Science.gov

Sample records for juris priekulis aivars

  1. Our Faltering Jury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Albert W.

    1996-01-01

    Jury verdicts in recent high-profile cases, including the O. J. Simpson murder trial, have been controversial. Suggestions are offered for reform of jury trials to lessen the impact of societal stereotypes and public opinion. Among these suggestions are to eliminate or restrict peremptory juror challenges and rewrite and clarify instructions to…

  2. 25 CFR 11.314 - Jury trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Criminal Procedure § 11.314 Jury trials. (a) A defendant has a right, upon demand, to a jury trial in any criminal case: (1) That is punishable by a maximum sentence of one year incarceration; or (2) In which...

  3. JurisLIT Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacramento County Probation Dept., Sacramento, CA.

    JurisLIT was a literacy training effort operated jointly by the Sacramento County Probation Department, the Sacramento County Office of Education, the Los Rios Community College District, and the Superior and Municipal Courts of Sacramento County from March 1990 to March 1994. The program required selected probationers aged 18-30 to participate in…

  4. Teaching Students about Their Civic Obligation--Jury Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Leah T.; Steinbrink, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Contends that early adolescents need to learn how the jury trial system works. Provides background information on the topic for teachers. Includes a two-day lesson plan on jury duty as a civic obligation, background information for students, and extension activities relating to jury trials in the appendix. (CMK)

  5. Moral lessons from the jury box.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ben A

    2002-01-01

    A decade ago a North Carolina jury awarded millions of dollars in damages because of a healthcare institution's failure to provide appropriate pain relief to a dying patient. In 2001, a California jury found a physician guilty of elder abuse for his failure to properly manage the pain of a cancer patient. In both instances, state licensing boards had failed to take any disciplinary action against those involved. These cases dramatically illustrate a significant and persistent gulf between the lay public and the health professions with regard to the moral significance they attach to the duty to relieve suffering. Measures to insure that all patients receive effective assessment and management of their pain must take into account this disparity, and endeavor to achieve congruence by reconnecting the health professions to their ancient and core value--the relief of suffering. PMID:14650451

  6. Evaluation of 3D-Jury on CASP7 models

    PubMed Central

    Kaján, László; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Background 3D-Jury, the structure prediction consensus method publicly available in the Meta Server , was evaluated using models gathered in the 7th round of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP7). 3D-Jury is an automated expert process that generates protein structure meta-predictions from sets of models obtained from partner servers. Results The performance of 3D-Jury was analysed for three aspects. First, we examined the correlation between the 3D-Jury score and a model quality measure: the number of correctly predicted residues. The 3D-Jury score was shown to correlate significantly with the number of correctly predicted residues, the correlation is good enough to be used for prediction. 3D-Jury was also found to improve upon the competing servers' choice of the best structure model in most cases. The value of the 3D-Jury score as a generic reliability measure was also examined. We found that the 3D-Jury score separates bad models from good models better than the reliability score of the original server in 27 cases and falls short of it in only 5 cases out of a total of 38. We report the release of a new Meta Server feature: instant 3D-Jury scoring of uploaded user models. Conclusion The 3D-Jury score continues to be a good indicator of structural model quality. It also provides a generic reliability score, especially important for models that were not assigned such by the original server. Individual structure modellers can also benefit from the 3D-Jury scoring system by testing their models in the new instant scoring feature available in the Meta Server. PMID:17711571

  7. Twelve Angry Jurors?: Argument in the Jury Decision Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Badzinski, Diane M.

    Although scholars know a great deal about how argument works in the small group process in general, little is known about the role of argument in the jury decision making process. A study used R. A. Meyers' (1991) coding scheme to analyze the argument in 80 juries. Subjects were 209 males and 203 females enrolled in communication courses at a…

  8. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  9. How Juries Assess Universal Design in Norwegian Architectural School Competitions.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how architectural school competition juries assess Universal Design. The method used is a case study of 18 recent architectural school competitions in Norway. The results show that most competition briefs ask for Universal Designed buildings. In 8 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is mentioned as an assessment criterion. In 11 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is commented on by the juries in the jury reports, but only in 3 of the cases, do the juries assess this aspect consistently on every competition project. The overall impression is that some amount of uncertainty looms concerning how Universal Design should be assessed in the competition stage. Based on the findings, future juries should concentrate on orientation and overview prior to technicalities and details. PMID:27534308

  10. Juries and Medical Malpractice Claims: Empirical Facts versus Myths

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Juries in medical malpractice trials are viewed as incompetent, antidoctor, irresponsible in awarding damages to patients, and casting a threatening shadow over the settlement process. Several decades of systematic empirical research yields little support for these claims. This article summarizes those findings. Doctors win about three cases of four that go to trial. Juries are skeptical about inflated claims. Jury verdicts on negligence are roughly similar to assessments made by medical experts and judges. Damage awards tend to correlate positively with the severity of injury. There are defensible reasons for large damage awards. Moreover, the largest awards are typically settled for much less than the verdicts. PMID:19002541

  11. Juries and medical malpractice claims: empirical facts versus myths.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Neil

    2009-02-01

    Juries in medical malpractice trials are viewed as incompetent, antidoctor, irresponsible in awarding damages to patients, and casting a threatening shadow over the settlement process. Several decades of systematic empirical research yields little support for these claims. This article summarizes those findings. Doctors win about three cases of four that go to trial. Juries are skeptical about inflated claims. Jury verdicts on negligence are roughly similar to assessments made by medical experts and judges. Damage awards tend to correlate positively with the severity of injury. There are defensible reasons for large damage awards. Moreover, the largest awards are typically settled for much less than the verdicts. PMID:19002541

  12. The occupational hazards of jury duty.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S M; Winget, C

    1992-01-01

    Jurors on criminal trials carry a considerable burden of responsibility. They determine the defendant's fate. Additionally, during trials they can be exposed to stressful, frightening, and sordid aspects of life. The stressfulness varies depending upon the nature of the trial, its length, the nature of the testimony and evidence, the jurors' interpersonal relationships, the difficulty establishing guilt or innocence, the public's attitude, etc. These experiences can create psychological and/or physical discomfort that can be transient and mildly or moderately intense, or more serious and constitute illness. The authors have studied juries of four criminal trials--two murder cases, one child abuse case, and one obscenity case. Forty jurors were interviewed. Twenty-seven had one or more discomforting physical and/or physiological symptoms. These involved gastrointestinal distress (10 jurors); generalized nervousness (4 jurors); heart palpitation (6 jurors); headaches (4 jurors); sexual inhibitions (4 jurors); depression (4 jurors); anorexia (4 jurors); faintness (2 jurors); and numbness, lump in throat, chest pain, hives, and flu (1 juror each). Seven of the jurors became clearly ill. Illnesses included: peptic ulcer reactivation and hives, phobic reaction, anxiety state and increased alcohol use, hypertensive episode and visual scotomata, sexual inhibition, chills, fever, and depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:1421562

  13. PlanJury: probabilistic plan evaluation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.

  14. Order of Verdict Consideration and Decision Rule Effects on Mock Jury Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaye, Imafidon M.

    A study investigated the effects of order verdict consideration and decision rule on jury verdicts. After reading the summary of an actual trial, 240 mock jurors drawn from undergraduate communications classes were randomly assigned to six-member juries. Jury assignments were made under two verdict orders (ascending and descending order of…

  15. The Dynamics of Jury Decision-Making: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, W. Gary; Redfering, David

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed jurors serving on 99 criminal cases to examine socioeconomic, demographic, and psychological factors related to a guilty verdict. Results showed items concerning authoritarianism, religious ideology, and prior experience with courts correlated with jury behavior, but socioeconomic characteristics were not significant. (JAC)

  16. Setting priorities: is there a role for citizens' juries?

    PubMed

    Lenaghan, J; New, B; Mitchell, E

    1996-06-22

    Citizens' juries are an attempt to meaningfully involve members of the public in decisions which affect them in their own communities. The Institute for Public Policy Research and Cambridge and Huntingdon Health Authority have recently piloted the first jury in the United Kingdom. Sixteen jurors sat for four days, hearing evidence from a number of expert witnesses. The jurors were asked to consider how priorities for health care should be set, according to what criteria, and to what extent the public should be involved in this process. This pilot was also an attempt to assess the process itself, and our initial evaluation indicates that, given enough time and information, the public is willing and able to contribute to the debate about priority setting in health care. PMID:8664672

  17. Jury selection in child sex abuse trials: a case analysis.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Adams, Desiree D; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include authoritarianism, dogmatism, need for cognition, pretrial knowledge, and race/socioeconomic status. Case-specific variables include sexual attitudes, homonegativity, juror abuse history, and beliefs about children. The paper also provides a factual background of a representative case, incorporates relevant case law, identifies sources for voir dire and juror questionnaire items, and discusses lessons from the primary author's first experience as a trial consultant for the defense. PMID:19306206

  18. Judge upholds jury award over employer's HIV disclosure.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    A Federal judge has refused to overturn or reduce a jury's $125,000 award to a Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) employee who said his privacy was invaded when his superiors learned he was taking an AIDS medication. The employee, known as John Doe, charged that Judith Pierce, the chief administrative officer of SEPTA, looked at the records of the agency's prescription drug plan to confirm her suspicions that he had HIV. Pierce, who claimed drug report review was part of her job in controlling costs, contended that she wanted to make sure the plan's new administrator, Rite-Aid Corp., was charging the right prices for prescriptions. The judge agreed with the jury that Pierce went far beyond her role as auditor of the drug plan when she asked Rite-Aid to link individuals' names to specific prescriptions and then informed Doe's supervisor, associate, and another employee about Doe's AIDS medication. PMID:11362636

  19. The use of citizens' juries in health policy decision-making: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Street, Jackie; Duszynski, Katherine; Krawczyk, Stephanie; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Deliberative inclusive approaches, such as citizen juries, have been used to engage citizens on a range of issues in health care and public health. Researchers engaging with the public to inform policy and practice have adapted the citizen jury method in a variety of ways. The nature and impact of these adaptations has not been evaluated. We systematically searched Medline (PubMED), CINAHL and Scopus databases to identify deliberative inclusive methods, particularly citizens' juries and their adaptations, deployed in health research. Identified studies were evaluated focussing on principles associated with deliberative democracy: inclusivity, deliberation and active citizenship. We examined overall process, recruitment, evidence presentation, documentation and outputs in empirical studies, and the relationship of these elements to theoretical explications of deliberative inclusive methods. The search yielded 37 papers describing 66 citizens' juries. The review demonstrated that the citizens' jury model has been extensively adapted. Inclusivity has been operationalised with sampling strategies that aim to recruit representative juries, although these efforts have produced mixed results. Deliberation has been supported through use of steering committees and facilitators to promote fair interaction between jurors. Many juries were shorter duration than originally recommended, limiting opportunity for constructive dialogue. With respect to citizenship, few juries' rulings were considered by decision-making bodies thereby limiting transfer into policy and practice. Constraints in public policy process may preclude use of the 'ideal' citizens' jury with potential loss of an effective method for informed community engagement. Adapted citizens' jury models provide an alternative: however, this review demonstrates that special attention should be paid to recruitment, independent oversight, jury duration and moderation. PMID:24657639

  20. The Impact of Voir Dire and the Deliberation Process on Jury Verdicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, K. Phillip; Buchanan, Raymond W.

    Recent social scientific interest in juror selection has advanced the "voir dire" (jury selection) process beyond Clarence Darrow's formula for choosing a jury likely to be sympathetic to his client. From a communication perspective, generalization to different cases in different sections of the country and under different conditions suggests…

  1. Argumentation in Science Teacher Education: The Simulated Jury as a Resource for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; da Rocha Bernardo, José Roberto; Evagorou, Maria; de Melo, Viviane Florentino

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the contributions that a simulated jury-based activity might have for pre-service teachers, especially for their active participation and learning in teacher education. We observed a teacher educator using a series of simulated juries as teaching resources to help pre-service teachers develop their pedagogical…

  2. Evaluating the use of citizens’ juries in food policy: a case study of food regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deliberative engagement techniques and citizens’ juries are touted as means of incorporating the public into policy decision-making, managing community expectations and increasing commitment to public health policy. This paper reports a study to examine the feasibility of citizens’ juries as a means of collecting data to inform public health policy related to food regulation through evaluation of the conduct of a citizens’ jury. Methods A citizens’ jury was conducted with a representative sample of 17 South Australians to explore their willingness to consider the proposition that food and drink advertising and/or sponsorship should be banned at children’s sporting events. Results The results showed that, in relation to the central proposition and evaluation data from the jury, opinion on the proposition remained comparatively stable. Most jurors indicated that they thought that food and drink sponsorship and/or advertising at children’s sporting events would have little or no effect on altering children’s diet and eating habits, with the proportion increasing during the jury process. Jurors were given evaluation sheets about the content of the jury and the process of the citizens’ jury to complete at the end of the session. The evaluation of the citizens’ jury process revealed positive perceptions. The majority of jurors agreed that their knowledge of the issues of food and drink sponsorship in children’s sport had increased as a result of participation in the citizens’ jury. The majority also viewed the decision-making process as fair and felt that their views were listened to. One important response in the evaluation was that all jurors indicated that, if given the opportunity, they would participate in another citizens’ jury. Conclusions The findings suggest that the citizens’ jury increased participant knowledge of the issue and facilitated reflective discussion of the proposition. Citizens’ juries are an effective means

  3. Engaging the public in healthcare decision-making: quantifying preferences for healthcare through citizens’ juries

    PubMed Central

    Scuffham, Paul A; Ratcliffe, Julie; Kendall, Elizabeth; Burton, Paul; Wilson, Andrew; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Littlejohns, Peter; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The optimal approach to engage the public in healthcare decision-making is unclear. Approaches range from deliberative citizens’ juries to large population surveys using discrete choice experiments. This study promotes public engagement and quantifies preferences in two key areas of relevance to the industry partners to identify which approach is most informative for informing healthcare policy. Methods and analysis The key areas identified are optimising appropriate use of emergency care and prioritising patients for bariatric surgery. Three citizens’ juries will be undertaken—two in Queensland to address each key issue and one in Adelaide to repeat the bariatric surgery deliberations with a different sample. Jurors will be given a choice experiment before the jury, immediately following the jury and at approximately 1 month following the jury. Control groups for each jury will be given the choice experiment at the same time points to test for convergence. Samples of healthcare decision-makers will be given the choice experiment as will two large samples of the population. Jury and control group participants will be recruited from the Queensland electoral roll and newspaper advertisements in Adelaide. Population samples will be recruited from a large research panel. Jury processes will be analysed qualitatively and choice experiments will be analysed using multinomial logit models and its more generalised forms. Comparisons between preferences across jurors predeliberation and postdeliberation, control participants, healthcare decision-makers and the general public will be undertaken for each key issue. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee (MED/10/12/HREC). Findings of the juries and the choice experiments will be reported at a workshop of stakeholders to be held in 2015, in reports and in peer reviewed journals. PMID:24793259

  4. Respirators versus medical masks: evidence accumulates but the jury remains out

    PubMed Central

    Killingley, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Killingley (2011). Respiratory versus medical masks: evidence accumulates but the jury remains out. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2011.00237.x. PMID:21477131

  5. Teaching about Our Jury System. Unit 1. Our Right to an Impartial Jury of Our Peers, Our Responsibility to Serve as an Impartial Factfinder When Called for Jury Service. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Julie

    Designed for use in the junior high school curriculum, two lessons involve students in the structure and procedures of the jury system as it functions within the court system. Although intended for use with a slide program and computer software program, activities in the teaching guide can be used independently. For each lesson, background…

  6. The CSI effect and the Canadian and the Australian Jury.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Janne A; Fordham, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Television shows, such as CBS's CSI and its spin-offs CSI: Miami; CSI: Las Vegas; and CSI: New York, have sparked the imagination of thousands of viewers who want to become forensic scientists. The shows' fictional portrayals of crime scene investigations have prompted fears that jurors will demand DNA and other forensic evidence before they will convict, and have unrealistic expectations of that evidence. This has been dubbed the "CSI effect." This phenomenon was explored using results from a Canadian study based on 605 surveys of Canadian college students who would be considered jury-eligible and Australian quantitative and qualitative findings from a study that surveyed and interviewed real posttrial jurors. Information about the way jurors deal with forensic evidence in the context of other evidence and feedback about the way in which understanding such evidence could be increased were gained from both these studies. The comparison provides insights into the knowledge base of jurors, permitting adaptation of methods of presenting forensic information by lawyers and experts in court, based on evidence rather than folklore. While the Canadian juror data showed statistically significant findings that jurors are clearly influenced in their treatment of some forensic evidence by their television-viewing habits, reassuringly, no support was found in either study for the operation of a detrimental CSI effect as defined above. In the Australian study, in fact, support was found for the proposition that jurors assess forensic evidence in a balanced and thoughtful manner. PMID:21155799

  7. Argumentation in Science Teacher Education: The simulated jury as a resource for teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; da Rocha Bernardo, José Roberto; Evagorou, Maria; Florentino de Melo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we focus on the contributions that a simulated jury-based activity might have for pre-service teachers, especially for their active participation and learning in teacher education. We observed a teacher educator using a series of simulated juries as teaching resources to help pre-service teachers develop their pedagogical knowledge and their argumentation abilities in a physics teacher methods course. For the purposes of this article, we have selected one simulated jury-based activity, comprising two opposed groups of pre-service teachers that presented aspects that hinder the teachers' development of professional knowledge (against group) and aspects that allow this development (favor group). After the groups' presentations, a group of judges was formed to evaluate the discussion. We applied a multi-level method for discourse analysis and the results showed that (1) the simulated jury afforded the pre-service teachers to position themselves as active knowledge producers; (2) the teacher acted as 'animator' of the pre-service teachers' actions, showing responsiveness to the emergence of circumstantial teaching and learning opportunities and (3) the simulated jury culminated in the judges' identification of the pattern 'concrete/obstacles-ideological/possibilities' in the groups' responses, which was elaborated by the teacher for the whole class. Implications from this study include using simulated juries for teaching and learning and for the development of the pre-service teachers' argumentative abilities. The potential of simulated juries to improve teaching and learning needs to be further explored in order to inform the uses and reflections of this resource in science education.

  8. Facial Comparison from CCTV footage: The competence and confidence of the jury.

    PubMed

    Walker, Heather; Tough, Ann

    2015-12-01

    CCTV footage is commonly used in the court room to help visualise the crime in question and to help identify the offender. Unfortunately the majority of surveillance cameras produce such poor quality images that the task of identifying individuals can be extremely difficult. This study aimed at determining whether the task of identifying the offender in CCTV footage was one which a jury should be competent to do, or whether expert evidence would be beneficial in such cases. The ability of potential jury members, the general public, was tested by asking participants to play the role of a jury member by means of an online survey. Potential jury members viewed CCTV in which a simulated offence took place, and were subsequently asked to compare still images of a defendant to the offender to try to determine if they were competent and confident about making a judgement as to whether the defendant committed the crime. Factors such as age, gender and profession of the potential jury members were considered, as well as the type of crime committed, in order to establish if these play any role in the decision made by potential jury members. These factors did not appear to play a significant role; however confidence was also investigated and it became very evident that this was a factor that must be taken into consideration when determining the requirement for expert contribution in facial comparisons. Jury members may well be willing and competent to a basic level in carrying out a facial comparison but if they lack a certain level of confidence in their ability and decision making then this task is more suitable for an expert with experience and skills in this field. PMID:26654085

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as

  10. Social Justice and Environmental Awareness Developed through a Citizens' Jury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.

    2014-12-01

    A Citizens' Jury (CJ) is a discussion forum in which managers, policymakers or politicians are able to present their case to the general public ('citizens') to whom they are accountable, and for these citizens to critically ask questions of the managers/policymakers/politicians in order to better understand issues surrounding local development, planning and policy, impacts and adaptive measures, and to highlight their concerns. A CJ can be useful with respect to developing social justice and environmental awareness issues because it can empower community action and present different viewpoints. A practical CJ exercise is used in a second-year undergraduate course entitled Climate Change and Society, at University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The CJ is used to consider some of the impacts of management policies used for climate change and sustainable development adaption, based on a hypothetical scenario. This scenario is that a major energy company wants to build a dam with hydroelectric power station in a developing country. This will provide low-carbon renewable energy to the country, investment in electricity infrastructure, and the company is committed to help economic development in the country, including in jobs and education. However, building and flooding of the dam will involve displacing 10,000 people from rural communities, flooding agricultural areas and areas of high biodiversity, and archaeological sites. The exercise is based on students, in groups, assuming different 'identities' which may include a local business person, resident, politician, member of an NGO, tourist, engineer, farmer etc, from which viewpoint they must argue for/against the proposal and to question other peoples' viewpoints. This exercise is useful because it allows students to develop understandings of different viewpoints, evaluate risk and impacts on different communities, and highlights the complexity of real-world decision-making.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as

  12. (Almost) Everything I Need to Know about Multiculturalism I Learned on Jury Duty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shaunna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that during her experience on jury duty--spent with a melting pot of socially-conscious citizens--she reflected upon the implications for education and her own teaching practice. Three major themes centering around her understanding of multiculturalism surfaced: (1) Defining multiculturalism; (2) The cult of…

  13. Generational and age-based differences in attitudes towards jury service.

    PubMed

    Boatright, R G

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of surveys of jurors, potential jurors, and the general public show significant differences in attitudes towards jury service by the age of the respondent. This study analyzes the degree to which these differences are the result of generational effects, in which younger citizens are likely to continue in their beliefs about jury service as they age, and the degree to which they are a result of a respondent's life circumstances-income, employment status, or family status-and are thus not likely to be carried with jurors as they age. The article shows that, while there are differences in confidence in the courts by age group, younger jurors are more confident in their own abilities to serve well as jurors but more skeptical of the court as a whole; most differences in attitudes towards jury service are linked to life-cycle phenomena. As such, courts should work to provide assistance to particular age groups within the jury pool, including child care and appropriate compensation, if they are to attract jurors who are representative by age of the general public. PMID:11385703

  14. From Blood Freud to Jury System: The Metamorphosis of Cherokee Law from 1750 to 1840.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michelle

    1987-01-01

    Examines the Cherokees' deliberate adoption of the laws of the white man, focusing on the blood feud--a retaliation system designed to deal with homicide. Discusses cultural bases of Cherokee law and factors influencing the change to a jury system and noted key events of the adoption period (1797 to 1840). (JHZ)

  15. [How to become a pharmacist via the medical juries, during the Consulate and the Empire].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The law of Germinal an XI organized the education of pharmacists. It offered two different pathways to become a pharmacist. The first one needed three years in a pharmacy followed by three years of courses in a School of Pharmacy (located in Paris, Montpellier or Strasbourg) and the examination had to be passed in the School. The second one needed eight years in a pharmacy followed by an examination in front of a Medical jury. Medical juries were organized in every department and were composed by three physicians and four pharmacists. An interesting document, a book gathering together all the preparations realized during years 1811, 1812, 1813, collected by Claude Duméril in many departments, will allow to study what had been asked to the candidates in Rouen, in 1813, and what were reference pharmacopoeias used. PMID:26529887

  16. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed. PMID:27354112

  17. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-03-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity

  18. Justins v The Queen: assisted suicide, juries and the discretion to prosecute.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-06-01

    Juries are often a crucial protection for citizens against unjust or highly controversial laws. The decision whether to proceed with a prosecution rests on the discretionary powers of prosecutors. In cases where the community is deeply divided over right and wrong, it appears that there is, at times, a transference from the public of thwarted law reform aspirations which can create difficult tensions and expectations. This case commentary considers an appeal by Shirley Justins following her conviction for manslaughter by gross criminal negligence as a result of her involvement in the mercy killing of her partner, Mr Graeme Wylie. The morally unsettled nature of the charges brought against her, her own initial plea, the directions given to the jury by the trial judge and even the basis of her appeal resulted in a convoluted and complicated legal case. Spigelman CJ and Johnson J ordered a new trial, Spigelman CJ stating that it was open for a new jury to consider (a) if Mr Wylie lacked capacity; and (b) whether there was criminal involvement by one person in another's death. Simpson J found that further prosecution on the count of manslaughter would amount to an abuse of process and that an acquittal should be entered. This case highlights how fundamentally unsettled are the publicly much debated and persistently contentious issues of euthanasia, assisted suicide, the right of a person to die a dignified death and the way their capacity in that respect should be assessed. It perhaps asks us to reconsider the role of juries and the exercise of discretion by Directors of Public Prosecutions in areas of law where the community and law-makers are deeply and intractably divided. PMID:21774267

  19. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  20. Jury awards $6,000 in firing of hair stylist with AIDS.

    PubMed

    1996-12-27

    A Federal jury in New Mexico awarded $6,000 to the estate of a hairdresser after deciding that his employer retaliated against him for filing a discrimination complaint. The employer, MTS Corp., fired [name removed] after other workers refused to work with him. MTS Corp. also denied his request to work at his primary salon, denied his attendance at the company Christmas party, and claimed that he worked fewer hours than required. Outstanding legal costs are still being disputed. PMID:11364067

  1. A Community Jury on PSA screening: what do well-informed men want the government to do about prostate cancer screening—a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Doust, Jenny; Thomas, Rae; Gardiner, Robert; MacKenzie, Geraldine; Glasziou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer screening policies and programmes should take account of public values and concerns. This study sought to determine the priorities, values and concerns of men who were ‘fully informed’ about the benefits and harms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening; and empirically examine the value of a community jury in eliciting public values on PSA screening. Setting Community jury was convened on the Gold Coast, Queensland (Australia) to consider PSA screening benefits and harms, and whether government campaigns on PSA screening should be conducted. Participants 27 men (volunteers) aged 50–70 with no personal history of prostate cancer and willing to attend jury 6–7 April 2013: 12 were randomly allocated to jury (11 attended). Outcome measures A qualitative analysis was conducted of the jury deliberations (audio-recorded and transcribed) to elicit the jury's views and recommendations. A survey determined the impact of the jury process on participants’ individual testing decisions compared with control group. Results The jury concluded governments should not invest in programmes focused on PSA screening directed at the public because the PSA test did not offer sufficient reassurance or benefit and could raise unnecessary alarm. It recommended an alternative programme to support general practitioners to provide patients with better quality and more consistent information about PSA screening. After the jury, participants were less likely to be tested in the future compared with the controls, but around half said they would still consider doing so. Conclusions The jury's unanimous verdict about government programmes was notable in the light of their divergent views on whether or not they would be screened themselves in the future. Community juries provide valuable insights into the priorities and concerns of men weighing up the benefits and harms of PSA screening. It will be important to assess the degree to which the findings are generalisable

  2. Examining pretrial publicity in a shadow jury paradigm: issues of slant, quantity, persistence and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Penrod, Steven D; O'Connor, Maureen; Wallace, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pretrial publicity (PTP) on mock juror decision making. Specifically, we examined the influence of quantity and slant of the PTP (proprosecution vs. prodefense), the persistence of PTP effects over time, and whether the PTP effects demonstrated in research laboratories would also occur in more naturalistic settings (generalizability). Using a shadow jury paradigm we examined these effects using a real trial as stimulus. Mock jurors included 115 jury-eligible community members who were naturally exposed to PTP in the venue in which the actual case occurred and 156 who were experimentally exposed. We found mock jurors were significantly influenced by both the slant and quantity of the PTP to which they were exposed, such that those exposed to proprosecution or prodefense PTP tended to render decision in support of the party favored in the PTP, and those exposed to greater quantities of PTP tended to be more biased. Additionally, PTP effects persisted throughout the course of the trial and continued to influence judgments in face of trial evidence and arguments. A finding of no significant difference in the effect of exposure slant between the naturally exposed and experimentally exposed samples provides support for the external validity of laboratory studies examining PTP effects. This research helps address some of the concerns raised by courts with regard to the durability of PTP effects and the application of laboratory findings to real world settings. PMID:24933173

  3. Probability of criminal acts of violence: a test of jury predictive accuracy.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Cunningham, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The ability of capital juries to accurately predict future prison violence at the sentencing phase of aggravated murder trials was examined through retrospective review of the disciplinary records of 115 male inmates sentenced to either life (n = 65) or death (n = 50) in Oregon from 1985 through 2008, with a mean post-conviction time at risk of 15.3 years. Violent prison behavior was completely unrelated to predictions made by capital jurors, with bidirectional accuracy simply reflecting the base rate of assaultive misconduct in the group. Rejection of the special issue predicting future violence enjoyed 90% accuracy. Conversely, predictions that future violence was probable had 90% error rates. More than 90% of the assaultive rule violations committed by these offenders resulted in no harm or only minor injuries. PMID:23613146

  4. Teaching about Our Jury System. Unit 2. Our Right to an Impartial Jury of Our Peers, Our Role to Serve as an Impartial Factfinder When Called for Jury Service, Our Responsibility as Global Citizens to Understand the Judicial Systems of Other Countries. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Julie

    Designed for use in the high school curriculum, two lessons introduce students to contemporary issues surrounding the American jury system and to political, legal, and economic systems of other countries. Although intended for use with a filmstrip, cassette, computer software, and a computer instructional manual, activities in the teaching guide…

  5. Involving a Citizens’ Jury in Decisions on Individual Screening for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia; Satolli, Roberto; Carzaniga, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aims Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens’ engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens’ jury. Methods Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question “Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55–69 years old?”. A facilitator ran the jurors’ discussion. Results All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55–69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%. Conclusions This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment. PMID:26751212

  6. Bold, smart, dangerous and evil: perceived correlates of core psychopathic traits among jury panel members.

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Clark, John; Smith, Shannon Toney; Cox, Jennifer; Kelley, Shannon E

    2013-05-01

    Relatively few studies have investigated how laypersons perceive psychopathy, what factors they believe to be commonly associated with this disorder, or what rater personality characteristics might predict perceived psychopathic traits of the target person. An ethnically diverse sample of 285 US community members attending jury duty reviewed a case vignette regarding a capital murder trial and then rated (1) their perceptions of the defendant's psychopathic characteristics loosely based on trait indicators from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; (2) other characteristics of the defendant that might be associated with psychopathy (e.g. intelligence, violence potential); and (3) their own personality, using a very brief measure of Five Factor traits. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that participant ratings of psychopathy pertaining to the defendant were strongly associated with ratings on measures of his perceived boldness (i.e. social dominance and fearlessness), intelligence, violence potential, and perceptions that he was 'evil'. Big Five personality characteristics of the layperson raters, however, were only modestly associated with their ratings of psychopathy for the defendant. We review these results in terms of the potential stigmatization of individuals labelled as 'psychopaths' in forensic settings. PMID:24343940

  7. Life and death in the Lone Star State: three decades of violence predictions by capital juries.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark D; Sorensen, Jon R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of three decades of Texas jury predictions of future violence by capital defendants was tested through retrospective review of the disciplinary records of former death row (FDR) inmates in Texas (N = 111) who had been sentenced to death under this "special issue" and subsequently obtained relief from their death sentences between 1989 and 2008. FDR inmates typically had extended tenures on death row (M = 9.9 years) and post-relief in the general prison population (M = 8.4 years). FDR prevalence of serious assault was low, both on death row (3.6%) and upon entering the prison population (4.5%). None of the assaults resulted in life-threatening injuries to the victims. Violence among the FDR inmates was not disproportionate compared with life-sentenced capital offenders. Consistent with other research, juror expectations of serious prison violence by these offenders had high error (i.e., false positive) rates. The confidence of legislators and courts in the violence prediction capabilities of capital jurors is misplaced. PMID:21105010

  8. Use of a Classroom Jury Trial To Increase Student Perception of Science as Part of Their Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marjorie A.

    1997-05-01

    The concept of a jury trial in the classroom setting was used to present and discuss a current, controversial topic, the drug mifepristone (RU486). This drug is used as an abortion inducing agent although it has other clinical uses. The major goal was for students to see that science is a very important part of their lives. The class project involved discussions of the scientific, sociological, moral, ethical, religious, legal, as well as financial aspects of a real trial which involved a major science issue. Students were involved in role playing which included obtaining information and then participating in the mock trial. Student roles in this activity were as judges, defendant, jury, witnesses, lawyers, and court reporters. This four week project involved both verbal and written participation. Grades were based on both their oral and written on this project. The students found this a very interesting activity as evidenced by their enthusiasm. This class activity could be adapted to a variety of timely topics.

