrifugal radius smaller than two Jupiter radii and (2) the torque exerted by the star on the CPD. In the limit of zero effective viscosity, these two mechanisms would produce an accretion rate 40 times smaller than in the simulation.

  2. Eccentric Extrasolar Planets: The Jumping Jupiter Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Marzari; S. J. Weidenschilling

    2002-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets discovered to date are more massive than Jupiter, in surprisingly small orbits (semimajor axes less than 3 AU). Many of these have significant orbital eccentricities. Such orbits may be the product of dynamical interactions in multiplanet systems. We examine outcomes of such evolution in systems of three Jupiter-mass planets around a solar-mass star by integration of their

  3. Direct Imaging of Jupiter and Saturn-mass planets in wide orbit around nearby young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Etienne; Lafreniere, David; Baron, Frederique; Malo, Lison; Doyon, Rene; Beichman, Charles; Delorme, Philippe; Rameau, Julien; Janson, Markus; Gagne, Jonathan; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic

    2014-12-01

    The recent discovery of planetary-mass objects on very wide orbits (hundreds of AU and more) around young stars (e.g. Naud et al. 2014) demonstrates that planets can be found even with arcsecond-level resolution imaging. These massive ( 10MJup) companions are likely formed in-situ via hierarchical collapse and it is not yet known whether this mechanism can form lighter objects. However, dynamical modelling of young planetary systems (Veras et al. 2009) and the relatively large fraction of massive planets in eccentric orbits found by radial velocity surveys suggest that a few percent of planetary systems should host planets, comparable in mass to Jupiter and Saturn, on orbits wide enough to be imaged as isolated objects. We propose to obtain deep IRAC observations combined with J-band imaging gathered by our team to search for such planets around all known nearby young stars (< 70 pc, < 120Myr; 172 stellar systems). This survey will be sensitive to planets down to the mass of Jupiter for all systems and down to the mass of Saturn for 80 of them. Planets lighter than 2MJup are much too faint in the near-infrared to be identified from the ground; Spitzer is the only facility where such a survey can be undertaken. This survey is a unique opportunity to bring direct imaging in a new era with the detection of analogs to our own Solar System Giants, is complementary to the work done on the ground with high-contrast imagers such as GPI and Sphere, and is critical to identify new planets that will be optimally characterized with JWST.

  4. The planet Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Thérèse

    The exploration of Jupiter, the closest and biggest giant planet, has provided key information about the origin and evolution of the outer Solar system. Our knowledge has strongly benefited from the Voyager and Galileo space missions. We now have a good understanding of Jupiter's thermal structure, chemical composition and magnetospheric environment. There is still debate about the nature of the heating source responsible for the high thermospheric temperatures (precipitating particles and/or gravity waves). The measurement of elemental abundance ratios (C/H, N/H, S/H) gives strong support to the "nucleation" formation model, according to which giant planets formed from the accretion of an initial core and the collapse of the surrounding gaseous protosolar nebula. The D/H and 3He/4He ratios are found to be representative of their protosolar value. The helium abundance, in contrast, appears to be slightly depleted in the outer envelope with respect to the protosolar value; this departure is interpreted as an evolutionary effect, due to the condensation of helium droplets in the liquid hydrogen ocean inside Jupiter's interior. The cloud structure of Jupiter, characterized by the belt-zone system, is globally understood; also present are specific features like regions of strong infrared radiation ("hot spots"), colder regions ("white ovals") and the Great Red Spot (GRS). Clouds were surprisingly absent at the hot spot corresponding to the Galileo probe entry site, and the water abundance measured there was strongly depleted with respect to the solar O/H value. This probably implies that hot spots are dry, cloud-free regions of subsidence, while "normal" air, rich in condensibles, is transported upward by convective motions. As a result, the Jovian meteorology, still based on Halley-type cells, seems to be much more complex than a simple zone-belt system. The nature of the GRS, a giant anticyclonic storm, colder and higher than its environment, has been confirmed by the Galileo observations, but its internal structure appears to be very complex. Strong winds, probably driven by the Jovian internal source, were measured at deep tropospheric levels. The troposphere might be statically stable at pressures higher than 18 bars, but the extent of this putative radiative layer is still unknown.

  5. ACCRETION OF ROCKY PLANETS BY HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, Jacob A.; Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M. [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The observed population of Hot Jupiters displays a stunning variety of physical properties, including a wide range of densities and core sizes for a given planetary mass. Motivated by the observational sample, this Letter studies the accretion of rocky planets by Hot Jupiters, after the Jovian planets have finished their principal migration epoch and become parked in {approx}4 day orbits. In this scenario, rocky planets form later and then migrate inward due to torques from the remaining circumstellar disk, which also damps the orbital eccentricity. This mechanism thus represents one possible channel for increasing the core masses and metallicities of Hot Jupiters. This Letter determines probabilities for the possible end states for the rocky planet: collisions with the Jovian planets, accretion onto the star, ejection from the system, and long-term survival of both planets. These probabilities depend on the mass of the Jovian planet and its starting orbital eccentricity, as well as the eccentricity damping rate for the rocky planet. Since these systems are highly chaotic, a large ensemble (N {approx} 10{sup 3}) of simulations with effectively equivalent starting conditions is required. Planetary collisions are common when the eccentricity damping rate is sufficiently low, but are rare otherwise. For systems that experience planetary collisions, this work determines the distributions of impact velocities-both speeds and impact parameters-for the collisions. These velocity distributions help determine the consequences of the impacts, e.g., where energy and heavy elements are deposited within the giant planets.

  6. The planet Jupiter (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divine, N.

    1971-01-01

    Data obtained through 1970, some materials published during the first half of 1971, and conclusions of the Jupiter Radiation Belt Workshop held in July 1971 are presented. All the information on Jupiter was derived from data obtained at angular and spectral resolutions possible with Earth-based instrumentation or with sensors on aircraft, rockets, and balloons. The observations were made primarily in the visible, near visible, infrared, and radio portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The information was assessed for the potential effects of the Jovian environment on spacecraft performance. The assessment was done independently for the three types of missions under consideration and formulated for overall spacecraft as well as for subsystem design.

  7. RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC PLANET SEARCH. II. CONSTRAINTS ON SUB-JUPITER-MASS COMPANIONS TO GJ 896A

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bolatto, Alberto; Ford, Eric B.; Fries, Adam; Kalas, Paul; Sanchez, Karol; Viscomi, Vincent [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sanderbeck, Phoebe, E-mail: gbower@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Abelson-Bass-Yalem 107, MS 057, Waltham, MA 02453 (United States)

    2011-10-10

    We present results from the Radio Interferometric Planet search for companions to the nearby star GJ 896A. We present 11 observations over 4.9 yr. Fitting astrometric parameters to the data reveals a residual with peak-to-peak amplitude of {approx}3 mas in right ascension. This residual is well fit by an acceleration term of 0.458 {+-} 0.032 mas yr{sup -2}. The parallax is fit to an accuracy of 0.2 mas and the proper motion terms are fit to accuracies of 0.01 mas yr{sup -1}. After fitting astrometric and acceleration terms, residuals are 0.26 mas in each coordinate, demonstrating that stellar jitter does not limit the ability to carry out radio astrometric planet detection and characterization. The acceleration term originates in part from the companion GJ 896B, but the amplitude of the acceleration in declination is not accurately predicted by the orbital model. The acceleration sets a mass upper limit of 0.15 M{sub J} at a semimajor axis of 2 AU for a planetary companion to GJ 896A. For semimajor axes between 0.3 and 2 AU upper limits are determined by the maximum angular separation; the upper limits scale from the minimum value in proportion to the inverse of the radius. Upper limits at larger radii are set by the acceleration and scale as the radius squared. An improved solution for the stellar binary system could improve the exoplanet mass sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  8. Io-Jupiter system: a unique case of moon-planet interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Bhardwaj; Marykutty Michael

    2002-01-01

    Io and Jupiter constitute a moon-planet system that is unique in our solar system. Io is the most volcanically active planetary body, while Jupiter is the first among the planets in terms of size, mass, magnetic field strength, spin rate, and volume of the magnetosphere. That Io is electrodynamically linked to Jupiter is known for nearly four decades from the

  9. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Ragozzine, Darin; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Astron. Astrophys.; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Holman, Matthew J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames; Welsh, William F.; /San Diego State U., Astron. Dept.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Boss, Alan P.; /Carnegie Inst., Wash., D.C., DTM; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-05-01

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2:1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  10. Exploring the diversity of Jupiter-class planets.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Leigh N; Irwin, Patrick G J; Barstow, Joanna K; de Kok, Remco J; Lee, Jae-Min; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2014-04-28

    Of the 900+ confirmed exoplanets discovered since 1995 for which we have constraints on their mass (i.e. not including Kepler candidates), 75% have masses larger than Saturn (0.3 MJ), 53% are more massive than Jupiter and 67% are within 1?AU of their host stars. When Kepler candidates are included, Neptune-sized giant planets could form the majority of the planetary population. And yet the term 'hot Jupiter' fails to account for the incredible diversity of this class of astrophysical object, which exists on a continuum of giant planets from the cool jovians of our own Solar System to the highly irradiated, tidally locked hot roasters. We review theoretical expectations for the temperatures, molecular composition and cloud properties of hydrogen-dominated Jupiter-class objects under a variety of different conditions. We discuss the classification schemes for these Jupiter-class planets proposed to date, including the implications for our own Solar System giant planets and the pitfalls associated with compositional classification at this early stage of exoplanetary spectroscopy. We discuss the range of planetary types described by previous authors, accounting for (i) thermochemical equilibrium expectations for cloud condensation and favoured chemical stability fields; (ii) the metallicity and formation mechanism for these giant planets; (iii) the importance of optical absorbers for energy partitioning and the generation of a temperature inversion; (iv) the favoured photochemical pathways and expectations for minor species (e.g. saturated hydrocarbons and nitriles); (v) the unexpected presence of molecules owing to vertical mixing of species above their quench levels; and (vi) methods for energy and material redistribution throughout the atmosphere (e.g. away from the highly irradiated daysides of close-in giants). Finally, we discuss the benefits and potential flaws of retrieval techniques for establishing a family of atmospheric solutions that reproduce the available data, and the requirements for future spectroscopic characterization of a set of Jupiter-class objects to test our physical and chemical understanding of these planets. PMID:24664910

  11. High-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of OGLE planetary transit candidates in the Galactic bulge: two possible Jupiter-mass planets and two blends

    E-print Network

    Maciej Konacki; Guillermo Torres; Dimitar D. Sasselov; Saurabh Jha

    2003-06-25

    We report the results of our campaign to follow-up spectroscopically several candidate extrasolar transiting planets from the OGLE-III survey in the direction of the Galactic center, announced in 2001 (Udalski et al 2002a,b). All of these objects present shallow and periodic dips in brightness that may be due to planetary companions. Our high-resolution Keck I/HIRES observations have revealed two interesting cases (OGLE-TR-10 with a period of 3.1 days, and OGLE-TR-58 with a period of 4.3 days) that show no radial velocity variations at the level of 100--200 m/s. If orbited by companions, their masses would be similar to Jupiter. With the information in hand (including the light curves) we are not able to rule out that these candidates are instead the result of contamination from an eclipsing binary in the same line of sight (a "blend"). We discuss also the case of OGLE-TR-56 that was recently reported by Konacki et al (2003) to have a Jupiter-size companion, based on an earlier analysis of our data, and we present supporting information. Two other candidates, OGLE-TR-3 and OGLE-TR-33, show clear evidence that they are blends.

  12. Jupiter-sized Planets in the Solar System and Elsewhere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick G. J. Irwin

    The discovery of the first extrasolar planet, 51 Pegasi, in 1995 has opened up a new and exciting area of planetary astronomy.\\u000a Using a number of different techniques 170 extrasolar planets have now been discovered, and this number is rapidly increasing.\\u000a Due partly to observational biases, just over half of these newly discovered planets are ‘Hot Jupiters’ — Jupiter sized

  13. JUPITER WILL BECOME A HOT JUPITER: CONSEQUENCES OF POST-MAIN-SEQUENCE STELLAR EVOLUTION ON GAS GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S. [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: dave@ias.edu, E-mail: Nikku.Madhusudhan@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    When the Sun ascends the red giant branch (RGB), its luminosity will increase and all the planets will receive much greater irradiation than they do now. Jupiter, in particular, might end up more highly irradiated than the hot Neptune GJ 436b and, hence, could appropriately be termed a 'hot Jupiter'. When their stars go through the RGB or asymptotic giant branch stages, many of the currently known Jupiter-mass planets in several-AU orbits will receive levels of irradiation comparable to the hot Jupiters, which will transiently increase their atmospheric temperatures to {approx}1000 K or more. Furthermore, massive planets around post-main-sequence stars could accrete a non-negligible amount of material from the enhanced stellar winds, thereby significantly altering their atmospheric chemistry as well as causing a significant accretion luminosity during the epochs of most intense stellar mass loss. Future generations of infrared observatories might be able to probe the thermal and chemical structure of such hot Jupiters' atmospheres. Finally, we argue that, unlike their main-sequence analogs (whose zonal winds are thought to be organized in only a few broad, planetary-scale jets), red-giant hot Jupiters should have multiple, narrow jets of zonal winds and efficient day-night redistribution.

  14. WASP-54b, WASP-56b, and WASP-57b: Three new sub-Jupiter mass planets from SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedi, F.; Pollacco, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Enoch, R.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hébrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Liebig, C.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.; Alsubai, K. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D.; Bento, J.; Bochinski, J.; Bouchy, F.; Busuttil, R.; Fossati, L.; Fumel, A.; Haswell, C. A.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Jehin, E.; Kolb, U.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Moutou, C.; Norton, A. J.; Parley, N.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Skillen, I.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Watson, C.

    2013-03-01

    We present three newly discovered sub-Jupiter mass planets from the SuperWASP survey: WASP-54b is a heavily bloated planet of mass 0.636+0.025-0.024RJ. It orbits a F9 star, evolving off the main sequence, every 3.69 days. Our MCMC fit of the system yields a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.067+0.033-0.025) for WASP-54b. We investigated further the veracity of our detection of the eccentric orbit for WASP-54b, and we find that it could be real. However, given the brightness of WASP-54 V = 10.42 mag, we encourage observations of a secondary eclipse to draw robust conclusions on both the orbital eccentricity and the thermal structure of the planet. WASP-56b and WASP-57b have masses of 0.571+0.034-0.035MJ and 0.672+0.049-0.046MJ, respectively; and radii of 1.092+0.035-0.033RJ for WASP-56b and 0.916+0.017-0.014RJ for WASP-57b. They orbit main sequence stars of spectral type G6 every 4.67 and 2.84 days, respectively. WASP-56b and WASP-57b show no radius anomaly and a high density possibly implying a large core of heavy elements; possibly as high as ~50 M? in the case of WASP-57b. However,the composition of the deep interior of exoplanets remains still undetermined. Thus, more exoplanet discoveries such as the ones presented in this paper, are needed to understand and constrain giant planets' physical properties. RV data (Tables 6-9) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometric data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A73

  15. The Solar Twin Planet Search II. A Jupiter twin around a solar twin

    E-print Network

    Bedell, M; Bean, J L; Ramirez, I; Asplund, M; Alves-Brito, A; Casagrande, L; Dreizler, S; Monroe, T; Spina, L; Maia, M Tucci

    2015-01-01

    Through our HARPS radial velocity survey for planets around solar twin stars, we have identified a promising Jupiter twin candidate around the star HIP11915. We characterize this Keplerian signal and investigate its potential origins in stellar activity. Our analysis indicates that HIP11915 hosts a Jupiter-mass planet with a 3600-day orbital period and low eccentricity. Although we cannot definitively rule out an activity cycle interpretation, we find that a planet interpretation is more likely based on a joint analysis of RV and activity index data. The challenges of long-period radial velocity signals addressed in this paper are critical for the ongoing discovery of Jupiter-like exoplanets. If planetary in nature, the signal investigated here represents a very close analog to the solar system in terms of both Sun-like host star and Jupiter-like planet.

  16. CFBDSIR2149-0403: a 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet in the young moving group AB Doradus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Gagné, J.; Malo, L.; Reylé, C.; Artigau, E.; Albert, L.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.

    2012-12-01

    Using the CFBDSIR wide field survey for brown dwarfs, we identified CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9, a late T dwarf with an atypically red J - KS colour. We obtained an X-Shooter spectra, with signal detectable from 0.8 ?m to 2.3 ?m, which confirmed a T7 spectral type with an enhanced Ks-band flux indicative of a potentially low-gravity, young object. The comparison of our near infrared spectrum with atmosphere models for solar metallicity shows that CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9 is probably a 650-750 K, log g = 3.75-4.0 substellar object. Using evolution models, this translates into a planetary mass object with an age in the 20-200 Myr range. An independent Bayesian analysis from proper motion measurements results in a 87% probability that this free-floating planet is a member of the 50-120 Myr-old AB Doradus moving group, which strengthens the spectroscopic diagnosis of youth. By combining our atmospheric characterisation with the age and metallicity constraints arising from the probable membership to the AB Doradus moving group, we find that CFBDSIRJ214947.2-040308.9 is probably a 4-7 Jupiter mass, free-floating planet with an effective temperature of ~700 K and a log g of ~4.0, typical of the late T-type exoplanets that are targeted by direct imaging. We stress that this object could be used as a benchmark for understanding the physics of the similar T-type exoplanets that will be discovered by the upcoming high-contrast imagers. Based on observations obtained with SOFI on the NTT at ESO-La Silla (run 086.C-0655(A)). Based on observations obtained with X-Shooter on VLT-UT2 at ESO-Paranal (run 087.C-0562(A)). Based on observations obtained with WIRCAM at CFHT (programmes 09AF21, 10BF26, and 11BD86).

  17. Jupiter Observation Campaign: Citizen Science at the Outer Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Jones; A. S. Wessen; R. Pappalardo; S. Vance; P. Dyches; K. Beisser; J. Perry

    2011-01-01

    How can NASA Outreach help the citizen scientist? NASA Solar System Education and Public Outreach (EPO) may coordinate and disseminate a consistent process for receiving Jupiter and other outer planet observation data from citizen scientists.

  18. MULTIPLE-PLANET SCATTERING AND THE ORIGIN OF HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Beauge, C. [Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR Cordoba (Argentina); Nesvorny, D. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Doppler and transit observations of exoplanets show a pile-up of Jupiter-size planets in orbits with a 3 day period. A fraction of these hot Jupiters have retrograde orbits with respect to the parent star's rotation, as evidenced by the measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. To explain these observations we performed a series of numerical integrations of planet scattering followed by the tidal circularization and migration of planets that evolved into highly eccentric orbits. We considered planetary systems having three and four planets initially placed in successive mean-motion resonances, although the angles were taken randomly to ensure orbital instability in short timescales. The simulations included the tidal and relativistic effects, and precession due to stellar oblateness. Our results show the formation of two distinct populations of hot Jupiters. The inner population (Population I) is characterized by semimajor axis a < 0.03 AU and mainly formed in the systems where no planetary ejections occurred. Our follow-up integrations showed that this population was transient, with most planets falling inside the Roche radius of the star in <1 Gyr. The outer population of hot Jupiters (Population II) formed in systems where at least one planet was ejected into interstellar space. This population survives the effects of tides over >1 Gyr and fits nicely the observed 3 day pile-up. A comparison between our three-planet and four-planet runs shows that the formation of hot Jupiters is more likely in systems with more initial planets. Due to the large-scale chaoticity that dominates the evolution, high eccentricities and/or high inclinations are generated mainly by close encounters between the planets and not by secular perturbations (Kozai or otherwise). The relative proportion of retrograde planets seems of be dependent on the stellar age. Both the distribution of almost aligned systems and the simulated 3 day pile-up also fit observations better in our four-planet simulations. This may suggest that the planetary systems with observed hot Jupiters were originally rich in the number of planets, some of which were ejected. In a broad perspective, our work therefore hints on an unexpected link between the hot Jupiters and recently discovered free floating planets.

  19. Effects of Collisions with Rocky Planets on the Properties of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kassandra R.; Adams, Fred C.

    2012-08-01

    Observed hot Jupiters exhibit a wide range of physical properties. For a given mass, many planets have inflated radii, while others are surprisingly compact and may harbor large central cores. Motivated by the observational sample, this article considers possible effects from collisions of smaller rocky planets with gas giant planets. In this scenario, the Jovian planets migrate first and enter into ˜4 day orbits, whereas rocky planets (mass mp = 0.1-20 M?) migrate later and then encounter the gaseous giants. Previous work indicates that the collision rates are high for such systems. This paper calculates the trajectories of incoming rocky planets as they orbit within the gaseous planets and are subjected to gravitational, frictional, and tidal forces. These collisions always increase the metallicity of the Jovian planets. If the incoming rocky bodies survive tidal destruction and reach the central regions, they provide a means of producing large planetary cores. Both the added metallicity and larger cores act to decrease the radii of the gas giants at fixed mass. The energy released during these collisions provides the Jovian planets with an additional heat source; here we determine the radial layers where kinetic energy of the colliding body is dissipated, including the energy remaining upon impact with the existing core. This process could have long-term effects if the colliding body deposits significant energy deep in the interior in regions of high opacity. Both hot Jupiters and newly formed gas giants have inflated radii large enough to allow incoming rocky planets to survive tidal disruption, enhance the central core mass, and deposit significant energy (in contrast, denser giant planets with the mass and radius of Jupiter are expected to tidally destroy incoming rocky bodies).

  20. Investigation of hydrogen and helium pumping by sputter ion pumps for Jupiter and outer planets mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomena of ion pumping is reviewed with emphasis on the pumping mechanism for hydrogen and helium. The experimental tests measure the performance of a small, flight proven ion pump which has a nominal four liter/second pumping speed for air. The speed of this pump for hydrogen and helium, and for hydrogen/helium mixes, is presented with particular detail regarding the time dependence. Pump test results are related to anticipated performance of the mass spectrometer by the pumping speeds for the gases to the partial pressure in the ion source. From this analysis, the pump specifications are quantified in terms of mission goals and in terms of observed pumping speeds for the various gases, load levels, and time periods.

  1. Discovering Habitable Earths, Hot Jupiters, and Other Close Planets with Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-01

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, RE . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of "repeating" lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  2. DISCOVERING HABITABLE EARTHS, HOT JUPITERS, AND OTHER CLOSE PLANETS WITH MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R{sub E} . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of 'repeating' lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  3. Properties of the short period CoRoT-planet population II: The impact of loss processes on planet masses from Neptunes to Jupiters

    E-print Network

    Helmut Lammer; T. Penz; G. Wuchterl; H. I. M. Lichtenegger; M. L. Khodachenko; Yu. N. Kulikov; G. Micela

    2007-01-19

    The orbital distance at which close-in exoplanets maintain their initial mass is investigated by modelling the maximum expected thermal and nonthermal mass loss rates over several Gyr. Depending on an exosphere formation time and the evolution of the stellar X-ray and EUV flux we expect that thermal evaporation at orbital distances less than 0.05 AU may be an efficient loss process for hydrogen-rich exoplanets with masses less than 0.25 MJup. Our results indicate that nonthermal mass loss induced by Coronal Mass Ejections of the host star can significantly erode weakly magnetized short periodic gas giants. The observed exoplanets Gliese 876d at 0.0208 AU with a mass of about 0.033 MJup and 55 Cnc e at 0.045 AU with a mass of about 0.038 MJup could be strongly eroded gas giants, while HD69830b, at 0.078 AU, HD160691d at 0.09 AU and HD69830c at 0.18 AU belonged most likely since their origin to the Neptune-mass domain. The consequences for the planetary population predicted in paper I (Wuchterl et al. 2006) for CoRoTs first field are: (1) for orbital distances less than 0.05 AU (orbital periods less than days) weakly magnetized or highly irradiated gas giants may loose a large fraction of their initial mass and completely loose their gas envelopes. (2) Observed planetary mass spectra at these periods that resemble the initial ones would indicate a major effect of magnetic field protection and so far unknown thermospheric cooling processes. (3) At distances larger than 0.05 AU the impact of loss processes is minor and the observed mass spectra should be close to the initial ones.

  4. Analyzing Mass Loss and Tidal Circularization as a Source for Sustained Eccentric Orbits in Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Rachel L.; Sepinsky, Jeremy F.

    2015-01-01

    As the number of extrasolar planets and planet candidates increases, so does the number of systems that look strikingly different from our own. Hot Jupiters are such a system and are characterized by a Jupiter mass planet with a close-in orbit. Because of the proximity of the planet to its parent star, we would expect these systems to be tidally circularized. However, we observe many with significant eccentricities, suggesting that a mechanism must exist to account for sustained eccentric orbits. Previous analyses found that, in a population of eccentric hot Jupiters generated by planet-planet scattering, a significant fraction will overfill their Roche lobe at periastron. Other work has noted that mass loss in systems similar to hot Jupiters can act to increase the eccentricity of the orbit of a binary system. Here, we consider the effects of tidal circularization and mass loss on the orbital evolution of the hot Jupiters. By analyzing the balance between the tidal circularization and mass loss, we can determine an equilibrium eccentricity as a function of planet mass and the tidal quality factor, Q. If such an equilibrium value exists, then it is possible for this mechanism to be responsible for the sustained eccentric orbits of hot Jupiters that we observe. We present the orbital parameters for these equilibrium orbits over a broad parameter space and compare those results to the current population of observed extrasolar planets.

  5. Jupiter Observation Campaign: Citizen Science at the Outer Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Houston. Jones; A. Wessen; Robert Pappalardo; Kerri Beisser; Preston Dyches

    2010-01-01

    NASA Solar System Education and Public Outreach (E\\/PO) will coordinate and disseminate a consistent process for receiving Jupiter observation data from citizen scientists. This may include a public repository or network matching scientists with citizen scientists who want to provide needed observations in a standard and consistent format. This will be a good Outer Planet mission contribution to the science

  6. Planets and Axisymmetric Mass Loss

    E-print Network

    Noam Soker

    2000-10-12

    Bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe), as well as extreme elliptical PNe are formed through the influence of a stellar companion. But half of all PN progenitors are not influenced by any stellar companion, and, as I show here, are expected to rotate very slowly on reaching the upper asymptotic giant branch; hence they expect to form spherical PNe, unless they are spun-up. But since most PNe are not spherical, I argue that about 50 percents of AGB stars are spun-up by planets, even planets having a mass as low as 0.01 times the mass of Jupiter, so they form elliptical PNe. The rotation by itself will not deform the AGB wind, but may trigger another process that will lead to axisymmetric mass loss, e.g., weak magnetic activity, as in the cool magnetic spots model. This model also explains the transition from spherical to axisymmetric mass loss on the upper AGB. For such low mass planets to substantially spin-up the stellar envelope, they should enter the envelope when the star reaches the upper AGB. This "fine-tuning" can be avoided if there are several planets on average around each star, as is the case in the solar system, so that one of them is engulfed when the star reaches the upper AGB.

  7. Jupiter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Jupiter. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density and albedo. Images with descriptions include the Jovian system, the great red spot, clouds in Jupiters atmosphere, and the ring system. Moon images show Io and its volcanics, Callisto with its craters and the Valhalla Basin, Europa, and Ganymede with its tectonic features. All of the images on this page were taken by the Voyager Spacecraft.

  8. THE MASS OF KOI-94d AND A RELATION FOR PLANET RADIUS, MASS, AND INCIDENT FLUX

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Lauren M.

    We measure the mass of a modestly irradiated giant planet, KOI-94d. We wish to determine whether this planet, which is in a 22 day orbit and receives 2700 times as much incident flux as Jupiter, is as dense as Jupiter or ...

  9. Three sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b & WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary

    E-print Network

    Anderson, D R; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V~10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.06 R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.868-d period around an active mid-K dwarf. We estimate a stellar age of 1 Gyr from both gyrochronological and age-activity relations, though an alternative gyrochronological relation suggests an age of 3 Gyr. ROSAT detected X-rays at a distance of 60$\\pm$27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ~10$^{12}$ g s$^{-1}$. This is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously-large Lyman-{\\alpha} absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.16R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially-resolved G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec ($\\geq$800 AU). We exploit the binar...

  10. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXIII. Two New Jupiter Analogs

    E-print Network

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Jones, H R A; Tuomi, Mikko; Salter, G S; Carter, B D; Koch, F Elliott; O'Toole, S J; Bailey, J; Wright, D

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of two long-period giant planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. HD 154857c is in a multiple-planet system, while HD 114613b appears to be solitary. HD 114613b has an orbital period P=10.5 years, and a minimum mass m sin i of 0.48 Jupiter masses; HD 154857c has P=9.5 years and m sin i=2.6 Jupiter masses. These new data confirm the planetary nature of the previously unconstrained long-period object in the HD 154857 system. We have performed detailed dynamical stability simulations which show that the HD 154857 two-planet system is stable on timescales of at least 100 million years. These results highlight the continued importance of "legacy" surveys with long observational baselines; these ongoing campaigns are critical for determining the population of Jupiter analogs, and hence of those planetary systems with architectures most like our own Solar system.

  11. The Mass Distribution Function of Planets

    E-print Network

    Malhotra, Renu

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of orbital period ratios of adjacent planets in extra-solar planetary systems discovered by the {\\it Kepler} space telescope exhibits a peak near $\\sim1.5$--$2$, a long tail of larger period ratios, and a steep drop-off in the number of systems with period ratios below $\\sim1.5$. We find from this data that the dimensionless orbital separations have an approximately log-normal distribution. The paucity of small orbital separations implies that the population of planets does not increase monotonically as planet mass decreases. Using Hill's criterion for the dynamical stability of two planets, we find an upper bound on planet masses such that the most common planet mass does not exceed $10^{-3.2}m_*$, or about two-thirds Jupiter mass for solar mass stars. We generalized Hill's criterion in a statistical way to estimate the planet mass distribution function from the distribution of orbital separations. We suggest that the planet mass function is peaked in logarithm of mass, and we estimate that ...

  12. Simulated Photoevaporative Mass Loss from Hot Jupiters in 3D

    E-print Network

    Tripathi, Anjali; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing stellar photons heat the upper regions of planetary atmospheres, driving atmospheric mass loss. Gas escaping from several hot, hydrogen-rich planets has been detected using UV and X-ray transmission spectroscopy. Because these planets are tidally locked, and thus asymmetrically irradiated, escaping gas is unlikely to be spherically symmetric. In this paper, we focus on the effects of asymmetric heating on local outflow structure. We use the Athena code for hydrodynamics to produce 3D simulations of hot Jupiter mass loss that jointly model wind launching and stellar heating via photoionization. Our fiducial planet is an inflated, hot Jupiter with radius $R_p=2.14 R_{\\rm Jup}$ and mass $M_p = 0.53 M_{\\rm Jup}$. We irradiate the initially neutral, atomic hydrogen atmosphere with 13.6 eV photons and compute the outflow's ionization structure. There are clear asymmetries in the atmospheric outflow, including a neutral shadow on the planet's nightside. Given an incident ionizing UV flux comparable to that ...

  13. The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. X. A Hot Jupiter orbiting HD 73256

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Udry; M. Mayor; J. V. Clausen; L. M. Freyhammer; B. E. Helt; C. Lovis; D. Naef; E. H. Olsen; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Recent radial-velocity measurements obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph on the 1.2-m Euler Swiss telescope at La Silla unveil the presence of a new Jovian-mass Hot Jupiter around HD 73256. The 1.85-MJup planet moves on an extremely short-period (P = 2.5486 d), quasi-circular orbit. The best Keplerian orbital solution is presented together with an unsuccessful photometric planetary-transit search performed with the

  14. On the formation of terrestrial planets in hot-Jupiter systems

    E-print Network

    Martyn J. Fogg; Richard P. Nelson

    2006-10-11

    We present a series of calculations aimed at examining how an inner system of planetesimals/protoplanets, undergoing terrestrial planet formation, evolves under the influence of a giant planet undergoing inward type II migration through the region bounded between 5 - 0.1 AU. We find that > 60% of the solids disk survives by being scattered by the giant planet into external orbits. Planetesimals are scattered outward almost as efficiently as protoplanets, resulting in the regeneration of a solids disk where dynamical friction is strong and terrestrial planet formation is able to resume. A simulation extended for a few Myr after the migration of the giant planet halted at 0.1 AU, resulted in an apparently stable planet of ~ 2 Earth masses forming in the habitable zone. Migration-induced mixing of volatile-rich material from beyond the `snowline' into the inner disk regions means that terrestrial planets that form there are likely to be water-rich. We predict that hot--Jupiter systems are likely to harbor water-rich terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. These planets may be detected by future planet search missions.

  15. ELODIE metallicity-biased search for transiting Hot Jupiters V. An intermediate-period Jovian planet orbiting HD45652

    E-print Network

    N. C. Santos; S. Udry; F. Bouchy; R. Da Silva; B. Loeillet; M. Mayor; C. Moutou; F. Pont; D. Queloz; S. Zucker; D. Naef; F. Pepe; D. Segransan; I. Boisse; X. Bonfils; X. Delfosse; M. Desort; T. Forveille; G. Hebrard; A. -M. Lagrange; C. Lovis; C. Perrier; A. Vidal-Madjar

    2008-05-29

    We present the detection of a 0.47 Jupiter mass planet in a 44-day period eccentric trajectory (e=0.39) orbiting the metal-rich star HD45652. This planet, the seventh giant planet discovered in the context of the ELODIE metallicity-biased planet search program, is also confirmed using higher precision radial-velocities obtained with the CORALIE and SOPHIE spectrographs. The orbital period of HD45652b places it in the middle of the "gap" in the period distribution of extra-solar planets.

  16. Alternate multiple-outer-planet missions using a Saturn-Jupiter flyby sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.; Hannah, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    A study has been made of a method for providing more frequent launch opportunities for multiple-planet Grand Tour type missions to the outer solar system. A Saturn-Jupiter flyby sequence was used in the analysis to initiate the mission instead of the normal Jupiter-Saturn sequence. The Saturn-first approach is shown to yield several new launch opportunities following the 1980 cutoff date for Jupiter-first missions. Results are given for various two-planet, three-planet, and four-planet Jupiter-first and Saturn-first missions. A unique five-planet Saturn-first mission and a Saturn-Jupiter flyby which returns to earth are also discussed. Mission performance is evaluated for each flyby technique by comparing Saturn-first and Jupiter-first missions with respect to launch energy requirements, available launch windows, planetary encounter conditions, and total mission times.

  17. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXIII. Two New Jupiter Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; Tuomi, Mikko; Salter, G. S.; Carter, B. D.; Koch, F. Elliott; O'Toole, S. J.; Bailey, J.; Wright, D.

    2014-03-01

    We report the discovery of two long-period giant planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. HD 154857c is in a multiple-planet system, while HD 114613b appears to be solitary. HD 114613b has an orbital period P = 10.5 yr, and a minimum mass msin i of 0.48 M Jup; HD 154857c has P = 9.5 yr and msin i = 2.6 M Jup. These new data confirm the planetary nature of the previously unconstrained long-period object in the HD 154857 system. We have performed detailed dynamical stability simulations which show that the HD 154857 two-planet system is stable on timescales of at least 108 yr. These results highlight the continued importance of "legacy" surveys with long observational baselines; these ongoing campaigns are critical for determining the population of Jupiter analogs, and hence of those planetary systems with architectures most like our own solar system.

  18. N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation under the influence of a hot Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Ogihara, Masahiro [Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Boulevard de l'Observatoire, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: omasahiro@oca.eu, E-mail: ogihara@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the formation of multiple-planet systems in the presence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using extended N-body simulations that are performed simultaneously with semianalytic calculations. Our primary aims are to describe the planet formation process starting from planetesimals using high-resolution simulations, and to examine the dependences of the architecture of planetary systems on input parameters (e.g., disk mass, disk viscosity). We observe that protoplanets that arise from oligarchic growth and undergo type I migration stop migrating when they join a chain of resonant planets outside the orbit of an HJ. The formation of a resonant chain is almost independent of our model parameters, and is thus a robust process. At the end of our simulations, several terrestrial planets remain at around 0.1 AU. The formed planets are not equal mass; the largest planet constitutes more than 50% of the total mass in the close-in region, which is also less dependent on parameters. In the previous work of this paper, we have found a new physical mechanism of induced migration of the HJ, which is called a crowding-out. If the HJ opens up a wide gap in the disk (e.g., owing to low disk viscosity), crowding-out becomes less efficient and the HJ remains. We also discuss angular momentum transfer between the planets and disk.

  19. Nonuniform viscosity in the solar nebula and large masses of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-print Network

    Liping Jin

    2008-05-06

    I report a novel theory that nonuniform viscous frictional force in the solar nebula accounts for the largest mass of Jupiter and Saturn and their largest amount of H and He among the planets, two outstanding facts that are unsolved puzzles in our understanding of origin of the Solar System. It is shown that the nebula model of uniform viscosity does not match the present planet masses. By studying current known viscosity mechanisms, I show that viscosity is more efficient in the inner region inside Mercury and the outer region outside Jupiter-Saturn than the intermediate region. The more efficient viscosity drives faster radial inflow of material during the nebula evolution. Because the inflow in the outer region is faster than the intermediate region, the material tends to accumulate in Jupiter-Saturn region which is between the outer and intermediate region. It is demonstrated that the gas trapping time of Jovian planets is longer than the inflow time in the outer region. Therefore the gas already flows to Jupiter-Saturn region before Uranus and Neptune can capture significant gas. But the inflow in the Jupiter-Saturn region is so slow that they can capture large amount of gas before the gas can flow further inward. Hence they have larger masses with larger H and He content than Uranus and Neptune. I also extend the discussion to the masses of the terrestrial planets, especially low mass of Mercury. The advantages of this theory are discussed.

  20. ON THE ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF A GIANT PLANET PAIR EMBEDDED IN A GASEOUS DISK. II. A SATURN-JUPITER CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin, E-mail: huizhang@nju.edu.c [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-08-10

    We carry out a series of high-resolution (1024 x 1024) hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the orbital evolution of a Saturn-Jupiter pair embedded in a gaseous disk. This work extends the results of our previous work by exploring a different orbital configuration-Jupiter lies outside Saturn (q < 1, where q {identical_to} M{sub i} /M{sub o} is the mass ratio of the inner planet and the outer one). We focus on the effects of different initial separations (d) between the two planets and the various surface density profiles of the disk, where {sigma} {proportional_to} r {sup -}{alpha}. We also compare the results of different orbital configurations of the planet pair. Our results show that (1) when the initial separation is relatively large (d>d {sub iLr}, where d {sub iLr} is the distance between Jupiter and its first inner Lindblad resonance), the two planets undergo divergent migration. However, the inward migration of Saturn could be halted when Jupiter compresses the inner disk in which Saturn is embedded. (2) Convergent migration occurs when the initial separation is smaller (d < d {sub iLr}) and the density slope of the disk is nearly flat ({alpha} < 1/2). Saturn is then forced by Jupiter to migrate inward where the two planets are trapped into mean motion resonances (MMRs), and Saturn may get very close to the central star. (3) In the case of q < 1, the eccentricity of Saturn could be excited to a very high value (e{sub S} {approx} 0.4-0.5) by the MMRs and the system could maintain stability. These results explain the formation of MMRs in the exoplanet systems where the outer planet is more massive than the inner one. It also helps us to understand the origin of the 'hot Jupiter/Saturn' with a highly eccentric orbit.

  1. The Keck Planet Search: Detectability and the Minimum Mass and Orbital Period Distribution of Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Andrew Cumming; R. Paul Butler; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Steven S. Vogt; Jason T. Wright; Debra A. Fischer

    2008-03-24

    We analyze 8 years of precise radial velocity measurements from the Keck Planet Search, characterizing the detection threshold, selection effects, and completeness of the survey. We carry out a systematic search for planets by assessing the false alarm probability associated with Keplerian orbit fits to the data. This allows us to understand the detection threshold for each star in terms of the number and time baseline of the observations, and size of measurement errors and stellar jitter. We show that all planets with orbital periods 20 m/s, and eccentricities 0.3 Jupiter masses and periods <2000 days gives a mass-period distribution dN=C M^\\alpha P^\\beta dlnM dlnP with \\alpha=-0.31 \\pm 0.2, \\beta=0.26\\pm 0.1, and the normalization constant C such that 10.5% of solar type stars have a planet with mass in the range 0.3-10 Jupiter masses and orbital period 2-2000 days. The orbital period distribution shows an increase in the planet fraction by a factor of 5 for orbital periods beyond 300 days. Extrapolation gives 17-20% of stars having gas giant planets within 20 AU. Finally, taking into account differences in detectability, we find that M dwarfs are 3 to 10 times less likely to harbor a Jupiter mass planet than solar type stars.

  2. AN INTERPRETATION OF THE ORBITAL PERIOD DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOT JUPITERS AND GIANT PLANETS ON LONG-PERIOD ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Liping, E-mail: jinlp@jlu.edu.c [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China)

    2010-09-10

    It is believed that a hot Jupiter (giant planet with a short period less than 10 days) forms in the outer region of a protoplanetary disk, then migrates inward to an orbit with a short period around 3 days, and stops there by a final stopping mechanism. The prominent problem is why hot Jupiters migrate inward to short-period orbits, while other extrasolar giant planets and Jovian planets in our solar system exist on long-period orbits. Here we show that this difference in orbital periods is caused by two populations of protoplanetary disks. One population experiences gravitational instability during some periods of their lifetime (GI disks), while the other does not (No-GI disks). In GI disks, planets can quickly migrate inward to short-period orbits to become hot Jupiters. In No-GI disks, the migration is so slow that planets can exist on long-period orbits. Protoplanetary disks are classified into the two populations because of the differences in properties of molecular cloud cores, from which disks from. We specifically compare our theory with observations. Our theory is supported by observations of extrasolar planets. We analyze the current status of our solar system and find that our solar nebula belongs to the population with a low migration rate. This is consistent with the observation that Jupiter and Saturn are indeed on long-period orbits. Our results further suggest that, in the future observations, a hot Jupiter cannot be found around a star with mass below a critical mass (0.14-0.28 M {sub sun}).

  3. The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. X. A Hot Jupiter orbiting HD73256

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Udry; M. Mayor; J. V. Clausen; L. M. Freyhammer; B. E. Helt; C. Lovis; D. Naef; E. H. Olsen; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Recent radial-velocity measurements obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph on\\u000athe 1.2-m Euler Swiss telescope at La Silla unveil the presence of a new\\u000aJovian-mass Hot Jupiter around HD 73256. The 1.85-M_Jup planet moves on an\\u000aextremely short-period (P=2.5486 d), quasi-circular orbit. The best Keplerian\\u000aorbital solution is presented together with an unsuccessful photometric\\u000aplanetary-transit search performed with the SAT Danish

  4. THE HEAVY-ELEMENT MASSES OF EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS, REVEALED

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Neil; Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: neil@astro.ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We investigate a population of transiting planets that receive relatively modest stellar insolation, indicating equilibrium temperatures <1000 K, and for which the heating mechanism that inflates hot Jupiters does not appear to be significantly active. We use structural evolution models to infer the amount of heavy elements within each of these planets. There is a correlation between the stellar metallicity and the mass of heavy elements in its transiting planet(s). It appears that all giant planets possess a minimum of {approx}10-15 Earth masses of heavy elements, with planets around metal-rich stars having larger heavy-element masses. There is also an inverse relationship between the mass of the planet and the metal enrichment (Z{sub pl}/Z{sub star}), which appears to have little dependency on the metallicity of the star. Saturn- and Jupiter-like enrichments above solar composition are a hallmark of all the gas giants in the sample, even planets of several Jupiter masses. These relationships provide an important constraint on planet formation and suggest large amounts of heavy elements within planetary H/He envelopes. We suggest that the observed correlation can soon also be applied to inflated planets, such that the interior heavy-element abundance of these planets could be estimated, yielding better constraints on their interior energy sources. We point to future directions for planetary population synthesis models and suggest future correlations. This appears to be the first evidence that extrasolar giant planets, as a class, are enhanced in heavy elements.

  5. A low mass for Mars from Jupiter's early gas-driven migration.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kevin J; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N; O'Brien, David P; Mandell, Avi M

    2011-07-14

    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years (ref. 1) from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only ?100,000 years (ref. 2). Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration. The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later, and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (1 au is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 au, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 au; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with an Earth/Mars mass ratio consistent with observations. Scattering by Jupiter initially empties but then repopulates the asteroid belt, with inner-belt bodies originating between 1 and 3 au and outer-belt bodies originating between and beyond the giant planets. This explains the significant compositional differences across the asteroid belt. The key aspect missing from previous models of terrestrial planet formation is the substantial radial migration of the giant planets, which suggests that their behaviour is more similar to that inferred for extrasolar planets than previously thought. PMID:21642961

  6. A low mass for Mars from Jupiter's early gas-driven migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Walsh; Alessandro Morbidelli; Sean N. Raymond; David P. O'Brien; Avi M. Mandell

    2011-01-01

    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years (ref. 1) from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only ~100,000 years (ref. 2). Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration. The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later, and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass,

  7. A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Mayor; Didier Queloz

    1995-01-01

    The presence of a Jupiter-mass companion to the star 51 Pegasi is inferred from observations of periodic variations in the star's radial velocity. The companion lies only about eight million kilometres from the star, which would be well inside the orbit of Mercury in our Solar System. This object might be a gas-giant planet that has migrated to this location

  8. The Search For Jupiter: Combing the Kepler Database for Long Period, Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Laughlin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The number of known exoplanets is increasingly rapidly, with progress accelerated by dedicated missions such as the Kepler Space Telescope. As NASA's statistics of the planetary census improve, we gain a better understanding of our solar system's place in the galaxy. A satisfactory assessment, however, requires the answers to two questions still just beyond our grasp: (1) What is the frequency of rocky planets with orbits similar to Earth's, and (2) How common are Jupiter-mass planets in roughly circular, decade-long orbits? The Kepler team is actively addressing the first question, but the second still requires significant effort. My work focuses on developing an independent data analysis pipeline that statistically analyzes the public Kepler database for single event, long duration transit signatures. I will present an overview of the data reduction process along with preliminary results that include a number of previously unidentified transit events from Quarters 1-13 of the Kepler mission.

  9. Searching for Jupiter Analogues: Detection Limits of the McDonald Observatory Harlan J. Smith 2.7m Telescope Radial Velocity Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Caroline; Endl, M.; Cochran, W.; MacQueen, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The McDonald Observatory Planet Search has recorded twelve years of high precision radial velocity measurements. Now it is possible to test the frequency of Jupiter analogues in the database. 81 stars with a twelve-year timeline and no known companions were selected, and simulations were performed to test our sensitivity to the radial velocity signals of Jupiter analogues. Our criteria for a Jupiter analogue are a planetary companion of a sun-like star with a mass between .8 to 4 Jupiter masses, at a distance ranging from 4 to 5.5 AU. A true Jupiter signal is near the limit of our observations at a distance of 5AU with a period of 4330 days, or 11.9 years. The results of these simulations show the database's sensitivity to Jupiter analogues and the frequency of Jupiter analogues. The results demonstrate that the McDonald Observatory Planet Search is a valuable source of high precision radial velocity measurements, and that the continuation of the program is beneficial to the discovery and study of extra solar planets.

  10. The anglo-australian planet search. XXIII. Two new Jupiter analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Salter, G. S.; Bailey, J.; Wright, D. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A.; Tuomi, Mikko [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, College Lane, AL10 9AB Hatfield (United Kingdom); Carter, B. D. [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Koch, F. Elliott [San Diego State University, Physics Department, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States); O'Toole, S. J., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-03-10

    We report the discovery of two long-period giant planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. HD 154857c is in a multiple-planet system, while HD 114613b appears to be solitary. HD 114613b has an orbital period P = 10.5 yr, and a minimum mass msin i of 0.48 M {sub Jup}; HD 154857c has P = 9.5 yr and msin i = 2.6 M {sub Jup}. These new data confirm the planetary nature of the previously unconstrained long-period object in the HD 154857 system. We have performed detailed dynamical stability simulations which show that the HD 154857 two-planet system is stable on timescales of at least 10{sup 8} yr. These results highlight the continued importance of 'legacy' surveys with long observational baselines; these ongoing campaigns are critical for determining the population of Jupiter analogs, and hence of those planetary systems with architectures most like our own solar system.

  11. ON THE FUNDAMENTAL MASS-PERIOD FUNCTIONS OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, I.-G. [Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Yeh, L.-C.; Chang, Y.-C. [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Hung, W.-L. [Graduate Institute of Computer Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-01

    Employing a catalog of 175 extrasolar planets (exoplanets) detected by the Doppler-shift method, we constructed the independent and coupled mass-period functions. It is the first time in this field that the selection effect is considered in the coupled mass-period functions. Our results are consistent with those of Tabachnik and Tremaine in 2002, with the major difference that we obtain a flatter mass function but a steeper period function. Moreover, our coupled mass-period functions show that about 2.5% of stars would have a planet with mass between Earth Mass and Neptune Mass, and about 3% of stars would have a planet with mass between Neptune Mass and Jupiter Mass.

  12. A SHORT-PERIOD CENSOR OF SUB-JUPITER MASS EXOPLANETS WITH LOW DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Gy. M.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-02-01

    Despite the existence of many short-period hot Jupiters, there is not one hot Neptune with an orbital period less than 2.5 days. Here, we discuss a cluster analysis of the currently known 106 transiting exoplanets to investigate a possible explanation for this observation. We find two distinct clusters in the mass-density space, one with hot Jupiters with a wide range of orbital periods (0.8-114 days) and a narrow range of planet radii (1.2 {+-} 0.2 R{sub J} ) and another one with a mixture of super-Earths, hot Neptunes, and hot Jupiters, exhibiting a surprisingly narrow period distribution (3.7 {+-} 0.8 days). These two clusters follow strikingly different distributions in the period-radius parameter plane. The branch of sub-Jupiter mass exoplanets is censored by the orbital period at the large-radius end: no planets with mass between 0.02 and 0.8 M{sub J} or with radius between 0.25 and 1.0 R{sub J} are known with P{sub orb} < 2.5 days. This clustering is not predicted by current theories of planet formation and evolution, which we also review briefly.

  13. Comparison Between Extrasolar Planets and Low-Mass Secondaries

    E-print Network

    T. Mazeh; S. Zucker

    2000-08-04

    This paper compares the statistical features of the sample of discovered extrasolar planets with those of the secondaries in nearby spectroscopic binaries, in order to enable us to distinguish between the two populations. Based on 32 planet candidates discovered until March 2000, we find that their eccentricity and period distribution are surprisingly similar to those of the binary population, while their mass distribution is remarkably different. The mass distributions definitely support the idea of two distinct populations, suggesting the planet candidates are indeed extrasolar planets. The transition between the two populations probably occurs at 10--30 Jupiter masses. We point out a possible negative correlation between the orbital period of the planets and the metallicity of their parent stars, which holds only for periods less than about 100 days. These short-period systems are characterized by circular or almost circular orbits.

  14. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya Univsersity, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: kurokawa@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (? 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  15. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (mass) using a combination of analytic and numerical calculations, and I will show that all low-mass planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  16. The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. X. A Hot Jupiter orbiting HD73256

    E-print Network

    S. Udry; M. Mayor; J. V. Clausen; L. M. Freyhammer; B. E. Helt; C. Lovis; D. Naef; E. H. Olsen; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos

    2003-06-03

    Recent radial-velocity measurements obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph on the 1.2-m Euler Swiss telescope at La Silla unveil the presence of a new Jovian-mass Hot Jupiter around HD 73256. The 1.85-M_Jup planet moves on an extremely short-period (P=2.5486 d), quasi-circular orbit. The best Keplerian orbital solution is presented together with an unsuccessful photometric planetary-transit search performed with the SAT Danish telescope at La Silla. Over the time span of the observations, the photometric follow-up of the candidate has nevertheless revealed a P=14-d photometric periodicity corresponding to the rotational period of the star. This variation as well as the radial-velocity jitter around the Keplerian solution are shown to be related to the fair activity level known for HD 73256.

  17. Composition and origin of the atmosphere of Jupiter—an update, and implications for the extrasolar giant planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. k. Atreya; P. R Mahaffy; H. b. Niemann; M. h. Wong; T. c. Owen

    2003-01-01

    New developments have led to this update of the composition and origin of Jupiter's atmosphere that were originally discussed in our Planet. Space Sci. 47 (1999) 1243 paper. Since Jupiter can provide important insight into the atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets (EGP), we also discuss here the possible implications of the first detection of an atmosphere on an EGP. The

  18. Towards a deterministic model of planetary formation. III. Mass distribution of short-period planets around stars of various masses

    E-print Network

    S. Ida; D. N. C. Lin

    2005-02-28

    The origin of a recently discovered close-in Neptune-mass planet around GJ436 poses a challenge to the current theories of planet formation. Based on the sequential accretion hypothesis and the standard theory of gap formation and orbital migration, we show that around M dwarf stars, close-in Neptune-mass ice-giant planets may be relatively common, while close-in Jupiter-mass gas-giant planets are relatively rare. The mass distribution of close-in planets generally has two peaks at about Neptune mass and Jupiter mass. The lower-mass peak takes the maximum frequency for M dwarfs. Around more massive solar-type stars (G dwarfs), the higher-mass peak is much more pronounced. These are because planets tend to undergo type II migration after fully accreting gas around G dwarfs while they tend to migrate faster than gas accretion around M stars. Close-in Neptune-mass planets may also exist around G dwarfs, though they tend to be mostly composed of silicates and iron cores and their frequency is expected to be much smaller than that of Neptune-mass planets around M dwarfs and that of gas giants around G dwarfs. We also show that the conditions for planets' migration due to their tidal interaction with the disk and the stellar-mass dependence in the disk-mass distribution can be calibrated by the mass distribution of short-period planets around host stars with various masses.