  9. A Study of Youth Attitudes Toward Authority and Their Relation to School Adjustment Patterns. A Report Prepared by the 1973-74 Humboldt County Grand Jury, June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlus, Donald; And Others

    The Humboldt County Grand Jury (1973-74) examined the attitudes of high school youths toward law enforcement in the California county. Since these are sensitive indicators of their attitudes toward authority in general, results should not be interpreted as being exclusively relevant to law enforcement. The study covered a 4 month period, sampling…

  10. Ira C. Ritter and The Kroger Co., v. Jerry and Ruth Stanton. "Trial by Jury." Lesson Plans for Secondary Teachers on the Constitutional Protections of Trial by Jury. Courts in the Classroom: Curriculum Concepts and Other Information on Indiana's Courts for the K-12 Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Elizabeth

    In the case of Ritter v. Stanton, the attorneys for Ira Ritter and Kroger alleged that the amount of damages awarded by the jury were excessive and asked the Indiana Supreme Court to review the matter. This set of three lesson plans for secondary educators uses the Ritter v. Stanton case to examine the concept of the U.S. constitutional right to…

  11. All care, but whose responsibility? Community juries reason about expert and patient responsibilities in prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    General practitioners have implicitly been given responsibility for guiding men's decisions about prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer, but patients' expectations of the bounds of this responsibility remain unclear. We sought to explore how well-informed members of the public allocate responsibilities in prostate-specific antigen screening decision-making. In 2014, we convened two Community juries in Sydney, Australia, to address questions related to the content and timing of information provision and respective roles of patients and general practitioners in screening decisions. Participants in the first jury were of mixed gender and of all ages (n = 15); the participants in the second jury were all male and of screening age (n = 12). Both juries were presented with balanced factual evidence on the harms and benefits of prostate-specific antigen screening and expert perspectives on ethico-legal aspects of consent in medical practice. In their deliberations, jurors agreed that general practitioners should take responsibility for informing men of the options, risks and benefits of prostate-specific antigen testing, but arrived at different positions on whether or not general practitioners should also guide screening decisions. Jurors also disagreed on how much and when general practitioners should provide detailed information about biopsies and treatments. These responses suggest that for prostate-specific antigen testing, there is a public expectation that both the allocation of responsibility between general practitioners and their male patients, and the level of information provided will be tailored to individual men. In the presence of expert uncertainty, a well-informed public may have reason to embrace or resist shared decision-making processes. PMID:27491944

  12. Development of a Base for the Re-evaluation of the Professional Segment of the Master of Science Degree Program in Industrial Education at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. Part VIII: Importance of Industrial Education Teacher's Professional Tasks as Seen by a Jury of Selected Leaders in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lawrence S.

    This study was conducted a) to determine the importance that a jury of selected national leaders in education attaches to each of the professional tasks for secondary school industrial education teachers and b) to find out what differences, if any, exist between the importance judgments of the jury and those of each of four industrial education…

  13. Trial By Jury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    With 600 organizations in 45 states, teen courts are becoming viable alternative to processing first-time youthful offenders through the juvenile justice system. Teen courts may be run by schools, juvenile courts and probation departments, law enforcement agencies, or youth welfare organizations. Successful school-related courts are profiled. (MLH)

  14. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases. PMID:23754472

  15. Olestra? The Jury's Still Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-04-01

    Although it has been more than a year since the FDA approved the use of olestra in certain foods, this fat substitute, a mixture of sucrose polyesters, is still controversial. It would seem that a fat substitute that is heat stable and has an acceptable flavor and texture would be welcomed enthusiastically in a country where increasing numbers of people, young and old, exceed their ideal body weight. Obesity and diets containing high levels of fat have been linked to numerous health problems, including cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancer, and adult-onset diabetes; they may also exacerbate some chronic problems such as arthritis in joints of the lower extremities. Nevertheless, some scientists and consumer groups question olestra's safety and usefulness.

  16. Assessing Racial Attitudes in Jury Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Clara; Bromley, Stephanie

    This paper examines the current state of voir dire procedures (the process in which prospective jurors are questioned about possible prejudgment or bias) used to detect racial attitudes in court cases involving black defendants and compares voir dire questions allowed and disallowed by the court. Data based upon an assessment of racial attitudes…

  17. Trials by Juries: Suggested Practices for Database Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterbush, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Librarians frequently utilize product trials to assess the content and usability of a database prior to committing funds to a new subscription or purchase. At the 2012 Electronic Resources and Libraries Conference in Austin, Texas, three librarians presented a panel discussion on their institutions' policies and practices regarding database…

  18. The Historical Importance of Jury to Press Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    Staggered by some recent libel verdicts, many journalists are neglecting lessons about press freedom learned at great cost during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Journalists then learned that state power over the press, residing in the hands of either censors or judges, leads to a decrease in press freedom. In 1986, though, many media…

  19. Do health care delivery system reforms improve value? The jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Korenstein, Deborah; Duan, Kevin; Diaz, Manuel Jose; Ahn, Rosa; Keyhani, Salomeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Widespread restructuring of health delivery systems is underway in the US to reduce costs and improve the quality of healthcare. Objective To describe studies evaluating the impact of system-level interventions (incentives and delivery structures) on the value of US healthcare, defined as the balance between quality and cost. Research Design We identified articles in PubMed (2003 to July 2014) using keywords identified through an iterative process, with reference and author tracking. We searched tables of contents of relevant journals from August 2014 through 11 August 2015 to update our sample. Subjects We included prospective or retrospective studies of system-level changes, with a control, reporting both quality and either cost or utilization of resources. Measures Data about study design, study quality, and outcomes was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Results Thirty reports of 28 interventions were included. Interventions included patient-centered medical home (PCMH) implementations (n=12), pay-for-performance programs (n=10), and mixed interventions (n=6); no other intervention types were identified. Most reports (n=19) described both cost and utilization outcomes. Quality, cost, and utilization outcomes varied widely; many improvements were small and process outcomes predominated. Improved value (improved quality with stable or lower cost/utilization or stable quality with lower cost/utilization) was seen in 23 reports; 1 showed decreased value, and 6 showed unchanged, unclear or mixed results. Study limitations included variability among specific endpoints reported, inconsistent methodologies, and lack of full adjustment in some observational trials. Lack of standardized MeSH terms was also a challenge in the search. Conclusions On balance the literature suggests that health system reforms can improve value. However, this finding is tempered by the varying outcomes evaluated across studies with little documented improvement in outcome quality measures. Standardized measures of value would facilitate assessment of the impact of interventions across studies and better estimates of the broad impact of system change. PMID:26492216

  20. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis: The Jury is Still Out

    PubMed Central

    Treiner, Emmanuel; Liblau, Roland S.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), as demonstrated by the efficacy of therapies targeting various components of adaptive immunity. However, the disease still progresses despite these treatments in many patients, while others experience life-threatening adverse effects, urging for the discovery of new immune-targeting medications. Among the immune cell types participating to MS pathogenesis, decades of work have highlighted the prominent role of CD4 T cells. More recent data demonstrate the involvement of CD8 T cells as well. The existence of both pathogenic and protective CD8 T cells subsets has been suggested, adding an additional layer of complexity to the picture. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that make up to 25% of CD8 T cells in healthy subjects. They are specific for conserved microbial ligands and may constitute an important barrier against invasive bacterial and fungal infection. An increasing number of reports also suggest their possible involvement in chronic inflammatory diseases, including MS. MAIT cells could participate through their ability to produce IFNγ and/or IL-17, two major cytokines in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which MAIT cells could be activated in these sterile conditions are not known. Furthermore, contradictory observations have been made, reporting either a protective or a pro-inflammatory behavior of MAIT cells in MS or its murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this review article, we will describe the current knowledge on MAIT cell biology in health and disease, and discuss the possible mechanisms behind their role in MS. The specific features of this new non-conventional T cell subset make it an interesting candidate as a biomarker or as the target of immune-mediated intervention. PMID:26483793

  1. The Effect of Cross-Examination Tactics on Simulated Jury Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Margaret; And Others

    Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of leading questions by attorneys on eyewitness testimony and has found that adversary lawyers produced less accurate testimony from eyewitnesses. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lawyer's hostile versus non-hostile behavior and lawyer's leading versus non-leading questions on…

  2. Fostering Organizational Change through Deliberations: The Deliberative Jury in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Europe face a variety of reform initiatives, and university reform can be seen as a wicked problem that should be resolved through collaborative efforts. In Finland, there has been considerable resistance to proposed reforms, with university personnel complaining that they have not been heard. Students, on the other hand, seem…

  3. Attorney Questions Predict Jury-eligible Adult Assessments of Attorneys, Child Witnesses, and Defendant Guilt.

    PubMed

    Mugno, Allison P; Klemfuss, J Zoe; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Children are often the primary source of evidence in maltreatment cases, particularly cases of child sexual abuse, and may be asked to testify in court. Although best-practice protocols for interviewing children suggest that interviewers ask open-ended questions to elicit detailed responses from children, during in-court testimony, attorneys tend to rely on closed-ended questions that elicit simple (often "yes" or "no") responses (e.g., Andrews, Lamb, & Lyon, ; Klemfuss, Quas, & Lyon, ). How then are jurors making decisions about children's credibility and ultimately the case outcome? The present study examined the effect of two attorney-specific factors (e.g., temporal structure and questioning phase) on mock jurors' perceptions of attorney performance, child witness credibility, storyline clarity, and defendant guilt. Participants were randomly assigned to read a trial excerpt from one of eight conditions and were then asked to evaluate the attorney, child witness, and the case. Selected excerpts were from criminal court case transcripts and contained either high attorney temporal structure (e.g., use of temporal markers) or low temporal structure (e.g., frequent topic switching), involved direct or cross-examination, and represented cases resulting in a conviction or acquittal. Child responses were kept consistent across all excerpts. Results showed that participants perceived the attorney's performance and child's credibility more favorably and thought the storyline was clearer when attorneys provided high rather than low temporal structure and when the excerpt contained direct rather than cross-examination. Participants who read a direct rather than cross-examination excerpt were also more likely to think the defendant was guilty. The study highlights the impact of attorney questioning style on mock jurors' perceptions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26932420

  4. Jury acquits seven prison guards in beating of HIV-positive inmate.

    PubMed

    1999-03-19

    Seven guards from the Charlotte Correctional Institution were acquitted of beating and harassing an HIV-positive inmate, [name removed] was transferred to that prison because he bit a guard in the face at another prison. He later attempted suicide and slowly bled to death while shackled to a bed. Prosecutor Doug Molloy said [name removed] was harassed from the moment he arrived, and slashed his own wrist after 3 days of abuse. The jurors found insufficient evidence to convict the seven with conspiring to deny [name removed] his civil rights. Three other corrections officers, who also faced charges, testified for the prosecution. PMID:11366445

  5. Change over Time in Obedience: The Jury's Still out, but It Might Be Decreasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    Jerry M. Burger's (see record 2008-19206-001) partial replication of Stanley Milgram's (1974) obedience study shows both the influence of culture and generations on behavior and the power of the situation. In Burger's data, disobedience has nearly doubled among male participants since the 1960s, a shift just as large as the increase in Americans'…

  6. Visual Spatial Attention to Multiple Locations At Once: The Jury Is Still Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Bert; Peters, Judith C.; De Weerd, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although in traditional attention research the focus of visual spatial attention has been considered as indivisible, many studies in the last 15 years have claimed the contrary. These studies suggest that humans can direct their attention simultaneously to multiple noncontiguous regions of the visual field upon mere instruction. The notion that…

  7. Reactance in the Jury Room: Decision by Men and Not by Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follert, Vincent F.

    Based on research indicating that restrictive judicial language directed at jurors encourages reactance, or decisions contrary to the judge's instructions, two experiments were conducted to determine whether courtroom jurors merely admonished to ignore inadmissible evidence would be more inclined to comply with judicial instructions than would…

  8. Part-Time Faculty in Community Colleges: The Jury Is Still Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael

    This paper examines a number of issues associated with part-time faculty in community colleges. In the area of part-time faculty integration, the author surveyed 28 Florida colleges using an online survey, and received responses from 20, for a response rate of 71.4%. The survey contained five questions: (1) Are adjunct/part-time faculty listed in…

  9. The Jury Is Still Out: Psychoemotional Support in Peer E-Mentoring for Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; Sanchez-Garcia, Marife

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how computer mediated communication (CMC) can sustain nourishing and emotionally enriching peer mentoring relations. A peer electronic mentoring program was implemented in an Irish university to facilitate freshmen's transition to college. A sample of 123 participants (42 mentors and 81 mentees) was evaluated with a…

  10. Student Teaching Behaviors Identified by a National Jury of Cooperating Teachers as Indicators of Success in Sixteen Competency Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Sarah J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine what behaviors would be accepted by cooperating teachers in the public schools as indications of success in sixteen broad areas of teaching competence. In order to determine the behaviors most appropriate for judging effectiveness, a modified Delphi survey involving two contacts with the survey population…

  11. Perinatal interventions and survival in resource-poor settings: which work, which don’t, which have the jury out?

    PubMed Central

    Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal conditions make the largest contribution to the burden of disease in low-income countries. Although postneonatal mortality rates have declined, stillbirth and early neonatal mortality rates remain high in many countries in Africa and Asia, and there is a concentration of mortality around the time of birth. Our article begins by considering differences in the interpretation of ‘intervention’ to improve perinatal survival. We identify three types of intervention: a single action, a collection of actions delivered in a package and a broader social or system approach. We use this classification to summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. After describing the growing evidence base for the effectiveness of community-based perinatal care, we discuss current concerns about integration: of women’s and children’s health programmes, of community-based and institutional care, and of formal and informal sector human resources. We end with some thoughts on the complexity of choices confronting women and their families in low-income countries, particularly in view of the growth in non-government and private sector healthcare. PMID:20980274

  12. Role of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: The jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Zhu, Man-Sheng; Wu, Wen-Rui; Shi, Xiang-De; Xu, Lei-Bo

    2014-01-01

    As the leading cause of disease-related deaths, cancer is a major public health threat worldwide. Surgical resection is still the first-line therapy for patients with early-stage cancers. However, postoperative relapse and metastasis remain the cause of 90% of deaths of patients with solid organ malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With the rapid development of molecular biology techniques in recent years, molecularly targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and vaccines have become a milestone in cancer therapeutic by significantly improving the survival of cancer patients, and have opened a window of hope for patients with advanced cancer. Hypervascularization is a major characteristic of HCC. It has been reported that anti-angiogenic treatments, which inhibit blood vessel formation, are highly effective for treating HCC. However, the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenesis therapies remain controversial. Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects and is the first molecular target drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC. While sorafenib has shown promising therapeutic effects, substantial evidence of primary and acquired resistance to sorafenib has been reported. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate a large number of molecularly targeted drugs for treating HCC, but most drugs exhibited less efficacy and/or higher toxicity compared to sorafenib. Therefore, understanding the mechanism(s) underlying sorafenib resistance of cancer cells is highlighted for efficiently treating HCC. This concise review aims to provide an overview of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of HCC and to discuss the common mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapies. PMID:25544869

  13. Juror Judgments and Discussion: Effect of Presentation and Memory Factors on Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Martin F.; Miller, Charles E.

    Mock juries of six females each listened to a tape-recording of facts in a courtroom trial. Twelve juries heard guilt-appearing facts, and twelve heard innocent-appearing facts. In half the juries hearing each type of trial, jurors heard the facts in the same (Homogeneous) order; in the remaining juries, each of the six jurors heard the facts in a…

  14. Total Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2007

    2007-01-01

    For 25 years, "American School & University" has been publishing a special issue dedicated to the best in education design. Although design has changed dramatically over the years, one will find that the jury criteria for award-winning projects has remained consistent. The first jury was looking for technical innovation, and 1986's jury mentioned…

  15. Perception of Rape Victims: The Impact of Evidentiary Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgida, Eugene; And Others

    A simulated jury deliberation with experienced and inexperienced jurors sampled from the jury population of Hennepin County, Minnesota, was investigated. The purpose was to assess the impact of recent reforms in evidentiary rules pertaining to the admissibility of prior sexual history evidence in rape trials. Specific questions included: (1)…

  16. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau" (Barcelona,…

  17. Campus Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Susan

    2009-01-01

    In this annual Architectural Portfolio issue, the author presents the main winners that impressed the jury as facilities that will excite and challenge students in dramatic ways. The Children's School, Stamford, Connecticut, the Caudill winner, is "reminiscent of the Crow Island School," according to this year's jury. The Kahn winner, Peninsula…

  18. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  19. Justice by the People. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Diane; Alderson, Jan, Ed.

    This interactive curriculum has been developed to teach students about one of their most important rights as citizens, trial by jury. Knowledge about this right is critical since most of today's students will be called to serve on juries at some point in their lives. The curriculum's goal is to help students understand the history and value of…

  20. Eckmann v. Board of Education of Hawthorn School District: Bad Management Makes Bad Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacken, Donal M.

    1988-01-01

    A school board's dismissal of a teacher who was an unwed mother resulted in the jury granting a large award. The judge grounded the legal justification for the jury's decision in the teacher's constitutionally protected decision to bear a child, irrespective of marriage. Criticizes court's constitutional intrepretation. (MLF)

  1. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  2. Teen Court: A National Movement. Technical Assistance Bulletin No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  3. To require the United States attorney to bring the matter of an individual's contempt of Congress before a grand jury not later than 30 days after receiving a certification from the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the President of the Senate that the individual is in contempt.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jordan, Jim [R-OH-4

    2014-07-29

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Oily omen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A jury found that the Exxon Corp. was indeed reckless in allowing a captain with a track record of alcohol abuse to pilot the Valdez supertanker, which ran aground in March 1989, causing North America's worst oil spill ever. The Alaskan jury also found the captain negligent and reckless for drinking on the job the afternoon of the incident. The jury is yet to decide just how much Exxon should pay in liability in the civil suit, but the figure could easily come out in the billions.

  5. A Short History of the International Physics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunfalvi, R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the International Physics Competition (IPC). IPC rules, aims, organization, participants, leaders, finance, language, duration, international jury, problems, evaluation, prizes, and organizers' responsibilities are discussed. Typical problems used and problem solving methods are also discussed. (JN)

  6. Environmental Response: Strawberry Hill Campus, Bar Harbor, Maine. The 21st Awards Program: A Year of Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Progressive Architecture Awards Jury gave citations to three projects grouped as "the response by architects to environmental problems." One citation was awarded to a college campus design utilizing solar energy, recycled materials, and wind power. (MF)

  7. 28 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quash grand jury subpoenas and motions to compel testimony), applications for search warrants, and... licensure or membership in a particular state bar. (i) The phrase state of licensure means the District...

  8. 28 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quash grand jury subpoenas and motions to compel testimony), applications for search warrants, and... licensure or membership in a particular state bar. (i) The phrase state of licensure means the District...

  9. Learning from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Andrew D.

    2015-06-01

    When it comes to safety, the jury's still out on which nanoparticle characteristics we should be measuring. But, as Andrew D. Maynard explains, there's a rich history dating back over a hundred years on how we measure them.

  10. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences. PMID:25844513

  11. Effects of sentencing options and strict / lenient instructions on convicting suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Range, Lillian M; Berman, Mitchell; Embry, Tippins

    2003-11-01

    Sentence and strictness of instructions influence juries' willingness to convict. To see whether this result holds for suicide attempters, 240 undergraduates read jury instructions for a suicide attempt that varied sentence (jail term, fine, community service, or mandatory counseling) and instructions, voted guilty / not guilty, and rated their certainty and effectiveness. With sentences of 25 hours mandatory counseling, or strict instructions, more respondents voted guilty. Sentence did not impact certainty or effectiveness, but strictness enhanced certainty. Overall, respondents were neutral that convicting a suicide attempter would reduce future attempts. Consistent with terror management theory, present students were willing to punish regardless of whether they thought that the punishment was preventive. PMID:14577449

  12. Model-based synthesis of aircraft noise to quantify human perception of sound quality and annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berckmans, D.; Janssens, K.; Van der Auweraer, H.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a method to synthesize aircraft noise as perceived on the ground. The developed method gives designers the opportunity to make a quick and economic evaluation concerning sound quality of different design alternatives or improvements on existing aircraft. By presenting several synthesized sounds to a jury, it is possible to evaluate the quality of different aircraft sounds and to construct a sound that can serve as a target for future aircraft designs. The combination of using a sound synthesis method that can perform changes to a recorded aircraft sound together with executing jury tests allows to quantify the human perception of aircraft noise.

  13. Considerations for implementing pre-dispute arbitration agreements in provider contracts.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Joseph M

    2008-01-01

    Due in part to the historical increase in large compensatory awards and punitive damages in jury verdicts in medical malpractice/long-term care cases and the concomitant increase in the costs of defending these claims, healthcare providers have sought to reduce litigation costs and avoid exposure to runaway jury verdicts in medical malpractice trials by implementing arbitration agreements in healthcare admission contracts. Risk managers should be aware of the evolving law in this area and recognize that a successful arbitration program requires a commitment to ensuring that the program is administered in accordance with evolving laws. PMID:20200899

  14. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  15. The Nebraska Interstate-80 Sculpture Project and the Hidden Arts Curriculum of Small Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    Ten American artists were commissioned in 1975 to produce sculptures as rest stops along the Nebraska stretch of Interstate-80 in celebration of the American Bicentennial. The ten commissioned sculptures were selected through a national juried competition that drew 121 initial entries at a cost of $500,000. Despite initial controversy centering…

  16. The Florida High School Mock Trial Competition Case Materials, 1997. State of Florida v. Lee Appleman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Law Related Education Association, Tallahassee.

    This material provides students with information to prepare for a mock trial. The defendant in this case has been accused of the crime of driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages causing severe bodily injury. Case materials include stipulated facts, jury instructions, depositions, and other related materials. (EH)

  17. From Theory to Data: The Process of Refining Learning Progressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Nicole A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan

    2013-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs) are theoretical models of how learners develop expertise in a domain over extended periods of time. Recent policy reports have touted LPs as a promising approach to aligning standards, curriculum, and assessment. However, the scholarship on LPs is relatively sparse, and the jury is still out on the theoretical and…

  18. The Double Helix Takes the Witness Stand: Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Genetics in Court

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments—but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse. PMID:24908480

  19. The Wasps in Court: Argument and Audience in the Athenian Dikasteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    In an attempt to explain why Aristotle devotes a substantial part of Book Two of "The Rhetoric" to methods for arousing jurors' emotions, despite stating previously that such emotional appeal is nonessential and unethical, this paper examines the nature of the Athenian jury courts, or dikasteries. It first discusses the historical development and…

  20. The Effectiveness of Guided Induction versus Deductive Instruction on the Development of Complex Spanish "Gustar" Structures: An Analysis of Learning Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Luis; Caras, Allison; Leow, Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic research suggests an edge of explicit over implicit instruction for the development of complex L2 grammatical structures, but the jury is still out as to which type of explicit instruction--"deductive" or "inductive," where rules are respectively provided or elicited--proves more effective. Avoiding this…

  1. A Physical Education Evaluation for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Albert

    A physical education evaluation was constructed which was flexible enough to measure the varying degrees of retardation. Validity was determined by submitting the test to a jury of experts. Reliability was ascertained by administering the same test to the same students three times with two week intervals between testing. Objectivity was determined…

  2. Score Calculation in Informatics Contests Using Multiple Criteria Decision Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2011-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiad is a problem solving contest for high school students. The work of each contestant is evaluated in terms of several criteria, where each criterion is measured according to its own scale (but the same scale for each contestant). Several jury members are involved in the evaluation. This paper analyses the problem…

  3. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  4. Sociologist Jailed Because He "Wouldn't Snitch" Ponders the Way Research Ought to Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A Washington doctoral candidate in sociology is jailed for contempt of court for not revealing conversations with animal-rights activists in a grand jury investigation of a research laboratory raid at his institution. The graduate student refused to breach an American Sociological Association pledge of scholarly confidentiality. (MSE)

  5. 48 CFR 31.001 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Compensated personal absence means any absence from work for reasons such as illness, vacation, holidays, jury duty, military training, or personal activities for which an employer pays compensation directly to an employee in accordance with a plan or custom of the employer. Compensation for personal services means...

  6. The Authority of Truth: Religion and the John Peter Zenger Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    An appreciation of the religious milieu of the John Peter Zenger libel case of 1735 can help explain the nature of the Zenger defense as prepared by Alexander Hamilton, the meaning of the jury's verdict, and the ambiguous legacy of the trial for freedom of expression in the United States. In essence, the case was a disputation on "truth" and on…

  7. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based universities…

  8. Beyond the Schoolhouse Door: Educating the Political Animal in Jefferson's Little Republics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotts, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Jefferson believed that citizenship must exhibit republican virtue. While education was necessary in a republican polity, it alone was insufficient in sustaining a revolutionary civic spirit. This paper examines Jefferson's expectations for citizen virtue, specifically related to militia and jury service in his "little republics."…

  9. A Content Analysis of the Methods Course for the Teaching of English in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boze, Nancy Smith

    Through the completion of a questionnaire-rating scale, three juries composed of authorities in education and English, of communication arts coordinators, and of outstanding English teachers helped to identify and rank common competencies and concepts that all prospective English teachers should acquire in their English methods courses, and…

  10. Employing a Mock Trial in a Criminology Course: An Applied Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepelak, Norma J.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a criminology class exercise that consisted of staging a mock trial using the murders from Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood" as source material. Students research the case and role play various lawyers, jury members, and witnesses. Identifies and discusses four educational objectives attainable through the staging of mock trials. (MJP)

  11. American military dentists as prisoners-of-war in the Pacific theatre during World War II.

    PubMed

    Bober-Moken, I G

    1994-03-01

    Fifty-three American Military dentists were held by the Japanese as Prisoners-of-War during World War II. Throughout 40 months of captivity these men served their fellow prisoners providing dental treatment in an austere environment with "jury-rigged" equipment and supplies. A brief overview of their experiences is presented in this paper. PMID:8061507

  12. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  13. A Report on a Survey of Artists/Craftspersons' Attitudes Toward Competitive Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Robert L.; Arch, Adria B.

    Results of a survey to determine the attitudes of artists and craftspersons toward entering competitive juried exhibitions are reported. Questionnaires were sent to people entering the national Copper, Brass, and Bronze Exhibition for 1977 along with notices of acceptance or rejection. One hundred-ninety artists (38%) responded. The questionnaire…

  14. An Empirical Study of Post-Branzburg Cases Involving Newsmen's Privilege.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Achal

    Nine years after the 1972 Supreme Court ruling in *Branzburg v. Hayes" that journalists enjoy no constitutional privilege to withhold the names of sources and to conceal information from grand jury proceedings, a study was conducted to determine the courts' attitudes toward journalists' privilege and to test commonly held beliefs about its status…

  15. "Francine, Kerplunk, and the Golden Nugget" -- Conducting Mock Trials and Debates in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a mock trial based on the fable "Francine, Kerplunk, and the Golden Nugget." Explains that during the jury deliberations the jurors utilize chart structures to assess the credibility of the witness' testimony and the attorney's arguments. Maintains that chart structures can also be adapted to classroom debates.…

  16. The Theory of Distributed Practice as Related to Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills by Adolescents in a Selected Curricular Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, James Bob

    1981-01-01

    From results on the tensile strength and nick-break average jury evaluations test, it was concluded that with the same total practice time, different distributions of welding practice time intervals (15, 30, and 45 minutes) influence the quality of butt welds made by ninth-grade vocational agriculture students. (Author/SJL)

  17. Examination of Capital Murder Jurors' Deliberations: Methods and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Keith; Coleman, Susan; Byrd, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    The study of capital juries remains a subject of critical interest for the public and for legislative and judicial policy makers as well as legal scholars and social scientists. Cowan, Thompson, and Ellsworth established one of the standard methodologies for examination of this topic in their 1984 seminal study by observing the subjects' debate…

  18. The Feldenkrais Method® in rehabilitation: a review.

    PubMed

    Ives, J C; Shelley, G A

    1998-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are often suggested to be caused, in part, by poor postural behaviors that are associated with occupational demands. The inefficacy of conventional strategies to elicit postural correction has prompted many to seek alternative techniques such as the Feldenkrais Method®. The rapidly growing use of the Feldenkrais Method® by laypersons and professionals has been fueled by extravagant claims and data published in non-peer-reviewed sources, for the effectiveness of this technique has been poorly documented in peer-reviewed publications. Therefore the purpose of this review was to critically assess the literature on the Feldenkrais Method® in both juried and non-juried sources. The results have generally indicated some improvement with Feldenkrais® interventions, however, these improvements are not nearly as large as suggested by the anecdotal claims. Unfortunately, most of the juried and non-juried findings and conclusions are questionable due to inadequately controlled studies and other serious methodological problems. As such, determination of the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method® based on the literature is difficult at best, and the only justifiable conclusion is that more study is warranted. PMID:24441485

  19. Out of Sight, Out of Mind/Out of Mind, Out of Site: Schooling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a diagnostic term now indelibly scored on the public psyche. In some quarters, a diagnosis of ADHD is regarded with derision. In others it is welcomed with relief. Despite intense multidisciplinary research, the jury is still out with regard to the "truth" of ADHD. Not surprisingly, the rapid…

  20. iMAGiNE! YELLOWSTONE: Art Education and the Reinhabitation of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Doug; Cowan, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes an art education program that connects children and youth to the historical and contemporary issues associated with Yellowstone National Park. Originally conceived as a one-year celebration, the project has grown into a juried exhibit showcasing student art and writing which responds to Yellowstone resource themes and issues. (MJP)

  1. Litigating Grades: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    2005-01-01

    This account of an academic lawsuit qualifies as a horror story. A mediocre minority student abuses civil rights and ADA protections to win a massive monetary award against his school on the flimsiest of evidence. Jaded lawyers for the state university represent powerless faculty defendants in court, torpidly allowing the jury to throw 50 years of…

  2. Classic and Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John M.

    Through an analysis of several stories, this paper defines the similarities and differences between classic and hard-boiled detective fiction. The characters and plots of three stories are discussed: "The Red House" by A. A. Milne; "I, The Jury" by Mickey Spillane; and "League of Frightened Men" by Rex Stout. The classic detective story is defined…

  3. Global Research in an Age of Export Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    When a jury convicted a Tennessee professor this month of illegally exporting information to foreign countries via his graduate students and a trip to China, it sent a message to colleges that they need to scrupulously monitor their faculty members' research and their compliance with the often confusing universe of export-control regulations. In…

  4. Exercises for Keeping Pianists' Hands in Top Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Some pianists have idiosyncratic ways of keeping their hands and fingers relaxed. Glenn Gould, for example, religiously soaked his digits in hot water before performing or recording. While the jury is still out on the effectiveness of Gould's routine, there are plenty of other exercises and practices that will keep a pianist's fingers limber.…

  5. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  6. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  7. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  8. Cutting Edge Books: The Impact of Digital Books on Public Library Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The book has made the transition to the digital age; that much is certain. However, the jury is still out on what form or forms the book of the future will take and how libraries will adapt. This article is a look at the impact of digital books on public library acquisitions, including available formats, purchasing considerations, functional…

  9. The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

  10. The Effect of Using a Multiple Intelligences-Based Training Programme on Developing English Majors' Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of using a Multiple Intelligences-Based Training Programme on developing first-year English majors' oral communication skills. Based on literature review and related studies, a list of 20 oral communication skills was prepared and displayed over a panel of jury members to select…

  11. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  12. Student Speech--The First Amendment and Qualified Immunity Under 42 U.S.C. Section 983: Conduct Implications for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araux, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the conduct implications of qualified immunity in allegations of deprivation of civil rights by public school administrators regarding the First Amendment-student speech. Methodology: Data were collected using the LexisNexis and JuriSearch online legal research systems, which…

  13. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  14. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  15. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  16. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  17. Curriculum Materials for Teaching Students the Competencies Needed for Employment in Nonfarm Agricultural Business. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; And Others

    Developed by means of a research project, this teaching guide includes five instructional modules in which competencies for agribusiness occupations are stressed. These competencies were identified from a review of the literature and evaluated by a jury of teachers and agribusinessmen in terms of qualifications needed for entry-level employment.…

  18. 5 CFR 300.503 - Conditions for using private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appointment recruiting requirements, including veterans' preference found in 5 CFR part 316 to determine... displaced Federal employee as required by 5 CFR part 330, subpart F (Agency Career Transition Assistance... emergency, accident, illness, parental or family responsibilities, or mandatory jury service, but...

  19. By Unanimous Decision? A Second Look at Consensus in the Film Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Erwin; Popik, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    This article reports analyses of the verdicts of various film organizations that annually present awards to motion pictures and investigates whether they award/nominate the same movies in a given year. This research disputes previous findings that reported a high level of agreement between those juries, by the means of reliability analysis and the…

  20. Balancing Act: First and Sixth Amendment Rights in High-Profile Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James H.

    2005-01-01

    We often hear that democracy is not a spectator sport. This is certainly true of trial by jury, a cornerstone of our democracy, which depends on the willingness of Americans from all walks of life to devote themselves to the difficult work of determining another person's guilt or innocence of a crime. But the work of those citizens selected to…

  1. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13... Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy Assistant... to conduct any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, including grand jury proceedings and...

  2. Free Press and Fair Trial: Some Dimensions of the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Chilton R., Ed.

    This volume presents the findings of several research studies related to jury verdicts in felony cases and pretrial publicity. The studies include: "Trial Judges' Opinions on Prejudicial Publicity" by Fred Siebert, an attempt to learn whether or not judges thought that pretrial publicity had ever resulted in miscarriage of justice in their courts;…

  3. CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE CURRICULUM IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTINEZ, FRANK ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING FIVE ASPECTS OF THE ADULT EDUCATION CURRICULUM--PHILOSOPHY, CHARACTER, PLANNING, IMPROVEMENT, AND EVALUATION TECHNIQUES. ONE HUNDRED TWELVE STATEMENTS OF POLICY WERE DRAWN FROM THE LITERATURE, VALIDATED BY A QUALIFIED JURY, AND RATED BY 91 FULL TIME ADULT EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS AND BY 42 ADULT…

  4. [INFULGAN-OPTIMAL ANALGETIC DRUG FOR USE IN LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Nichitaylo, M E; Bulik, L M

    2015-06-01

    The experience of the application of 78 patients after various laparoscopic procedures was generalized. As perioperative anesthesia drug Infulgan (production of corporation "Jury-Farm") was applyed. Appointment of Infulgan in standard dose ensured the achievement expressed analgesic effect, reducing the volume of injected opioids and frequency of adverse reactions. PMID:26521456

  5. Effects of an Evidence-Based Text on Scepticism, Methodological Reasoning, Values and Juror Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshowitz, Barry; Okun, Morris

    2011-01-01

    Research in social cognition laboratories and in simulated legal settings demonstrates that people often do not understand the statistical properties of evidence and are unable to detect scientifically flawed studies. In a mock jury study, we examined the effects of an evidence-based transcript on scepticism towards evidence obtained in flawed…

  6. The Status of Graphical Presentation in Interior/Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Basa, Inci

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that interior/architectural design education favours a dominance of final presentation over the design process in the studio environment, particularly in the evaluation of a project. It suggests that the appeal of design juries for pleasant drawings, which may shift the emphasis from the project itself to its representation,…

  7. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  8. An Application of the Poisson Race Model to Confidence Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    In tasks as diverse as stock market predictions and jury deliberations, a person's feelings of confidence in the appropriateness of different choices often impact that person's final choice. The current study examines the mathematical modeling of confidence calibration in a simple dual-choice task. Experiments are motivated by an accumulator…

  9. Hindsight Bias and the Simpson Trial: Use in Introductory Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demakis, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Identifies hindsight bias as the tendency to exaggerate one's ability to have foreseen the outcome of an event after learning the outcome. Describes a class project where students predicted the verdict of the O. J. Simpson trial one week before the verdict and hypothesized a jury response a month later. (MJP)

  10. Reading the Riot Act: Rhetoric, Psychology, and Counter-Revolutionary Discourse in Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In 1786, backcountry Massachusetts farmers, fed up with government policies favoring aristocratic elites, marched on courts to bar the entry of judges and juries. Enacting a long-standing tradition known to colonists as a "Regulation," the farmers' movement became known as Shays's Rebellion. Erupting in the turbulent days following the War for…

  11. Racial Bias in the Juvenile Justice System in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Menah A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Examines research on racial bias, focusing on the discretionary decision-making junctures of the juvenile court system. Research and statistics continue to suggest that the public, the police, the prosecution, and the jury all treat blacks more unfairly based to a large extent on race. (SLD)

  12. Natural Supports in the Workplace: No Need for a Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Pat

    1996-01-01

    This commentary on "Natural Supports in the Workplace: The Jury Is Still Out" (Test and Wood), discusses existing research on the effectiveness of natural supports. Describes job development and training approaches that facilitate natural supports and how supports can be responsive to the changing needs of supported employees and employers. (CR)

  13. Breaking away. Is the divorce rate for hospital mergers and systems climbing?

    PubMed

    Bilchik, G S

    2000-09-01

    The jury is still out on whether a recent spate of hospital de-mergers and system break-ups represents a trend or a natural readjustment. But one thing is for sure--advice from trustees who have been through a hospital divorce can save you from repeating their emotionally wrenching experiences. PMID:11785233

  14. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  15. College Students' Conceptualizations of Deficits Involved in Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musso, Mandi W.; Barker, Alyse A.; Proto, Daniel A.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the…

  16. Secondary School Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joseph; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents five complete lesson plans for activities that teach high school students about search and seizure, due process, freedom of assembly, right to counsel, and other individual liberties, through the use of case study techniques, a jury simulation, the analysis of historical material, and discussions. (JDH)

  17. The UNESCO Prize for Peace Education: Ten Years of Learning for Peace. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Unku Abdul; Reardon, Betty A.

    The UNESCO Prize for Peace Education was established in 1981. The purpose of the award is to honor outstanding contributions to the field of peace education in its most broadly defined sense. In this paper, two members of the international jury for the prize review the recipients of the awards from 1981 to 1991, and thus demonstrate the variety of…

  18. Blackboard Wins Payment from Competitor in Patent Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A federal jury in Texas awarded Blackboard Inc. $3.1-million last month, saying that a smaller Canadian competitor, Desire2Learn Inc., had infringed Blackboard's patent for a system of delivering course materials online. The case has been closely watched by campus-technology officials, many of whom feared that a Blackboard win could stifle…

  19. BOSTI (Boston Organization for Social and Technological Innovations, Inc.). The 21st Awards Program: A Year of Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Progressive Architecture Awards Jury included applied research for the first time this year. In the category of "research process and techniques" an award was given for a mental health planning aid kit -- a process for organizing and aiding planning of mental health programs and facilities. (Author/MF)

  20. Adapted Verbal Feedback, Instructor Interaction and Student Emotions in the Landscape Architecture Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl A.; Boyer, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    In light of concerns with architectural students' emotional jeopardy during traditional desk and final-jury critiques, the authors pursue alternative approaches intended to provide more supportive and mentoring verbal assessment in landscape architecture studios. In addition to traditional studio-based critiques throughout a semester, we provide…

  1. Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth. A National Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…

  2. Journal of College Reading and Learning, Volume XVIII, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hear, Michael F., Ed.; Knowles, Ramona, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Drawn from the proceedings of the 1985 Western College Reading and Learning Association, as well as articles submitted for juried selection, the papers in this journal issue focus on reading, learning assistance, developmental education, and tutorial services at the college level. Titles and authors of the papers include (1) "Reaching New Heights:…

  3. Selected Papers from the International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (12th, Jacksonville, Florida, April 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    This collection contains the 20 best papers from a conference at which nearly 300 faculty members presented papers. Those that were selected by juried review include: (1) "Where Have You Been? A Case Study of Successful Implementation of Undergraduate Online Learning Communities" (John Barnett); (2) "A Strange Sense of Disquietude: Understanding…

  4. A Guide for Developing Comprehensive Community College Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Frank P.

    Heretofore community colleges have adopted the facility standards of high schools or other colleges, or have devised their own. To establish flexible specifications especially for the junior college, based on the educational program, architectural feasibility, safety, student and faculty use, and possible future needs, a 6-man jury prepared a…

  5. 25 CFR 39.114 - What characteristics may qualify a student as gifted and talented for purposes of supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization... school, community, clubs and organization, awards documenting leadership capabilities. No school can... juried competitions. No school can identify more than 15 percent of its student population as gifted...

  6. 25 CFR 39.114 - What characteristics may qualify a student as gifted and talented for purposes of supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization... school, community, clubs and organization, awards documenting leadership capabilities. No school can... juried competitions. No school can identify more than 15 percent of its student population as gifted...

  7. 25 CFR 39.114 - What characteristics may qualify a student as gifted and talented for purposes of supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization... school, community, clubs and organization, awards documenting leadership capabilities. No school can... juried competitions. No school can identify more than 15 percent of its student population as gifted...

  8. 25 CFR 39.114 - What characteristics may qualify a student as gifted and talented for purposes of supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization... school, community, clubs and organization, awards documenting leadership capabilities. No school can... juried competitions. No school can identify more than 15 percent of its student population as gifted...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of......

  10. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of......

  11. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of......

  12. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of......

  13. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of......

  14. Clothing Construction Performance Assessment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Betty A.

    The goal of the project was to validate, refine, and develop plans for implementation of a performance-based challenge test in the cognitive and psychomotor aspects of basic clothing construction skills that could be utilized for grades 7-14. An advisory board and a jury panel representing the three instructional levels provided assistance in…

  15. Fait A La Main: A Source Book of Louisiana Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Maida, Ed.

    The Louisiana Crafts Program is an economic development program that strives to stimulate several markets for Louisiana craftsmen. This publication is a directory of juried Louisiana craftsmen of various types; it is intended as a source book for anyone interested in handmade crafts. It is divided into two sections: "Folk Craftsmen" and…

  16. The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Martin S.

    Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…

  17. Recommendations for laparoscopic liver resection: a report from the second international consensus conference held in Morioka.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Buell, Joseph F; Kaneko, Hironori; Han, Ho Seong; Asbun, Horacio; OʼRourke, Nicholas; Tanabe, Minoru; Koffron, Alan J; Tsung, Allan; Soubrane, Olivier; Machado, Marcel Autran; Gayet, Brice; Troisi, Roberto I; Pessaux, Patrick; Van Dam, Ronald M; Scatton, Olivier; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Belli, Giulio; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Edwin, Bjørn; Choi, Gi Hong; Aldrighetti, Luca Antonio; Cai, Xiujun; Cleary, Sean; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Schön, Michael R; Sugioka, Atsushi; Tang, Chung-Ngai; Herman, Paulo; Pekolj, Juan; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Dagher, Ibrahim; Jarnagin, William; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Strong, Russell; Jagannath, Palepu; Lo, Chung-Mau; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Kokudo, Norihiro; Barkun, Jeffrey; Strasberg, Steven M

    2015-04-01

    The use of laparoscopy for liver surgery is increasing rapidly. The Second International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resections (LLR) was held in Morioka, Japan, from October 4 to 6, 2014 to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic liver surgery and to provide recommendations to aid its future development. Seventeen questions were addressed. The first 7 questions focused on outcomes that reflect the benefits and risks of LLR. These questions were addressed using the Zurich-Danish consensus conference model in which the literature and expert opinion were weighed by a 9-member jury, who evaluated LLR outcomes using GRADE and a list of comparators. The jury also graded LLRs by the Balliol Classification of IDEAL. The jury concluded that MINOR LLRs had become standard practice (IDEAL 3) and that MAJOR liver resections were still innovative procedures in the exploration phase (IDEAL 2b). Continued cautious introduction of MAJOR LLRs was recommended. All of the evidence available for scrutiny was of LOW quality by GRADE, which prompted the recommendation for higher quality evaluative studies. The last 10 questions focused on technical questions and the recommendations were based on literature review and expert panel opinion. Recommendations were made regarding preoperative evaluation, bleeding controls, transection methods, anatomic approaches, and equipment. Both experts and jury recognized the need for a formal structure of education for those interested in performing major laparoscopic LLR because of the steep learning curve. PMID:25742461

  18. Some Second Thoughts about "Hustler v. Falwell."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsel, Robert E.

    In 1984, a jury awarded $200,000 to the Rev. Jerry Falwell for emotional distress intentionally inflicted by a parody depicting Falwell as a drunkard who had incestuous relations with his mother in an outhouse. In 1988, in "Hustler v. Falwell," the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the verdict on First Amendment grounds. Although the "Hustler"…

  19. A Study to Determine Competencies Needed by ABE/APL Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocker, Donald W.; Spear, George E.

    The research was conducted to identify competencies appropriate for adult basic education (ABE) teachers who use the adult performance level (APL) approach, and to determine which are critical for ABE/APL teachers. A jury of APL authorities was impaneled to: (1) validate that all ABE competencies established by Mocker in 1974 were appropriate for…

  20. Will Female Kicker's Legal Victory Reshape Gender Roles in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes implications of a $2-million judgment awarded to a female football player by a federal jury who found that Duke University (North Carolina) engaged in illegal discrimination by keeping her off its football team. Considers the tradition of football as a decidedly male activity, Title IX requirements, and the large degree of variance in…

  1. Teaching Law to Online Law Students at RMIT University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching…

  2. Anti-Bullying Practices in American Schools: Perspectives of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Yiping C.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2010-01-01

    A random sample of 213 school psychologists working in a school setting completed a survey on their schools' current anti-bullying practices. Talking with bullies following bullying incidents, disciplinary consequences for bullies, and increasing adult supervision were the three most frequently used strategies. Peer juries/court, an anti-bullying…

  3. 48 CFR 31.001 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Compensated personal absence means any absence from work for reasons such as illness, vacation, holidays, jury... subdivision, contract, or other work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to... for the benefits it yields. Job means a homogeneous cluster of work tasks, the completion of...

  4. Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    The papers in this collection are the 15 best papers from the thirteenth International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. They represent a cross-section of nearly 300 presentations, selected by juried review from 40 submitted for consideration. The papers are: (1) The Use of Hybrid Type Educational Digital Entities in University…

  5. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  6. A GUIDE FOR SELF-EVALUATION OF STATE SUPERVISORY PROGRAMS IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINSON, MARVIN G.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A GUIDE FOR THE SELF-EVALUATION OF STATE SUPERVISORY PROGRAMS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE AND TO DESIGN AN INSTRUMENT TO ASSIST IN THIS EVALUATION. TWO NATIONAL JURIES OF EXPERTS IN EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION ASSISTED IN REFINING A SET OF STATEMENTS, DEVELOPED TO SERVE AS INDICATORS OF SUCCESSFUL…

  7. THE ROLE OF PREVOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF NEW YORK STATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-SALMAN, MUHSIN HUSSAIN

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DESCRIBE EXISTING JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PREVOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COURSES AND DETERMINE WHAT SELECTED EDUCATORS IN AGRICULTURE BELIEVE THE OBJECTIVES AND COURSE CONTENT SHOULD BE. LISTS OF 17 OBJECTIVES AND 103 COURSE CONTENT ITEMS IN NINE SUBJECT AREAS WERE ASSEMBLED. A JURY OF 17 MEMBERS RANKED THE OBJECTIVES AND…

  8. MOOCs for High School: Unlocking Opportunities or Substandard Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    If 2012 was the year of the MOOC--massive open online course--then 2013 was the year the MOOC hype returned to Earth. Largely lost in the coverage in both years, however, was the impact MOOCs might have in high schools. Although the jury is still out on that question, high schools around the country are experimenting with adding MOOCs to their…

  9. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  10. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  11. 42 CFR 137.309 - How are NEPA and NHPA obligations typically enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may only be filed in Federal court under the provisions of the APA, 5 U.S.C. 701-706. Under the APA, a... the court's views for those of the agency. Jury trials and civil discovery are not permitted in APA... injunctive relief to the interested party. No money damages or fines are permitted in APA proceedings....

  12. 42 CFR 137.309 - How are NEPA and NHPA obligations typically enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may only be filed in Federal court under the provisions of the APA, 5 U.S.C. 701-706. Under the APA, a... the court's views for those of the agency. Jury trials and civil discovery are not permitted in APA... injunctive relief to the interested party. No money damages or fines are permitted in APA proceedings....

  13. The double helix takes the witness stand: behavioral and neuropsychiatric genetics in court.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-06-01

    Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments-but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse. PMID:24908480

  14. Fast Geometric Consensus Approach for Protein Model Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczak, Rafal; Pillardy, Jaroslaw; Vallat, Brinda K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Model quality assessment (MQA) is an integral part of protein structure prediction methods that typically generate multiple candidate models. The challenge lies in ranking and selecting the best models using a variety of physical, knowledge-based, and geometric consensus (GC)-based scoring functions. In particular, 3D-Jury and related GC methods assume that well-predicted (sub-)structures are more likely to occur frequently in a population of candidate models, compared to incorrectly folded fragments. While this approach is very successful in the context of diversified sets of models, identifying similar substructures is computationally expensive since all pairs of models need to be superimposed using MaxSub or related heuristics for structure-to-structure alignment. Here, we consider a fast alternative, in which structural similarity is assessed using 1D profiles, e.g., consisting of relative solvent accessibilities and secondary structures of equivalent amino acid residues in the respective models. We show that the new approach, dubbed 1D-Jury, allows to implicitly compare and rank N models in O(N) time, as opposed to quadratic complexity of 3D-Jury and related clustering-based methods. In addition, 1D-Jury avoids computationally expensive 3D superposition of pairs of models. At the same time, structural similarity scores based on 1D profiles are shown to correlate strongly with those obtained using MaxSub. In terms of the ability to select the best models as top candidates 1D-Jury performs on par with other GC methods. Other potential applications of the new approach, including fast clustering of large numbers of intermediate structures generated by folding simulations, are discussed as well. PMID:21244273

  15. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  16. "Typical Clinton: brazen it out".

    PubMed

    Upchurch, C M; O'Connell, D C

    2000-07-01

    Ten excerpts of both President Clinton's Grand Jury Testimony of August 17, 1998 and of each of two interviews with Hillary Rodham Clinton (Today Show, January 27, 1998; Good Morning America, January 28, 1998) were analyzed. In all of them, the topic under discussion was the President's insistence on his innocence in the Lewinsky case. Comparisons between the President and First Lady revealed long and short within-speaker pauses, respectively. His replies to questions average more than twice the length of hers. Comparisons were also made with other speech genres, including modern presidential inaugural rhetoric. In particular, President Clinton's statement of his innocence at the conclusion of an educational press conference on January 26, 1998 and his prepared statement at the beginning of his Grand Jury Testimony were found to vary notably from all the other corpora. Both are characterized by several of Ekman's (1985, p. 286) behavioral cues for the detection of deception. PMID:10953827

  17. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed. PMID:24666730

  18. Intent, the ethos of a caring society and justice.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; Gillett, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    A paradoxical New Zealand case of a father who killed his five-month-old severely impaired daughter is discussed. The jury found the father not guilty of murder despite his confession that he acted so as to bring about her death. Standard constructions do not capture any reason for the jury to acquit him on the ground of lack of intent. The case also raises the issue of social mores in relation to difficult ethical decisions and the problems in trying to capture those in legislation or guidelines. The analysis discusses an alternative conception of intent according to a broader understanding of the patient's life story and the events surrounding the act in question and also the reasons why policy and legislative needs may distort bioethical analysis and argument in relation to difficult human situations. PMID:19009999

  19. Policing sexuality in a modern state hospital.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, T

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 a grand jury was convened by the district attorney to investigate conditions at the Rochester (N.Y.) Psychiatric Center following the center's decision not to notify police of the sodomy of a patient by another patient. The grand jury brought no civil or criminal indictments, but the incident touched off a wave of negative publicity about the hospital and prompted local police and the district attorney to demand that the hospital report any incident of sexual activity involving a mentally incompetent patient. As a result, the hospital instituted a stringent policy requiring extensive investigation and physical examination of patients found having sex. This article discusses legal and clinical issues that were raised by the incident, the impact of public scrutiny on the policing of patient sexuality. The negative aspects of overreporting sexual activity at a state hospital are described. PMID:2912842

  20. A quick screening test of competency to stand trial for defendants with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Hudson, R L

    1995-02-01

    19 terms and concepts from evaluations of competency to stand trial of 55 defendants with mental retardation were rated to examine whether a quick screening test could be devised that would differentiate those who were judged competent or not competent. A multiple regression and discriminant analysis gave four items that yielded maximum predictability (R = .84): court strategy, plead, testify, and jury. Guilty, trial, and prosecutor were also significantly more difficult for those who were not competent than those who were. PMID:7770598

  1. Court upholds conviction in rape of mentally retarded boy.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    An Ohio appeals court upheld the conviction of an HIV-positive man convicted of kidnapping and raping a 17-year-old mentally retarded boy. The defendant had appealed his conviction, claiming that disclosure of his HIV status prejudiced the jury against him. The appeals court found that the statements about his HIV infection were relevant testimony, although some prejudice may conceivably arise. Details from the original trial and appellate hearing are provided. PMID:11367289

  2. Scrushy plots a comeback. As HealthSouth works hard to put a fraud scandal in the past, its acquitted founder studies how he can regain the company.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul

    2005-07-11

    The jury ruled that Richard Scrushy is not guilty. So now HealthSouth's deposed leader wants to reclaim the company he founded, even if current management and investors don't want him. "I have a hard time believing he's going to get back in there," says Larry Scanlan, left, of Navigant Consulting. Others are more blunt: "We have less than zero support for his return," says a principal at the largest single owner of HealthSouth shares. PMID:16048224

  3. A federalist strategy for nuclear waste management.

    PubMed

    Lee, K N

    1980-05-16

    The federal government plans to rely on a policy of "consultation and concurrence" with state governments in developing nuclear waste repositories. The weaknesses of the concurrence approach are analyzed, and an alternative institutional framework for locating a waste repository is proposed: a siting jury that provides representation for state and local interests, while maintaining a high level of technical review. The proposal could be tested in the siting of away-from-reactor storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. PMID:17771087

  4. Using a Mock Trial Method to Enhance Effectiveness of Teaching Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing.

    PubMed

    White, Cindy T

    2015-01-01

    Traditional teaching methodologies may deter adult learning because of passive the exchange of knowledge. Teaching to the "evidence" substantiating best practice requires a systematic approach to transfer knowledge into clinical inquiry. A mock trial simulated role-play activity was selected to show the value of learning through active engagement. The nurse "defendant" was challenged to substantiate practice based on the evidence. Seminar participants (the jury) scrutinized testimony through deliberation before delivering the final verdict. PMID:26580469

  5. Present State Iof Holography In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masane; Hayashi, Yuzo; Yamamoto, Y.

    1983-07-01

    In 1948,Dr. Dennis Gabor introduced the theory of holography as "the optical recording of the object wave formed by the resulting interference pattern of two mutually coherent, component light beams." Through the studies of enumerous practical applications, the theory of holography was further advanced to be used in conjunction with the laser beam to better serve a more practical minded industry. Such developments were introduced and engineered by Dr. Emmett Leith and Dr. Juris Upatnieks in 1962.

  6. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  7. Absence of physician recourse in malpractice litigation--malicious prosecution.

    PubMed

    Spector, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    The courts are protective of the plaintiff's rights under law to seek redress in the court by placing the facts of their allegations before a judge or jury. Because the avenue to the court is through representation and advocacy, the courts equally are protective of the agent of that representation, the attorney. To date, no physician who has been sued for medical malpractice in Louisiana has brought a successful malicious prosecution claim against the plaintiff or his attorney. PMID:12014457

  8. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  9. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  10. "So, what is a psychopath?" Venireperson perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about psychopathic personality.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon Toney; Edens, John F; Clark, John; Rulseh, Allison

    2014-10-01

    This study surveyed over 400 individuals attending jury duty regarding various perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs they had concerning psychopathic personality (psychopathy). The protocol included (a) prototype ratings of what participants considered to be core features, using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) prototype rating scale; (b) questions concerning knowledge and beliefs about psychopathy (e.g., prevalence in society); and (c) attitudinal scales concerning potential associated features (e.g., criminality, rehabilitation potential), etiological underpinnings, and moral judgments and legal sanctions. Consistent with results of earlier studies using expert raters, jury panel members rated most of the 33 individual CAPP items and all 6 CAPP scales as at least moderately prototypical, with Self and Dominance domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Many participants also strongly endorsed symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions) as prototypical of psychopathy. Despite this, they viewed psychopaths as responsible for their own actions, as capable of determining right from wrong, and as generally not "insane." Our findings indicate that jury panel members view the prototypical psychopath as highly dominant, self-focused, and lacking in remorse and empathy and reinforce the need for expert witnesses to clearly differentiate between psychopathy and psychotic-spectrum disorders. PMID:24933174

  11. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  12. Innocent until Primed: Mock Jurors' Racially Biased Response to the Presumption of Innocence

    PubMed Central

    Young, Danielle M.; Levinson, Justin D.; Sinnett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown that crime concepts can activate attentional bias to Black faces. This study investigates the possibility that some legal concepts hold similar implicit racial cues. Presumption of innocence instructions, a core legal principle specifically designed to eliminate bias, may instead serve as an implicit racial cue resulting in attentional bias. Methodology/Principal findings The experiment was conducted in a courtroom with participants seated in the jury box. Participants first watched a video of a federal judge reading jury instructions that contained presumption of innocence instructions, or matched length alternative instructions. Immediately following this video a dot-probe task was administered to assess the priming effect of the jury instructions. Presumption of innocence instructions, but not the alternative instructions, led to significantly faster response times to Black faces when compared with White faces. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the core principle designed to ensure fairness in the legal system actually primes attention for Black faces, indicating that this supposedly fundamental protection could trigger racial stereotypes. PMID:24643050

  13. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  14. Development of an algorithm for automatic detection and rating of squeak and rattle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrika, Unnikrishnan Kuttan; Kim, Jay H.

    2010-10-01

    A new algorithm for automatic detection and rating of squeak and rattle (S&R) events was developed. The algorithm utilizes the perceived transient loudness (PTL) that approximates the human perception of a transient noise. At first, instantaneous specific loudness time histories are calculated over 1-24 bark range by applying the analytic wavelet transform and Zwicker loudness transform to the recorded noise. Transient specific loudness time histories are then obtained by removing estimated contributions of the background noise from instantaneous specific loudness time histories. These transient specific loudness time histories are summed to obtain the transient loudness time history. Finally, the PTL time history is obtained by applying Glasberg and Moore temporal integration to the transient loudness time history. Detection of S&R events utilizes the PTL time history obtained by summing only 18-24 barks components to take advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio in the high frequency range. A S&R event is identified when the value of the PTL time history exceeds the detection threshold pre-determined by a jury test. The maximum value of the PTL time history is used for rating of S&R events. Another jury test showed that the method performs much better if the PTL time history obtained by summing all frequency components is used. Therefore, r ating of S&R events utilizes this modified PTL time history. Two additional jury tests were conducted to validate the developed detection and rating methods. The algorithm developed in this work will enable automatic detection and rating of S&R events with good accuracy and minimum possibility of false alarm.

  15. Thin slice expert testimony and mock trial deliberations.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Caroline Titcomb; Brodsky, Stanley L; Wilson, Jennifer Kelly

    2015-01-01

    This study examined impressions of expert witness testimony in a not guilty by reason of insanity defense on two outcomes: witness's credibility and verdict. Borrowing in part from the "thin slice" methodology, we assessed outcomes in a 2 (deliberating vs. non-deliberating jurors) × 3 (length of videotaped testimony) between-subjects design. In 30 mock juries, 188 participants viewed the testimony by a forensic psychologist; then half of the juries deliberated. Thinner slices of the testimony were defined by the lower (30s long) and upper (5 min long) temporal bounds in the literature. The third, fuller testimony condition was 10 min long and served as the accuracy marker for the shorter sliced exposures. We aimed to explore potential consequences to jurors relying on impressions of the expert, and his or her opinion, and to test that effect post deliberation. Accounting for deliberation, brief impressions of expert credibility generally exerted a similar influence on credibility to fuller considerations. The essential finding was that a two-way interaction emerged from time slice and deliberation on verdict for jurors in the 30s condition. Overall, predictive accuracy was found in the 5 min slice, yet accuracy was not supported in the predictions based on the shortest slice. Individually-formed impressions are not likely to translate to the verdict ballot post-deliberation. Instead, brief impressions are likely to be heavily influenced by deliberation. Implications for understanding how impression-based testimony evaluations translate from the jury box to the deliberation room are discussed. PMID:26346686

  16. Sound quality of low-frequency and car engine noises after active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Ferrer, M.; de Diego, M.; Piñero, G.; Garcia-Bonito, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    The ability of active noise control (ANC) systems to achieve a more pleasant sound has been evaluated by means of sound quality analysis of a real multi-channel active noise controller. Recordings of real car engine noises had been carried out using a Head acoustics TM binaural head simulator seated in a typical car seat, and these signals together with synthesized noise have been actively controlled in an enclosed room. The sound quality study has focused on the estimation of noise quality changes through the evaluation of the sense of comfort. Two methods have been developed: firstly, a predictive method based on psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, roughness, tonality and sharpness); and secondly, a subjective method using a jury test. Both results have been related to the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after active control. It can be concluded from both analyses that ANC positively affects acoustic comfort. The engine noise mathematical comfort predictor is based on loudness and roughness (two psychoacoustic parameters directly influenced by ANC), and has satisfactorily predicted the improvements in the pleasantness of the sounds. As far as the subjective evaluation method is concerned, the jury test has showed that acoustic comfort is, in most cases, directly related to the sense of quietness. However, ANC has also been assessed negatively by the jury in the cases that it was unable to reduce the loudness, perhaps because of the low amplitudes of the original sounds. Finally, from what has been shown, it can be said that the subjective improvements strongly depends on the attenuation level achieved by the ANC system operation, as well as the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after control.

  17. [Drug flow. Good manufacturing practices, good clinical practices].

    PubMed

    Dupin-Spriet, T; Spriet, A

    1991-01-01

    On a worldwide basis, the drug development circuit in clinical trials undergoes a general movement towards improvement which is sensitive to the degree of quality. The methods used to achieve this are found at the interface of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Clinical Practices (GCP). They consist primarily of two types, for which examples are given here: strengthening of controls (verification of the resemblance of test drugs in double-blind comparison by a "jury" and computerized systems of drug accountability), improvement in "compliance with therapy at the site of investigation" (use of more "intelligent" drug packages and labels). PMID:2020929

  18. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567

  19. Neurolitigation of the MTBI case without loss of consciousness: using somatic complaints to make your case.

    PubMed

    Hyman, H A

    2001-01-01

    In court lay juries, not medical specialists in the rehabilitation of patients with MTBI, decide whether the plaintiff's alleged suffering and disability are real or fake, and if they resulted from cranio-cerebral trauma or from another cause for which the defendant is not responsible. This article looks at the ingrained bias of jurors against accepting that a person was brain injured if he did not suffer LOC and has a negative CT/MRI. It suggests ways of using somatic complaints causally associated with concussion in the absence of LOC or positive neuroimaging, to help MTBI patients obtain the compensation they deserve and need for neurorehabilitation. PMID:11568468

  20. HyperModules: identifying clinically and phenotypically significant network modules with disease mutations for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alvin; Bader, Gary D.; Reimand, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Correlating disease mutations with clinical and phenotypic information such as drug response or patient survival is an important goal of personalized cancer genomics and a first step in biomarker discovery. HyperModules is a network search algorithm that finds frequently mutated gene modules with significant clinical or phenotypic signatures from biomolecular interaction networks. Availability and implementation: HyperModules is available in Cytoscape App Store and as a command line tool at www.baderlab.org/Sofware/HyperModules. Contact: Juri.Reimand@utoronto.ca or Gary.Bader@utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online PMID:24713437

  1. An Examination of the Causes and Solutions to Eyewitness Error

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Richard A.; Sartori, Giuseppe; Magnussen, Svein; Safer, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Eyewitness error is one of the leading causes of wrongful convictions. In fact, the American Psychological Association estimates that one in three eyewitnesses make an erroneous identification. In this review, we look briefly at some of the causes of eyewitness error. We examine what jurors, judges, attorneys, law officers, and experts from various countries know about eyewitness testimony and memory, and if they have the requisite knowledge and skills to accurately assess eyewitness testimony. We evaluate whether legal safeguards such as voir dire, motion-to-suppress an identification, cross-examination, jury instructions, and eyewitness expert testimony are effective in identifying eyewitness errors. Lastly, we discuss solutions to eyewitness error. PMID:25165459

  2. An examination of the causes and solutions to eyewitness error.

    PubMed

    Wise, Richard A; Sartori, Giuseppe; Magnussen, Svein; Safer, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Eyewitness error is one of the leading causes of wrongful convictions. In fact, the American Psychological Association estimates that one in three eyewitnesses make an erroneous identification. In this review, we look briefly at some of the causes of eyewitness error. We examine what jurors, judges, attorneys, law officers, and experts from various countries know about eyewitness testimony and memory, and if they have the requisite knowledge and skills to accurately assess eyewitness testimony. We evaluate whether legal safeguards such as voir dire, motion-to-suppress an identification, cross-examination, jury instructions, and eyewitness expert testimony are effective in identifying eyewitness errors. Lastly, we discuss solutions to eyewitness error. PMID:25165459

  3. Robust root clustering for linear uncertain systems using generalized Lyapunov theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of matrix root clustering in subregions of a complex plane for linear state space models with real parameter uncertainty. The nominal matrix root clustering theory of Gutman & Jury (1981) using the generalized Liapunov equation is extended to the perturbed matrix case, and bounds are derived on the perturbation to maintain root clustering inside a given region. The theory makes it possible to obtain an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty range of the parameter space.

  4. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  5. Suit proceeds over airline's ejection of passenger with AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-06-12

    A Federal judge refused to dismiss a disability-discrimination lawsuit where an airline refused service to an AIDS patient because his Kaposi's sarcoma lesions emitted an odor. This ruling supports the law that a carrier is only allowed to remove a passenger if the passenger poses a threat to safety. The judge ruled that a jury would need to decide if Delta Airlines violated this law. The judge also is allowing claims for punitive damages, but ruled against any claims about intentional infliction of emotional distress. PMID:11365499

  6. The Technologist As An Expert Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, R. E. K.; Hall, Morse

    1985-03-01

    Decisions in our legal system are made by laymen. Even the most technical and complex cases are heard and decided by a judge or jury who may very well have no expertise on the questions which confront them. As a result, our legal system permits experts to explain complex phenomena to the fact finder and even to express his opinion on the issue which the fact finder ultimately has to decide. For example, an expert may explain not only how an airplane accident occurred, but also may testify that someone was at fault.