  19. Mass loss of “Hot Jupiters”—Implications for CoRoT discoveries. Part I: The importance of magnetospheric protection of a planet against ion loss caused by coronal mass ejections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Khodachenko; H. Lammer; H. I. M. Lichtenegger; D. Langmayr; N. V. Erkaev; J. M. Grießmeier; M. Leitner; T. Penz; H. K. Biernat; U. Motschmann; H. O. Rucker

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric erosion due to CME-caused ion pick-up is investigated here for the first time for short periodic gas giants (so-called “Hot Jupiters”) orbiting close to a star. To study the effect of encountering CMEs produced on the magnetospheres and atmospheres of “Hot Jupiters” we model possible interaction of dense CME plasma with the exoplanet HD209458b (rpl=1.43rJup, Mpl=0.69MJup), which orbits a

  20. Planets of the solar system. [Jupiter and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondratyev, K. Y.; Moskalenko, N. I.

    1978-01-01

    Venera and Mariner spacecraft and ground based radio astronomy and spectroscopic observations of the atmosphere and surface of venus are examined. The composition and structural parameters of the atmosphere are discussed as the basis for development of models and theories of the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, atmospheric circulation and cloud cover. Recommendations for further meteorological studies are given. Ground based and Pioneer satellite observation data on Jupiter are explored as well as calculations and models of the cloud structure, atmospheric circulation and thermal emission field of Jupiter.

  1. Can Planets Survive Stellar Evolution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Villaver; Mario Livio

    2007-01-01

    We study the survival of gas planets around stars with masses in the range 1-5 Msolar, as these stars evolve off the main sequence. We show that planets with masses smaller than one Jupiter mass do not survive the planetary nebula phase if located initially at orbital distances smaller than 3-5 AU. Planets more massive than two Jupiter masses around

  2. A historical interpretation of the study of the visible cloud morphology on the planet Jupiter: 1610-1878

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas Arnold

    The majority of the literature discussing the perceived physical appearance of Jupiter published prior to 1878 was examined in order to determine to what extent observations were biased by technical limitations and preconceptions of their day and, in lieu of these, how useful this body of work is in characterizing the behavior of the Jovian upper atmosphere over the last three hundred years. The biographies of the historical observers; their instrumentation, available viewing conditions, and observational techniques; their means of communication with their fellows; and the primary interpretive references available to their libraries were investigated in order to attempt to explain discrepancies and agreement between what was reported in pre-photographic times and what is presently seen. It was found that nearly all of the prominent feature-types found on Jupiter today existed during the nineteenth century and, in some cases, earlier. The longevity and frequency of the appearance of features can not be accurately determined from the time before objective surveys of the planet were organized. This is because, during each apparition of Jupiter, nonprofessional part-time observers, working independently chose to use their finite time and resources to follow the progress of specific discoveries on its disk to the exclusion of the rest of the planet. Interpretation of Jovian features were subject to three major impediments: the belief in and search for a solid surface of Jupiter at moderate depth below the clouds; a lack of appreciation for the two or more orders of magnitude differences of scale between the dimensions of Jupiter's area, mass, and properties of its atmosphere compared to those of the Earth; and an inability to differentiate between real and phantom features watched through seeing-limited telescopes.

  3. Painting Planets: Jupiter as Shown in Popular Works a Century Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    1999-05-01

    Book illustrations from one-hundred years ago tell us how the planets were then popularly envisioned. Surprisingly, while Jupiter's is the most dynamic disk in the Solar System when viewed through the telescope, that world was often depicted by the *same* illustration. This "paradigm" figure provides insight into the limitations of nineteenth-century planetary astronomy.

  4. The sub-Jupiter mass transiting exoplanet WASP-11b

    E-print Network

    R. G. West; A. Collier Cameron; L. Hebb; Y. C. Joshi; D. Pollacco; E. Simpson; I. Skillen; H. C. Stempels; P. J. Wheatley; D. Wilson; D. Anderson; S. Bentley; F. Bouchy; B. Enoch; N. Gibson; G. Hébrard; C. Hellier; B. Loeillet; M. Mayor; P. Maxted; I. McDonald; C. Moutou; F. Pont; D. Queloz; A. M. S. Smith; B. Smalley; R. A. Street; S. Udry

    2008-09-26

    We report the discovery of a sub-Jupiter mass exoplanet transiting a magnitude V=11.7 host star 1SWASP J030928.54+304024.7. A simultaneous fit to the transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements yield a planet mass M_p=0.53+-0.07M_J, radius R_p=0.91^{+0.06}_{-0.03}R_J and an orbital period of 3.722465^{+0.000006}_{-0.000008} days. The host star is of spectral type K3V, with a spectral analysis yielding an effective temperature of 4800+-100K and log g=4.45+-0.2. It is amongst the smallest, least massive and lowest luminosity stars known to harbour a transiting exoplanet. WASP-11b is the third least strongly irradiated transiting exoplanet discovered to date, experiencing an incident flux F_p=1.9x10^8 erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} and having an equilibrium temperature T_eq=960+-70K.

  5. Close encounters of a rotating star with planets in parabolic orbits of varying inclination and the formation of hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we extend the theory of close encounters of a giant planet on a parabolic orbit with a central star developed in our previous work (Ivanov and Papaloizou in MNRAS 347:437, 2004; MNRAS 376:682, 2007) to include the effects of tides induced on the central star. Stellar rotation and orbits with arbitrary inclination to the stellar rotation axis are considered. We obtain results both from an analytic treatment that incorporates first order corrections to normal mode frequencies arising from stellar rotation and numerical treatments that are in satisfactory agreement over the parameter space of interest. These results are applied to the initial phase of the tidal circularisation problem. We find that both tides induced in the star and planet can lead to a significant decrease of the orbital semi-major axis for orbits having periastron distances smaller than 5-6 stellar radii with tides in the star being much stronger for retrograde orbits compared to prograde orbits. Assuming that combined action of dynamic and quasi-static tides could lead to the total circularisation of orbits this corresponds to observed periods up to 4-5 days. We use the simple Skumanich law to characterise the rotational history of the star supposing that the star has its rotational period equal to one month at the age of 5 Gyr. The strength of tidal interactions is characterised by circularisation time scale, t ev , which is defined as a typical time scale of evolution of the planet's semi-major axis due to tides. This is considered as a function of orbital period P obs , which the planet obtains after the process of tidal circularisation has been completed. We find that the ratio of the initial circularisation time scales corresponding to prograde and retrograde orbits, respectively, is of order 1.5-2 for a planet of one Jupiter mass having P obs ~ 4 days. The ratio grows with the mass of the planet, being of order five for a five Jupiter mass planet with the same P orb . Note, however, this result might change for more realistic stellar rotation histories. Thus, the effect of stellar rotation may provide a bias in the formation of planetary systems having planets on close orbits around their host stars, as a consequence of planet-planet scattering, which favours systems with retrograde orbits. The results reported in the paper may also be applied to the problem of tidal capture of stars in young stellar clusters.

  6. What If There Were a Planet Between Mars and Jupiter?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity, a supplement to the Hall of Meteorites Educator's Guide, investigates the transition point between the rocky planets of the inner solar system and the gas planets of the outer solar system. After reviewing the characteristics of the nine planets of the inner and outer solar system, along with the asteroid belt that lies between them, students are asked to investigate this question: If these asteroids had come together at the same time and in the same way to form a 10th planet, what would it be like?

  7. Jupiter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. An artist's conception of Jupiter's magnetic field as it is stretched out by the solar wind is also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description and history, some statistical facts, and a list of significant dates in the exploration of Jupiter.

  8. PHOTO ILLUSTRATION OF COMET P/SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 and PLANET JUPITER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a composite photo, assembled from separate images of Jupiter and comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9, as imaged by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC-2), aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Jupiter was imaged on May 18, 1994, when the giant planet was at a distance of 420 million miles (670 million km) from Earth. This 'true-color' picture was assembled from separate HST exposures in red, blue, and green light. Jupiter's rotation between exposures creates the blue and red fringe on either side of the disk. HST can resolve details in Jupiter's magnificent cloud belts and zones as small as 200 miles (320 km) across (wide field mode). This detailed view is only surpassed by images from spacecraft that have traveled to Jupiter. The dark spot on the disk of Jupiter is the shadow of the inner moon Io. This volcanic moon appears as an orange and yellow disk just to the upper right of the shadow. Though Io is approximately the size of Earth's Moon (but 2,000 times farther away), HST can resolve surface details. When the comet was observed on May 17, its train of 21 icy fragments stretched across 710 thousand miles (1.1 million km) of space, or 3 times the distance between Earth and the Moon. This required six WFPC exposures along the comet train to include all the nuclei. The image was taken in red light. The apparent angular size of Jupiter relative to the comet, and its angular separation from the comet when the images were taken, have been modified for illustration purposes. Credit: H.A. Weaver, T.E. Smith (Space Telescope Science Institute) and J.T. Trauger, R.W. Evans (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and NASA

  9. EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shulin [Department of Astronomy, Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Agnor, C.B. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom); Lin, D. N. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis, such massive cores are needed for the onset of efficient accretion of their gaseous envelopes. However, Jupiter's gaseous envelope is more massive and its core may be less massive than those of Saturn. In order to account for this structural diversity and the super-solar metallicity in the envelope of Jupiter and Saturn, we investigate the possibility that they may have either merged with other gas giants or consumed several Earth-mass protoplanetary embryos during or after the rapid accretion of their envelope. In general, impinging sub-Earth-mass planetesimals disintegrate in gas giants' envelopes, deposit heavy elements well outside the cores, and locally suppress the convection. Consequently, their fragments sediment to promote the growth of cores. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that it is possible for colliding super-Earth-mass embryos to reach the cores of gas giants. Direct parabolic collisions also lead to the coalescence of gas giants and merging of their cores. In these cases, the energy released from the impact leads to vigorous convective motion throughout the envelope and the erosion of the cores. This dichotomy contributes to the observed dispersion in the internal structure and atmospheric composition between Jupiter and Saturn and other gas giant planets and elsewhere.

  10. An Astrometrically Measured Mass for Extrasolar Planet

    E-print Network

    An Astrometrically Measured Mass for Extrasolar Planet Gliese 876b By Michael McElwain Presented March 14, 2003 #12;Paper details A Mass For the Extrasolar Planet Gliese 876b Determined from Hubble Extrasolar Planets Radial Velocity Measurements Astrometry Photometry Interferometry Gravitational

  11. Using Jupiter's Volatile Inventory to Trace the History Of Ices During Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Galileo probe's measurement of a uniform enrichment of Jupiter's atmosphere in volatiles, including noble gases, relative to a gas of solar composition has proven to be a challenge to models of planet formation. This uniform enrichment requires that Jupiter accreted planetesimals with solar ratios in all elements, except for hydrogen and helium. Given the very low temperatures needed to achieve such compositions if all elements behaved chemically as pure substances, efforts have focused on understanding how extremely volatile elements could be physically incorporated into ices and organics at low temperatures. Two primary methods for incorporation of these volatiles have emerged: formation of clathrate hydrates and trapping of gases during the formation of amorphous ice. These modes for incorporating volatiles make different predictions about the amount of water that would be contained within Jupiter, an issue that will be addressed by the Juno Mission. Either mode for incorporating volatiles will reveal details about the dynamical behavior of ices during planet formation and the environments in which planetary materials were formed. For example, Ciesla (2014) showed that amorphous ice formation, and thus trapping of volatiles in this manner, can occur as water molecules are photodesorbed and freeze-out again on grain surfaces, thus requiring high UV flux environments at the birth of the solar system or significant vertical lofting of grains in the disk by turbulence. I will review the conditions that are required for amorphous trapping and clathrate hydrate formation to have occurred in the solar nebula and discuss the implications for the compositions of the other giant planets and cometary bodies, as well as the relation of these materials to the sources of volatiles on terrestrial planets.

  12. A Method for Spectral Studies of Albedos of Hot Jupiter Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauzhanina, A.; Valyavin, G.; Gadelshin, D.; Zhuchkov, R.; Galazutdinov, G.; Burlakova, T.; Mkrtichian, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method and a corresponding observational strategy for spectral studies of albedos of giant, Jupiter-sized exoplanets orbiting close to their parent stars (the so-called “hot Jupiter” exoplanets). The method makes it possible to study integral, “visible” colors of the planets, monitor their orbital motion and variability of their phases (analogous to those of the Moon). Orbital parameters and some other important new data about exoplanets can also be obtained within the framework of this strategy. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, we model a sun-like spectrum of a parent star containing a weak reflected spectrum from an orbiting typical hot Jupiter planet located at a distance equal to 10 radii of the parent star. Applying our method, we show that the reflected spectrum can be detected in real high/moderate resolution spectral observations. The required quality (signal-to-noise ratio) of the spectral data is S/N=3000 per resolution element and higher. Such observations are possible for bright stars with the stellar magnitudes less than 9m at large telescopes with the apertures greater than 4 meters.

  13. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    2015-01-01

    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius <2 km) break-up. The percentage disruption rate appears to be comparable with that of the dynamically distinct Oort cloud and Halley type comets (Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ?5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  14. A low mass for Mars from Jupiter's early gas-driven migration

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Kevin J; Raymond, Sean N; O'Brien, David P; Mandell, Avi M; 10.1038/nature10201

    2012-01-01

    Jupiter and Saturn formed in a few million years (Haisch et al. 2001) from a gas-dominated protoplanetary disk, and were susceptible to gas-driven migration of their orbits on timescales of only ~100,000 years (Armitage 2007). Hydrodynamic simulations show that these giant planets can undergo a two-stage, inward-then-outward, migration (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). The terrestrial planets finished accreting much later (Klein et al. 2009), and their characteristics, including Mars' small mass, are best reproduced by starting from a planetesimal disk with an outer edge at about one astronomical unit from the Sun (Wetherill 1978, Hansen 2009) (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance). Here we report simulations of the early Solar System that show how the inward migration of Jupiter to 1.5 AU, and its subsequent outward migration, lead to a planetesimal disk truncated at 1 AU; the terrestrial planets then form from this disk over the next 30-50 million years, with ...

  15. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    E-print Network

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  16. Extrasolar Planets and the Rotation and Axisymmetrical mass loss of evolved stars

    E-print Network

    Noam Soker

    2000-06-26

    I examine the implications of the recently found extrasolar planets on the planet-induced axisymmetrical mass loss model for the formation of elliptical planetary nebulae (PNs). This model, which was developed in several earlier papers by the author and a few collaborators, attributes low departure from spherical mass loss of upper asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to envelope rotation which results from deposition of planet's orbital angular momentum. It was predicted that about 50 percent of all sun-like stars have Jupiter-like planets around them. In light of the new finding that only 5 percent of sun-like stars do have such planets I revise this prediction. I now predict that indeed about 50 percent of PNs progenitors do have close planets around them, but the planets can have much lower masses, as low as 0.01 times Jupiter's mass. To support this claim I follow the angular momentum evolution of single stars as they evolve to the post-AGB phase. The prediction that on average several such planets orbit each star, as in the solar system, still holds.

  17. Earth, Jupiter and Saturn as guides for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs: a lightning climatology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodosán, Gabriella; Asensio Torres, Rubén; Helling, Christiane; Vorgul, Irena

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale electrostatic discharges (i.e. lightning) have been observed in the Solar System. Apart from Earth there are direct detections from Jupiter and Saturn and indirect (only radio) detection from Uranus and Neptune. Recent observations made by the Venus Explorer revealed radio signals that may be related to lightning. Observations indicate that clouds form on extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. The conditions in these clouds may be good for lightning to occur, which can be a main ionization process in these atmospheres (lightning in mineral clouds e.g.: Bailey et al. 2014, ApJ, 784, 43; Helling at al. 2013, ApJ, 767, 136; Helling et al. 2013, P&SS, 77, 152). In this study our aim is to compare lightning climatology from Earth, Jupiter and Saturn and use these statistics as a guide to study potential lightning on extrasolar planetary objects. Earth is a fair analogy for rocky or ocean planets while Jupiter and Saturn resemble giant planets and brown dwarfs. To give an estimate on the total lightning energy (or power) that can reach us from a particular extrasolar body, we need to know how much lightning can occur on the object globally. We will show the possibilities in the number and quality of the giant planet data sets, which may give a fine comparison of future observations of extrasolar giant gas planets and even brown dwarfs. Data were obtained from Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)/Optical Transient Detector (OTD) (e.g.: Cecil et al. 2014, Atmospheric Research, 135, 404), Sferics Timing and Ranging Network (STARNET) (e.g.: Morales Rodrigues et al. 2011, 2014, XIV and XV International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity) and World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) (e.g.: Hutchins et al. 2012, Radio Science, 47, RS6005), four major lightning detecting networks, which monitor lightning occurrence in the optical or radio range on Earth. We compare flash/stroke rates in space and time and use the data to refer to Earth as a transiting exoplanet. We analyze flash rates from a certain celestial direction (as if looked at Earth from outside the Solar System from a fixed location) to see how they vary as the planet orbits the star. The same comparison studies are conducted for Jupiter and Saturn from Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons data. The comparison of Earth-data shows the importance of the networks' detection efficiency (detected lightning over the total amount of lightning in percentages) and the location of the individual instruments of the networks. Characterizing exoplanets is a difficult task, however, there are planets in our Solar System, which are better studied. Here we show how using the knowledge we have on these planets is a key aspect of exoplanetary sciences. Acknowledgement: We thank Daniel J. Cecil from LIS/OTD, Carlos Augusto Morales Rodrigues from STARNET and Robert H. Holzworth from WWLLN who kindly helped us obtaining data from the lightning detecting networks. The authors wish to thank the World Wide Lightning Location Network (http://wwlln.net), a collaboration among over 50 universities and institutions, for providing the lightning location data used in this work.

  18. Magnetically controlled mass loss from extrasolar planets in close orbits

    E-print Network

    Owen, James E

    2014-01-01

    We consider the role magnetic fields play in guiding and controlling mass-loss via evaporative outflows from exoplanets that experience UV irradiation. First we present analytic results that account for planetary and stellar magnetic fields, along with mass-loss from both the star and planet. We then conduct series of numerical simulations for gas giant planets, and vary the planetary field strength, background stellar field strength, UV heating flux, and planet mass. These simulations show that the flow is magnetically controlled for moderate field strengths and even the highest UV fluxes, i.e., planetary surface fields $B_P\\gtrsim 0.3$ gauss and fluxes $F_{UV}\\sim10^{6}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We thus conclude that outflows from all hot Jupiters with moderate surface fields are magnetically controlled. The inclusion of magnetic fields highly suppresses outflow from the night-side of the planet. Only the magnetic field lines near the pole are open and allow outflow to occur. The fraction of open field lines depends s...

  19. Photochemistry and diffusion in Jupiter's stratosphere: Constraints from ISO observations and comparisons with other giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. I.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.; Gladstone, G. R.; Lellouch, E.; Feuchtgruber, H.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a one-dimensional, diurnally averaged, photochemical model for Jupiter's stratosphere that couples photodissociation, chemical kinetics, vertical diffusion, and radiative transport. The predictions regarding the abundances and vertical profiles of hydrocarbon compounds are compared with observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to better constrain the atmospheric composition, to better define the eddy diffusion coefficient profile, and to better understand the chemical reaction schemes that produce and destroy the observed constituents. From model-data comparisons we determine that the C2H6 mole fraction on Jupiter is (4.0 +/- 1.0) × 10-6 at 3.5 mbar and (2.7 +/- 0.7) × 10-6 at 7 mbar, and the C2H2 mole fraction is (1.4 +/- 0.8) × 10-6 at 0.25 mbar and (1.5 +/- 0.4) × 10-7 at 2 mbar. The column densities of CH3C2H and C6H6 are (1.5 +/- 0.4) × 1015 cm-2 and (8.0 +/- 2) × 1014 cm-2, respectively, above 30 mbar. Using identical reaction lists, we also have developed photochemical models for Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Although the models provide good first-order predictions of hydrocarbon abundances on the giant planets, our current chemical reaction schemes do not reproduce the relative abundances of C2Hx hydrocarbons. Unsaturated hydrocarbons like C2H4 and C2H2 appear to be converted to saturated hydrocarbons like C2H6 more effectively on Jupiter than on the other giant planets, more effectively than is predicted by the models. Further progress in our understanding of photochemistry at low temperatures and low pressures in hydrogen-dominated atmospheres hinges on the acquisition of high-quality kinetics data.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM MASSES OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN THE ENVELOPES OF JUPITER AND SATURN

    SciTech Connect

    Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Marboeuf, Ulysse; Alibert, Yann [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besancon, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Pauzat, Francoise; Ellinger, Yves [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique (LCT/LETMEX), CNRS-UMR 7616, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: mousis@lpl.arizona.edu

    2009-05-10

    We calculate the minimum mass of heavy elements required in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn to match the observed oversolar abundances of volatiles. Because the clathration efficiency remains unknown in the solar nebula, we have considered a set of sequences of ice formation in which the fraction of water available for clathration is varied between 0 and 100%. In all the cases considered, we assume that the water abundance remains homogeneous whatever the heliocentric distance in the nebula and directly derives from a gas phase of solar composition. Planetesimals then form in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn from the agglomeration of clathrates and pure condensates in proportions fixed by the clathration efficiency. A fraction of Kr and Xe may have been sequestrated by the H{sup +} {sub 3} ion in the form of stable XeH{sup +} {sub 3} and KrH{sup +} {sub 3} complexes in the solar nebula gas phase, thus implying the formation of at least partly Xe- and Kr-impoverished planetesimals in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn. These planetesimals were subsequently accreted and vaporized into the hydrogen envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn, thus engendering volatiles enrichments in their atmospheres, with respect to hydrogen. Taking into account both refractory and volatile components, and assuming plausible molecular mixing ratios in the gas phase of the outer solar nebula, we show that it is possible to match the observed enrichments in Jupiter and Saturn, whatever the clathration efficiency. Our calculations predict that the O/H enrichment decreases from {approx} 5.5 to 5.1 times (O/H){sub sun} in the envelope of Jupiter and from 15.2 to 14.1 times (O/H){sub sun} in the envelope of Saturn with the growing clathration efficiency in the solar nebula. As a result, the minimum mass of ices needed to be injected in the envelope of Jupiter decreases from {approx} 20.0 to 18.6 M {sub +}, including a mass of water diminishing from 10.4 to 9.3 M {sub +}. In the same conditions, the minimum mass of ices needed in the envelope of Saturn decreases from {approx} 16.7 to 15.6 M {sub +}, including a mass of water diminishing from 8.6 to 7.7 M {sub +}. The accretion of planetesimals with ices to rocks ratios {approx} 1 in the envelope of Jupiter, namely a value derived from the bulk densities of Ganymede and Callisto, remains compatible with the mass of heavy elements predicted by interior models. On the other hand, the accretion of planetesimals with similar ice-to-rock in the envelope of Saturn implies a mass of heavy elements greater than the one predicted by interior models, unless a substantial fraction of the accreted rock and water sedimented onto the core of the planet during its evolution.

  1. Viscoelastic tidal dissipation in giant planets and formation of hot Jupiters through high-eccentricity migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Natalia I.; Lai, Dong

    2014-02-01

    We study the possibility of tidal dissipation in the solid cores of giant planets and its implication for the formation of hot Jupiters through high-eccentricity migration. We present a general framework by which the tidal evolution of planetary systems can be computed for any form of tidal dissipation, characterized by the imaginary part of the complex tidal Love number, Im[{tilde{k}}_2(? )], as a function of the forcing frequency ?. Using the simplest viscoelastic dissipation model (the Maxwell model) for the rocky core and including the effect of a non-dissipative fluid envelope, we show that with reasonable (but uncertain) physical parameters for the core (size, viscosity and shear modulus), tidal dissipation in the core can accommodate the tidal-Q constraint of the Solar system gas giants and at the same time allows exoplanetary hot Jupiters to form via tidal circularization in the high-e migration scenario. By contrast, the often-used weak friction theory of equilibrium tide would lead to a discrepancy between the Solar system constraint and the amount of dissipation necessary for high-e migration. We also show that tidal heating in the rocky core can lead to modest radius inflation of the planets, particularly when the planets are in the high-eccentricity phase (e ˜ 0.6) during their high-e migration. Finally, as an interesting by-product of our study, we note that for a generic tidal response function Im[{tilde{k}}_2(? )], it is possible that spin equilibrium (zero torque) can be achieved for multiple spin frequencies (at a given e), and the actual pseudo-synchronized spin rate depends on the evolutionary history of the system.

  2. HAT-P-34b-HAT-P-37b: FOUR TRANSITING PLANETS MORE MASSIVE THAN JUPITER ORBITING MODERATELY BRIGHT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z.; Penev, K. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Torres, G.; Beky, B.; Latham, D. W.; Bieryla, A.; Quinn, S.; Szklenar, T.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Noyes, R. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Buchhave, L. A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark, and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kovacs, G. [Konkoly Observatory, Budapest (Hungary); Shporer, A. [LCOGT, 6740 Cortona Drive, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Fischer, D. A. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Johnson, J. A. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA (United States); Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sato, B., E-mail: gbakos@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-15

    We report the discovery of four transiting extrasolar planets (HAT-P-34b-HAT-P-37b) with masses ranging from 1.05 to 3.33 M{sub J} and periods from 1.33 to 5.45 days. These planets orbit relatively bright F and G dwarf stars (from V = 10.16 to V = 13.2). Of particular interest is HAT-P-34b which is moderately massive (3.33 M{sub J}), has a high eccentricity of e = 0.441 {+-} 0.032 at a period of P = 5.452654 {+-} 0.000016 days, and shows hints of an outer component. The other three planets have properties that are typical of hot Jupiters.

  3. ON THE MIGRATION OF JUPITER AND SATURN: CONSTRAINTS FROM LINEAR MODELS OF SECULAR RESONANT COUPLING WITH THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Agnor, Craig B. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom); Lin, D. N. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We examine how the late divergent migration of Jupiter and Saturn may have perturbed the terrestrial planets. Using a modified secular model we have identified six secular resonances between the {nu}{sub 5} frequency of Jupiter and Saturn and the four apsidal eigenfrequencies of the terrestrial planets (g{sub 1-4}). We derive analytic upper limits on the eccentricity and orbital migration timescale of Jupiter and Saturn when these resonances were encountered to avoid perturbing the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values larger than the observed ones. Because of the small amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial eigenmodes the g{sub 2} - {nu}{sub 5} and g{sub 3} - {nu}{sub 5} resonances provide the strongest constraints on giant planet migration. If Jupiter and Saturn migrated with eccentricities comparable to their present-day values, smooth migration with exponential timescales characteristic of planetesimal-driven migration ({tau} {approx} 5-10 Myr) would have perturbed the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values greatly exceeding the observed ones. This excitation may be mitigated if the eccentricity of Jupiter was small during the migration epoch, migration was very rapid (e.g., {tau} {approx}< 0.5 Myr perhaps via planet-planet scattering or instability-driven migration) or the observed small eccentricity amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial modes result from low probability cancellation of several large amplitude contributions. Results of orbital integrations show that very short migration timescales ({tau} < 0.5 Myr), characteristic of instability-driven migration, may also perturb the terrestrial planets' eccentricities by amounts comparable to their observed values. We discuss the implications of these constraints for the relative timing of terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and the origin of the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment of the Moon 3.9 {+-} 0.1 Ga ago. We suggest that the simplest way to satisfy these dynamical constraints may be for the bulk of any giant planet migration to be complete in the first 30-100 Myr of solar system history.

  4. Solar wind flow about the outer planets - Gas dynamic modeling of the Jupiter and Saturn bow shocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Slavin; E. J. Smith; J. R. Spreiter; S. S. Stahara

    1985-01-01

    It has been found that the solar wind is diverted about planets through the formation of bow shocks which heat and deflect the flow. These observations are based on missions concerned with Mercury, Venus, earth, and Mars during the 1960s and 1970s. The present study has the objective to extend to Jupiter and Saturn certain aspects of the analyses which

  5. A Mass Function Constraint on Extrasolar Giant Planet Evaporation Rates

    E-print Network

    W. B Hubbard; M. Hattori; A. Burrows; I. Hubeny

    2007-02-09

    The observed mass function for all known extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) varies approximately as M^{-1} for mass M between 0.2 Jupiter masses (M_J) and 5 M_J. In order to study evaporation effects for highly-irradiated EGPs in this mass range, we have constructed an observational mass function for a subset of EGPs in the same mass range but with orbital radii mass function for such highly-irradiated EGPs agrees quantitatively with the M^{-1} law, implying that the mass function for EGPs is preserved despite migration to small orbital radii. Unless there is a remarkable compensation of mass-dependent orbital migration for mass-dependent evaporation, this result places a constraint on orbital migration models and rules out the most extreme mass loss rates in the literature. A theory that predicts more moderate mass loss gives a mass function that is closer to observed statistics but still disagrees for M < 1 M_J.

  6. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF SUBGIANT PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, James P. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High mass stars are hostile to Doppler measurements due to rotation and activity on the main-sequence, so RV searches for planets around massive stars have relied on evolved stars. A large number of planets have been found around evolved stars with M > 1.5 M{sub Sun }. To test the robustness of mass determinations, Lloyd compared mass distributions of planet hosting subgiants with distributions from integrating isochrones and concluded that it is unlikely the subgiant planet hosts are this massive, but rather that the mass inferences are systematically in error. The conclusions of Lloyd have been called in to question by Johnson et al., who show TRILEGAL-based mass distributions that disagree with the mass distributions in Lloyd, which they attribute to Malmquist bias. Johnson et al. argue that the very small spectroscopic observational uncertainties favor high masses, and there are a large number of high mass sub giants in RV surveys. However, in this Letter, it is shown that Malmquist bias does not impact the mass distributions, but the mass distribution is sensitive to Galaxy model. The relationship needed to reconcile the subgiant planet host masses with any model of the Galactic stellar population is implausible, and the conclusion of Lloyd that spectroscopic mass determinations of subgiants are likely to have been overestimated is robust.

  7. C/O Ratios of Stars with Transiting Hot Jupiters: Connecting Stars to Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, Johanna; Schuler, S.; Griffith, C.

    2012-10-01

    A planet's C/O ratio can influence its formation and evolution, with a C/O>0.8 resulting in a carbon-rich composition (Kuchner & Seager 2005; Bond et al. 2010) versus the silicate-dominated composition of Earth (C/O_solar 0.5). Models of planet formation via core accretion indicate that close-in giant planets likely originate farther out in the disk from icy planetesimals that coalesce to form the core, followed by gas accretion and inward migration (e.g., Pollack et al. 1996). Since the abundances of C and O are expected to be enhanced equally during this process, the initial gas composition - that of the star - can also be expected for material incorporated into the planet. However, measurements of Jupiter challenge this prescription, suggesting differences in the disk composition with time and distance from the star (Lodders 2004). While most exoplanet theories & models assume a solar C/O ratio and an O-rich planet, relaxing this assumption leads to drastically different planet - a low atmospheric abundance of H2O, with the atmospheric oxygen is concentrated in CO rather than H2O, an interior dominated by carbon-rich compounds, and the photochemical production of hydrocarbon chains. Recent results suggest a C/O ratio >1 in the atmosphere of one of the most highly irradiated exoplanets (Madhusudhan et al. 2011). This is particularly peculiar, however, given the C/O ratio of the host star is subsolar ( 0.40; Petigura et al. 2011), and introduces the possibility of a sample of carbon-rich exoplanets. This finding highlights the question, "Does the same material comprise exoplanets and their host stars, and if not, what makes them different?" Here we present observations of the stellar C/O ratios for a sample of exoplanet host stars, and use these data and models of their corresponding exoplanet atmospheres by ourselves and others to investigate the connection between star and planet compositions.

  8. The lowest mass giant planet ever imaged around a star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Delorme, P.; Desidera, S.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Dumas, C.; Bonavita, M.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding planetary systems formation and evolution has become one of the challenges in astronomy, since the discovery of the first exoplanet around the solar-type star 51 Peg in the 90's. While more than 800 planets (mostly giants) closer than a few AU have been identified with radial velocity and transit techniques, very few have been imaged and definitely confirmed around stars, at separations below a hundred of astronomical units. Direct imaging detection of exoplanet is indeed a major frontier in planetary astrophysics. It surveys a region of semi-major axes (> 5 AU) that is almost inaccessible to other methods. Moreover, the planets imaged so far orbit young stars; indeed the young planets are still hot and the planetstar contrasts are compatible with the detection limits currently achievable, in contrast with similar planets in older systems. Noticeably, the stars are of early-types, and surrounded by debris disks, i.e. disks populated at least by small grains with lifetimes so short that they must be permanently produced, probably by destruction (evaporation, collisions) of larger solid bodies. Consequently, every single discovery has a tremendous impact on the understanding of the formation, the dynamical evolution, and the physics of giant planets. In this context, I will present our recent discovery of one faint companion to a nearby, dusty, and young A-type star (at 56 AU projected separation). Background contaminants are rejected with high confidence level based on both astrometry and photometry with three dataset at more than a yeartime-laps and two different wavelength regimes. From the system age (10 to 17 Myr) and from model-dependent luminosity estimates, we derive mass of 4 to 5 Jupiter mass. This planet is therefore the one with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Given its orbital and physical properties, I will discuss the implication on its atmosphere with respect to other imaged companions but also on its formation which is not straightforward assuming standard mechanisms. This planet will be of great interest for future planets imagers to search for additional close-in and lower mass companions but also for spectral characterization.

  9. Lupus-TR-3b: A Low-Mass Transiting Hot Jupiter in the Galactic Plane?

    E-print Network

    David T. F. Weldrake; Daniel D. R. Bayliss; Penny D. Sackett; Brandon W. Tingley; Michael Gillon; Johny Setiawan

    2008-01-16

    We present a strong case for a transiting Hot Jupiter planet identified during a single-field transit survey towards the Lupus Galactic plane. The object, Lupus-TR-3b, transits a V=17.4 K1V host star every 3.91405d. Spectroscopy and stellar colors indicate a host star with effective temperature 5000 +/- 150K, with a stellar mass and radius of 0.87 +/- 0.04M_sun and 0.82 +/- 0.05R_sun, respectively. Limb-darkened transit fitting yields a companion radius of 0.89 +/- 0.07R_J and an orbital inclination of 88.3 +1.3/-0.8 deg. Magellan 6.5m MIKE radial velocity measurements reveal a 2.4 sigma K=114 +/- 25m/s sinusoidal variation in phase with the transit ephemeris. The resulting mass is 0.81 +/- 0.18M_J and density 1.4 +/- 0.4g/cm^3. Y-band PANIC image deconvolution reveal a V>=21 red neighbor 0.4'' away which, although highly unlikely, we cannot conclusively rule out as a blended binary with current data. However, blend simulations show that only the most unusual binary system can reproduce our observations. This object is very likely a planet, detected from a highly efficient observational strategy. Lupus-TR-3b constitutes the faintest ground-based detection to date, and one of the lowest mass Hot Jupiters known.

  10. WASP-16b: A NEW JUPITER-LIKE PLANET TRANSITING A SOUTHERN SOLAR ANALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, T. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Anderson, D. R.; Smalley, B. S.; Wilson, D. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Mayor, M. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Hebb, L.; Collier Cameron, A.; Enoch, R.; Horne, K. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Christian, D. J.; Joshi, Y. C. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Haswell, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Irwin, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kane, S. R., E-mail: tlister@lcogt.ne [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-09-20

    We report the discovery from WASP-South of a new Jupiter-like extrasolar planet, WASP-16b, which transits its solar analog host star every 3.12 days. Analysis of the transit photometry and radial velocity spectroscopic data leads to a planet with R{sub p} = 1.008 +- 0.071 R{sub Jup} and M{sub p} = 0.855 +- 0.059 M{sub Jup}, orbiting a host star with R {sub *} = 0.946 +- 0.054 R{sub sun} and M{sub *} = 1.022 +- 0.101 M{sub sun}. Comparison of the high resolution stellar spectrum with synthetic spectra and stellar evolution models indicates the host star is a near-solar metallicity ([Fe/H] =0.01 +- 0.10) solar analog (T{sub eff} = 5700 +- 150 K and log g = 4.5 +- 0.2) of intermediate age (tau = 2.3{sup +5.8}{sub -2.2} Gyr).

  11. HAT-P-44b, HAT-P-45b, AND HAT-P-46b: Three transiting hot Jupiters in possible multi-planet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; Penev, K.; De Val-Borro, M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Bieryla, A.; Béky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kovács, G. [Konkoly Observatory, Budapest (Hungary); Johnson, J. A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, A. W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, G. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buchhave, L. A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Fischer, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Everett, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Szklenár, T., E-mail: jhartman@astro.princeton.edu [Hungarian Astronomical Association, 1461 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2014-06-01

    We report the discovery by the HATNet survey of three new transiting extrasolar planets orbiting moderately bright (V = 13.2, 12.8, and 11.9) stars. The planets have orbital periods of 4.3012, 3.1290, and 4.4631 days, masses of 0.35, 0.89, and 0.49 M {sub J}, and radii of 1.24, 1.43, and 1.28 R {sub J}. The stellar hosts have masses of 0.94, 1.26, and 1.28 M {sub ?}. Each system shows significant systematic variations in its residual radial velocities, indicating the possible presence of additional components. Based on its Bayesian evidence, the preferred model for HAT-P-44 consists of two planets, including the transiting component, with the outer planet having a period of 872 days, eccentricity of 0.494 ± 0.081, and a minimum mass of 4.0 M {sub J}. Due to aliasing we cannot rule out alternative solutions for the outer planet having a period of 220 days or 438 days. For HAT-P-45, at present there is not enough data to justify the additional free parameters included in a multi-planet model; in this case a single-planet solution is preferred, but the required jitter of 22.5 ± 6.3 m s{sup –1} is relatively high for a star of this type. For HAT-P-46 the preferred solution includes a second planet having a period of 78 days and a minimum mass of 2.0 M {sub J}, however the preference for this model over a single-planet model is not very strong. While substantial uncertainties remain as to the presence and/or properties of the outer planetary companions in these systems, the inner transiting planets are well characterized with measured properties that are fairly robust against changes in the assumed models for the outer planets. Continued radial velocity monitoring is necessary to fully characterize these three planetary systems, the properties of which may have important implications for understanding the formation of hot Jupiters.

  12. THE MASS OF KOI-94d AND A RELATION FOR PLANET RADIUS, MASS, AND INCIDENT FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea [B-20 Hearst Field Annex, Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Miller, Neil [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, 275 Interdisciplinary Sciences Building (ISB), Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06510-8101 (United States); Adams, Elisabeth R.; Dupree, Andrea K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [California Institute of Technology, 1216 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Southern Connecticut State University, Department of Physics, 501 Crescent St., New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: lweiss@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We measure the mass of a modestly irradiated giant planet, KOI-94d. We wish to determine whether this planet, which is in a 22 day orbit and receives 2700 times as much incident flux as Jupiter, is as dense as Jupiter or rarefied like inflated hot Jupiters. KOI-94 also hosts at least three smaller transiting planets, all of which were detected by the Kepler mission. With 26 radial velocities of KOI-94 from the W. M. Keck Observatory and a simultaneous fit to the Kepler light curve, we measure the mass of the giant planet and determine that it is not inflated. Support for the planetary interpretation of the other three candidates comes from gravitational interactions through transit timing variations, the statistical robustness of multi-planet systems against false positives, and several lines of evidence that no other star resides within the photometric aperture. We report the properties of KOI-94b (M{sub P} = 10.5 {+-} 4.6 M{sub Circled-Plus }, R{sub P} = 1.71 {+-} 0.16 R{sub Circled-Plus }, P = 3.74 days), KOI-94c (M{sub P} = 15.6{sup +5.7}{sub -15.6} M{sub Circled-Plus }, R{sub P} = 4.32 {+-} 0.41 R{sub Circled-Plus }, P = 10.4 days), KOI-94d (M{sub P} = 106 {+-} 11 M{sub Circled-Plus }, R{sub P} = 11.27 {+-} 1.06 R{sub Circled-Plus }, P = 22.3 days), and KOI-94e (M{sub P} = 35{sup +18}{sub -28} M{sub Circled-Plus }, R{sub P} = 6.56 {+-} 0.62 R{sub Circled-Plus }, P = 54.3 days). The radial velocity analyses of KOI-94b and KOI-94e offer marginal (>2{sigma}) mass detections, whereas the observations of KOI-94c offer only an upper limit to its mass. Using the KOI-94 system and other planets with published values for both mass and radius (138 exoplanets total, including 35 with M{sub P} < 150 M{sub Circled-Plus }), we establish two fundamental planes for exoplanets that relate their mass, incident flux, and radius from a few Earth masses up to 13 Jupiter masses: (R{sub P}/R{sub Circled-Plus }) = 1.78(M{sub P}/M{sub Circled-Plus }){sup 0.53}(F/erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}){sup -0.03} for M{sub P} < 150 M{sub Circled-Plus }, and R{sub P}/R{sub Circled-Plus} = 2.45(M{sub P}/M{sub Circled-Plus }){sup -0.039}(F/erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}){sup 0.094} for M{sub P} > 150 M{sub Circled-Plus }. These equations can be used to predict the radius or mass of a planet.

  13. A New Planet Around an M Dwarf: Revealing a Correlation Between Exoplanets and Stellar Mass

    E-print Network

    John A. Johnson; R. Paul Butler; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Debra A. Fischer; Steven S. Vogt; Jason T. Wright; Kathryn M. G. Peek

    2007-07-16

    We report precise Doppler measurements of GJ317 (M3.5V) that reveal the presence of a planet with a minimum mass Msini = 1.2 Mjup in an eccentric, 692.9 day orbit. GJ317 is only the third M dwarf with a Doppler-detected Jovian planet. The residuals to a single-Keplerian fit show evidence of a possible second orbital companion. The inclusion of an additional Jupiter-mass planet (P = 2700 days, Msini = 0.83 Mjup) improves the quality of fit significantly, reducing the rms from 12.5 m/s to 6.32 m/s. A false-alarm test yields a 1.1% probability that the curvature in the residuals of the single-planet fit is due to random fluctuations, lending additional credibility to the two-planet model. However, our data only marginally constrain a two-planet fit and further monitoring is necessary to fully characterize the properties of the second planet. To study the effect of stellar mass on Jovian planet occurrence we combine our samples of M stars, Solar-mass dwarfs and intermediate-mass subgiants. We find a positive correlation between stellar mass and the occurrence rate of Jovian planets within 2.5 AU; the former A-type stars in our sample are nearly 5 times more likely than the M dwarfs to harbor a giant planet. Our analysis shows that the correlation between Jovian planet occurrence and stellar mass remains even after accounting for the effects of stellar metallicity.

  14. Enhancement of the Accretion of Jupiters Core by a Voluminous Low-Mass Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; D'angelo, Gennaro; Weidenschilling, Stuart John; Bodenheimer, Peter; Hubickyj, Olenka

    2013-01-01

    We present calculations of the early stages of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core begins as a seed body of about 350 kilometers in radius and orbits in a swarm of planetesimals whose initial radii range from 15 meters to 100 kilometers. We follow the evolution of the swarm by accounting for growth and fragmentation, viscous and gravitational stirring, and for drag-induced migration and velocity damping. Gas capture by the core substantially enhances the cross-section of the planet for accretion of small planetesimals. The dust opacity within the atmosphere surrounding the planetary core is computed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust particles released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. The calculation is carried out at an orbital semi-major axis of 5.2 AU and an initial solids' surface density of 10/g/cm^2 at that distance. The results give a core mass of 7 Earth masses and an envelope mass of approximately 0.1 Earth mass after 500,000 years, at which point the envelope growth rate surpasses that of the core. The same calculation without the envelope gives a core mass of only 4 Earth masses.

  15. Planet-bound dark matter and the internal heat of Uranus, Neptune, and hot-Jupiter exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Stephen L. Adler

    2008-12-09

    We suggest that accretion of planet-bound dark matter by the Jovian planets, and by hot-Jupiter exoplanets, could be a significant source of their internal heat. The anomalously low internal heat of Uranus would then be explained if the collision believed to have tilted the axis of Uranus also knocked it free of most of its associated dark matter cloud. Our considerations focus on the efficient capture of non-self-annihilating dark matter, but could also apply to self-annihilating dark matter, provided the capture efficiency is small enough that the earth heat balance constraint is obeyed.

  16. Obtaining the Mass and Radius of Extra-Solar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Tim; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The scientific utility and feasibility of detecting transits of the 9 known extrasolar planets is explored. A transit of a solar-like star by a Jupiter mass planet produces a 1% decrease in the amount of light received from the star. Transit observation will remove the ambiguity in the measurement of the planetary mass inherent in the radial velocity method and confirm the planet's existence. The 9 known planets have a 33% chance of producing at least one observable transit. Additional extrasolar planet detections from the radial velocity surveys will increase this probability to greater than 90%. The radius of the planet can be determined by the fractional decrease in light received during transit. The mass and radius may distinguish rocky or gas giant planets from brown dwarfs. The probability of detection, the transit signal size and duration, and predictions of the transit times (including errors) are calculated for circular and elliptical orbits. Observational limits are investigated and it is shown that small telescopes and existing detectors are adequate enough to achieve the 0.1% photometry necessary to detect transits of the known extrasolar planets.

  17. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR VERY LOW MASS GASEOUS PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stevenson, David J., E-mail: kbatygin@cfa.harvard.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Recently, the Kepler spacecraft has detected a sizable aggregate of objects, characterized by giant-planet-like radii and modest levels of stellar irradiation. With the exception of a handful of objects, the physical nature, and specifically the average densities, of these bodies remain unknown. Here, we propose that the detected giant planet radii may partially belong to planets somewhat less massive than Uranus and Neptune. Accordingly, in this work, we seek to identify a physically sound upper limit to planetary radii at low masses and moderate equilibrium temperatures. As a guiding example, we analyze the interior structure of the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-30d and show that it is acutely deficient in heavy elements, especially compared with its solar system counterparts. Subsequently, we perform numerical simulations of planetary thermal evolution and in agreement with previous studies, show that generally, 10-20 M{sub Circled-Plus }, multi-billion year old planets, composed of high density cores and extended H/He envelopes can have radii that firmly reside in the giant planet range. We subject our results to stability criteria based on extreme ultraviolet radiation, as well as Roche-lobe overflow driven mass-loss and construct mass-radius relationships for the considered objects. We conclude by discussing observational avenues that may be used to confirm or repudiate the existence of putative low mass, gas-dominated planets.

  18. Jiggly Jupiter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-11

    In this activity, learners build edible models of Jupiter and Earth to compare their sizes and illustrate the planets' internal layers. Learners discuss how the Juno mission will infer details about Jupiter's interior by measuring its gravity field and magnetic field.

  19. Transiting planets from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars

    E-print Network

    Delrez, L; Anderson, D R; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V=10.7 G0-type star (1.24+-0.03 M_sun, 1.69-0.06+0.11 R_sun, T_eff=5911+-60 K) with a period of 5.084298+-0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. WASP-73 b is significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 M_Jup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 R_Jup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V=10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M_sun, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R_sun, T_eff=6036+-120 K) every 4.08722+-0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (2.3 10^9 erg s^-1 cm^-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 \\rho_Jup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. WASP-88 b is a 0.56+-0.08 M_Jup planet orbiting a V=11.4 F6-type star (1.45+-0.05 M_sun, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R_sun, T_eff=6431+-130 K) with a period of 4.954000+-0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 R_Jup, it joins t...

  20. Falling of Shoemaker-Levy Comet on Jupiter Planet. Physical and Epistmological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofonea, Liviu

    The author is discussing Physical and Epistemological consequences of the Shoemeker-Levy Comet impact on Jupiter. The impact excited a major interest from many of phylosophers of science. The main topic of their investigations is the Human condition. It is to mention, that the Shoemaker-Levy comet was not an obvious event. Since some of scientists predicted the impact, it is necessary to mention the validity of scientific research. Most of astronomers consider that the Impact Shoemaker-Levy Comet and Jupiter was one of maximal scientific magnitude (interest). In view of this it is to add, that the impact was the most violent astrophysical phenomenon observed during the last years. The reasearh of the impact and the knowledge of the physical characteristics of the Comet will generate informations of very great value: gnoseologic, methodologic and historical. The scietific methodology used was adequate and complex in the preparation of observations, observations itselves, collection of observational data, the data procession, the information of scientific community, mass media and amateur astronomers. The modelling of the phenomenon was necessary and adequate. The author is pledging for an energic continuation of space researches in view of their very great impact on Humans civilisation development.

  1. A Spitzer Five-band Analysis of the Jupiter-sized Planet TrES-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2014-12-01

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 ?m (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 ?m (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 ?m (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 ?m (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 ?m (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1? errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e = 0.033+0.015 -0.031, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ~10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  2. Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn Analog with Gravitational Microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudi, B; Bennett, D; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Christie, G; Maoz, D; Dong, S; McCormick, J; Szymanski, M; Tristram, P; Nikolaev, S; Paczynski, B; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D; Han, C; Kaspi, S; Lee, C; Mallia, F; Natusch, T; Pogge, R; Park, B; Abe, F; Bond, I; Botzler, C; Fukui, A; Hearnshaw, J; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Korpela, A; Kilmartin, P; Lin, W; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Okumura, T; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Sako, T; Saito, T; Sato, S; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W; Yock, P; Albrow, M; Beaulieu, J; Burgdorf, M; Cook, K; Coutures, C; Dominik, M; Dieters, S; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Horne, K; Steele, I; Tsapras, Y; Chaboyer, B; Crocker, A; Frank, S; Macintosh, B

    2007-11-08

    Searches for extrasolar planets have uncovered an astonishing diversity of planetary systems, yet the frequency of solar system analogs remains unknown. The gravitational microlensing planet search method is potentially sensitive to multiple-planet systems containing analogs of all the solar system planets except Mercury. We report the first detection of a multiple-planet system with microlensing. We identify two planets with masses of {approx} 0.71 and {approx} 0.27 times the mass of Jupiter and orbital separations of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 4.6 astronomical units orbiting a primary of mass {approx} 0.50 solar masses. This system resembles a scaled version of our solar system in that the mass ratio, separation ratio, and equilibrium temperatures of the planets are similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. These planets could not have been detected with other techniques; their discovery from only 6 confirmed microlensing planet detections suggests that solar system analogs may be common.

  3. Type II Migration: Varying Planet Mass and Disc Viscosity

    E-print Network

    Richard G. Edgar

    2008-07-03

    This paper continues an earlier study of giant planet migration, examining the effect of planet mass and disc viscosity on the migration rate. We find that the migration rate of a gap-opening planet varies systematically with the planet's mass, as predicted in our earlier work. However, the variation with disc viscosity appears to be much weaker than expected.

  4. ON THE ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF A GIANT PLANET PAIR EMBEDDED IN A GASEOUS DISK. I. JUPITER-SATURN CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin, E-mail: huizhang@nju.edu.c [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-05-01

    We carry out a series of high-resolution (1024 x 1024) hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the orbital evolution of Jupiter and Saturn embedded in a gaseous protostellar disk. Our work extends the results in the classical papers of Masset and Snellgrove and Morbidelli and Crida by exploring various surface density profiles ({sigma}), where {sigma} {proportional_to} r {sup -{alpha}}. The stability of the mean motion resonances (MMRs) caused by the convergent migration of the two planets is studied as well. Our results show that (1) the gap formation process of Saturn is greatly delayed by the tidal perturbation of Jupiter. These perturbations cause inward or outward runaway migration of Saturn, depending on the density profiles on the disk. (2) The convergent migration rate increases as {alpha} increases and the type of MMRs depends on {alpha} as well. When 0 < {alpha} < 1, the convergent migration speed of Jupiter and Saturn is relatively slow, thus they are trapped into 2:1 MMR. When {alpha}>4/3, Saturn passes through the 2:1 MMR with Jupiter and is captured into the 3:2 MMR. (3) The 3:2 MMR turns out to be unstable when the eccentricity of Saturn (e{sub s} ) increases too high. The critical value above which instability will set in is e{sub s} {approx} 0.15. We also observe that the two planets are trapped into 2:1 MMR after the break of 3:2 MMR. This process may provide useful information for the formation of orbital configuration between Jupiter and Saturn in the solar system.

  5. Hot Jupiters and Hot Spots: The Short- and Long-term Chromospheric Activity on Stars with Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    E. Shkolnik; G. A. H. Walker; D. A. Bohlender; P. -G. Gu; M. Kürster

    2004-11-24

    We monitored the chromospheric activity in the Ca II H & K lines of 13 solar-type stars (including the Sun); 8 of them over three years at the CFHT and 5 in a single run at the VLT. Ten of the 13 targets have close planetary companions. All of the stars observed at the CFHT show long-term (months to years) changes in H & K intensity levels. Four stars display short-term (days) cyclical activity. For two, HD 73256 and kappa^1 Ceti, the activity is likely associated with an active region rotating with the star, however, the flaring in excess of the rotational modulation may be associated with a hot jupiter. A planetary companion remains a possibility for kappa^1 Ceti. For the other two, HD 179949 and upsilon And, the cyclic variation is synchronized to the hot jupiter's orbit. For both stars this synchronicity with the orbit is clearly seen in two out of three epochs. The effect is only marginal in the third epoch at which the seasonal level of chromospheric activity had changed for both stars. Short-term chromospheric activity appears weakly dependent on the mean K-line reversal intensities for the sample of 13 stars. Also, a suggestive correlation exists between this activity and the M_p sin(i) of the star's hot jupiter. Because of their small separation (<= 0.1 AU), many of the hot jupiters lie within the Alfv\\'en radius of their host stars which allows a direct magnetic interaction with the stellar surface. We discuss the conditions under which a planet's magnetic field might induce activity on the stellar surface and why no such effect was seen for the prime candidate, tau Boo. This work opens up the possibility of characterizing planet-star interactions, with implications for extrasolar planet magnetic fields and the energy contribution to stellar atmospheres.

  6. 1. How are the rocky core masses of Jupiter and Saturn determined? 2. What are the most accurate values today?