  7. Perceptions of Interpersonal Versus Intergroup Violence: The Case of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a “hate crime”), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567

  8. Sexual harassment: issues for forensic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L

    1992-01-01

    The number of civil lawsuits related to sexual harassment is increasing. The author bases this paper on her experience as an expert witness in 28 sexual harassment cases over the last 10 years. She delineates the psychological and legal issues about which forensic psychiatrists may be consulted. These include issues related to helping a jury determine the veracity of the complaints of harassment, the psychological effects of the harassment, the prognosis, and the treatment for women who have been harassed. The author gives examples of cases where psychiatric testimony was given to help in the decision making about damages related to the psychological effects of sexual harassment. PMID:1482795

  9. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  10. Evidence of perception of AIDS insufficient for verdict.

    PubMed

    1997-11-28

    The 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the jury verdict in favor of [name removed], a welder who claimed he was fired because his employer, [name removed] National Vendor, thought he had AIDS. According to [name removed], when his health and physical appearance began deteriorating due to Graves disease, a thyroid condition, he was terminated. [Name removed] filed a grievance through his labor union and filed a lawsuit under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Circuit Court panel determined there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the company's officials and key decision makers regarded [name removed] as having AIDS. PMID:11364888

  11. Thinking the unthinkable:the clinician as perpetrator of elder abuse in patients in pain.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ben A

    2004-01-01

    Some advocates for improved pain management have devised and had initial success utilizing a controversial new weapon-the elder abuse claim. In California, two recent cases have been brought under the state's elder abuse statutes against physicians and health care institutions. The first lead to a much publicized jury verdict against a physician, and the second was recently settled as to all defendants, with related disciplinary actions against a treating physician and a skilled nursing facility by their respective regulatory agencies. This commentary reviews the phenomenon of litigating cases of undertreated pain, analyzes the most recent cases, and considers the implications of invoking elder abuse statutes in such cases. PMID:15364633

  12. Improving healthcare using Lean processes.

    PubMed

    Baker, G Ross

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, healthcare organizations across Canada have been using Lean management tools to improve care processes, reduce preventable adverse events, increase patient satisfaction and create better work environments. The largest system-wide effort in Canada, and perhaps anywhere, is currently under way in Saskatchewan. The jury is still out on whether Lean efforts in that province, or elsewhere in Canada, are robust enough to transform current delivery systems and sustain new levels of performance. This issue of Healthcare Quarterly features several articles that provide a perspective on Lean methods in healthcare. PMID:25191802

  13. A critique of the motivational analysis in wrongful conception cases.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, I J

    2000-05-01

    Most states now recognize a tort cause of action for wrongful conception, typically resulting from a failed sterilization. States differ, however, in determining whether damages should be awarded for child-rearing expenses and what factors juries can consider in setting such damage awards. This Note argues that one commonly used factor, the parents' motivation for selecting sterilization, is irrelevant and leads to inequitable results. Since the right to use contraception is constitutionally protected, the choice to sterilize in order to avoid financial burdens associated with child-rearing should not be given preferential treatment to sterilizations motivated by concerns of genetic defects or for the mother's health. PMID:16379092

  14. The Novel New Jersey Eyewitness Instruction Induces Skepticism but Not Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Papailiou, Athan P; Yokum, David V; Robertson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, social scientists have shown that the reliability of eyewitness identifications is much worse than laypersons tend to believe. Although courts have only recently begun to react to this evidence, the New Jersey judiciary has reformed its jury instructions to notify jurors about the frailties of human memory, the potential for lineup administrators to nudge witnesses towards suspects that they police have already identified, and the advantages of alternative lineup procedures, including blinding of the administrator. This experiment tested the efficacy of New Jersey's jury instruction. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, mock jurors (N = 335) watched a 35-minute murder trial, wherein identification quality was either "weak" or "strong" and either the New Jersey or a "standard" instruction was delivered. Jurors were more than twice as likely to convict when the standard instruction was used (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.37-4.89, p < 0.001). The New Jersey instruction, however, did not improve juror's ability to discern quality; rather, jurors receiving those instructions indiscriminatingly discounted "weak" and "strong" testimony in equal measure. PMID:26650237

  15. Expert testimony on eyewitness evidence: in search of common sense.

    PubMed

    Houston, Kate A; Hope, Lorraine; Memon, Amina; Don Read, J

    2013-01-01

    Surveys on knowledge of eyewitness issues typically indicate that legal professionals and jurors alike can be insensitive to factors that are detrimental to eyewitness accuracy. One aim of the current research was to assess the extent to which judges, an under-represented sample in the extant literature, are aware of factors that may undermine the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness evidence (Study 1). We also sought to assess the knowledge of a jury-eligible sample of the general public (drawn from the same population as the judges) and compared responses from a multiple choice survey with a scenario-based, response-generation survey in order to investigate whether questionnaire format alters the accuracy of responses provided (Study 2). Overall, judges demonstrated a reasonable level of knowledge regarding general eyewitness memory issues. Further, the jury-eligible general public respondents completing a multiple choice format survey produced more responses consistent with experts than did participants who were required to generate their own responses. The results are discussed in terms of the future training requirements for legal professionals and the ability of jurors to apply the knowledge they have to the legal context. PMID:24000168

  16. The Novel New Jersey Eyewitness Instruction Induces Skepticism but Not Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, social scientists have shown that the reliability of eyewitness identifications is much worse than laypersons tend to believe. Although courts have only recently begun to react to this evidence, the New Jersey judiciary has reformed its jury instructions to notify jurors about the frailties of human memory, the potential for lineup administrators to nudge witnesses towards suspects that they police have already identified, and the advantages of alternative lineup procedures, including blinding of the administrator. This experiment tested the efficacy of New Jersey’s jury instruction. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, mock jurors (N = 335) watched a 35-minute murder trial, wherein identification quality was either “weak” or “strong” and either the New Jersey or a “standard” instruction was delivered. Jurors were more than twice as likely to convict when the standard instruction was used (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.37–4.89, p < 0.001). The New Jersey instruction, however, did not improve juror's ability to discern quality; rather, jurors receiving those instructions indiscriminatingly discounted “weak” and “strong” testimony in equal measure. PMID:26650237

  17. Hotel found liable in firing of HIV-positive bartender.

    PubMed

    1997-03-01

    A Federal jury in the court of U.S. Magistrate Judge Leslie G. Foschio of the Western District of New York found the Buffalo [name removed] liable for more than $630,000 in damages to bartender [name removed], who was fired because of his HIV infection. The [name removed] unsuccessfully argued that [name removed] was terminated because of unfavorable performance reviews. The plaintiffs claimed that the [name removed] issued false citations for infractions of hotel rules and that these citations were only issued after hotel management determined that [name removed] was HIV-positive. Testimony showed that all relevant decision-making personnel at the hotel were aware that [name removed] was HIV-positive. The hotel failed to show that all but the personnel manager had a legitimate need to know about [name removed]'s HIV status. The jury awarded [name removed] $1,439,000 in damages. Foschio lowered the amount to $637,388 in damages and $133,705 in attorneys' fees. PMID:11364135

  18. Roughness modelling based on human auditory perception for sound quality evaluation of vehicle interior noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Shen, G. Q.; Guo, H.; Tang, X. L.; Hamade, T.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a roughness model, which is based on human auditory perception (HAP) and known as HAP-RM, is developed for the sound quality evaluation (SQE) of vehicle noise. First, the interior noise signals are measured for a sample vehicle and prepared for roughness modelling. The HAP-RM model is based on the process of sound transfer and perception in the human auditory system by combining the structural filtering function and nonlinear perception characteristics of the ear. The HAP-RM model is applied to the measured vehicle interior noise signals by considering the factors that affect hearing, such as the modulation and carrier frequencies, the time and frequency maskings and the correlations of the critical bands. The HAP-RM model is validated by jury tests. An anchor-scaled scoring method (ASM) is used for subjective evaluations in the jury tests. The verification results show that the novel developed model can accurately calculate vehicle noise roughness below 0.6 asper. Further investigation shows that the total roughness of the vehicle interior noise can mainly be attributed to frequency components below 12 Bark. The time masking effects of the modelling procedure enable the application of the HAP-RM model to stationary and nonstationary vehicle noise signals and the SQE of other sound-related signals in engineering problems.

  19. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  20. Perceptions of credibility of sexual abuse victims across generations.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David; Mellor, David

    2016-01-01

    The success of prosecutions of perpetrators of sexual abuse often depends substantially upon the perceived credibility of the victim witness. However, perceptions of credibility may vary by generation of the observer, and the constitution of juries may therefore lead to bias. In this study we examined whether perceptions of credibility of female victims of sexual abuse varied across generation Y, generation X, "baby boomers", and "builders". One hundred and twenty-eight jury-eligible members of the community from each generation (N=512) responded to ten questions assessing the perceived believability, competence, trustworthiness, demeanour and sexual naiveté of females providing testimony related to alleged sexual abuse. Although consistent between-generation differences were not found for all questions, or all four groups of generational cohorts, in instances where significant differences were found, it was consistently the older generation groups (builders and baby boomers) that attributed less credibility to the victim than the younger generation groups (generation Y and generation X). The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26439120

  1. The emotional child witness: effects on juror decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Alexia; Quas, Jodi A; Cleveland, Kyndra C

    2014-01-01

    Despite wide variations in child witness behavior while on the stand, little research has focused on how that behavior influences jurors' perceptions of the child's credibility or the case itself. In the current study, the impact of a child's emotional displays on credibility judgments and verdict preferences was examined in jury-eligible college students and jurors released from jury duty. No significant differences emerged in perceptions or verdicts based on whether a child was shown as crying or not while participants read a transcript of the child's testimony. However, participants who rated the child as more emotional (regardless of whether the image showed a crying child) were more likely to render guilty verdicts, were more certain of guilt, and found the child more credible and the defendant less credible than participants who rated the child as less emotional. Also, when the child was perceived as low in emotion, older children were rated as less credible than younger children. The results have implications for understanding how children's emotional displays and jurors' perceptions of children's emotionality influence decisions in sexual abuse cases. PMID:25537438

  2. Court holds woman responsible for her own infection.

    PubMed

    1998-03-20

    A Washington State appeals court upheld a jury decision not to award damages to a woman who sued the Washington Department of Corrections and her boyfriend's probation officer for failing to warn her of her boyfriend's HIV-positive status. [Name removed], a hospital worker, engaged in repeated unsafe sex with [name removed], never asking him about his HIV status. Even after learning that he was a felon, [name removed] continued having unprotected sex with [name removed]. [Name removed]'s parole officer, urged [name removed] on separate occasions to inform [name removed] of his HIV status. [Name removed] felt he was prevented from directly telling [name removed] because of department policies involving confidentiality. The jury found that although [name removed] should have been told about [name removed]'s infection, she was responsible for contracting the infection through her own behavior. [Name removed] was charged with attempted first-degree murder and assault in transmitting the infection to [name removed]; however, [name removed] is incompetent to stand trial due to AIDS-related dementia. PMID:11365193

  3. A propensity score matching analysis of the relationship between victim sex and capital juror decision-making in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Bjerregaard, Beth; Fogel, Sondra J

    2015-07-01

    A small body of prior research has examined the impact of victim sex on jury death penalty decision-making and the majority of this research has demonstrated some evidence of a "female victim effect" such that cases involving a female victim are more likely to receive the death penalty than similarly situated cases with a male victim. However, within this line of research studies have suggested that victim sex may work in conjunction with other case characteristics. In order to further explore this phenomenon, the current study examines a near-population of death penalty cases from North Carolina (n=1069) from 1977-2009 using propensity score matching. Results demonstrate that once cases are matched on more than 50 legal and extralegal case characteristics, there is no statistically significant or substantive link between victim sex and death penalty decision-making. Findings suggest that it is concrete differences in the legal and extralegal factors observed in cases with female victims compared to male victims that shape jury death sentence decisions rather than a direct effect of victim sex (before matching: OR=1.53; 95% CI=1.20-1.95; p<.001/after matching: OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.66-1.24; p=.52). Study limitations and implications are also discussed. PMID:26004447

  4. A quantum probability account of order effects in inference.

    PubMed

    Trueblood, Jennifer S; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2011-01-01

    Order of information plays a crucial role in the process of updating beliefs across time. In fact, the presence of order effects makes a classical or Bayesian approach to inference difficult. As a result, the existing models of inference, such as the belief-adjustment model, merely provide an ad hoc explanation for these effects. We postulate a quantum inference model for order effects based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory. The quantum inference model explains order effects by transforming a state vector with different sequences of operators for different orderings of information. We demonstrate this process by fitting the quantum model to data collected in a medical diagnostic task and a jury decision-making task. To further test the quantum inference model, a new jury decision-making experiment is developed. Using the results of this experiment, we compare the quantum inference model with two versions of the belief-adjustment model, the adding model and the averaging model. We show that both the quantum model and the adding model provide good fits to the data. To distinguish the quantum model from the adding model, we develop a new experiment involving extreme evidence. The results from this new experiment suggest that the adding model faces limitations when accounting for tasks involving extreme evidence, whereas the quantum inference model does not. Ultimately, we argue that the quantum model provides a more coherent account for order effects that was not possible before. PMID:21951058

  5. Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664

  6. Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereš, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; Chastel, Serge; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugen A.; Morgan, Jeff S.; Price, Paul A.; Tonry, John L.; Waters, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo technique to calculate the absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) of ∼240,000 asteroids observed by the Pan-STARRS1 telescope during the first 15 months of its 3-year all-sky survey mission. The system's exquisite photometry with photometric errors ≲ 0.04mag , and well-defined filter and photometric system, allowed us to derive accurate H and G even with a limited number of observations and restricted range in phase angles. Our Monte Carlo method simulates each asteroid's rotation period, amplitude and color to derive the most-likely H and G, but its major advantage is in estimating realistic statistical + systematic uncertainties and errors on each parameter. The method was tested by comparison with the well-established and accurate results for about 500 asteroids provided by Pravec et al. (Pravec, P. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 365-387) and then applied to determining H and G for the Pan-STARRS1 asteroids using both the Muinonen et al. (Muinonen, K. et al. [2010]. Icarus 209, 542-555) and Bowell et al. (Bowell, E. et al. [1989]. Asteroids III, Chapter Application of Photometric Models to Asteroids. University of Arizona Press, pp. 524-555) phase functions. Our results confirm the bias in MPC photometry discovered by Jurić et al. (Jurić, M. et al. [2002]. Astrophys. J. 124, 1776-1787).

  7. Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Huei; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Hsin-I; Lin, Chao-Chen; Liao, Miin-Jiun; Chen, Heng-Shuen

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of applying relaxation breathing training (RBT) as a means to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in young, talented musicians. A group of 59 young musicians from 3rd to 6th grade participated in this study, and all of them started RBT twice a week for 2 months prior to the examination. Four tests--2 mos, 1 mos, half an hour and 5 min before the examination--were conducted to examine the level of MPA after the application of RBT. Results show that the degree of MPA 5 min before the trial was lower than the degree of performance anxiety half an hour before the jury (t = -3.683, p < 0.01), which indicated that the RBT was associated with a decrease in MPA. Although a series of RBT exercises was applied, results indicated that when approaching the date of examination, the degree of performance anxiety still increased and reached its maximum half an hour before the jury. The recommendation for future studies is to combine the application of RBT with other methods to expand its effect in reducing MPA. PMID:20795337

  8. Surgical malpractice in California: res judicata.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Erik R; Stabile, Bruce E; Plurad, David; Kim, Dennis; Neville, Angela; Bricker, Scott; Putnam, Brant; Bongard, Fred

    2014-10-01

    Medical negligence claims are of increasing concern to surgeons. Although noneconomic damage awards in California are limited by the Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA) law to $250,000, the total amount of such settlements can increase significantly based on claims for economic damages. We reviewed negligence litigation involving California surgeons to determine outcomes and monetary awards through retrospective review of surgical malpractice cases published in a legal journal. This review was limited to actions involving general surgeons. Such litigation was voluntarily reported by either defense's or plaintiff's counsel at the conclusion of the litigation. Data reviewed included alleged damages incurred by the plaintiff; plaintiff's pretrial settlement demand, plaintiff or defense verdict, use of alternate means of resolution such as arbitration or mediation, and total monetary award to the plaintiff. A total of 69 cases were reported over a 20-month period: 32 (46%) were plaintiffs' verdicts, whereas 37 (54%) were in favor of the surgeon. Only 10 (31%) of the plaintiff verdicts were by jury trial, whereas the rest were settled by pretrial agreement, mediation, or arbitration. Of cases settled by alternate dispute resolution, the median settlement was $820,000 (n = 22) compared with a median jury trial award of $300,000 (n = 10). PMID:25264649

  9. Reasons for holding a Consensus Conference on neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Làdavass, E; Paolucci, S; Umiltà, C

    2011-03-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are common in various cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative and traumatic pathologies. Neuropsychological rehabilitation refers to a set of interventions that aim to improve a person's ability to perform cognitive tasks by retraining previously learned skills and teaching compensatory strategies. However, today there are some relevant points that need of further investigations. In 2007, a Task Force was set up under the auspices of several scientific societies that operate in the field of psychology, neuropsychology, rehabilitation and neurology (AIP, GIRN, SIMFER, SIN, SINP, and SPAN) with the aim to clarify the theoretical background of neuropsychological rehabilitation and to assess the diagnostic instruments and the treatments available to date. This consensus conference (CC), using methods derived from those of Evidence-Based-Medicine (EMB), evaluated several points, including: a) legal aspects; b) epidemiological aspects; c) neuropsychological rehabilitation of attentional and executive disorders; d) neuropsychological rehabilitation of speech/language disorders; e) neuropsychological rehabilitation of visual field defects; f) neuropsychological rehabilitation of neglect; g) neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory disorders; h) cognitive rehabilitation of arm apraxia; i) neuropsychological rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease; j) rehabilitation of multiple sclerosis; k) rehabilitation of severe brain injuries; l) rehabilitation of mild to moderate brain injuries; m) rehabilitation of behavioral disorders in severe brain injuries. Then, CC submitted to a specific Jury a final report with summary tables and questions. The final meeting of the Jury was held in Siena in February 2010. PMID:21448122

  10. Enhancement of gas-phase diffusion in the presence of liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.; Angert, A.

    2003-04-01

    Gas diffusion in porous media occurs in both the gas and liquid phases. In many instances, gas diffusion in the liquid phase is ignored. However, under many conditions, gas diffusion in the liquid phase may be more important than gas diffusion in the gas phase. Two different cases will be examined in this work. The first case is a continuous liquid path between the gas concentrations of interest modeled after Jury et al. (1984). The second case is the situation at low liquid saturation where liquid islands exist. For the first case, Jury's model can be rewritten as a ratio of the total gas diffusion in the gas and liquid phases to that just in the gas phase. The liquid diffusion coefficient is approximately 10-4 times the gas diffusion coefficient consistent with Jury et al. (1984). The ratio of total diffusion to gas-phase diffusion is then only a function of Henry's constant and the liquid saturation. For higher values of Henry's constant, such as for CO2 and O2, the effect of diffusion in the liquid phase is small except at high liquid saturations. For small values of Henry's constant, such as for some VOCs and explosive compounds, diffusion in the liquid phase dominates for low and moderate liquid saturation values. The second case is the enhancement of diffusion caused by liquid islands at low liquid saturation. Enhanced vapor diffusion across liquid islands has been observed and modeled by Webb and Ho (1999), where condensation and evaporation occur on opposite ends of the liquid island. Vapor diffusion enhancement of up to a factor of 10 has been observed. Similarly, gas can diffuse through the liquid island. For high values of Henry's constant, gas diffusion through liquid islands is negligible and can be ignored. For small values of Henry's constant, diffusion through liquid islands may be much greater than diffusion through gas, so the rate is enhanced. The work was sponsored by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) under the

  11. Defining and evaluating perceptions of victim blame in antigay hate crimes.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Nobles, Matt R; Amacker, Amanda M; Dovoedo, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Victimology research often hinges on attribution of blame toward victims despite a lack of conceptual agreement on the definition and measure of the construct. Drawing on established blame attribution and intent literature, the present study evaluates psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Victim Blame Scale (PVBS) using mock jury samples in a vignette-based capital murder antigay hate crime context. Factor analyses show support for a three-factor structure with the following perceptions of victim blame subscales: Malice, Recklessness, and Unreliability. All factors displayed expected positive associations with homonegativity and authoritarianism. Likewise, all factors displayed null relations with trait aggression and social desirability. Only the Malice factor predicted sentencing decisions after controlling for crime condition and support for the death penalty. Results are reviewed with respect to blame attribution theory and practical application of a revised PVBS. PMID:23686621

  12. Estimating the reliability of eyewitness identifications from police lineups

    PubMed Central

    Wixted, John T.; Mickes, Laura; Dunn, John C.; Clark, Steven E.; Wells, William

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory-based mock crime studies have often been interpreted to mean that (i) eyewitness confidence in an identification made from a lineup is a weak indicator of accuracy and (ii) sequential lineups are diagnostically superior to traditional simultaneous lineups. Largely as a result, juries are increasingly encouraged to disregard eyewitness confidence, and up to 30% of law enforcement agencies in the United States have adopted the sequential procedure. We conducted a field study of actual eyewitnesses who were assigned to simultaneous or sequential photo lineups in the Houston Police Department over a 1-y period. Identifications were made using a three-point confidence scale, and a signal detection model was used to analyze and interpret the results. Our findings suggest that (i) confidence in an eyewitness identification from a fair lineup is a highly reliable indicator of accuracy and (ii) if there is any difference in diagnostic accuracy between the two lineup formats, it likely favors the simultaneous procedure. PMID:26699467

  13. Lawyer fined for not disclosing client's HIV infection.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    [Name removed], handling the wrongful death lawsuit of a Massachusetts inmate, has been fined $15,000 because he did not disclose to the defense that the inmate was HIV-positive. Inmate [name removed], Jr. died after being beaten by police officers; he was refused medical care for the injuries. U.S. District Judge Mark L. Wolf alerted the jury as to [name removed]'s HIV status at the midpoint of a four-month trial. The jurors awarded [name removed]'s estate $435,000 plus legal fees. [Name removed] was fined for concealing evidence that was considered relevant to the trial but was not referred to the Massachusetts Board of Bar Overseers. Judge Wolf said that [name removed]'s conduct compromised the integrity of the trial. PMID:11363771

  14. Capital punishment and offenders with mental retardation: response to the Penry brief.

    PubMed

    Calnen, T; Blackman, L S

    1992-05-01

    The Supreme Court recently decided that the death penalty as it applies to persons with mental retardation is not a violation of constitutional protection from cruel and unusual punishment as long as juries consider the convicted person's disabilities during trial proceedings. Advocates for persons with mental retardation have argued that because their disability reduces culpability in capital offenses, the death penalty is always inappropriate. In this paper we argued that the latter position makes unwarranted categorical assumptions about mental retardation, fails to consider the individualized and situation-specific determinants of culpability for a capital offense, and undermines the very assumptions required to restore respect and value for citizens with mental retardation as participants in society. PMID:1344935

  15. A. Lincoln, esquire defends the murderer of a physician.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2005-08-01

    After only about a year of law practice, Abraham Lincoln participated in his first murder trial. Dr. Jacob M. Early was shot and killed in a bitter political imbroglio. Lincoln joined a defense team of highly accomplished litigators. Despite his having the least legal experience, he was selected to give the defense summation. In his argument, he spoke to the jury in a conversational tone making his point that Dr. Early had a deadly weapon in his hands, namely an upraised wooden chair, when he was shot. His self-defense plea indicated that Henry B. Truett, the defendant, truly believed that he was in danger of being crushed by the upraised chair. Interestingly, Lincoln knew both the defendant and the murdered physician. He handled litigation for the former and served in the Black Hawk War under the command of the latter. Furthermore Lincoln knew at least five of the jurors. PMID:15989212

  16. The impact of DSM-5's alternative model for personality disorders on criminal defendants.

    PubMed

    Filone, Sarah; Strohmaier, Heidi; Murphy, Megan; DeMatteo, David

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) workgroup on personality disorders initially proposed several revisions to diagnostic criteria and disorder labels, some of which could have had a direct impact on the perception and sentencing of criminal defendants. The recent publication of the DSM-5 included these revisions in an appendix for future research, indicating that the revised criteria require additional research before implementation. This study examined how the proposed changes, if implemented, might affect jury members' sentencing recommendations and perceptions of the defendant. Participants read vignettes in which diagnostic label (antisocial personality disorder vs. dyssocial personality disorder vs. psychopathy) and crime type (white collar vs. violent crime) were manipulated. Results suggest that participants perceived white collar offenders more negatively than violent offenders, and were generally more influenced by crime type than diagnosis. The diagnostic label was most influential on recidivism ratings and participants' perceptions of violent offenders. PMID:24352768

  17. Internet comments as a barometer of public opinion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Elad; Gilad, Erez; Feigel, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A new method is developed to estimate social influence in Internet communities that follow a specific developing news story. The technique stems from mean-field treatment of magnetic systems and provides a measure for community stability, such as the potential of a small perturbation to culminate in a phase-transition-like phenomenon. Three real cases of developing news stories from CNN news website are analyzed. Continuous dynamics of social influence together with time is observed together with a significant increase of social influence after the announcement of important information, such as the jury decision in a legal case. This work makes it possible to estimate the size of a group that can change the opinion of the entire population. We argue that Internet comments may predict the level of social response similar to a barometer that predicts the intensity of a coming storm in still calm environment.

  18. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  19. What people believe about how memory works: a representative survey of the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Simons, Daniel J; Chabris, Christopher F

    2011-01-01

    Incorrect beliefs about the properties of memory have broad implications: the media conflate normal forgetting and inadvertent memory distortion with intentional deceit, juries issue verdicts based on flawed intuitions about the accuracy and confidence of testimony, and students misunderstand the role of memory in learning. We conducted a large representative telephone survey of the U.S. population to assess common beliefs about the properties of memory. Substantial numbers of respondents agreed with propositions that conflict with expert consensus: Amnesia results in the inability to remember one's own identity (83% of respondents agreed), unexpected objects generally grab attention (78%), memory works like a video camera (63%), memory can be enhanced through hypnosis (55%), memory is permanent (48%), and the testimony of a single confident eyewitness should be enough to convict a criminal defendant (37%). This discrepancy between popular belief and scientific consensus has implications from the classroom to the courtroom. PMID:21826204

  20. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, was founded in 1957 by Niels Bohr and Torsten Gustafsson at Blegdamsvej in Copenhagen, joint to Bohr's legendary Institute. Today, memories of Bohr and his famous visitors -- Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Lev Landau and many others -- strongly contribute to Nordita's genius loci and inspire next generations of her visitors. Nordita awards ``Nordic Project'' grants to individual Nordic physicists to help conduct a world-class research in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, and Sweden). Research reported here was generously supported by the Nordic Project "Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole and Neutron Star sources" awarded in 2005 to Marek Abramowicz. The Project supported the ``Nordita Workdays on QPO" (March 25 -- April 1, 2005) organized by Marek Abramowicz, Axel Brandenburg and Juri Poutanen with help of Hanne Bergen, Helle http://www.nordita.dk/positions/norproject.html

  1. Three-dimensional imaging in crime scene investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    Law enforcement is responsible for investigating crimes, identifying and arresting the suspects, and presenting evidence to a judge and jury in court. In order to objectively perform these duties, police need to gather accurate information and clearly explain the crime scene and physical evidence in a court of law. Part of this information includes the documentation of the incident. Documenting an incident has always been divided into three categories: notes, sketch, and photographs. This method of recording crime scenes has been the standard for years. The major drawback, however, is that the visual documents of sketches and photographs are two dimensional. This greatly restricts the actual visualization of the incident requiring a careful cross referencing of the details in order to understand it.

  2. Failings of trauma-specific and related psychological tests in detecting post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic settings.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Stuart B; Martell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Judges and juries tend to be particularly impressed by test data, especially quantitative test data. Psychometric tests specific for assessing the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are commonly employed by forensic mental health evaluators. Most of these instruments, however, have been designed to detect PTSD in treatment or research, and not forensic, settings. Those who rely on these measures without adequate awareness of their often significant limits in correctly identifying malingering may induce finders of fact to inordinately confidently accept the presence of PTSD. This article reviews problematic structural and content components of trauma-specific and related instruments used to evaluate PTSD and discusses the utility of specific techniques liable to be used in forensic settings to "fool" these measures. PMID:25425278

  3. The Silence of the Unblown Whistle: The Nevada Hepatitis C Public Health Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Elizabeth; Diers, Donna

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, one of the worst public health crises occurred in the state of Nevada, where authorities discovered up to 63,000 patients were potentially exposed to hepatitis C infection, largely due to substandard infection control and other negligent practices at two endoscopy clinics in Las Vegas. In the subsequent grand jury proceedings that followed, it was discovered that several clinic employees not only participated in these egregious practices, but doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals witnessed yet failed to report these incidents, largely due to fears of whistleblower retaliation. In response, the Nevada state legislature attempted to strengthen whistleblower protection laws, but it remains unclear if such laws actually protect employees who attempt to report patient safety concerns. As the push for quality patient outcomes becomes more prominent with health care reform, whistleblower concerns must be effectively addressed to ensure that health care professionals can report patient safety concerns without fear of retaliation. PMID:23483090

  4. "With malice aforethought": revisiting the BJ Palmer "patricide" controversy.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, R W

    1994-06-01

    For over eight decades of chiropractic's existence, one of the myths associated with Founder Daniel David Palmer was the unsupported and largely surreptitious allegation that his son, B.J. Palmer, was somehow respondible for his death; What became known as the Palmer "patricide controversy" involved many of the players in early chiropractic and became little more than a sordid melodrama involving rival schools, chiropractic politicians and lawyers. It involved three Iowa grand juries and lawsuits and brought out the worst passions and actions of a family that had never really understood the father or the son. This study will review the original events, the allegations by those who sought to indict B.J. Palmer for the wrongful death of his father and the ultimate disposition of the incident, which still finds credence today among some who see conspiracy theories within the evolution of chiropractic. PMID:11613380

  5. What People Believe about How Memory Works: A Representative Survey of the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Daniel J.; Chabris, Christopher F.

    2011-01-01

    Incorrect beliefs about the properties of memory have broad implications: The media conflate normal forgetting and inadvertent memory distortion with intentional deceit, juries issue verdicts based on flawed intuitions about the accuracy and confidence of testimony, and students misunderstand the role of memory in learning. We conducted a large representative telephone survey of the U.S. population to assess common beliefs about the properties of memory. Substantial numbers of respondents agreed with propositions that conflict with expert consensus: Amnesia results in the inability to remember one's own identity (83% of respondents agreed), unexpected objects generally grab attention (78%), memory works like a video camera (63%), memory can be enhanced through hypnosis (55%), memory is permanent (48%), and the testimony of a single confident eyewitness should be enough to convict a criminal defendant (37%). This discrepancy between popular belief and scientific consensus has implications from the classroom to the courtroom. PMID:21826204

  6. Expert evidence and medical manslaughter: vagueness in action.

    PubMed

    Quick, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the reliance placed on expert evidence in prosecutions of health professionals for gross negligence manslaughter, where juries must decide whether conduct goes beyond civil negligence and constitutes the crime of involuntary manslaughter. It argues that the test for liability is vague and examines some of the consequences of this. Given the vagueness of the offence, jurors are likely to place great reliance on expert medical evidence. Little is known about how experts negotiate the legal process, empirically speaking: how they approach their task, how they view their role as expert witnesses, and the attitudes, biases, and beliefs that may underpin their testimony. Drawing on the experiences and perceptions often medical experts, this article explores how experts manage the vagueness inherent in the task of interpreting and applying gross negligence. Experts appear to go beyond offering purely medical opinion and enjoy engaging with law and the legal process. PMID:22180927

  7. Spherical photography and virtual tours for presenting crime scenes and forensic evidence in new zealand courtrooms.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nicole D; Barr, Jason; Sheppard, Dion J; Elliot, Douglas A; Tottey, Leah S; Walsh, Kevan A J

    2015-05-01

    The delivery of forensic science evidence in a clear and understandable manner is an important aspect of a forensic scientist's role during expert witness delivery in a courtroom trial. This article describes an Integrated Evidence Platform (IEP) system based on spherical photography which allows the audience to view the crime scene via a virtual tour and view the forensic scientist's evidence and results in context. Equipment and software programmes used in the creation of the IEP include a Nikon DSLR camera, a Seitz Roundshot VR Drive, PTGui Pro, and Tourweaver Professional Edition. The IEP enables a clear visualization of the crime scene, with embedded information such as photographs of items of interest, complex forensic evidence, the results of laboratory analyses, and scientific opinion evidence presented in context. The IEP has resulted in significant improvements to the pretrial disclosure of forensic results, enhanced the delivery of evidence in court, and improved the jury's understanding of the spatial relationship between results. PMID:25651814

  8. Baseball bats and chocolate chip cookies: the judicial treatment of DNA in the myriad genetics litigation.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Ian; Park-Thompson, Vanessa

    2015-06-01

    In June 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a controversial ruling that naturally occurring DNA segments are "products of nature" and therefore not patentable subject matter. At this intersection between science and law, in litigation of crucial importance to patients, science, and multibillion-dollar biotech enterprises, the appellate judges sidestepped genetics and engaged in a war of metaphors from diamonds to chocolate chip cookies. This case is not an outlier. Apprehensive judges and juries in both Canada and the United States find many convenient excuses to avoid coming to grips with the underlying science in patent cases. But this is simply not acceptable. Legal rulings must be, and must seem to be, well grounded, as a matter of both law and science. The legitimacy of court decisions in the eyes of the stakeholders and the broader public depends on it. PMID:25524722

  9. Hydrogen Lines in Mira Stars Through Interferometry and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabas, N.; Chiavassa, A.; Millour, F.; Wittkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Balmer lines in emission are the most prominent features in Mira stars spectra and have a strong potential as a proxy to study the lower atmosphere's dynamics. In Fabas et al. ([1]), we accumulated spectropolarimetric observations of Balmer lines in emission. As the shock is propagating outwards, linear polarization rate increases and the angle of this polarization evolves. Assuming that linear polarization arises from anisotropic scattering, it has the potential of telling us about the geometric structure of the shock as it propagates and the study of such atmospheric structures can typically be performed with interferometry. In 2012, AMBER data on the Mira star omicron Ceti were collected in which the Brackett γ line is studied. The data show signatures in the interferometric observables around this line. Olivier Chesneau was in the jury evaluating the PhD thesis of N. Fabas and he was seduced by the idea to study these shock waves with interferometry and use polarimetry as a complementary study.

  10. The potential of dyslexic individuals in communication design education.

    PubMed

    Corlu, Muzaffer; Ozcan, Oğuzhan; Korkmazlar, Umran

    2007-01-01

    If dyslexic individuals have the ability to express themselves in different ways, particularly in the field of modern graphic design, would they be a favoured group in creating the extraordinary and outstanding ideas that are required in communication design? The study group consisted of 20 primary school dyslexics between ages of 7-12 and 20 non-dyslexics serving as a control group. A jury with four specialists evaluated the drawings gathered from the 40 participants. Even though we might not say surely that the dyslexics are the best possible candidates for communication design education, based on the statistical results we have concluded that they should be among the potential candidates for both general communication design education and for more specific minor study areas such as icon design. PMID:18430979

  11. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law. PMID:23022585

  12. A verdict against doctors in a Jehovah's Witness case.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carol

    1984-06-01

    A New York State Supreme Court recently awarded $1.52 million to the husband of a Jehovah's Witness who died following a cesarean delivery. At her own request, no blood had been ordered for Bessie Randolph, a patient in 1975 at the now-defunct Sydenham Hospital operated by the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation. When she began to hemorrhage, physicians, after legal consultation, unsuccessfully attempted to save her life by administering the small amount of blood available. The city's attorney has moved to set aside the jury's verdict that the doctors were negligent in delaying blood transfusions. If the verdict stands, however, hospital lawyers will understandably be reluctant to advise physicians to honor Witnesses' refusals of transfusions. PMID:11644148

  13. Expert witness testimony guidelines: identifying areas for improvement.

    PubMed

    Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Folbe, Adam J

    2015-02-01

    Expert witnesses play an invaluable, if controversial, role by deciphering medical events for juries in cases of alleged negligence. We review expert witness guidelines among major surgical societies and identify gaps within these standards, as our hope is that this spurs discussion addressing areas for improvement. Of 8 surgical societies with accessible guidelines, none included specific compensation guidelines or limits, detailed reporting mechanisms regarding unethical behavior by legal professionals, or addressed the appropriateness of testifying frequently and exclusively for one side. Several processes possibly deterring grossly inaccurate testimony have been adopted by other surgical societies and should potentially be addressed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. These include offering an expert witness testimony certification path, strengthening the formalized grievance process, and encouraging members to sign an affirmation statement. PMID:25389319

  14. Court upholds man's conviction for attempted murder.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    A three-judge panel of the Oregon Court of Appeals upheld the jury conviction of [name removed]. Mr. [Name removed] was found guilty of ten counts of attempted murder and attempted assault for engaging in unprotected sex with the knowledge that he is HIV-positive. The Appeals Court panel found that there was ample evidence to show that [name removed] knew about his HIV status, lied about his serostatus, disregarded warnings not to engage in unprotected sex, and threatened to spread the virus to others. [Name removed] engaged in unprotected sex with an underage girl and a series of women, even after signing an agreement not to engage in sex without permission from his probation officer. The appeals court rejected the defense attorney's argument that [name removed] meant to satisfy his sexual urges and did not intend to cause harm or death. PMID:11363273

  15. [The investigative and adversarial process in Italy and the United States].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo; Agostini, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the US legal system, which relies on the presence of different courts to provide for the impartial administration of justice, both civil and criminal is discussed. Therefore, all the steps to conviction or acquittal of the American criminal trial, are taken into consideration. However, there is the presumption of innocence of the accused and the prosecution must prove his guilt beyond any reasonable doubt. Another important procedure in the US trial is the jury selection (voir dire), 12 jurors: 6 for the defense and 6 for the prosecution. In Italy it was observed that the autonomy of the police would squeeze the steering function of the prosecutor, and the practice of "under cover" investigation has granted an extension of police activity. PMID:23023121

  16. Searching for Insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2010-09-01

    Is space-time only brought into being by its energy content? The jury is still out, but other questions that have been with me for much of my life—giant black holes in galactic nuclei, the formation of the Galaxy, the connection between first-order phase transitions and negative specific heats, the cause of the large-scale flow of galaxies relative to the cosmic microwave background—have all received reasonable answers. I have found great fun in understanding the dynamical mechanisms underlying such phenomena as magnetohydrodynamic jets, relativistic disks, and the bars, spirals, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The great challenges for future astronomers will be the exploration of the 96% of the Universe now believed to be neither atomic nor baryonic but perhaps partially leptonic. However, most advances do not come via frontal attack but from “bread-and-butter” investigations in related areas where observation is possible today!

  17. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  18. Corruption case.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    A Federal jury in Puerto Rico found three defendants guilty of participating in the theft of $2.2 million in Federal funds from the San Juan AIDS Institute. The key figure in the case is [name removed], a consultant to the institute. He was convicted of 12 counts of money laundering and faces up to 25 years in prison. Two other administrative officials were also convicted in the case. Four others have pleaded guilty, and three more await trial. Rep. Jose Granados Navado was among those implicated; he received $100,000 for his campaign for mayor of San Juan in 1988 from the institute=s medical director. U.S. Rep. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) has called for an audit of all Ryan White CARE Act funds since this scandal was uncovered. PMID:11366596

  19. NAViGaTOR: Network Analysis, Visualization and Graphing Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin R.; Otasek, David; Ali, Muhammad; McGuffin, Michael J.; Xie, Wing; Devani, Baiju; van Toch, Ian Lawson; Jurisica, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Summary: NAViGaTOR is a powerful graphing application for the 2D and 3D visualization of biological networks. NAViGaTOR includes a rich suite of visual mark-up tools for manual and automated annotation, fast and scalable layout algorithms and OpenGL hardware acceleration to facilitate the visualization of large graphs. Publication-quality images can be rendered through SVG graphics export. NAViGaTOR supports community-developed data formats (PSI-XML, BioPax and GML), is platform-independent and is extensible through a plug-in architecture. Availability: NAViGaTOR is freely available to the research community from http://ophid.utoronto.ca/navigator/. Installers and documentation are provided for 32- and 64-bit Windows, Mac, Linux and Unix. Contact: juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19837718

  20. A research facility for habitation questions to be built at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne: future challenges of Space medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, B; Gerzer, R

    2008-01-01

    For long term habitation in space and for living on Moon and Mars, many questions still need to be resolved. Such habitation questions include prevention of and rehabilitation from negative effects of weightlessness that are, in many instances, comparable to problems of aging people on Earth as well as of patients during and recovery from long term stays in bed. Therefore the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine has designed a concept for a research facility that will make it possible to join space research directly with terrestrial applications. From a strategic point of view, one major emphasis of :envihab is to form a closely interrelated network of scientists and the industry and the public. The project has been in the planning phase for several years. After an international architectural contest, the winning concept was selected in 2007 by a Jury with ESA participation. PMID:19048099

  1. An Introduction to Medical Malpractice in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Medical malpractice law in the United States is derived from English common law, and was developed by rulings in various state courts. Medical malpractice lawsuits are a relatively common occurrence in the United States. The legal system is designed to encourage extensive discovery and negotiations between adversarial parties with the goal of resolving the dispute without going to jury trial. The injured patient must show that the physician acted negligently in rendering care, and that such negligence resulted in injury. To do so, four legal elements must be proven: (1) a professional duty owed to the patient; (2) breach of such duty; (3) injury caused by the breach; and (4) resulting damages. Money damages, if awarded, typically take into account both actual economic loss and noneconomic loss, such as pain and suffering. PMID:19034593

  2. The effect of inharmonic partials on pitch of piano tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Strong, William J.

    2005-05-01

    Piano tones have partials whose frequencies are sharp relative to harmonic values. A listening test was conducted to determine the effect of inharmonicity on pitch for piano tones in the lowest three octaves of a piano. Nine real tones from the lowest three octaves of a piano were analyzed to obtain frequencies, relative amplitudes, and decay rates of their partials. Synthetic inharmonic tones were produced from these results. Synthetic harmonic tones, each with a twelfth of a semitone increase in the fundamental, were also produced. A jury of 21 listeners matched the pitch of each synthetic inharmonic tone to one of the synthetic harmonic tones. The effect of the inharmonicity on pitch was determined from an average of the listeners' results. For the nine synthetic piano tones studied, pitch increase ranged from approximately two and a half semitones at low fundamental frequencies to an eighth of a semitone at higher fundamental frequencies. .

  3. The silence of the unblown whistle: the Nevada hepatitis C public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Leary, Elizabeth; Diers, Donna

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, one of the worst public health crises occurred in the state of Nevada, where authorities discovered up to 63,000 patients were potentially exposed to hepatitis C infection, largely due to substandard infection control and other negligent practices at two endoscopy clinics in Las Vegas. In the subsequent grand jury proceedings that followed, it was discovered that several clinic employees not only participated in these egregious practices, but doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals witnessed yet failed to report these incidents, largely due to fears of whistleblower retaliation. In response, the Nevada state legislature attempted to strengthen whistleblower protection laws, but it remains unclear if such laws actually protect employees who attempt to report patient safety concerns. As the push for quality patient outcomes becomes more prominent with health care reform, whistleblower concerns must be effectively addressed to ensure that health care professionals can report patient safety concerns without fear of retaliation. PMID:23483090

  4. Criminal sittings – rape in the colony, New Zealand, 1862.

    PubMed

    Erai, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In 1862 His Honor, Justice Johnston, issued his instructions to the jury of the New Zealand Supreme Court for two simultaneous rape trials – the alleged rape of a European woman by two Māori men, and an alleged “assault with intent to commit a rape” of a Māori woman by a European man. This article argues that those instructions should be read within an historiographical critique of British colonial expansion, print capitalism and violence. Drawing on feminist postcolonial theorizing the question posed here, is, “What is the historical, ideological context for a newspaper reporting of the possible rape of a Māori woman in 1862? PMID:22059253

  5. Sex and the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Levine, Murray

    2016-01-01

    The current article discusses the case of Henry Rahons. A nearly 80 year old man who was accused by the local district attorney of having unlawful sexual contact with Donna, his second wife of some seven years who had developed Alzheimer's disease in her later years. Under Iowa law, he was accused of having sexually abused her because she had "a mental defect or incapacity which precludes giving consent" to sex acts. A jury acquitted Henry of the charge of sexually abusing his wife. The evidence was equivocal that a sex act occurred on May 23, 2014, the date specified in the indictment. This article addresses the ability to assessed competence to consent to sex in similar situations. The current rules and attitudes about senior sex in nursing homes needs to be reevaluated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27196391

  6. The Research Biobank of the Year Competition of the European, Middle Eastern and African Society for Biopreservation and Biobanking (ESBB): aims and achievements.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christina; Corfield, Julie; di Donato, Jeanne-Hélène; Meir, Karen; Parodi, Barbara; Schmitz, Arndt A; Tiran, Andreas; Tybring, Gunnel; Hewitt, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    With the increasing number of research biobanks and the importance of their role in supporting medical and biological research, the development and sharing of biobanking best practices and benchmarking standards has become paramount. To promote outstanding biobank services for research, the Research Biobank of the Year Competition (RBYC) has been inaugurated by the European, Middle-Eastern, and African Society for Biopreservation and Biobanking (ESBB) in October 2013. The procedures for the call and evaluation procedure, including the newly developed scoring system, are presented here. The statistics and evaluation results of the first year's applications, as well as the experiences of the jury are reported here, and improvements for the RBYC in subsequent years are proposed. Beyond offering a unique benchmarking opportunity for biobanks, the RBYC is discussed as a novel tool to enhance biobank quality, transparency, usage, connectivity, innovation, and sustainability. PMID:24749884

  7. The psychology of telling murder stories: do we think in scripts, exemplars, or prototypes?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Richard L; Richmond, Tracey L; Seib, Hope M; Rauch, Shannon M; Hackney, Amy A

    2002-01-01

    According to the story model of Pennington and Hastie, jurors collect information at trial and modify it with general knowledge to create case stories. Schank and Ableson argue that human memory is organized to tell and understand stories. However, Finkel and Groscup questioned the use of manipulated, experimenter-constructed narratives to demonstrate the existence of multiple prototypical crime stories. We interviewed 76 jury eligible, death qualified citizens and asked them to imagine a first-degree murder scenario, describing the events that led to the killing. We coded the presence of dichotomous variables in the resulting stories and identified at least three shared story prototypes using cluster and profile analysis. We conclude that people do not store crime stories as simple prototypes and comment on the implications of this finding for legal decision-making. PMID:11979495

  8. The American compensation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bale, A

    1990-01-01

    In this article, the author defines the occupational safety and health domain, characterizes the distinct compensation phenomenon in the United States, and briefly reviews important developments in the last decade involving Karen Silkwood, intentional torts, and asbestos litigation. He examines the class conflict over the value and meaning of work-related injuries and illnesses involved in the practical activity of making claims and turning them into money through compensation inquiries. Juries, attributions of fault, and medicolegal discourse play key roles in the compensation phenomenon. This article demonstrates the extensive, probing inquiry through workers' bodies constituted by the American compensation phenomenon into the moral basis of elements of the system of production. PMID:2139638

  9. The Consequences of Official Labels: An Examination of the Rights Lost by the Mentally Ill and Mentally Incompetent Since 1989.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrea M; Klein, Michael S; Hemmens, Craig; Stohr, Mary K; Burton, Velmer S

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a survey of state statutes which restrict the civil rights of persons with a mental illness or who have been declared mentally incompetent. Five civil rights (voting, holding public office, jury service, parenting, and marriage) are examined. The results of this study are compared with the results of studies conducted in 1989 and 1999 to determine what changes have occurred over time in the restriction of civil rights of those suffering from mental health problems. This comparison reveals that states continue to restrict the rights of the mentally ill and incompetent, and that there is a trend towards increased restriction of political rights, including the right to vote and hold public office. PMID:26403304

  10. The Real Problem with MOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott

    Gravitational potentials in the cosmos are deeper than expected from observed visible objects, a phenomenon usually attributed to dark matter, presumably in the form of a new fundamental particle. Until such a particle is observed, the jury remains out on dark matter, and modified gravity models must be considered. The class of models reducing to modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in the weak field limit does an excellent job fitting the rotation curves of galaxies, predicting the relation between baryonic mass and velocity in gas-dominated galaxies, and explaining the properties of the local group. Several of the initial challenges facing MOND have been overcome, while others remain. Here we point out the most severe challenge facing MOND.

  11. “Everyone knew but no one had proof”: tobacco industry use of medical history expertise in US courts, 1990–2002

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Robert N

    2006-01-01

    Historians have played an important role in recent tobacco litigation, helping the industry with its defence of “common knowledge” and “open controversy”. Historians re‐narrate the past, creating an account for judges and juries that makes it appear that “everyone has always known” that cigarettes are harmful, meaning that smokers have only themselves to blame for their illnesses. Medical historians are also employed to argue that “honest doubts” persisted in the medical community long past the 1950s, justifying as responsible the industry's longstanding claim of “no proof” of hazards. The industry's experts emphasise the “good science” supported by the industry, and ignore the industry's role in spreading doubts about the reality of tobacco hazards. PMID:17130619

  12. Redetermination of the space weathering rate using spectra of Iannini asteroid family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert; Nesvorný, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Ivezić, Željko; Fevig, Ronald

    2008-06-01

    We have obtained moderate S/N (˜85) spectra at a realized resolution of R˜100 for 11 members of the Iannini family, until recently the youngest known family at under 5 million years of age [Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., 2003. Astrophys. J. 591, 486-497, 720-771]. The spectra were acquired using the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager in its low-resolution prism mode on the Keck II telescope. The family members belong to the S-complex of asteroids with perhaps some K class members. The Iannini family members' average spectral slope, defined as the slope of the best-fit line constrained to pivot about 1 at 550 nm, is (0.30±0.04)/μm, matching the (0.26±0.03)/μm reported by Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M., 2004. Nature 429, 275-277] using SDSS [Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M., Lupton, R.H., Tabachnik, S., Quinn, T., 2002. In: Tyson, J.A., Wolff, S. (Eds.), Survey and Other Telescope Technologies and Discoveries. In: Proc. SPIE, vol. 4836. SPIE, Bellingham, pp. 98-103] color photometry. Using our spectra for this family as well as new observations of Karin family members [Vernazza, P., Birlan, M., Rossi, A., Dotto, E., Nesvorný, D., Brunetto, R., Fornasier, S., Fulchignoni, M., Renner, S., 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 460, 945-951] and new classifications of some older families we have revised the space weathering rate of S-complex asteroids originally determined by Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M., 2004. Nature 429, 275-277]. Following Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M., 2004. Nature 429, 275-277] we parameterize the space weathering rate of the principal component color of the spectrum ( PC), which is correlated with the spectral slope, as PC(t)=PC(0)+ΔPC[1-exp]. Our revised rate suggests that the characteristic time scale for space weathering is τ=570±220 Myr and that new S-complex clusters

  13. The believability of children and their interviewers' hearsay testimony: when less is more.

    PubMed

    Warren, Amye R; Nunez, Narina; Keeney, Jennifer M; Buck, Julie A; Smith, Beverly

    2002-10-01

    Hearsay testimony from children's interviewers is increasingly common in sexual abuse trials, but little is known about its effects on juries. In 2 studies, the authors examined college students' perceptions of 3 types of hearsay testimony (an actual interview with a child or an adult interviewer providing either the gist of what that child had said or a verbatim account of the interview). Interviewers were rated as more accurate and truthful than the children. The interview was rated as higher quality, and children's statements, including their false statements, were sometimes rated as more believable in the interviewer gist hearsay condition. Mock jurors reacted differently to various types of hearsay testimony, and interviewer gist testimony may favor a child's case. PMID:12395809

  14. Italian consensus conference for colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, Giovanni; Pace, Fabio; Annese, Vito; Bassotti, Gabrio; Binda, Gian Andrea; Casetti, Tino; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide; Fiocca, Roberto; Laghi, Andrea; Maconi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The statements produced by the Consensus Conference on Diverticular Disease promoted by GRIMAD (Gruppo Italiano Malattia Diverticolare, Italian Group on Diverticular Diseases) are reported. Topics such as epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of diverticular disease (DD) in patients with uncomplicated and complicated DD were reviewed by a scientific board of experts who proposed 55 statements graded according to level of evidence and strength of recommendation, and approved by an independent jury. Each topic was explored focusing on the more relevant clinical questions. Comparison and discussion of expert opinions, pertinent statements and replies to specific questions, were presented and approved based on a systematic literature search of the available evidence. Comments were added explaining the basis for grading the evidence, particularly for controversial areas. PMID:25360320

  15. Aircraft ride quality controller design using new robust root clustering theory for linear uncertain systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    The aspect of controller design for improving the ride quality of aircraft in terms of damping ratio and natural frequency specifications on the short period dynamics is addressed. The controller is designed to be robust with respect to uncertainties in the real parameters of the control design model such as uncertainties in the dimensional stability derivatives, imperfections in actuator/sensor locations and possibly variations in flight conditions, etc. The design is based on a new robust root clustering theory developed by the author by extending the nominal root clustering theory of Gutman and Jury to perturbed matrices. The proposed methodology allows to get an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty radius of the parameter space. The current literature available for robust stability becomes a special case of this unified theory. The bounds derived on the parameter perturbation for robust root clustering are then used in selecting the robust controller.

  16. Tough on Crime? Pfizer and the CIHR

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The appointment of Dr. Bernard Prigent, vice-president and medical director of Pfizer Canada, to the Governing Council of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, outraged many Canadian health researchers. Pfizer has been a “habitual offender,” persistently engaging in illegal and corrupt marketing practices, bribing physicians and suppressing adverse trial results. Since 2002 the company and its subsidiaries have been assessed $3 billion in criminal convictions, civil penalties and jury awards. The $2.3-billion settlement in September 2009 – a month before Dr. Prigent's appointment – set a new record for both criminal fines and total penalties. A link with Pfizer might well advance the commercialization of Canadian research – unhindered by law or morality. Is that now the only mandate, Dr. Beaudet? PMID:21532766

  17. Sleep in a legal context: The role of the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Idzikowski, Chris; Rumbold, John

    2015-07-01

    Sleep experts are called to assist the jury in deciding the mental state of the accused at the time of their alleged criminal behaviour. This task is difficult as the literature on many sleep disorders, particularly sleepwalking and other parasomnias, is still largely a matter of case reports and case series. The probative value of much of the evidence given is not known. Sleep behaviour in the courts present a number of difficulties which illustrate the dilemmas that face an expert witness faced with ambiguous data and uncertain principles with which to interpret them. Additionally there are substantial policy issues involved which are not always adequately addressed in expert evidence. We outline the role of expert witnesses in such cases. PMID:26378109

  18. Results of the First Bruno's International Creative Competition in the field of astronomy and space sciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkina, E.; Aleshkin, V.

    Results of the First International Creative Competition named after Giordano Bruno are presented. The main goal of the competition was to raise interest in astronomy, space exploration and related questions. There were two categories of participants - senior school students aged 13-18 years (A) and adult amateurs of astronomy (B). The topic of the first competition was "The Human and His/Her place in the Universe". The languages of the papers were to be Russian or English. 36 papers were submitted for the competition. On the decision of the jury it was awarded three degrees in the category A, one degree in the category B and 4 special nominations. The awarding ceremony was held in October 2002 in the Palace of the Youth Creativity in Sankt-Petersburg. Winners from Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Russia, Byelorussia, Latvia and Kazakhstan participated in the ceremony. It is planed to publish the best papers in special volume in Russian and English.

  19. Infrared Thermography And The Expert Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Charles C.

    1985-03-01

    With the continued growth of legal activities involving litigation, lawsuits involving technical matters may be very complex. Expert witnesses are often hired by both plaintiffs and defendants to help clarify and simplify technical merits of a case in order for the jury to make an educated decision. The usage of infrared thermography in legal matters has also been growing. This paper reviews several areas where infrared thermography has been utilized in legal matters. These include analysis of building defects, fire analysis and equipment failures. Expert witness qualifications, test procedures and analyses are discussed. The role of industry and governmental standards is reviewed. Opinions from the infrared thermographic expert should be unbiased, factual and within the area of qualification of the expert.

  20. DNA profiling: evaluation of the evidentiary value.

    PubMed

    Bär, Walter

    2003-03-01

    The evaluation of the evidentiary value of scientific evidence is the assessment of the strength of the link between a finding and a person. It is usually a statistical assessment but its presentation is full of pitfalls. The evaluation of scientific evidence must be based on a established methodology to both evaluate, expose and interpret the evidence. It is best based on a logical framework, e.g. the Bayesian theorem, and on likelihood ratios. The information of the scientist is usually a numerical one, e.g. the probability of observing two matching profiles. Assessments of simple stains as well as of stain mixtures with contributors of different ethnic origin and/or with related contributors or reference persons and even artifacts can be quantified and expressed by likelihood ratio(s). Thereby, scientific evidence can be integrated by juries into the continuous process of evaluating prior odds and changing them into posterior odds by new information in the case. PMID:12935550

  1. Stiver v. Parker.

    PubMed

    1992-09-15

    In this Michigan negligence case, the U.S. Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, determined the rights and duties in a surrogacy agreement established prior to Michigan's 1988 statutory criminalization of such agreements. Due to the surrogate mother's exposure to cytomegalovirus, the baby suffered birth defects. The source of the cytomegalovirus was undetermined; it could have been the contracting father or the mother's husband, who was actually the biological father of the child. Although the agreement provided that the mother assumed all risks of injury or loss, the court held that the "special relationship" created by the agreement imposed a duty on the surrogacy broker to act for the mother's protection. The court further held that a jury should determine whether the broker breached this duty, as well as the issue of causation regarding the source of the cytomegalovirus. Because this was not a medical malpractice case, expert testimony about the broker's standard of care was not required. PMID:11648601

  2. STS-47 MS Davis and Pilot Brown repair ISAIAH humidity problem aboard OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr (foreground) and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (left) team up to cure a high humidity problem in the Israel Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) experiment on the middeck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Via a jury-rigged hose hook-up, the two were able to blow air from a launch and entry suit (LES) fan into the experiment, thus eliminating condesation that obscured the viewing of ISAIAH. ISAIAH, an enclosure located in locker MF43H, contains 180 female Oriental Hornets and will examine the effects of microgravity on the orientation, reproductive capability and social activity of the hornets. Also, the direction of comb-building by hornet workers in microgravity, as well as the structural integrity of the combs, will be examined.

  3. Absorbing New Subjects: Holography as an Analog of Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2006-05-01

    I discuss the early history of holography and explore how perceptions, applications, and forecasts of the subject were shaped by prior experience. I focus on the work of Dennis Gabor (1900 1979) in England,Yury N. Denisyuk (b. 1924) in the Soviet Union, and Emmett N. Leith (1927 2005) and Juris Upatnieks (b. 1936) in the United States. I show that the evolution of holography was simultaneously promoted and constrained by its identification as an analog of photography, an association that influenced its assessment by successive audiences of practitioners, entrepreneurs, and consumers. One consequence is that holography can be seen as an example of a modern technical subject that has been shaped by cultural influences more powerfully than generally appreciated. Conversely, the understanding of this new science and technology in terms of an older one helps to explain why the cultural effects of holography have been more muted than anticipated by forecasters between the 1960s and 1990s.

  4. Incoherent holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Nils H.

    2000-10-01

    Dennis Gabor invented in-line holography in 1947, but at that time the coherent light from a laser did not yet exist and therefore the holograms he produced were of very low quality. When the laser was born in 1960 beautiful 3-D off- center holograms were for the first time produced by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks. However, already as early as 1934 the inventor and artist Hans Weil patented a method to produce simple pictures that appeared floating in space, by scratching a transparent or metallic surface in certain directions. In 1995 William J. Beaty published a method for Hand-Drawn Holograms. Then it became possible for any artist to draw his own 3-D pictures of simple objects and using his ingenious techniques these hand drawn images will mimic many of the qualities of ordinary holograms.

  5. The process and criteria for diagnosing specific learning disorders: indications from the Consensus Conference promoted by the Italian National Institute of Health.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Vernice, Mirta; Dieterich, Marina; Brizzolara, Daniela; Mariani, Enrica; De Masi, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Franca; Lacorte, Eleonora; Mele, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    A Consensus Conference on Specific Learning Disorders has been promoted by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS). The Consensus Conference consisted in a systematic review of the international literature addressing the issues of diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis, treatment, service delivery and organizational models for Specific Learning Disorders (reading, spelling/writing, calculation). Selected papers were examined by a group of Evaluators and then discussed by a Scientific and Technical Committee, whose conclusions were examined and approved by a Jury Panel. The part on diagnostic issues is presented here, encompassing a systematic discussion of the use and appropriateness of diagnostic criteria, parameters, tasks and psychometric indexes as illustrated in the literature, and providing recommendations for clinical practice. Special attention has been devoted to the collection, analysis and discussion of published data concerning languages with transparent orthography. Controversial issues such as discrepancy criteria, role of reading comprehension and importance of accuracy and fluency are discussed. PMID:24695257

  6. Holography reinvented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Stephen A.

    2002-07-01

    This paper is entitled Holography Reinvented, because its theme is simply that each of the three best-known names in holography made their discoveries and inventions without knowing about the work of any the others; that is, each of them invented or reinvented holography, as it were. This is largely a presentation of anecdotal remarks drawn from conversations, observations drawn from historical documents, including some from the Museum of Holography files now at the MIT Museum, and observations drawn from the author's own experiences as holography has evolved. As such, any errors of fact or interpretation are entirely the author's own, as is the slant toward imaging or display holography that will be conspicuous. The three main players are Professors Denis Gabor, Emmett Leith, and Juri Denisyuk. A few other names will come into the story as well, notably: Pieter van Heerden (my former colleague at the Polaroid Research Labs) and Hussein M.A. El-Sum, among others.

  7. Emergency Vehicle Siren Noise Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angela, Peter

    Navigating safely through traffic, while responding to an emergency, is often a challenge for emergency responders. To help alert other motorists, these responders use emergency lights and/or sirens. However, the former is useful only if within clear visual range of the other drivers. This shortcoming puts a greater emphasis on the importance of the audible emergency siren, which has its own shortcomings. This study considered several emergency siren systems with the goal to determine the most effective siren system(s) based on several criteria. Multiple experimental measurements and subjective analysis using jury testing using an NVH driving simulator were performed. It was found that the traditional mechanical siren was the most effective audible warning device; however, with significantly reduced electrical power requirements, the low frequency Rumbler siren, in conjunction with a more conventional electronic Yelp siren, was the preferred option. Recommendations for future work are also given.

  8. On the presumption of evidentiary independence: can confessions corrupt eyewitness identifications?

    PubMed

    Hasel, Lisa E; Kassin, Saul M

    2009-01-01

    A confession is potent evidence, persuasive to judges and juries. Is it possible that a confession can also affect other evidence? The present study tested the hypothesis that a confession will alter eyewitnesses' identification decisions. Two days after witnessing a staged theft and making an identification decision from a lineup that did not include the thief, participants were told that certain lineup members had confessed or denied guilt during a subsequent interrogation. Among those participants who had made a selection but were told that another lineup member confessed, 61% changed their identifications. Among those participants who had not made an identification, 50% went on to select the confessor when his identity was known. These findings challenge the presumption in law that different forms of evidence are independent and suggest an important overlooked mechanism by which innocent confessors are wrongfully convicted: Potentially exculpatory evidence is corrupted by a confession itself. PMID:19152544

  9. Can Jurors Recognize Missing Control Groups, Confounds, and Experimenter Bias in Psychological Science?

    PubMed Central

    McAuliff, Bradley D.; Kovera, Margaret Bull; Nunez, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the ability of jury-eligible community members (N = 248) to detect internal validity threats in psychological science presented during a trial. Participants read a case summary in which an expert testified about a study that varied in internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and ecological validity (high, low). Ratings of expert evidence quality and expert credibility were higher for the valid versus missing control group versions only. Internal validity did not influence verdict or ratings of plaintiff credibility and no differences emerged as a function of ecological validity. Expert evidence quality, expert credibility, and plaintiff credibility were positively correlated with verdict. Implications for the scientific reasoning literature and for trials containing psychological science are discussed. PMID:18587635

  10. Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Òtúlàjà, Fẹ´Mi S.; Cameron, Ann; Msimanga, Audrey

    2011-09-01

    Our response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper focuses, on the one hand, on some of the underlying tensions associated with alinging indigenous knowledge systems with westernized science in South African science classrooms, as suggested by the new, post-apartheid, curriculum. On the other hand, the use of argumentation as a vehicle to accomplish the alignment when the jury is still out on the appropriateness of argumentation as a pedagogical and research tool heightens the tension. We argue that the need for education stakeholders from indigenous heritages to value, know and document their own indigenous knowledge becomes paramount. The textualizing of indigenous knowledge, as has been done in western science, will create repositories for teachers to access and may help with the argumentation strategies such as advocated by the authors.