    E-print Network

    Kite, Edwin

    1. How are the rocky core masses of Jupiter and Saturn determined? 2. What are the most accurate of approximation Jupiter and Saturn can be modelled as H/He mixtures; however, ZJup ~ 3 x Zsolar , and ZSat ~ 4

  7. Extrasolar Planets! Solar System Planets!

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Richard

    Extrasolar Planets! #12;Solar System Planets! #12;Small, rocky planets on the inside Large, gas-giant and ice-giant planets on the outside ! #12;Relative sizes of Solar System planets! #12;Relative sizes of Sun and planets The Sun is ~ 1000 times more massive than Jupiter Jupiter is ~ 300 times more massive

  8. On the Mass-Period Correlation of the Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Shay Zucker; Tsevi Mazeh

    2002-02-22

    We report on a possible correlation between the masses and periods of the extrasolar planets, manifested as a paucity of massive planets with short orbital periods. Monte-Carlo simulations show the effect is significant, and is not solely due to an observational selection effect. We also show the effect is stronger than the one already implied by published models that assumed independent power-law distributions for the masses and periods of the extrasolar planets. Planets found in binary stellar systems may have an opposite correlation. The difference is highly significant despite the small number of planets in binary systems. We discuss the paucity of short-period massive planets in terms of some theories for the close-in giant planets. Almost all models can account for the deficit of massive planets with short periods, in particular the model that assumes migration driven by a planet-disk interaction, if the planet masses do not scale with their disk masses.

  9. A COLD NEPTUNE-MASS PLANET OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb: COLD NEPTUNES ARE COMMON

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, T.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A., E-mail: sumi@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.j, E-mail: abe@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.j, E-mail: afukui@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.j [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2010-02-20

    We present the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb with a planet-star mass ratio of q = [9.5 +- 2.1] x 10{sup -5} via gravitational microlensing. The planetary deviation was detected in real-time thanks to the high cadence of the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics survey, real-time light-curve monitoring and intensive follow-up observations. A Bayesian analysis returns the stellar mass and distance at M{sub l} = 0.64{sup +0.21}{sub -0.26} M{sub sun} and D{sub l} = 5.9{sup +0.9}{sub -1.4} kpc, respectively, so the mass and separation of the planet are M{sub p} = 20{sup +7}{sub -8} M{sub +} and a = 3.3{sup +1.4}{sub -0.8} AU, respectively. This discovery adds another cold Neptune-mass planet to the planetary sample discovered by microlensing, which now comprises four cold Neptune/super-Earths, five gas giant planets, and another sub-Saturn mass planet whose nature is unclear. The discovery of these 10 cold exoplanets by the microlensing method implies that the mass ratio function of cold exoplanets scales as dN{sub pl}/dlog q {proportional_to} q {sup -0.7+}-{sup 0.2} with a 95% confidence level upper limit of n < -0.35 (where dN{sub pl}/dlog q {proportional_to} q{sup n} ). As microlensing is most sensitive to planets beyond the snow-line, this implies that Neptune-mass planets are at least three times more common than Jupiters in this region at the 95% confidence level.

  10. High-resolution imaging of young M-type stars of the solar neighbourhood: probing for companions down to the mass of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Lagrange, A. M.; Chauvin, G.; Bonavita, M.; Lacour, S.; Bonnefoy, M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Beust, H.

    2012-03-01

    Context. High-contrast imaging is a powerful technique when searching for gas giant planets and brown dwarfs orbiting at separations greater than several AU. Around solar-type stars, giant planets are expected to form by core accretion or by gravitational instability, but since core accretion is increasingly difficult as the primary star becomes lighter, gravitational instability would be a probable formation scenario for still-to-find distant giant planets around a low-mass star. A systematic survey for such planets around M dwarfs would therefore provide a direct test of the efficiency of gravitational instability. Aims: We search for gas giant planets orbiting late-type stars and brown dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood. Methods: We obtained deep high-resolution images of 16 targets with the adaptive optic system of VLT-NACO in the L' band, using direct imaging and angular differential imaging. This is currently the largest and deepest survey for Jupiter-mass planets around M-dwarfs. We developed and used an integrated reduction and analysis pipeline to reduce the images and derive our 2D detection limits for each target. The typical contrast achieved is about 9 mag at 0.5? and 11 mag beyond 1?. For each target we also determine the probability of detecting a planet of a given mass at a given separation in our images. Results: We derived accurate detection probabilities for planetary companions, taking orbital projection effects into account, with in average more than 50% probability to detect a 3 MJup companion at 10 AU and a 1.5 MJup companion at 20 AU, bringing strong constraints on the existence of Jupiter-mass planets around this sample of young M-dwarfs. Based on observations made with the NACO at VLT UT-4 at the Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 084.C-0739, 085.C-0675(A), 087.C-0413(A) and 087.C-0450(B).

  11. WFIRST PLANET MASSES FROM MICROLENS PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, J. C., E-mail: jyee@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    I present a method using only a few ground-based observations of magnified microlensing events to routinely measure the parallaxes of WFIRST events if WFIRST is in an L2 orbit. This could be achieved for all events with A{sub max} > 30 using target-of-opportunity observations of select WFIRST events, or with a complementary, ground-based survey of the WFIRST field, which can push beyond this magnification limit. When combined with a measurement of the angular size of the Einstein ring, which is almost always measured in planetary events, these parallax measurements will routinely give measurements of the lens masses and hence the absolute masses of the planets. They can also lead to mass measurements for dark, isolated objects such as brown dwarfs, free-floating planets, and stellar remnants if the size of the Einstein ring is measured.

  12. Lupus-TR-3b: A Low-Mass Transiting Hot Jupiter in the Galactic Plane?

    E-print Network

    Weldrake, David T F; Sackett, Penny D; Tingley, Brandon W; Gillon, Michael; Setiawan, Johny

    2007-01-01

    We present a prime case for a transiting Hot Jupiter planet identified during a single-field transit survey towards the Lupus region of the Galactic plane. The object, Lupus-TR-3b, transits a V=17.4 K1V host star every 3.91405d. Spectroscopy and stellar colors indicate a host star with effective temperature 5000+/-150 K, with a stellar mass and radius of 0.87+/-0.04 Msun and 0.82+/-0.05 Rsun, respectively. Limb-darkened transit fitting yields a companion radius of 0.89+/-0.07 Rjup and an orbital inclination of 88.3{+1.3}{-0.8} deg. Magellan 6.5m MIKE radial velocity measurements reveal a 2.4 sigma K=114+/-25 m/s sinusoidal variation in phase with the transit ephemeris. The resulting mass is 0.81+/-0.18 Mjup and density 1.4+/-0.4 g/cm^3. Y-band PANIC image deconvolution reveal a V>=21 red neighbor 0.4'' away which, although highly unlikely, we cannot conclusively rule out as a blended binary with current data. However, no in-phase bisector variations are observed and blend simulations show that only the most u...

  13. MASSES, RADII, AND ORBITS OF SMALL KEPLER PLANETS: THE TRANSITION FROM GASEOUS TO ROCKY PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements ...

  14. HAT-P-34b-HAT-P-37b: Four Transiting Planets More Massive than Jupiter Orbiting Moderately Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J. D.; Torres, G.; Béky, B.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Csubry, Z.; Kovács, G.; Bieryla, A.; Quinn, S.; Szklenár, T.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Shporer, A.; Noyes, R. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Sato, B.; Penev, K.; Everett, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; F?rész, G.; Stefanik, R. P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report the discovery of four transiting extrasolar planets (HAT-P-34b-HAT-P-37b) with masses ranging from 1.05 to 3.33 M J and periods from 1.33 to 5.45 days. These planets orbit relatively bright F and G dwarf stars (from V = 10.16 to V = 13.2). Of particular interest is HAT-P-34b which is moderately massive (3.33 M J), has a high eccentricity of e = 0.441 ± 0.032 at a period of P = 5.452654 ± 0.000016 days, and shows hints of an outer component. The other three planets have properties that are typical of hot Jupiters. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO (A289Hr) and NASA (N167Hr and N029Hr). Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based in part on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  15. Astrometric observations of the faint satellites of Jupiter and minor planets, 1974-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. R.; Shelus, P. J.; Mulholland, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Precise positions of the faint satellites VI-XII of Jupiter during the 1974 opposition, and for Jupiter XIII during the 1976-1977 and 1977-1978 oppositions, have been obtained from plates taken with the 2.1-m Otto Struve reflector of the McDonald Observatory by the use of a new quasi-automatic plate measurement and reduction procedure on a PDS microdensitometer. Observations of selected asteroids, including two of 1977 UB (Chiron) are given also.

  16. DETECTABILITY OF TRANSITING JUPITERS AND LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES IN SPARSELY SAMPLED PAN-STARRS-1 SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Trent J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Liu, Michael C.

    2009-10-20

    We present detailed simulations of the Pan-STARRS-1 (PS1) multi-epoch, multiband 3pi Survey in order to assess its potential yield of transiting planets and eclipsing binaries. This survey differs from dedicated transit surveys in that it will cover the entire northern sky but provide only sparsely sampled light curves. Since most eclipses would be detected at only a single epoch, the 3pi Survey will be most sensitive to deep eclipses (approx>0.10 mag) caused by Jupiters transiting M dwarfs and eclipsing stellar/substellar binaries. The survey will measure parallaxes for the approx4 x 10{sup 5} stars within 100 pc, which will enable a volume-limited eclipse search, reducing the number of astrophysical false positives compared with previous magnitude-limited searches. Using the best available empirical data, we constructed a model of the extended solar neighborhood that includes stars, brown dwarfs, and a realistic binary population. We computed the yield of deeply eclipsing systems using both a semianalytic and a full Monte Carlo approach. We examined statistical tests for detecting single-epoch eclipses in sparsely sampled data and assessed their vulnerability to false positives due to stellar variability. Assuming a short-period planet frequency of 0.5% for M dwarfs, our simulations predict that about a dozen transiting Jupiters around low-mass stars (M {sub *} < 0.3 M {sub sun}) within 100 pc are potentially detectable in the PS1 3pi Survey, along with approx300 low-mass eclipsing binaries (both component masses <0.5 M {sub sun}), including approx10 eclipsing field brown dwarfs. Extensive follow-up observations would be required to characterize these candidate eclipsing systems, thereby enabling comprehensive tests of structural models and novel insights into the planetary architecture of low-mass stars.

  17. Atmospheric circulations of terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Edson; Sukyoung Lee; Peter Bannon; James F. Kasting; David Pollard

    2011-01-01

    Circulations and habitable zones of planets orbiting low-mass stars are investigated. Many of these planets are expected to rotate synchronously relative to their parent stars, thereby raising questions about their surface temperature distributions and habitability. We use a global circulation model to study idealized, synchronously rotating (tidally locked) planets of various rotation periods, with surfaces of all land or all

  18. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Lovis; Michel Mayor; Francesco Pepe; Yann Alibert; Willy Benz; François Bouchy; Alexandre C. M. Correia; Jacques Laskar; Christoph Mordasini; Didier Queloz; Nuno C. Santos; Stéphane Udry; Jean-Loup Bertaux; Jean-Pierre Sivan

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called `hot Neptunes' or `super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67,

  19. The mass of dwarf planet Eris.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael E; Schaller, Emily L

    2007-06-15

    The discovery of dwarf planet Eris was followed shortly by the discovery of its satellite, Dysnomia, but the satellite orbit, and thus the system mass, was not known. New observations with the Keck Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescopes show that Dysnomia has a circular orbit with a radius of 37,350 +/- 140 (1-sigma) kilometers and a 15.774 +/- 0.002 day orbital period around Eris. These orbital parameters agree with expectations for a satellite formed out of the orbiting debris left from a giant impact. The mass of Eris from these orbital parameters is 1.67 x 10(22) +/- 0.02 x 10(22) kilograms, or 1.27 +/- 0.02 that of Pluto. PMID:17569855

  20. Exceptional Stars Origins, Companions, Masses and Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hansen, Bradley M. S.; Phinney, Sterl; vanKerkwijk, Martin H.; Vasisht, Gautam

    2004-01-01

    As SIM Interdisciplinary Scientist, we will study the formation, nature and planetary companions of the exotic endpoints of stellar evolution. Our science begins with stars evolving from asymptotic branch giants into white dwarfs. We will determine the parallax and orbital inclination of several iron-deficient post-AGB stars, who peculiar abundances and infrared excesses are evidence that they are accreting gas depleted of dust from a circumbinary disk. Measurement of the orbital inclination, companion mass arid parallax will provide critical constraints. One of these stars is a prime candidate for trying nulling observations, which should reveal light reflected from both the circumbinary and Roche disks. The circumbinary disks seem favorable sites for planet formation. Next, we will search for planets around white dwarfs, both survivors froni the main-sequence stage, and ones newly formed from the circumbinary disks of post-AGB binaries or in white dwarf mergers. Moving up in mass, we will measure the orbital reflex of OB/Be companions to pulsars, determine natal kicks and presupernova orbits, and expand the sample of well-determined neutron star masses. We will obtain the parallax of a transient X-ray binary, whose quiescent emission may be thermal emission from the neutron star, aiming for precise measurement of the neutron star radius. Finally, black holes. We will measure the reflex motions of the companion of what appear to be the most massive stellar black holes. The visual orbits will determine natal kicks, and test the assumptions underlying mass estimates made from the radial velocity curves, projected rotation, and ellipsoidal variations. In addition, we will attempt to observe the visual orbit of SS 433, as well as the proper motion of the emission line clumps in its relativistic jets. Additional information is included in the original document.

  1. The Photoeccentric Effect and Proto-hot Jupiters. II. KOI-1474.01, a Candidate Eccentric Planet Perturbed by an Unseen Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Crepp, Justin R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2012-12-01

    The exoplanets known as hot Jupiters—Jupiter-sized planets with periods of less than 10 days—likely are relics of dynamical processes that shape all planetary system architectures. Socrates et al. argued that high eccentricity migration (HEM) mechanisms proposed for situating these close-in planets should produce an observable population of highly eccentric proto-hot Jupiters that have not yet tidally circularized. HEM should also create failed-hot Jupiters, with periapses just beyond the influence of fast circularization. Using the technique we previously presented for measuring eccentricities from photometry (the "photoeccentric effect"), we are distilling a collection of eccentric proto- and failed-hot Jupiters from the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI). Here, we present the first, KOI-1474.01, which has a long orbital period (69.7340 days) and a large eccentricity e = 0.81+0.10 -0.07, skirting the proto-hot Jupiter boundary. Combining Kepler photometry, ground-based spectroscopy, and stellar evolution models, we characterize host KOI-1474 as a rapidly rotating F star. Statistical arguments reveal that the transiting candidate has a low false-positive probability of 3.1%. KOI-1474.01 also exhibits transit-timing variations of the order of an hour. We explore characteristics of the third-body perturber, which is possibly the "smoking-gun" cause of KOI-1474.01's large eccentricity. We use the host star's period, radius, and projected rotational velocity to measure the inclination of the stellar spin. Comparing KOI 1474.01's inclination, we find that its orbit is marginally consistent with being aligned with the stellar spin axis, although a reanalysis is warranted with future additional data. Finally, we discuss how the number and existence of proto-hot Jupiters will not only demonstrate that hot Jupiters migrate via HEM, but also shed light on the typical timescale for the mechanism.

  2. Water contents of Earth-mass planets around M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng; Ida, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to identify habitable extrasolar planets have focused on systems around M dwarfs, faint stars with less than half the solar mass. Habitable planets around M dwarfs are thought to be more plentiful and easier to detect than those orbiting Sun-like G dwarfs. However, unlike G dwarfs, M dwarfs experience a prolonged decline in luminosity early in their history, leading to an inward migration of the habitable zone to where planets may have lost their water through dissociation and hydrodynamic escape. Water-poor planets, such as Venus, are considered uninhabitable. In contrast, planets with too much water (>1 wt%) would lack continents, leading to climate instability and nutrient limitation problems. Here we combine a numerical planet population synthesis model with a model for water loss to show that the evolution of stellar luminosity leads to two types of planets of Earth-like mass (0.1 to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zones around M dwarfs: ocean planets without continents, and desert planets, on which there are orders of magnitude less surface water than on Earth. According to our simulations, Earth-mass planets with Earth-like water contents are rare around M dwarfs and occur 10-100 times less frequently than around G dwarfs. We suggest that stars close to the size of the Sun should be the primary targets for detecting Earth-like planets.

  3. Types of Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisikalo, Dmitry V.; Kaygorodov, Pavel V.; Ionov, Dmitry E.; Shematovich, Valery I.

    Hot Jupiters, i.e. exoplanet gas giants, having masses comparable to the mass of Jupiter and semimajor axes shorter than 0.1 AU, are a unique class of objects. Since they are so close to the host stars, their atmospheres form and evolve under the action of very active gas dynamical processes caused by the gravitational field and irradiation of the host star. As a matter of fact, the atmospheres of several of these planets fill their Roche lobes , which results in a powerful outflow of material from the planet towards the host star. The energy budget of this process is so important that it almost solely governs the evolution of hot Jupiters gaseous envelopes. Based on the years of experience in the simulations of gas dynamics in mass-exchanging close binary stars, we have investigated specific features of hot Jupiters atmospheres. The analytical estimates and results of 3D numerical simulations, discussed in this Chapter, show that the gaseous envelopes around hot Jupiters may be significantly non-spherical and, at the same time, stationary and long-lived. These results are of fundamental importance for the interpretation of observational data.

  4. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Currently EACOA Fellow at Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan. (China); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Also at Origins Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada. (Canada)

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ? 0.7 M {sub ?}).

  5. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of jupiter with the galileo probe mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Niemann; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; D. M. Hunten; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion

  6. Galileo. Exploration of planet Jupiter and his moons in German-American cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    The main purpose of the mission is the determination of the structure and dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere, the chemical composition and the dynamic structure of Jupiter's atmosphere and the characterization of the morphological and geological properties and the surface composition of the Galilean moons. The mission began on October 18, 1989; after journeying for 5 years, the Galileo spacecraft reached the Jovian system and will spend 20 months performing scientific observations. The mission is to end in November 1997. The German contribution to the Galileo project consists of delivering and operating two scientific experiments and the participation in five further experiments as a co-investigator, the development and delivery of the drive module (Retro Propulsion Module - RPM) for the orbiter and the participation of the German Space Operations Center (GSOC) in mission control.

  7. A survey of the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and their satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Newburn; S. Gulkis

    1973-01-01

    A survey of current knowledge about Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and their satellites is presented. The best available\\u000a numerical values are given for physical parameters, including orbital and body properties, atmospheric composition and structure,\\u000a and photometric parameters. The more acceptable current theories of these bodies are outlined with thorough referencing offering\\u000a access to the details. The survey attempts to

  8. Frontiers in the Interiors of Massive Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Stevenson

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of structures of massive planets such as Jupiter and somewhat lower mass planets such as Uranus can help us tackle some of the central questions in planetary science, such as whether and how planets form. On a decadal timescale, NASA is spending billions of dollars on missions devoted to answering such questions. A crucial part of this understanding

  9. Mass–radius curve for extrasolar Earth-like planets and ocean planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sotin; O. Grasset; A. Mocquet

    2007-01-01

    By comparison with the Earth-like planets and the large icy satellites of the Solar System, one can model the internal structure of extrasolar planets. The input parameters are the composition of the star (Fe\\/Si and Mg\\/Si), the Mg content of the mantle (Mg#=Mg\\/[Mg+Fe]), the amount of H2O and the total mass of the planet. Equation of State (EoS) of the

  10. AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE SHOULDER OF GIANTS: JOVIAN PLANETS AROUND LATE K DWARF STARS AND THE TREND WITH STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mann, Andrew W.; Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of exoplanet statistics suggest a trend of giant planet occurrence with host star mass, a clue to how planets like Jupiter form. One missing piece of the puzzle is the occurrence around late K dwarf stars (masses of 0.5-0.75 M{sub Sun} and effective temperatures of 3900-4800 K). We analyzed four years of Doppler radial velocity (RVs) data for 110 late K dwarfs, one of which hosts two previously reported giant planets. We estimate that 4.0% {+-} 2.3% of these stars have Saturn-mass or larger planets with orbital periods <245 days, depending on the planet mass distribution and RV variability of stars without giant planets. We also estimate that 0.7% {+-} 0.5% of similar stars observed by Kepler have giant planets. This Kepler rate is significantly (99% confidence) lower than that derived from our Doppler survey, but the difference vanishes if only the single Doppler system (HIP 57274) with completely resolved orbits is considered. The difference could also be explained by the exclusion of close binaries (without giant planets) from the Doppler but not Kepler surveys, the effect of long-period companions and stellar noise on the Doppler data, or an intrinsic difference between the two populations. Our estimates for late K dwarfs bridge those for solar-type stars and M dwarfs, and support a positive trend with stellar mass. Small sample size precludes statements about finer structure, e.g., a ''shoulder'' in the distribution of giant planets with stellar mass. Future surveys such as the Next Generation Transit Survey and the Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey will ameliorate this deficiency.

  11. An Understanding of the Shoulder of Giants: Jovian Planets around Late K Dwarf Stars and the Trend with Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidos, Eric; Fischer, Debra A.; Mann, Andrew W.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of exoplanet statistics suggest a trend of giant planet occurrence with host star mass, a clue to how planets like Jupiter form. One missing piece of the puzzle is the occurrence around late K dwarf stars (masses of 0.5-0.75 M ? and effective temperatures of 3900-4800 K). We analyzed four years of Doppler radial velocity (RVs) data for 110 late K dwarfs, one of which hosts two previously reported giant planets. We estimate that 4.0% ± 2.3% of these stars have Saturn-mass or larger planets with orbital periods <245 days, depending on the planet mass distribution and RV variability of stars without giant planets. We also estimate that 0.7% ± 0.5% of similar stars observed by Kepler have giant planets. This Kepler rate is significantly (99% confidence) lower than that derived from our Doppler survey, but the difference vanishes if only the single Doppler system (HIP 57274) with completely resolved orbits is considered. The difference could also be explained by the exclusion of close binaries (without giant planets) from the Doppler but not Kepler surveys, the effect of long-period companions and stellar noise on the Doppler data, or an intrinsic difference between the two populations. Our estimates for late K dwarfs bridge those for solar-type stars and M dwarfs, and support a positive trend with stellar mass. Small sample size precludes statements about finer structure, e.g., a "shoulder" in the distribution of giant planets with stellar mass. Future surveys such as the Next Generation Transit Survey and the Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey will ameliorate this deficiency.

  12. A Stellar-mass-dependent Drop in Planet Occurrence Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R ?) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ~10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters.

  13. Methane Planets and Their Mass–Radius Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helled, Ravit; Podolak, Morris; Vos, Eran

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge of both the mass and radius of an exoplanet allows us to estimate its mean density, and therefore its composition. Exoplanets seem to fill a very large parameter space in terms of mass and composition, and unlike the solar-system’s planets, exoplanets also have intermediate masses (?5–50 {{M}\\oplus }) with various densities. In this Letter, we investigate the behavior of the mass–radius relation for methane (CH4) planets and show that when methane planets are massive enough ({{M}p} ? 15 M\\oplus ), the methane can dissociate and lead to a differentiated planet with a carbon core, a methane envelope, and a hydrogen atmosphere. The contribution of a rocky core to the behavior of a CH4 planet is also considered. We also develop interior models for several detected intermediate-mass planets that could, in principle, be methane/methane-rich planets. The example of methane planets emphasizes the complexity of the mass–radius relation and the challenge involved in uniquely inferring the planetary composition.

  14. Making Intermediate mass black holes around Supermassive black holes: like making Jupiters around stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKernan, Barry; Ford, S.; Kocsis, B.; Lyra, W.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar mass black hole seeds can rapidly grow into intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in accretion disks around supermassive black holes. Initial seed growth is dominated by collisions with stars and later seed growth is dominated by gas accretion. IMBH grow much faster in this model than in globular cluster. There are strong theoretical and observational analogies with the growth of Jupiters in disks around stars. I discuss the growth and observational signatures of IMBH in AGN disks.

  15. Terrestrial planet formation in a protoplanetary disk with a local mass depletion: A successful scenario for the formation of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista - Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Tsuchida, M., E-mail: izidoro@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, DCCE-IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, CEP 15.054-000, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-02-10

    Models of terrestrial planet formation for our solar system have been successful in producing planets with masses and orbits similar to those of Venus and Earth. However, these models have generally failed to produce Mars-sized objects around 1.5 AU. The body that is usually formed around Mars' semimajor axis is, in general, much more massive than Mars. Only when Jupiter and Saturn are assumed to have initially very eccentric orbits (e ? 0.1), which seems fairly unlikely for the solar system, or alternately, if the protoplanetary disk is truncated at 1.0 AU, simulations have been able to produce Mars-like bodies in the correct location. In this paper, we examine an alternative scenario for the formation of Mars in which a local depletion in the density of the protosolar nebula results in a non-uniform formation of planetary embryos and ultimately the formation of Mars-sized planets around 1.5 AU. We have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the formation of terrestrial planets in such a disk for different scales of the local density depletion, and for different orbital configurations of the giant planets. Our simulations point to the possibility of the formation of Mars-sized bodies around 1.5 AU, specifically when the scale of the disk local mass-depletion is moderately high (50%-75%) and Jupiter and Saturn are initially in their current orbits. In these systems, Mars-analogs are formed from the protoplanetary materials that originate in the regions of disk interior or exterior to the local mass-depletion. Results also indicate that Earth-sized planets can form around 1 AU with a substantial amount of water accreted via primitive water-rich planetesimals and planetary embryos. We present the results of our study and discuss their implications for the formation of terrestrial planets in our solar system.

  16. The first planet detected in the WTS: an inflated hot-Jupiter in a 3.35 day orbit around a late F-star [ERRATUM

    E-print Network

    Cappetta, M; Birkby, J L; Koppenhoefer, J; Pinfield, D J; Hodgkin, S T; Cruz, P; Kovacs, G; Sipocz, B; Barrado, D; Nefs, B; Pavlenko, Y V; Fossati, L; del Burgo, C; Martin, E L; Snellen, I; Barnes, J; Campbell, D A; Catalan, S; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Goulding, N; Haswell, C; Ivanyuk, O; Jones, H; Kuznetsov, M; Lodieu, N; Marocco, F; Mislis, D; Murgas, F; Napiwotzki, R; Palle, E; Pollacco, D; Baro, L Sarro; Solano, E; Steele, P; Stoev, H; Tata, R; Zendejas, J

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of WTS-1b, the first extrasolar planet found by the WFCAM Transit Survey, which began observations at the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) in August 2007. Light curves comprising almost 1200 epochs with a photometric precision of better than 1 per cent to J ~ 16 were constructed for ~60000 stars and searched for periodic transit signals. For one of the most promising transiting candidates, high-resolution spectra taken at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) allowed us to estimate the spectroscopic parameters of the host star, a late-F main sequence dwarf (V=16.13) with possibly slightly subsolar metallicity, and to measure its radial velocity variations. The combined analysis of the light curves and spectroscopic data resulted in an orbital period of the substellar companion of 3.35 days, a planetary mass of 4.01 +- 0.35 Mj and a planetary radius of 1.49+0.16-0.18 Rj. WTS-1b has one of the largest radius anomalies among the known hot Jupiters in the mass range 3-5 Mj. The h...

  17. The first planet detected in the WTS: an inflated hot-Jupiter in a 3.35 day orbit around a late F-star

    E-print Network

    Cappetta, M; Birkby, J L; Koppenhoefer, J; Pinfield, D J; Hodgkin, S T; Cruz, P; Kovács, G; Sipöcz, B; Barrado, D; Nefs, B; Pavlenko, Y V; Fossati, L; del Burgo, C; Martín, E L; Snellen, I; Barnes, J; Bayo, A M; Campbell, D A; Catalan, S; Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Goulding, N; Haswell, C; Ivanyuk, O; Jones, H; Kuznetsov, M; Lodieu, N; Marocco, F; Mislis, D; Murgas, F; Napiwotzki, R; Palle, E; Pollacco, D; Baro, L Sarro; Solano, E; Steele, P; Stoev, H; Tata, R; Zendejas, J

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of WTS-1b, the first extrasolar planet found by the WFCAM Transit Survey, which began observations at the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Light curves comprising almost 1200 epochs with a photometric precision of better than 1 per cent to J=16 were constructed for 60000 stars and searched for periodic transit signals. For one of the most promising transiting candidates, high-resolution spectra taken at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope allowed us to estimate the spectroscopic parameters of the host star, a late-F main sequence dwarf (V=16.13) with possibly slightly subsolar metallicity, and to measure its radial velocity variations. The combined analysis of the light curves and spectroscopic data resulted in an orbital period of the substellar companion of 3.35 days, a planetary mass of 4.01+-0.35 Mj and a planetary radius of 1.49+-0.17 Rj. WTS-1b has one of the largest radius anomalies among the known hot Jupiters in the mass range 3-5 Mj.

  18. Determination of the minimum masses of heavy elements in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-print Network

    Olivier Mousis; Ulysse Marboeuf; Jonathan I. Lunine; Yann Alibert; Leigh N. Fletcher; Glenn S. Orton; Francoise Pauzat; Yves Ellinger

    2008-12-12

    We calculate the minimum mass of heavy elements required in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn to match the observed oversolar abundances of volatiles. Because the clathration efficiency remains unknown in the solar nebula, we have considered a set of sequences of ice formation in which the fraction of water available for clathration is varied between 0 and 100 %. In all the cases considered, we assume that the water abundance remains homogeneous whatever the heliocentric distance in the nebula and directly derives from a gas phase of solar composition. Planetesimals then form in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn from the agglomeration of clathrates and pure condensates in proportions fixed by the clathration efficiency. A fraction of Kr and Xe may have been sequestrated by the H3+ ion in the form of stable XeH3+ and KrH3+ complexes in the solar nebula gas phase, thus implying the formation of at least partly Xe- and Kr-impoverished planetesimals in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn. These planetesimals were subsequently accreted and vaporized into the hydrogen envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn, thus engendering volatiles enrichments in their atmospheres, with respect to hydrogen. Taking into account both refractory and volatile components, and assuming plausible molecular mixing ratios in the gas phase of the outer solar nebula, we show that it is possible to match the observed enrichments in Jupiter and Saturn, whatever the clathration efficiency. Our calculations predict that the O/H enrichment decreases from 6.7 to 5.6 times solar (O/H) in the envelope of Jupiter and from 18.1 to 15.4 times solar (O/H) in the envelope of Saturn with the growing clathration efficiency in the solar nebula.

  19. Low Mass Companions for Five Solar-Type Stars from the Magellan Planet Search Program

    E-print Network

    Dante Minniti; R. Paul Butler; Mercedes Lopez-Morales; Stephen A. Shectman; Fred C. Adams; Pamela Arriagada; Alan P. Boss; John E. Chambers

    2008-10-29

    We report low mass companions orbiting five Solar-type stars that have emerged from the Magellan precision Doppler velocity survey, with minimum (Msini) masses ranging from 1.2 to 25 Mjup. These nearby target stars range from mildly metal-poor to metal-rich, and appear to have low chromospheric activity. The companions to the brightest two of these stars have previously been reported from the CORALIE survey. Four of these companions (HD 48265-b, HD 143361-b, HD 28185-b, HD 111232-b) are low-mass Jupiter-like planets in eccentric intermediate and long-period orbits. On the other hand, the companion to HD 43848 appears to be a long period brown dwarf in a very eccentric orbit.

  20. On the Mass-Period Correlation of the Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shay Zucker; Tsevi Mazeh

    2002-01-01

    We report on a possible correlation between the masses and periods of the extrasolar planets, manifested as a paucity of massive planets with short orbital periods. Monte Carlo simulations show the effect is significant and is not solely due to an observational selection effect. We also show the effect is stronger than the one already implied by published models that

  1. Accretion of the gaseous envelope of Jupiter around a 5 10 Earth-mass core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, Olenka; Bodenheimer, Peter; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2005-12-01

    New numerical simulations of the formation and evolution of Jupiter are presented. The formation model assumes that first a solid core of several M accretes from the planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk, and then the core captures a massive gaseous envelope from the protoplanetary disk. Earlier studies of the core accretion-gas capture model [Pollack, J.B., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., Podolak, M., Greenzweig, Y., 1996. Icarus 124, 62-85] demonstrated that it was possible for Jupiter to accrete with a solid core of 10-30 M in a total formation time comparable to the observed lifetime of protoplanetary disks. Recent interior models of Jupiter and Saturn that agree with all observational constraints suggest that Jupiter's core mass is 0-11 M and Saturn's is 9-22 M [Saumon, G., Guillot, T., 2004. Astrophys. J. 609, 1170-1180]. We have computed simulations of the growth of Jupiter using various values for the opacity produced by grains in the protoplanet's atmosphere and for the initial planetesimal surface density, ?, in the protoplanetary disk. We also explore the implications of halting the solid accretion at selected core mass values during the protoplanet's growth. Halting planetesimal accretion at low core mass simulates the presence of a competing embryo, and decreasing the atmospheric opacity due to grains emulates the settling and coagulation of grains within the protoplanet's atmosphere. We examine the effects of adjusting these parameters to determine whether or not gas runaway can occur for small mass cores on a reasonable timescale. We compute four series of simulations with the latest version of our code, which contains updated equation of state and opacity tables as well as other improvements. Each series consists of a run without a cutoff in planetesimal accretion, plus up to three runs with a cutoff at a particular core mass. The first series of runs is computed with an atmospheric opacity due to grains (hereafter referred to as 'grain opacity') that is 2% of the interstellar value and ?=10g/cm. Cutoff runs are computed for core masses of 10, 5, and 3 M. The second series of Jupiter models is computed with the grain opacity at the full interstellar value and ?=10g/cm. Cutoff runs are computed for core masses of 10 and 5 M. The third series of runs is computed with the grain opacity at 2% of the interstellar value and ?=6g/cm. One cutoff run is computed with a core mass of 5 M. The final series consists of one run, without a cutoff, which is computed with a temperature dependent grain opacity (i.e., 2% of the interstellar value for T<350K ramping up to the full interstellar value for T>500K) and ?=10g/cm. Our results demonstrate that reducing grain opacities results in formation times less than half of those for models computed with full interstellar grain opacity values. The reduction of opacity due to grains in the upper portion of the envelope with T?500K has the largest effect on the lowering of the formation time. If the accretion of planetesimals is not cut off prior to the accretion of gas, then decreasing the surface density of planetesimals lowers the final core mass of the protoplanet, but increases the formation timescale considerably. Finally, a core mass cutoff results in a reduction of the time needed for a protoplanet to evolve to the stage of runaway gas accretion, provided the cutoff mass is sufficiently large. The overall results indicate that, with reasonable parameters, it is possible that Jupiter formed at 5 AU via the core accretion process in 1 Myr with a core of 10 M or in 5 Myr with a core of 5 M.

  2. AB INITIO EQUATION OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN-HELIUM MIXTURES WITH RECALIBRATION OF THE GIANT-PLANET MASS-RADIUS RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Militzer, B. [Departments of Earth and Planetary Science and of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Using density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the equation of state (EOS) for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions typical of giant-planet interiors, {approx}0.2-9 g cm{sup -3} and 1000-80,000 K for a typical helium mass fraction of 0.245. In addition to computing internal energy and pressure, we determine the entropy using an ab initio thermodynamic integration technique. A comprehensive EOS table with 391 density-temperature points is constructed and the results are presented in the form of a two-dimensional free energy fit for interpolation. Deviations between our ab initio EOS and the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier are analyzed in detail, and we use the results for initial revision of the inferred thermal state of giant planets with known values for mass and radius. Changes are most pronounced for planets in the Jupiter mass range and below. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship that makes the hottest exoplanets increase in radius by {approx}0.2 Jupiter radii at fixed entropy and for masses greater than {approx}0.5 Jupiter mass. This change is large enough to have possible implications for some discrepant ''inflated giant exoplanets''.

  3. Considerations on the Outward Migration of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Marzari, F.

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that the outward orbital migration of Jupiter and Saturn, driven by a gas-dominated protosolar disk, may help explain why they did not move much closer to the Sun. It has also been suggested that some properties of the inner Solar System may be interpreted by invoking an inward migration of Jupiter and Saturn followed by outward migration, once they get caught in the 2:3 mean motion resonance. Hydrodynamical calculations indicate that outward migration of a compact Jupiter-Saturn system may arise from an imbalance between positive and negative Lindblad torques exerted on Jupiter by the disk. The torque density distribution acting on Jupiter extends over ~3 Hill radii on either side of the planet's orbit. The negative part of the distribution samples outer disk portions, partially depleted by the tidal perturbations of both planets. The positive part of the distribution samples inner disk portions, depleted only by the action of Jupiter. The net result may be a positive torque exerted on Jupiter. Saturn, trapped in resonance with Jupiter, migrates outward as well. This mechanism requires the exterior planet's mass not to exceed the interior planet's mass. Thus, it is assumed that neither planet accretes gas from the disk. Yet, models of giant planet formation indicate that these planets would accrete gas at whatever rate the disk provides (Lissauer et al., 2009, Icarus, 199, 338). We performed 2D and 3D hydrodynamical calculations of a Jupiter-Saturn system tidally interacting with a protoplanetary disk and investigated how gas accretion affects their migration history. We assumed initial conditions shown to result in the outward migration of non-accreting planets and recovered such scenario. We then allowed the planets to accrete gas at a disk-limited rate. In agreement with estimates derived for single planets, the assumed disk conditions lead to a mass-doubling time scale of the exterior planet that is 6-9 times as short as that of interior planet. Under these circumstances, the exterior planet's mass would quickly approach the interior planet's mass, halting outward migration. Planetary accretion is responsible for another effect that conspires against outward migration. A stationary disk, in which the accretion rate is nearly constant over its radius, would have a reduced surface density S within the orbit of an accreting planet. The reduction factor depends on the planet's accretion efficiency E, i.e., the ratio of the accretion rate onto the planet to the accretion rate through the disk interpolated at the planet's position. One can show that dMe/dt~(1+E)dMi/dt, where dMe/dt and dMi/dt are the disk accretion rates exterior and interior of the planet's orbit (Lubow & D'Angelo, 2006, Astrophys. J., 641, 526). In a stationary disk, S is proportional to the accretion rate and therefore Si~Se/(1+E), reducing the positive Lindblad torques acting on the planet. We estimated the accretion efficiency allowing for accretion onto Jupiter, but not onto Saturn, and found that E~5-6. Including accretion onto Saturn would likely yield a smaller Si/Se ratio. We simulated the migration of the two planets in such a stationary disk and found that it is directed toward the star and occurs on a time scale of order the viscous diffusion time scale.

  4. The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasso B. Niemann; Sushil K. Atreya; George R. Carignan; Thomas M. Donahue; John A. Haberman; Dan N. Harpold; Richard E. Hartle; Donald M. Hunten; Wayne T. Kasprzak; Paul R. Mahaffy; Tobias C. Owen; Nelson W. Spencer

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the jovian atmosphere from 0.5 to 21 bars along the descent trajectory was determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Galileo probe. The mixing ratio of He (helium) to H_2 (hydrogen), 0.156, is close to the solar ratio. The abundances of methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide were measured; krypton and xenon were detected. As

  5. The Keck Planet Search: Detectability and the Minimum Mass and Orbital Period Distribution of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Andrew; Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Vogt, Steven S.; Wright, Jason T.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2008-05-01

    We analyze 8 years of precise radial velocity measurements from the Keck Planet Search, characterizing the detection threshold, selection effects, and completeness of the survey. We first carry out a systematic search for planets, by assessing the false-alarm probability associated with Keplerian orbit fits to the data. This allows us to understand the detection threshold for each star in terms of the number and time baseline of the observations, and the underlying "noise" from measurement errors, intrinsic stellar jitter, or additional low-mass planets. We show that all planets with orbital periods P < 2000 days, velocity amplitudes K > 20 m s-1, and eccentricities e ? 0.6 have been announced, and we summarize the candidates at lower amplitudes and longer orbital periods. For the remaining stars, we calculate upper limits on the velocity amplitude of a companion. For orbital periods less than the duration of the observations, these are typically 10 m s-1 and increase ? P2 for longer periods. We then use the nondetections to derive completeness corrections at low amplitudes and long orbital periods and discuss the resulting distribution of minimum mass and orbital period. We give the fraction of stars with a planet as a function of minimum mass and orbital period and extrapolate to long-period orbits and low planet masses. A power-law fit for planet masses >0.3 MJ and periods < 2000 days gives a mass-period distribution dN = CM?P?d ln Md ln P with ? = -0.31 ± 0.2, ? = 0.26 ± 0.1, and the normalization constant C such that 10.5% of solar type stars have a planet with mass in the range 0.3--10 MJ and orbital period 2--2000 days. The orbital period distribution shows an increase in the planet fraction by a factor of ?5 for orbital periods ? 300 days. Extrapolation gives 17%--20% of stars having gas giant planets within 20 AU. Finally, we constrain the occurrence rate of planets orbiting M dwarfs compared to FGK dwarfs, taking into account differences in detectability.

  6. A new Neptune-mass planet orbiting HD 219828

    E-print Network

    C. Melo; N. C. Santos; W. Gieren; G. Pietrzynski; M. T. Ruiz; S. G. Sousa; F. Bouchy; C. Lovis; M. Mayor; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; R. da Silva; S. Udry

    2007-02-20

    Two years ago a new benchmark for the planetary survey was set with the discoveries of three extrasolar planets with masses below 20$M_\\oplus$. In particular, the serendipitous discovery of the 14$M_\\oplus$ planet around $\\mu$ Ara found with HARPS with a semi-amplitude of only 4 m s$^{-1}$ put in evidence the tremendous potential of HARPS for the search of this class of very low-mass planets. Aiming to discovering new worlds similar to $\\mu$ Ara b, we carried out an intensive campaign with HARPS to observe a selected sample of northern stars covering a range of metallicity from about solar to twice solar. Two stars in our program were found to present radial velocity variations compatible with the presence of a planet-mass companion. The first of these, HD 219218, was found to be orbited by a planet with a minimum mass of 19.8 $M_\\oplus$ and an orbital period of 3.83 days. It is the 11th Neptune-mass planet found so far orbiting a solar-type star. The radial velocity data clearly show the presence of an additional body to the system, likely of planetary mass. The second planet orbits HD 102195, has a mass of 0.45$M_{Jup}$ and an orbital period of 4.11 days. This planet has been already announced by Ge et al. (2006). Our data confirm and improve the orbital solution found by these authors. We also show that the high residuals of the orbital solution are caused by stellar activity, and use the bisectors of the HARPS cross-correlation function to correct the noise introduced by stellar activity. An improved orbital solution is obtained after this correction. This kind of analysis may be used in the future to correct the radial-velocities for stellar activity induced noise.

  7. Searching for, Finding, and Imaging Young Extrasolar Planets with HST\\/NICMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schneider; I. Song; J. Farihi; B. Zuckerman; E. Becklin; P. Lowrance; B. Macintosh; M. Bessell

    Imaging discovery and subsequent characterization of extrasolar planet (EP) mass companions to stars has been observationally challenging due to the severe planet-to-star contrast ratios. Since the detection of the extrasolar giant planet (EGP) companion to 51 Peg (1), continuing discoveries of 1 - 10 Jupiter mass companions by indirect methods have revealed an unanticipated diversity in mass ranges, dynamical properties,

  8. Warm Jupiters as failed hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The orbits of hot Jupiters often have surprisingly small semi-major axes, large eccentricities, or severe misalignments between their normals and their host stars' spin axes. In some formation scenarios invoking Kozai-Lidov oscillations, an external planetary companion drives a planet onto an orbit having these properties. The mutual inclinations for Kozai-Lidov oscillations can be large and have not been confirmed observationally. Here I present evidence for a population of eccentric warm Jupiters with eccentric giant companions with mutual inclinations just above 40 degrees. These planets may be undergoing a stalled version of tidal migration that produces warm Jupiters over hot Jupiters. I conclude by assessing the contribution of this mechanism to the overall population of short-period hot Jupiters, super-Earths, and mini-Neptunes.

  9. EXTRACTING PLANET MASS AND ECCENTRICITY FROM TTV DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) (United States); Xie Jiwei; Wu Yanqin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2012-12-20

    Most planet pairs in the Kepler data that have measured transit time variations (TTVs) are near first-order mean-motion resonances. We derive analytical formulae for their TTV signals. We separate planet eccentricity into free and forced parts, where the forced part is purely due to the planets' proximity to resonance. This separation yields simple analytical formulae. The phase of the TTV depends sensitively on the presence of free eccentricity: if the free eccentricity vanishes, the TTV will be in phase with the longitude of conjunctions. This effect is easily detectable in current TTV data. The amplitude of the TTV depends on planet mass and free eccentricity, and it determines planet mass uniquely only when the free eccentricity is sufficiently small. We analyze the TTV signals of six short-period Kepler pairs. We find that three of these pairs (Kepler 18, 24, 25) have a TTV phase consistent with zero. The other three (Kepler 23, 28, 32) have small TTV phases, but ones that are distinctly non-zero. We deduce that the free eccentricities of the planets are small, {approx}< 0.01, but not always vanishing. Furthermore, as a consequence of this, we deduce that the true masses of the planets are fairly accurately determined by the TTV amplitudes, within a factor of {approx}< 2. The smallness of the free eccentricities suggests that the planets have experienced substantial dissipation. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the observed pile-up of Kepler pairs near mean-motion resonances is caused by resonant repulsion. But the fact that some of the planets have non-vanishing free eccentricity suggests that after resonant repulsion occurred there was a subsequent phase in the planets' evolution when their eccentricities were modestly excited, perhaps by interplanetary interactions.

  10. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  11. 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd the planet real, we now know that it is a gas

    E-print Network

    Palumbi, Stephen

    © 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd the planet real, we now know that it is a gas giantmademainlyofhydrogen,notrock--a solid planet with a mass of 0.63 MJ would havetobethreetimessmallerthanJupiter. Our properties of extrasolar planets. The detection of reflected light from a planet, if confirmed, is the first

  12. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    E-print Network

    Guo, Jianheng

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass ...

  13. The Galileo probe mass spectrometer: composition of Jupiter's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Niemann, H B; Atreya, S K; Carignan, G R; Donahue, T M; Haberman, J A; Harpold, D N; Hartle, R E; Hunten, D M; Kasprzak, W T; Mahaffy, P R; Owen, T C; Spencer, N W; Way, S H

    1996-05-10

    The composition of the jovian atmosphere from 0.5 to 21 bars along the descent trajectory was determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Galileo probe. The mixing ratio of He (helium) to H2 (hydrogen), 0.156, is close to the solar ratio. The abundances of methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide were measured; krypton and xenon were detected. As measured in the jovian atmosphere, the amount of carbon is 2.9 times the solar abundance relative to H2, the amount of sulfur is greater than the solar abundance, and the amount of oxygen is much less than the solar abundance. The neon abundance compared with that of hydrogen is about an order of magnitude less than the solar abundance. Isotopic ratios of carbon and the noble gases are consistent with solar values. The measured ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) of (5 +/- 2) x 10(-5) indicates that this ratio is greater in solar-system hydrogen than in local interstellar hydrogen, and the 3He/4He ratio of (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(-4) provides a new value for protosolar (solar nebula) helium isotopes. Together, the D/H and 3He/4He ratios are consistent with conversion in the sun of protosolar deuterium to present-day 3He. PMID:8629016

  14. The Galileo probe mass spectrometer: composition of Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.; Way, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the jovian atmosphere from 0.5 to 21 bars along the descent trajectory was determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Galileo probe. The mixing ratio of He (helium) to H2 (hydrogen), 0.156, is close to the solar ratio. The abundances of methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide were measured; krypton and xenon were detected. As measured in the jovian atmosphere, the amount of carbon is 2.9 times the solar abundance relative to H2, the amount of sulfur is greater than the solar abundance, and the amount of oxygen is much less than the solar abundance. The neon abundance compared with that of hydrogen is about an order of magnitude less than the solar abundance. Isotopic ratios of carbon and the noble gases are consistent with solar values. The measured ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) of (5 +/- 2) x 10(-5) indicates that this ratio is greater in solar-system hydrogen than in local interstellar hydrogen, and the 3He/4He ratio of (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(-4) provides a new value for protosolar (solar nebula) helium isotopes. Together, the D/H and 3He/4He ratios are consistent with conversion in the sun of protosolar deuterium to present-day 3He.

  15. Habitability of Planets Orbiting Binaries Consisting of Solar Mass Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Zhilkin, Andrey G.; Bisikalo, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    An important problem in astrobiology is the study of the potential habitability of planets orbiting binary stars. Theoretical and observational studies of circumbinary planets indicate that it is not uncommon for circumbinary planets to be located in the habitable zones surrounding main sequence binaries. However, it is also clear that the time evolution of stellar activity of the individual stars in close binaries is of primary concern for the habitability of planets. For example, planets orbiting active stars may lose the entirety of their water budget due to atmospheric mass loss; despite being in the standard radiative habitable zone. Alternatively, stars in some binaries may undergo a reduction in stellar activity due to tidal effects that cause the rotation of the stars to slow faster than single stars. Thereby, magneto-coronal activity is reduced to less aggressive levels, allowing circumbinary planets to maintain surface water. We summarize these effects, which we call the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM). We performed orbital integrations of circumbinary, Earth-like, planets and find that resonances play a particularly important role in the stability of habitable zone planets orbiting solar twin binaries in the 20-60 day period range, allowing for the possibility of several habitable planets orbiting some binaries. We present numerical simulations of the effects of colliding winds in binaries containing solar mass twins. We used stellar wind parameters based on solar like conditions for our 3D hydrodynamic simulations. We find devastating effects for close in planets, yet relatively mild stellar wind conditions exist within the circumbinary habitable zone.

  16. Atmospheres of low-mass planets: the "boil-off"

    E-print Network

    Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    We show that, for a low-mass planet that orbits its host star within several tenths of an AU (like the majority of the Kepler planets), the atmosphere it was able to accumulate while embedded in the proto-planetary disk may not survive unscathed after the disk disperses. This gas envelope, if more massive than a few percent of the core (with a mass below $10 M_\\oplus$), has a cooling time that is much longer than the time-scale on which the planet exits the disk. As such, it could not have contracted significantly from its original size, of order the Bondi radius. So a newly exposed proto-planet would be losing mass via a Parker wind that is energized by the stellar continuum radiation. The surface mass-loss induces a mass movement within the envelope that advects internal heat outward. As a result, the planet atmosphere rapidly cools down and contracts, until it has reached a radius of order $0.1$ Bondi radius, at which time the mass-loss effectively shuts down. Within a million years after the disk disperse...

  17. Search for Earth-Mass Planets and Dark Matter, Too

    E-print Network

    Rhie, S H

    1996-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing is known for baryoninc dark matter searches. Here we show that microlensing also provides a unique tool for the detection of low mass planets (such as earths and neptunes) from the ground. A planetary system forms a binary lens (or, a multi-point lens), and we can determine the mass ratio of the planet with respect to the star and relative distance ($=$ separation/Einstein ring radius) between the star and planet. Such a microlenisng planet search project requires a $\\approx 2$ m survey telescope, and a network of $1.5-2$ m follow-up telescopes capable of monitoring stars in the Bulge on a 24-hour basis. During the off-season of the Galactic bulge, this network can be used for dark matter search by monitoring the stars in the LMC and SMC.

  18. Search for earth mass planets and dark matter too

    SciTech Connect

    Rhie, S.H.; Bennett, D.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)][California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)][Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Gravitational microlensing is known for baryonic dark matter searches. Here we show that microlensing also provides a unique tool for the detection of low mass planets (such as earths and neptunes) from the ground. A planetary system forms a binary lens (or, a multi-point lens), and we can determine the mass ratio of the planet with respect to the star and relative distance (= separation/Einstein ring radius) between the star and planet. Such a microlensing planet search project requires a {approx} 2 m survey telescope, and a network of 1.5 - 2 m follow-up telescopes capable of monitoring stars in the Bulge on a 24-hour basis. During the off-season of the Galactic bulge, this network can be used for dark matter search by monitoring the stars in the LMC and SMC.

  19. Search for Earth-Mass Planets and Dark Matter, Too

    E-print Network

    S. H. Rhie; D. P. Bennett

    1996-07-12

    Gravitational microlensing is known for baryoninc dark matter searches. Here we show that microlensing also provides a unique tool for the detection of low mass planets (such as earths and neptunes) from the ground. A planetary system forms a binary lens (or, a multi-point lens), and we can determine the mass ratio of the planet with respect to the star and relative distance ($=$ separation/Einstein ring radius) between the star and planet. Such a microlenisng planet search project requires a $\\approx 2$ m survey telescope, and a network of $1.5-2$ m follow-up telescopes capable of monitoring stars in the Bulge on a 24-hour basis. During the off-season of the Galactic bulge, this network can be used for dark matter search by monitoring the stars in the LMC and SMC.

  20. The Use of Transit Timing to Detect Extrasolar Planets with Masses as Small as Earth

    E-print Network

    Matthew J. Holman; Norman W. Murray

    2004-12-01

    Future surveys for transiting extrasolar planets, including the space-based mission Kepler (Borucki et al 2003), are expected to detect hundreds of Jovian mass planets and tens of terrestrial mass planets. For many of these newly discovered planets, the intervals between successive transits will be measured with an accuracy of 0.1--100 minutes. We show that these timing measurements will allow for the detection of additional planets in the system (not necessarily transiting), via their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The transit time variations depend on the mass of the additional planet, and in some cases Earth-mass planets will produce a measurable effect.

  1. Lone Planet Under a Cosmic Magnifying Glass - Duration: 45 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This artist's animation illustrates the technique used for finding free-floating, Jupiter-mass planets in space. Astronomers found evidence for 10 of these worlds, thought to have been ejected earl...