  11. Protein structure prediction and analysis using the Robetta server

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David E.; Chivian, Dylan; Baker, David

    2004-01-01

    The Robetta server (http://robetta.bakerlab.org) provides automated tools for protein structure prediction and analysis. For structure prediction, sequences submitted to the server are parsed into putative domains and structural models are generated using either comparative modeling or de novo structure prediction methods. If a confident match to a protein of known structure is found using BLAST, PSI-BLAST, FFAS03 or 3D-Jury, it is used as a template for comparative modeling. If no match is found, structure predictions are made using the de novo Rosetta fragment insertion method. Experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) constraints data can also be submitted with a query sequence for RosettaNMR de novo structure determination. Other current capabilities include the prediction of the effects of mutations on protein–protein interactions using computational interface alanine scanning. The Rosetta protein design and protein–protein docking methodologies will soon be available through the server as well. PMID:15215442

  12. Recommendations for management of patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Frilling, Andrea; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark; Russell, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan; Salem, Riad; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Lau, Wan-yee; Klersy, Catherine; Vilgrain, Valerie; Davidson, Brian; Siegler, Mark; Caplin, Martyn; Solcia, Enrico; Schilsky, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Many management strategies exist for neuroendocrine liver metastases. These strategies range from surgery to ablation with various interventional radiology procedures, and include both regional and systemic therapy with diverse biological, cytotoxic, or targeted agents. A paucity of biological, molecular, and genomic information and an absence of data from rigorous trials limit the validity of many publications detailing management. This Review represents the views from an international conference, for which 15 expert working groups prepared evidence-based assessments addressing specific questions, and from which an independent jury derived final recommendations. The aim of the conference was to review the existing approaches to neuroendocrine liver metastases, assess the evidence on which management decisions were based, develop internationally acceptable recommendations for clinical practice (when evidence was available), and make recommendations for clinical and research endeavours. This report represents the final clinical statements and proposals for future research. PMID:24384494

  13. Improvement of impact noise in a passenger car utilizing sound metric based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Ho-Wuk; Na, Eun-Woo

    2010-08-01

    A new sound metric for impact sound is developed based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), a useful tool for the analysis of non-stationary signals such as impact noise. Together with new metric, two other conventional sound metrics related to sound modulation and fluctuation are also considered. In all, three sound metrics are employed to develop impact sound quality indexes for several specific impact courses on the road. Impact sounds are evaluated subjectively by 25 jurors. The indexes are verified by comparing the correlation between the index output and results of a subjective evaluation based on a jury test. These indexes are successfully applied to an objective evaluation for improvement of the impact sound quality for cases where some parts of the suspension system of the test car are modified.

  14. Complex questions asked by defense lawyers but not prosecutors predicts convictions in child abuse trials.

    PubMed

    Evans, Angela D; Lee, Kang; Lyon, Thomas D

    2009-06-01

    Attorneys' language has been found to influence the accuracy of a child's testimony, with defense attorneys asking more complex questions than the prosecution (Zajac & Hayne, J. Exp Psychol Appl 9:187-195, 2003; Zajac et al. Psychiatr Psychol Law, 10:199-209, 2003). These complex questions may be used as a strategy to influence the jury's perceived accuracy of child witnesses. However, we currently do not know whether the complexity of attorney's questions predict the trial outcome. The present study assesses whether the complexity of questions is related to the trial outcome in 46 child sexual abuse court transcripts using an automated linguistic analysis. Based on the complexity of defense attorney's questions, the trial verdict was accurately predicted 82.6% of the time. Contrary to our prediction, more complex questions asked by the defense were associated with convictions, not acquittals. PMID:18633698

  15. Estimating the reliability of eyewitness identifications from police lineups.

    PubMed

    Wixted, John T; Mickes, Laura; Dunn, John C; Clark, Steven E; Wells, William

    2016-01-12

    Laboratory-based mock crime studies have often been interpreted to mean that (i) eyewitness confidence in an identification made from a lineup is a weak indicator of accuracy and (ii) sequential lineups are diagnostically superior to traditional simultaneous lineups. Largely as a result, juries are increasingly encouraged to disregard eyewitness confidence, and up to 30% of law enforcement agencies in the United States have adopted the sequential procedure. We conducted a field study of actual eyewitnesses who were assigned to simultaneous or sequential photo lineups in the Houston Police Department over a 1-y period. Identifications were made using a three-point confidence scale, and a signal detection model was used to analyze and interpret the results. Our findings suggest that (i) confidence in an eyewitness identification from a fair lineup is a highly reliable indicator of accuracy and (ii) if there is any difference in diagnostic accuracy between the two lineup formats, it likely favors the simultaneous procedure. PMID:26699467

  16. The Summer School Alpbach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitsch, Michaela; Manoharan, Periasamy K.

    2015-02-01

    Sixty young, highly qualified European science and engineering students converge annually for stimulating 10 days of work in the Austrian Alps. Four teams are formed, each of which designs a space mission, which are then judged by a jury of experts. Students learn how to approach the design of a satellite mission and explore new and startling ideas supported by experts. The Summer School Alpbach enjoys more than 30 years of tradition in providing in-depth teaching on different topics of space science and space technology, featuring lectures and concentrated working sessions on mission studies in self-organised working groups. The Summer School is organised by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) and co-sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA), the International Space Science Institute (ISSI), and the national space authorities of its member and cooperating states.

  17. A Review of Darcy's Law: Limitations and Alternatives for Predicting Solute Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Kung, K.-J. Sam; Jaynes, Dan; Helling, Charles S.; Gish, Tim; Kladivko, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    Darcy's Law that was derived originally empirically 160 years ago, has been used successfully in calculating the (Darcy) flux in porous media throughout the world. However, field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the Darcy flux employed in the convective disperse equation could only successfully predict solute transport under two conditions: (1) uniformly or densely packed porous media; and (2) field soils under relatively dry condition. Employing the Darcy flux for solute transport in porous media with preferential flow pathways was problematic. In this paper we examine the theoretical background behind these field and laboratory observations and then provide an alternative to predict solute movement. By examining the characteristics of the momentum conservation principles on which Darcy's law is based, we show under what conditions Darcy flux can predict solute transport in porous media of various complexity. We find that, based on several case studies with capillary pores, Darcy's Law inherently merges momentum and in that way erases information on pore-scale velocities. For that reason the Darcy flux cannot predict flow in media with preferential flow conduits where individual pore velocities are essential in predicting the shape of the breakthrough curve and especially "the early arrival" of solutes. To overcome the limitations of the assumption in Darcy's law, we use Jury's conceptualization and employ the measured chemical breakthrough curve as input to characterize the impact of individual preferential flow pathways on chemical transport. Specifically, we discuss how best to take advantage of Jury's conceptualization to extract the pore-scale flow velocity to accurately predict chemical transport through soils with preferential flow pathways.

  18. Consensus summary statement of the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Peter; Menon, David K; Citerio, Giuseppe; Vespa, Paul; Bader, Mary Kay; Brophy, Gretchen M; Diringer, Michael N; Stocchetti, Nino; Videtta, Walter; Armonda, Rocco; Badjatia, Neeraj; Böesel, Julian; Chesnut, Randall; Chou, Sherry; Claassen, Jan; Czosnyka, Marek; De Georgia, Michael; Figaji, Anthony; Fugate, Jennifer; Helbok, Raimund; Horowitz, David; Hutchinson, Peter; Kumar, Monisha; McNett, Molly; Miller, Chad; Naidech, Andrew; Oddo, Mauro; Olson, DaiWai; O'Phelan, Kristine; Provencio, J Javier; Puppo, Corinna; Riker, Richard; Robertson, Claudia; Schmidt, Michael; Taccone, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Neurocritical care depends, in part, on careful patient monitoring but as yet there are little data on what processes are the most important to monitor, how these should be monitored, and whether monitoring these processes is cost-effective and impacts outcome. At the same time, bioinformatics is a rapidly emerging field in critical care but as yet there is little agreement or standardization on what information is important and how it should be displayed and analyzed. The Neurocritical Care Society in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to begin to address these needs. International experts from neurosurgery, neurocritical care, neurology, critical care, neuroanesthesiology, nursing, pharmacy, and informatics were recruited on the basis of their research, publication record, and expertise. They undertook a systematic literature review to develop recommendations about specific topics on physiologic processes important to the care of patients with disorders that require neurocritical care. This review does not make recommendations about treatment, imaging, and intraoperative monitoring. A multidisciplinary jury, selected for their expertise in clinical investigation and development of practice guidelines, guided this process. The GRADE system was used to develop recommendations based on literature review, discussion, integrating the literature with the participants' collective experience, and critical review by an impartial jury. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based on both data quality and on trade-offs and translation into clinical practice. Strong consideration was given to providing pragmatic guidance and recommendations for bedside neuromonitoring, even in the absence of high quality data. PMID:25208678

  19. Extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: report of a Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influenza H1N1 epidemics in 2009 led a substantial number of people to develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia. In these patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used as rescue oxygenation therapy. Several randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggested that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation associated with protective mechanical ventilation could improve outcome, but its efficacy remains uncertain. Organized by the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF) in conjunction with the Société Française d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation (SFAR), the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF), the Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et d’Urgences Pédiatriques (GFRUP), the Société Française de Perfusion (SOFRAPERF), the Société Française de Chirurgie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire (SFCTV) et the Sociedad Española de Medecina Intensiva Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC), a Consensus Conference was held in December 2013 and a jury of 13 members wrote 65 recommendations to answer the five following questions regarding the place of extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) What are the available techniques?; 2) Which patients could benefit from extracorporeal life support?; 3) How to perform extracorporeal life support?; 4) How and when to stop extracorporeal life support?; 5) Which organization should be recommended? To write the recommendations, evidence-based medicine (GRADE method), expert panel opinions, and shared decisions taken by all the thirteen members of the jury of the Consensus Conference were taken into account. PMID:24936342

  20. Consensus summary statement of the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care : a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Peter; Menon, David K; Citerio, Giuseppe; Vespa, Paul; Bader, Mary Kay; Brophy, Gretchen M; Diringer, Michael N; Stocchetti, Nino; Videtta, Walter; Armonda, Rocco; Badjatia, Neeraj; Böesel, Julian; Chesnut, Randall; Chou, Sherry; Claassen, Jan; Czosnyka, Marek; De Georgia, Michael; Figaji, Anthony; Fugate, Jennifer; Helbok, Raimund; Horowitz, David; Hutchinson, Peter; Kumar, Monisha; McNett, Molly; Miller, Chad; Naidech, Andrew; Oddo, Mauro; Olson, DaiWai; O'Phelan, Kristine; Provencio, J Javier; Puppo, Corinna; Riker, Richard; Robertson, Claudia; Schmidt, Michael; Taccone, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Neurocritical care depends, in part, on careful patient monitoring but as yet there are little data on what processes are the most important to monitor, how these should be monitored, and whether monitoring these processes is cost-effective and impacts outcome. At the same time, bioinformatics is a rapidly emerging field in critical care but as yet there is little agreement or standardization on what information is important and how it should be displayed and analyzed. The Neurocritical Care Society in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to begin to address these needs. International experts from neurosurgery, neurocritical care, neurology, critical care, neuroanesthesiology, nursing, pharmacy, and informatics were recruited on the basis of their research, publication record, and expertise. They undertook a systematic literature review to develop recommendations about specific topics on physiologic processes important to the care of patients with disorders that require neurocritical care. This review does not make recommendations about treatment, imaging, and intraoperative monitoring. A multidisciplinary jury, selected for their expertise in clinical investigation and development of practice guidelines, guided this process. The GRADE system was used to develop recommendations based on literature review, discussion, integrating the literature with the participants' collective experience, and critical review by an impartial jury. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based on both data quality and on trade-offs and translation into clinical practice. Strong consideration was given to providing pragmatic guidance and recommendations for bedside neuromonitoring, even in the absence of high quality data. PMID:25138226

  1. Alan F. Guttmacher Lecture.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, H

    1989-01-01

    In this lecture, Dr. Henry Morgentaler describes how he led the fight to make abortion sage and legal in Canada. In 1967, the Canadian government began exploring possible changes in the abortion law, which at that made abortion a major crime. As president of the Humanist Fellowship of Montreal, Morgentaler presented a brief to House of Commons calling for abortion on request. His appeal attracted great media attention, and soon women started coming to Morgentaler's office seeking abortions. Risking prosecution, Morgentaler agreed to perform the operations (in the process becoming the first doctor in North America to use the vacuum suction technique). His abortion practice grew rapidly. In 1969, the Canadian government made abortion legal if approved by a committee of 3 doctors and if performed in a hospital. Though an improvement over the previous law, the new abortion law still had many deficiencies, most notably: it discriminated against women in rural areas (where the only available hospitals were Catholic), and it made getting an abortion a lengthy process, making the procedure more dangerous. Still campaigning vigorously performing abortions in his Montreal clinic, Morgentaler on charges of illegal abortion by the Quebec government. For the next 6 years, Morgentaler rode a legal roller coaster -- 3 jury acquittals were overturned or disregarded -- serving 10 months in prison throughout the ordeal (the legal battle produced the so-called Morgentaler Amendment, which stipulates that court cannot substitute its own verdict for a jury verdict of not guilty). In 1976, Quebec ended its battle with Morgentaler, who in turn launched his campaign to the rest of Canada. And in 1988, the Canadian Supreme Court rescinded the abortion low, thus affirming the dignity and equality of women. PMID:12284999

  2. Juror stress.

    PubMed

    Hafemeister, T L

    1993-01-01

    That jurors may be harmed as a result of their carrying out their civic duties is receiving increased attention from the courts and the media (Sevilla & Beyers, 1990; Craver, 1993). The pilot tests reported here represent initial efforts to undertake a proactive project for identifying and mitigating the possible adverse effects of stress on jurors and to contribute to the understanding and treatment of secondary trauma for at-risk groups. In many ways juries are the black box of the legal system. Their decision-making process is typically shrouded in mystery. So that they may fully explore the issues and examine their consciences, jurors meet privately when reaching their decision and, beyond entering a verdict, are typically not required to provide the rationale for their verdict. Furthermore, jurors are often reluctant to discuss the bases for their verdicts after the trial is over and an unspoken code of honor may limit their willingness to critique their fellow jurors. Perhaps in part because we know so little about their decision-making process, as well as because of their intrinsic and symbolic importance to the legal system, there may be a tendency to take jurors for granted and to assume that they are relatively unaffected by their jury duties. Although jurors are expected to appear impassive and emotionally detached in court, for some trials it is only the rare individual who will not be emotionally moved by what he or she has seen and heard or by the gravity of the decision that is required. Several recent cases have provided a glimpse of what goes on within this black box and suggest that greater attention may need to be given to the needs of these jurors. PMID:8193058

  3. What has changed after the Morioka consensus conference 2014 on laparoscopic liver resection?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection (ICCLLR) was held 4th–6th October, 2014, in Morioka, Japan. The level of evidence appears to be low in the field of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) to create strong recommendations. Therefore, an independent jury-based consensus model was applied to better define the current role of LLR and to develop internationally accepted recommendations. The three-day conference was very intense with full of insightful discussions on assessment of LLR and its future directions. The jury drew the statements based on the presentations and documents prepared by the expert. LLR is theoretically superior to open liver resection (OLR) because the laparoscope allows better exposure with a magnified view, and the pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hepatic vein bleeding from the cut surface. During the ICCLLR, we shared these theoretical advantages in LLR and the conceptual change of liver resection. After the ICCLLR, a couple of important studies have been published to prove this theoretical superiority of LLR over OLR in short-term outcomes without deteriorating long-term outcomes. Another new concept was proposed at the ICCLLR: parenchyma sparing (limited) anatomical resection. Review of the literature supports anatomical resection with parenchyma sparing strategy for LLR irrespective of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). Just after the ICCLLR, sensational news of clustered mortality after LLR was reported in the Japanese media and they impacted on daily practice of LLR in Japan. The most important message from the ICCLLR is to protect patients from this new surgical procedure. The ICCLLR recommended three actions for the protection of patients: (I) prospective reporting registry for transparency; (II) a difficulty scoring system to select patients; (III) creation of a formal structure of education. The online prospective registry system including items to calculate the

  4. David L. Rosenhan (1929-2012).

    PubMed

    Ross, Lee; Kavanagh, David

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for David L. Rosenhan (1929-2012). A distinguished psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford University, Rosenhan died February 6, 2012, at the age of 82, after a long illness. Born in Jersey City, New Jersey, on November 22, 1929, he received a bachelor's degree in mathematics (1951) from Yeshiva College and a master's degree in economics (1953) and a doctorate in psychology (1958) from Columbia University. A professor of law and of psychology at Stanford University from 1971 until his retirement in 1998, Rosenhan was a pioneer in applying psychological methods to the practice of law, including the examination of expert witnesses, jury selection, and jury deliberation. A former president of the American Psychology-Law Society and of the American Board of Forensic Psychology, Rosenhan was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American Psychological Association, and of the American Psychological Society. Before joining the Stanford Law School faculty, he was a member of the faculties of Swarthmore College, Princeton University, Haverford College, and the University of Pennsylvania. He also served as a research psychologist at the Educational Testing Service. As generations of Stanford students can attest, David Rosenhan was a spellbinding lecturer who managed to convey the sense that he was speaking to each individual, no matter how large the group. To his graduate students, he was consistently encouraging and optimistic, always ready to share a joke or story, and gently encouraging of their creativity and progressive independence as researchers. The lessons he cared most about offering, in the classroom as in his research, were about human dignity and the need to confront abuse of power and human frailties. PMID:24016118

  5. Are models, uncertainty, and dispute resolution compatible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Models and their uncertainty often move from an objective use in planning and decision making into the regulatory environment, then sometimes on to dispute resolution through litigation or other legal forums. Through this last transition whatever objectivity the models and uncertainty assessment may have once possessed becomes biased (or more biased) as each party chooses to exaggerate either the goodness of a model, or its worthlessness, depending on which view is in its best interest. If worthlessness is desired, then what was uncertain becomes unknown, or even unknowable. If goodness is desired, then precision and accuracy are often exaggerated and uncertainty, if it is explicitly recognized, encompasses only some parameters or conceptual issues, ignores others, and may minimize the uncertainty that it accounts for. In dispute resolution, how well is the adversarial process able to deal with these biases? The challenge is that they are often cloaked in computer graphics and animations that appear to lend realism to what could be mostly fancy, or even a manufactured outcome. While junk science can be challenged through appropriate motions in federal court, and in most state courts, it not unusual for biased or even incorrect modeling results, or conclusions based on incorrect results, to be permitted to be presented at trial. Courts allow opinions that are based on a "reasonable degree of scientific certainty," but when that 'certainty' is grossly exaggerated by an expert, one way or the other, how well do the courts determine that someone has stepped over the line? Trials are based on the adversary system of justice, so opposing and often irreconcilable views are commonly allowed, leaving it to the judge or jury to sort out the truth. Can advances in scientific theory and engineering practice, related to both modeling and uncertainty, help address this situation and better ensure that juries and judges see more objective modeling results, or at least see

  6. The Psychology of Confessions: A Review of the Literature and Issues.

    PubMed

    Kassin, Saul M; Gudjonsson, Gisli H

    2004-11-01

    Recently, in a number of high-profile cases, defendants who were prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced on the basis of false confessions have been exonerated through DNA evidence. As a historical matter, confession has played a prominent role in religion, in psychotherapy, and in criminal law-where it is a prosecutor's most potent weapon. In recent years, psychologists from the clinical, personality, developmental, cognitive, and social areas have brought their theories and research methods to bear on an analysis of confession evidence, how it is obtained, and what impact it has on judges, juries, and other people. Drawing on individual case studies, archival reports, correlational studies, and laboratory and field experiments, this monograph scrutinizes a sequence of events during which confessions may be obtained from criminal suspects and used as evidence. First, we examine the preinterrogation interview, a process by which police target potential suspects for interrogation by making demeanor-based judgments of whether they are being truthful. Consistent with the literature showing that people are poor lie detectors, research suggests that trained and experienced police investigators are prone to see deception at this stage and to make false-positive errors, disbelieving people who are innocent, with a great deal of confidence. Second, we examine the Miranda warning and waiver, a process by which police apprise suspects of their constitutional rights to silence and to counsel. This important procedural safeguard is in place to protect the accused, but researchers have identified reasons why it may have little impact. One reason is that some suspects do not have the capacity to understand and apply these rights. Another is that police have developed methods of obtaining waivers. Indeed, innocent people in particular tend to waive their rights, naively believing that they have nothing to fear or hide and that their innocence will set them free. Third, we examine

  7. Law and forensic medicine in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Pounder, D J

    1993-12-01

    Scotland was an independent nation state until 1707 when it became the most northerly part of the United Kingdom. Today Scotland, constitutionally, is less than a state or a province in a federal union, but retains vestiges of its ancient sovereignty by having its own legal system and separate administration. English law and Scots law are two quite separate systems--a unique constitutional phenomenon within a unitary state. Scots law is a "mixed" legal system embodying aspects of both the Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American families of legal systems. A central feature is the public prosecution of crimes under the control of the Lord Advocate and the Crown Office in Edinburgh. The hierarchy of criminal courts comprises the High Court of Justiciary, the Sheriff court, and the District court. For serious offences, criminal trial is by "solemn procedure" before a judge sitting with a jury of 15 persons whose verdict of "guility", "not guilty", or "not proven" may be reached by majority. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt on corroborated evidence. The essential requirement for corroboration means that two pathologists must perform and sign the report on any autopsy related to criminal proceedings. The writ of habeus corpus is not operative in Scotland, but there are strict rules to prevent an accused person from languishing in prison without trial. Under solemn procedure the trial must begin within 110 days or the accused is freed with immunity from further prosecution for the crime charged. Procurators fiscal are the public prosecutors whose responsibilities include the investigation of crime and all sudden, suspicious, or unexplained deaths. There are no coroners in Scotland. Investigations are performed in private and it is uncommon for a public inquiry ("a Fatal Accident Inquiry") to be held. A Fatal Accident Inquiry is an inquisitorial proceeding heard before a sheriff sitting without a jury. In Scotland, unlike in England, the more serious

  8. Voting for image scoring and assessment (VISA)--theory and application of a 2 + 1 reader algorithm to improve accuracy of imaging endpoints in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Klaus; Hussain, Fez

    2015-01-01

    Independent central reading or off-site reading of imaging endpoints is increasingly used in clinical trials. Clinician-reported outcomes, such as endoscopic disease activity scores, have been shown to be subject to bias and random error. Central reading attempts to limit bias and improve accuracy of the assessment, two factors that are critical to trial success. Whether one central reader is sufficient and how to best integrate the input of more than one central reader into one output measure, is currently not known.In this concept paper we develop the theoretical foundations of a reading algorithm that can achieve both objectives without jeopardizing operational efficiency We examine the role of expert versus competent reader, frame scoring of imaging as a classification task, and propose a voting algorithm (VISA: Voting for Image Scoring and Assessment) as the most appropriate solution which could also be used to operationally define imaging gold standards. We propose two image readers plus an optional third reader in cases of disagreement (2 + 1) for ordinary scoring tasks. We argue that it is critical in trials with endoscopically determined endpoints to include the score determined by the site reader, at least in endoscopy clinical trials. Juries with more than 3 readers could define a reference standard that would allow a transition from measuring reader agreement to measuring reader accuracy. We support VISA by applying concepts from engineering (triple-modular redundancy) and voting theory (Condorcet's jury theorem) and illustrate our points with examples from inflammatory bowel disease trials, specifically, the endoscopy component of the Mayo Clinic Score of ulcerative colitis disease activity. Detailed flow-diagrams (pseudo-code) are provided that can inform program design.The VISA "2 + 1" reading algorithm, based on voting, can translate individual reader scores into a final score in a fashion that is both mathematically sound (by avoiding

  9. Investigation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility metrics for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Nikolina

    The effectiveness of in-vehicle speech communication can be a good indicator of the perception of the overall vehicle quality and customer satisfaction. Currently available speech intelligibility metrics do not account in their procedures for essential parameters needed for a complete and accurate evaluation of in-vehicle speech intelligibility. These include the directivity and the distance of the talker with respect to the listener, binaural listening, hearing profile of the listener, vocal effort, and multisensory hearing. In the first part of this research the effectiveness of in-vehicle application of these metrics is investigated in a series of studies to reveal their shortcomings, including a wide range of scores resulting from each of the metrics for a given measurement configuration and vehicle operating condition. In addition, the nature of a possible correlation between the scores obtained from each metric is unknown. The metrics and the subjective perception of speech intelligibility using, for example, the same speech material have not been compared in literature. As a result, in the second part of this research, an alternative method for speech intelligibility evaluation is proposed for use in the automotive industry by utilizing a virtual reality driving environment for ultimately setting targets, including the associated statistical variability, for future in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was evaluated at the sentence Speech Receptions Threshold (sSRT) for various listening situations and hearing profiles using acoustic perception jury testing and a variety of talker and listener configurations and background noise. In addition, the effect of individual sources and transfer paths of sound in an operating vehicle to the vehicle interior sound, specifically their effect on speech intelligibility was quantified, in the framework of the newly developed speech intelligibility evaluation method. Lastly

  10. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  11. Soybean agglutinin binding to corneal endothelial cell surfaces disrupts in situ monolayer integrity and actin organization and interferes with wound repair.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sheldon R; Wood, Meredith

    2009-03-01

    Rat corneal endothelium demonstrates cell-surface soybean agglutinin (SBA) binding during organ-culture or injury. When organ-cultured in medium containing SBA, the endothelial monolayer is disrupted because of cell-cell and cell-matrix alterations. SBA binding disorganizes the circumferential microfilament bundles (CMBs), an effect that is partially prevented by phallacidin preincubation. This disruption is reversible if tissues are returned to standard culture medium. Serum heightens SBA binding, whereas puromycin prevents it. Neither actinomycin D nor alpha-amanitin inhibits SBA binding, suggesting that SBA-binding protein(s) may be post-transcriptionally regulated. During injury-induced cell migration in the presence of SBA, cellular processes are blunted and fail to extend significantly outward. By 72 h post-injury, cells of SBA-treated tissues repopulate the wound but demonstrate little association with neighboring cells. Cells migrating in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine appear normal but also fail to reassociate with other cells in the jury zone. Immunofluorescent staining for ZO-1 reveals punctuate patterns in cells of control tissues, whereas neither SBA- nor N-acetylgalactosamine-treated tissues exhibit ZO-1 staining. Terminal N-acetylgalactosamine removal fails to affect cell morphology, actin organization, or migration but prevents lectin binding. Our results suggest that SBA binding reflects the synthesis of a stress-induced protein(s) that may play a role in reestablishing cell-cell relationships during monolayer reorganization following injury. PMID:19145448

  12. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed. PMID:20390993

  13. Analysis of Severe Weather Events by Integration of Civil Protection Operation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, Tobias; Kox, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, winter storms belong to those natural hazards responsible for the largest damages (GDV 2014). This is a huge challenge for the civil protection, especially in metropolitan areas like Berlin. Nowadays, large-scale storm events are generally well predictable, but detailed forecasts on urban district or even street level are still out of range. Fire brigades, as major stakeholder covering severe weather consequences, operate on this small scale and in the whole area due to their juris-diction. For forensic investigation of disasters this presentation offers an additional approach by using the documentation of fire brigade operations as a new data source. Hazard dimensions and conse-quences of severe weather events are reconstructed via GIS-based analyses of these operations. Local case studies of recent storms are used as a comparison and as an additional information to three WMO weather stations in Berlin. Thus, hot spots of these selected events can be identified by operation site accumulations. Further indicators for Berlin are added to detect aspects that de-termine vulnerabilities. The conclusion discusses the potential of this approach as well as possible benefits of integration into warning systems.

  14. [The officers of health in the department of Moselle].

    PubMed

    Jung, F

    1997-01-01

    The 1803 law about medicine practice ended the anarchy appeared in this field and due to the measures taken during the Convention. It was immediately applied in Moselle and could regularize the situation of 101 medical practioners, 81 of whom were "officiers de santé". Paradoxically, this lax planed perpetuation of second-order practitionners who had, however, a limited practice, and did not have all the medicine doctor's privileges. From 1804, they were examined by departmental juries. Later, their recruitment conditions became more serious. They were practising in Moselle as well in the country as in the cities. Especially a lot, at the beginning of our century, they were progressively substituted by doctors. Their practice was often honorable, and one of them should occupy a quite special place: Pierre Morlanne, an obstetrician surgeon, well-known in Metz, who founded a Midwives Sisters' School. The relationships between medicine doctors and "officiers de santé" were generally correct, and the first one had kept them seats at the Medicine Doctors association of Moselle, created in 1852. However, medicine doctors were careful in "officiers de santé" exercice and did not hesitate to intervene in case of going worse. ... PMID:11625213

  15. Role of hepatic intra-arterial therapies in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET): guidelines from the NET-Liver-Metastases Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Andrew; Bester, Lourens; Salem, Riad; Sharma, Ricky A; Parks, Rowan W; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Liver metastasis from a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) represents a significant clinical entity. A multidisciplinary group of experts was convened to develop state-of-the-art recommendations for its management. Methods Peer-reviewed published reports on intra-arterial therapies for NET hepatic metastases were reviewed and the findings presented to a jury of peers. The therapies reviewed included transarterial embolization (TAE), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radioembolization (RE). Two systems were used to evaluate the level of evidence in each publication: (i) the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) system, and (ii) the GRADE system. Results Eighteen publications were reviewed. These comprised 11 reports on TAE or TACE and seven on RE. Four questions posed to the panel were answered and recommendations offered. Conclusions Studies of moderate quality support the use of TAE, TACE and RE in hepatic metastases of NETs. The quality and strength of the reports available do not allow any modality to be determined as superior in terms of imaging response, symptomatic response or impact on survival. Radioembolization may have advantages over TAE and TACE because it causes fewer side-effects and requires fewer treatments. Based on current European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Consensus Guidelines, RE can be substituted for TAE or TACE in patients with either liver-only disease or those with limited extrahepatic metastases. PMID:25186181

  16. Court says HIV-infected penis, semen are deadly weapons.

    PubMed

    1997-12-26

    The Texas Court of Appeals, 3rd District, upheld the conviction of an HIV-positive man charged with using his penis and semen as deadly weapons. [Name removed] [name removed] was convicted by a jury for aggravated sexual assault and indecency with a child and is currently serving life in prison. [Name removed] had sex with the 16-year-old victim, known as [name removed], and forced a young boy living at his house, [name removed]., to have sex with her as well. During the appeal, attorney Carlos Garcia claimed that the State failed to prove that [name removed] knowingly and intentionally used a deadly weapon. The court overruled this stating that HIV is transmitted during sexual intercourse, that HIV causes the fatal disease AIDS, that [name removed] did not use a condom during sex with [name removed] E., and that [name removed] admitted knowing he had been HIV positive for seven or eight years. Although [name removed]. was found dead in [name removed]'s yard, he was not charged with her murder; [name removed]. died of exposure. The District Attorney charged [name removed] with aggravated sexual assault instead of the murder because it was a stronger case. PMID:11364899

  17. Forensic acoustics: An opportunity to educate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Bennett

    2003-10-01

    Forensic science is narrowly defined by some as the gathering of evidence to be used in a criminal court proceeding. However, the word ``forensic'' broadly pertains to arguments made in any public forum. Those acousticians engaged in expert witness service may work in a variety of settings that address the interests of the general public. These can include quasilegal local administrative public hearings, conducted at school board or planning and zoning meetings, civil legal actions, and rarely, a criminal trial. When presenting complex scientific arguments in a public forum, the reception with which that information is met can strongly depend upon the self-interest of meeting participants, as well as the common skepticism toward all things technical. To successfully gain favor for a particular viewpoint, the target audience (board commissioners, judges, juries) must be sufficiently educated to understand the methods of acquiring valid acoustical data, and the impact of acoustics to the situation in question. The challenge is to present credible information with just enough detail to persuade, but not overwhelm, the decision maker. Illustrative case studies will be discussed.

  18. Mesoscopic Lawlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    2012-02-01

    Whether physics will contribute significantly to unraveling the secrets of life, the grandest challenge of them all, depends critically on whether proteins and other mesoscale objects exhibit emergent law. By this I mean quantitative relationships among their measured properties that are always true. The jury is still out on the matter, for there is evidence both for and against, but it is spotty, on account of the difficulty of measuring 100 nm - 1000 objects without damaging them quantum mechanically. It is therefore not clear that history will repeat itself. Physics contributed mightily to 20th century materials science through its identification and mastery of powerful macroscopic emergent laws such as crystalline rigidity, superconductivity and ferromagnetism, but it cannot do the same thing in biology, regardless of how powerful computers get, unless nature cooperates. The challenge before us as physicists is therefore not to amass more and more terabytes of data and computational output but rather to search for and, with luck, find operating principles at the scale of life greater than those of chemistry, which is to say, greater than a world ruled by nothing but miraculous accidents.

  19. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. PMID:24670371

  20. Scott Wallace on the National Alliance for Health Information Technology. Interview by Deborah Mears.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The National Alliance for Health Information Technology (NAHIT) appointed Scott Wallace as its first president and CEO in 2003. NAHIT is an organization of 90 Leading healthcare associations, suppliers, vendors, hospitals, and healthcare systems committed tothe development of voluntary standards for health information technoLogy. Wallace previously was the principal owner of Great kes Capital, a financiaL, commerciaL, and business development consulting firm with a major focus in technology. Prior to starting Great Lakes, Wallace led several technoLogy-based companies. He served as president and CEO of PowerClip Co., a wireless products mpany; president and CEO of Eichrom Industries, an advanced materials and specialty chemical company; and vice president and general counsel for GCI, a venture capital fund. Wallace earned a juris doctorate from the University of Chicago Law School, a master's degree in business administration from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, anda bachelor's degree in economics from Duke University. PMID:15603090

  1. Canadian mock juror attitudes and decisions in domestic violence cases involving asian and white interracial and intraracial couples.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Evelyn M; Mossière, Annik; Cheung, Liann

    2013-03-01

    This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181 undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant and victim race were manipulated using photographs. They then provided a verdict and confidence rating, a sentence, and responsibility attributions, and completed various scales measuring attitudes toward wife abuse and women. Findings revealed that female jurors were harsher toward the defendant than were male jurors. When controlling for attitudes toward Asians, jurors found the defendant guilty more often in cases involving interracial couples, as compared to same-race couples. Path analyses revealed various factors and attitudes involved in domestic violence trial outcomes. Findings contribute to the scarce literature on legal proceedings involving Asians, particularly in domestic violence cases. Outcomes also provide a model for relevant factors and characteristics of jurors in domestic violence cases. Roadblocks inherent in jury research are also discussed. PMID:22929345

  2. The cost-effectiveness and consumer acceptability of taxation strategies to reduce rates of overweight and obesity among children in Australia: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a recognised public health problem and around 25% of Australian children are overweight or obese. A major contributor is the obesogenic environment which encourages over consumption of energy dense nutrient poor food. Taxation is commonly proposed as a mechanism to reduce consumption of poor food choices and hence reduce rates of obesity and overweight in the community. Methods/Design An economic model will be developed to assess the lifetime benefits and costs to a cohort of Australian children by reducing energy dense nutrient poor food consumption through taxation mechanisms. The model inputs will be derived from a series of smaller studies. Food options for taxation will be derived from literature and expert opinion, the acceptability and impact of price changes will be explored through a Citizen’s Jury and a discrete choice experiment and price elasticities will be derived from the discrete choice experiment and consumption data. Discussion The health care costs of managing rising levels of obesity are a challenge for all governments. This study will provide a unique contribution to the international knowledge base by engaging a variety of robust research techniques, with a multidisciplinary focus and be responsive to consumers from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:24330325

  3. The civilizing process in London’s Old Bailey

    PubMed Central

    Klingenstein, Sara; Hitchcock, Tim; DeDeo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The jury trial is a critical point where the state and its citizens come together to define the limits of acceptable behavior. Here we present a large-scale quantitative analysis of trial transcripts from the Old Bailey that reveal a major transition in the nature of this defining moment. By coarse-graining the spoken word testimony into synonym sets and dividing the trials based on indictment, we demonstrate the emergence of semantically distinct violent and nonviolent trial genres. We show that although in the late 18th century the semantic content of trials for violent offenses is functionally indistinguishable from that for nonviolent ones, a long-term, secular trend drives the system toward increasingly clear distinctions between violent and nonviolent acts. We separate this process into the shifting patterns that drive it, determine the relative effects of bureaucratic change and broader cultural shifts, and identify the synonym sets most responsible for the eventual genre distinguishability. This work provides a new window onto the cultural and institutional changes that accompany the monopolization of violence by the state, described in qualitative historical analysis as the civilizing process. PMID:24979792

  4. A Multistep, Consensus-Based Approach to Organ Allocation in Liver Transplantation: Toward a "Blended Principle Model".

    PubMed

    Cillo, U; Burra, P; Mazzaferro, V; Belli, L; Pinna, A D; Spada, M; Nanni Costa, A; Toniutto, P

    2015-10-01

    Since Italian liver allocation policy was last revised (in 2012), relevant critical issues and conceptual advances have emerged, calling for significant improvements. We report the results of a national consensus conference process, promoted by the Italian College of Liver Transplant Surgeons (for the Italian Society for Organ Transplantation) and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, to review the best indicators for orienting organ allocation policies based on principles of urgency, utility, and transplant benefit in the light of current scientific evidence. MELD exceptions and hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed to construct a transplantation priority algorithm, given the inequity of a purely MELD-based system for governing organ allocation. Working groups of transplant surgeons and hepatologists prepared a list of statements for each topic, scoring their quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using the Centers for Disease Control grading system. A jury of Italian transplant surgeons, hepatologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, representatives of patients' associations and organ-sharing organizations, transplant coordinators, and ethicists voted on and validated the proposed statements. After carefully reviewing the statements, a critical proposal for revising Italy's current liver allocation policy was prepared jointly by transplant surgeons and hepatologists. PMID:26274338

  5. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  6. A stochastic analysis of the influence of soil and climatic variability on the estimate of pesticide ground water polution potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, William A.; Gruber, Joachim

    1989-12-01

    Soil and climatic variability contribute in an unknown manner to the leaching of pesticides below the surface soil zone where degradation occurs at maximum levels. In this paper we couple the climatic variability model of Eagleson (1978) to the soil variability transport model of Jury (1982) to produce a probability density distribution of residual mass fraction (RMF) remaining after leaching below the surface degradation zone. Estimates of the RMF distribution are shown to be much more sensitive to soil variability than climatic variability, except when the residence time of the chemical is shorter than one year. When soil variability dominates climatic variability, the applied water distribution may be replaced by a constant average water application rate without serious error. Simulations of leaching are run with 10 pesticides in two climates and in two representative soil types with a range of soil variability. Variability in soil or climate act to produce a nonnegligible probability of survival of a small value of residual mass even for relatively immobile compounds which are predicted to degrade completely by a simple model which neglects variability. However, the simpler model may still be useful for screening pesticides for groundwater pollution potential if somewhat larger residual masses of a given compound are tolerated. Monte Carlo simulations of the RMF distribution agreed well with model predictions over a wide range of pesticide properties.

  7. EOS ART: Six Artistic Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).

  8. Nebraska lets uninfected plaintiff sue for distress damages.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    [Name removed] was stuck twice by hypodermic needles left in a trash can at the Oregon Trail Eye Clinic. The clinic could not determine what the needles were used for and did not test them to determine if they were contaminated. Two days later, a nurse from the clinic advised [name removed] to be tested for HIV, to refrain from unprotected sexual intercourse, and to avoid exposing others to her blood or bodily fluids. [Name removed] sued the clinic for negligence, and a jury awarded her $3,000 for the physical pain she suffered from the wounds. She did not receive any compensation for her emotional distress, because the trial judge ruled that she did not prove that the needles were tainted with HIV. [Name removed] appealed, and the Supreme Court reversed the trial judge's ruling, stating that since [name removed] was required to conduct her life as if she were infected with HIV until she was certain of her status, she is allowed to recover damages for anxiety and distress resulting from that uncertainty. PMID:11365734

  9. Wing Configuration Impact on Design Optimums for a Subsonic Passenger Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to compare four aircraft wing configurations at a conceptual level using a multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) process. The MDO framework used was created by Georgia Institute of Technology and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. They created a multi-disciplinary design and optimization environment that could capture the unique features of the truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration. The four wing configurations selected for the study were a low wing cantilever installation, a high wing cantilever, a strut-braced wing, and a single jury TBW. The mission that was used for this study was a 160 passenger transport aircraft with a design range of 2,875 nautical miles at the design payload, flown at a cruise Mach number of 0.78. This paper includes discussion and optimization results for multiple design objectives. Five design objectives were chosen to illustrate the impact of selected objective on the optimization result: minimum takeoff gross weight (TOGW), minimum operating empty weight, minimum block fuel weight, maximum start of cruise lift-to-drag ratio, and minimum start of cruise drag coefficient. The results show that the design objective selected will impact the characteristics of the optimized aircraft. Although minimum life cycle cost was not one of the objectives, TOGW is often used as a proxy for life cycle cost. The low wing cantilever had the lowest TOGW followed by the strut-braced wing.

  10. Paradoxical justice: the case of Ian Tomlinson.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rebecca Scott

    2013-12-01

    On 1 April 2009, 47-year-old London newspaper vendor lan Tomlinson collapsed and died during the G20 protests in central London. The initial autopsy found death consistent with "natural causes". However, that finding was disputed after the public release of mobile phone video footage showing a police officer striking and pushing Tomlinson to the ground. The release of this footage changed the course of events in the case: further post-mortem examinations found blunt force trauma to Tomlinson's body; the Independent Police Complaints Commission launched a criminal investigation; and a coronial inquest opened that was presided over by public order policing expert Judge Peter Thornton QC. On 3 May 2011, a coronial jury delivered a verdict of "unlawful killing", finding police actions against Tomlinson "excessive and unreasonable". The Crown Prosecution Service then revised its decision not to prosecute the officer filmed striking and pushing Tomlinson, and on 19 July 2012 the officer was acquitted of manslaughter. This case highlights a number of key issues discussed in this article, including the symbolic and practical importance of open inquests in allaying suspicion and rumour; the ordeal of death investigation proceedings as obstacles to justice; and the seeming contra-indications for justice thrown up by divergent legal outcomes. In high-profile matters such as the Tomlinson case, these issues are further underscored by the "new publicity" around inquests in a multi-media digital age. PMID:24597393

  11. Physics in the Courtroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2011-10-01

    The principles, methods and technologies of physics can provide a powerful tool for the discovery of truth in the criminal justice system. Accordingly, physics based forensic evidence is relied upon in criminal prosecutions around the country every day. Infrared spectroscopy for the determination of the alcohol concentration of an individual's breath, force, momentum and multi-body dynamics for purposes of accident reconstruction and the basic application of sound metrological (measurement) practices constitute but a few examples. In many cases, a jury's determination of guilt or innocence, upon which the liberty of a Citizen rests, may in fact be determined by such evidence. Society may well place a high degree of confidence in the integrity of verdicts so obtained when ``the physics'' has been applied in a valid manner. Unfortunately, as concluded by the National Academy of Sciences, ``The law's greatest dilemma in its heavy reliance on forensic evidence--concerns the question of whether---and to what extent-- -there is science in any given `forensic science' discipline.'' Even where valid physical principles are relied upon, their improper application by forensic practitioners who have little physics training, background and/or understanding calls into question the validity of results or conclusions obtained. This presentation provides examples of the application of physics in the courtroom, where problems have been discovered and how they can be addressed by the physics community.

  12. You can't do that! Hugo Münsterberg and misapplied psychology.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Xuan, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a false start in the application of psychology to the law. While there had been expert testimony from physicians in criminal and civil cases in America since the nineteenth century, forensic psychology first emerged in the early twentieth century. Following European traditions of experimental psychology, Hugo Münsterberg applied the nascent science of memory research to the assessment of witness credibility. A brilliant and popular Harvard professor, Münsterberg touted his technique of word-association to determine truth. Forensic psychology's development was stalled by resistance from within legal authorities, including John Henry Wigmore, the leading expert on evidence. However, Münsterberg was a sensation in popular media. In this article, the authors examine early attempts to import experimental psychology into the courtroom and the arguments against them. Not only were Münsterberg's findings premature, they touched on a forbidden domain for witnesses: fact finding. While sincere, he learned that the determination of truth lay within the province of juries and judges, not psychologists. Thus, the application of psychology to the law was delayed. The authors review the lessons from Münsterberg's false start and comment on developments in the admissibility of scientific testimony. PMID:26329983

  13. The sounds of a murder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, Richard J.

    2003-10-01

    Often engineers and lawyers cannot communicate, in spite of repeated attempts. The lawyer has an idea and wants the engineer to prove it in front of a jury. As examples: a quiet, or briefly loud source must be shown to cause hearing damage, or a construction project in a backyard must be shown to be nonannoying. Often it is a no brainer, either way. But the testimony must be given! In this paper, I discuss a sad case. A young woman and her baby daughter were murdered. A witness claimed she heard something in the dead of night. If so, it was further evidence of guilt of the accused. If not, it was evidence of the lack of credibility of the witness and helped show innocence. I present the results of a forensic investigation of a very brutal murder based on acoustics of the victims' screams, the structure housing the murder, and the witness. The results of the investigation attempted to help the case.

  14. Sex, lies, and statistics: inferences from the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Curcio Alexander, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child sexual abuse often recant their complaints or do not report incidents, making prosecution of offenders difficult. The child with sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) has been used to explain this phenomenon by identifying common behavioral responses. Unlike PTSD but like rape trauma syndrome, CSAAS is not an official diagnostic term and should not be used as evidence of a defendant's guilt or to imply probative value in prosecutions. Courts have grappled with the ideal use of CSAAS in the evaluation of child witness testimony. Expert testimony should be helpful to the jurors without prejudicing them. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled recently that statistical evidence about CSAAS implying the probability that a child is truthful runs the risk of confusing jury members and biasing them against the defendant. We review the parameters of expert testimony and its admissibility in this area, concluding that statistics about CSAAS should not be used to draw inferences about the victim's credibility or the defendant's guilt. PMID:24051595

  15. Murder Must Memorize

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Memory reports usually provide the evidence that is most determinative of guilt or innocence in criminal proceedings—including in the most serious proceedings, capital murder trials. Thus, memory research is bedrock science when it comes to the reliability of legal evidence, and expert testimony on such research is a linchpin of just verdicts. This principle is illustrated with a capital murder trial in which several of the most powerful forms of memory distortion were present (e.g., phantom recollections, robust interrogation methods that stimulate false self-incrimination). A key question before the jury, whether to regard the defendant’s confession as true or false, turned on a theoretical principle that is used to explain memory distortion in the laboratory, the verbatim-gist distinction, and on research showing that it is possible to create false memories that embody the gist of experience. The scientific testimony focused on instances in which false gist memories had been created under controlled conditions (e.g., of having been lost in a mall, of receiving surgery for a fictitious injury), as well as on real-life examples of false memory for the gist experience (e.g., recovered memories of sexual abuse, alien abduction memories). The defendant was found innocent of capital murder. PMID:23638648

  16. Murder must memorise.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J

    2013-05-01

    Memory reports usually provide the evidence that is most determinative of guilt or innocence in criminal proceedings-including in the most serious proceedings, capital murder trials. Thus memory research is bedrock science when it comes to the reliability of legal evidence, and expert testimony on such research is a linchpin of just verdicts. This principle is illustrated with a capital murder trial in which several of the most powerful forms of memory distortion were present (e.g., phantom recollections, robust interrogation methods that stimulate false self-incrimination). A key question before the jury, whether to regard the defendant's confession as true or false, turned on a theoretical principle that is used to explain memory distortion in the laboratory, the verbatim-gist distinction, and on research showing that it is possible to create false memories that embody the gist of experience. The scientific testimony focused on instances in which false gist memories had been created under controlled conditions (e.g., of having been lost in a mall, of receiving surgery for a fictitious injury), as well as on real-life examples of false memory for the gist experience (e.g., recovered memories of sexual abuse, alien abduction memories). The defendant was found innocent of capital murder. PMID:23638648

  17. A sound quality model for objective synthesis evaluation of vehicle interior noise based on artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Shen, G. Q.; Xing, Y. F.

    2014-03-01

    Based on the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, an objective sound quality evaluation (SQE) model for synthesis annoyance of vehicle interior noises is presented in this paper. According to the standard named GB/T18697, firstly, the interior noises under different working conditions of a sample vehicle are measured and saved in a noise database. Some mathematical models for loudness, sharpness and roughness of the measured vehicle noises are established and performed by Matlab programming. Sound qualities of the vehicle interior noises are also estimated by jury tests following the anchored semantic differential (ASD) procedure. Using the objective and subjective evaluation results, furthermore, an ANN-based model for synthetical annoyance evaluation of vehicle noises, so-called ANN-SAE, is developed. Finally, the ANN-SAE model is proved by some verification tests with the leave-one-out algorithm. The results suggest that the proposed ANN-SAE model is accurate and effective and can be directly used to estimate sound quality of the vehicle interior noises, which is very helpful for vehicle acoustical designs and improvements. The ANN-SAE approach may be extended to deal with other sound-related fields for product quality evaluations in SQE engineering.

  18. Teaching Cell Biology to Nonscience Majors Through Forensics, or How to Design a Killer Course

    PubMed Central

    Arwood, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Nonscience majors often do not respond to traditional lecture-only biology courses. However, these students still need exposure to basic biological concepts. To accomplish this goal, forensic science was paired with compatible cell biology subjects. Several topics such as human development and molecular biology were found to fulfill this purpose. Another goal was to maximize the hands-on experience of the nonscience major students. This objective was fulfilled by specific activities such as fingerprinting and DNA typing. One particularly effective teaching tool was a mock murder mystery complete with a Grand Jury trial. Another objective was to improve students' attitudes toward science. This was successful in that students felt more confident in their own scientific abilities after taking the course. In pre/post tests, students answered four questions about their ability to conduct science. All four statements showed a positive shift after the course (p values ranging from .001 to .036, df = 23; n = 24). The emphasis on experiential pedagogy was also shown to increase critical thinking skills. In pre/post testing, students in this course significantly increased their performance on critical thinking assessment tests from 33.3% correct to 45.3% (p = .008, df = 4; n = 24). PMID:15257341

  19. Development of risk-based cleanup levels for petroleum-related contaminants in soil and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, V.; Hoffman-Kiefer, A.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) have provided final guidance for cleanup of USTs based on individual state-approved programs. This allows cleanup levels to fluctuate by several orders of magnitude from state to state depending on the local soil, climate, geology, and demographics of the region. A recent study conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California indicates that releases of petroleum-related contaminants from leaking USTs rarely pose an actual human health concern. The study recommends that ASTM`s Risk-Based Corrective Actions (RBCA) framework be applied on UST contaminated sites to provide a systematic, consistent approach that can be adopted on a state level, but permits local implementation. The authors have adopted the RBCA approach to estimate cleanup levels for key petroleum-related constituents including total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A tiered 2 analysis using Jury et al`s Behavior Assessment Model (BAM) was used to provide an upper bound risk-based cleanup levels for these compounds based on a sophisticated mass-balance equations. It is their contention that risk-based cleanup levels are significantly higher than guidance levels previously approved by state agencies.

  20. Competence to be executed: An ethical analysis post Panetti.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert; Leong, Gregory B; Silva, J Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Competence to be executed evaluations in effect can prevent an execution or remove the last meaningful impediment to it. Forensic psychiatrists have primary duties to the legal system and truth and honesty, but like all other areas of medical consultation also should balance conflicting secondary traditional medical ethical duties. Participation in a legally authorized execution so violates medical roles, that it is ethically prohibited by the American Medical Association and American Psychiatric Association. This prohibition includes treatment intended to restore competence to be executed. However, despite the primary treatment intent otherwise being appropriate ethically, like relieving suffering or fostering prison safety, if competence to be executed almost predictably would be a treatment result, at least the risk of this result should be considered ethically as if it were intended. In contrast, competence to be executed assessments can be ethical. Diamond's approach of performing honest evaluations only for the defense is an ethical option for such assessments. However, it is challenging to persuade judges and juries of the objectivity of such honest legitimate assessments. Most practitioners therefore likely would consider assessing competence to be executed for either side. This ethically hazardous position necessitates sensitivity to potentially seriously conflicting duties and roles. PMID:20669246

  1. Case study: using infrared technology for evidentiary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Noel D.; Hansen, Joel; Miller, John Lester; Beniga, Rico; Austria, Rich

    2014-06-01

    Infrared technology and imaging systems are already used extensively by the law enforcement (LE) community, typically to gain a tactical advantage or obtain immediate situational awareness. As the use of infrared technology becomes more affordable and widespread, LE is finding new ways to use it and leverage the results in the courtroom as evidence. A case study will be presented where infrared imagery was used to support the Portland Police Bureau (PPB) in prosecuting an individual for a crime where a conviction might not have been assured without said imagery. Tests conducted at FLIR Systems, combined with expert witness testimony by a FLIR employee, helped a jury understand the significance of a key piece of infrared evidence, resulting in a conviction of the criminal. This case was the first Federal case of its kind where infrared imagery was used forensically as evidence and, as such, established precedence. Prior to this, infrared imagery has been offered and debated in court only as to whether it constitutes a legal search. Courtroom observations and lessons learned from this trial have shown that both industry and LE can do a better job of making the prosecution's cases stronger utilizing infrared technology and thus taking criminals off the street.

  2. Robust quantitative scratch assay

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Andrea; Angeli, Marc; Pastrello, Chiara; McQuaid, Rosanne; Li, Han; Jurisicova, Andrea; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing assay (or scratch assay) is a technique frequently used to quantify the dependence of cell motility—a central process in tissue repair and evolution of disease—subject to various treatments conditions. However processing the resulting data is a laborious task due its high throughput and variability across images. This Robust Quantitative Scratch Assay algorithm introduced statistical outputs where migration rates are estimated, cellular behaviour is distinguished and outliers are identified among groups of unique experimental conditions. Furthermore, the RQSA decreased measurement errors and increased accuracy in the wound boundary at comparable processing times compared to previously developed method (TScratch). Availability and implementation: The RQSA is freely available at: http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RQSA_Scripts.zip. The image sets used for training and validation and results are available at: (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/trainingSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/validationSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSetResults.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975Results.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip). Supplementary Material is provided for detailed description of the development of the RQSA. Contact: juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26722119

  3. [Consensus conferences as a tool for implementing national policy--a review and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Tal, Orna; Oberlander, Shira; Siebzehner, Miri I

    2014-05-01

    The consensus conference (CC) is a professional methodology for comprehensive decision-making on controversial healthcare issues. The CC is based on health technology assessment, combining an in-depth review of the literature, consultation with experts and discussion within the framework of a broad panel of public and medical representatives. The process has many advantages but was also faces criticism; it reflects democratic deliberation, and reveals an opportunity to bridge the conceptual gap between policymakers and the public. The process enables citizens to be involved in decisions regarding unsolved medical dilemmas, as well as the means for resolving these questions, in an open transparent way. Those who criticize this mechanism refer to the restricted understanding of medical topics by lay-men, leading to only a negligible influence by nonmedical participants. However, the range of successful recommendations varies between countries. Many constraints raise the need for bending and matching the original model to different scenarios around the world; in the USA, an effort was made to preserve professional and academic principles, while in European countries flexibility led to evolving methodologies, and other frameworks developed. Currently, the most common methodology is the "citizen jury", empowering the participation of representatives of the public, as a mirror to preferences of the individual and society. Despite resistance, consensus conferences remain a successful model for policy-making in healthcare for over 30 years. During 2009 the method was even expended for global discussion involving representatives from 38 nations. PMID:25112120

  4. Rapid 3D video/laser sensing and digital archiving with immediate on-scene feedback for 3D crime scene/mass disaster data collection and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.; Oliver, William R.; Altschuler, Martin D.

    1996-02-01

    We describe a system for rapid and convenient video data acquisition and 3-D numerical coordinate data calculation able to provide precise 3-D topographical maps and 3-D archival data sufficient to reconstruct a 3-D virtual reality display of a crime scene or mass disaster area. Under a joint U.S. army/U.S. Air Force project with collateral U.S. Navy support, to create a 3-D surgical robotic inspection device -- a mobile, multi-sensor robotic surgical assistant to aid the surgeon in diagnosis, continual surveillance of patient condition, and robotic surgical telemedicine of combat casualties -- the technology is being perfected for remote, non-destructive, quantitative 3-D mapping of objects of varied sizes. This technology is being advanced with hyper-speed parallel video technology and compact, very fast laser electro-optics, such that the acquisition of 3-D surface map data will shortly be acquired within the time frame of conventional 2-D video. With simple field-capable calibration, and mobile or portable platforms, the crime scene investigator could set up and survey the entire crime scene, or portions of it at high resolution, with almost the simplicity and speed of video or still photography. The survey apparatus would record relative position, location, and instantly archive thousands of artifacts at the site with 3-D data points capable of creating unbiased virtual reality reconstructions, or actual physical replicas, for the investigators, prosecutors, and jury.

  5. [Influence of feeding patterns on the development of teeth, dentition and jaw in children].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-tong; Ge, Li-hong

    2015-02-18

    Breastfeeding has been recognized as the most natural and nutritious way of feeding babies. Besides the nutritional, immunological and emotional benefits, breastfeeding promotes a healthy stomatognathic system. First of all, the nutrients and minerals in maternal milk are easy to be absorbed by the infants, which contributes to the mineralization of the teeth, and suppress the propagation of bacteria on the teeth. Though the jury is still out on whether breastfeeding can prevent Early Childhood Caries (ECC), it is definite that we should pay attention to feeding at night and the oral hygiene of the babies. Secondly, the method of feeding is closely bound up with the development of dentition and jaw. Breast- and bottle-feeding involve different orofacial muscles, which possibly have different effects on the harmonic growth of maxilla and dental arches. Meanwhile, breathing, swallowing and mastication should be developing in harmony, and differences exist in the learning of the coordinated movement between breast feeding and bottle feeding children. Bottle feeding had been proved to be closely related with the non-nutritive sucking habits which can cause malocclusion. At last, it should be pointed out that breast feeding should be the only feeding source in the first 6 months of life, then supplementary foods should be added. And prolonged bottle feeding should be avoided. We can see that breast feeding is definitely good for the infants, but the reality is not optimistic in our country. PMID:25686355

  6. From Disinformation to Wishful Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Conway, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    In our book, Merchants of Doubt, we documented how deliberate disinformation campaigns served to confuse the American people about the reality and significance of climate change over more than two decades. We showed how a variety of strategies were used to persuade the public that the scientific "jury was still out" on climate change, including deliberate mispresentation of facts, cherry-picking of evidence, and personal attacks on scientists. And we documented the links, both conceptual and actual, between doubt-mongering about climate change and the rejection of scientific evidence of the harms of tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, nuclear winter, and DDT. These tactics are still in use today, but they are now reinforced by a new problem, the problem of wishful thinking. Increasingly, we see commentators who accept the reality of climate change assuring us that the problem can be solved by natural gas, or even by some as yet unknown and uninvented technological innovations. In this paper we argue that these forms of wishful thinking, while not malicious in the same way that previous doubt-mongering campaigns have been, contribute substantially to scientific illiteracy and misunderstanding both of the character of the challenges that we face and of the history of technological innovation.

  7. United Mine Workers V. Bagwell: New restrictions on severe civil contempt fines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    In Bagwell II, the Supreme Court was asked to determine whether the trial court should have applied certain procedural protections, in effect limiting that court`s ability to impose millions of dollars in contempt sanctions. The Court found that the $52 million in fines levied against the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) for violations of a Virginia Circuit Court`s order were {open_quotes}serious{close_quotes} enough to entitle the UMWA to the safeguards of a criminal jury trial. Bagwell Ii may be a step toward change. The Supreme Court acknowledged that its lack of guidance has resulted in an unrestrained use of the contempt power by lower courts. However, the Court refused to abandon the criminal/civil distinction created in Gompers, as some in favor of reform have suggested. Thus, the confusion over what constitutes a criminal contempt sanction as opposed to a civil contempt sanction continues. Bagwell II does appear to create a new catagory of indirect contempt. This catagory of contempt requires a level of procedural protection similar to those required in criminal contempt. The Court distinguishes these contempt from other civil contempt by considering the complexity of both the contemptuous conduct and the court order. As Justice Scalia noted in his concurring opinion, changes in use and form of court orders have made the traditional civil/criminal distinction an inadequate basis for attaching procedural rights.

  8. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    PubMed

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product. PMID:27478218

  9. "Zea"-Because It's There

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Eric

    1983-03-01

    The Subject is a long standing symbiotic relationship between Zea and the movies. As usual the impossible was required - to attain cinema release quality films with dramatic interpretation - at the same time using Hy-speed macro photographic techniques. The subject was not to be recognizable until the end of the film - some four minutes long. Zea is explosive, it reacts to heat and is extremely difficult to predict when it will explode, which left little time for the focus, stop down and shooting. Using a Hy-cam at 5,000 pictures per second - a 400 ft. roll of 7247 raw stock, left but a brief three seconds for synchronization. To add to the confusion, two co-directors, a cameraman, plus equipment, were jammed into a 2 x 2m space. To achieve reasonable resolution for theatrical showing, 400,000 foot/candles of light were needed. This was achieved. The film was edited and music from Vaughan Williams' "Fantasia" recorded at St. Martins-in-the-Fields, London was added. The result was sent to the Cannes Film Festival, where it was given the Jury Award.

  10. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    PubMed

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results. PMID:9894212

  11. Support Person Presence and Child Victim Testimony: Believe it or Not.

    PubMed

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Lapin, Joshua; Michel, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of support person presence on participants' perceptions of an alleged child sexual abuse victim and defendant. Two hundred jury-eligible community members (n = 100 males) viewed a DVD of an 11-year-old girl's simulated courtroom testimony either with or without a female support person seated next to her. Participants found the child victim to be less accurate and trustworthy, and the defendant to be less guilty and less likely to have sexually abused children, when the support person was present. Participants who viewed the female support person (n = 100) believed that she had probably coached and spent a great deal of time with the child victim before testifying. Female participants perceived the child to be more accurate, and the defendant to be more guilty and likely to have sexually abused children, than male participants. The degree to which the child victim's testimonial behavior violated participants' expectancies mediated the negative relation between support person presence and child victim accuracy and trustworthiness. Support person presence was positively associated with expectancy violation, which in turn was negatively associated with child victim accuracy and trustworthiness. These preliminary findings suggest that seating a support person next to an alleged child victim in court may have the unintended effect of decreasing the child's perceived credibility and, if replicated, suggest that alternative seating arrangements might be necessary. PMID:26294385

  12. [Law and epilepsy. Legal sentences in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1952 and 2000].

    PubMed

    Schulze-Lohne, M; Bauer, J

    2001-10-01

    We searched the internet-based "Juris" database for legal sentences related to epilepsy that were passed in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) between 1952 and 2000. We identified 143 sentences (annual range 0-10, mean 2.9 per annum). Six different types of court were involved (social, civil, administrative, criminal, family, and employment trials). The most judgements were made by social courts (52), and family and employment courts involved the fewest (five). We discuss three important areas of legal dispute in more detail (driving licences, employment law, criminal law). Changes in driving regulations over the years are explored on the basis of eight sentences. Only 30 years ago, patients with epilepsy were not allowed to drive motor vehicles. Now, the judgement on a patient's ability to drive is based on a process which takes account of specific types of epilepsy. Sentences relating to employment law demonstrate that employees will not necessarily be dismissed if they fail to inform their employer of the epilepsy diagnosis. In general, however, employers have the right to enquire about health issues such as epilepsy, and employees are obliged to answer such questions truthfully. An analysis of 13 criminal cases shows that expert witnesses are always called on to comment on a patient's credibility or degree of responsibility. PMID:11688179

  13. The effects of regulation and litigation on a large for-profit nursing home chain.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Charlene; Stockton, Julie; Hooper, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    This article examines the effects of state regulation and civil class action litigation on corporate compliance with nurse staffing and quality standards, corporate strategies to manage staffing and quality, and corporate financial status of a large for-profit nursing home chain. A historical case study was used to examine multiple public data sources, focusing on facilities in California from 2003 to 2011 during and after regulatory actions and litigation. The results showed that the state issued numerous deficiencies for violations of the nurse staffing and quality standards with minimal impact on quality compliance with state law. A class action jury trial found that the chain violated the state's minimum staffing standard on one-third of the total days during a six-year period and awarded a $677 million verdict. A court settlement and supervised injunction resulted in compliance with minimum staffing and some improvement in quality measures, but quality levels remained below the average California facilities. The litigation also had some negative financial impact on Skilled Healthcare Group's California facilities and parent company. Civil litigation had more impact on the chain than the regulatory oversight. PMID:24842973

  14. Feasibility study for near-earth-object tracking by a piggybacked micro-satellite with penetrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P.; Leung, W.; Yung, K. L.

    2010-05-01

    As of August 2007, over 5000 near-earth-objects (NEO) have been discovered. Some already represent a potential danger to the Earth while others might become hazards in the future. The Planetary Society organised in 2007 the "Apophis Mission Design Competition" in response to this potential threat with the objective to identify promising concepts to track NEOs; the asteroid 99942 Apophis was taken as the study case. This paper describes the "Houyi" proposal which was evaluated by the competition jury as an innovative approach to this problem. Instead of launching a large satellite for NEO tracking, this novel concept proposes a miniaturized satellite that is piggybacked onto a larger (scientific) mission. Such mission design would drastically reduce the costs for NEO surveillance. The presented scenario uses the ESA's SOLO mission as a design baseline for the piggyback option. This paper summarizes the architecture of this CubeSat towards Apophis and extends the previous study by focusing on the feasibility of a piggybacked mission in terms of propulsion requirements.

  15. Diagnosis of depression in children and adolescents. Clinical pointers to a difficult diagnosis.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    It is now accepted that depression can also affect children and adolescents, but its diagnosis is not straightforward. We examined review articles published on this subject over the last 15 years by large specialist groups and multidisciplinary teams. Most studies of symptoms of psychological distress and depression in children are mainly based on clinical experience of specialists and therefore provide only modest evidence. Isolated, transient unhappiness is not in itself a symptom of depression, but recurrent and persistent mood disorders constitute important warning signs. A French consensus jury recommended attentive listening to potentially depressed children, and those closest to them, focusing on phrases that might reflect a loss of interest, enjoyment, self-esteem and self-confidence; feelings of guilt, shame, loss of affection and hope; and morbid or suicidal ideas. British clinical practice guidelines recommend evaluating the severity of a depressive episode on the basis of the type and number of symptoms, and the family context. Scores designed to diagnose depression and assess its severity are controversial. In practice, diagnosis of depression in children and adolescents with persistent psychological distress is not based on a simple list of symptoms. In difficult cases, it is better to adopt a multidisciplinary approach in order to gauge severity and to determine the most appropriate treatment, which, in most cases, does not involve the use of drugs. PMID:20568496

  16. Experiments of multichannel least-square methods for sound field reproduction inside aircraft mock-up: Objective evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, P.-A.; Camier, C.; Lebel, F.-A.; Pasco, Y.; Berry, A.; Langlois, J.; Verron, C.; Guastavino, C.