  2. SECULAR CHAOS AND THE PRODUCTION OF HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yanqin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Lithwick, Yoram [Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-10

    In a planetary system with two or more well-spaced, eccentric, inclined planets, secular interactions may lead to chaos. The innermost planet may gradually become very eccentric and/or inclined as a result of the secular degrees of freedom drifting toward equipartition of angular momentum deficit. Secular chaos is known to be responsible for the eventual destabilization of Mercury in our own solar system. Here we focus on systems with three giant planets. We characterize the secular chaos and demonstrate the criterion for it to occur, but leave a detailed understanding of secular chaos to a companion paper. After an extended period of eccentricity diffusion, the inner planet's pericenter can approach the star to within a few stellar radii. Strong tidal interactions and ensuing tidal dissipation extract orbital energy from the planet and pull it inward, creating a hot Jupiter. In contrast to other proposed channels for the production of hot Jupiters, such a scenario (which we term 'secular migration') explains a range of observations: the pile-up of hot Jupiters at 3 day orbital periods, the fact that hot Jupiters are in general less massive than other radial velocity planets, that they may have misaligned inclinations with respect to stellar spin, and that they have few easily detectable companions (but may have giant companions in distant orbits). Secular migration can also explain close-in planets as low in mass as Neptune; and an aborted secular migration can explain the 'warm Jupiters' at intermediate distances. In addition, the frequency of hot Jupiters formed via secular migration increases with stellar age. We further suggest that secular chaos may be responsible for the observed eccentricities of giant planets at larger distances and that these planets could exhibit significant spin-orbit misalignment.

  3. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets

    E-print Network

    C. Lovis; M. Mayor; F. Pepe; Y. Alibert; W. Benz; F. Bouchy; A. C. M. Correia; J. Laskar; C. Mordasini; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos; S. Udry; J. -L. Bertaux; J. -P. Sivan

    2007-03-01

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 AU (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star.

  4. Microlensing Event MOA-2007-BLG-400: Exhuming the Buried Signature of a Cool, Jovian-Mass Planet

    E-print Network

    Subo Dong; I. A. Bond; A. Gould; Szymon Kozlowski; N. Miyake; B. S. Gaudi; D. P. Bennett; F. Abe; A. C. Gilmore; A. Fukui; K. Furusawa; J. B. Hearnshaw; Y. Itow; K. Kamiya; P. M. Kilmartin; A. Korpela; W. Lin; C. H. Ling; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; Y. Muraki; M. Nagaya; K. Ohnishi; T. Okumura; Y. C. Perrott; N. Rattenbury; To. Saito; T. Sako; S. Sato; L. Skuljan; D. J. Sullivan; T. Sumi; W. Sweatman; P. J. Tristram; P. C. M. Yock; G. Bolt; G. W. Christie; D. L. DePoy; C. Han; J. Janczak; C. -U. Lee; F. Mallia; J. McCormick; B. Monard; A. Maury; T. Natusch; B. -G. Park; R. W. Pogge; R. Santallo; K. Z. Stanek; A. Udalski; M. Kubiak; M. K. Szymanski; G. Pietrzynski; I. Soszynski; O. Szewczyk; L. Wyrzykowski; K. Ulaczyk

    2008-09-18

    We report the detection of the cool, Jovian-mass planet MOA-2007-BLG-400Lb. The planet was detected in a high-magnification microlensing event (with peak magnification A_max = 628) in which the primary lens transited the source, resulting in a dramatic smoothing of the peak of the event. The angular extent of the region of perturbation due to the planet is significantly smaller than the angular size of the source, and as a result the planetary signature is also smoothed out by the finite source size. Thus the deviation from a single-lens fit is broad and relatively weak (~ few percent). Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the planetary nature of the deviation can be unambiguously ascertained from the gross features of the residuals, and detailed analysis yields a fairly precise planet/star mass ratio of q = 0.0026+/-0.0004, in accord with the large significance (\\Delta\\chi^2=1070) of the detection. The planet/star projected separation is subject to a strong close/wide degeneracy, leading to two indistinguishable solutions that differ in separation by a factor of ~8.5. Upper limits on flux from the lens constrain its mass to be M < 0.75 M_Sun (assuming it is a main-sequence star). A Bayesian analysis that includes all available observational constraints indicates a primary in the Galactic bulge with a mass of ~0.2-0.5 M_Sun and thus a planet mass of ~ 0.5-1.3 M_Jupiter. The separation and equilibrium temperature are ~0.6-1.1AU (~5.3-9.7AU) and ~103K (~34K) for the close (wide) solution. If the primary is a main-sequence star, follow-up observations would enable the detection of its light and so a measurement of its mass and distance.

  5. Planet formation around stars of various masses: Hot super-Earths

    E-print Network

    Grant M. Kennedy; Scott J. Kenyon

    2008-04-15

    We consider trends resulting from two formation mechanisms for short-period super-Earths: planet-planet scattering and migration. We model scenarios where these planets originate near the snow line in ``cold finger'' circumstellar disks. Low-mass planet-planet scattering excites planets to low periastron orbits only for lower mass stars. With long circularisation times, these planets reside on long-period eccentric orbits. Closer formation regions mean planets that reach short-period orbits by migration are most common around low-mass stars. Above ~1 Solar mass, planets massive enough to migrate to close-in orbits before the gas disk dissipates are above the critical mass for gas giant formation. Thus, there is an upper stellar mass limit for short-period super-Earths that form by migration. If disk masses are distributed as a power law, planet frequency increases with metallicity because most disks have low masses. For disk masses distributed around a relatively high mass, planet frequency decreases with increasing metallicity. As icy planets migrate, they shepherd interior objects toward the star, which grow to ~1 Earth mass. In contrast to icy migrators, surviving shepherded planets are rocky. Upon reaching short-period orbits, planets are subject to evaporation processes. The closest planets may be reduced to rocky or icy cores. Low-mass stars have lower EUV luminosities, so the level of evaporation decreases with decreasing stellar mass.

  6. Models of Jupiter's Growth Incorporating Thermal and Hydrodynamic Constraints

    E-print Network

    Jack J. Lissauer; Olenka Hubickyj; Gennaro D'Angelo; Peter Bodenheimer

    2008-10-29

    [Abridged] We model the growth of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion, applying constraints from hydrodynamical processes that result from the disk-planet interaction. We compute the planet's internal structure using a Henyey-type stellar evolution code. The planet's interactions with the protoplanetary disk are calculated using 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. Previous models of Jupiter's growth have taken the radius of the planet to be approximately one Hill sphere radius, Rhill. However, 3-D hydrodynamic simulations show that only gas within 0.25Rhill remains bound to the planet, with the more distant gas eventually participating in the shear flow of the protoplanetary disk. Therefore in our new simulations, the planet's outer boundary is placed at the location where gas has the thermal energy to reach the portion of the flow not bound to the planet. We find that the smaller radius increases the time required for planetary growth by ~5%. Thermal pressure limits the rate at which a planet less than a few dozen times as massive as Earth can accumulate gas from the protoplanetary disk, whereas hydrodynamics regulates the growth rate for more massive planets. Within a moderately viscous disk, the accretion rate peaks when the planet's mass is about equal to the mass of Saturn. In a less viscous disk hydrodynamical limits to accretion are smaller, and the accretion rate peaks at lower mass. To account for disk dissipation, we perform some of our simulations of Jupiter's growth within a disk whose surface gas density decreases on a timescale of 3Myr. According to our simulations, proto-Jupiter's distended and thermally-supported envelope was too small to capture the planet's current retinue of irregular satellites as advocated by Pollack et al. (1979).

  7. Rosuvastatin and the JUPITER trial: critical appraisal of a lifeless planet in the galaxy of primary prevention.

    PubMed

    López, Antonio; Wright, James M

    2012-01-01

    In November 2008, the JUPITER trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. JUPITER is an acronym for Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin. It was an AstraZeneca sponsored randomized double-blind trial comparing rosuvastatin 20 mg with placebo in 17,802 apparently healthy men and women with LDL cholesterol <3.4 mmol/L and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The results of the JUPITER trial have been widely publicized, and based on the trial, the main regulatory agencies have approved rosuvastatin for the indication of primary prevention of vascular events. However, the interpretation and clinical implications of the JUPITER trial have been questioned and remain controversial. The objective of this commentary is to evaluate the relevance, design, results, and conclusions of the JUPITER study. PMID:22550699

  8. Discovery and Mass Measurements of a Cold, 10 Earth Mass Planet and Its Host Star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Muraki; C. Han; D. P. Bennett; D. Suzuki; L. A. G. Monard; U. G. Jorgensen; P. Kundurthy; J. Skowron; A. C. Becker; M. D. Albrow; P. Fouqué; D. Heyrovský; R. K. Barry; J.-P. Beaulieu; D. D. Wellnitz; I. A. Bond; T. Sumi; S. Dong; B. S. Gaudi; D. M. Bramich; M. Dominik; F. Abe; C. S. Botzler; M. Freeman; A. Fukui; K. Furusawa; F. Hayashi; J. B. Hearnshaw; S. Hosaka; Y. Itow; K. Kamiya; A. V. Korpela; P. M. Kilmartin; W. Lin; C. H. Ling; S. Makita; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; N. Miyake; K. Nishimoto; K. Ohnishi; Y. C. Perrott; N. J. Rattenbury; To. Saito; L. Skuljan; D. J. Sullivan; W. L. Sweatman; P. J. Tristram; K. Wada; P. C. M. Yock; G. W. Christie; D. L. DePoy; E. Gorbikov; A. Gould; S. Kaspi; C.-U. Lee; F. Mallia; D. Maoz; J. McCormick; D. Moorhouse; T. Natusch; B.-G. Park; R. W. Pogge; D. Polishook; A. Shporer; G. Thornley; J. C. Yee; A. Allan; P. Browne; K. Horne; N. Kains; C. Snodgrass; I. Steele; Y. Tsapras; V. Batista; C. S. Bennett; S. Brillant; J. A. R. Caldwell; A. Cassan; A. Cole; R. Corrales; Ch. Coutures; S. Dieters; D. Dominis Prester; J. Donatowicz; J. Greenhill; D. Kubas; J.-B. Marquette; R. Martin; J. Menzies; K. C. Sahu; I. Waldman; A. Williams; M. Zub; H. Bourhrous; Y. Matsuoka; T. Nagayama; N. Oi; Z. Randriamanakoto; IRSF Observers; V. Bozza; M. J. Burgdorf; S. Calchi Novati; S. Dreizler; F. Finet; M. Glitrup; K. Harpsøe; T. C. Hinse; M. Hundertmark; C. Liebig; G. Maier; L. Mancini; M. Mathiasen; S. Rahvar; D. Ricci; G. Scarpetta; J. Skottfelt; J. Surdej; J. Southworth; J. Wambsganss; F. Zimmer; A. Udalski; R. Poleski; L. Wyrzykowski; K. Ulaczyk; M. K. Szymanski; M. Kubiak; G. Pietrzynski; I. Soszynski

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery and mass measurement of the cold, low-mass planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, performed with the gravitational microlensing method. This planet has a mass of mp = 10.4 ± 1.7 M? and orbits a star of mass M sstarf = 0.56 ± 0.09 Msun at a semimajor axis of a = 3.2{+1.9\\\\atop -0.5} AU and an orbital period of P

  9. THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING MASS LIMIT FOR BROWN DWARFS AND GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Milsom, John A., E-mail: dsp@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: milsom@physics.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2011-01-20

    There is no universally acknowledged criterion to distinguish brown dwarfs from planets. Numerous studies have used or suggested a definition based on an object's mass, taking the {approx}13 Jupiter mass (M{sub J} ) limit for the ignition of deuterium. Here, we investigate various deuterium-burning masses for a range of models. We find that, while 13 M{sub J} is generally a reasonable rule of thumb, the deuterium fusion mass depends on the helium abundance, the initial deuterium abundance, the metallicity of the model, and on what fraction of an object's initial deuterium abundance must combust in order for the object to qualify as having burned deuterium. Even though, for most proto-brown dwarf conditions, 50% of the initial deuterium will burn if the object's mass is {approx}(13.0 {+-} 0.8) M{sub J} , the full range of possibilities is significantly broader. For models ranging from zero-metallicity to more than three times solar metallicity, the deuterium-burning mass ranges from {approx}11.0 M{sub J} (for three times solar metallicity, 10% of initial deuterium burned) to {approx}16.3 M{sub J} ( for zero metallicity, 90% of initial deuterium burned).

  10. Terrestrial planets in high-mass disks without gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that planetary systems consisting only of rocky planets are probably the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the potential habitability of planets formed in high-mass disks without gas giants around solar-type stars. These systems are interesting because they are likely to harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits, which one should be able to detect with the microlensing technique. Methods: First, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce Earth-like planets, super-Earths, or mini-Neptunes, but not gas giants. Using mean values for the parameters that describe a disk and its evolution, we infer that disks with masses lower than 0.15 M? are unable to form gas giants. Then, that semi-analytical model was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase for a given disk. Thus, initial conditions were obtained to perform N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We studied disks of 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 M?. Results: All our simulations form massive planets on wide orbits. For a 0.1 M? disk, 2-3 super-Earths of 2.8 to 5.9 M? are formed between 2 and 5 AU. For disks of 0.125 and 0.15 M?, our simulations produce a 10-17.1 M? planet between 1.6 and 2.7 AU, and other super-Earths are formed in outer regions. Moreover, six planets survive in the habitable zone (HZ). These planets have masses from 1.9 to 4.7 M? and significant water contents ranging from 560 to 7482 Earth oceans, where one Earth ocean represents the amount of water on Earth's surface, which equals 2.8 × 10-4M?. Of the six planets formed in the HZ, three are water worlds with 39%-44% water by mass. These planets start the simulations beyond the snow line, which explains their high water abundances. In general terms, the smaller the mass of the planets observed on wide orbits, the higher the possibility to find water worlds in the HZ. In fact, massive planets can act as a dynamical barrier that prevents the inward diffusion of water-rich embryos located beyond the snow line. Conclusions: Systems without gas giants that harbor super-Earths or Neptune-mass planets on wide orbits around solar-type stars are of astrobiological interest. These systems are likely to harbor super-Earths in the HZ with significant water contents, which missions such as Kepler and Darwin should be able to find.

  11. HAT-P-55b: A Hot Jupiter Transiting a Sun-like Star

    E-print Network

    Juncher, D; Hartman, J D; Bakos, G Á; Bieryla, A; Kovács, T; Boisse, I; Latham, D W; Kovács, G; Bhatti, W; Csubry, Z; Penev, K; de Val-Borro, M; Falco, E; Torres, G; Noyes, R W; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new transiting extrasolar planet, HAT-P-55b. The planet orbits a V = 13.207 +/- 0.039 sun-like star with a mass of 1.013 +/- 0.037 solar masses, a radius of 1.011 +/- 0.036 solar radii and a metallicity of -0.03 +/- 0.08. The planet itself is a typical hot Jupiter with a period of 3.5852467 +/- 0.0000064 days, a mass of 0.582 +/- 0.056 Jupiter masses and a radius of 1.182 +/- 0.055 Jupiter radii. This discovery adds to the increasing sample of transiting planets with measured bulk densities, which is needed to put constraints on models of planetary structure and formation theories.

  12. Comparative Evolution of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-print Network

    W. B. Hubbard; T. Guillot; M. S. Marley; A. Burrows; J. I. Lunine; D. S. Saumon

    1998-12-09

    We present evolutionary sequences for Jupiter and Saturn, based on new nongray model atmospheres, which take into account the evolution of the solar luminosity and partitioning of dense components to deeper layers. The results are used to set limits on the extent to which possible interior phase separation of hydrogen and helium may have progressed in the two planets. When combined with static models constrained by the gravity field, our evolutionary calculations constrain the helium mass fraction in Jupiter to be between 0.20 and 0.27, relative to total hydrogen and helium. This is in agreement with the Galileo determination. The helium mass fraction in Saturn's atmosphere lies between 0.11 and 0.25, higher than the Voyager determination. Based on the discrepancy between the Galileo and Voyager results for Jupiter, and our models, we predict that Cassini measurements will yield a higher atmospheric helium mass fraction for Saturn relative to the Voyager value.

  13. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram. Finally we argue that the range of uncertainty conventionally quoted for the bolometric luminosity of all three planets is too small.

  14. Noble gas abundance and isotope ratios in the atmosphere of Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Mahaffy; H. B. Niemann; A. Alpert; S. K. Atreya; J. Demick; T. M. Donahue; D. N. Harpold; T. C. Owen

    2000-01-01

    The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer provided the first data on the noble gas mixing and isotope ratios in the Jovian atmosphere. These measurements and the comparison with solar values constrain models of Jupiter's formation. Significant refinements to the initially reported abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon have been enabled through post-encounter laboratory calibrations using a refurbished engineering unit mass spectrometer

  15. DISCOVERY AND MASS MEASUREMENTS OF A COLD, 10 EARTH MASS PLANET AND ITS HOST STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Muraki, Y. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Nishiokamoto 8-9-1, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbong-Rho, Hungduk-Gu, Chongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Suzuki, D.; Sumi, T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Monard, L. A. G. [Bronberg Observatory, Centre for Backyard Astrophysics, Pretoria (South Africa); Street, R. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Jorgensen, U. G. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Stars and Planet Formation, Juliane Mariesvej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kundurthy, P.; Becker, A. C. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Skowron, J.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Albrow, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Fouque, P. [IRAP, CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Heyrovsky, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Barry, R. K. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France); Wellnitz, D. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Dong, S., E-mail: cheongho@chungbuk.ac.kr, E-mail: bennett@nd.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    We present the discovery and mass measurement of the cold, low-mass planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, performed with the gravitational microlensing method. This planet has a mass of m{sub p} = 10.4 {+-} 1.7 M{sub +} and orbits a star of mass M{sub *} = 0.56 {+-} 0.09 M{sub sun} at a semimajor axis of a = 3.2{sub -0.5}{sup +1.9} AU and an orbital period of P = 7.6{sub -1.5}{sup +7+7} yrs. The planet and host star mass measurements are enabled by the measurement of the microlensing parallax effect, which is seen primarily in the light curve distortion due to the orbital motion of the Earth. But the analysis also demonstrates the capability to measure the microlensing parallax with the Deep Impact (or EPOXI) spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit. The planet mass and orbital distance are similar to predictions for the critical core mass needed to accrete a substantial gaseous envelope, and thus may indicate that this planet is a 'failed' gas giant. This and future microlensing detections will test planet formation theory predictions regarding the prevalence and masses of such planets.

  16. On the origin and initial temperature of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, V. S.; Ruskol, E. L.

    1982-02-01

    A two-stage growth of the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, is considered, which is different from the model of contraction of large gaseous protoplanets. In the first stage, a nucleus forms from condensed material having the mass, about 10 to the 28th g, necessary for the beginning of accretion. In the second stage, a hydrodynamic instability in the gas develops near the body, and a relatively slow accretion begins until the mass of the planet reaches about 10 earth masses. Then a rapid accretion begins with the critical radius less than the radius of the Hill lobe, so that classical formulas for the rate of accretion may be applied. The process is terminated by the dissipation of the remaining gas. The initial mass of the gas in Jupiter's zone is estimated. Highest temperatures and luminosities for the surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn are estimated.

  17. Deep Atmosphere Ammonia Mixing Ratio at Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Demick, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    New laboratory studies employing the Engineering Unit (EU) of the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) have resulted in a substantial reduction in the previously reported upper limit on the ammonia mixing ratio derived from the GPMS experiment at Jupiter. This measurement is complicated by background ammonia contributions in the GPMS during direct atmospheric sampling produced from the preceding gas enrichment experiments. These backgrounds can be quantified with the data from the EU studies when they are carried out in a manner that duplicates the descent profile of pressure and enrichment cell loading. This background is due to the tendency of ammonia to interact strongly with the walls of the mass spectrometer and on release to contribute to the gas being directly directed into the ion source from the atmosphere through a capillary pressure reduction leak. It is evident from the GPMS and other observations that the mixing ratio of ammonia at Jupiter reaches the deep atmosphere value at substantially higher pressures than previously assumed. This is a likely explanation for the previously perceived discrepancy between ammonia values derived from ground based microwave observations and those obtained from attenuation of the Galileo Probe radio signal.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. III. IRON, MAGNESIUM, AND SILICON

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, Channon [Current address: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA, Houston, TX 77058-1113 (United States); Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce, E-mail: visscher@lpi.usra.ed, E-mail: lodders@wustl.ed, E-mail: bfegley@wustl.ed [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States)

    2010-06-20

    We use thermochemical equilibrium calculations to model iron, magnesium, and silicon chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), and low-mass stars. The behavior of individual Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of temperature, pressure, and metallicity. Our equilibrium results are thus independent of any particular model atmosphere. The condensation of Fe metal strongly affects iron chemistry by efficiently removing Fe-bearing species from the gas phase. Monatomic Fe is the most abundant Fe-bearing gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs, and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Mg- and Si-bearing gases are effectively removed from the atmosphere by forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) cloud formation. Monatomic Mg is the dominant magnesium gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Silicon monoxide (SiO) is the most abundant Si-bearing gas in the deep atmospheres of brown dwarfs and EGPs, whereas SiH{sub 4} is dominant in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas giant planets. Several other Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases become increasingly important with decreasing effective temperature. In principle, a number of Fe, Mg, and Si gases are potential tracers of weather or diagnostic of temperature in substellar atmospheres.

  19. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets V. A 14 Earth-masses planet orbiting HD 4308

    E-print Network

    S. Udry; M. Mayor; W. Benz; J. -L. Bertaux; F. Bouchy; C. Lovis; C. Mordasini; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; J. -P. Sivan

    2005-10-12

    We present here the discovery and characterisation of a very light planet around HD4308. The planet orbits its star in 15.56 days. The circular radial-velocity variation presents a tiny semi-amplitude of 4.1 m/s that corresponds to a planetary minimum mass m2sin(i)=14.1 Earth masses. The planet was unveiled by high-precision radial-velocity measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-m telescope. The radial-velocity residuals around the Keplerian solution are 1.3 m/s, demonstrating the very high quality of the HARPS measurements. Activity and bisector indicators exclude any significant perturbations of stellar intrinsic origin, which supports the planetary interpretation. Contrary to most planet-host stars, HD4308 has a marked sub-solar metallicity ([Fe/H]=-0.31), raising the possibility that very light planet occurrence might show a different coupling with the parent star's metallicity than do giant gaseous extra-solar planets. Together with Neptune-mass planets close to their parent stars, the new planet occupies a position in the mass-separation parameter space that is constraining for planet-formation and evolution theories. The question of whether they can be considered as residuals of evaporated gaseous giant planets, ice giants, or super-earth planets is discussed in the context of the latest core-accretion models.

  20. Discovery and Mass Measurements of a Cold, 10-Earth Mass Planet and Its Host Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Muraki, Y.; Han, C.; Bennett, D. P.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery and mass measurement of the cold, low-mass planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, made with the gravitational microlensing method. This planet has a mass of mp = 10.4 +/- M(Earth) and orbits a star of Mstar = 0.56 +/- 0.09 M(Sun) at a semi-major axis of a = 3.2 + 1.9/-0.5 AU, and an orbital period of 7.6 +7.7/-1.5 yrs. The planet and host star mass measurements are due to the measurement of the microlensing parallax effect. This measurement was primarily due to the orbital motion of the Earth, but the analysis also demonstrates the capability measure micro lensing parallax with the Deep Impact (or EPOXI) spacecraft in a Heliocentric orbit. The planet mass and orbital distance are similar to predictions for the critical core mass needed to accrete a substantial gaseous envelope, and thus may indicate that this planet is a failed gas giant. This and future microlensing detections will test planet formation theory predictions regarding the prevalence and masses of such planets

  1. Discovery and Mass Measurements of a Cold, Sub-Neptune Mass Planet and Its Host Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The gravitational microlensing exoplanet detection method is uniquely sensitive to cold, low-mass planets which orbit beyond the snow-line, where the most massive planets are thought to form. The early statistical results from microlensing indicate that Neptune-Saturn mass planets located beyond the snow-line are substantially more common than their counterparts in closer orbits that have found by the Doppler radial velocity method. We present the discovery of the planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, which demonstrates that the gravitational microlensing method also has the capability to measure the masses of cold, low-mass planets. The mass measurements of the host star and the planet are made possible by the detection of the microlensing parallax signal due to the orbital motion or the Earth as well as observations from the EPOXI spacecraft in a Heliocentric orbit. The microlensing light curve indicates a planetary host star mass of M(sun) = 0.54 + / - 0.05M(sun) located at a distance of DL= 2.94 _ 0.21 kpc, orbited by a planet of mass mp= 9.8 +/-1.1M(Earth) with a semi-major axis of a = 3.1(+1.9-0.4)MAU.

  2. Evolution of Migrating Planets Undergoing Gas Accretion

    E-print Network

    Gennaro D'Angelo; Stephen H. Lubow

    2008-06-11

    We analyze the orbital and mass evolution of planets that undergo run-away gas accretion by means of 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations. The disk torque distribution per unit disk mass as a function of radius provides an important diagnostic for the nature of the disk-planet interactions. We first consider torque distributions for nonmigrating planets of fixed mass and show that there is general agreement with the expectations of resonance theory. We then present results of simulations for mass-gaining, migrating planets. For planets with an initial mass of 5 Earth masses, which are embedded in disks with standard parameters and which undergo run-away gas accretion to one Jupiter mass (Mjup), the torque distributions per unit disk mass are largely unaffected by migration and accretion for a given planet mass. The migration rates for these planets are in agreement with the predictions of the standard theory for planet migration (Type I and Type II migration). The planet mass growth occurs through gas capture within the planet's Bondi radius at lower planet masses, the Hill radius at intermediate planet masses, and through reduced accretion at higher planet masses due to gap formation. During run-away mass growth, a planet migrates inwards by only about 20% in radius before achieving a mass of ~1 Mjup. For the above models, we find no evidence of fast migration driven by coorbital torques, known as Type III migration. We do find evidence of Type III migration for a fixed mass planet of Saturn's mass that is immersed in a cold and massive disk. In this case the planet migration is assumed to begin before gap formation completes. The migration is understood through a model in which the torque is due to an asymmetry in density between trapped gas on the leading side of the planet and ambient gas on the trailing side of the planet.

  3. On the corotation torque for low-mass eccentric planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendyke, Stephen M.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of high-resolution 2D simulations of low-mass planets on fixed eccentric orbits embedded in protoplanetary discs. The aim of this study is to determine how the strength of the sustained, non-linear corotation torque experienced by embedded planets varies as a function of orbital eccentricity, disc parameters and planetary mass. In agreement with previous work we find that the corotation torque diminishes as orbital eccentricity, e, increases. Analysis of the time-averaged streamlines in the disc demonstrates that the width of the horseshoe region narrows as the eccentricity increases, and we suggest that this narrowing largely explains the observed decrease in the corotation torque. We employ three distinct methods for estimating the strength of the unsaturated corotation torque from our simulations, and provide an empirical fit to these results. We find that a simple model where the corotation torque, ?C, decreases exponentially with increasing eccentricity [i.e. ?C ? exp (-e/ef)] provides a good global fit to the data with an e-folding eccentricity, ef, that scales linearly with the disc scale height at the planet location. We confirm that this model provides a good fit for planet masses of 5 and 10 M? in our simulations. The formation of planetary systems is likely to involve significant planet-planet interactions that will excite eccentric orbits, and this is likely to influence disc-driven planetary migration through modification of the corotation torque. Our results suggest that high fidelity models of planetary formation should account for these effects.

  4. Early planet formation as a trigger for further planet formation

    E-print Network

    Philip J. Armitage; Brad M. S. Hansen

    1999-12-08

    Recent discoveries of extrasolar planets at small orbital radii, or with significant eccentricities, indicate that interactions between massive planets and the disks of gas and dust from which they formed are vital for determining the final shape of planetary systems. We show that if this interaction occurs at an early epoch, when the protoplanetary disc was still massive, then rapid planet growth through accretion causes an otherwise stable disc to fragment into additional planetary mass bodies when the planetary mass reaches 4-5 Jupiter masses. We suggest that such catastrophic planet formation could account for apparent differences in the mass function of massive planets and brown dwarfs, and the existence of young stars that appear to have dissipated their discs at an early epoch. Subsequent gravitational interactions will lead to planetary systems comprising a small number of massive planets in eccentric orbits.

  5. XUV-driven mass loss from extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars

    E-print Network

    Chadney, J M; Unruh, Y C; Koskinen, T T; Sanz-Forcada, J

    2014-01-01

    Upper atmospheres of Hot Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation conditions that can result in rapid atmospheric escape. The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of these planets are affected by the high-energy spectrum of the host star. This emission depends on stellar type and age, which are thus important factors in understanding the behaviour of exoplanetary atmospheres. In this study, we focus on Extrasolar Giant Planets (EPGs) orbiting K and M dwarf stars. XUV spectra for three different stars - epsilon Eridani, AD Leonis and AU Microscopii - are constructed using a coronal model. Neutral density and temperature profiles in the upper atmosphere of hypothetical EGPs orbiting these stars are then obtained from a fluid model, incorporating atmospheric chemistry and taking atmospheric escape into account. We find that a simple scaling based solely on the host star's X-ray emission gives large errors in mass loss rates from planetary atmospheres and so we have derived a new method to scale th...

  6. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XVII. The hot Jupiter CoRoT-17b: a very old planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csizmadia, Sz.; Moutou, C.; Deleuil, M.; Cabrera, J.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Almenara, J.-M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Bruntt, H.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Cochran, W.; Deeg, H. J.; Díaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Endl, M.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fruth, Th.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E. W.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Jorda, L.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Lammer, H.; Lovis, C.; MacQueen, P. J.; Mazeh, T.; Ollivier, M.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Titz-Weider, R.; Wuchterl, G.

    2011-07-01

    We report on the discovery of a hot Jupiter-type exoplanet, CoRoT-17b, detected by the CoRoT satellite. It has a mass of 2.43 ± 0.30 MJup and a radius of 1.02 ± 0.07 RJup, while its mean density is 2.82 ± 0.38 g/cm3. CoRoT-17b is in a circular orbit with a period of 3.7681 ± 0.0003 days. The host star is an old (10.7 ± 1.0 Gyr) main-sequence star, which makes it an intriguing object for planetary evolution studies. The planet's internal composition is not well constrained and can range from pure H/He to one that can contain ~380 earth masses of heavier elements. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany and Spain. Part of the observations were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-m European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile (ESO program 184.C-0639). Based on observations made with the IAC80 telescope operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Conditions for water ice lines and Mars-mass exomoons around accreting super-Jovian planets at 1-20 AU from Sun-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, R.; Pudritz, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The first detection of a moon around an extrasolar planet (an "exomoon") might be feasible with NASA's Kepler or ESA's upcoming PLATO space telescopes or with the future ground-based European Extremely Large Telescope. To guide observers and to use observational resources most efficiently, we need to know where the largest, most easily detected moons can form. Aims: We explore the possibility of large exomoons by following the movement of water (H2O) ice lines in the accretion disks around young super-Jovian planets. We want to know how the different heating sources in those disks affect the location of the H2O ice lines as a function of stellar and planetary distance. Methods: We simulate 2D rotationally symmetric accretion disks in hydrostatic equilibrium around super-Jovian exoplanets. The energy terms in our semi-analytical framework - (1) viscous heating; (2) planetary illumination; (3) accretional heating of the disk; and (4) stellar illumination - are fed by precomputed planet evolution models. We consider accreting planets with final masses between 1 and 12 Jupiter masses at distances between 1 and 20 AU to a solar type star. Results: Accretion disks around Jupiter-mass planets closer than about 4.5 AU to Sun-like stars do not feature H2O ice lines, whereas the most massive super-Jovians can form icy satellites as close as 3 AU to Sun-like stars. We derive an empirical formula for the total moon mass as a function of planetary mass and stellar distance and predict that super-Jovian planets forming beyond about 5 AU can host Mars-mass moons. Planetary illumination is the major heat source in the final stages of accretion around Jupiter-mass planets, whereas disks around the most massive super-Jovians are similarly heated by planetary illumination and viscous heating. This indicates a transition towards circumstellar accretion disks, where viscous heating dominates in the stellar vicinity. We also study a broad range of circumplanetary disk parameters for planets at 5.2 AU and find that the H2O ice lines are universally between about 15 and 30 Jupiter radii in the final stages of accretion when the last generation of moons is supposed to form. Conclusions: If the abundant population of super-Jovian planets around 1 AU formed in situ, then these planets should lack the previously predicted population of giant icy moons, because those planets' disks did not host H2O ice in the final stages of accretion. But in the more likely case that these planets migrated to their current locations from beyond about 3 to 4.5 AU they might be orbited by large, water-rich moons. In this case, Mars-mass ocean moons might be common in the stellar habitable zones. Future exomoon detections and non-detections can provide powerful constraints on the formation and migration history of giant exoplanets.

  8. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION DURING THE MIGRATION AND RESONANCE CROSSINGS OF THE GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lykawka, Patryk Sofia [Astronomy Group, Faculty of Social and Natural Sciences, Kinki University, Shinkamikosaka 228-3, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-0813 (Japan); Ito, Takashi, E-mail: patryksan@gmail.com [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-08-10

    The newly formed giant planets may have migrated and crossed a number of mutual mean motion resonances (MMRs) when smaller objects (embryos) were accreting to form the terrestrial planets in the planetesimal disk. We investigated the effects of the planetesimal-driven migration of Jupiter and Saturn, and the influence of their mutual 1:2 MMR crossing on terrestrial planet formation for the first time, by performing N-body simulations. These simulations considered distinct timescales of MMR crossing and planet migration. In total, 68 high-resolution simulation runs using 2000 disk planetesimals were performed, which was a significant improvement on previously published results. Even when the effects of the 1:2 MMR crossing and planet migration were included in the system, Venus and Earth analogs (considering both orbits and masses) successfully formed in several runs. In addition, we found that the orbits of planetesimals beyond a {approx} 1.5-2 AU were dynamically depleted by the strengthened sweeping secular resonances associated with Jupiter's and Saturn's more eccentric orbits (relative to the present day) during planet migration. However, this depletion did not prevent the formation of massive Mars analogs (planets with more than 1.5 times Mars's mass). Although late MMR crossings (at t > 30 Myr) could remove such planets, Mars-like small mass planets survived on overly excited orbits (high e and/or i), or were completely lost in these systems. We conclude that the orbital migration and crossing of the mutual 1:2 MMR of Jupiter and Saturn are unlikely to provide suitable orbital conditions for the formation of solar system terrestrial planets. This suggests that to explain Mars's small mass and the absence of other planets between Mars and Jupiter, the outer asteroid belt must have suffered a severe depletion due to interactions with Jupiter/Saturn, or by an alternative mechanism (e.g., rogue super-Earths)

  9. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXII. Two New Multi-Planet Systems

    E-print Network

    Wittenyer, Robert A; Tuomi, M; Salter, G S; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Jones, H R A; O'Toole, S J; Bailey, J; Carter, B D; Jenkins, J S; Zhang, Z; Vogt, S S; Rivera, E J

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005\\pm427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3M_Jup. HD142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 \\pm 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3\\pm1.3 days, and m sin i=0.73\\pm0.05 M_Jup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  10. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXII. Two New Multi-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Tuomi, Mikko; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Bailey, J.; Carter, B. D.; Jenkins, J. S.; Zhang, Z.; Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-07-01

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 ± 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M Jup. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 ± 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 ± 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 ± 0.05 M Jup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  11. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jenkins, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  12. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  13. Conditions for water ice lines and Mars-mass exomoons around accreting super-Jovian planets at 1 - 20 AU from Sun-like stars

    E-print Network

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Exomoon detections might be feasible with NASA's Kepler or ESA's upcoming PLATO mission or the ground-based E-ELT. To use observational resources most efficiently we need to know where the largest, most easily detected moons can form. We explore the possibility of large exomoons by following the movement of water (H2O) ice lines in the accretion disks around young super-Jovian planets. We want to know how different heating sources in those disks affect the H2O ice lines. We simulate 2D rotationally symmetric accretion disks in hydrostatic equilibrium around super-Jovian exoplanets. The energy terms in our semi-analytical model -- (1) viscous heating, (2) planetary illumination, (3) accretional heating, and (4) stellar illumination -- are fed by precomputed planet evolution tracks. We consider planets accreting 1 to 12 Jupiter masses at distances between 1 and 20 AU to a Sun-like star. Accretion disks around Jupiter-mass planets closer than ~4.5 AU to Sun-like stars do not feature H2O ice lines, but the most m...

  14. Special Feature: The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan I. Lunine

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets

  15. Formation of the Giant Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Mizuno

    1980-01-01

    The structure of a gaseous envelope surrounding a protoplanet has been investigated in connection with the formation of the giant planets. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium, the structure has been calculated for the regions of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Energy transfer in the envelope has been taken into account precisely. When the core mass increases

  16. The internal structure of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars and Jupiter according to the Savic-Kasanin theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Savic

    1981-01-01

    The internal structure of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter is considered in the framework of the Savic-Kasanin theory of the behavior of materials under high pressure. The main hypothesis underlying the theory is based on the deformation of the electron shells by the dislocation and ejection of electrons from atoms in a given material. This theory is discussed in relation

  17. Predicting Planets in Known Extra-Solar Planetary Systems II: Testing for Saturn-mass Planets

    E-print Network

    Sean N. Raymond; Rory Barnes

    2004-04-09

    Recent results have shown that many of the known extrasolar planetary systems contain regions which are stable for massless test particles. We examine the possibility that Saturn-mass planets exist in these systems, just below the detection threshold, and attempt to predict likely orbital parameters for such unseen planets. To do this, we insert a Saturn-mass planet into the stable regions of these systems and integrate its orbit for 100 million years. We conduct 200-600 of these experiments to test parameter space in HD37124, HD38529, 55Cnc, and HD74156. In HD37124 the global maximum of the survival rate of Saturns in parameter space is at semimajor axis a = 1.03 AU, eccentricity e=0.1. In HD38529, only 5% of Saturns are unstable, and the region in which a Saturn could survive is very broad, centered on 0.5

  18. Numerical theory of the motion of Jupiter's Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmodamianskii, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    A numerical theory of the motion of Jupiter’s Galilean satellites was constructed using 3767 absolute observations of the satellites. The theory was based on the numerical integration of the equations of motion of the satellites. The integration was carried out by Everhart’s method using the ERA software package developed at the Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA). Perturbations due to the oblateness of the central planet, perturbations from Saturn and the Sun, and the mutual attraction of the satellites were taken into account in the integration. As a result, the coefficients of the Chebyshev series expansion for coordinates and velocities were found for the period from 1962 to 2010. The initial coordinates and velocities of the satellites, as well as their masses, the mass of Jupiter, and the harmonic coefficient J 2 of the potential of Jupiter, were adjusted. The resulting ephemerides were compared to those of Lieske and Lainey.

  19. Mesolensing Explorations of Nearby Masses: From Planets to Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2008-09-01

    Nearby masses can have a high probability of lensing stars in a distant background field. This high-probability lensing, or mesolensing, can be used to dramatically increase our knowledge of dark and dim objects in the solar neighborhood, where it can discover and facilitate the study of members of the local dark matter population (free-floating planets, low-mass dwarfs, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and stellar-mass black holes). We can measure the mass and transverse velocity of those masses discovered (or already known) and determine whether or not they are in binaries with dim companions. Here we explore these and other applications of mesolensing, including the study of forms of matter that have been hypothesized but not discovered, such as intermediate-mass black holes, dark matter objects free-streaming through the Galactic disk, and planets in the outermost regions of the solar system. In each case we discuss the feasibility of deriving results based on present-day monitoring systems, and we also consider the vistas that will open with the advent of all-sky monitoring in the era of Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  20. Stability of Earth-Mass Planets in the Habitable Zones of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Stability of Earth-Mass Planets in the Habitable Zones of Extrasolar Planetary Systems Dr. Ravi Kumar Kopparapu Dept. of Geosciences, College of Earth and Mineral Science Over 500 planets orbiting and Saturn but in the last couple of years several "super-earths", planets with mass less than 10 times Earth

  1. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Wu, Hanbo; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-01

    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets’ rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than ~0.5 to 0.7 solar mass. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere.

  2. 11Chandra 'Sees' a Distant Planet Evaporating NASA's Chandra Observatory

    E-print Network

    that the star CoRot-2a is a powerful X-ray source. This is unfortunate because it is also known that a planet as 50% the mass of the planet. By comparison, the mass of Jupiter is about 1.9 x 10 27 kilograms or 315) = 2.9 x 10 27 kilograms Problem 2 - Based on the rate at which the planet is being evaporated, about

  3. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-01

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance. PMID:23641110

  4. DIRECTLY IMAGING TIDALLY POWERED MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Upcoming direct-imaging experiments may detect a new class of long-period, highly luminous, tidally powered extrasolar gas giants. Even though they are hosted by {approx} Gyr-'old' main-sequence stars, they can be as 'hot' as young Jupiters at {approx}100 Myr, the prime targets of direct-imaging surveys. They are on years-long orbits and presently migrating to 'feed' the 'hot Jupiters'. They are expected from 'high-e' migration mechanisms, in which Jupiters are excited to highly eccentric orbits and then shrink semimajor axis by a factor of {approx}10-100 due to tidal dissipation at close periastron passages. The dissipated orbital energy is converted to heat, and if it is deposited deep enough into the atmosphere, the planet likely radiates steadily at luminosity L {approx} 100-1000 L{sub Jup}(2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} L{sub Sun }) during a typical {approx} Gyr migration timescale. Their large orbital separations and expected high planet-to-star flux ratios in IR make them potentially accessible to high-contrast imaging instruments on 10 m class telescopes. {approx}10 such planets are expected to exist around FGK dwarfs within {approx}50 pc. Long-period radial velocity planets are viable candidates, and the highly eccentric planet HD 20782b at maximum angular separation {approx}0.''08 is a promising candidate. Directly imaging these tidally powered Jupiters would enable a direct test of high-e migration mechanisms. Once detected, the luminosity would provide a direct measurement of the migration rate, and together with mass (and possibly radius) estimate, they would serve as a laboratory to study planetary spectral formation and tidal physics.

  5. Detectability of extrasolar planets in radial velocity surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Cumming

    2004-01-01

    Radial velocity surveys are beginning to reach the time baselines required to detect Jupiter analogues, as well as sub-Saturn mass planets in close orbits. Therefore, it is important to understand the sensitivity of these surveys at long periods and low amplitudes. In this paper, I derive analytical expressions for the detectability of planets at both short and long periods, for

  6. The Europa Jupiter system mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K.; Stankov, A.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; van Houten, T.

    2009-04-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)— would be an international mission that would achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System be-fore settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupi-ter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and charac-terize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM would fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Coun-cil's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vi-sion for exploration of the outer solar system. The De-cadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission tar-get. EJSM would uniquely addresse several of the cen-tral themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM would investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Gany-mede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geo-logical, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupi-ter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant plan-ets and their satellites would be better known. Most important, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM mission architecture provides opportu-nities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupi-ter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft could and would conduct "stand-alone" measurements, including the detailed investigation of Europa and Ganymede, providing significant pro-grammatic flexibility. Although engineering advances are needed for JEO (radiation designs) and JGO, no new technologies would be required to execute either EJSM mission element. The development schedule for the mission is such that a technology developed by 2012 - 2013 could easily be incorporated if it enhances the mission capability. Risk mitigation activities are under way to ensure that the radiation designs are implemented in the lowest-risk approach. The baseline mission con-cepts include robust mass and power margins. The EJSM mission architecture provides the opti-mal balance between science, risk, and cost using three guiding principles: achieve Decadal science; builds on lessons learned; and leverages international collabora-tions.

  7. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites will be better known. Most important, EJSM will shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM mission architecture provides opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft could and would conduct "stand-alone" measurements, including the detailed investigation of Europa and Ganymede, providing significant programmatic flexibility. Although engineering advances are needed for JEO (radiation designs) and JGO, no new technologies will be required to execute either EJSM mission element. The development schedule for the mission is such that a technology developed by 2012 - 2013 could easily be incorporated if it enhances the mission capability. Risk mitigation activities are under way to ensure that the radiation designs are implemented in the lowest-risk approach. The baseline mission concepts include robust mass and power margins.

  8. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  9. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST STAR ACTIVITY AND PLANET MASS FOR CLOSE-IN EXTRASOLAR PLANETS?

    SciTech Connect

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M., E-mail: katja.poppenhaeger@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The activity levels of stars are influenced by several stellar properties, such as stellar rotation, spectral type, and the presence of stellar companions. Analogous to binaries, planetary companions are also thought to be able to cause higher activity levels in their host stars, although at lower levels. Especially in X-rays, such influences are hard to detect because coronae of cool stars exhibit a considerable amount of intrinsic variability. Recently, a correlation between the mass of close-in exoplanets and their host star's X-ray luminosity has been detected, based on archival X-ray data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. This finding has been interpreted as evidence for star-planet interactions. We show in our analysis that this correlation is caused by selection effects due to the flux limit of the X-ray data used and due to the intrinsic planet detectability of the radial velocity method, and thus does not trace possible planet-induced effects. We also show that the correlation is not present in a corresponding complete sample derived from combined XMM-Newton and ROSAT data.

  10. Microlensing search for extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    A. Cassan; D. Kubas

    2006-12-01

    Microlensing has recently proven to be a valuable tool to search for extrasolar planets of Neptune- to super-Earth-mass planets at orbits of few AU. Since planetary signals are of very short duration, an intense and continuous monitoring is required, which is achieved by PLANET : ``Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork''. Up to now the detection number amounts to four, one of them being OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb, an extrasolar planet of only ~5.5 M_earth orbiting its M-dwarf host star at ~2.6 AU. For non-planetary microlensing events observed from 1995 to 2006, we compute detection efficiency diagrams which can then be used to derive an estimate of the limit on the Galactic abundance of sub-Jupiter-mass planets, as well as relative abundance of Neptune-like planets.

  11. Jump Start Jupiter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    This is a kick-off activity about the solar system and Jupiter. Learners will discuss what they know, work in teams to read about the Sun, eight planets, asteroid belt, and the dwarf planet, Pluto. They use their knowledge to create a poster about each object, which can be displayed in the library and used in later activities. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  12. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  13. THE McDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH: NEW LONG-PERIOD GIANT PLANETS AND TWO INTERACTING JUPITERS IN THE HD 155358 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Caldwell, Caroline [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J. [Department of Astrophysics and Optics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Simon, Attila E., E-mail: paul@astro.as.utexas.edu [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-04-10

    We present high-precision radial velocity (RV) observations of four solar-type (F7-G5) stars-HD 79498, HD 155358, HD 197037, and HD 220773-taken as part of the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program. For each of these stars, we see evidence of Keplerian motion caused by the presence of one or more gas giant planets in long-period orbits. We derive orbital parameters for each system and note the properties (composition, activity, etc.) of the host stars. While we have previously announced the two-gas-giant HD 155358 system, we now report a shorter period for planet c. This new period is consistent with the planets being trapped in mutual 2:1 mean-motion resonance. We therefore perform an in-depth stability analysis, placing additional constraints on the orbital parameters of the planets. These results demonstrate the excellent long-term RV stability of the spectrometers on both the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope and the Hobby-Eberly telescope.

  14. A Hot Gap around Jupiter's Orbit in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N. J.; Choukroun, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Bryden, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  15. A HOT GAP AROUND JUPITER'S ORBIT IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Choukroun, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Bryden, G., E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  16. Models of Jupiter's growth incorporating thermal and hydrodynamic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Hubickyj, Olenka; D'Angelo, Gennaro; Bodenheimer, Peter

    2009-02-01

    We model the growth of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion, applying constraints from hydrodynamical processes that result from the disk-planet interaction. We compute the planet's internal structure using a well tested planetary formation code that is based upon a Henyey-type stellar evolution code. The planet's interactions with the protoplanetary disk are calculated using 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. Previous models of Jupiter's growth have taken the radius of the planet to be approximately one Hill sphere radius, R. However, 3-D hydrodynamic simulations show that only gas within ˜0.25R remains bound to the planet, with the more distant gas eventually participating in the shear flow of the protoplanetary disk. Therefore in our new simulations, the planet's outer boundary is placed at the location where gas has the thermal energy to reach the portion of the flow not bound to the planet. We find that the smaller radius increases the time required for planetary growth by ˜5%. Thermal pressure limits the rate at which a planet less than a few dozen times as massive as Earth can accumulate gas from the protoplanetary disk, whereas hydrodynamics regulates the growth rate for more massive planets. Within a moderately viscous disk, the accretion rate peaks when the planet's mass is about equal to the mass of Saturn. In a less viscous disk hydrodynamical limits to accretion are smaller, and the accretion rate peaks at lower mass. Observations suggest that the typical lifetime of massive disks around young stellar objects is ˜3 Myr. To account for the dissipation of such disks, we perform some of our simulations of Jupiter's growth within a disk whose surface gas density decreases on this timescale. In all of the cases that we simulate, the planet's effective radiating temperature rises to well above 1000 K soon after hydrodynamic limits begin to control the rate of gas accretion and the planet's distended envelope begins to contract. According to our simulations, proto-Jupiter's distended and thermally-supported envelope was too small to capture the planet's current retinue of irregular satellites as advocated by Pollack et al. [Pollack, J.B., Burns, J.A., Tauber, M.E., 1979. Icarus 37, 587-611].

  17. Microlensing Search for Planets with Two Simultaneously Rising Suns

    E-print Network

    Cheongho Han

    2008-01-31

    Among more than 200 extrasolar planet candidates discovered to date, there is no known planet orbiting around normal binary stars. In this paper, we demonstrate that microlensing is a technique that can detect such planets. Microlensing discoveries of these planets are possible because the planet and host binary stars produce perturbations at a common region around center of mass of the binary stars and thus the signatures of both planet and binary can be detected in the light curves of high-magnification microlensing events. The ranges of the planetary and binary separations of systems for optimal detection vary depending on the planet mass. For a Jupiter-mass planet, we find that high detection efficiency is expected for planets located in the range of $\\sim$ 1 AU -- 5 AU from the binary stars which are separated by $\\sim$ 0.15 AU -- 0.5 AU

  18. Microlensing Detections of Planets in Binary Stellar Systems

    E-print Network

    Dong-Wook Lee; Chung-Uk Lee; Byeong-Gon Park; Sun-Ju Chung; Young-Soo Kim; Ho-Il Kim; Cheongho Han

    2007-09-13

    We demonstrate that microlensing can be used for detecting planets in binary stellar systems. This is possible because in the geometry of planetary binary systems where the planet orbits one of the binary component and the other binary star is located at a large distance, both planet and secondary companion produce perturbations at a common region around the planet-hosting binary star and thus the signatures of both planet and binary companion can be detected in the light curves of high-magnification lensing events. We find that identifying planets in binary systems is optimized when the secondary is located in a certain range which depends on the type of the planet. The proposed method can detect planets with masses down to one tenth of the Jupiter mass in binaries with separations planet mass and binary separation are not covered by other methods and thus microlensing would be able to make the planetary binary sample richer.

  19. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bands of eastward and westward winds on Jupiter appear as concentric rotating circles in this movie composed of Cassini spacecraft images that have been re-projected as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    What is surprising in this view is the coherent nature of the high-latitude flows, despite the very chaotic, mottled and non-banded appearance of the planet's polar regions. This is the first extended movie sequence to show the coherence and longevity of winds near the pole and the features blown around the planet by them.

    There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar to the size to the largest of storms on Earth. Large terrestrial storms usually last only a week before they dissolve and are replaced by other storms. But many of the Jovian storms seen here, while occasionally changing latitude or merging with each other, persist for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of the high-latitude features was unknown. Their longevity is a mystery of Jovian weather.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. The images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in latitude and covering 360 degrees in longitude. The movie consists of 84 such maps, spanning 70 Earth days in time or 168 Jupiter rotations.

    Transforming the cylindrical maps into polar stereographic projections produces a movie of what Jupiter would look like if viewed from the pole. Jupiter's alternating eastward and westward jet streams flow in concentric rings around the pole, with equatorial motions visible in the corners. The dark features flowing counterclockwise near the equator are'hot spots' where cloud cover is relatively thin.

    The high-latitude movements call into question one notion concerning wind circulation on Jupiter. The model in question suggests that Jupiter'a alternating bands of east-west winds are the exposed edges of deeper rotating cylinders that extend north-south through the planet. However, the east-west winds that the movie shows in polar regions don't fit that model. The cylinders whose edges would form those bands would have to go through the innermost portion of the planet, where the cylinders' different rotations could not be maintained. Jupiter's wind pattern may involve a mix of rotation-on-cylinders near the equator and some other circulation mechanism near the poles.

    For more information, see the Cassini Project home page, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/cassini/ and the Cassini Imaging Team home page, http://ciclops.lpl.arizona.edu/ciclops/ .

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  20. Dynamical relaxation and the orbits of low-mass extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    Caroline Terquem; John C. B. Papaloizou

    2002-03-12

    We consider the evolution of a system containing a population of massive planets formed rapidly through a fragmentation process occurring on a scale on the order of 100 au and a lower mass planet that assembles in a disc on a much longer timescale. During the formation phase, the inner planet is kept on a circular orbit due to tidal interaction with the disc, while the outer planets undergo dynamical relaxation. Interaction with the massive planets left in the system after the inner planet forms may increase the eccentricity of the inner orbit to high values, producing systems similar to those observed.

  1. Extrasolar Binary Planets I: Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    E-print Network

    Ochiai, H; Ida, S

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated i) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call "binary planets") from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and ii) the following long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star {\\it quasi-static} tides. For the initial evolution in phase i), we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semi-major axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semi-major axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by ...

  2. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Anderson

    2011-04-07

    What planets are in our solar system? Today, we are going to learn about the eight planets in our solar system. While learning, we're going to try to answer the question: What planets are in our solar system? Use this Planet Organizer to fill in information about the solar system that you learn on your journey! First, we're going to find ...

  3. Jupiter's Role in Sculpting the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoz, Smadar

    2015-03-01

    Recent observations made by the Kepler space mission, combined with statistical analysis of existing ground and space-based data, have shown that planets somewhat bigger than the Earth - but substantially smaller than Jupiter - ;are extremely common in our Galaxy (1-4). These systems are typically found to be tightly packed, nearly coplanar, and have nearly circular orbits. Furthermore, these planets tend to have very short-period orbits, ranging from days to months. In contrast, our innermost planet, Mercury, orbits the Sun once every 88 d. Thus, taken at face value, these observations imply that the architecture of our Solar System is unique compared with the galactic population. In other words, why are there no short-period planets in our Solar System? In PNAS, Batygin and Laughlin (5) demonstrate that Jupiter is to blame. In particular, Jupiter's inward-followed-by-outward migration during the Solar System's early evolution could have driven a collisional cascade that would grind planetesimals to smaller size. Gas drag, which dominates these small planetesimals, may then have driven preexisting short-period planets into the Sun. Thus, Batygin and Laughlin (5) suggest that the terrestrial planets in our Solar System are in fact "second-generation planets," which formed after the first short-period planets were destroyed, in mass-dispersed, gas-depleted conditions (see Fig. 1 for the description of the scenario). The developed model suggests that systems with short-period Earth and super-Earth planets are anticorrelated with the existence of giant planets within the same system.

  4. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N. [Universite de Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France); Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel, E-mail: pja@jilau1.colorado.ed [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2010-03-10

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity measurements capable of detecting planets with K {approx} 5 m s{sup -1} and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with {approx} Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive planets in outer planetary systems.

  5. Planet-Planet Scattering in Planetesimal Disks. II. Predictions for Outer Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-03-01

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ("planetesimals"). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M ? from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M >~ M Sat), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a <~ 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence—which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models—as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity measurements capable of detecting planets with K ? 5 m s-1 and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with ~ Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive planets in outer planetary systems.

  6. The PLANET Microlensing Campaign: Implications for Planets around Galactic Disk and Bulge Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dominik; M. D. Albrow; J.-P. Beaulieu; J. A. R. Caldwell; A. Cassan; C. Coutures; J. Greenhill; K. Hill; P. Fouqué; K. Horne; U. G. Jorgensen; S. Kane; D. Kubas; R. Martin; J. Menzies; K. R. Pollard; K. Sahu; J. Wambsganss; R. Watson; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    With round-the-clock monitoring of galactic bulge microlensing events, the PLANET experiment constrains the abundance and can yield the discovery of planets down to the mass of earth around galactic disk and bulge stars. Data taken until 1999 imply that less than 1\\/3 of bulge M-dwarfs are surrounded by jupiter-mass companions at orbital radii between 1 and 4 AU. The current

  7. DEUTERIUM BURNING IN MASSIVE GIANT PLANETS AND LOW-MASS BROWN DWARFS FORMED BY CORE-NUCLEATED ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, Peter [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); D'Angelo, Gennaro; Lissauer, Jack J. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Saumon, Didier, E-mail: peter@ucolick.org, E-mail: gennaro.dangelo@nasa.gov, E-mail: Jack.J.Lissauer@nasa.gov, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org, E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Using detailed numerical simulations, we study the formation of bodies near the deuterium-burning limit according to the core-nucleated giant planet accretion scenario. The objects, with heavy-element cores in the range 5-30 M{sub Circled-Plus }, are assumed to accrete gas up to final masses of 10-15 Jupiter masses (M{sub Jup}). After the formation process, which lasts 1-5 Myr and which ends with a ''cold-start'', low-entropy configuration, the bodies evolve at constant mass up to an age of several Gyr. Deuterium burning via proton capture is included in the calculation, and we determined the mass, M{sub 50}, above which more than 50% of the initial deuterium is burned. This often-quoted borderline between giant planets and brown dwarfs is found to depend only slightly on parameters, such as core mass, stellar mass, formation location, solid surface density in the protoplanetary disk, disk viscosity, and dust opacity. The values for M{sub 50} fall in the range 11.6-13.6 M{sub Jup}, in agreement with previous determinations that do not take the formation process into account. For a given opacity law during the formation process, objects with higher core masses form more quickly. The result is higher entropy in the envelope at the completion of accretion, yielding lower values of M{sub 50}. For masses above M{sub 50}, during the deuterium-burning phase, objects expand and increase in luminosity by one to three orders of magnitude. Evolutionary tracks in the luminosity versus time diagram are compared with the observed position of the companion to Beta Pictoris.

  8. EVIDENCE FROM THE ASTEROID BELT FOR A VIOLENT PAST EVOLUTION OF JUPITER'S ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Brasser, Ramon [Departement Cassiopee, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, CNRS 4, 06304 Nice (France); Gomes, Rodney [Observatrio Nacional, Rua General Jos Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Levison, Harold F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Tsiganis, Kleomenis [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    We use the current orbital structure of large (>50 km) asteroids in the main asteroid belt to constrain the evolution of the giant planets when they migrated from their primordial orbits to their current ones. Minton and Malhotra showed that the orbital distribution of large asteroids in the main belt can be reproduced by an exponentially decaying migration of the giant planets on a timescale of {tau} {approx} 0.5 Myr. However, self-consistent numerical simulations show that the planetesimal-driven migration of the giant planets is inconsistent with an exponential change in their semi-major axes on such a short timescale. In fact, the typical timescale is {tau} {>=} 5 Myr. When giant planet migration on this timescale is applied to the asteroid belt, the resulting orbital distribution is incompatible with the observed one. However, the planet migration can be significantly sped up by planet-planet encounters. Consider an evolution where both Jupiter and Saturn have close encounters with a Neptune-mass planet (presumably Uranus or Neptune itself) and where this third planet, after being scattered inward by Saturn, is scattered outward by Jupiter. This scenario leads to a very rapid increase in the orbital separation between Jupiter and Saturn which we show here to have only mild effects on the structure of the asteroid belt. This type of evolution is called a 'jumping-Jupiter' case. Our results suggest that the total mass and dynamical excitation of the asteroid belt before migration were comparable to those currently observed. Moreover, they imply that, before migration, the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn were much less eccentric than their current ones.

  9. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J. H. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2010-04-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (beta = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass <=1 M{sub J} and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of beta = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a {approx} 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  10. STELLAR PARAMETERS AND METALLICITIES OF STARS HOSTING JOVIAN AND NEPTUNIAN MASS PLANETS: A POSSIBLE DEPENDENCE OF PLANETARY MASS ON METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzi, L.; Cunha, K.; De Araujo, F. X.; De la Reza, R. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Sao Cristovao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Smith, V. V.; Schuler, S. C., E-mail: luan@on.b [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2010-09-10

    The metal content of planet-hosting stars is an important ingredient that may affect the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Accurate stellar abundances require the determinations of reliable physical parameters, namely, the effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity. This work presents the homogeneous derivation of such parameters for a large sample of stars hosting planets (N = 117), as well as a control sample of disk stars not known to harbor giant, closely orbiting planets (N = 145). Stellar parameters and iron abundances are derived from an automated analysis technique developed for this work. As previously found in the literature, the results in this study indicate that the metallicity distribution of planet-hosting stars is more metal rich by {approx}0.15 dex when compared to the control sample stars. A segregation of the sample according to planet mass indicates that the metallicity distribution of stars hosting only Neptunian-mass planets (with no Jovian-mass planets) tends to be more metal poor in comparison with that obtained for stars hosting a closely orbiting Jovian planet. The significance of this difference in metallicity arises from a homogeneous analysis of samples of FGK dwarfs which do not include the cooler and more problematic M dwarfs. This result would indicate that there is a possible link between planet mass and metallicity such that metallicity plays a role in setting the mass of the most massive planet. Further confirmation, however, must await larger samples.

  11. Evolution of Giant Planets in Eccentric Disks

    E-print Network

    Gennaro D'Angelo; Stephen H. Lubow; Matthew R. Bate

    2006-08-17

    We investigate the interaction between a giant planet and a viscous circumstellar disk by means of high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We consider planet masses that range from 1 to 3 Jupiter masses (Mjup) and initial orbital eccentricities that range from 0 to 0.4. We find that a planet can cause eccentricity growth in a disk region adjacent to the planet's orbit, even if the planet's orbit is circular. Disk-planet interactions lead to growth in a planet's orbital eccentricity. The orbital eccentricities of a 2 Mjup and a 3 Mjup planet increase from 0 to 0.11 within about 3000 orbits. Over a similar time period, the orbital eccentricity of a 1 Mjup planet grows from 0 to 0.02. For a case of a 1 Mjup planet with an initial eccentricity of 0.01, the orbital eccentricity grows to 0.09 over 4000 orbits. Radial migration is directed inwards, but slows considerably as a planet's orbit becomes eccentric. If a planet's orbital eccentricity becomes sufficiently large, e > ~0.2, migration can reverse and so be directed outwards. The accretion rate towards a planet depends on both the disk and the planet orbital eccentricity and is pulsed over the orbital period. Planet mass growth rates increase with planet orbital eccentricity. For e~0.2 the mass growth rate of a planet increases by approximately 30% above the value for e=0. For e > ~0.1, most of the accretion within the planet's Roche lobe occurs when the planet is near the apocenter. Similar accretion modulation occurs for flow at the inner disk boundary which represents accretion toward the star.

  12. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXIV. Occurrence, mass distribution and orbital properties of super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mayor; M. Marmier; C. Lovis; S. Udry; D. Ségransan; F. Pepe; W. Benz; J.-L. Bertaux; F. Bouchy; X. Dumusque; G. Lo Curto; C. Mordasini; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos

    2011-01-01

    We report on the results of an 8-year survey carried out at the La Silla Observatory with the HARPS spectrograph to detect and characterize planets in the super-Earth and Neptune mass regime. The size of our star sample and the precision achieved with HARPS have allowed the detection of a sufficiently large number of low-mass planets to study the statistical

  13. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    bhanks

    2006-11-02

    The purpose of this project is to gather information and learn interesting facts about the planets in our solar sytem to complete a research project for Mrs. Hutchinson\\'s class. Begin by taking a quiz to measure your knowledge. Click this link for information and quiz. Quiz Next, you will choose two of the following sites and search for information on the planets in our solar system. Fill in the questions on your work sheet as you go to each site. Factmonster Planets Kids Astronomy 9 planets for kids Windows to the Universe Just for ...

  14. Galilean Moons, Kepler's Third Law, and the Mass of Jupiter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of physical systems are widely available online, with no cost, and are ready to be used in our classrooms. Such simulations offer an accessible tool that can be used for a range of interactive learning activities. The Jovian Moons Apple allows the user to track the position of Jupiter's four Galilean moons with a variety of…

  15. Shaping of the Inner Solar System by the Gas-Driven Migration of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessando; Raymond, Sean N.; O'Brien, David P.; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-04-01

    A persistent difficulty in terrestrial planet formation models is creating Mars analogs with the appropriate mass: Mars is typically an order of magnitude too large in simulations. Some recent work found that a small Mars can be created if the planetesimal disk from which the planets form has an outermost edge at 1.0 AU. However, that work and no previous work could produce a truncation of the planetesimal disk while also explaining the mass and structure of the asteroid belt. We show that gas-driven migration of Jupiter inward to 1.5 AU, before its subsequent outward migration, can truncate the disk and repopulate the asteroid belt. This dramatic migration history of Jupiter suggests that the dynamical behavior of our giant planets was more similar to that inferred for extra-solar planets than previously thought, as both have been characterised by substantial radial migration.

  16. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions planets with small cores/total heavy element abundances can accrete gaseous envelopes within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks.

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF THE EJECTION AND DISRUPTION OF GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillochon, James [NASA Earth and Space Science Fellow. (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lin, Douglas, E-mail: jfg@ucolick.org [Theoretical Astrophysics Santa Cruz (TASC), Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    The discovery of Jupiter-mass planets in close orbits about their parent stars has challenged models of planet formation. Recent observations have shown that a number of these planets have highly inclined, sometimes retrograde orbits about their parent stars, prompting much speculation as to their origin. It is known that migration alone cannot account for the observed population of these misaligned hot Jupiters, which suggests that dynamical processes after the gas disk dissipates play a substantial role in yielding the observed inclination and eccentricity distributions. One particularly promising candidate is planet-planet scattering, which is not very well understood in the nonlinear regime of tides. Through three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of multi-orbit encounters, we show that planets that are scattered into an orbit about their parent stars with closest approach distance being less than approximately three times the tidal radius are either destroyed or completely ejected from the system. We find that as few as 9 and as many as 12 of the currently known hot Jupiters have a maximum initial apastron for scattering that lies well within the ice line, implying that these planets must have migrated either before or after the scattering event that brought them to their current positions. If stellar tides are unimportant (Q{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 7}), disk migration is required to explain the existence of the hot Jupiters present in these systems. Additionally, we find that the disruption and/or ejection of Jupiter-mass planets deposits a Sun's worth of angular momentum onto the host star. For systems in which planet-planet scattering is common, we predict that planetary hosts have up to a 35% chance of possessing an obliquity relative to the invariable plane of greater than 90{sup 0}.

  18. Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.

  19. The Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

  20. On Stellar Activity Enhancement Due to Interactions with Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Cuntz; Steven H. Saar; Zdzislaw E. Musielak

    2000-01-01

    We present a first attempt to identify and quantify possible interactions between recently discovered extrasolar giant planets (and brown dwarfs) and their host stars, resulting in activity enhancement in the stellar outer atmospheres. Many extrasolar planets have masses comparable to or larger than Jupiter and are within a distance of 0.5 AU, suggesting the possibility of their significant influence on

  1. On the Mass-Period Distributions and Correlations of Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Ing-Guey Jiang; Li-Chin Yeh; Yen-Chang Chang; Wen-Liang Hung

    2007-09-05

    In addition to fitting the data of 233 extra-solar planets with power laws, we construct a correlated mass-period distribution function of extrasolar planets, as the first time in this field. The algorithm to generate a pair of positively correlated beta-distributed random variables is introduced and used for the construction of correlated distribution functions. We investigate the mass-period correlations of extrasolar planets both in the linear and logarithm spaces, determine the confidence intervals of the correlation coefficients, and confirm that there is a positive mass-period correlation for the extrasolar planets. In addition to the paucity of massive close-in planets, which makes the main contribution on this correlation, there are other fine structures for the data in the mass-period plane.

  2. The detection of Earth-mass planets around active stars. The mass of Kepler-78b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Kepler-78b is a transiting Earth-mass planet in an 8.5 h orbit discovered by the Kepler Space Mission. We performed an analysis of the published radial velocity measurements for Kepler-78 in order to derive a refined measurement for the planet mass. Kepler-78 is an active star and radial velocity variations due to activity were removed using a floating chunk offset (FCO) method where an orbital solution was made to the data by allowing the velocity offsets of individual nights to vary. We show that if we had no a priori knowledge of the transit period the FCO method, used as a periodogram, would still have detected Kepler-78b in the radial velocity data. It can thus be effective at finding unknown short-period signals in the presence of significant activity noise.Using the FCO method while keeping the ephemeris and orbital phase fixed to the photometric values and using only data from nights where 6-10 measurements were taken results in a K-amplitude of 1.34 ± 0.25 m s-1, a planet mass of 1.31 ± 0.24 M?, and a planet density of ? = 4.5-2.0+2.2 g cm-3. Allowing the orbital phase to be a free parameter reproduces the transit phase to within the uncertainty. The corresponding density implies that Kepler-78b may have a structure that is deficient in iron and is thus more like the Moon. Although the various approaches that were used to filter out the activity of Kepler-78 produce consistent radial velocity amplitudes to within the errors, these are still too large to constrain the structure of this planet. The uncertainty in the mass for Kepler-78b is large enough to encompass models with structures ranging from Mercury-like (iron enriched) to Moon-like (iron deficient). A more accurate K-amplitude as well as a better determination of the planet radius are needed to distinguish between these models.

  3. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  4. Radii, Masses, Densities, and Occurrence for Planets within 0.25 AU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey W. Marcy; A. Howard

    2011-01-01

    We report the observed distribution of planet radii, masses, and orbital distances for orbital periods less than 50 days around Solar-type (GK) stars. We draw from extensive Doppler and Kepler measurements that offer good completeness for planets with radii as small as 2.0 Earth-radii. We include the photometric signal-to-noise ratio for all 156,000 target stars to determine planet detectability as

  5. Low-Density Low-Mass Planets Forma4on and Structure of Low-Density Exo-Neptunes

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    -Density Exo-Neptunes Leslie A. Rogers, Peter Bodenheimer, Jack J. Lissauer, & Sara masses of Neptune- size (2-6 R) planets? Planets with gas layers can get larger: Neptune-size Kepler planet candidates could have low mass (a few Earth masses

  6. Mass Estimates of a Giant Planet in a Protoplanetary Disk from the Gap Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Muto, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tanigawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake

    2015-06-01

    A giant planet embedded in a protoplanetary disk forms a gap. An analytic relationship among the gap depth, planet mass Mp, disk aspect ratio hp, and viscosity ? has been found recently, and the gap depth can be written in terms of a single parameter K={{({{M}p}/{{M}*})}2}hp-5{{? }-1}. We discuss how observed gap features can be used to constrain the disk and/or planet parameters based on the analytic formula for the gap depth. The constraint on the disk aspect ratio is critical in determining the planet mass so the combination of the observations of the temperature and the image can provide a constraint on the planet mass. We apply the formula for the gap depth to observations of HL Tau and HD 169142. In the case of HL Tau, we propose that a planet with ? 0.3 MJ is responsible for the observed gap at 30 AU from the central star based on the estimate that the gap depth is ? 1/3. In the case of HD 169142, the planet mass that causes the gap structure recently found by VLA is ? 0.4{{M}J}. We also argue that the spiral structure, if observed, can be used to estimate the lower limit of the disk aspect ratio and the planet mass.

  7. PLANET HUNTERS. VII. DISCOVERY OF A NEW LOW-MASS, LOW-DENSITY PLANET (PH3 C) ORBITING KEPLER-289 WITH MASS MEASUREMENTS OF TWO ADDITIONAL PLANETS (PH3 B AND D)

    E-print Network

    Schmitt, Joseph R.

    We report the discovery of one newly confirmed planet (P = 66.06 days, R [subscript P] = 2.68 ± 0.17 R [subscript ?]) and mass determinations of two previously validated Kepler planets, Kepler-289 b (P = 34.55 days, R ...

  8. Water Ice Lines and the Formation of Giant Moons around Super-Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René; Pudritz, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Most of the exoplanets with known masses at Earth-like distances to Sun-like stars are heavier than Jupiter, which raises the question of whether such planets are accompanied by detectable, possibly habitable moons. Here we simulate the accretion disks around super-Jovian planets and find that giant moons with masses similar to Mars can form. Our results suggest that the Galilean moons formed during the final stages of accretion onto Jupiter, when the circumjovian disk was sufficiently cool. In contrast to other studies, with our assumptions, we show that Jupiter was still feeding from the circumsolar disk and that its principal moons cannot have formed after the complete photoevaporation of the circumsolar nebula. To counteract the steady loss of moons into the planet due to type I migration, we propose that the water ice line around Jupiter and super-Jovian exoplanets acted as a migration trap for moons. Heat transitions, however, cross the disk during the gap opening within ?104 years, which makes them inefficient as moon traps and indicates a fundamental difference between planet and moon formation. We find that icy moons larger than the smallest known exoplanet can form at about 15–30 Jupiter radii around super-Jovian planets. Their size implies detectability by the Kepler and PLATO space telescopes as well as by the European Extremely Large Telescope. Observations of such giant exomoons would be a novel gateway to understanding planet formation, as moons carry information about the accretion history of their planets.

  9. Warm Jupiters Need Close "Friends" for High-eccentricity Migration—a Stringent Upper Limit on the Perturber's Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle

    2014-01-01

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10 days <~ P <~ 100 days) by high-eccentricity (high-e) migration mechanisms. Unlike hot Jupiters, the majority of observed warm Jupiters have pericenter distances too large to allow efficient tidal dissipation to induce migration. To access the close pericenter required for migration during a Kozai-Lidov cycle, they must be accompanied by a strong enough perturber to overcome the precession caused by general relativity, placing a strong upper limit on the perturber's separation. For a warm Jupiter at a ~ 0.2 AU, a Jupiter-mass (solar-mass) perturber is required to be <~ 3 AU (lsim 30 AU) and can be identified observationally. Among warm Jupiters detected by radial velocities (RVs), >~ 50% (5 out of 9) with large eccentricities (e >~ 0.4) have known Jovian companions satisfying this necessary condition for high-e migration. In contrast, <~ 20% (3 out of 17) of the low-e (e <~ 0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, suggesting that high-e migration with planetary perturbers may not be the dominant formation channel. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. Transiting warm Jupiters showing spin-orbit misalignments will be interesting to apply our test. If the misalignments are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters with low-e (e <~ 0.2) are not misaligned, in contrast with low-e hot Jupiters.

  10. HABITABILITY OF EARTH-MASS PLANETS AND MOONS IN THE KEPLER-16 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, B.; Musielak, Z. E.; Cuntz, M., E-mail: billyq@uta.edu, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu, E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate that habitable Earth-mass planets and moons can exist in the Kepler-16 system, known to host a Saturn-mass planet around a stellar binary, by investigating their orbital stability in the standard and extended habitable zone (HZ). We find that Earth-mass planets in satellite-like (S-type) orbits are possible within the standard HZ in direct vicinity of Kepler-16b, thus constituting habitable exomoons. However, Earth-mass planets cannot exist in planetary-like (P-type) orbits around the two stellar components within the standard HZ. Yet, P-type Earth-mass planets can exist superior to the Saturnian planet in the extended HZ pertaining to considerably enhanced back-warming in the planetary atmosphere if facilitated. We briefly discuss the potential detectability of such habitable Earth-mass moons and planets positioned in satellite and planetary orbits, respectively. The range of inferior and superior P-type orbits in the HZ is between 0.657-0.71 AU and 0.95-1.02 AU, respectively.

  11. SHORT-DURATION LENSING EVENTS. I. WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS? FREE-FLOATING LOW-MASS OBJECTS? OR HIGH-VELOCITY STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Rosanne [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Short-duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than 1 AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the solar system's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kiloparsec. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.

  12. Short-duration Lensing Events. I. Wide-orbit Planets? Free-floating Low-mass Objects? Or High-velocity Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2012-08-01

    Short-duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than 1 AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the solar system's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kiloparsec. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.

  13. The Keck Planet Search: Detectability and the Minimum Mass and Orbital Period Distribution of Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Cumming; R. Paul Butler; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Steven S. Vogt; Jason T. Wright; Debra A. Fischer

    2008-01-01

    We analyze 8 years of precise radial velocity measurements from the Keck\\u000aPlanet Search, characterizing the detection threshold, selection effects, and\\u000acompleteness of the survey. We carry out a systematic search for planets by\\u000aassessing the false alarm probability associated with Keplerian orbit fits to\\u000athe data. This allows us to understand the detection threshold for each star in\\u000aterms

  14. Radial velocity survey for planets and brown dwarf companions to very young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in ChaI with UVES at the VLT

    E-print Network

    V. Joergens

    2005-10-05

    We present results of a radial velocity (RV) survey for planets and brown dwarf (BD) companions to very young BDs and (very) low-mass stars (VLMSs) in ChaI. High-resolution echelle spectra of ChaHa1-8 and 12 (M6-M8), and B34, CHXR74, Sz23 (M2.5-M5) were taken with UVES / VLT between 2000 and 2004. The achieved precision (40 to 670 m/s) is sufficient to detect Jupiter mass planets around the targets. This first RV survey of very young BDs probes multiplicity which is a key parameter for formation in an as yet unexplored domain, in terms of age, mass, and orbital separation. We find that the subsample of ten BDs and VLMSs (M150 days, which cannot be explained by rotational modulation. An alternative explanation are giant planets / BDs of at least a few Jupiter masses orbiting with periods of several months or longer. Thus, the presented RV data indicate that orbital periods of companions to very young BDs and (V)LMSs are possibly several months or longer, and that orbital separations are > 0.2 AU. This parameter range has not been covered for all targets yet, but will be probed by follow-up observations.

  15. The Effect of Planet-Planet Scattering on the Survival of Exomoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Xie, Ji-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Mei

    2013-05-01

    Compared to the giant planets in the solar system, exoplanets have many remarkable properties, such as the prevalence of giant planets on eccentric orbits and the presence of hot Jupiters. Planet-planet scattering (PPS) between giant planets is a possible mechanism to interpret the above and other observed properties. If the observed giant planet architectures are indeed outcomes of PPS, such a drastic dynamical process must affect their primordial moon systems. In this Letter, we discuss the effect of PPS on the survival of exoplanets' regular moons. From an observational viewpoint, some preliminary conclusions are drawn from the simulations. (1) PPS is a destructive process to the moon systems; single planets on eccentric orbits are not ideal moon-search targets. (2) If hot Jupiters formed through PPS, their original moons have little chance of survival. (3) Planets in multiple systems with small eccentricities are more likely to hold their primordial moons. (4) Compared with lower-mass planets, massive planets in multiple systems may not be the preferred moon-search targets if the system underwent a PPS history.

  16. THE EFFECT OF PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING ON THE SURVIVAL OF EXOMOONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yanxiang; Zhou Jilin; Xie Jiwei [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu Xiaomei, E-mail: zhoujl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yxgong@nju.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Taishan University, Taian 271021 (China)

    2013-05-20

    Compared to the giant planets in the solar system, exoplanets have many remarkable properties, such as the prevalence of giant planets on eccentric orbits and the presence of hot Jupiters. Planet-planet scattering (PPS) between giant planets is a possible mechanism to interpret the above and other observed properties. If the observed giant planet architectures are indeed outcomes of PPS, such a drastic dynamical process must affect their primordial moon systems. In this Letter, we discuss the effect of PPS on the survival of exoplanets' regular moons. From an observational viewpoint, some preliminary conclusions are drawn from the simulations. (1) PPS is a destructive process to the moon systems; single planets on eccentric orbits are not ideal moon-search targets. (2) If hot Jupiters formed through PPS, their original moons have little chance of survival. (3) Planets in multiple systems with small eccentricities are more likely to hold their primordial moons. (4) Compared with lower-mass planets, massive planets in multiple systems may not be the preferred moon-search targets if the system underwent a PPS history.

  17. A closely packed system of low-mass, low-density planets transiting Kepler-11.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, Jack J; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Borucki, William J; Fressin, Francois; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Orosz, Jerome A; Rowe, Jason F; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Carter, Joshua A; Charbonneau, David; Christiansen, Jessie L; Cochran, William D; Desert, Jean-Michel; Dunham, Edward W; Fanelli, Michael N; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Hall, Jennifer R; Holman, Matthew J; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lopez, Eric; McCauliff, Sean; Miller, Neil; Morehead, Robert C; Quintana, Elisa V; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Short, Donald R; Steffen, Jason H

    2011-02-01

    When an extrasolar planet passes in front of (transits) its star, its radius can be measured from the decrease in starlight and its orbital period from the time between transits. Multiple planets transiting the same star reveal much more: period ratios determine stability and dynamics, mutual gravitational interactions reflect planet masses and orbital shapes, and the fraction of transiting planets observed as multiples has implications for the planarity of planetary systems. But few stars have more than one known transiting planet, and none has more than three. Here we report Kepler spacecraft observations of a single Sun-like star, which we call Kepler-11, that reveal six transiting planets, five with orbital periods between 10 and 47?days and a sixth planet with a longer period. The five inner planets are among the smallest for which mass and size have both been measured, and these measurements imply substantial envelopes of light gases. The degree of coplanarity and proximity of the planetary orbits imply energy dissipation near the end of planet formation. PMID:21293371

  18. Reevaluating the feasibility of ground-based Earth-mass microlensing planet detections

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Youn Kil; Park, Hyuk; Han, Cheongho; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Shin, In-Gu; Choi, Joon-Young, E-mail: cheongho@astroph.chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-10

    An important strength of the microlensing method to detect extrasolar planets is its high sensitivity to low-mass planets. However, many believe that microlensing detections of Earth-mass planets from ground-based observation would be difficult because of limits set by finite-source effects. This view comes from the previous estimation of planet detection probability based on the fractional deviation of planetary signals; however, a proper probability estimation is required when considering the source brightness, which is directly related to the photometric precision. In this paper, we reevaluate the feasibility of low-mass planet detections by considering photometric precision for different populations of source stars. From this, we find that the contribution of improved photometric precision to the planetary signal of a giant-source event is large enough to compensate for the decrease in magnification excess caused by finite-source effects. As a result, we conclude that giant-source events are suitable targets for Earth-mass planet detections with significantly higher detection probability than events involved with source stars of smaller radii, and we predict that Earth-mass planets could be detected by prospective high-cadence surveys.

  19. Detectability of Transiting Jupiters and Low-Mass Eclipsing Binaries in Sparsely Sampled Pan-STARRS-1 Survey Data

    E-print Network

    Dupuy, Trent J

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed simulations of the Pan-STARRS-1 (PS1) multi-epoch, multi-band 3-pi Survey in order to assess its potential yield of transiting planets and eclipsing binaries. This survey differs from dedicated transit surveys in that it will cover the entire Northern sky but provide only sparsely sampled light curves. Since most eclipses would be detected at only a single epoch, the 3-pi Survey will be most sensitive to deep eclipses (> 0.10 mag) caused by Jupiters transiting M dwarfs and eclipsing stellar/substellar binaries. The survey will also provide parallaxes for the ~400,000 stars within 100 pc which will enable a volume-limited eclipse search, reducing the number of astrophysical false positives compared to previous magnitude-limited searches. Using the best available empirical data, we constructed a model of the extended solar neighborhood that includes stars, brown dwarfs, and a realistic binary population. We computed the yield of deeply eclipsing systems using both a semi-analytic and a full ...

  20. Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799

    E-print Network

    C. Marois; B. Macintosh; T. Barman; B. Zuckerman; I. Song; J. Patience; D. Lafreniere; R. Doyon

    2008-11-16

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  1. Probing the Spatial Distribution of Extrasolar Planets with Gravitational Microlensing

    E-print Network

    Cheongho Han; Young Woon Kang

    2003-03-14

    Under the current microlensing planet search strategy of monitoring events caused by stellar-mass lenses, only planets located within a narrow region of separations from central stars can be effectively detected. However, with the dramatic increase of the monitoring frequency, two additional populations of free-floating and wide-orbit planets can be detected. In this paper, we investigate the lensing properties of events caused by wide-orbit planets and find that the light curves of a significant fraction of these events will exhibit signatures of central stars, enabling one to distinguish them from those caused by free-floating planets. Due to the large primary/planet mass ratio, the effect of the central star endures to considerable separations. We find that for a Jupiter-mass planet the signatures of the central star can be detected with fractional deviations of > 5% from the best-fitting single-lens light curves for > 80% of events caused by bound planets with separations planets with separations up to 20 AU. Therefore, detecting a large sample of these events will provide useful information about the distribution of extrasolar planets around their central stars. Proper estimation of the probability of distinguishing events caused by wide-orbit planets from those caused by free-floating planets will be important for the correct determination of the frequency of free-floating planets, whose microlensing sample will be contaminated by wide-orbits planets.

  2. Too Little, Too Late: How the Tidal Evolution of Hot Jupiters Affects Transit Surveys of Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debes, John H.; Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The tidal evolution of hot Jupiters may change the efficiency of transit surveys of stellar clusters. The orbital decay that hot Jupiters suffer may result in their destruction, leaving fewer transiting planets in older clusters. We calculate the impact tidal evolution has for different assumed stellar populations, including that of 47 Tuc, a globular cluster that was the focus of an intense HST search for transits. We find that in older clusters one expects to detect fewer transiting planets by a factor of two for surveys sensitive to Jupiter-like planets in orbits out to 0.5 AU, and up to a factor of 25 for surveys sensitive to Jupiter-like planets in orbits out to 0.08 AU. Additionally, tidal evolution affects the distribution of transiting planets as a function of semi-major axis, producing larger orbital period gaps for transiting planets as the age of the cluster increases. Tidal evolution can explain the lack of detected exoplanets in 47 Tuc without invoking other mechanisms. Four open clusters residing within the Kepler fields of view have ages that span 0.4-8 Gyr-if Kepler can observe a significant number of planets in these clusters, it will provide key tests for our tidal evolution hypothesis. Finally, our results suggest that observers wishing to discover transiting planets in clusters must have sufficient accuracy to detect lower mass planets, search larger numbers of cluster members, or have longer observation windows to be confident that a significant number of transits will occur for a population of stars.

  3. Protoplanetary disks including radiative feedback from accreting planets

    E-print Network

    Montesinos, Matias; Perez, Sebastian; Baruteau, Clement; Casassus, Simon

    2015-01-01

    While recent observational progress is converging on the detection of compact regions of thermal emission due to embedded protoplanets, further theoretical predictions are needed to understand the response of a protoplanetary disk to the planet formation radiative feedback. This is particularly important to make predictions for the observability of circumplanetary regions. In this work we use 2D hydrodynamical simulations to examine the evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disk in which a luminous Jupiter-mass planet is embedded. We use an energy equation which includes the radiative heating of the planet as an additional mechanism for planet formation feedback. Several models are computed for planet luminosities ranging from $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-3}$ Solar luminosities. We find that the planet radiative feedback enhances the disk's accretion rate at the planet's orbital radius, producing a hotter and more luminous environement around the planet, independently of the prescription used to model the disk's turbul...

  4. Planet Formation around Low-Mass Stars: The Moving Snow Line and Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2006-10-01

    We develop a semianalytic model for planet formation during the pre-main-sequence contraction phase of a low-mass star. During this evolution, the stellar magnetosphere maintains a fixed ratio between the inner disk radius and the stellar radius. As the star contracts at constant effective temperature, the ``snow line,'' which separates regions of rocky planet formation from regions of icy planet formation, moves inward. This process enables rapid formation of icy protoplanets that collide and merge into super-Earths before the star reaches the main sequence. The masses and orbits of these super-Earths are consistent with super-Earths detected in recent microlensing experiments.

  5. Mass Estimates of a Giant Planet in a Protoplanetary Disk from the Gap Structures

    E-print Network

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tanigawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake

    2015-01-01

    A giant planet embedded in a protoplanetary disk forms a gap. An analytic relationship among the gap depth, planet mass $M_{p}$, disk aspect ratio $h_p$, and viscosity $\\alpha$ has been found recently, and the gap depth can be written in terms of a single parameter $K= (M_{p}/M_{\\ast})^2 h_p^{-5} \\alpha^{-1}$. We discuss how observed gap features can be used to constrain the disk and/or planet parameters based on the analytic formula for the gap depth. The constraint on the disk aspect ratio is critical in determining the planet mass so the combination of the observations of the temperature and the image can provide a constraint on the planet mass. We apply the formula for the gap depth to observations of HL~Tau and HD~169142. In the case of HL~Tau, we propose that a planet with $\\gtrsim 0.3$ is responsible for the observed gap at $30$~AU from the central star based on the estimate that the gap depth is $\\lesssim 1/3$. In the case of HD~169142, the planet mass that causes the gap structure recently found by V...

  6. Discovery of WASP-65b and WASP-75b: Two Hot Jupiters Without Highly Inflated Radii

    E-print Network

    Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Pollacco, D; Brown, D J A; Doyle, A P; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Lendl, M; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Busuttil, R; Liebig, C; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Burwitz, V; Delrez, L; Enoch, B; Fumel, A; Haswell, C A; Hébrard, G; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Norton, A J; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rodríguez, J; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Stassun, K G; Udry, S; Watson, C A

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-65b (M_pl = 1.55 +/- 0.16 M_J; R_pl = 1.11 +/- 0.06 R_J), and WASP-75b (M_pl = 1.07 +/- 0.05 M_J; R_pl = 1.27 +/- 0.05 R_J). They orbit their host star every 2.311, and 2.484 days, respectively. The planet host WASP-65 is a G6 star (T_eff = 5600 K, [Fe/H] = -0.07 +/- 0.07, age > 8 Gyr); WASP-75 is an F9 star (T_eff = 6100 K, [Fe/H] = 0.07 +/- 0.09, age of 3 Gyr). The mean density of WASP-65b is similar to that of Jupiter (rho_pl = 1.13 +/- 0.08 rho_J), and in fact, WASP-65b is one of the densest planets with a mass between 0.1 and 2.0 M_J, a mass range in which a large fraction of the known planets have been found to be inflated with respect to theoretical planet models. WASP-65b is one of only a handful of planets with masses of around 1.5 M_J, a mass regime surprisingly underrepresented among the currently known hot Jupiters. The radius of Jupiter-mass WASP-75b is slightly inflated (< 10%) as compared to theoretical planet models with no core, ...

  7. Direct-imaging discovery of a 12-14 Jupiter-mass object orbiting a young binary system of very low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Gagné, J.; Girard, J. H.; Lagrange, A. M.; Chauvin, G.; Naud, M.-E.; Lafrenière, D.; Doyon, R.; Riedel, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Malo, L.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Though only a handful of extrasolar planets have been discovered via direct-imaging, each of these discoveries had a tremendous impact on our understanding of planetary formation, stellar formation, and cool atmosphere physics. Aims: Since many of these newly imaged giant planets orbit massive A or even B stars, we investigate whether giant planets could be found orbiting low-mass stars at large separations. Methods: We have been conducting an adaptive optic imaging survey to search for planetary-mass companions of young M dwarfs in the solar neigbourhood, in order to probe different initial conditions of planetary formation. Results: We report here the direct-imaging discovery of 2MASS J01033563-5515561(AB)b, a 12-14 MJup companion at a projected separation of 84 AU from a pair of young late-M stars, with which it shares proper motion. We also detected a Keplerian-compatible orbital motion. Conclusions: This young L-type object at the planet/brown dwarf mass boundary is the first ever imaged around a binary system at a separation compatible with formation in a disc. Based on observations obtained with NACO on VLT UT-4 at ESO-Paranal (runs 090.C-0698(A) and 70.D-0444(A).

  8. New Horizons At Jupiter: Overview Of Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Moore

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Horizons spacecraft has provided new data on the Jupiter system, acquiring new perspectives of the giant planet's atmosphere, rings, moons and magnetosphere. These new views include the closest look yet at the Earth-sized \\

  9. Measurement of planet masses with transit timing variations due to synodic "chopping" effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine; Agol, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit (TTVs) that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. I will present analytic formulae for TTVs which can be applied to pairs of planets on nearly circular orbits which are not caught in a mean motion resonance. For a number of Kepler systems with TTVs, I will show that synodic "chopping" contributions to the TTVs can be used to uniquely measure the masses of planets without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. This demonstrates how mass measurements from TTVs may primarily arise from an observable chopping signal. I will also explain our extension of these formulae to first order in eccentricity, which allows us to apply the formulae to pairs of planets closer to mean motion resonances and with larger eccentricities.

  10. Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Webster, Larry; Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Showen, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge of other planetary systems that includes information on the number, size, mass, and spacing of the planets around a variety of star types is needed to deepen our understanding of planetary system formation and processes that give rise to their final configurations. Recent discoveries show that many planetary systems are quite different from the solar system in that they often possess giant planets in short period orbits. The inferred evolution of these planets and their orbital characteristics imply the absence of Earth-like planets near the habitable zone. Information on the properties of the giant-inner planets is now being obtained by both the Doppler velocity and the transit photometry techniques. The combination of the two techniques provides the mass, size, and density of the planets. For the planet orbiting star HD209458, transit photometry provided the first independent confirmation and measurement of the diameter of an extrasolar planet. The observations indicate a planet 1.27 the diameter of Jupiter with 0.63 of its mass (Charbonneau et al. 1999). The results are in excellent agreement with the theory of planetary atmospheres for a planet of the indicated mass and distance from a solar-like star. The observation of the November 23, 1999 transit of that planet made by the Ames Vulcan photometer at Lick Observatory is presented. In the future, the combination of the two techniques will greatly increase the number of discoveries and the richness of the science yield. Small rocky planets at orbital distances from 0.9 to 1.2 AU are more likely to harbor life than the gas giant planets that are now being discovered. However, new technology is needed to find smaller, Earth-like planets, which are about three hundred times less massive than Jupiter-like planets. The Kepler project is a space craft mission designed to discover hundreds of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone around a wide variety of stars. To demonstrate that the technology exists to find such small planets, our group has conducted an end-to-end system test. The results of the laboratory tests are presented and show that we are ready to start the search for Earth-size planets.

  11. RESOLVING THE sin(I) DEGENERACY IN LOW-MASS MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laughlin, Gregory, E-mail: kbatygin@gps.caltech.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Long-term orbital evolution of multi-planet systems under tidal dissipation often converges to a stationary state, known as the tidal fixed point. The fixed point is characterized by a lack of oscillations in the eccentricities and apsidal alignment among the orbits. Quantitatively, the nature of the fixed point is dictated by mutual interactions among the planets as well as non-Keplerian effects. We show that if a roughly coplanar system hosts a hot, sub-Saturn mass planet, and is tidally relaxed, separation of planet-planet interactions and non-Keplerian effects in the equations of motion leads to a direct determination of the true masses of the planets. Consequently, a 'snap-shot' observational determination of the orbital state resolves the sin(I) degeneracy and opens up a direct avenue toward identification of the true lowest-mass exoplanets detected. We present an approximate, as well as a general, mathematical framework for computation of the line-of-sight inclination of secular systems, and apply our models illustratively to the 61 Vir system. We conclude by discussing the observability of planetary systems to which our method is applicable and we set our analysis into a broader context by presenting a current summary of the various possibilities for determining the physical properties of planets from observations of their orbital states.

  12. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF INTERACTING LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE TURBULENT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Brandon; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lyra, Wladimir [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Sandor, Zsolt, E-mail: bhorn@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: wlyra@amnh.org, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: zsolt.sandor@uibk.ac.at [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    The torques exerted by a locally isothermal disk on an embedded planet lead to rapid inward migration. Recent work has shown that modeling the thermodynamics without the assumption of local isothermality reveals regions where the net torque on an embedded planet is positive, leading to outward migration of the planet. When a region with negative torque lies directly exterior to this, planets in the inner region migrate outward and planets in the outer region migrate inward, converging where the torque is zero. We incorporate the torques from an evolving non-isothermal disk into an N-body simulation to examine the behavior of planets or planetary embryos interacting in the convergence zone. We find that mutual interactions do not eject objects from the convergence zone. Small numbers of objects in a laminar disk settle into near resonant orbits that remain stable over the 10 Myr periods that we examine. However, either or both increasing the number of planets or including a correlated, stochastic force to represent turbulence drives orbit crossings and mergers in the convergence zone. These processes can build gas giant cores with masses of order 10 Earth masses from sub-Earth mass embryos in 2-3 Myr.

  13. The Mass of Kepler-93b and The Composition of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, David; Dumusque, Xavier; Gettel, Sara; Pepe, Francesco; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Latham, David W.; Molinari, Emilio; Udry, Stéphane; Affer, Laura; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Cosentino, Rosario; Figueira, Pedro; Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M.; Harutyunyan, Avet; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Johnson, John Asher; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lovis, Christophe; Malavolta, Luca; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Motalebi, Fatemeh; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Phillips, David F.; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Watson, Chris

    2015-02-01

    Kepler-93b is a 1.478 ± 0.019 R ? planet with a 4.7 day period around a bright (V = 10.2), astroseismically characterized host star with a mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M ? and a radius of 0.919 ± 0.011 R ?. Based on 86 radial velocity observations obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and 32 archival Keck/HIRES observations, we present a precise mass estimate of 4.02 ± 0.68 M ?. The corresponding high density of 6.88 ± 1.18 g cm-3 is consistent with a rocky composition of primarily iron and magnesium silicate. We compare Kepler-93b to other dense planets with well-constrained parameters and find that between 1 and 6 M ?, all dense planets including the Earth and Venus are well-described by the same fixed ratio of iron to magnesium silicate. There are as of yet no examples of such planets with masses >6 M ?. All known planets in this mass regime have lower densities requiring significant fractions of volatiles or H/He gas. We also constrain the mass and period of the outer companion in the Kepler-93 system from the long-term radial velocity trend and archival adaptive optics images. As the sample of dense planets with well-constrained masses and radii continues to grow, we will be able to test whether the fixed compositional model found for the seven dense planets considered in this paper extends to the full population of 1-6 M ? planets. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  14. Formation of Hot Planets by a combination of planet scattering, tidal circularization, and Kozai mechanism

    E-print Network

    M. Nagasawa; S. Ida; T. Bessho

    2008-01-09

    We have investigated the formation of close-in extrasolar giant planets through a coupling effect of mutual scattering, Kozai mechanism, and tidal circularization, by orbital integrations. We have carried out orbital integrations of three planets with Jupiter-mass, directly including the effect of tidal circularization. We have found that in about 30% runs close-in planets are formed, which is much higher than suggested by previous studies. We have found that Kozai mechanism by outer planets is responsible for the formation of close-in planets. During the three-planet orbital crossing, the Kozai excitation is repeated and the eccentricity is often increased secularly to values close enough to unity for tidal circularization to transform the inner planet to a close-in planet. Since a moderate eccentricity can remain for the close-in planet, this mechanism may account for the observed close-in planets with moderate eccentricities and without nearby secondary planets. Since these planets also remain a broad range of orbital inclinations (even retrograde ones), the contribution of this process would be clarified by more observations of Rossiter-McLaughlin effects for transiting planets.

  15. GAP OPENING BY EXTREMELY LOW-MASS PLANETS IN A VISCOUS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I., E-mail: pcd233@nyu.edu, E-mail: macfadyen@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    By numerically integrating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, we calculate the criterion for gap formation by a very low mass (q {approx} 10{sup -4}) protoplanet on a fixed orbit in a thin viscous disk. In contrast with some previously proposed gap-opening criteria, we find that a planet can open a gap even if the Hill radius is smaller than the disk scale height. Moreover, in the low-viscosity limit, we find no minimum mass necessary to open a gap for a planet held on a fixed orbit. In particular, a Neptune-mass planet will open a gap in a minimum mass solar nebula with suitably low viscosity ({alpha} {approx}< 10{sup -4}). We find that the mass threshold scales as the square root of viscosity in the low mass regime. This is because the gap width for critical planet masses in this regime is a fixed multiple of the scale height, not of the Hill radius of the planet.

  16. The effect of planets beyond the ice line on the accretion of volatiles by habitable-zone rocky planets

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Lissauer, Jack J., E-mail: elisa.quintana@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Models of planet formation have shown that giant planets have a large impact on the number, masses, and orbits of terrestrial planets that form. In addition, they play an important role in delivering volatiles from material that formed exterior to the snow line (the region in the disk beyond which water ice can condense) to the inner region of the disk where terrestrial planets can maintain liquid water on their surfaces. We present simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet formation from a disk of protoplanets around a solar-type star and we include a massive planet (from 1 M {sub ?} to 1 M {sub J}) in Jupiter's orbit at ?5.2 AU in all but one set of simulations. Two initial disk models are examined with the same mass distribution and total initial water content, but with different distributions of water content. We compare the accretion rates and final water mass fraction of the planets that form. Remarkably, all of the planets that formed in our simulations without giant planets were water-rich, showing that giant planet companions are not required to deliver volatiles to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. In contrast, an outer planet at least several times the mass of Earth may be needed to clear distant regions of debris truncating the epoch of frequent large impacts. Observations of exoplanets from radial velocity surveys suggest that outer Jupiter-like planets may be scarce, therefore, the results presented here suggest that there may be more habitable planets residing in our galaxy than previously thought.

  17. In search of planets and life around other stars

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of over a dozen low-mass companions to nearby stars has intensified scientific and public interest in a longer term search for habitable planets like our own. However, the nature of the detected companions, and in particular whether they resemble Jupiter in properties and origin, remains undetermined. PMID:10318886

  18. Exoplanet dynamics. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Wu, Hanbo; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-01

    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets' rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than ~0.5 to 0.7 solar mass. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere. PMID:25592420

  19. The Kepler Mission: Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Likins, B.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The difficulties encountered with direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved in the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). This method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. Its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  20. Planet Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-26

    Learners and their families are encouraged to go outside on a clear evening and view the sky to see the planets for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society, children navigate the night sky and view planets with the naked eye and binoculars or telescopes. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  1. Formation and structure of the three Neptune-mass planets system around HD69830

    E-print Network

    Yann Alibert; Isabelle Baraffe; Willy Benz; Gilles Chabrier; Christophe Mordasini; Christophe Lovis; Michel Mayor; Francesco Pepe; Francois Bouchy; Didier Queloz; Stephane Udry

    2006-07-10

    Since the discovery of the first giant planet outside the solar system in 1995 (Mayor & Queloz 1995), more than 180 extrasolar planets have been discovered. With improving detection capabilities, a new class of planets with masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth, at close distance from their parent star is rapidly emerging. Recently, the first system of three Neptune-mass planets has been discovered around the solar type star HD69830 (Lovis et al. 2006). Here, we present and discuss a possible formation scenario for this planetary system based on a consistent coupling between the extended core accretion model and evolutionary models (Alibert et al. 2005a, Baraffe et al. 2004,2006). We show that the innermost planet formed from an embryo having started inside the iceline is composed essentially of a rocky core surrounded by a tiny gaseous envelope. The two outermost planets started their formation beyond the iceline and, as a consequence, accrete a substantial amount of water ice during their formation. We calculate the present day thermodynamical conditions inside these two latter planets and show that they are made of a rocky core surrounded by a shell of fluid water and a gaseous envelope.

  2. Protoplanetary Disks Including Radiative Feedback from Accreting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Matías; Cuadra, Jorge; Perez, Sebastian; Baruteau, Clément; Casassus, Simon

    2015-06-01

    While recent observational progress is converging on the detection of compact regions of thermal emission due to embedded protoplanets, further theoretical predictions are needed to understand the response of a protoplanetary disk to the radiative feedback from planet formation. This is particularly important to make predictions for the observability of circumplanetary regions. In this work we use 2D hydrodynamical simulations to examine the evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disk in which a luminous Jupiter-mass planet is embedded. We use an energy equation that includes the radiative heating of the planet as an additional mechanism for planet formation feedback. Several models are computed for planet luminosities ranging from 10?5 to 10?3 solar luminosities. We find that the planet radiative feedback enhances the disk’s accretion rate at the planet’s orbital radius, producing a hotter and more luminous environement around the planet, independently of the prescription used to model the disk’s turbulent viscosity. We also estimate the thermal signature of the planet feedback for our range of planet luminosities, finding that the emitted spectrum of a purely active disk, without passive heating, is appreciably modified in the infrared. We simulate the protoplanetary disk around HD 100546 where a planet companion is located at about 68 AU from the star. Assuming the planet mass is five Jupiter masses and its luminosity is ? 2.5× {10}-4 {L}? , we find that the radiative feedback of the planet increases the luminosity of its ?5 AU circumplanetary disk from {10}-5 {L}? (without feedback) to {10}-3 {L}? , corresponding to an emission of ? 1 {mJy} in the {L}\\prime band after radiative transfer calculations, a value that is in good agreement with HD 100546b observations.

  3. EVIDENCE FOR THE TIDAL DESTRUCTION OF HOT JUPITERS BY SUBGIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: kschlauf@mit.edu, E-mail: jwinn@mit.edu [Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Tidal transfer of angular momentum is expected to cause hot Jupiters to spiral into their host stars. Although the timescale for orbital decay is very uncertain, it should be faster for systems with larger and more evolved stars. Indeed, it is well established that hot Jupiters are found less frequently around subgiant stars than around main-sequence stars. However, the interpretation of this finding has been ambiguous, because the subgiants are also thought to be more massive than the F- and G-type stars that dominate the main-sequence sample. Consequently, it has been unclear whether the absence of hot Jupiters is due to tidal destruction or inhibited formation of those planets around massive stars. Here we show that the Galactic space motions of the planet-hosting subgiant stars demand that on average they be similar in mass to the planet-hosting main-sequence F- and G-type stars. Therefore the two samples are likely to differ only in age, and provide a glimpse of the same exoplanet population both before and after tidal evolution. As a result, the lack of hot Jupiters orbiting subgiants is clear evidence for their tidal destruction. Questions remain, though, about the interpretation of other reported differences between the planet populations around subgiants and main-sequence stars, such as their period and eccentricity distributions and overall occurrence rates.

  4. Maximum-likelihood method for estimating the mass and period distributions of extrasolar planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Tabachnik; Scott Tremaine

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of mass M and orbital period P of extrasolar planets, taking account of selection effects caused by the limited velocity precision and duration of existing surveys. We fit the data on 72 planets to a power-law distribution of the form dn=CM-alphaP-beta(dM\\/M)(dP\\/P), and find alpha= 0.11 +\\/- 0.10, beta=-0.27 +\\/- 0.06 for M<~ 10 MJ, where MJ

  5. Probabilistic Mass-Radius Relationship for Sub-Neptune-Sized Planets

    E-print Network

    Wolfgang, Angie; Ford, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of planets with radii $Neptunes and super-Earths. Planetary masses are an important physical property for these studies, and yet the vast majority of Kepler planet candidates do not have theirs measured. A key concern for these studies is therefore how to map the measured radii to mass estimates for this Earth-to-Neptune size range where there are no Solar System analogs. Previous works have derived deterministic, one-to-one relationships between radius and mass. However, if these planets span a range of compositions as expected, then an intrinsic scatter about this relationship must exist in the population. Here we present the first probabilistic mass-radius relationship (M-R relation) evaluated within a Bayesian framework, which both quantifies this intrinsic dispersion and the uncertainties on the M-R relation parameters. We analyze how the det...

  6. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XVII. Super-Earth and Neptune-mass planets in multiple planet systems HD47186 and HD181433

    E-print Network

    F. Bouchy; M. Mayor; C. Lovis; S. Udry; W. Benz; J-L Bertaux; X. Delfosse; C. Mordasini; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; D. Segransan

    2008-12-09

    This paper reports on the detection of two new multiple planet systems around solar-like stars HD47186 and HD181433. The first system includes a hot Neptune of 22.78 M_Earth at 4.08-days period and a Saturn of 0.35 M_Jup at 3.7-years period. The second system includes a Super-Earth of 7.5 M_Earth at 9.4-days period, a 0.64 M$_Jup at 2.6-years period as well as a third companion of 0.54 M_Jup with a period of about 6 years. These detections increase to 20 the number of close-in low-mass exoplanets (below 0.1 M_Jup) and strengthen the fact that 80% of these planets are in a multiple planetary systems.

  7. Planet Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juergen Giesen

    This Java applet calculates three views of the bright planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) and the Moon. It displays a diagram showing rise and set times over the year, a view at local horizon, and a view of the ecliptic plane.

  8. Did Fomalhaut, HR 8799, and HL Tauri Form Planets Via the Gravitational Instability? Placing Limits on the Required Disk Masses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Nero; J. E. Bjorkman

    2009-01-01

    Disk fragmentation resulting from the gravitational instability has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for forming giant planets. We use the planet Fomalhaut b, the triple-planetary system HR 8799, and the potential protoplanet associated with HL Tau to test the viability of this mechanism. We choose the above systems since they harbor planets with masses and orbital characteristics favored by

  9. Measuring Masses and Densities of Small Planets found by NASA's Kepler Spacecraft with Radial Velocity Measurements from Keck/HIRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Howard T.; Marcy, G.; Rowe, J.; Kepler Team

    2013-06-01

    We use the Keck telescope and HIRES spectrometer to measure the masses of Kepler planet candidates. Analysis of 22 Kepler-identified planetary systems, holding 42 transiting planets (candidates) and 8 newly discovered non-transiting planets are presented herein. Combining the planet radius measurements from Kepler with mass measurements from Keck, we constrain the bulk density of short period planets that range in size from 1.0 to 3.0 Earth radii. Extensive ground based observations made by the Kepler Follow-up Program (KFOP) have provided extensive details about each KOI. Reconnaissance spectroscopy was used to refine the stellar and planet properties of each KOI at an early stage. SME spectral analysis and asteroseismology, when available, are used to obtain the final stellar properties. Adaptive Optics and speckle imaging constrain the presence of background eclipsing binaries that could masquerade as transiting planets. By combining ground based follow-up observations with Kepler photometry, a false positive probability is calculated for each KOI. An MCMC analysis that combines both Kepler photometry and Keck radial velocity measurements determines the final orbital parameters and planet properties for each system. The resulting mass vs. radius diagram for the planets reveals that radii increase with mass monotonically, well represented by a power law for the smallest planets. This M-R relationship offers key insights about the internal composition of the planets and the division between rocky and gaseous planets.

  10. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    E-print Network

    Plávalová, E

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

  11. Predictions for the frequency and orbital radii of massive extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    Philip J. Armitage; Mario Livio; S. H. Lubow; J. E. Pringle

    2002-03-29

    We investigate the migration of massive extrasolar planets due to gravitational interaction with a viscous protoplanetary disc. We show that a model in which planets form at 5 AU at a constant rate, before migrating, leads to a predicted distribution of planets that is a steeply rising function of log (a), where a is the orbital radius. Between 1 AU and 3 AU, the expected number of planets per logarithmic interval in orbital radius roughly doubles. We demonstrate that, once selection effects are accounted for, this is consistent with current data, and then extrapolate the observed planet fraction to masses and radii that are inaccessible to current observations. In total, about 15 percent of stars targeted by existing radial velocity searches are predicted to possess planets with masses 0.3 M_Jupiter planets (around 5 percent of the target stars) lie at the radii most amenable to detection via microlensing. A further 5-10 percent of stars could have planets at radii of 5 AU planet does not occur. About 10-15 percent of systems with a surviving massive planet are estimated to fall into this class. Finally, we note that a smaller fraction of low mass planets than high mass planets is expected to survive without being consumed by the star. The initial mass function for planets is thus predicted to rise more steeply towards small masses than the observed mass function.

  12. Detection of a Neptune-Mass Planet in the rho1 Cancri System Using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. McArthur; Michael Endl; William D. Cochran; G. Fritz Benedict; Debra A. Fischer; Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Dominique Naef; Michel Mayor; Diedre Queloz; Stephane Udry; Thomas E. Harrison

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of the lowest mass extrasolar planet yet found around a Sun-like star-a planet with an Msini of only 14.21+\\/-2.91 M? in an extremely short period orbit (P=2.808 days) around rho1 Cancri, a planetary system that already has three known planets. Velocities taken from late 2003-2004 at McDonald Observatory with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope revealed this inner planet

  13. Chaotic capture of Jupiter's Trojan asteroids in the early SolarSystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Morbidelli; H. F. Levison; K. Tsiganis; R. Gomes

    2005-01-01

    Jupiter's Trojans are asteroids that follow essentially the same orbit as Jupiter, but lead or trail the planet by an angular distance of ~60 degrees (co-orbital motion). They are hypothesized to be planetesimals that formed near Jupiter and were captured onto their current orbits while Jupiter was growing, possibly with the help of gas drag and\\/or collisions. This idea, however,

  14. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ExtraSolar Planets #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. II Transits #12;Transits Transits requires an edge-on orbit. ·Jupiter;How Transits Work #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. III Astrometric Wobble #12;Finding Extrasolar

  15. Measurement of Planet Masses with Transit Timing Variations Due to Synodic “Chopping” Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. Here we show that synodic “chopping” contributions to these transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used to uniquely measure the masses of planets without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. We present simple analytic formulae for the chopping signal, which are valid (generally \\lt 10% error) for modest eccentricities e? 0.1. Importantly, these formulae primarily depend on the mass of the perturbing planet, and therefore the chopping signal can be used to break the mass/free-eccentricity degeneracy, which can appear for systems near first-order mean motion resonances. Using a harmonic analysis, we apply these TTV formulae to a number of Kepler systems, which had been previously modeled with full dynamical analyses. We show that when chopping is measured, the masses of both planets can be determined uniquely, in agreement with previous results, but without the need for numerical orbit integrations. This demonstrates how mass measurements from TTVs may primarily arise from an observable chopping signal. The formula for chopping can also be used to predict the number of transits and timing precision required for future observations, such as those made by TESS or PLATO, in order to infer planetary masses through analysis of TTVs.

  16. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars: Effective Temperatures, Metallicities, Masses and Radii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S. Muirhead; Katherine Hamren; Everett Schlawin; Barbara Rojas-Ayala; Kevin R. Covey; James P. Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    We report stellar parameters for low-mass planet-candidate host stars recently announced by the Kepler Mission. We obtained medium-resolution, K-band spectra of 84 low-mass Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). We identified one KOI as a giant; for the remaining dwarfs, we estimated effective temperatures by comparing measurements of K-band regions dominated by H2O opacity with predictions of synthetic spectra for low-mass

  17. Diffusive Migration of Low-Mass Proto-planets in Turbulent Disks

    E-print Network

    Eric T. Johnson; Jeremy Goodman; Kristen Menou

    2006-04-28

    Torque fluctuations due to magnetorotational turbulence in proto-planetary disks may greatly influence the migration patterns and survival probabilities of nascent planets. Provided that the turbulence is a stationary stochastic process with finite amplitude and correlation time, the resulting diffusive migration can be described with a Fokker-Planck equation, which we reduce to an advection-diffusion equation. We calibrate the coefficients with existing turbulent-disk simulations and mean-migration estimates, and solve the equation both analytically and numerically. Diffusion tends to dominate over advection for planets of low-mass and those in the outer regions of proto-planetary disks, whether they are described by the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) or by T-Tauri alpha disks. Diffusion systematically reduces the lifetime of most planets, yet it allows a declining fraction of them to survive for extended periods of time at large radii. Mean planet lifetimes can even be formally infinite (e.g. in an infinite steady MMSN), though median lifetimes are always finite. Surviving planets may linger near specific radii where the combined effects of advection and diffusion are minimized, or at large radii, depending on model specifics. The stochastic nature of migration in turbulent disks challenges deterministic planet formation scenarios and suggests instead that a wide variety of planetary outcomes are possible from similar initial conditions. This would contribute to the diversity of (extrasolar) planetary systems.

  18. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally, we considered planetary formation in highly inclined binary systems,

  19. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars

    E-print Network

    Leconte, Jérémy; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets' rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than 0.5-0.7Msun. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere.

  20. Reflected Spectra and Albedos of Extrasolar Giant Planets. I. Clear and Cloudy Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Marley; Christopher Gelino; Denise Stephens; Jonathan I. Lunine; Richard Freedman

    1999-01-01

    The reflected spectra of extrasolar giant planets are primarily influenced by Rayleigh scattering, molecular absorption, and atmospheric condensates. We present model geometric albedo and phase-integral spectra and Bond albedos for planets and brown dwarfs with masses between 0.8 and 70 Jupiter masses. Rayleigh scattering predominates in the blue while molecular absorption removes most red and infrared photons. Thus cloud-free atmospheres,

  1. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. VI. A Neptune-mass planet around the nearby M dwarf Gl 581

    E-print Network

    X. Bonfils; T. Forveille; X. Delfosse; S. Udry; M. Mayor; C. Perrier; F. Bouchy; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; J. -L. Bertaux

    2005-09-08

    We report the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet around Gl 581 (M3V, M = 0.31 Msol), based on precise Doppler measurements with the HARPS spectrograph at La Silla Observatory. The radial velocities reveal a circular orbit of period P = 5.366 days and semi-amplitude K1 = 13.2 m/s. The resulting minimum mass of the planet (m2 sin i) is only 0.052 Mjup = 0.97 Mnep = 16.6 Mearth making Gl 581b one of the lightest extra-solar planet known to date. The Gl 581 planetary system is only the third centered on an M dwarf, joining the Gl 876 three-planet system and the lone planet around Gl 436. Its discovery reinforces the emerging tendency of such planets to be of low mass, and found at short orbital periods. The statistical properties of the planets orbiting M dwarfs do not seem to match a simple mass scaling of their counterparts around solar-type stars.

  2. Super-massive planets around late-type stars—the case of OGLE-2012-BLG-0406Lb

    SciTech Connect

    Poleski, Rados?aw; Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Udalski, Andrzej; Szyma?ski, Micha? K.; Soszy?ski, Igor; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzy?ski, Grzegorz; Koz?owski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Pawe?; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Jan; Wyrzykowski, ?ukasz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Dong, Subo, E-mail: poleski@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Super-Jupiter-mass planets should form only beyond the snow line of host stars. However, the core accretion theory of planetary formation does not predict super-Jupiters forming around low-mass hosts. We present a discovery of a 3.9 ± 1.2 M {sub Jup} mass planet orbiting the 0.59 ± 0.17 M {sub ?} star using the gravitational microlensing method. During the event, the projected separation of the planet and the star is 3.9 ± 1.0 AU, i.e., the planet is significantly further from the host star than the snow line. This is the fourth such planet discovered using the microlensing technique and challenges the core accretion theory.

  3. A Neptune-Mass Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ 436

    E-print Network

    Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Debra A. Fischer; Jason T. Wright; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jack Lissauer

    2004-09-15

    We report precise Doppler measurements of GJ 436 (M2.5V) obtained at Keck Observatory. The velocities reveal a planetary companion with orbital period of 2.644 d, eccentricity of 0.12 (consistent with zero) and velocity semi-amplitude of $K =18.1$ \\ms. The minimum mass (\\msini) for the planet is 0.067 \\mjup = 1.2 M$_{\\rm NEP}$ = 21 M$_{\\rm EARTH}$, making it the lowest mass exoplanet yet found around a main sequence star and the first candidate in the Neptune mass domain. GJ 436 (Mass = 0.41 \\msune) is only the second M dwarf found to harbor a planet, joining the two--planet system around GJ 876. The low mass of the planet raises questions about its constitution, with possible compositions of primarily H and He gas, ice/rock, or rock--dominated. The implied semi--major axis is $a$ = 0.028 AU = 14 stellar radii, raising issues of planet formation, migration, and tidal coupling with the star. GJ 436 is $>3$ Gyr old, based on both kinematic and chromospheric diagnostics. The star exhibits no photometric variability on the 2.644-day Doppler period to a limiting amplitude of 0.0004 mag, supporting the planetary interpretation of the Doppler periodicity. Photometric transits of the planet across the star are ruled out for gas giant compositions and are also unlikely for solid compositions. As the third closest known planetary system, GJ 436 warrants follow--up observations by high resolution optical and IR

  4. Extrasolar planet taxonomy: a new statistical approach

    E-print Network

    Simone Marchi

    2007-05-07

    In this paper we present the guidelines for an extrasolar planet taxonomy. The discovery of an increasing number of extrasolar planets showing a vast variety of planetary parameters, like Keplerian orbital elements and environmental parameters, like stellar masses, spectral types, metallicity etc., prompts the development of a planetary taxonomy. In this work via principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering analysis, we report the definition of five robust groups of planets. We also discuss the physical relevance of such analysis, which may provide a valid basis for disentangling the role of the several physical parameters involved in the processes of planet formation and subsequent evolution. For instance, we were able to divide the hot Jupiters into two main groups on the basis of their stellar masses and metallicities. Moreover, for some groups, we find strong correlations between metallicity, semi-major axis and eccentricity. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Jupiter. [internal structure and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The physical structure of Jupiter is discussed on the basis of data obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11. It is argued that the elemental composition of Jupiter is similar to that of the sun, and it is shown that this argument is supported by measurements of the planet's density and H/He ratio. Jupiter's shape and gravitational field are described, and a model of the planet is proposed in which there are a small iron-silicate core at the center, a very thick liquid-hydrogen stratum divided into metallic (inner) and molecular (outer) layers, and a gaseous atmosphere. According to this model, the excess heat radiated by Jupiter is simply a remnant of the heat generated when the planet coalesced from the solar nebula. The appearance of the planetary disk is described together with the Jovian magnetic field, and the Great Red Spot is shown to be a cyclonic disturbance similar to a hurricane. Effects of the Galilean satellites on the magnetic field are considered.

  6. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Ciesla, Fred J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our Solar System. Here we suggest that the water content of primitive bodies in many planetary systems may actually be much higher, as carbonaceous chondrites have lost some of their original water due to heating from short-lived radioisotopes that drove parent body alteration. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of Habitable Zone planets and planetary system architecture which could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model predicted tren...

  7. HAT-P-44b, HAT-P-45b, AND HAT-P-46b: THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS IN POSSIBLE MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Hartman, J. D.

    We report the discovery by the HATNet survey of three new transiting extrasolar planets orbiting moderately bright (V = 13.2, 12.8, and 11.9) stars. The planets have orbital periods of 4.3012, 3.1290, and 4.4631 days, ...

  8. Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Measurements of the Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Niemann; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; R. E. Hartle; W. T. Kasprzak; P. R. Mahaffy; S. K. Atreya; G. R. Carignan; T. M. Donahue; D. M. Hunten; T. C. Owen; N. W. Spencer

    1996-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere was measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). This data was obtained on December 7, 1995 over a time period of approximately 1 hour during the probe descent in the 0.5 to 20 bar pressure region and transmitted to Earth over a period of several weeks. The sampling was either

  9. Detection of a NEPTUNE-mass planet in the $?^{1}$ Cancri system using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    E-print Network

    Barbara E. McArthur; Michael Endl; William D. Cochran; G. Fritz Benedict; Debra A. Fischer; Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Dominique Naef; Michel Mayor; Diedre Queloz; Stephane Udry; Thomas E. Harrison

    2004-08-31

    We report the detection of the lowest mass extra-solar planet yet found around a Sun-like star - a planet with an \\msini of only 14.21 $\\pm$ 2.91 Earth masses in an extremely short period orbit (P=2.808 days) around $\\rho^{1}$ Cancri, a planetary system which already has three known planets. Velocities taken from late 2003-2004 at McDonald Observatory with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) revealed this inner planet at 0.04 AU. We estimate an inclination of the outer planet $\\rho^{1}$ Cancri d, based upon {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) measurements. This inclination suggests an inner planet of only 17.7 $\\pm$ 5.57 Earth masses, if coplanarity is assumed for the system.

  10. Two Classes of Hot Jupiters

    E-print Network

    Brad M. S. Hansen; Travis Barman

    2007-06-20

    We identify two classes of transiting planet, based on their equilibrium temperatures and Safronov numbers. We examine various possible explanations for the dichotomy. It may reflect the influence of planet or planetesimal scattering in determining when planetary migration stops. Another possibility is that some planets lose more mass to evaporation than others. If this evaporation process preferentially removes Helium from the planet, the consequent reduction in the mean molecular weight may explain why some planets have anomalously large radii.

  11. Apparent Stellar Wobble by a Planet in a Circumstellar Disk: Limitations on Planet Detection by Astrometry

    E-print Network

    Taku Takeuchi; T. Velusamy; D. N. C. Lin

    2004-09-21

    Astrometric detection of a stellar wobble on the plane of the sky will provide us a next breakthrough in searching extrasolar planets. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is expected to achieve a high-precision astrometry as accurate as 1 micro-as, which is precise enough to discover a new-born Jupiter mass planet around a pre-main-sequence (PMS) star in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region. PMS stars, however, have circum-stellar disks that may be obstacles to the precise measurement of the stellar position. We present results on disk influences to the stellar wobble. The density waves excited by a planet move both of the disk's mass center and the photo-center. The motion of the disk mass center induces an additional wobble of the stellar position, and the motion of the disk photo-center causes a contamination in the measurement of the stellar position. We show that the additional stellar motion dynamically caused by the disk's gravity is always negligible, but that the contamination of the disk light can interfere with the precise measurement of the stellar position, if the planet's mass is smaller than ~10 Jupiter mass. The motion of the disk photo-center is sensitive to a slight change in the wave pattern and the disk properties. Measurements by interferometers are generally insensitive to extended sources such as disks. Because of this property SIM will not suffer significant contaminations of the disk light, even if the planet's mass is as small as 1 Jupiter mass.

  12. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  13. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J

    2001-01-30

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  14. PLANETS AROUND THE K-GIANTS BD+20 274 AND HD 219415

    SciTech Connect

    Gettel, S.; Wolszczan, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamow, M.; Zielinski, P.; Maciejewski, G., E-mail: sgettel@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: Andrzej.Niedzielski@astri.uni.torun.pl [Torun Center for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of planet-mass companions to two giant stars by the ongoing Penn State-Torun Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The less massive of these stars, K5-giant BD+20 274, has a 4.2 M{sub J} minimum mass planet orbiting the star at a 578 day period and a more distant, likely stellar-mass companion. The best currently available model of the planet orbiting the K0-giant HD 219415 points to a {approx}> Jupiter-mass companion in a 5.7 year, eccentric orbit around the star, making it the longest period planet yet detected by our survey. This planet has an amplitude of {approx}18 m s{sup -1}, comparable to the median radial velocity 'jitter', typical of giant stars.

  15. KEPLER PLANETS: A TALE OF EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, James E. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Wu, Yanqin, E-mail: jowen@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: wu@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ?0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R{sub ?}. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ?0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M{sub ?} and the majority of them should have core masses of a few Earth masses.

  16. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  17. A Neptune-Mass Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ 436

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Debra A. Fischer; Jason T. Wright; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jack J. Lissauer

    2004-01-01

    We report precise Doppler measurements of GJ 436 (M2.5 V) obtained at Keck Observatory. The velocities reveal a planetary companion with orbital period of 2.644 days, eccentricity of 0.12 (consistent with zero), and velocity semiamplitude of K=18.1 m s-1. The minimum mass (Msini) for the planet is 0.067MJup=1.2MNep=21MEarth, making it the lowest mass exoplanet yet found around a main-sequence star

  18. MIGRATION THEN ASSEMBLY: FORMATION OF NEPTUNE-MASS PLANETS INSIDE 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Murray, Norm, E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that the observed distribution of 'hot Neptune'/'super-Earth' systems is well reproduced by a model in which planet assembly occurs in situ, with no significant migration post-assembly. This is achieved only if the amount of mass in rocky material is {approx}50-100 M{sub Circled-Plus} interior to 1 AU. Such a reservoir of material implies that significant radial migration of solid material takes place, and that it occurs before the stage of final planet assembly. The model not only reproduces the general distribution of mass versus period but also the detailed statistics of multiple planet systems in the sample. We furthermore demonstrate that cores of this size are also likely to meet the criterion to gravitationally capture gas from the nebula, although accretion is rapidly limited by the opening of gaps in the gas disk. If the mass growth is limited by this tidal truncation, then the scenario sketched here naturally produces Neptune-mass objects with substantial components of both rock and gas, as is observed. The quantitative expectations of this scenario are that most planets in the 'hot Neptune/super-Earth' class inhabit multiple-planet systems, with characteristic orbital spacings. The model also provides a natural division into gas-rich (hot Neptune) and gas-poor (super-Earth) classes at fixed period. The dividing mass ranges from {approx}3 M{sub Circled-Plus} at 10 day orbital periods to {approx}10 M{sub Circled-Plus} at 100 day orbital periods. For orbital periods <10 days, the division is less clear because a gas atmosphere may be significantly eroded by stellar radiation.

  19. Small inner companions of warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and legacies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard, E-mail: cvl@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Science, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Although warm Jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm Jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm Jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm Jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm Jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm Jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exceeds that of stellar radiation for the inner planet, and may be great enough to affect the internal structure of warm Jupiters. Secular theory gives insight into the tidal processes, providing, among other things, a way to constrain eccentricities of transiting planets based on estimates of the tidal parameter Q.

  20. Jupiter's Main Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

    Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  1. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  2. Jupiter's Northern Auroral Oval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Auroral emissions are created when fast moving charged particles from the region around Jupiter strike the atoms and molecules of Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Such emission tends to be concentrated within two large ovals, one surrounding each magnetic pole. Although Jupiter's auroral ovals have been imaged before at far-ultraviolet and far-infrared wavelengths, this is the first image of a Jovian auroral oval taken at visible/near-infrared wavelengths (roughly 400 to 1100 nanometers).

    In particular, this image shows the equator most part of the northern auroral oval on Jupiter's nightside. The raw image has been map projected onto a grid of west longitudes and planetocentric latitudes, with north at the top. False color has been added to show the most intense emission as white.

    Although several rows of data are missing, one can see that: (i) in this wavelength range the northern oval is prominent and very intense; (ii) there are patchy auroral emissions both above and below the main oval; (iii) those patchy emissions tend to be brighter above the oval than below it. In all these regards this image is similar to images of the Jovian aurora taken at ultraviolet wavelengths, and to images of the Earth's aurora taken from space. The latter similarity is especially remarkable, given the large differences between Earth and Jupiter in their charged particle and magnetic environments.

    This image was taken at 6 hours 57 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 through the clear filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was then in Jupiter's shadow, and located about 2.3 million kilometers (about 32.5 Jovian radii) from the planet. The smallest discernible features in this image are about 45 kilometers across.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  3. Jupiter's Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow.

    A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended, toroidal 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces which can push small grains out of the ring plane. Halo material is present across this entire image, implying that it reaches more than 27,000 km above the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. In order to accentuate faint features in the image, different brightnesses are shown through color, with the brightest being white or yellow and the faintest purple.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  4. Journey to a Star Rich with Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Journey to a Star Rich with Planets

    This artist's animation takes us on a journey to 55 Cancri, a star with a family of five known planets - the most planets discovered so far around a star besides our own.

    The animation begins on Earth, with a view of the night sky and 55 Cancri (flashing dot), located 41 light-years away in the constellation Cancer. It then zooms through our solar system, passing our asteroids and planets, until finally arriving at the outskirts of 55 Cancri.

    The first planet to appear is the farthest out from the star -- a giant planet, probably made of gas, with a mass four times that of Jupiter. This planet orbits its star every 14 years, similar to Jupiter's 11.9-year orbit.

    As the movie continues, the three inner planets are shown, the closest of which is about 10 to 13 times the mass of Earth with an orbital period of less than three days.

    Zooming out, the animation highlights the newest member of the 55 Cancri family - a massive planet, likely made of gas, water and rock, about 45 times the mass of Earth and orbiting the star every 260 days. This planet is the fourth out from the star, and lies in the system's habitable zone (green). A habitable zone is the place around a star where liquid water would persist. Though the newest planet probably has a thick gaseous envelope, astronomers speculate that it could have one or more moons. In our own solar system, moons are common, so it seems likely that they also orbit planets in other solar systems. If such moons do exist, and if they are as large as Mars or Earth, astronomers speculate that they would retain atmospheres and surface liquid water that might make interesting environments for the development of life.

    The animation ends with a comparison between 55 Cancri and our solar system.

    The colors of the illustrated planets were chosen to resemble those of our own solar system. Astronomers do not know what the planets look like.

  5. La interacción planeta-estrella en estrellas con planetas de tipo ``Hot Jupiter''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, C. F.; Jofré, E.; Petrucci, R.; Chavero, C.; Gómez, M.

    In this contribution we investigate the planet-star interaction for a group of southern stars harboring ``Hot Jupiter'' planets. To this aim we obtained EBASIM (CASLEO) spectra of 12 stars with ``Hot Jupiter'' planets and for other two stars with no exoplanet detected by the Doppler technique. We determine the stellar parameters for these objects to compute synthetic spectra and to compare with the observed spectra. The matches for the stars with no detected planets are slightly better than for those with ``Hot Jupiter'' planets. The differences between the observed and theoretical spectra might be due to the influence of the planet on the host-star spectrum. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Searching for Planets Around other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this colloquim presentation, Professor of Astronomy, Geoffrey Marcy discusses the discovery of planets orbiting other stars. Using the Doppler shift caused by stellar wobble that is caused by nearby planetary mass, astronomers have been able to infer the existence of Jupiter-sized planets around other stars. Using a special spectrometer at Lick Observatory, the wobble of several stars have been traced over the years required to generate an accurate pattern required to infer the stellar wobble. Professor Marcy, discusses the findings of planets around 47 Ursae Majoris, 16 Cygni B, 51 Pegasus, and 56 Rho 1 Cne. In the case of 56 Rho 1 Cne the planet appears to be close to the star, within 1.5 astronomical units. The observations from the smaller Lick Observatory will be augmented by new observations from the larger telescope at the Kek observatory. This move will allow observations of smaller planets, as opposed to the massive planets thus far discovered. The astronomers also hope to observe smaller stars with the Kek data. Future spaceborne observations will allow the discovery of even smaller planets. A spaceborne interferometer is in the planning stages, and an even larger observatory, called the Terrestrial Planet Finder, is hoped for. Professor Marcy shows artists' renderings of two of the planets thus far discovered. He also briefly discusses planetary formation and shows slides of both observations from the Orion Nebula and models of stellar system formation.

  7. Arsine in Saturn and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Geballe, T. R.; Knacke, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    New spectra of Saturn and Jupiter are reported that show a prominent, heretofore unidentified absorption near 2126/cm. The observation is interpreted as unambiguous evidence for the presence of arsine, AsH3. The abundance of AsH3 appears to be almost a factor of two higher in Saturn than in Jupiter. The observed enrichments are consistent with the core instability model for the formation of giant planets. Models of arsenic chemistry that predict strong depletions of AsH3 at temperatures below 370 K are not consistent with the observations, suggesting that vertical convection or perhaps some other mechanism inhibits depletion. Arsenic is the first new element identified in a planetary atmosphere since germanium was found in Jupiter a decade ago.

  8. Time-dependent modelling of mass-loading, transport, chemistry and magnetic fields in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Radial profiles of plasma flux tube content are often modelled using diffusive plasma transport using an assumed source rate and diffusion coefficient. Such diffusive transport modelling can be combined with neutral-cloud theory to provide time-dependent chemistry in the plasma torus. Independently, and not necessarily self-consistently, the radial profile of the plasma azimuthal velocity can be calculated using the Hill-Pontius equation, for the mathematically separable case where the source and transport regions are spatially distinct. These steady state profiles can be imposed into a magnetospheric model to understand the resulting fields and currents. In a non-steady state where the plasma source rate is varying, and/or the outflowing plasma is not in equilibrium, these solutions do not apply. Hence, important questions concerning time-dependent variability in the jovian and saturnian magnetospheres cannot be adequately addressed using such models. In this paper we present a new approach where we solve the time-dependent equations for diffusive radial transport of both mass and angular momentum coupled with a neutral-plasma chemistry model, thus allowing for time-dependent plasma sources and the motion of radial structures produced by such time-dependence. These time-dependent solutions are coupled to an Euler potential magnetospheric model to calculate time-dependent magnetospheric configurations. We present our modelling methodology and the first results from this coupled model.

  9. ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND METAMORPHISM OF TIDALLY DISRUPTED GIANT PLANETS: THE ROLE OF DENSE CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, Douglas N. C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: liushangfei@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A large population of planetary candidates in short-period orbits have been found recently through transit searches, mostly with the Kepler mission. Radial velocity surveys have also revealed several Jupiter-mass planets with highly eccentric orbits. Measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that the orbital angular momentum vector of some planets is inclined relative to the spin axis of their host stars. This diversity could be induced by post-formation dynamical processes such as planet-planet scattering, the Kozai effect, or secular chaos which brings planets to the vicinity of their host stars. In this work, we propose a novel mechanism to form close-in super-Earths and Neptune-like planets through the tidal disruption of gas giant planets as a consequence of these dynamical processes. We model the core-envelope structure of gas giant planets with composite polytropes which characterize the distinct chemical composition of the core and envelope. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of close encounters between Jupiter-like planets and their host stars, we find that the presence of a core with a mass more than 10 times that of the Earth can significantly increase the fraction of envelope which remains bound to it. After the encounter, planets with cores are more likely to be retained by their host stars in contrast with previous studies which suggested that coreless planets are often ejected. As a substantial fraction of their gaseous envelopes is preferentially lost while the dense incompressible cores retain most of their original mass, the resulting metallicity of the surviving planets is increased. Our results suggest that some gas giant planets can be effectively transformed into either super-Earths or Neptune-like planets after multiple close stellar passages. Finally, we analyze the orbits and structure of known planets and Kepler candidates and find that our model is capable of producing some of the shortest-period objects.

  10. A Comparison of the Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-print Network

    Tristan Guillot

    1999-07-28

    Interior models of Jupiter and Saturn are calculated and compared in the framework of the three-layer assumption, which rely on the perception that both planets consist of three globally homogeneous regions: a dense core, a metallic hydrogen envelope, and a molecular hydrogen envelope. Within this framework, constraints on the core mass and abundance of heavy elements (i.e. elements other than hydrogen and helium) are given by accounting for uncertainties on the measured gravitational moments, surface temperature, surface helium abundance, and on the inferred protosolar helium abundance, equations of state, temperature profile and solid/differential interior rotation.

  11. On the Minimum Core Mass for Giant Planet Formation at Wide Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Youdin, Andrew N.

    2014-05-01

    In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M ?. The actual value depends on several factors: the location in the protoplanetary disk, atmospheric opacity, and the accretion rate of solids. Motivated by ongoing direct imaging searches for giant planets, this study investigates core mass requirements in the outer disk. To determine the fastest allowed rates of gas accretion, we consider solid cores that no longer accrete planetesimals, as this would heat the gaseous envelope. Our spherical, two-layer atmospheric cooling model includes an inner convective region and an outer radiative zone that matches onto the disk. We determine the minimum core mass for a giant planet to form within a typical disk lifetime of 3 Myr. The minimum core mass declines with disk radius, from ~8.5 M ? at 5 AU to ~3.5 M ? at 100 AU, with standard interstellar grain opacities. Lower temperatures in the outer disk explain this trend, while variations in disk density are less influential. At all distances, a lower dust opacity or higher mean molecular weight reduces the critical core mass. Our non-self-gravitating, analytic cooling model reveals that self-gravity significantly affects early atmospheric evolution, starting when the atmosphere is only ~10% as massive as the core.

  12. Optical Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Hubeny, Ivan; Sudarsky, David; Burrows, Adam

    2004-01-01

    The flux distribution of a planet relative to its host star is a critical quantity for planning space observatories to detect and characterize extrasolar giant planets (EGP's). In this paper, we present optical planet-star contrasts of Jupiter-mass planets as a function of stellar type, orbital distance, and planetary cloud characteristics. As originally shown by Sudarsky et al. (2000, 2003), the phaseaveraged brightness of an EGP does not necessarily decrease monotonically with greater orbital distance because of changes in its albedo and absorption spectrum at lower temperatures. We apply our results to Eclipse, a 1.8-m optical telescope + coronograph to be proposed as a NASA Discovery mission later this year.

  13. Significant Science at Jupiter Using Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitsema, H. J.; Smith, E. J.; Spilker, T.; Reinert, R.

    2001-01-01

    Missions to the Outer Planets are challenging for a number of reasons, primary of which is the low output of solar arrays at large heliocentric distances. The INSIDE Jupiter mission is a Discovery concept for a science investigation at Jupiter that is capable of producing major studies of the Jovian internal structure and ionospheric-magnetospheric coupling. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Jupiter - friend or foe? I: the asteroids

    E-print Network

    J. Horner; B. W. Jones

    2009-01-14

    The asteroids are the major source of potential impactors on the Earth today. It has long been assumed that the giant planet Jupiter acts as a shield, significantly lowering the impact rate on the Earth from both cometary and asteroidal bodies. Such shielding, it is claimed, enabled the development and evolution of life in a collisional environment which is not overly hostile. The reduced frequency of impacts, and of related mass extinctions, would have allowed life the time to thrive, where it would otherwise have been suppressed. However, in the past, little work has been carried out to examine the validity of this idea. In the first of several papers, we examine the degree to which the impact risk resulting from a population representative of the asteroids is enhanced or lessened by the presence of a giant planet, in an attempt to fully understand the impact regime under which life on Earth has developed. Our results show that the situation is far less clear cut that has previously been assumed - for example, the presence of a giant planet can act to enhance the impact rate of asteroids on the Earth significantly.

  15. Ten New and Updated Multi-planet Systems, and a Survey of Exoplanetary Systems

    E-print Network

    J. T. Wright; S. Upadhyay; G. W. Marcy; D. A. Fischer; Eric B. Ford; John Asher Johnson

    2009-03-02

    We present the latest velocities for 10 multi-planet systems, including a re-analysis of archival Keck and Lick data, resulting in improved velocities that supersede our previously published measurements. We derive updated orbital fits for ten Lick and Keck systems, including two systems (HD 11964, HD 183263) for which we provide confirmation of second planets only tentatively identified elsewhere, and two others (HD 187123, and HD 217107) for which we provide a major revision of the outer planet's orbit. We compile orbital elements from the literature to generate a catalog of the 28 published multiple-planet systems around stars within 200 pc. From this catalog we find several intriguing patterns emerging: - Including those systems with long-term radial velocity trends, at least 28% of known planetary systems appear to contain multiple planets. - Planets in multiple-planet systems have somewhat smaller eccentricities than single planets. - The distribution of orbital distances of planets in multi-planet systems and single planets are inconsistent: single-planet systems show a pile-up at P ~ 3 days and a jump near 1 AU, while multi-planet systems show a more uniform distribution in log-period. In addition, among all planetary systems we find: - There may be an emerging, positive correlation between stellar mass and giant-planet semi-major axis. - Exoplanets more massive than Jupiter have eccentricities broadly distributed across 0 < e < 0.5, while lower-mass exoplanets exhibit a distribution peaked near e = 0.

  16. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (?1 M {sub Jup}) around 122 newly identified nearby (?40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M {sub ?}) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M {sub Jup} at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M {sub Jup}; L0{sub ?1}{sup +2}; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64{sub ?23}{sup +30} M {sub Jup}; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M {sub Jup}; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M {sub Jup}; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M {sub Jup} planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M {sub Jup} range like those orbiting HR 8799 and ? Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M {sub Jup}) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub ?1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  17. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (gsim1 M Jup) around 122 newly identified nearby (lsim40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M ?) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M Jup at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M Jup; L0+2-1; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64+30-23 M Jup; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M Jup; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M Jup; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M Jup planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799 and ? Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M Jup) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8+2.4-1.5%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. This work was also based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  18. DID FOMALHAUT, HR 8799, AND HL TAURI FORM PLANETS VIA THE GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY? PLACING LIMITS ON THE REQUIRED DISK MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, D.; Bjorkman, J. E. [Ritter Observatory, MS 113, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States)], E-mail: dnero@physics.utoledo.edu

    2009-09-10

    Disk fragmentation resulting from the gravitational instability has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for forming giant planets. We use the planet Fomalhaut b, the triple-planetary system HR 8799, and the potential protoplanet associated with HL Tau to test the viability of this mechanism. We choose the above systems since they harbor planets with masses and orbital characteristics favored by the fragmentation mechanism. We do not claim that these planets must have formed as the result of fragmentation, rather the reverse: if planets can form from disk fragmentation, then these systems are consistent with what we should expect to see. We use the orbital characteristics of these recently discovered planets, along with a new technique to more accurately determine the disk cooling times, to place both lower and upper limits on the disk surface density-and thus mass-required to form these objects by disk fragmentation. Our cooling times are over an order of magnitude shorter than those of Rafikov, which makes disk fragmentation more feasible for these objects. We find that the required mass interior to the planet's orbital radius is {approx}0.1 M{sub sun} for Fomalhaut b, the protoplanet orbiting HL Tau, and the outermost planet of HR 8799. The two inner planets of HR 8799 probably could not have formed in situ by disk fragmentation.

  19. Examining the Relative Compositions of Giant Planets and their Parent Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Daniel; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Observational knowledge of the connection between giant planet compositions and their parent stars' metal abundances is limited. These planets appear consistently enriched, but the sample size is small -- only our solar system and a handful of transiting extrasolar planets. Understanding this relationship in uninflated planets could help in constraining the inflationary mechanism in hotter planets. Thus, we consider a population of nearly 40 transiting massive planets which have sufficiently low insolation that they are not inflated. Using thermal evolution models, we determine their bulk metallicity Z_planet from their mass, radius, and age. Comparing this against parent star metal enrichment Z_star, which we derive from the iron abundance [Fe/H], we note a number of patterns. We see a previously suggested minimum metal content at ~10 earth masses, as well as a strong negative negative correlation in enrichment (Z_planet / Z_star) against planet mass. This can be used to give constraints on planet formation and population synthesis models. This metal relative enrichment is even seen up to ~10 Jupiter masses, around the brown dwarf transition mass, which represents an observational difference between very massive planets and low-mass brown dwarfs.

  20. Photometric Follow-up Observations of the Transiting Neptune-Mass Planet GJ 436b

    E-print Network

    Avi Shporer; Tsevi Mazeh; Frederic Pont; Joshua N. Winn; Matthew J. Holman; David W. Latham; Gilbert A. Esquerdo

    2008-12-24

    This paper presents multi-band photometric follow-up observations of the Neptune-mass transiting planet GJ 436b, consisting of 5 new ground-based transit light curves obtained in May 2007. Together with one already published light curve we have at hand a total of 6 light curves, spanning 29 days. The analysis of the data yields an orbital period P = 2.64386+-0.00003 days, mid-transit time T_c [HJD] =2454235.8355+-0.0001, planet mass M_p = 23.1+-0.9 M_{\\earth} = 0.073+-0.003 M_{Jup}, planet radius R_p = 4.2+-0.2 R_{\\earth} = 0.37+-0.01 R_{Jup} and stellar radius R_s = 0.45+-0.02 R_{\\sun}. Our typical precision for the mid transit timing for each transit is about 30 seconds. We searched the data for a possible signature of a second planet in the system through transit timing variations (TTV) and variation of the impact parameter. The analysis could not rule out a small, of the order of a minute, TTV and a long-term modulation of the impact parameter, of the order of +0.2 year^{-1}.

  1. A FRAMEWORK FOR CHARACTERIZING THE ATMOSPHERES OF LOW-MASS LOW-DENSITY TRANSITING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mordasini, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA (United States); Greene, Thomas P.; Zahnle, Kevin, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We perform modeling investigations to aid in understanding the atmospheres and composition of small planets of ?2-4 Earth radii, which are now known to be common in our Galaxy. GJ 1214b is a well-studied example whose atmospheric transmission spectrum has been observed by many investigators. Here we take a step back from GJ 1214b to investigate the role that planetary mass, composition, and temperature play in impacting the transmission spectra of these low-mass low-density (LMLD) planets. Under the assumption that these planets accrete modest hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and planetesimals, we use population synthesis models to show that predicted metal enrichments of the H/He envelope are high, with metal mass fraction Z{sub env} values commonly 0.6-0.9, or ?100-400+ times solar. The high mean molecular weight of such atmospheres (? ? 5-12) would naturally help to flatten the transmission spectrum of most LMLD planets. The high metal abundance would also provide significant condensible material for cloud formation. It is known that the H/He abundance in Uranus and Neptune decreases with depth, and we show that atmospheric evaporation of LMLD planets could expose atmospheric layers with gradually higher Z{sub env}. However, values of Z{sub env} close to solar composition can also arise, so diversity should be expected. Photochemically produced hazes, potentially due to methane photolysis, are another possibility for obscuring transmission spectra. Such hazes may not form above T{sub eq} of ?800-1100 K, which is testable if such warm, otherwise low mean molecular weight atmospheres are stable against atmospheric evaporation. We find that available transmission data are consistent with relatively high mean molecular weight atmospheres for GJ 1214b and 'warm Neptune' GJ 436b. We examine future prospects for characterizing GJ 1214b with Hubble and the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. Effects of Helium Phase Separation on the Evolution of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Fortney; W. B. Hubbard

    2004-01-01

    We build on recent new evolutionary models of Jupiter and Saturn and here extend our calculations to investigate the evolution of extrasolar giant planets of mass 0.15MJ-3.0MJ. Our inhomogeneous thermal history models show that the possible phase separation of helium from liquid metallic hydrogen in the deep interiors of these planets can lead to luminosities ~2 times greater than have

  3. The Phase-Dependent Infrared Brightness of the Extrasolar Planet upsilo Andromedae b

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Harrington; Brad M. Hansen; Statia H. Luszcz; Sara Seager; Drake Deming; Kristen Menou; James Y.-K. Cho; L. Jeremy Richardson

    2006-01-01

    The star upsilo Andromedae is orbited by three known planets, the innermost of which has an orbital period of 4.617 days and a mass at least 0.69 that of Jupiter. This planet is close enough to its host star that the radiation it absorbs overwhelms its internal heat losses. Here, we present the 24-micrometer light curve of this system, obtained

  4. Making other earths: dynamical simulations of terrestrial planet formation and water delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean N. Raymond; Thomas R. Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

    2004-01-01

    We present results from 44 simulations of late stage planetary accretion, focusing on the delivery of volatiles (primarily water) to the terrestrial planets. Our simulations include both planetary “embryos” (defined as Moon to Mars sized protoplanets) and planetesimals, assuming that the embryos formed via oligarchic growth. We investigate volatile delivery as a function of Jupiter's mass, position and eccentricity, the

  5. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Cutts; C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton

    2008-01-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on

  6. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton; J. A. Cutts

    2008-01-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on

  7. OUTWARD MIGRATION OF JUPITER AND SATURN IN EVOLVED GASEOUS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gennaro [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Marzari, Francesco, E-mail: gennaro.dangelo@nasa.gov, E-mail: francesco.marzari@pd.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, Padova I-35131 (Italy)

    2012-09-20

    The outward migration of a pair of resonant-orbit planets, driven by tidal interactions with a gas-dominated disk, is studied in the context of evolved solar nebula models. The planets' masses, M{sub 1} and M{sub 2}, correspond to those of Jupiter and Saturn. Hydrodynamical calculations in two and three dimensions are used to quantify the migration rates and analyze the conditions under which the outward migration mechanism may operate. The planets are taken to be fully formed after 10{sup 6} and before 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} years. The orbital evolution of the planets in an evolving disk is then calculated until the disk's gas is completely dissipated. Orbital locking in the 3:2 mean motion resonance may lead to outward migration under appropriate conditions of disk viscosity and temperature. However, resonance locking does not necessarily result in outward migration. This is the case, for example, if convergent migration leads to locking in the 2:1 mean motion resonance, as post-formation disk conditions seem to suggest. Accretion of gas on the planets may deactivate the outward migration mechanism by raising the mass ratio M{sub 2}/M{sub 1} and/or by reducing the accretion rate toward the star, and hence depleting the inner disk. For migrating planets locked in the 3:2 mean motion resonance, there are stalling radii that depend on disk viscosity and on stellar irradiation, when it determines the disk's thermal balance. Planets locked in the 3:2 orbital resonance that start moving outward from within 1-2 AU may reach beyond Almost-Equal-To 5 AU only under favorable conditions. However, within the explored space of disk parameters, only a small fraction-less than a few percent-of the models predict that the interior planet reaches beyond Almost-Equal-To 4 AU.

  8. Gaia's potential for the discovery of circumbinary planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Martin, D. V.

    2015-02-01

    The abundance and properties of planets orbiting binary stars - circumbinary planets - are largely unknown because they are difficult to detect with currently available techniques. Results from the Kepler satellite and other studies indicate a minimum occurrence rate of circumbinary giant planets of ˜10 per cent, yet only a handful are presently known. Here, we study the potential of ESA's Gaia mission to discover and characterize extrasolar planets orbiting nearby binary stars by detecting the binary's periodic astrometric motion caused by the orbiting planet. We expect that Gaia will discover hundreds of giant planets around binaries with FGK-dwarf primaries within 200 pc of the Sun, if we assume that the giant planet mass distribution and abundance are similar around binaries and single stars. If on the other hand all circumbinary gas giants have masses lower than two Jupiter masses, we expect only four detections. Gaia is critically sensitive to the properties of giant circumbinary planets and will therefore make the detailed study of their population possible. Gaia's precision is such that the distribution in mutual inclination between the binary and planetary orbital planes will be obtained. It also possesses the capacity to establish the frequency of planets across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, both as a function of mass and of stellar evolutionary state from pre-main sequence to stellar remnants. Gaia's discoveries can reveal whether a second epoch of planetary formation occurs after the red giant phase.

  9. Massive planet migration: Theoretical predictions and comparison with observations

    E-print Network

    Philip J. Armitage

    2007-07-25

    We quantify the utility of large radial velocity surveys for constraining theoretical models of Type II migration and protoplanetary disk physics. We describe a theoretical model for the expected radial distribution of extrasolar planets that combines an analytic description of migration with an empirically calibrated disk model. The disk model includes viscous evolution and mass loss via photoevaporation. Comparing the predicted distribution to a uniformly selected subsample of planets from the Lick / Keck / AAT planet search programs, we find that a simple model in which planets form in the outer disk at a uniform rate, migrate inward according to a standard Type II prescription, and become stranded when the gas disk is dispersed, is consistent with the radial distribution of planets for orbital radii 0.1 AU < a < 2.5 AU and planet masses greater than 1.65 Jupiter masses. Some variant models are disfavored by existing data, but the significance is limited (~95%) due to the small sample of planets suitable for statistical analysis. We show that the favored model predicts that the planetary mass function should be almost independent of orbital radius at distances where migration dominates the massive planet population. We also study how the radial distribution of planets depends upon the adopted disk model. We find that the distribution can constrain not only changes in the power-law index of the disk viscosity, but also sharp jumps in the efficiency of angular momentum transport that might occur at small radii.

  10. Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Explorer in EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujimoto, Masaki; Takashima, Takeshi; Yano, Hajime; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Kimura, Jun; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mori, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is an international mission to explore and Jupiter, its satellites and magnetospheric environment in 2020s. EJSM consists of (1) The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, and (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). In February 2009, NASA and ESA decided to continue the study of EJSM as a candidate of the outer solar system mission. JMO will have magnetometers, low-energy plasma spectrometers, medium energy particle detectors, energetic particle detectors, electric field / plasma wave instruments, an ENA imager, an EUV spectrometer, and a dust detector. Collaborating with plasma instruments on board JEO and JGO, JMO will investigate the fast and huge rotating magnetosphere to clarify the energy procurement from Jovian rotation to the magnetosphere, to clarify the interaction between the solar wind the magnetosphere. Especially when JEO and JGO are orbiting around Europa and Ganymede, respectively, JMO will measure the outside condition in the Jovian magnetosphere. JMO will clarify the characteristics of the strongest accelerator in the solar system with the investigation of the role of Io as a source of heavy ions in the magnetosphere. JAXA started a study of a solar power sail for deep space explorations. Together with a solar sail (photon propulsion), it will have very efficient ion engines where electric power is produced solar panels within the sail. JAXA has already experienced ion engine in the successful Hayabusa mission, which was launched in 2003 and is still in operation in 2010. For the purpose of testing solar power sail technology, an engineering mission IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) will be launched in 2010 together with Venus Climate Orbiter PLANET-C. The shape of the IKAROS' membrane is square, with a diagonal distance of 20m. It is made of polyimide film only 0.0075mm thick. Currently we are studying a mission to Jupiter and one (or two) of Trojan asteroids using a large (100m-scale) solar power sail that can transfer large payload mass as far as Jupiter. Trojan asteroids are primitive bodies with information of the early solar system as well as raw solid materials of Jovian system. According to the mission plan, as the main spacecraft flies by Jupiter, it will deploy a JMO spinner around Jupiter. Proposed instruments on board Trojan spacecraft are cameras, IR spectrometers, XRS, a laser altimeter, and a surface vehicle (if rendezvous with the target is possible). An instrument for measuring cosmic background is also proposed. Currently JEO and JGO will be launched in 2020 and the Trojan spacecraft with JMO shall be launched at the same window. The mission (Trojan-JMO) will take 6 years to Jupiter and 5 years more to a Trojan asteroid around L4. The mission study team also includes J. Kawaguchi, Y. Kawakatsu, and M. Morimoto of JAXA.

  11. A sub-Saturn Mass Planet, MOA-2009-BLG-319Lb

    E-print Network

    Miyake, N; Dong, Subo; Street, R; Mancini, L; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Yee, J C; Albrow, M D; Bond, I A; Fouque, P; Browne, P; Han, C; Snodgrass, C; Finet, F; Furusawa, K; Harpsoe, K; Allen, W; Hundertmark, M; Freeman, M; Suzuki, D; Abe, F; Botzler, C S; Douchin, D; Fukui, A; Hayashi, F; Hearnshaw, J B; Hosaka, S; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Lin, W; Ling, C H; Makita, S; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagayama, T; Nishimoto, K; Ohnishi, K; Perrott, Y C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Bolt, G; Bos, M; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Drummond, J; Gal-Yam, A; Gaudi, B S; Gorbikov, E; Higgins, D; Janczak, K -H Hwang J; Kaspi, S; Lee, C -U; Koo, J -R; lowski, S Koz; Lee, Y; Mallia, F; Maury, A; Maoz, D; McCormick, J; Monard, L A G; Moorhouse, D; Mu~noz, J A; Natusch, T; Ofek, E O; Pogge, R W; Polishook, D; Santallo, R; Shporer, A; Spector, O; Thornley, G; Allan, A; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Kains, N; Steele, I; Bozza, V; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Dreizler, S; Glitrup, M; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Jorgensen, U G; Liebig, C; Maier, G; Mathiasen, M; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Wambsganss, J; Zimmer, F; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J P; Brillant, S; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Corrales, E; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S; Greenhill, J; Kubas, D; Menzies, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the gravitational microlensing discovery of a sub-Saturn mass planet, MOA-2009-BLG-319Lb, orbiting a K or M-dwarf star in the inner Galactic disk or Galactic bulge. The high cadence observations of the MOA-II survey discovered this microlensing event and enabled its identification as a high magnification event approximately 24 hours prior to peak magnification. As a result, the planetary signal at the peak of this light curve was observed by 20 different telescopes, which is the largest number of telescopes to contribute to a planetary discovery to date. The microlensing model for this event indicates a planet-star mass ratio of q = (3.95 +/- 0.02) x 10^{-4} and a separation of d = 0.97537 +/- 0.00007 in units of the Einstein radius. A Bayesian analysis based on the measured Einstein radius crossing time, t_E, and angular Einstein radius, \\theta_E, along with a standard Galactic model indicates a host star mass of M_L = 0.38^{+0.34}_{-0.18} M_{Sun} and a planet mass of M_p = 50^{+44}_{-24} M_{Earth}...

  12. The M Dwarf GJ 436 and its Neptune-Mass Planet

    E-print Network

    H. L. Maness; G. W. Marcy; E. B. Ford; P. H. Hauschildt; A. T. Shreve; G. B. Basri; R. P. Butler; S. S. Vogt

    2006-12-04

    We determine stellar parameters for the M dwarf GJ 436 that hosts a Neptune-mass planet. We employ primarily spectral modeling at low and high resolution, examining the agreement between model and observed optical spectra of five comparison stars of type, M0-M3. Modeling high resolution optical spectra suffers from uncertainties in TiO transitions, affecting the predicted strengths of both atomic and molecular lines in M dwarfs. The determination of Teff, gravity, and metallicity from optical spectra remains at ~10%. As molecules provide opacity both in lines and as an effective continuum, determing molecular transition parameters remains a challenge facing models such as the PHOENIX series, best verified with high resolution and spectrophotometric spectra. Our analysis of GJ 436 yields an effective temperature of Teff = 3350 +/- 300 K and a mass of 0.44 Msun. New Doppler measurements for GJ 436 with a precision of 3 m/s taken during 6 years improve the Keplerian model of the planet, giving a minimum mass, M sin i = 0.0713 Mjup = 22.6 Mearth, period, P = 2.6439 d, and e = 0.16 +/- 0.02. The noncircular orbit contrasts with the tidally circularized orbits of all close-in exoplanets, implying either ongoing pumping of eccentricity by a more distant companion, or a higher Q value for this low-mass planet. The velocities indeed reveal a long term trend, indicating a possible distant companion.

  13. Q2 Consider the motion of a satellite of mass m in orbit about a much more massive planet.

    E-print Network

    Ha, Taekjip

    Q2 Consider the motion of a satellite of mass m in orbit about a much more massive planet. a) Use changing its magnitude. As shown in the figure, this makes the satellite enter an elliptical orbit as that of the circular orbit. c) Find vperiapsis, the velocity of the satellite at closest approach to the planet. d

  14. HUBBLE PROVIDES COMPLETE VIEW OF JUPITER'S AURORAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras. Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval- shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights). The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind,' as Earth rotates underneath. Earth's auroras exhibit storms that extend to lower latitudes in response to solar activity, which can be easily seen from the northern U. S. But Jupiter's auroras are caused by particles spewed out by volcanoes on Io, one of Jupiter's moons. These charged particles are then magnetically trapped and begin to rotate with Jupiter, producing ovals of auroral light centered on Jupiter's magnetic poles in both the day and night skies. Scientists are comparing the Hubble telescope images with measurements taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft of Jupiter's magnetic field and co-rotating charged particles. They believe the data will help them understand the production of Jupiter's auroras. Both auroras clearly show vapor trails of light left by Io. These vapor trails are the white, comet-shaped streaks just outside both auroral ovals. These streaks are not part of the auroral ovals. They are caused when an invisible electrical current of charged particles (equal to about 1 million amperes), ejected from Io, flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines to the planets north and south magnetic poles. This enormous current produces a bright but localized aurora where it enters Jupiter's atmosphere at both magnetic poles. The brightest part of both emissions (on the left in both images) pinpoints where Io's magnetic field lines leave its footprint on the planet. The trail of light following both emissions extends to the right all the way to Jupiter's edge and represents the most sensitive detection of ultraviolet emissions from Jupiter to date. These emissions are related to magnetically trapped ions and electrons that are carried by Jupiter's magnetic field along Io's orbital path, and some of these charged particles continue to be driven down into Jupiter's atmosphere for several hours after Io has passed by. The images were taken Sept. 20, 1997. The artificial colors used here have been constructed by combining images taken in two different ultraviolet band passes, with one ultraviolet color presented as blue and the other as red. In this color representation, the planet's reflected sunlight appears brown, while the auroral emissions appear white or shades of blue or red. Credits: John Clarke (University of Michigan), and NASA Co-investigators: Joe Ajello, Kent Tobiska, and John Trauger (NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Gilda Ballester (University of Michigan) Lotfi Ben jaffel (IAP Paris) Jack Connerney (NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center) Jean-Claude Gerard (University of Liege, Belgium) Randy Glads

  15. AN ULTRACOOL STAR'S CANDIDATE PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdo, Steven H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 306-431, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shaklan, Stuart B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 301-451, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: spravdo@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: stuart.shaklan@jpl.nasa.gov

    2009-07-20

    We report here the discovery of the first planet around an ultracool dwarf star. It is also the first extrasolar giant planet astrometrically discovered around a main-sequence star. The statistical significance of the detection is shown in two ways. First, there is a 2 x 10{sup -8} probability that the astrometric motion fits a parallax-and-proper-motion-only model. Second, periodogram analysis shows a false alarm probability of 3 x 10{sup -5} that the discovered period is randomly generated. The planetary mass is M {sub 2} = 6.4 (+2.6,-3.1) Jupiter-masses (M {sub J}), and the orbital period is P = 0.744 (+0.013,-0.008) yr in the most likely model. In less likely models, companion masses that are higher than the 13 M {sub J} planetary mass limit are ruled out by past radial velocity (RV) measurements unless the system RV is more than twice the current upper limits and the near-periastron orbital phase was never observed. This new planetary system is remarkable, in part, because its star, VB 10, is near the lower mass limit for a star. Our astrometric observations provide a dynamical mass measurement and will in time allow us to confront the theoretical models of formation and evolution of such systems and their members. We thus add to the diversity of planetary systems and to the small number of known M-dwarf planets. Planets such as VB 10b could be the most numerous type of planets because M stars comprise >70% of all stars. To date they have remained hidden since the dominant RV planet-discovery technique is relatively insensitive to these dim, red systems.

  16. Recent Insights into the Intrinsic Magnetic Fields of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Russell, Christopher; Dougherty, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The gas giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, not only played important roles in the evolution of our solar system but also are representative of many exoplanets of this type. Many similarities are shared by these two planets. The major compositions of both planets are hydrogen and helium. In the atmosphere of both planets, helium mass ratios are found to be smaller than proto-solar value; most of the measured heavy elements, other than neon, are found to be enhanced compared to the proto-solar value. Both planets emit as much as twice the power they receive from the Sun respectively. Whether these two planets possess a central core and what is the mass and size of the core is still under debate given all the observational data. Both Jupiter and Saturn possess global-scale magnetic fields. Dynamo actions in the convecting metallic hydrogen layers are believed to be responsible for these observed magnetic fields. Measuring and characterizing magnetic fields can enhance our understandings of the interior structures and dynamics of the host planets. We will present our characterization of the intrinsic magnetic fields of both planets in terms of field strength, non-axisymmetry, secular variation, high-degree moments based on in-situ magnetic field measurements made by space missions (Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 and Galileo for Jupiter and Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 & 2 and Cassini for Saturn), traceable "ground" features - Auroral footprints of Io and Enceladus will also be considered. For Saturn, we find not only no evidence for any departure from axisymmetry but also that the magnetic flux inside Saturn is strongly concentrated near the spin-poles, in contrast to the well-defined polar field minima observed at the surface of the Earth's core and in geodynamo models. For Jupiter, the departure from axisymmetry is evident but currently available measurements cannot discern whether the magnetic fields at the polar regions of the dynamo surface are at maxima or minima. However, auroral features indeed indicate strong north-south asymmetries in Jupiter's surface magnetic field. Solid-body rotation of the dynamo region can be monitored by the tracing the non-axisymmetric magnetic fields and radio emissions of Jupiter. A similar procedure has not yielded unambiguous results for Saturn due to the extreme axisymmetry of the magnetic field. Large-scale circulation (e.g. differential rotation) at the surface of the dynamo region of Jupiter will produce magnetic signals expressed as secular variations. We seek to put upper-bounds on the velocity of large-scale circulation at the surface of the dynamo region of Jupiter by comparing forward modeling and magnetic field measurements made in the inner Jovian magnetosphere from different epochs. Helium re-distribution likely has occurred inside both Jupiter and Saturn, as a result of the crossing of the adiabats and hydrogen-helium immiscibility curve. The possible effects on dynamo action will also be discussed.

  17. Microlens masses from astrometry and parallax in space-based surveys: From planets to black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, Jennifer C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We show that space-based microlensing experiments can recover lens masses and distances for a large fraction of all events (those with individual photometric errors ? 0.01 mag) using a combination of one-dimensional microlens parallaxes and astrometric microlensing. This will provide a powerful probe of the mass distributions of planets, black holes, and neutron stars, the distribution of planets as a function of Galactic environment, and the velocity distributions of black holes and neutron stars. While systematics are in principle a significant concern, we show that it is possible to vet against all systematics (known and unknown) using single-epoch precursor observations with the Hubble Space Telescope roughly 10 years before the space mission.

  18. Microlens Masses from Astrometry and Parallax in Space-based Surveys: From Planets to Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Yee, Jennifer C.

    2014-03-01

    We show that space-based microlensing experiments can recover lens masses and distances for a large fraction of all events (those with individual photometric errors <~ 0.01 mag) using a combination of one-dimensional microlens parallaxes and astrometric microlensing. This will provide a powerful probe of the mass distributions of planets, black holes, and neutron stars, the distribution of planets as a function of Galactic environment, and the velocity distributions of black holes and neutron stars. While systematics are in principle a significant concern, we show that it is possible to vet against all systematics (known and unknown) using single-epoch precursor observations with the Hubble Space Telescope roughly 10 years before the space mission.

  19. Chemistry of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Sarah Elaine

    2008-02-01

    This thesis explores how the chemical environment in which planets develop influences planet formation. The total solid mass, gas/solid ratio, and specific ice inventory of protoplanetary disks can dramatically alter the planet's formation timescale, core/atmosphere mass ratio, and atmosphere composition. We present the results of three projects that probe the links between solar nebula composition and giant planet formation. The first project offers evidence that stars with planets exhibit statistically significant silicon and nickel enrichment over the general metal-rich population. To test whether this prediction is compatible with the core accretion theory of planet formation, we construct new numerical simulations of planet formation by core accretion that establish the timescale on which a planet forming at 5 AU reaches rapid gas accretion, t rga , as a function of solid surface density s solid : ( t rga /1 Myr) = (s solid /25.0 g cm -2 ) - 1.44 . This relation enables us to construct Monte Carlo simulations that predict the fraction of star-disk systems that form planets as a function of [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], disk mass, outer disk radius and disk lifetime. Our simulations reproduce both the known planet-metallicity correlation and the planet-silicon correlation reported in this paper. The simulations predict that 15% of Solar-type stars form Jupiter-mass planets, in agreement with 12% predicted from extrapolation of the observed planet frequency-semimajor axis distribution. Despite the success of our Monte Carlo simulation of the planet-silicon correlation at predicting the properties of extrasolar Jovian planets, there is still no in situ core accretion simulation that can successfully account for the formation of Saturn, Uranus or Neptune within the observed 2-3 Myr lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. Since solid accretion rate is directly proportional to the available planetesimal surface density, one way to speed up planet formation is to take a full inventory of all the solids present in the solar nebula. In Project 2 (Chapter 3) we combine a viscously evolving protostellar disk with a kinetic model of ice formation, which includes not just water but methane, ammonia, CO and 54 minor ices. We use this combined dynamical+chemical simulation to calculate the planetesimal composition and solid surface density in the solar nebula as a function of heliocentric distance and time. We find three effects that strongly favor giant planet formation: (1) a decretion flow that brings mass from the inner solar nebula to the giant planet-forming region, (2) recent lab results (Collings et al. 2004) showing that the ammonia and water ice lines should coincide, and (3) the presence of a substantial amount of methane ice in the trans-Saturnian region. Our results show higher solid surface densities than assumed in the core accretion models of Pollack et al. (1996) by a factor of 3-4 throughout the trans-Saturnian region. We also discuss the location of ice lines and their movement through the solar nebula, and provide new constraints on the possible initial disk configurations from gravitational stability arguments. Finally, we present a core accretion simulation of Saturn with a planet formation timescale of 3.37 Myr, consistent with observed protostellar disk lifetimes. The protostellar disk model underlying this simulation is also capable of forming Jupiter within 2.5 Myr. We observe a new manifestation of the core accretion theory, in which Saturn's solid core does not reach isolation mass, and argue that this paradigm should apply to Uranus and Neptune as well. The planet formation timescale is then governed primarily by the solid accretion rate instead of the gas contraction efficiency. Our model predicts a core mass of 44 M (+) for Saturn, heavier than inferred from observations by a factor of at least 2. We discuss possible mechanisms for reducing the core size without slowing down formation and comment on the similarity between our core- heavy Saturn model and the exoplanet HD 149026 b .

  20. Extrasolar Planet Transit Light Curves and a Method to Select the Best Planet Candidates for Mass Follow-up

    E-print Network

    S. Seager; G. Mallen-Ornelas

    2002-10-02

    A unique analytical solution of planet and star parameters can be derived from an extrasolar planet transit light curve under a number of assumptions. This analytical solution can be used to choose the best planet transit candidates for radial velocity follow-up measurements, with or without a known spectral type. In practice, high photometric precision (< 0.005 mag) and high time sampling (< 5 minutes) are needed for this method. See Seager & Mallen-Ornelas (2002) for full details.

  1. Embryo impacts and gas giant mergers II: Diversity of Hot Jupiters' internal structure

    E-print Network

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, D N C; Li, Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the origin of compact, short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We propose that their diverse structure is caused by giant impacts of embryos and super-Earths or mergers with other gas giants during the formation and evolution of these hot Jupiters. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that typical head-on collisions generally lead to total coalescence of impinging gas giants. Although extremely energetic collisions can disintegrate the envelope of gas giants, these events seldom occur. During oblique and moderately energetic collisions, the merger products retain higher fraction of the colliders' cores than their envelopes. They can also deposit considerable amount of spin angular momentum to the gas giants and desynchronize their spins from their orbital mean motion. We find that the oblateness of gas giants can be used to infer the impact history. Subsequent dissipation of stellar tide inside the planets' envelope can lead to runaway inflation and potentially a substantial loss of gas ...

  2. Seven transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b and WASP-67b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3-12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range of 3.9-4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4 to 2.3 MJup and the radii from 1.1 to 1.4 RJup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (? = 0.13-1.07?Jup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investigate the distribution of their orbital periods and the 3-4 d 'pile-up'.

  3. A Sub-Saturn Mass Planet, MOA2009-BLG-319Lb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Miyake; T. Sumi; Subo Dong; L. Mancini; A. Gould; D. P. Bennett; Y. Tsapras; J. C. Yee; M. D. Albrow; I. A. Bond; P. Fouqué; P. Browne; C. Han; C. Snodgrass; F. Finet; K. Furusawa; K. Harpsøe; W. Allen; M. Hundertmark; M. Freeman; D. Suzuki; F. Abe; C. S. Botzler; D. Douchin; A. Fukui; F. Hayashi; J. B. Hearnshaw; S. Hosaka; Y. Itow; K. Kamiya; P. M. Kilmartin; A. Korpela; W. Lin; C. H. Ling; S. Makita; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; Y. Muraki; T. Nagayama; K. Nishimoto; K. Ohnishi; Y. C. Perrott; N. Rattenbury; To. Saito; L. Skuljan; D. J. Sullivan; W. L. Sweatman; P. J. Tristram; K. Wada; P. C. M. Yock; G. Bolt; M. Bos; G. W. Christie; D. L. DePoy; J. Drummond; A. Gal-Yam; B. S. Gaudi; E. Gorbikov; D. Higgins; K.-H. Hwang; J. Janczak; S. Kaspi; C.-U. Lee; J.-R. Koo; S. Kozlowski; Y. Lee; F. Mallia; A. Maury; D. Maoz; J. McCormick; L. A. G. Monard; D. Moorhouse; J. A. Muñoz; T. Natusch; E. O. Ofek; R. W. Pogge; D. Polishook; R. Santallo; A. Shporer; O. Spector; G. Thornley; A. Allan; D. M. Bramich; K. Horne; N. Kains; I. Steele; V. Bozza; M. J. Burgdorf; S. Calchi Novati; M. Dominik; S. Dreizler; M. Glitrup; F. V. Hessman; T. C. Hinse; U. G. Jørgensen; C. Liebig; G. Maier; M. Mathiasen; S. Rahvar; D. Ricci; G. Scarpetta; J. Skottfelt; J. Southworth; J. Surdej; J. Wambsganss; F. Zimmer; V. Batista; J. P. Beaulieu; S. Brillant; A. Cassan; A. Cole; E. Corrales; Ch. Coutures; S. Dieters; J. Greenhill; D. Kubas; J. Menzies

    2011-01-01

    We report the gravitational microlensing discovery of a sub-Saturn mass planet, MOA-2009-BLG-319Lb, orbiting a K- or M-dwarf star in the inner Galactic disk or Galactic bulge. The high-cadence observations of the MOA-II survey discovered this microlensing event and enabled its identification as a high-magnification event approximately 24 hr prior to peak magnification. As a result, the planetary signal at the

  4. FIRST MICROLENS MASS MEASUREMENT: PLANET PHOTOMETRY OF EROS BLG-2000-5 Jin H. An,1

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    FIRST MICROLENS MASS MEASUREMENT: PLANET PHOTOMETRY OF EROS BLG-2000-5 Jin H. An,1 M. D. Albrow,2,3 J.-P. Beaulieu,4 J. A. R. Caldwell,5 D. L. DePoy,1 M. Dominik,6 B. S. Gaudi,7,8 A. Gould,1 J-crossing binary lens microlensing event, EROS BLG-2000-5, and find that modeling the observed light curve requires

  5. An Equation of State for Low-Mass Stars and Giant Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Saumon; G. Chabrier; H. M. van Horn

    1995-01-01

    We present new equations of state (EOS) for hydrogen and helium, intended for applications to low-mass stars (M < 1 Msun), brown dwarfs, and giant planets. They cover the range 2.10

  6. Jupiter Stratospheric Haze Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These two views of Jupiter obtained by the imaging system aboard the Galileo spacecraft show evidence of strikingly different stratospheric hazes between the polar regions and low or mid latitudes. The Great Red Spot shows in one mosaic, centered at about 20 degrees South latitude and taken on June 26, 1996 at a range of 1.46 million kilometers. The other mosaic is centered near 50 degrees North latitude, and was taken on November 4, 1996 at a range of 1.60 million kilometers.

    North is at the top in both images. In the Red Spot image, the edge of the planet (limb) runs in a single arc from lower left to upper right, with dark space at lower right. In the polar image, the limb runs in two segments across the top right corner, with dark space at top right. Both images are mosaics; the offset of the individual frames of the mosaic produces the jagged border and the break in the polar limb.

    These are false color images, constructed specifically to reveal cloud elevation differences. Three color channels are used. The red channel is an image taken at a near infrared wavelength where methane in Jupiter's atmosphere is strongly absorbing, and therefore gives no information about deep clouds but reveals high clouds. The green channel is a weaker methane band, and the blue channel is assigned to a wavelength where Jupiter's atmosphere is transparent. Thus red features indicate high hazes. A view near the edge of the planet accentuates the high hazes because of the slanting path of the line of sight.

    The pronounced reddening near the edge of the planet in polar regions indicates a high stratospheric haze. Comparison with the Great Red Spot shows that such a high haze is absent at that latitude. Detailed analysis shows that a stratospheric haze exists at both latitudes but is approximately 50 km higher near the poles. It is likely that the high polar haze is produced by magnetospheric particles, which travel along magnetic field lines and bombard the upper atmosphere in polar regions. The low and mid latitude stratospheric haze are likely caused instead by photochemical reactions.

    The Galileo mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Embryo impacts and gas giant mergers - II. Diversity of hot Jupiters' internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.; Li, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    We consider the origin of compact, short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We propose that their diverse structure is caused by giant impacts of embryos and super-Earths or mergers with other gas giants during the formation and evolution of these hot Jupiters. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that typical head-on collisions generally lead to total coalescence of impinging gas giants. Although extremely energetic collisions can disintegrate the envelope of gas giants, these events seldom occur. During oblique and moderately energetic collisions, the merger products retain higher fraction of the colliders' cores than their envelopes. They can also deposit considerable amount of spin angular momentum to the gas giants and desynchronize their spins from their orbital mean motion. We find that the oblateness of gas giants can be used to infer the impact history. Subsequent dissipation of stellar tide inside the planets' envelope can lead to runaway inflation and potentially a substantial loss of gas through Roche lobe overflow. The impact of super-Earths on parabolic orbits can also enlarge gas giant planets' envelope and elevates their tidal dissipation rate over ˜100 Myr time scale. Since giant impacts occur stochastically with a range of impactor sizes and energies, their diverse outcomes may account for the dispersion in the mass-radius relationship of hot Jupiters.

  8. Precise Radial Velocities of Giant Stars VII. Occurrence Rate of Giant Extrasolar Planets as a Function of Mass and Metallicity

    E-print Network

    Reffert, Sabine; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Trifonov, Trifon; Künstler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) We have obtained precise radial velocities for a sample of 373 G and K type giants at Lick Observatory regularly over more than 12 years. Planets have been identified around 15 giant stars; an additional 20 giant stars host planet candidates. We investigate the occurrence rate of substellar companions around giant stars as a function of stellar mass and metallicity. We probe the stellar mass range from about 1 to beyond 3 M_Sun, which is not being explored by main-sequence samples. We fit the giant planet occurrence rate as a function of stellar mass and metallicity with a Gaussian and an exponential distribution, respectively. We find strong evidence for a planet-metallicity correlation among the secure planet hosts of our giant star sample, in agreement with the one for main-sequence stars. However, the planet-metallicity correlation is absent for our sample of planet candidates, raising the suspicion that a good fraction of them might indeed not be planets. Consistent with the results obtained b...

  9. Jupiters radiation belts and their effects on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.; Divita, E. L.; Gigas, G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of electron and proton radiation on spacecraft which will operate in the trapped radiation belts of the planet Jupiter are described, and the techniques and results of the testing and simulation used in the radiation effects program are discussed. Available data from the Pioneer 10 encounter of Jupiter are compared with pre-encounter models of the Jupiter radiation belts. The implications that the measured Jovian radiation belts have for future missions are considered.

  10. Discovery of a Probable 4-5 Jupiter-mass Exoplanet to HD 95086 by Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Delorme, P.; Desidera, S.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Dumas, C.; Bonavita, M.

    2013-08-01

    Direct imaging has only begun to inventory the population of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars in the solar neighborhood. Following this approach, we carried out a deep imaging survey in the near-infrared using VLT/NaCo to search for substellar companions. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion orbiting the young (10-17 Myr), dusty, early-type (A8) star HD 95086 at 56 AU in L' (3.8 ?m) images. This discovery is based on observations with more than a year time lapse. Our first epoch clearly revealed the source at ~= 10?, while our second epoch lacks good observing conditions, yielding a ~= 3? detection. Various tests were thus made to rule out possible artifacts. This recovery is consistent with the signal at the first epoch but requires cleaner confirmation. Nevertheless, our astrometric precision suggests that the companion is comoving with the star with a 3? confidence level. The planetary nature of the source is reinforced by a non-detection in the Ks-band (2.18 ?m) images according to its possible extremely red Ks-L' color. Conversely, background contamination is rejected with good confidence level. The luminosity yields a predicted mass of about 4-5 M Jup (at 10-17 Myr) using "hot-start" evolutionary models, making HD 95086 b the exoplanet with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under program Nos. 087.C-0292, 088.C.0085, 090.C-0538, 090.C-0698, and 090.C-0728.

  11. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie Blowup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Persistent polar storms and zonal winds on Jupiter can be seen in this magnified quadrant from a movie projecting images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    Like the accompanying full-circle movie of polar winds, this zoomed-inversion shows that the polar region has coherent flows, despite its chaotic, mottled appearance. There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar in size to the largest storms on Earth. The spots occasionally change latitude or merge with each other, but usually they last for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of those storms was unknown.

    The mystery of Jupiter's weather is why the storms last so long. Storms on Earth last for a week before they break up and are replaced by other storms. This movie heightens the mystery because it shows long-lived storms at the highest latitudes, where the weather patterns are more disorganized than at low latitudes.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six images or more of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. Images from each rotation were assembled first into a cylindrical map. The 84 resulting cylindrical maps, spanning 70 Earth days or 168 Jupiter rotations, were transformed to polar stereographic projections, making a map centered on the north pole. This clip shows detail by zooming in on one quadrant of the full-circle polar projection. Jupiter's alternating eastward and westward jet streams flow in concentric rings around the pole.

    For more information, see the Cassini Project home page, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/cassini/ and the Cassini Imaging Team home page, http://ciclops.lpl.arizona.edu/ciclops/ .

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. Time for Gas Planets to Grow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Giant planets like Jupiter need a large reservoir of gas to grow to full size. New observations indicate that such planetary nurseries last twice as long as previously thought. These observations, and their implications for the abundance of Jupiter-like planets within our galaxy, are discussed herein.

  13. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Larsen

    2008-11-25

    In this project you will be the creator of a new planet in our solar system. You will be free to decide all of the characteristics of your planet. Look at the different websites below to find out more about the planets in our solar system and then decide what characteristics your planet will have. PLANET PICTURES AND FACTS I I I I I V Mercury Facts Venus Facts Earth Facts Mars Facts Jupiter Facts Saturn Facts Uranus Facts Neptune Facts PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Your planet must have one moon or more. You must decide how long it takes your planet to rotate (length of a day on your planet). You must decide how long it takes your planet to ...

  14. Planetary protection for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gershman; C. Kohlhase; R. Koukol

    2004-01-01

    NASA is developing plans for an ambitious mission to orbit three planet-sized moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede and Europa -- which may harbor vast oceans beneath their icy surfaces. The mission, called the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would orbit each of these moons for extensive investigations of their makeup, their history and their potential for sustaining life. JIMO

  15. An Independent Planet Search In The Kepler Dataset. II. An extremely low-density super-Earth mass planet around Kepler-87

    E-print Network

    Ofir, Aviv; Zechmeister, Mathias; Husser, Tim-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    [ABRIDGED]: Aims: two candidates in the KOI 1574 system are relatively long-period (about 114d and 191d) and in 5:3 resonance. We therefore search for TTVs in this particularly promising system. Methods: The full Kepler data was used, allowing to search for TTVs as well as for additional transit-like signals. Results: We detect strong anti-correlated TTVs of the 114d and 191d signals, dynamically confirming them as members of the same system. Dynamical simulations reproducing the observed TTVs allow us to also determine the masses of the planets. KOI 1574.01 (hereafter Kepler-87 b) was found to have a radius of 13.49 +/- 0.55 R_earth and a mass of 324.2 +/- 8.8M_earth, and KOI 1574.02 (Kepler-87 c) was found to have a radius of 6.14 +/- 0.29R_earth and a mass of 6.4 +/- 0.8M_earth. Both planets have low densities of 0.729 and 0.152 g cm^-3, respectively, which is non-trivial for such cold and old (7-8 Gyr) planets. Specifically, Kepler-87 c is the lowest- density planet in the super-Earth mass range. Both pla...

  16. X-MIME: An imaging x-ray spectrometer for detailed study of Jupiter's icy moons and the planet's x-ray aurora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Elsner; B. D. Ramsey; J. H. Waite; P. Rehak; R. E. Johnson; J. F. Cooper; D. A. Swartz

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and

  17. A Survey for Massive Giant Planets in Debris Disks with Evacuated Inner Cavities

    E-print Network

    D. Apai; M. Janson; A. Moro-Martin; M. R. Meyer; E. E. Mamajek; E. Masciadri; Th. Henning; I. Pascucci; J. S. Kim; L. A. Hillenbrand; M. Kasper; B. Biller

    2007-10-01

    The commonality of collisionally replenished debris around main sequence stars suggests that minor bodies are frequent around Sun-like stars. Whether or not debris disks in general are accompanied by planets is yet unknown, but debris disks with large inner cavities - perhaps dynamically cleared - are considered to be prime candidates for hosting large-separation massive giant planets. We present here a high-contrast VLT/NACO angular differential imaging survey for eight such cold debris disks. We investigated the presence of massive giant planets in the range of orbital radii where the inner edge of the dust debris is expected. Our observations are sensitive to planets and brown dwarfs with masses >3 to 7 Jupiter mass, depending on the age and distance of the target star. Our observations did not identify any planet candidates. We compare the derived planet mass upper limits to the minimum planet mass required to dynamically clear the inner disks. While we cannot exclude that single giant planets are responsible for clearing out the inner debris disks, our observations constrain the parameter space available for such planets. The non-detection of massive planets in these evacuated debris disks further reinforces the notion that the giant planet population is confined to the inner disk (<15 AU).

  18. Jupiter's Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is one of the highest resolution images ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the sixth of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date. This map, shown in the lower panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere where winds are strong. The map is based on measurements from the PPR's 27-micron wavelength channel. A ground-based image from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii, showing thermal emission from holes in clouds at 4.85 microns, is shown in the middle panel for reference, with the outline of the area covered by the PPR. The upper panel shows the area covered by the Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) also during the sixth orbit.

    Galileo's observations of the atmosphere targeted specific Jovian features, including the Great Red Spot and similar, but smaller, 'storms

  19. ESTIMATES OF THE PLANET YIELD FROM GROUND-BASED HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OBSERVATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: jcrepp@astro.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, {beta} Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether multiple formation mechanisms are at work. Upon relaxing our assumption that planets in ultra-wide (a > 100 AU) orbits resemble the RV sample, our simulations suggest that the companions found orbiting late-type stars (AB Pic, 1RXSJ1609, GSC 06214, etc.) are consistent with a formation channel distinct from that of RV planets. These calculations explain why planets have thus far been imaged preferentially around A-stars and K-, M-stars, but no spectral types in between, despite concerted efforts targeting F-, G-stars.

  20. Rendezvous, Landing and Sample Return Mission to Jupiter Trojans by the Solar Power Sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Matsuura, Shuji; Mori, Osamu; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Sekine, Yasuhito; Abe, Shinsuke

    JAXA/ISAS has been preparing for the Solar Power Sail mission, Japan’s first outer planet region exploration. Its precursor was successfully realized by IKAROS, the world's first deep space solar sail spacecraft, in 2010 between the Earth and Venus orbits. The Solar Power Sail is defined primarily as a technology demonstration mission; yet it will also present game-changing opportunities for both space astronomy and solar system exploration. The former will benefit the cruising operation, which will enable ”dust free” infrared astronomy beyond the cocoon of the zodiacal light to search for the first generation light of the Universe. Interplanetary-long baseline will allow gamma-ray burst observation to identify their source locations much more precise than ever. As for solar system exploration, the Solar Power Sail, which is not depended upon RTG technology, will offer the world's first possibility of rendezvous, landing and sample return from the outer planet region, i.e., in the Jupiter region and beyond. With this technology, we are aiming to visit Jupiter Trojan asteroids, one of the last uncharted frontiers of the Solar System. Jupiter Trojans may hold fundamental clues of the Solar System formation and revolution discussed by two competing hypotheses between the classic model and the planetary migration model. The former suggests that Trojan asteroids are mainly survivors of building blocks of the Jupiter system, while the latter claims that they must be intruders from outer regions after the planetary migration of gas planets settled. This paper outlines scientific objectives of Jupiter Trojan exploration, its mission design and major aspects of the spacecraft system, nature of candidate target asteroids, in-situ observation and lander instruments including optical camera, imaging spectrometer, high-resolution TOF mass spectrometer, and large-area dust counter, together with a strategy of the sample return option from the surface of a Trojan asteroid.

  1. A 4-Planet System Orbiting the K0V Star HD 141399

    E-print Network

    Vogt, Steven S; Rivera, Eugenio J; Kibrick, Robert; Burt, Jennifer; Hanson, Russell; Meschiari, Stefano; Henry, Gregory W; Laughlin, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We present precision radial velocity (RV) data sets from Keck-HIRES and from Lick Observatory's new Automated Planet Finder Telescope and Levy Spectrometer on Mt. Hamilton that reveal a multiple-planet system orbiting the nearby, slightly evolved, K-type star HD 141399. Our 91 observations over 10.5 years suggest the presence of four planets with orbital periods of 94.35, 202.08, 1070.35, and 3717.35 days and minimum masses of 0.46, 1.36, 1.22, and 0.69 Jupiter masses respectively. The orbital eccentricities of the three inner planets are small, and the phase curves are well sampled. The inner two planets lie just outside the 2:1 resonance, suggesting that the system may have experienced dissipative evolution during the protoplanetary disk phase. The fourth companion is a Jupiter-like planet with a Jupiter-like orbital period. Its orbital eccentricity is consistent with zero, but more data will be required for an accurate eccentricity determination.

  2. Migration of massive planets in accreting disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürmann, C.; Kley, W.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: Massive planets that open a gap in the accretion disk are believed to migrate with exactly the viscous speed of the disk, a regime termed type II migration. Population synthesis models indicate that standard type II migration is too rapid to be in agreement with the observations. We study the migration of massive planets between 2 × 10-4 and 2 × 10-3 M?, corresponding to 0.2 to 2 Jupiter masses MJ to estimate the migration rate in comparison to type II migration. Methods: We follow the evolution of planets embedded in two-dimensional, locally isothermal disks with non-zero mass accretion, which is explicitly modelled using suitable in- and outflow boundary conditions to ensure a specific accretion rate. After a certain relaxation time we release the planet and measure its migration through the disk and the dependence on parameters, such as viscosity, accretion rate, and planet mass. We study accreting and non-accretion planets. Results: The inferred migration rate of the planet is determined entirely by the disk torques acting on it and is completely independent of the viscous inflow velocity, so there is no classical type II migration regime. Depending on the local disk mass, the migration rate can be faster or slower than type II migration. From the torques and the accretion rate profile in the disk we see that the gap formed by the planet does not separate the inner from the outer disk as necessary for type II migration, rather gas crosses the gap or is accreted onto the planet.

  3. The Chemistry of the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)

  4. Liquid metallic hydrogen and the structure of brown dwarfs and = giant planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William B. Hubbard

    1996-01-01

    Electron-degenerate, pressure-ionized hydrogen (usually referred to as metallic hydrogen) is the principal constituent of brown dwarfs, the long-sought objects which lie in the mass range between the lowest-mass stars (about eighty times the mass of Jupiter) and the giant planets. The thermodynamics and transport properties of metallic hydrogen are important for understanding the properties of these objects, which, unlike stars,

  5. Cassini States with Dissipation: Why Obliquity Tides Cannot Inflate Hot Jupiters

    E-print Network

    Daniel C. Fabrycky; Eric T. Johnson; Jeremy Goodman

    2007-03-16

    Some short-period exoplanets (hot Jupiters) are observed by their transits to have anomalously large radii. It has been suggested that these planets are in a resonance involving persistent misalignment and synchronous precession of their spin and orbital angular momenta, a Cassini state, and that the attendant tidal heating inflates the planet. We argue against this. Using explicit tidal integrations, we show that although an oblique Cassini state can dissipate many times the rotational energy of the planet, the rate of dissipation must be much less than hypothesized. Dissipation causes the planetary spin to lie at an angle to the plane containing the orbital and total angular momenta. If dissipation is too rapid, this angle becomes so large that Cassini equilibrium is lost. A separate consideration limits the total energy that can be extracted from the orbit. The source of the torque on the orbit, either an oblique parent star or an inclined third body, aligns with the orbit as it absorbs the angular momentum shed by the planet. Alignment removes the orbital precession required by the Cassini state. In combination with observational bounds on the mass and semimajor axis of a possible second planet and with bounds on the stellar rotation and obliquity, these constraints make it very unlikely that obliquity tides can be the explanation for inflated hot Jupiters, especially HD 209458b.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot jupiter upper atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Trammell, George B.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Arras, Phil, E-mail: gbt8f@virginia.edu, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu, E-mail: arras@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Ly? transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure—polar dead zone (DZ), mid-latitude wind zone (WZ), and equatorial DZ—found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial DZ, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude WZ is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatorial DZ. Transmission spectra computed from the simulations are compared to Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Advanced Camera for Surveys data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, and the range of model parameters consistent with the data is found. The central result of this paper is that the transit depth increases strongly with magnetic field strength when the hydrogen ionization layer is magnetically dominated, for dipole magnetic field B {sub 0} ? 10 G. Hence transit depth is sensitive to magnetic field strength, in addition to standard quantities such as the ratio of thermal to gravitational binding energies. Another effect of the magnetic field is that the planet loses angular momentum orders of magnitude faster than in the non-magnetic case, because the magnetic field greatly increases the lever arm for wind braking of the planet's rotation. Spin-down timescales for magnetized models of HD 209458b that agree with the observed transit depth can be as short as ? 30 Myr, which is much shorter than the age of the system.

  7. Value of Hipparcos Catalogue shown by planet assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    The first detailed findings from Hipparcos, recently published in Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters, confirm the existence of planets around other stars. Hipparcos astronomers plucked out their data on three stars suspected of possessing attendant planets. Their distances, measured far more accurately than ever before, enables the astronomers to rule out, in two cases, the possibility that the supposed planets might be small stars. The discovery of alien planets in the first astronomical step towards fashioning a proper science out of the speculations about life beyond the solar system. Hipparcos makes a decisive contribution by setting an upper limit to their masses. Astronomers at the Geneva Observatory caused a sensation last year when they reported slight motions in the star 51 Pegasi, due to a massive planet orbiting around it. With a ground-based telescope they detected small shifts in the wavelength of light as 51 Pegasi moved slowly under the influence of its invisible companion. This year, astronomers at San Francisco State University confirmed the discovery and have subsequently reported two similar cases, in the stars 47 Ursae Majoris and 70 Virginis. Uncertainties about the orientation of the planets' orbits and the distances of the stars left a wide margin of doubt about the masses of the candidate planets. Accurate rangefinding by Hipparcos puts the star 47 Ursae Majoris at a distance of 46 light-years. Calculations then set an upper limit on the mass of the companion at 7 to 22 times the mass of Jupiter, the Sun's largest planet. The Sun itself is a thousand times more massive that Jupiter, and theorists believe that the smallest true star would have a mass of 80 Jupiters. Below that mass, the object cannot burn hydrogen in the nuclear fashion, which is the most characteristic source of energy for stars. In the range between 17 and 80 Jupiter masses an object is called a brown dwarf. It can in theory derive a little energy by burning heavy hydrogen, or deuterium. Even the "worst-case" mass quoted here for the companion of 47 Ursae Majoris, 22 Jupiter masses, is only a maximum, not a measurement. So the companion is almost certainly a true planet with less than 17 times the mass of Jupiter. For the star 70 Virginis, the distance newly established by Hipparcos is 59 light-years. Even on the least favourable assumptions about its orbit, the companion cannot have more than 65 Jupiter masses. It could be brown dwarf rather than a planet, but not a true star. Much more ambiguous is the result for 51 Pegasi. Its distance is 50 light-years and theoretically the companion could have more than 500 Jupiter masses, or half the mass of the Sun. This is a peculiar case anyway, because the companion is very close to 51 Pegasi. Small planets of the size of the Earth might be more promising as abodes of life than the large planets detectable by present astronomical methods. Space scientists are now reviewing methods of detecting the presence of life on alien planets by detecting the infrared signature of ozone in a planet's atmosphere. Ozone is a by-product of oxygen gas, which in turn is supposed to be generated only by life similar to that on the Earth. Meanwhile the detection of planets of whatever size is a tour de force for astronomers, and by analogy with the Solar System one may suppose that large planets are often likely to be accompanied by smaller ones. "Hipparcos was not conceived to look for planets," comments Michael Perryman, ESA's project scientist for Hipparcos, "and this example of assistance to our fellow-astronomers involves a very small sample of our measurements. But it is a timely result when we are considering planet-hunting missions for the 21st Century. The possibilities include a super-Hipparcos that could detect directly the wobbles in nearby stars due to the presence of planets." Hipparcos Catalogue ready for use The result from Hipparcos on alien planets coincides with the completion of the Hipparcos Catalogue and the distribution of the data to collaborating scie

  8. Imaging Extrasolar Planets Around Nearby White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, M.; Clarke, F.; Hodgkin, S.

    White dwarfs should retain planetary systems in wide orbits (greater than about 5 AU). Evolutionary models for jovian planets show that infrared imaging of suitable nearby white dwarfs should allow us to resolve and detect companions of mass greater than about 5 Jupiter masses. We have instigated programs with both the 8m Gemini North (using NIRI), Gemini South (using Flamingos) and with the NAOMI Adaptive Optics system on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope to search for such objects, which will share the large proper motions of their white dwarf hosts.

  9. Formation of Planets Around the Sun and Other Stars.

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Doug Lin

    2005-11-14

    Formation of Planets around the Sun and other stars. The quest to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems has entered an era of renaissance. Driven by observational discoveries in solar system exploration, protostellar disks, and extra solar planets, we have established a rich data bank which contains not only relic clues around mature stars, including the Sun, but also direct image of ongoing processes around young stars. For the first time in this scientific endeavor, we have adequate information to construct quantitative models to account for the ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems. Some of the most intriguing theoretical questions facing us today include: a) how did the planets in the solar system form with their present-day mass, composition, and orbital elements, b) is planet formation a deterministic or chaotic process, and c) what are the observable signatures of planet formation and evolution around nearby young and mature stars? I will present a comprehensive scenario which suggests a) gas giant planets formed through coagulation of planetsimals and gas accretion onto earth-like cores; b) the final assemblage of the terrestrial planets in the solar system occurred through the propagation of Jupiter's secular resonance 4-30 Myrs after the emergence of the gas giant; and c) although they are yet to be discovered, Earth-like planets are expected to be common around nearby stars.

  10. WASP-104b and WASP-106b: two transiting hot Jupiters in 1.75-day and 9.3-day orbits

    E-print Network

    Smith, A M S; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bonomo, A S; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hébrard, G; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Louden, T M; Maxted, P F L; Montagnier, G; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Osborn, H; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Rostron, J W; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; Walker, S R; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d, whereas WASP-106b has the fourth-longest orbital period of any planet discovered by means of transits observed from the ground, orbiting every 9.29 d. Each planet is more massive than Jupiter (WASP-104b has a mass of $1.27 \\pm 0.05~\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, while WASP-106b has a mass of $1.93 \\pm 0.08~\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$). Both planets are just slightly larger than Jupiter, with radii of $1.14 \\pm 0.04$ and $1.09 \\pm 0.04~\\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ for WASP-104 and WASP-106 respectively. No significant orbital eccentricity is detected in either system, and while this is not surprising in the case of the short-period WASP-104b, it is interesting in the case of WASP-106b, because many otherwise similar planets are known to have eccentric orbits.

  11. Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2005-04-11

    One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm with the heat of their formation. Together with a UCLA team that leads the field of young-star identification, we carried out a systematic near-infrared search for young planetary companions to {approx}200 young stars. We also carried out targeted high-sensitivity observations of selected stars surrounded by circumstellar dust rings. We developed advanced image processing techniques to allow detection of even fainter sources buried in the noisy halo of scattered starlight. Even with these techniques, around most of our targets our search was only sensitive to planets in orbits significantly wider than our solar system. With some carefully selected targets--very young dusty stars in the solar neighborhood--we reach sensitivities sufficient to see solar systems like our own. Although we discovered no unambiguous planets, we can significantly constrain the frequency of such planets in wide (>50 AU) orbits, which helps determine which models of planet formation remain plausible. Successful modeling of our observations has led us to the design of a next-generation AO system that will truly be capable of exploring solar systems resembling our own.

  12. KELT-2Ab: A Hot Jupiter Transiting the Bright (V=8.77) Primary Star of a Binary System

    E-print Network

    Beatty, Thomas G; Siverd, Robert J; Eastman, Jason D; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W; Buchhave, Lars A; Jensen, Eric L N; Manner, Mark; Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Collins, Karen; DePoy, Darren L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Fulton, Benjamin J; F?rész, Gábor; Geary, John C; Gould, Andrew; Hebb, Leslie; Kielkopf, John F; Marshall, Jennifer L; Pogge, Richard; Stanek, K Z; Stefanik, Robert P; Street, Rachel; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia; Stutz, Amelia M

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-2Ab, a hot Jupiter transiting the bright (V=8.77) primary star of the HD 42176 binary system. The host is a slightly evolved late F-star likely in the very short-lived "blue-hook" stage of evolution, with $\\teff=6151\\pm50{\\rm K}$, $\\log{g_*}=4.030_{-0.028}^{+0.013}$ and $\\feh=-0.018\\pm0.069$. The inferred stellar mass is $M_*=1.308_{-0.025}^{+0.028}$\\msun\\ and the star has a relatively large radius of $R_*=1.828_{-0.034}^{+0.070}$\\rsun. The planet is a typical hot Jupiter with period $4.113791\\pm0.00001$ days and a mass of $M_P=1.522\\pm0.078$\\mj\\ and radius of $R_P=1.286_{-0.047}^{+0.065}$\\rj. This is mildly inflated as compared to models of irradiated giant planets at the $\\sim$4 Gyr age of the system. KELT-2A is the third brightest star with a transiting planet identified by ground-based transit surveys, and the ninth brightest star overall with a transiting planet. KELT-2Ab's mass and radius are unique among the subset of planets with $V<9$ host stars, and therefore incre...

  13. Engineering a Solution to Jupiter Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Karla; Magner, Thomas; Lisano, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) explore Europa to investigate its habitability, (2) characterize Ganymede as a planetary object including its potential habitability and (3) explore the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede, and the Jupiter system with conceptual orbiters developed by NASA and ESA. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating simultaneously in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. EJSM would directly address themes concerning the origin and evolution of satellite systems and water-rich environments in icy satellites. The potential habitability of the ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede would be investigated, by characterizing the geophysical, compositional, geological, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also investigate Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites would be better known. Most importantly, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM baseline architecture would provide opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft would conduct both synergistic dual-spacecraft investigations and stand-alone measurements toward the overall mission theme and goals.

  14. Volatiles Inventory to the Inner Planets Due to Small Bodies Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marov, M. Y.; Ipatov, S. I.

    2003-01-01

    The concurrent processes of endogeneous and exogeneous origin are assumed to be responsible for the volatile reserves in the terrestrial planets. Volatiles inventory through collisions is rooted in orbital dynamics of small bodies including near-Earth objects (NEOs), short and long-period comets, and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), the latter probably supplying a large amount of Jupiter crossing objects (JCOs). Our model testifies that even a relatively small portion (approx. 0.001) of JCOs which transit to orbits with aphelia inside Jupiter's orbit (Q<4.7 AU) and reside such orbits during more than 1 Myr may contribute significantly in collisions with the terrestrial planets. The total mass of volatiles delivered to the Earth from the feeding zone of the giant planets could be greater than the mass of the Earth's oceans.

  15. Computer studies of the evolution of planetary and satellite systems. II - Evolution experiments involving two major planets and a larger number of smaller planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricelli, N. A.; Aashamar, K.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes two computer experiments carried out with a CDC-Cyber 74 program for computer simulation of a large number of objects in orbit about a central body or primary. The first experiment was started with 125 planets of which the two largest ones had coplanar orbits and masses comparable to those of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Their semi-major axes and eccentricities were, however, much larger. The smaller planets had a distribution promoting the formation of an axial meeting area. The experiment gives information relevant to the focusings of planetary orbits into a common plane and to the formation and stability of an axial meeting area. Together with the next experiment, it gives information on the development of commensurabilities (or resonances) with the largest planets. The second experiment started with 55 planets with a mass not greater than about 20% of Jupiter's, but several with orbits close to a common plane. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether successive captures followed by planetary fusion could lead to the formation of major planets comparable to Jupiter and Saturn, and in similar orbits. This experiment also gives information relevant to the commensurability problem.

  16. Baby Jupiters Must Gain Weight Fast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This photograph from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the young star cluster NGC 2362. By studying it, astronomers found that gas giant planet formation happens very rapidly and efficiently, within less than 5 million years, meaning that Jupiter-like worlds experience a growth spurt in their infancy.

  17. A Detailed Model Grid for Solid Planets from 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a new grid for the mass--radius relation of three-layer exoplanets within the mass range of 0.1-100 M?. The three layers are: Fe (?-phase of iron), MgSiO3 (including both the perovskite phase, post-perovskite phase, and its dissociation at ultrahigh pressures), and H2O (including Ices Ih, III, V, VI, VII, X, and the superionic phase along the melting curve). We discuss the current state of knowledge about the equations of state (EOS) that influence these calculations and the improvements used in the new grid. For the two-layer model, we demonstrate the utility of contours on the mass--radius diagrams. Given the mass and radius input, these contours can be used to quickly determine the important physical properties of a planet including its p0 (central pressure), p1/p0 (core--mantle boundary pressure over central pressure), CMF (core mass fraction) or CRF (core radius fraction). For the three-layer model, a curve segment on the ternary diagram represents all possible relative mass proportions of the three layers for a given mass--radius input. These ternary diagrams are tabulated with the intent to make comparison to observations easier. How the presence of Fe in the mantle affects the mass--radius relations is also discussed in a separate section. A dynamic and interactive tool to characterize and illustrate the interior structure of exoplanets built upon models in this article is available online.

  18. Toward Eclipse Mapping of Hot Jupiters

    E-print Network

    Emily Rauscher; Kristen Menou; Sara Seager; Drake Deming; James Y-K. Cho; Brad Hansen

    2007-04-24

    Recent Spitzer infrared measurements of hot Jupiter eclipses suggest that eclipse mapping techniques could be used to spatially resolve the day-side photospheric emission of these planets using partial occultations. As a first step in this direction, we simulate ingress/egress lightcurves for the three brightest known eclipsing hot Jupiters and evaluate the degree to which parameterized photospheric emission models can be distinguished from each other with repeated, noisy eclipse measurements. We find that the photometric accuracy of Spitzer is insufficient to use this tool effectively. On the other hand, the level of photospheric details that could be probed with a few JWST eclipse measurements could greatly inform hot Jupiter atmospheric modeling efforts. A JWST program focused on non-parametric eclipse map inversions for hot Jupiters should be actively considered.

  19. The Mt John University Observatory search for Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of ? Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Bergmann, Christoph; Hearnshaw, John; Barnes, Stuart I.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Ramm, David; Kilmartin, Pam; Gunn, Fraser; Brogt, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The `holy grail' in planet hunting is the detection of an Earth-analogue: a planet with similar mass as the Earth and an orbit inside the habitable zone. If we can find such an Earth-analogue around one of the stars in the immediate solar neighbourhood, we could potentially even study it in such great detail to address the question of its potential habitability. Several groups have focused their planet detection efforts on the nearest stars. Our team is currently performing an intensive observing campaign on the ? Centauri system using the High Efficiency and Resolution Canterbury University Large Échelle Spectrograph (Hercules) at the 1 m McLellan telescope at Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. The goal of our project is to obtain such a large number of radial velocity (RV) measurements with sufficiently high temporal sampling to become sensitive to signals of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zones of the two stars in this binary system. Over the past few years, we have collected more than 45 000 spectra for both stars combined. These data are currently processed by an advanced version of our RV reduction pipeline, which eliminates the effect of spectral cross-contamination. Here we present simulations of the expected detection sensitivity to low-mass planets in the habitable zone by the Hercules programme for various noise levels. We also discuss our expected sensitivity to the purported Earth-mass planet in a 3.24-day orbit announced by Dumusque et al. (2012).

  20. "Some Like it Hot” - Evidence for the Shrinking Orbit of the 2.2-day Transiting Hot Jupiter Exoplanet HD 189733b - Evidence of Transfer of Planet Orbital Momentum to its Host Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santapaga, Thomas; Guinan, E. F.; Ballouz, R.; Engle, S. G.; Dewarf, L.

    2011-01-01

    HD189733A is a K2V star that has attracted much attention because it hosts a transiting, hot Jupiter-exoplanet. HD189733b has one of the shortest known orbital-periods (P = 2.22-days) and is only 0.031AU from its host star (Buchy et al. 2005). Based on measurements of the K2V star's P(rot) from starspot-modulations of 12-d, coronal Lx 1028 ergs/s, and chromospheric Ca II-HK emission, indicate an age 0.6 -1.0 Gyr - inferred from our rotation-age-activity relations. However, this age is discrepant with an older-age inferred from the star's low Lithium-abundance ( 1/10 Solar.). However, the age-rotation-activity determination assumes no tidal-effects from close companions- such as close planet. Recently Gaspar et al. (2006) discovered a dM4 companion star (HD 189733 B: 12'' distance to the K-dwarf). X MM-Newton observations of the HD 189733 A&B carried out recently by Pilliteri et al. (2010), surprisingly revealed that HD 189733B shows no X-ray emission, with an upper limit of 9*1026 ergs/s. Using activity-age relationships for dM-stars, we expected a Lx of an order of magnitude higher for age <1.0 Ga. This apparent discrepancy can be resolved by the supposition that the K2V-star has been spun-up by its nearby planetary companion, and that its age determined from activity-rotation relationships is invalid. This supposition is supported by the recent photometry by the Kepler for 300+ exoplanet candidate systems discovered thus far (Borucki et al. 2010). The analysis these data have reveal that tidal locking between the planet and host star has occurred for a significant number of exoplanet with short orbital periods. We explain the fast rotation of the K2 star via the transfer of the planet's orbital angular momentum to the star via tidal interactions. The significance of these finding with respect to the evolution of planetary systems is discussed. This work is partially supported by NSF/RUI grant AST-1009903.

  1. M-to-K: A Search For Planets Around Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra; Lepine, Sebastien; Gaidos, Eric; Valenti, Jeff

    2008-08-01

    While essentially 100% of solar type stars in a 30 parsec (radius) volume are on current Doppler surveys, only 10% of Mdwarfs in that same volume are being surveyed for exoplanets. Mdwarfs dominate the stellar census in our Galaxy and with low stellar masses, the relatively larger reflex velocities permit the detection of the lowest mass exoplanets. Furthermore, the proximity of the habitable zone (HZ) to these low luminosity stars also results in larger reflex stellar velocites and greater detectability for low-mass, HZ planets. We propose a precision Doppler search for a set of recently identified Mdwarfs brighter than V=11. In addition to exoplanet detection, these data will be used to compile a comprehensive catalog about our nearest stellar neighbors. The radial velocity measurements will also serve as a comparison baseline for current construction of new gas cells to replace iodine as a wavelength reference for Doppler measurements redward of 6000 Angstroms.

  2. Terrestrial Planet Formation Surrounding Close Binary Stars

    E-print Network

    Elisa V. Quintana; Jack J. Lissauer

    2006-07-11

    Disk material has been observed around both components of some young close binary star systems. It has been shown that if planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. Herein, we numerically simulate the late stages of terrestrial planet growth in circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations between 0.05 AU and 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities up to 0.8. In each simulation, the sum of the masses of the two stars is 1 solar mass, and giant planets are included. Our results are statistically compared to a set of planet formation simulations in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn system that begin with essentially the same initial disk of protoplanets. The planetary systems formed around binaries with apastron distances less than ~ 0.2 AU are very similar to those around single stars, whereas those with larger maximum separations tend to be sparcer, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. We also provide formulae that can be used to scale results of planetary accretion simulations to various systems with different total stellar mass, disk sizes, and planetesimal masses and densities.

  3. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrey, Anne; di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-01

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  4. Atmospheric mass loss during planet formation: The importance of planetesimal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em; Yalinewich, Almog

    2015-02-01

    Quantifying the atmospheric mass loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres. We examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both giant impacts and planetesimal accretion. Giant impacts cause global motion of the ground. Using analytic self-similar solutions and full numerical integrations we find (for isothermal atmospheres with adiabatic index ?=5/3) that the local atmospheric mass loss fraction for ground velocities vg?0.25vesc is given by ?loss=(1.71, where vesc is the escape velocity from the target. Yet, the global atmospheric mass loss is a weaker function of the impactor velocity vImp and mass mImp and given by Xloss?0.4x+1.4x2-0.8x3 (isothermal atmosphere) and Xloss?0.4x+1.8x2-1.2x3 (adiabatic atmosphere), where x=(vImpm/vescM). Atmospheric mass loss due to planetesimal impacts proceeds in two different regimes: (1) large enough impactors m??{2}?0( (25 km for the current Earth), are able to eject all the atmosphere above the tangent plane of the impact site, which is h/2R of the whole atmosphere, where h, R and ?0 are the atmospheric scale height, radius of the target, and its atmospheric density at the ground. (2) Smaller impactors, but above m>4??0h3 (1 km for the current Earth) are only able to eject a fraction of the atmospheric mass above the tangent plane. We find that the most efficient impactors (per unit impactor mass) for atmospheric loss are planetesimals just above that lower limit (2 km for the current Earth). For impactor flux size distributions parametrized by a single power law, N(>r)?r, with differential power law index q, we find that for 1mass loss proceeds in regime (1) whereas for q>3 the mass loss is dominated by regime (2). Impactors with m?4??0h3 are not able to eject any atmosphere. Despite being bombarded by the same planetesimal population, we find that the current differences in Earth's and Venus' atmospheric masses can be explained by modest differences in their initial atmospheric masses and that the current atmosphere of the Earth could have resulted from an equilibrium between atmospheric erosion and volatile delivery to the atmosphere from planetesimal impacts. We conclude that planetesimal impacts are likely to have played a major role in atmospheric mass loss over the formation history of the terrestrial planets.

  5. Birth and fate of hot-Neptune planets

    E-print Network

    I. Baraffe; Y. Alibert; G. Chabrier; W. Benz

    2005-12-05

    This paper presents a consistent description of the formation and the subsequent evolution of gaseous planets, with special attention to short-period, low-mass hot-Neptune planets characteristic of $\\mu$ Ara-like systems. We show that core accretion including migration and disk evolution and subsequent evolution taking into account irradiation and evaporation provide a viable formation mechanism for this type of strongly irradiated light planets. At an orbital distance $a \\simeq$ 0.1 AU, this revised core accretion model leads to the formation of planets with total masses ranging from $\\sim$ 14 $\\mearth$ (0.044 $\\mjup$) to $\\sim$ 400 $\\mearth$ (1.25 $\\mjup$). The newly born planets have a dense core of $\\sim$ 6 $\\mearth$, independent of the total mass, and heavy element enrichments in the envelope, $M_{\\rm Z,env}/M_{\\rm env} $, varying from 10% to 80% from the largest to the smallest planets. We examine the dependence of the evolution of the born planet on the evaporation rate due to the incident XUV stellar flux. In order to reach a $\\mu$ Ara-like mass ($\\sim$ 14 $\\mearth$) after $\\sim $ 1 Gyr, the initial planet mass must range from 166 $\\mearth$ ($\\sim$ 0.52 $\\mjup$) to about 20 $\\mearth$, for evaporation rates varying by 2 orders of magnitude, corresponding to 90% to 20% mass loss during evolution. The presence of a core and heavy elements in the envelope affects appreciably the structure and the evolution of the planet and yields $\\sim 8%-9%$ difference in radius compared to coreless objects of solar composition for Saturn-mass planets. These combinations of evaporation rates and internal compositions translate into different detection probabilities, and thus different statistical distributions for hot-Neptunes and hot-Jupiters.

  6. Dynamical Relaxation and Massive Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    J. C. B. Papaloizou; Caroline Terquem

    2000-12-18

    Following the suggestion of Black (1997) that some massive extrasolar planets may be associated with the tail of the distribution of stellar companions, we investigate a scenario in which 5 < N < 100 planetary mass objects are assumed to form rapidly through a fragmentation process occuring in a disc or protostellar envelope on a scale of 100 au. These are assumed to have formed rapidly enough through gravitational instability or fragmentation that their orbits can undergo dynamical relaxation on a timescale of about 100 orbits. Under a wide range of initial conditions and assumptions the relaxation process ends with either (i) one potential 'hot Jupiter' plus up to two 'external' companions, i.e. planets orbiting near the outer edge of the initial distribution; (ii) one or two 'external' planets or even none at all; (iii) one planet on an orbit with a semi--major axis 10 to a 100 times smaller than the outer boundary radius of the inital distribution together with an 'external' companion. Most of the other objects are ejected and could contribute to a population of free floating planets. Apart from the potential 'hot Jupiters', all the bound objects are on highly eccentric orbits. We found that, apart from the close orbiters, the probability of ending up with a planet orbiting at a given distance from the central star increases with the distance. This is because of the tendency of the relaxation process to lead to collisions with the central star. We discuss the application of these results to some of the more massive extrasolar planets.

  7. A Detailed Model Grid for Solid Planets from 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new grid for the mass-radius relation of 3-layer exoplanets within the mass range of 0.1 through 100 Earth Masses. The 3 layers are: Fe (epsilon iron), MgSiO3 (including both the perovskite phase, post-perovskite phase, and its dissociation at ultra-high pressures), and H2O (including Ices Ih, III, V, VI, VII, X, and the superionic phase along the melting curve). We discuss the current state of knowledge about the equations of state (EOS) that influence these calculations and the improvements used in the new grid. For the 2-layer model, we demonstrate the utility of contours on the mass-radius diagrams. Given the mass and radius input, these contours can be used to quickly determine the important physical properties of a planet including its p0 (central pressure), p1/p0 (core-mantle boundary pressure over central pressure), CMF (core mass fraction) or CRF (core radius fraction). For the 3-layer model, a curve segment on the ternary diagram represents all possible relative mass proportio...

  8. Effects of Helium Phase Separation on the Evolution of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    Jonathan J. Fortney; W. B. Hubbard

    2004-02-26

    We build on recent new evolutionary models of Jupiter and Saturn and here extend our calculations to investigate the evolution of extrasolar giant planets of mass 0.15 to 3.0 M_J. Our inhomogeneous thermal history models show that the possible phase separation of helium from liquid metallic hydrogen in the deep interiors of these planets can lead to luminosities ~2 times greater than have been predicted by homogeneous models. For our chosen phase diagram this phase separation will begin to affect the planets' evolution at ~700 Myr for a 0.15 M_J object and ~10 Gyr for a 3.0 M_J object. We show how phase separation affects the luminosity, effective temperature, radii, and atmospheric helium mass fraction as a function of age for planets of various masses, with and without heavy element cores, and with and without the effect of modest stellar irradiation. This phase separation process will likely not affect giant planets within a few AU of their parent star, as these planets will cool to their equilibrium temperatures, determined by stellar heating, before the onset of phase separation. We discuss the detectability of these objects and the likelihood that the energy provided by helium phase separation can change the timescales for formation and settling of ammonia clouds by several Gyr. We discuss how correctly incorporating stellar irradiation into giant planet atmosphere and albedo modeling may lead to a consistent evolutionary history for Jupiter and Saturn.

  9. 65Earth-like Planets by the Score! Table of Candidate Planet Sizes

    E-print Network

    65Earth-like Planets by the Score! Table of Candidate Planet Sizes Size Class Size (Earth Radius planets passing across the faces of their stars .This causes a slight dimming of the starlight, which can the planets would have been far larger than Jupiter, and possibly dwarf stars. The table above shows

  10. Discovery of the distant cool sub-Neptune mass planet OGLE 2005-BLG-390Lb by microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, J P; Bennett, D P; Fouque, P; Williams, A; Dominik, M; Jorgensen, U G; Kubas, D; Cassan, A; Coutures, C; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Menzies, J; Sackett, P D; Albrow, M; Brillant, S; Caldwell, J R; Calitz, J J; Cook, K H; Corrales, E; Desort, M; Dieters, S; Dominis, D; Donatowicz, J; Hoffman, M; Kane, S; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Pollard, K; Sahu, K; Vinter, C; Wambsganss, J; Woller, K; Horne, K; Steele, I; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Snodgrass, C; Bode, M; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Wieckowski, T; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Wyrzykowski, L; Paczynski, B; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Britton, T R; Gilmore, A C; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A V; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Okada, C; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Sako, T; Sato, S; Sasaki, M; Sekiguchi, T; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yock, P M; Yoskioka, T

    2005-11-07

    The favoured theoretical explanation for planetary systems formation is the core-accretion model in which solid planetesimals accumulate to build up planetary cores, which then accrete nebular gas if they are sufficiently massive. Around M-dwarf stars, the most common stars of our Galaxy, this model favours the formation of Earth- to Neptune-mass planets in a few million years with orbital sizes of 1 to 10 AU, which is consistent with the small number of detections of giant planets with M-dwarf host stars. More than 170 extrasolar planets have been discovered so far with a wide range of masses and orbital periods, but planets of Neptune's mass or less have not previously been detected at separations of more than 0.15 AU from normal stars. Here we report the discovery of a 5.5{sub -2.7}{sup +5.5} Earthmass planetary companion at a separation of 2.6{sub -0.6}{sup +1.5}AU from a 0.22{sub -0.11}{sup +0.21} M{sub e} M-dwarf star, which is the lens star for gravitational microlensing event OGLE 2005-BLG-390. This is the lowest mass ever reported for an extrasolar planet orbiting a main sequence star, although the error bars overlap those for the mass of GJ876d. Our detection suggests that such cool, sub-Neptune mass planets may be common than gas giant planets, as predicted by the core accretion theory.

  11. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Sean N. Raymond

    2008-01-16

    Terrestrial planets form in a series of dynamical steps from the solid component of circumstellar disks. First, km-sized planetesimals form likely via a combination of sticky collisions, turbulent concentration of solids, and gravitational collapse from micron-sized dust grains in the thin disk midplane. Second, planetesimals coalesce to form Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets, also called "planetary embryos". Finally, full-sized terrestrial planets accrete from protoplanets and planetesimals. This final stage of accretion lasts about 10-100 Myr and is strongly affected by gravitational perturbations from any gas giant planets, which are constrained to form more quickly, during the 1-10 Myr lifetime of the gaseous component of the disk. It is during this final stage that the bulk compositions and volatile (e.g., water) contents of terrestrial planets are set, depending on their feeding zones and the amount of radial mixing that occurs. The main factors that influence terrestrial planet formation are the mass and surface density profile of the disk, and the perturbations from giant planets and binary companions if they exist. Simple accretion models predicts that low-mass stars should form small, dry planets in their habitable zones. The migration of a giant planet through a disk of rocky bodies does not completely impede terrestrial planet growth. Rather, "hot Jupiter" systems are likely to also contain exterior, very water-rich Earth-like planets, and also "hot Earths", very close-in rocky planets. Roughly one third of the known systems of extra-solar (giant) planets could allow a terrestrial planet to form in the habitable zone.

  12. HIDING IN THE SHADOWS: SEARCHING FOR PLANETS IN PRE-TRANSITIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dobinson, Jack; Leinhardt, Zoë M. [School of Physics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Teanby, Nick A. [School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    Transitional and pre-transitional disks can be explained by a number of mechanisms. This work aims to find a single observationally detectable marker that would imply a planetary origin for the gap and, therefore, indirectly indicate the presence of a young planet. N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded planet of one Jupiter mass on the production of instantaneous collisional dust derived from a background planetesimal disk. Our new model allows us to predict the dust distribution and resulting observable markers with greater accuracy than previous works. Dynamical influences from a planet on a circular orbit are shown to enhance dust production in the disk interior and exterior to the planet orbit, while removing planetesimals from the orbit itself, creating a clearly defined gap. In the case of an eccentric planet, the gap opened by the planet is not as clear as the circular case, but there is a detectable asymmetry in the dust disk.

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: PLANETS, VOL. 118, 938951, doi:10.1002/jgre.20077, 2013 Magnetodynamo lifetimes for rocky, Earth-mass exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Conrad, Clint

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: PLANETS, VOL. 118, 938­951, doi:10.1002/jgre.20077, 2013 magnetodynamo evolution in Earth-mass rocky planets to determine the sensitivity of dynamo lifetime and intensity to planets with different mantle tectonic regimes, surface temperatures, and core properties

  14. Ohmic Dissipation in the Interiors of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Cumming, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    We present models of ohmic heating in the interiors of hot Jupiters in which we decouple the interior and the wind zone by replacing the wind zone with a boundary temperature T iso and magnetic field B phi0. Ohmic heating influences the contraction of gas giants in two ways: by direct heating within the convection zone and by heating outside the convection zone, which increases the effective insulation of the interior. We calculate these effects and show that internal ohmic heating is only able to slow the contraction rate of a cooling gas giant once the planet reaches a critical value of internal entropy. We determine the age of the gas giant when ohmic heating becomes important as a function of mass, T iso, and induced B phi0. With this survey of parameter space complete, we then adopt the wind zone scalings of Menou and calculate the expected evolution of gas giants with different levels of irradiation. We find that, with this prescription of magnetic drag, it is difficult to inflate massive planets or those with strong irradiation using ohmic heating, meaning that we are unable to account for many of the observed hot Jupiter radii. This is in contrast to previous evolutionary models that assumed that a constant fraction of the irradiation is transformed into ohmic power.

  15. SEARCHING FOR THE SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN SOLAR ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Delgado-Mena, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna (Spain); Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S.; Neves, V. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Udry, S., E-mail: jonay@iac.e [Observatoire Astronomique de l'Universite de Geneve, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, Sauverny, Ch1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2010-09-10

    We present a fully differential chemical abundance analysis using very high resolution ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx}> 85, 000) and very high signal-to-noise (S/N {approx}800 on average) HARPS and UVES spectra of 7 solar twins and 95 solar analogs, of which 24 are planet hosts and 71 are stars without detected planets. The whole sample of solar analogs provides very accurate Galactic chemical evolution trends in the metallicity range -0.3 < [Fe/H] < 0.5. Solar twins with and without planets show similar mean abundance ratios. We have also analyzed a sub-sample of 28 solar analogs, 14 planet hosts, and 14 stars without known planets, with spectra at S/N {approx}850 on average, in the metallicity range 0.14 < [Fe/H] < 0.36, and find the same abundance pattern for both samples of stars with and without planets. This result does not depend on either the planet mass, from 7 Earth masses to 17.4 Jupiter masses, or the orbital period of the planets, from 3 to 4300 days. In addition, we have derived the slope of the abundance ratios as a function of the condensation temperature for each star and again find similar distributions of the slopes for both stars with and without planets. In particular, the peaks of these two distributions are placed at a similar value but with the opposite sign to that expected from a possible signature of terrestrial planets. In particular, two of the planetary systems in this sample, each of them containing a super-Earth-like planet, show slope values very close to these peaks, which may suggest that these abundance patterns are not related to the presence of terrestrial planets.

  16. Silicon and Nickel Enrichment in Planet-Host Stars: Observations and Implications for the Core-Accretion Theory of Planet Formation

    E-print Network

    Sarah E. Robinson; Gregory Laughlin; Peter Bodenheimer; Debra Fischer

    2006-01-27

    We present evidence that stars with planets exhibit statistically significant silicon and nickel enrichment over the general metal-rich population. We also present simulations which predict silicon enhancement of planet hosts within the context of the core-accretion hypothesis for giant planet formation. Because silicon and oxygen are both alpha elements, [Si/Fe] traces [O/Fe], so the silicon enhancement in planet hosts predicts that these stars are oxygen-rich as well. We present new numerical simulations of planet formation by core accretion that establish the timescale on which a Jovian planet reaches rapid gas accretion, t_rga, as a function of solid surface density sigma_solid: (t_rga / 1 Myr) = (sigma_solid / 25.0 g cm^{-2})^{-1.44}. This relation enables us to construct Monte Carlo simulations that predict the fraction of star-disk systems that form planets as a function of [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], disk mass, outer disk radius and disk lifetime. Our simulations reproduce both the known planet-metallicity correlation and the planet-silicon correlation reported in this paper. The simulations predict that 16% of Solar-type stars form Jupiter-mass planets, in agreement with 12% predicted from extrapolation of the observed planet frequency-semimajor axis distribution. Although a simple interpretation of core accretion predicts that the planet-silicon correlation should be much stronger than the planet-nickel correlation, we observe the same degree of silicon and nickel enhancement in planet hosts. If this result persists once more planets have been discovered, it might indicate a complexity in the chemistry of planet formation beyond the simple accumulation of solids in the core accretion theory.

  17. Apparent Stellar Wobble by a Planet in a Circumstellar Disk: Limitations on Planet Detection by Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, Taku; Velusamy, T.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2005-01-01

    Astrometric detection of a stellar wobble on the plane of the sky will provide us the next breakthrough in searching for extrasolar planets. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is expected to achieve high-precision astrometry as accurate as 1 (mu)as, which is precise enough to discover a newborn Jupiter mass planet around a pre-main-sequence (PMS) star in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. PMS stars, however, have circumstellar disks that may be obstacles to the precise measurement of the stellar position.We present results on disk influences on the stellar wobble. The density waves excited by a planet move both the disk's mass center and the photocenter. The motion of the disk mass center induces an additional wobble of the stellar position, and the motion of the disk photocenter causes a contamination in the measurement of the stellar position. We show that the additional stellar motion dynamically caused by the disk's gravity is always negligible but that the contamination by the disk light can interfere with the precise measurement of the stellar position if the planet's mass is smaller than approximately 10MJ. The motion of the disk photocenter is sensitive to a slight change in the wave pattern and the disk properties. Measurements by interferometers are generally insensitive to extended sources such as disks. Because of this property, SIM will not suffer significant contamination by the disk light, even if the planet's mass is as small as 1M(sub J).

  18. Mass and orbit estimation of Planet X via a family of comets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Neuhaeuser; J. V. Feitzinger

    1991-01-01

    The crucial assumption of this paper is, that the observed clustering of aphelion distances of intermediate-period comets in the 70–90 AU range is due to the influence of a tenth planet, called Planet X. We contribute to the search for Planet X a new and extended evaluation of a family of comets assumed to be Planet X's family of comets.

  19. Limits to Transits of the Neptune-mass planet orbiting Gl 581

    E-print Network

    Mercedes Lopez-Morales; Nidia I. Morrell; R. Paul Butler; Sara Seager

    2006-09-09

    We have monitored the Neptune-mass exoplanet-hosting M-dwarf Gl 581 with the 1m Swope Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory over two predicted transit epochs. A neutral density filter centered at 550nm was used during the first epoch, yielding 6.33 hours of continuous light curve coverage with an average photometric precision of 1.6 mmags and a cadence of 2.85 min. The second epoch was monitored in B-band over 5.85 hours, with an average photometric precision of 1.2 mmags and 4.28 min cadence. No transits are apparent on either night, indicating that the orbital inclination is less than 88.1 deg for all planets with radius larger than 0.38 R_Nep = 1.48 R_Earth. Because planets of most reasonable interior composition have radii larger than 1.55 R_Earth we place an inclination limit for the system of 88.1 deg. The corresponding minimum mass of Gl 581b remains 0.97 M_Nep = 16.6 M_Earth.

  20. Outward Migration of Jupiter and Saturn in Evolved Gaseous Disks

    E-print Network

    D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2012-01-01

    The outward migration of a pair of resonant-orbit planets, driven by tidal interactions with a gas-dominated disk, is studied in the context of evolved Solar Nebula models. The planets' masses, M1 and M2, correspond to those of Jupiter and Saturn. Hydrodynamical calculations in two and three dimensions are used to quantify the migration rates and analyze the conditions under which the outward migration mechanism may operate. The planets are taken to be fully formed after 1e6 and before 3e6 years. The orbital evolution of the planets in an evolving disk is then calculated until the disk's gas is completely dissipated. Orbital locking in the 3:2 mean motion resonance may lead to outward migration under appropriate conditions of disk viscosity and temperature. However, resonance locking does not necessarily result in outward migration. This is the case, for example, if convergent migration leads to locking in the 2:1 mean motion resonance, as post-formation disk conditions seem to suggest. Accretion of gas on th...

  1. DID PLANET FORMATION BEGIN INSIDE PERSISTENT GASEOUS VORTICES?

    E-print Network

    P. Barge; J. Sommeria

    1995-01-16

    We explore here the idea, reminiscent in some respect of Von Weizsacker's (1944) and Alfven's (1976) outmoded cosmogonies, that long-lived vortices in a turbulent protoplanetary nebula can capture large amount of solid particles and initiate the formation of planets. Some puzzling features of the solar system appear as natural consequences of our simple model: - The captured mass presents a maximum near Jupiter's orbit. - Outside this optimal orbit, the collected material, mainly composed of low density particles, sinks deeply into the vortices and rapidly collapses into massive bodies at the origin of the solid core of the giant planets. - Inside this orbit, by contrast, the high density particles are preferentially selected by the vortices and assembled by local gravitational instabilities into planetesimals, massive enough to be released by the vortices and to grow later, in successive collisions, to form the terrestrial planets. - The captured mass presents a maximum near Jupiter's orbit. - Outside this optimal orbit, the collected material, mainly composed of low density particles, sinks deeply into the vortices and rapidly collapses into massive bodies at the origin of the solid core of the giant planets. - Inside this orbit, by contrast, the high density particles are preferentially selected by the vortices and assembled by local gravitational instabilities into planetesimals, massive enough to be released by the vortices and to grow later, in successive collisions, to form the terrestrial planets.

  2. The Total Number of Giant Planets in Debris Disks with Central Clearings

    E-print Network

    Peter Faber; Alice C. Quillen

    2007-06-12

    Infrared spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope (SSC) of many debris disks are well fit with a single black body temperature which suggest clearings within the disk. We assume that inside the clearing orbital instability due to planets removes dust generating planetesimal belts and dust generated by the outer disk that is scattered or drifts into the clearing. From numerical integrations we estimate a minimum planet spacing required for orbital instability (and so planetesimal and dust removal) as a function of system age and planet mass. We estimate that a 10^8 year old debris disk with a dust disk edge at a radius of 50 AU hosted by an A star must contain approximately 5 Neptune mass planets between the clearing radius and the iceline in order to remove all primordial objects within it. We infer that known debris disk systems contain at least a fifth of a Jupiter mass in massive planets. The number of planets and spacing required is insensitive to the assumed planet mass. However an order of magnitude higher total mass in planets could reside in these systems if the planets are more massive.

  3. Formation of Planets Around the Sun and Other Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Doug

    2005-11-14

    The quest to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems has entered an era of renaissance. Driven by observational discoveries in solar system exploration, protostellar disks, and extra solar planets, we have established a rich data bank which contains not only relic clues around mature stars, including the Sun, but also direct image of ongoing processes around young stars. For the first time in this scientific endeavor, we have adequate information to construct quantitative models to account for the ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems. Some of the most intriguing theoretical questions facing us today include: (a) how did the planets in the solar system form with their present-day mass, composition, and orbital elements, (b) is planet formation a deterministic or chaotic process, and (c) what are the observable signatures of planet formation and evolution around nearby young and mature stars? I will present a comprehensive scenario which suggests (a) gas giant planets formed through coagulation of planetsimals and gas accretion onto earth-like cores; (b) the final assemblage of the terrestrial planets in the solar system occurred through the propagation of Jupiter's secular resonance 4-30 Myrs after the emergence of the gas giant; and (c) although they are yet to be discovered, Earth-like planets are expected to be common around nearby stars.

  4. Outward Migration of Giant Planets in Orbital Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Marzari, F.

    2013-05-01

    A pair of giant planets interacting with a gaseous disk may be subject to convergent orbital migration and become locked into a mean motion resonance. If the orbits are close enough, the tidal gaps produced by the planets in the disk may overlap. This represents a necessary condition to activate the outward migration of the pair. However, a number of other conditions must also be realized in order for this mechanism to operate. We have studied how disk properties, such as turbulence viscosity, temperature, surface density gradient, mass, and age, may affect the outcome of the outward migration process. We have also investigated the implications on this mechanism of the planets' gas accretion. If the pair resembles Jupiter and Saturn, the 3:2 orbital resonance may drive them outward until they reach stalling radii for migration, which are within ~10 AU of the star for disks representative of the early proto-solar nebula. However, planet post-formation conditions in the disk indicate that such planets become typically locked in the 1:2 orbital resonance, which does not lead to outward migration. Planet growth via gas accretion tends to alter the planets' mass-ratio and/or the disk accretion rate toward the star, reducing or inhibiting outward migration. Support from NASA Outer Planets Research Program and NASA Origins of Solar Systems Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. WASP-12b as a prolate, inflated and disrupting planet from tidal dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Lin; Miller, N.; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2010-02-01

    The class of exotic Jupiter-mass planets that orbit very close to their parent stars were not explicitly expected before their discovery. The recently discovered transiting planet WASP-12b has a mass M = 1.4+/-0.1 Jupiter masses (MJ), a mean orbital distance of only 3.1 stellar radii (meaning it is subject to intense tidal forces), and a period of 1.1days. Its radius 1.79+/-0.09RJ is unexpectedly large and its orbital eccentricity 0.049+/-0.015 is even more surprising because such close orbits are usually quickly circularized. Here we report an analysis of its properties, which reveals that the planet is losing mass to its host star at a rate of about 10-7MJ per year. The planet's surface is distorted by the star's gravity and the light curve produced by its prolate shape will differ by about ten per cent from that of a spherical planet. We conclude that dissipation of the star's tidal perturbation in the planet's convective envelope provides the energy source for its large volume. We predict up to 10mJy CO band-head (2.292?m) emission from a tenuous disk around the host star, made up of tidally stripped planetary gas. It may also contain a detectable resonant super-Earth, as a hypothetical perturber that continually stirs up WASP-12b's eccentricity.

  6. Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, A. G.; Moses, J. I.; Friedson, A. J.; Fegley, B., Jr.; Marley, M. S.; Lodders, K.

    2004-01-01

    To date, approximately 120 planet-sized objects have been discovered around other stars, mostly through the radial-velocity technique. This technique can provide information about a planet s minimum mass and its orbital period and distance; however, few other planetary data can be obtained at this point in time unless we are fortunate enough to find an extrasolar giant planet that transits its parent star (i.e., the orbit is edge-on as seen from Earth). In that situation, many physical properties of the planet and its parent star can be determined, including some compositional information. Our prospects of directly obtaining spectra from extrasolar planets may improve in the near future, through missions like NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder. Most of the extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) discovered so far have masses equal to or greater than Jupiter's mass, and roughly 16% have orbital radii less than 0.1 AU - extremely close to the parent star by our own Solar-System standards (note that Mercury is located at a mean distance of 0.39 AU and Jupiter at 5.2 AU from the Sun). Although all EGPs are expected to have hydrogen-dominated atmospheres similar to Jupiter, the orbital distance can strongly affect the planet's temperature, physical, chemical, and spectral properties, and the abundance of minor, detectable atmospheric constituents. Thermochemical equilibrium models can provide good zero-order predictions for the atmospheric composition of EGPs. However, both the composition and spectral properties will depend in large part on disequilibrium processes like photochemistry, chemical kinetics, atmospheric transport, and haze formation. We have developed a photochemical kinetics, radiative transfer, and 1-D vertical transport model to study the atmospheric composition of EGPs. The chemical reaction list contains H-, C-, O-, and N-bearing species and is designed to be valid for atmospheric temperatures ranging from 100-3000 K and pressures up to 50 bar. Here we examine the effect of stellar distance (e.g., incident ultraviolet flux, atmospheric temperature) on the chemical properties of EGPs. The model is applied to two generic Class II and III intermediate temperature EGPs located at 3.3 and 0.27 AU from a solar-like parent star, and the results are compared with a model for Jupiter at 5.2 AU.

  7. The Power of a Planet Population: Kepler's Super-Earth Compositions, Mass-Radius Relation, and Host Star Multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has found thousands of planetary candidates with radii between 1 and 4 times that of Earth. These planets have no analogues in our Solar System, providing an unprecedented opportunity to assess planet formation and evolution processes for an entirely new planetary population. By coupling theoretical work with sophisticated statistical modeling, we place quantitative constraints on the distribution of physically relevant properties, such as planet compositions, while accurately incorporating the large uncertainties and biases in the Kepler data. We first apply this framework to the composition distribution of Kepler's sub-Neptunes: assuming an internal structure consisting of a rocky core with a hydrogen and helium envelope, we find that these envelopes are most likely to be ~ 1% of these planets' total mass with an intrinsic scatter of ± 0.5 dex. Our results do not produce a one-to-one relationship between super-Earth masses and radii. Accordingly, we derive a probability density function that incorporates the intrinsic scatter in planetary masses at a given radius, which provides dynamical studies a more appropriate means to map Kepler radii to masses. Finally, we present first results from our campaign to detect stellar companions to Kepler super-Earth host stars using the laser guide star adaptive optics systems at Lick Observatory, and discuss implications for the orbital evolution of this entirely new class of planets.

  8. Planet Impact: What's Your Angle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive module, students can vary the comet's angle of approach to see the effect of gravity on its trajectory towards Jupiter. The speed and masses of the two bodies are held constant. The goal is for the students to understand the relationship between the distance from the planet and the force of gravity. Students may work independently or in small groups to complete this activity. It may also be done as a teacher-directed activity in the classroom. After completing this module, students will learn about how changing the angle of approach affects the force of gravity on a comet. This module is a part of the online exploration "Planet Impact!" An explanation of the science behind the animations can be found in "Science Scoop." More information on the crash of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter can be obtained from "Gravity Gallery" and "Comet News." Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards.

  9. Scenarios of giant planet formation and evolution and their impact on the formation of habitable terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-04-28

    In our Solar System, there is a clear divide between the terrestrial and giant planets. These two categories of planets formed and evolved separately, almost in isolation from each other. This was possible because Jupiter avoided migrating into the inner Solar System, most probably due to the presence of Saturn, and never acquired a large-eccentricity orbit, even during the phase of orbital instability that the giant planets most likely experienced. Thus, the Earth formed on a time scale of several tens of millions of years, by collision of Moon- to Mars-mass planetary embryos, in a gas-free and volatile-depleted environment. We do not expect, however, that this clear cleavage between the giant and terrestrial planets is generic. In many extrasolar planetary systems discovered to date, the giant planets migrated into the vicinity of the parent star and/or acquired eccentric orbits. In this way, the evolution and destiny of the giant and terrestrial planets become intimately linked. This paper discusses several evolutionary patterns for the giant planets, with an emphasis on the consequences for the formation and survival of habitable terrestrial planets. The conclusion is that we should not expect Earth-like planets to be typical in terms of physical and orbital properties and accretion history. Most habitable worlds are probably different, exotic worlds. PMID:24664911

  10. Jupiter's Magnetosphere and Magnetotail (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Galileo orbiter has provided extensive observations of the fields and particles in the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter. This paper presents a review of current knowledge of the spatial distribution of plasma properties and magnetic field structure, plus any evidence for their variations with time. From the average distribution of plasma properties we are able to derive the flow of mass and energy through the system. Observations of structures in the magnetosphere will be compared with current models of the structure and dynamics of these rotation-dominated magnetospheres add their interactions with the interplanetary medium. The New Horizons spacecraft flew past Jupiter on its way to Pluto and traversed over 2500 Rj down the magnetotail. We review the New Horizons observations in light of current ideas about Jupiter's magnetotail.

  11. Did Fomalhaut, HR 8799, and HL Tauri Form Planets via the Gravitational Instability? Placing Limits on the Required Disk Masses

    E-print Network

    Nero, D

    2009-01-01

    Disk fragmentation resulting from the gravitational instability has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for forming giant planets. We use the planet Fomalhaut b, the triple-planetary system HR 8799, and the potential protoplanet associated with HL Tau to test the viability of this mechanism. We choose the above systems since they harbor planets with masses and orbital characteristics favored by the fragmentation mechanism. We do not claim that these planets must have formed as the result of fragmentation, rather the reverse: if planets can form from disk fragmentation, then these systems are consistent with what we should expect to see. We use the orbital characteristics of these recently discovered planets, along with a new technique to more accurately determine the disk cooling times, to place both lower and upper limits on the disk surface density--and thus mass--required to form these objects by disk fragmentation. Our cooling times are over an order of magnitude shorter than those of Rafikov (2005),w...

  12. Accretion disks around Jupiter and Saturn at the stage of regular satellite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makalkin, A. B.; Dorofeeva, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Modern models of the formation of the regular satellites of giant planets, constructed with consideration for their structure and composition suggest that this process lasted for a considerable period of time (0.1-1 Myr) and developed in gas-dust circumplanetary disks at the final stage of giant planet formation. The parameters of protosatellite disks (e.g., the radial distribution of surface density and temperature) serve as important initial conditions for such models. Therefore, the development of protosatellite disk models that take into account currently known cosmochemical and physical restrictions remains a pressing problem. It is this problem that is solved in the paper. New models of the accretion disks of Jupiter and Saturn were constructed with consideration for the disk heating by viscous dissipation of turbulent motions, by accretion of material from the surrounding region of the solar nebula, and by radiation from the central planets. The influence of a set of input model parameters (the total rate of mass infall onto the disk, the turbulent viscosity and opacity of disk material, and the centrifugal radius of the disk) on thermal conditions in the accretion disks was studied. The dependence of opacity on temperature and the abundance and size of solid particles present in the disk was taken into account. Those constructed models that satisfy the existing constraints limit the probable values of input parameters (primarily rates of mass infall onto the disks of Jupiter and Saturn at the stage of regular satellite formation and, to a lesser extent, the disk opacities). Constraints on the location of the regions of formation of the major satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are suggested based on the constructed models and simple analytical estimates concerning the formation of satellites in the accretion disks. It is shown that Callisto and Titan could hardly be formed at significantly greater distances from their planets.

  13. Discovery of WASP-65b and WASP-75b: Two hot Jupiters without highly inflated radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Faedi, F.; Pollacco, D.; Brown, D. J. A.; Doyle, A. P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Lendl, M.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.; Busuttil, R.; Liebig, C.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Bochinski, J.; Burwitz, V.; Delrez, L.; Enoch, B.; Fumel, A.; Haswell, C. A.; Hébrard, G.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Jehin, E.; Kolb, U.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Norton, A. J.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Rodríguez, J.; Ségransan, D.; Skillen, I.; Stassun, K. G.; Udry, S.; Watson, C.

    2013-11-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-65b (Mpl = 1.55 ± 0.16 MJ; Rpl = 1.11 ± 0.06 RJ), and WASP-75b (Mpl = 1.07 ± 0.05 MJ; Rpl = 1.27 ± 0.05 RJ). They orbit their host star every ~2.311, and ~2.484 days, respectively. The planet host WASP-65 is a G6 star (Teff = 5600 K, [Fe/H] = -0.07 ± 0.07, age ?8 Gyr); WASP-75 is an F9 star (Teff = 6100 K, [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.09, age ~ 3 Gyr). WASP-65b is one of the densest known exoplanets in the mass range 0.1 and 2.0 MJ (?pl = 1.13 ± 0.08 ?J), a mass range where a large fraction of planets are found to be inflated with respect to theoretical planet models. WASP-65b is one of only a handful of planets with masses of ~1.5 MJ, a mass regime surprisingly underrepresented among the currently known hot Jupiters. The radius of WASP-75b is slightly inflated (?10%) as compared to theoretical planet models with no core, and has a density similar to that of Saturn (?pl = 0.52 ± 0.06 ?J). Light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A36

  14. Massive planet migration: Theoretical predictions and comparison with observations

    E-print Network

    Armitage, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    We quantify the utility of large radial velocity surveys for constraining theoretical models of Type II migration and protoplanetary disk physics. We describe a theoretical model for the expected radial distribution of extrasolar planets that combines an analytic description of migration with an empirically calibrated disk model. The disk model includes viscous evolution and mass loss via photoevaporation. Comparing the predicted distribution to a uniformly selected subsample of planets from the Lick / Keck / AAT planet search programs, we find that a simple model in which planets form in the outer disk at a uniform rate, migrate inward according to a standard Type II prescription, and become stranded when the gas disk is dispersed, is consistent with the radial distribution of planets for orbital radii 0.1 AU < a < 2.5 AU and planet masses greater than 1.65 Jupiter masses. Some variant models are disfavored by existing data, but the significance is limited (~95%) due to the small sample of planets suit...

  15. A Kepler Mission, A Search for Habitable Planets: Concept, Capabilities and Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, Jack; Dunham, Edward; Jenkins, Jon; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The detection of extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The technological challenges of direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved over the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). The method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. The concept, its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  16. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  17. Ocean Planet or Thick Atmosphere: On the Mass-Radius Relationship for Solid Exoplanets with Massive Atmospheres

    E-print Network

    E. R. Adams; S. Seager; L. Elkins-Tanton

    2007-10-25

    The bulk composition of an exoplanet is commonly inferred from its average density. For small planets, however, the average density is not unique within the range of compositions. Variations of a number of important planetary parameters--which are difficult or impossible to constrain from measurements alone--produce planets with the same average densities but widely varying bulk compositions. We find that adding a gas envelope equivalent to 0.1%-10% of the mass of a solid planet causes the radius to increase 5-60% above its gas-free value. A planet with a given mass and radius might have substantial water ice content (a so-called ocean planet) or alternatively a large rocky-iron core and some H and/or He. For example, a wide variety of compositions can explain the observed radius of GJ 436b, although all models require some H/He. We conclude that the identification of water worlds based on the mass-radius relationship alone is impossible unless a significant gas layer can be ruled out by other means.

  18. Coronagraphic Search for Extra-Solar Planets around epsilon Eri and Vega

    E-print Network

    Yoichi Itoh; Yumiko Oasa; Misato Fukagawa

    2006-08-17

    We present the results of a coronagraphic imaging search for extra-solar planets around the young main-sequence stars, epsilon Eri and Vega. Concentrating the stellar light into the core of the point spread function by the adaptive optic system and blocking the core by the occulting mask in the coronagraph, we have achieved the highest sensitivity for point sources in close vicinity of the both central stars. Nonetheless we had no confidential detection of a point source around the stars. The observations give the upper limits on the masses of the planets to 4 -- 6 Jupiter mass and 5 -- 10 Jupiter mass at a few arcsecond from epsilon Eri and Vega, respectively. Diffuse structures are also not detected around both stars.

  19. Coronagraphic Search for Extra-Solar Planets around epsilon Eri and Vega

    E-print Network

    Itoh, Y; Fukagawa, M; Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Fukagawa, Misato

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a coronagraphic imaging search for extra-solar planets around the young main-sequence stars, epsilon Eri and Vega. Concentrating the stellar light into the core of the point spread function by the adaptive optic system and blocking the core by the occulting mask in the coronagraph, we have achieved the highest sensitivity for point sources in close vicinity of the both central stars. Nonetheless we had no confidential detection of a point source around the stars. The observations give the upper limits on the masses of the planets to 4 -- 6 Jupiter mass and 5 -- 10 Jupiter mass at a few arcsecond from epsilon Eri and Vega, respectively. Diffuse structures are also not detected around both stars.

  20. Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Schubert; Donald L. Turcotte; Peter Olson

    2001-01-01

    Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets is a comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of mantle convection within the Earth, the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The authors include up-to-date discussions of the latest research developments that have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and the planets. The book features a comprehensive index, an extensive

  1. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology (TokyoTech), 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Katsuta, Y., E-mail: mikoma@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  2. The Nine Planets: Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the planet Mars. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results from exploration spacecraft. Phobos and Deimos (Mars satellites) are also covered in depth. The site provides links to more images, movies, and facts about Mars and its moons, and discusses unanswered questions about the planet.

  3. ON THE HORSESHOE DRAG OF A LOW-MASS PLANET. I. MIGRATION IN ISOTHERMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S., E-mail: jules.casoli@cea.f, E-mail: frederic.masset@cea.f, E-mail: jules.casoli@cea.f [Also at ICF-UNAM, Av. Universidad s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos, C.P. 62210 (Mexico)

    2009-09-20

    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formalism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horseshoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feedback on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width of the horseshoe region, we provide an adequate definition of the width that needs to be used in horseshoe drag estimates. We then consider the case of locally isothermal disks, in which the temperature is constant in time but depends on the distance to the star. The horseshoe drag appears to be different from the case of a globally isothermal disk. The difference, which is due to the driving of vortensity in the vicinity of the planet, is intimately linked to the topology of the flow. We provide a descriptive interpretation of these effects, as well as a crude estimate of the dependency of the excess on the temperature gradient.

  4. A survey for very short-period planets in the Kepler data

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Chambers, John [Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Adams, Elisabeth R. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: bjackson@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s{sup –1}) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  5. A Survey for Very Short-Period Planets in the Kepler Data

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Brian; Adams, Elisabeth R; Chambers, John; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler dataset. Our preliminary survey has revealed thirteen planetary candidates, with periods ranging from 3.3 to 10 hours. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses, to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (about 10 m/s), detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered, and if common, such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission, which is specifically d...

  6. A Survey for Very Short-period Planets in the Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian; Stark, Christopher C.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Chambers, John; Deming, Drake

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler data set. Our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with orbital periods less than 12 hr. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean that they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m s-1) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets ever discovered. Such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  7. A Survey for Very Short-Period Planets in the Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Stark, C. C.; Adams, E. R.; Chambers, J. E.; Deming, D.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a search for very short-period transiting objects in the publicly available Kepler dataset, and our preliminary survey has revealed four planetary candidates, all with periods less than twelve hours. We have analyzed the data for these candidates using photometric models that include transit light curves, ellipsoidal variations, and secondary eclipses to constrain the candidates' radii, masses, and effective temperatures. Even with masses of only a few Earth masses, the candidates' short periods mean they may induce stellar radial velocity signals (a few m/s) detectable by currently operating facilities. The origins of such short-period planets are unclear, but we discuss the possibility that they may be the remnants of disrupted hot Jupiters. Whatever their origins, if confirmed as planets, these candidates would be among the shortest-period planets discovered so far, and such planets would be particularly amenable to discovery by the planned TESS mission.

  8. Neato-Magneto Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-11

    In this activity, teams of learners study magnetic fields at four separate stations: examining magnetic fields generated by everyday items, mapping out a magnetic field using a compass, creating models of Earth's and Jupiter's magnetic fields, and observing aurora produced by magnetic fields on both planets. This activity allows learners to do their own planetary investigations, similar to the research of the Juno mission.

  9. Implications of (Less) Accurate Mass-Radius-Measurements for the Habitability of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets: Why Do We Need PLATO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, L.; Wagner, F. W.; Plesa, A.-C.; Höning, D.; Sohl, F.; Breuer, D.; Rauer, H.

    2012-04-01

    Several space missions (CoRoT, Kepler and others) already provided promising candidates for terrestrial exoplanets (i.e. with masses less than about 10 Earth masses) and thereby triggered an exciting new research branch of planetary modelling to investigate the possible habitability of such planets. Earth analogues (low-mass planets with an Earth-like structure and composition) are likely to be found in the near future with new missions such as the proposed M3 mission PLATO. Planets may be more diverse in the universe than they are in the solar system. Our neighbouring planets in the habitable zone are all terrestrial by the means of being differentiated into an iron core, a silicate mantle and a crust. To reliably determine the interior structure of an exoplanet, measurements of mass and radius have to be sufficiently accurate (around +/-2% error allowed for the radius and +/-5% for the mass). An Earth-size planet with an Earth-like mass but an expected error of ~15% in mass for example may have either a Mercury-like, an Earth-like or a Moon-like (i.e. small iron core) structure [1,2]. Even though the atmospheric escape is not strongly influenced by the interior structure, the outgassing of volatiles and the likeliness of plate tectonics and an ongoing carbon-cycle may be very different. Our investigations show, that a planet with a small silicate mantle is less likely to shift into the plate-tectonics regime, cools faster (which may lead to the loss of a magnetic field after a short time) and outgasses less volatiles than a planet with the same mass but a large silicate mantle and small iron core. To be able to address the habitability of exoplanets, space missions such as PLATO, which can lead up to 2% accuracy in radius [3], are extremely important. Moreover, information about the occurrence of different planetary types helps us to better understand the formation of planetary systems and to further constrain the Drake's equation, which gives an estimate of the expected number of potentially habitable exoplanets in the universe.

  10. Observations of Extrasolar Planets During the non-Cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    E-print Network

    Drake Deming; Eric Agol; David Charbonneau; Nicolas Cowan; Heather Knutson; Massimo Marengo

    2007-10-22

    Precision infrared photometry from Spitzer has enabled the first direct studies of light from extrasolar planets, via observations at secondary eclipse in transiting systems. Current Spitzer results include the first longitudinal temperature map of an extrasolar planet, and the first spectra of their atmospheres. Spitzer has also measured a temperature and precise radius for the first transiting Neptune-sized exoplanet, and is beginning to make precise transit timing measurements to infer the existence of unseen low mass planets. The lack of stellar limb darkening in the infrared facilitates precise radius and transit timing measurements of transiting planets. Warm Spitzer will be capable of a precise radius measurement for Earth-sized planets transiting nearby M-dwarfs, thereby constraining their bulk composition. It will continue to measure thermal emission at secondary eclipse for transiting hot Jupiters, and be able to distinguish between planets having broad band emission versus absorption spectra. It will also be able to measure the orbital phase variation of thermal emission for close-in planets, even non-transiting planets, and these measurements will be of special interest for planets in eccentric orbits. Warm Spitzer will be a significant complement to Kepler, particularly as regards transit timing in the Kepler field. In addition to studying close-in planets, Warm Spitzer will have significant application in sensitive imaging searches for young planets at relatively large angular separations from their parent stars.

  11. Hot Jupiters: Lands of Plenty

    E-print Network

    David Charbonneau

    2005-11-22

    In late August 2005, 80 researchers from more than 15 countries convened for a 4-day conference entitled ``The Tenth Anniversary of 51 Peg b: Status and Prospects for Hot Jupiter Studies''. The meeting was held at l'Observatoire de Haute-Provence, the location of the 1.93-m telescope and ELODIE spectrograph used to discover the planetary companion to 51 Peg roughly 10 years ago. I summarize several dominant themes that emerged from the meeting, including (i) recent improvements in the precision of radial velocity measurements of nearby, Sun-like stars, (ii) the continued value of individual, newly-discovered planets of novel character to expand the parameter space with which the theory must contend, and (iii) the crucial role of space-based observatories in efforts to characterize hot Jupiter planets. I also present the returns of an informal poll of the conference attendees conducted on the last day of the meeting, which may be amusing to revisit a decade hence.

  12. Minimum Core Masses for Giant Planet Formation with Realistic Equations of State and Opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Youdin, Andrew N.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2015-02-01

    Giant planet formation by core accretion requires a core that is sufficiently massive to trigger runaway gas accretion in less than the typical lifetime of protoplanetary disks. We explore how the minimum required core mass, M crit, depends on a non-ideal equation of state (EOS) and on opacity changes due to grain growth across a range of stellocentric distances from 5-100 AU. This minimum M crit applies when planetesimal accretion does not substantially heat the atmosphere. Compared to an ideal gas polytrope, the inclusion of molecular hydrogen (H2) dissociation and variable occupation of H2 rotational states increases M crit. Specifically, M crit increases by a factor of ~2 if the H2 spin isomers, ortho- and parahydrogen, are in thermal equilibrium, and by a factor of ~2-4 if the ortho-to-para ratio is fixed at 3:1. Lower opacities due to grain growth reduce M crit. For a standard disk model around a Solar mass star, we calculate M crit ~ 8 M ? at 5 AU, decreasing to ~5 M ? at 100 AU, for a realistic EOS with an equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio and for grain growth to centimeter-sizes. If grain coagulation is taken into account, M crit may further reduce by up to one order of magnitude. These results for the minimum critical core mass are useful for the interpretation of surveys that find exoplanets at a range of orbital distances.

  13. Energetic neutral atoms from a trans-Europa gas torus at Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Krimigis, S M; Roelof, E C; Paranicas, C P

    2003-02-27

    The space environments--or magnetospheres--of magnetized planets emit copious quantities of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) at energies between tens of electron volts to hundreds of kiloelectron volts (keV). These energetic atoms result from charge exchange between magnetically trapped energetic ions and cold neutral atoms, and they carry significant amounts of energy and mass from the magnetospheres. Imaging their distribution allows us to investigate the structure of planetary magnetospheres. Here we report the analysis of 50-80 keV ENA images of Jupiter's magnetosphere, where two distinct emission regions dominate: the upper atmosphere of Jupiter itself, and a torus of emission residing just outside the orbit of Jupiter's satellite Europa. The trans-Europa component shows that, unexpectedly, Europa generates a gas cloud comparable in gas content to that associated with the volcanic moon Io. The quantity of gas found indicates that Europa has a much greater impact than hitherto believed on the structure of, and the energy flow within, Jupiter's magnetosphere. PMID:12606993

  14. High Latitude Mottling on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The familiar banded appearance of Jupiter at low and middle latitudes gradually gives way to a more mottled appearance at high latitudes in this striking true color image taken Dec. 13, 2000, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    The intricate structures seen in the polar region are clouds of different chemical composition, height and thickness. Clouds are organized by winds, and the mottled appearance in the polar regions suggests more vortex-type motion and winds of less vigor at higher latitudes.

    The cause of this difference is not understood. One possible contributor is that the horizontal component of the Coriolis force, which arises from the planet's rotation and is responsible for curving the trajectories of ocean currents and winds on Earth, has its greatest effect at high latitudes and vanishes at the equator. This tends to create small, intense vortices at high latitudes on Jupiter. Another possibility may lie in that fact that Jupiter overall emits nearly as much of its own heat as it absorbs from the Sun, and this internal heat flux is very likely greater at the poles. This condition could lead to enhanced convection at the poles and more vortex-type structures. Further analysis of Cassini images, including analysis of sequences taken over a span of time, should help us understand the cause of equator-to-pole differences in cloud organization and evolution.

    By the time this picture was taken, Cassini had reached close enough to Jupiter to allow the spacecraft to return images with more detail than what's possible with the planetary camera on NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. The resolution here is 114 kilometers (71 miles) per pixel. This contrast-enhanced, edge-sharpened frame was composited from images take at different wavelengths with Cassini's narrow-angle camera, from a distance of 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). The spacecraft was in almost a direct line between the Sun and Jupiter, so the solar illumination on Jupiter is almost full phase.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  15. A giant planet around HD95086 ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Chauvin, Gaël; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Meshkat, Tiffany; Boccaletti, Anthony; Quanz, Sascha P.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Bailey, Vanessa; Kenworthy, Matthew; Currie, Thayne; Girard, Julien H.; Delorme, Philippe; Desidera, Silvano; Dumas, Christophe; Mordasini, Christoph; Klahr, Hubert; Bonavita, Mariangela

    2013-07-01

    Understanding planetary systems formation and evolution has become one of the challenges in as- tronomy, since the discovery of the first exoplanet around the solar-type star 51 Peg in the 90's. While more than 800 planets (mostly giants) closer than a few AU have been identified with radial velocity and transit techniques, very few have been imaged and definitely confirmed around stars, at separations below a hundred of astronomical units. Direct imaging detection of exoplanet is indeed a major frontier in planetary astrophysics. It surveys a region of semi-major axes (> 5 AU) that is almost inaccessible to other methods. Moreover, the planets imaged so far orbit young stars; indeed the young planets are still hot and the planet-star contrasts are compatible with the detection limits currently achievable, in contrast with similar planets in older systems. Noticeably, the stars are of early-types, and surrounded by debris disks, i.e. disks populated at least by small grains with lifetimes so short that they must be permanently produced, probably by destruction (evaporation, collisions) of larger solid bodies. Consequently, every single discovery has a tremendous impact on the understanding of the formation, the dynamical evolution, and the physics of giant planets. In this context, I will present our recent discovery of one faint companion to a nearby, dusty, and young A-type star (at 56 AU projected separation). Background contaminants are rejected with high confidence level based on both astrometry and photometry with three dataset at more than a year-time-laps and two different wavelength regimes. From the system age (10 to 17 Myr) and from model-dependent luminosity estimates, we derive mass of 4 to 5 Jupiter mass. This planet is therefore the one with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Given its orbital and physical properties, I will discuss the implication on its atmosphere with respect to other imaged companions but also on its formation.

  16. On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. I. Two-dimensional Global Disk Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Alexander J. W.; Lyra, Wladimir; Boley, Aaron; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Turner, Neal

    2015-05-01

    Recent observations of gaps and non-axisymmetric features in the dust distributions of transition disks have been interpreted as evidence of embedded massive protoplanets. However, comparing the predictions of planet–disk interaction models to the observed features has shown far from perfect agreement. This may be due to the strong approximations used for the predictions. For example, spiral arm fitting typically uses results that are based on low-mass planets in an isothermal gas. In this work, we describe two-dimensional, global, hydrodynamical simulations of disks with embedded protoplanets, with and without the assumption of local isothermality, for a range of planet-to-star mass ratios 1–10 {{M}J} for a 1 {{M}? } star. We use the Pencil Code in polar coordinates for our models. We find that the inner and outer spiral wakes of massive protoplanets (M? 5 {{M}J}) produce significant shock heating that can trigger buoyant instabilities. These drive sustained turbulence throughout the disk when they occur. The strength of this effect depends strongly on the mass of the planet and the thermal relaxation timescale; for a 10 {{M}J} planet embedded in a thin, purely adiabatic disk, the spirals, gaps, and vortices typically associated with planet–disk interactions are disrupted. We find that the effect is only weakly dependent on the initial radial temperature profile. The spirals that form in disks heated by the effects we have described may fit the spiral structures observed in transition disks better than the spirals predicted by linear isothermal theory.

  17. Low-mass Planets in Protoplanetary Disks with Net Vertical Magnetic Fields: The Planetary Wake and Gap Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-05-01

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the "thermal criterion" for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous ? prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective ? within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant ?-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  18. WASP-17b: AN ULTRA-LOW DENSITY PLANET IN A PROBABLE RETROGRADE ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Smalley, B.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Bentley, S. J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Queloz, D.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Hebb, L.; Cameron, A. Collier; Enoch, B.; Horne, K.; Parley, N. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lister, T. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pollacco, D., E-mail: dra@astro.keele.ac.u [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-20

    We report the discovery of the transiting giant planet WASP-17b, the least-dense <