    2016-08-01

    Sound environment reproduction of various flight conditions in aircraft mock-ups is a valuable tool for the study, prediction, demonstration and jury testing of interior aircraft sound quality and annoyance. To provide a faithful reproduced sound environment, time, frequency and spatial characteristics should be preserved. Physical sound field reproduction methods for spatial sound reproduction are mandatory to immerse the listener's body in the proper sound fields so that localization cues are recreated at the listener's ears. Vehicle mock-ups pose specific problems for sound field reproduction. Confined spaces, needs for invisible sound sources and very specific acoustical environment make the use of open-loop sound field reproduction technologies such as wave field synthesis (based on free-field models of monopole sources) not ideal. In this paper, experiments in an aircraft mock-up with multichannel least-square methods and equalization are reported. The novelty is the actual implementation of sound field reproduction with 3180 transfer paths and trim panel reproduction sources in laboratory conditions with a synthetic target sound field. The paper presents objective evaluations of reproduced sound fields using various metrics as well as sound field extrapolation and sound field characterization.

  17. The occupational stress of judges.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J M; Freeman, S J; LeSage, P

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports the results of what is believed to be the first systematic survey of the Canadian judiciary about work-related stress. County and District Court judges from four provinces who were attending an educational event on two successive years (N = 104) reported in writing, anonymously, their perceptions of the most stressful aspects of being a judge. A similar survey of their spouses (N = 48) added another perspective to the findings. The overwhelming majority of respondents reported aspects of the work itself (for example, sentencing, child custody cases, judgements, decision-making, and jury trials) as being their primary source of occupational stress. This is not in keeping with the results of most studies, which find that workers view job factors such as role conflict, employer/employee relationships, and career decisions as being more stressful than the actual work they perform. Qualitative material from individual and group interviews suggests that additional preparation and training for the bench and mechanisms for reducing isolation and improving communication might alleviate the stress experienced by judges, while helping them to cope more effectively with their increasingly complex and difficult roles. PMID:1884331

  18. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful. PMID:12585671

  19. [Rethinking clinical research in surgical oncology. From comic opera to quality control].

    PubMed

    Evrard, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The evidence base for the effectiveness of surgical interventions is relatively poor and data from large, randomized prospective studies are rare with often a poor quality. Many efforts have been made to increase the number of high quality randomized trials in surgery and theoretical proposals have been put forward to improve the situation, but practical implementation of these proposals is seriously lacking. The consequences of this policy are not trivial; with very few patients included in surgical oncology trials, this represents wasted opportunity for advances in cancer treatment. In this review, we cover the difficulties inherent to clinical research in surgical oncology, such as quality control, equipoise, accrual, and funding and promote alternative designs to the randomized controlled trial. Although the classic randomized controlled trial has a valid but limited place in surgical oncology, other prospective designs need to be promoted as a new deal. This new deal not only implicates surgeons but also journal editors, tender jury, as well as regulatory bodies to cover legal gaps currently surrounding surgical innovation. PMID:26610367

  20. [Edouard Brissaud (1852-1909), Charcot's favorite pupil].

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jacques; Ricou, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Edouard Brissaud's career and scientific work are deeply marked by the influence of professor Jean-Martin Charcot, Head of the Chair of clinics of nervous system diseases at the Salpêtrière. Brissaud was his "externe" in 1875 and his "interne" in 1879. In 1880, his medical thesis was presided over by Charcot, who also served as a jury member for his "agrégation" in 1886. Brissaud was the king pin and the cornerstone of the famous medical handbook (Traité de médecine), which was kindly supported by Charcot and Bouchard. In 1893, a few months before Charcot's death, Brissaud, encouraged by Charcot, founded the Revue neurologique with Pierre Marie. When, after Charcot's death, Brissaud, in charge of the interim of the Salpêtrière's Chair, paid a glowing tribute to him, in his first lecture. Charcot thought highly of Brissaud and was fond of him. Two unpublished letters from Charcot to Brissaud gave evidence of his attachment to him. In one of these letters, Charcot friendly discussed the medical handbook with Brissaud and left his son Jean-Baptiste Charcot, as an "interne", in the care of Brissaud. In the other letter, Charcot gave Brissaud an original observation of alcoholic paralysis and asked him what he thought of it. On the whole, as pertinently written by late professor Jean-Louis Signoret, "Edouard Brissaud was undoubtedly Charcot's favourite disciple". PMID:21560379

  1. Role of Creative Competitions and Mass Media in the Astronomy Education of School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkina, E. Yu.

    2006-08-01

    There are a many informational sources nowadays. For wide audiences it is, first of all, mass media - magazines, newspapers, television, broadcast and books. Web-technology provides a huge volume of information. The increasing flow of information about science, sometimes with questionable content, however, has its obstacles - it is difficult to restrict misconceptions and transfer receiving information to real knowledge. This problem is actual and very important, first of all, for school students. The experience in getting and analyzing information during astrophysics lessons in the Astronautic Club is considered. Statistical data about volume, kind, and quality of astronomy news, along with other scientific information in Russian mass media, are presented. Experience in transformation of receiving information to the knowledge is discussed. The role of a special form of education - creative competitions - in this process is analyzed. Results of the International Creative Competition, named after Giordano Bruno, are presented. The main goal of the competition was to raise interest in astronomy, space exploration, and related questions. Thirty-six papers from Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Russia, Byelorussia, Latvia, and Kazakhstan were submitted for the competition. On the decision of the jury, it was awarded three degrees for school students, one degree for adult amateurs of astronomy, and four special nominations. The bilingual volume (in Russian and English) with the best papersis being prepared for publishing.

  2. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  3. Where There's Smoke, There's Fire: the Effect of Truncated Testimony on Juror Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lakin; Gross, Julien; Sonne, Trine; Zajac, Rachel; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    In countries that allow child complainants of abuse to present their direct evidence via pre-recorded videotape, the recording is sometimes truncated for relevance or admissibility purposes before it is presented to the jury. In two experiments, we investigated how this practice affects mock jurors' judgments of child credibility and defendant culpability when truncation omitted the child's less plausible allegations. Mock jurors read a transcript of a 6-year-old girl making an abuse allegation against the janitor at her school. Some jurors read this allegation only (truncated version), while others also read either one or two additional - but less plausible - allegations by the same child. Contrary to what we predicted, the presence of these additional allegations did not decrease jurors' belief in the core allegation, nor did it influence their judgments about the child complainant's honesty or cognitive competence. In fact, under at least one condition, reading additional, less plausible allegations made jurors more likely to pronounce the defendant guilty of the core allegation - even when jurors did not believe the additional allegations. This finding stands in stark contrast to prior research on jurors' evaluation of adults' testimony that includes implausible details. Future research in this area will help to elucidate the conditions under which the presentation of truncated testimony may or may not influence juror decision-making. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26879737

  4. Does evidence really matter? An exploratory analysis of the role of evidence in plea bargaining in felony drug cases.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Besiki L; Lawson, Victoria Z; Andiloro, Nancy R

    2015-10-01

    The majority of cases in the United States are disposed of through plea bargaining; however, this important discretionary point has received relatively little attention from researchers compared with trial and jury proceedings, and other discretionary points such as arrest and sentencing. Additionally, although evidence is considered an important factor in determining case outcomes, its influence on prosecutors' decisions regarding plea offers is less clear. In this study, we examined the potential impact of evidentiary factors, as well as other legal and extralegal factors, on two plea bargaining decisions, plea-to-a-lesser-charge offers and sentence offers, using data on felony drug cases processed by the New York County District Attorney's office. We found that prosecutors made more punitive charge offers when they had audio/video evidence, eyewitness identification(s), prerecorded buy money used by an undercover officer in a buy-and-bust operation, or had recovered currency. Of all evidence factors analyzed, only the recovery of currency predicted sentence offers. By contrast, three other factors-defendants' detention status, the presence of multiple plea offers, and prior prison sentence-had a much greater impact on charge and sentence offers. Although additional research is needed, it is possible that evidence has a greater impact at the initial stages of a case, particularly on the decision about whether to accept a case for prosecution, than it does on subsequent prosecutorial decisions. PMID:26052630

  5. Recommendations for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: an international consensus conference report

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Gores, Gregory J; Langer, Bernard; Perrier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Although liver transplantation is a widely accepted treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), much controversy remains and there is no generally accepted set of guidelines. An international consensus conference was held on Dec 2–4, 2010, in Zurich, Switzerland, with the aim of reviewing current practice regarding liver transplantation in patients with HCC and to develop internationally accepted statements and guidelines. The format of the conference was based on the Danish model. 19 working groups of experts prepared evidence-based reviews according to the Oxford classification, and drafted recommendations answering 19 specific questions. An independent jury of nine members was appointed to review these submissions and make final recommendations, after debates with the experts and audience at the conference. This report presents the final 37 statements and recommendations, covering assessment of candidates for liver transplantation, criteria for listing in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, role of tumour downstaging, management of patients on the waiting list, role of living donation, and post-transplant management. PMID:22047762

  6. Math software for calculating design constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Deitz, D.

    1995-02-01

    This article describes how, to determine the specifications for a combustor in a high-speed civil transport plane, mechanical engineers are using a commercial math program to solve hundreds of complex equations. Since the demise of the slide rule, many engineers have created math routines from scratch or adapted spreadsheet programs when they needed to calculate design parameters. Commercial math programs, however, are more flexible than homemade routines or jury-rigged spreadsheet calculators, and therefore make it easier to solve complex equations. They can also cut the time it takes to determine key parameters early in the design process, when time savings can translate into big cost savings. Engineers working on Pratt and Whitney`s portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s high-speed civil transport (HSCT) project estimated that they were able to cut in half the time needed to solve equations in the preliminary design process by using a commercial math program, TK Solver, from Universal Technical Systems Inc. in Rockford, Ill. The time savings resulted from the program`s ability to solve any equation for any variable, relieving engineers of the need to rewrite or reenter equations.

  7. The history of women in surgery.

    PubMed

    Wirtzfeld, Debrah A

    2009-08-01

    The history of women in surgery in Western civilization dates to 3500 before common era (BCE) and Queen Shubad of Ur. Ancient history reveals an active role of women in surgery in Egypt, Italy and Greece as detailed in surgical texts of the time. During the middle ages, regulations forbade women from practising surgery unless they assumed their husbands' practices upon their deaths or unless they were deemed fit by a "competent" jury. King Henry VIII proclaimed that "No carpenter, smith, weaver or women shall practise surgery." The modern period of surgery opens with women impersonating men to practise medicine and surgery (Dr. Miranda Stewart). The first female physicians (Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and Dr. Emily Jennings Stowe) and surgeons (Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and Dr. Jennie Smillie Robertson) in North America found it difficult to obtain residency education after completing medical school. Dr. Jessie Gray was Canada's "First Lady of Surgery" and the first woman to graduate from the Gallie program at the University of Toronto in the 1940s. Currently, the ratio of women in surgical training is far less than that of women in medical school. The reasons that women choose surgery include appropriate role models and intellectual/technical challenge. Lack of mentorship and lifestyle issues are the strongest deterrents. Consideration of a "controllable lifestyle" by surgical administrators will help with the recruitment of women into surgery. PMID:19680519

  8. Practical methods for detecting mendacity: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A R; Wolf, C J

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates the concurrence of the use of objective verbal and nonverbal signs and lying. President Clinton's Grand jury Testimony of August 17, 1998, was examined for the presence of 23 clinically practical signs of dissimulation selected from 64 peer-reviewed articles and 20 books on mendacity. A segment of his testimony that was subsequently found to be false was compared with a control period during the same testimony (internal control). A fund-raising speech to a sympathetic crowd served as a second control (external control). The frequencies of the 23 signs in the mendacious speech were compared with their frequencies during the control periods, and the differences were analyzed for statistical significance. No clinical examination was performed nor diagnosis assigned. During the mendacious speech, the subject markedly increased the frequency of 20 out of 23 signs compared with their frequency during the fund-raising control speech (p < .0005). He increased the frequency of 19 signs compared with their frequency during the control period of the same testimony (p < .003). The 23 signs may be useful as indicators of the veracity of videotaped and scripted testimony. If these findings are confirmed through further testing, they could, with practice, be used by psychiatrists conducting interviews. PMID:11785615

  9. Comments on ``intimacy'' and ITDG concepts in musical performing spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Leo L.

    2001-05-01

    The word ``intimacy'' as related to the initial-time-delay gap (ITDG) measured in halls for musical performance was born in 1961. Of two concert spaces, one was successful acoustically and the other much less so. The halls had the same number of seats and reverberation times, the principal difference being their ITDG's. To many, the hall with larger ITDG sounded arena-like and thus not ``intimate.'' The effect of differing ITDGs appears in three of the author's books (Wiley, New York, 1962), (Acoustical Soc. of America, Melville, NY, 1996), and (Springer-Verlag, NY, 2003), with the conclusion that ITDG is an important parameter affecting the acoustical quality of concert halls and opera houses. The question is whether the word ``intimacy,'' used in an acoustical sense, should be synonymous with ITDG. Barron (Spon, London, 1993) defines, ``Intimacy refers to the degree of identification between the listener and the performance, whether the listener feels acoustically involved or detached from the music.'' He found from jury subjective judgments that there was little correlation between ITDG and the word ``intimacy.'' This paper presents the author's present thinking on the usefulness of the word ``intimacy'' in acoustics of halls for music, and discusses experiences with the visual effect on ``intimacy.''

  10. Clinical potential of elacytarabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rein, Lindsay A M; Rizzieri, David A

    2014-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been treated for over four decades with standard induction chemotherapy including seven days of cytosine arabinoside (cytarabine, ara-C) infusion. Cytarabine, while effective in killing leukemic cells, is subject to development of several resistance mechanisms rendering the drug ineffective in many patients. Elacytarabine, a lipophilic 5'-elaidic acid ester or nucleoside analogue of cytosine arabinoside, was created with the intent of overcoming resistance mechanisms including reduced expression of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) required for cytarabine entry into cells, as well as increased activity of cytidine deaminase (CDA) which breaks down the active metabolite of cytarabine, ara-CTP. Elacytarabine enters cells independently of transporters, has a longer half life compared with cytarabine and is not subject to deactivation by CDA. Preclinical data were encouraging although subsequent clinical studies have failed to show superiority of elacytarabine compared with standard of care as monotherapy in patients with AML. Clinical trials utilizing elacytarabine in combination with anthracyclines are ongoing. Use of hENT1 expression as a predictive marker for cytarabine or elacytarabine response has been studied with no conclusive validation to date. Despite promising early results, the jury is still out in regards to this novel agent as an effective alternative to standard cytarabine therapy in acute leukemias, especially in combination with additional agents such as anthracyclines. PMID:25469211

  11. The early days of the multi channel cochlear implant: efforts and achievement in France.

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2015-04-01

    On September 10th 2013, the clinical medical research Lasker award winners were rewarded for their work on multichannel cochlear implant. It has been my pleasure to see that such a major topic had caught the attention of the Members of the Jury for this prestigious award. That is why I accepted an invitation to participate in a special issue of Hearing Research devoted to the three winners. Here I highlight four scientific contributions made by the French team in late 1970s and early 1980s to modern multichannel cochlear implant development. 1) Chouard and MacLeod plotted an approximate frequency map of the whole length of the human cochlea, including its "hidden face" corresponding to speech frequencies. Moreover MacLeod suggested a sequential display of electrical stimulation as a function of each electrode, a precursor to today's electrodogram and interleaved stimulation. 2) Chouard performed total cochlear implantation in a deaf adult male with 8 electrically independent electrodes that were evenly distributed along the cochlea. 3) Chouard and MacLeod described in a patent detailed sound signal processing for a functional multichannel cochlear implant and reported speech discrimination without help of lip reading in some totally deafened patients. 4) Chouard experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig the advantage of early cochlear implantation in treating profound neonatal deafness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25499127

  12. RandomForest4Life: a Random Forest for predicting ALS disease progression.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Jung, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    We describe a method for predicting disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The method was developed as a submission to the DREAM Phil Bowen ALS Prediction Prize4Life Challenge of summer 2012. Based on repeated patient examinations over a three- month period, we used a random forest algorithm to predict future disease progression. The procedure was set up and internally evaluated using data from 1197 ALS patients. External validation by an expert jury was based on undisclosed information of an additional 625 patients; all patient data were obtained from the PRO-ACT database. In terms of prediction accuracy, the approach described here ranked third best. Our interpretation of the prediction model confirmed previous reports suggesting that past disease progression is a strong predictor of future disease progression measured on the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS). We also found that larger variability in initial ALSFRS scores is linked to faster future disease progression. The results reported here furthermore suggested that approaches taking the multidimensionality of the ALSFRS into account promise some potential for improved ALS disease prediction. PMID:25141076

  13. Reliability of Children’s Testimony in the Era of Developmental Reversals

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2012-01-01

    A hoary assumption of the law is that children are more prone to false-memory reports than adults, and hence, their testimony is less reliable than adults’. Since the 1980s, that assumption has been buttressed by numerous studies that detected declines in false memory between early childhood and young adulthood under controlled conditions. Fuzzy-trace theory predicted reversals of this standard developmental pattern in circumstances that are directly relevant to testimony because they involve using the gist of experience to remember events. That prediction has been investigated during the past decade, and a large number of experiments have been published in which false memories have indeed been found to increase between early childhood and young adulthood. Further, experimentation has tied age increases in false memory to improvements in children’s memory for semantic gist. According to current scientific evidence, the principle that children’s testimony is necessarily more infected with false memories than adults’ and that, other things being equal, juries should regard adult’s testimony as necessarily more faithful to actual events is untenable. PMID:23139439

  14. Evaluation of facial divine proportion in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naseem Ahmad; Nagar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan Kumar; Singh, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the facial divine proportion and its relationship with facial attractiveness in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of various facial proportions, standardized frontal facial photographs of total 300 subjects between 18 and 30 years of age were obtained. Black and white copies of these photographs were presented in front of an evaluation jury for assigning scores of facial attractiveness and finally 130 attractive subjects were selected. These subjects were divided into two groups, Group I (attractive females n = 65) and Group II (attractive males n = 65) and they were further analyzed for various parameters of facial proportions. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare both groups. Results: Group I showed that five of seven vertical facial proportions were close to divine proportion (1.618) whereas only two vertical proportions in Group II were close to it. Transverse facial proportions in both groups deviated more from divine proportion (1.618) and were closer to silver proportion (1.414). Conclusions: Most of the facial proportions of attractive females in the North-Indian population were close to the divine proportion. Thus, facial divine proportion could be an important factor in the perception of facial attractiveness of North-Indian attractive females.

  15. THE EOS ART Projects: Six Art Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. The EOS ART 2010-2013 was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects.The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia.The presentation provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand). http://art-science-media.com/the-eos-art-projects/

  16. Do Jurors Get What They Expect? Traditional versus Alternative Forms of Children's Testimony

    PubMed Central

    McAuliff, Bradley D.; Kovera, Margaret Bull

    2011-01-01

    This study examined prospective jurors' expectancies for the verbal and nonverbal behavior of a child testifying in a sexual abuse case. Community members (N = 261) reporting for jury duty completed a survey in which they described their expectancies for how a child alleging sexual abuse would appear when testifying and their beliefs about discerning children's truthfulness, testimony stress, and fairness to trial parties. Within this survey, we varied the child's age (5, 10, or 15 years old), type of abuse alleged (vaginal fondling or penetration), and whether the abuse actually occurred (yes, no) between participants across five different testimony conditions (traditional live in-court, support person present, closed-circuit television, preparation, and videotape) within each participant. Participants expected a child providing traditional testimony to be more nervous, tearful, and fidgety; less confident, cooperative, and fluent; and to maintain less eye contact and provide shorter responses than when the child provided alternative forms of testimony. Participants believed it was easiest to determine a child's truthfulness and fairest to the defendant when the child testified live in court, but that this form of testimony was the most stressful and unfair to the child. Expectancies and beliefs differed within the alternative forms of testimony as well. Negative evaluations of children's alternative testimony may be the result of expectancy violation; namely, jurors expect differences in children's verbal and nonverbal behavior as a result of accommodation, but those differences actually do not occur. PMID:22523466

  17. New local potential useful for genome annotation and 3D modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Cohen, Fred E.

    2003-07-17

    A new potential energy function representing the conformational preferences of sequentially local regions of a protein backbone is presented. This potential is derived from secondary structure probabilities such as those produced by neural network-based prediction methods. The potential is applied to the problem of remote homolog identification, in combination with a distance dependent inter-residue potential and position-based scoring matrices. This fold recognition jury is implemented in a Java application called JThread. These methods are benchmarked on several test sets, including one released entirely after development and parameterization of JThread. In benchmark tests to identify known folds structurally similar (but not identical) to the native structure of a sequence, JThread performs significantly better than PSI-BLAST, with 10 percent more structures correctly identified as the most likely structural match in a fold library, and 20 percent more structures correctly narrowed down to a set of five possible candidates. JThread also significantly improves the average sequence alignment accuracy, from 53 percent to 62 percent of residues correctly aligned. Reliable fold assignments and alignments are identified, making the method useful for genome annotation. JThread is applied to predicted open reading frames (ORFs) from the genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and Drosophila melanogaster, identifying 20 new structural annotations in the former and 801 in the latter.

  18. Recommendations for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: an international consensus conference report.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Gores, Gregory J; Langer, Bernard; Perrier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Although liver transplantation is a widely accepted treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), much controversy remains and there is no generally accepted set of guidelines. An international consensus conference was held on Dec 2-4, 2010, in Zurich, Switzerland, with the aim of reviewing current practice regarding liver transplantation in patients with HCC and to develop internationally accepted statements and guidelines. The format of the conference was based on the Danish model. 19 working groups of experts prepared evidence-based reviews according to the Oxford classification, and drafted recommendations answering 19 specific questions. An independent jury of nine members was appointed to review these submissions and make final recommendations, after debates with the experts and audience at the conference. This report presents the final 37 statements and recommendations, covering assessment of candidates for liver transplantation, criteria for listing in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, role of tumour downstaging, management of patients on the waiting list, role of living donation, and post-transplant management. PMID:22047762

  19. Same score, different message: perceptions of offender risk depend on Static-99R risk communication format.

    PubMed

    Varela, Jorge G; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Cuervo, Veronica A; Murrie, Daniel C; Clark, John W

    2014-10-01

    The popular Static-99R allows evaluators to convey results in terms of risk category (e.g., low, moderate, high), relative risk (compared with other sexual offenders), or normative sample recidivism rate formats (e.g., 30% reoffended in 5 years). But we do not know whether judges and jurors draw similar conclusions about the same Static-99R score when findings are communicated using different formats. Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 211) read a tutorial on the Static-99R and a description of a sexual offender and his crimes. We varied his Static-99R score (1 or 6) and risk communication format (categorical, relative risk, or recidivism rate). Participants rated the high-scoring offender as higher risk than the low-scoring offender in the categorical communication condition, but not in the relative risk or recidivism rate conditions. Moreover, risk ratings of the high-scoring offender were notably higher in the categorical communication condition than the relative risk and recidivism rate conditions. Participants who read about a low Static-99R score tended to report that Static-99R results were unimportant and difficult to understand, especially when risk was communicated using categorical or relative risk formats. Overall, results suggest that laypersons are more receptive to risk results indicating high risk than low risk and more receptive to risk communication messages that provide an interpretative label (e.g., high risk) than those that provide statistical results. PMID:24377910

  20. A novel predictive control algorithm and robust stability criteria for integrating processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Weimin; Zong, Hongyuan; Wu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Weidong

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel predictive controller for single-input/single-output (SISO) integrating systems, which can be directly applied without pre-stabilizing the process. The control algorithm is designed on the basis of the tested step response model. To produce a bounded system response along the finite predictive horizon, the effect of the integrating mode must be zeroed while unmeasured disturbances exist. Here, a novel predictive feedback error compensation method is proposed to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output while the integrating system is affected by load disturbance. Also, a rotator factor is introduced in the performance index, which is contributed to the improvement robustness of the closed-loop system. Then on the basis of Jury's dominant coefficient criterion, a robust stability condition of the resulted closed loop system is given. There are only two parameters which need to be tuned for the controller, and each has a clear physical meaning, which is convenient for implementation of the control algorithm. Lastly, simulations are given to illustrate that the proposed algorithm can provide excellent closed loop performance compared with some reported methods. PMID:21353217

  1. Advances in Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, W. R.

    This is the first volume of Advances in Irrigation, a new serial publication by the publishers of Advances in Agronomy and Advances in Hydroscience and designed to follow the same format. The editor is a well-known researcher and writer on irrigation and related subjects and has assembled a collection of highly regarded and respected authors for the initial volume. The readership for this volume will probably be mainly specialists and students interested in irrigation and an occasional design engineer.The seven contributions in this volume fall roughly into two classes: research and practice. Three papers (“Conjunctive Use of Rainfall and Irrigation in Semi-arid Regions,” by Stewart and Musik, “Irrigation Scheduling Using Soil Moisture Measurements: Theory and Practice,” by G. S. and M. D. Campbell, and “Use of Solute Transport Models to Estimate Salt Balance Below Irrigated Cropland,” by Jury) cover topics that have been the subject of a number of reviews. The contributions here provide brief, well-written, and authoritative summaries of the chosen topics and serve as good introductions or reviews. They should lend themselves well to classroom use in various ways. They also should be helpful to the nonspecialist interested in getting a sense of the subject without going into great detail.

  2. The biasing effect of the "sexually violent predator" label on legal decisions.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Gongola, Jennifer; Krauss, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Public fear has driven legislation designed to identify and exclude sexual offenders from society, culminating in sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes, in which a sex offender who has served his prison sentence is hospitalized indefinitely if a jury determines that he is likely to reoffend as a result of a mental disorder. Jurors rarely vote not to commit a previously-convicted sex offender as an SVP. This study tests whether the mere label of "sexually violent predator" affects these legal decisions. Venire jurors (n=161) were asked to decide whether an individual who had been incarcerated for 16years should be released on parole. The individual was either labeled as a.) a sexually violent predator or b.) a convicted felon, and all other information was identical between the conditions. Jurors were over twice as likely to deny parole to the SVP compared to the felon, even though they did not consider him any more dangerous or any more likely to reoffend. Demographic variables did not moderate this finding. However, jurors' desire to 'get revenge' and to 'make the offender pay', as measured by Gerber and Jackson's (2013) Just Deserts Scale, did significantly relate to decisions to deny parole. These findings suggest that jurors' decisions in SVP hearings are driven by legally impermissible considerations, and that the mere label of "sexually violent predator" induces bias into the decision making process. PMID:27206709

  3. Global-Scale Stellar Dynamos and Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns Without Tachoclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    When our sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than it currently does. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that they possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in more rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the intensely turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, as many solar dynamo theories have indicated that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not include such tachoclines. The dynamos achieved in these rapidly rotating stars can undergo cycles of activity, with fields waxing and waning in strength and even changing polarity. This research was carried out with support by the NASA HelioPhysics Theory program and with additional support for Brown by the NASA GSRP program. This thesis research has been done in collaboration with Matthew K. Browning (CITA, Toronto), Allan Sacha Brun (CEA-Saclay, France), Mark S. Miesch (HAO, Boulder) and Juri Toomre (University of Colorado, Boulder).

  4. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  5. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    PubMed

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26460810

  6. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  7. Photoneutron angular distribution of 19F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, P. C.-K.; Jury, J. W.; McNeill, K. G.; Sherman, N. K.; Davidson, W. F.

    1989-07-01

    Photoneutron time-of-flight spectra from the reaction 19F(γ, n 0) 18F were measured between 48° and 139° using 10 m flight paths over the excitation energy range from 15-25 MeV. The measured values of the normalized Legendre a1 and a3 coefficients are very small or close to zero over the energy region studied, indicating dominance of E1 absorption in this region. A simple modeldependent analysis of the a2 coefficient showed that the likely reaction mechanisms are mainly s → p and d → p single-particle transitions of channel spin {1}/{2}. A comparison of the present angleintegrated ground-state cross section with the (γ, n tot) work of Veyssière et al. indicates that decays to excited states in 18F are much preferred (typically by a factor of 5) over the ground-state channel. The 19F(γ, n 0) cross section shows reasonable agreement in structure and magnitude with the 19F(γ, p 0) cross section of Kerkhove et al. as well as with the 18O(γ, n 0) data of Jury et al. (although some discrepancies are seen at 16 MeV and above 23 MeV).

  8. American medical malpractice litigation in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mohr, J C

    2000-04-01

    Medical malpractice and the problems associated with it remain an important issue in the US medical community. Yet relatively little information regarding the long-term history of malpractice litigation can be found in the literature. This article addresses 2 questions: (1) when and why did medical malpractice litigation originate in the United States and (2) what historical factors best explain its subsequent perpetuation and growth? Medical malpractice litigation appeared in the United States around 1840 for reasons specific to that period. Those reasons are discussed in the context of marketplace professionalism, an environment that provided few quality controls over medical practitioners. Medical malpractice litigation has since been sustained for a century and a half by an interacting combination of 6 principal factors. Three of these factors are medical: the innovative pressures on American medicine, the spread of uniform standards, and the advent of medical malpractice liability insurance. Three are legal factors: contingent fees, citizen juries, and the nature of tort pleading in the United States. Knowledge of these historical factors may prove useful to those seeking to reform the current medical malpractice litigation system. PMID:10755500

  9. Eyewitness Evidence: Improving Its Probative Value.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Memon, Amina; Penrod, Steven D

    2006-11-01

    The criminal justice system relies heavily on eyewitnesses to determine the facts surrounding criminal events. Eyewitnesses may identify culprits, recall conversations, or remember other details. An eyewitness who has no motive to lie is a powerful form of evidence for jurors, especially if the eyewitness appears to be highly confident about his or her recollection. In the absence of definitive proof to the contrary, the eyewitness's account is generally accepted by police, prosecutors, judges, and juries. However, the faith the legal system places in eyewitnesses has been shaken recently by the advent of forensic DNA testing. Given the right set of circumstances, forensic DNA testing can prove that a person who was convicted of a crime is, in fact, innocent. Analyses of DNA exoneration cases since 1992 reveal that mistaken eyewitness identification was involved in the vast majority of these convictions, accounting for more convictions of innocent people than all other factors combined. We review the latest figures on these DNA exonerations and explain why these cases can only be a small fraction of the mistaken identifications that are occurring. Decades before the advent of forensic DNA testing, psychologists were questioning the validity of eyewitness reports. Hugo Münsterberg's writings in the early part of the 20th century made a strong case for the involvement of psychological science in helping the legal system understand the vagaries of eyewitness testimony. But it was not until the mid- to late 1970s that psychologists began to conduct programmatic experiments aimed at understanding the extent of error and the variables that govern error when eyewitnesses give accounts of crimes they have witnessed. Many of the experiments conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s resulted in articles by psychologists that contained strong warnings to the legal system that eyewitness evidence was being overvalued by the justice system in the sense that its

  10. Rome consensus conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. Methods The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. Results The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3–72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16–26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2–98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6–93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6–99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males

  11. The fate of the bodies of executed persons in the Anatomical Institute of Halle between 1933 and 1945.

    PubMed

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Viebig, Michael

    2012-06-01

    In the period from 1933 to 1945 the Anatomical Institute in Halle (Saale) received bodies of persons, among them politically persecuted women and men, who had been sentenced to death and executed. In this article, we attempt to answer two important questions: (1) What happened to the bodies of those executed; i.e. which anatomical “purposes” did they serve? (2) Were anatomical specimens from these bodies added to the institute’s anatomical collection and are they still present today? If so, can they be traced back to the bodies of politically persecuted people? So far we have discovered that between 1933 and 1936 the institute received 30 bodies, among them the bodies of two politically motivated death sentences. From 1937 until the end of 1942, only a few bodies arrived at the institute, and from November 1942 until the end of the war in 1945 the institute documented the transfer of 64 bodies of executed people. The death sentences pronounced during those early years were usually based on severe criminal acts (e.g. murder). During the war, special courts sentenced people to death mostly because of theft, looting, etc. The bodies of those executed were used in anatomical education, anatomical research, and in preparations of anatomical specimens to be added to the anatomical collection. There are eight macroscopic preparations which can definitely be associated with the bodies of people executed during the Nazi regime. Trial by jury sentenced those people to the maximum penalty because of the severity of their criminal acts. Up to now we have found no evidence that specimens of the anatomical collection were removed from bodies of victims whose execution was politically motivated. PMID:21978794

  12. Dark matter annihilation at the galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Tim

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately five times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, efforts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the first multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable effective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing efforts which have successfully detected an excess in gamma-ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is difficult to describe in terms of standard diffuse emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I

  13. Level 5 leadership. The triumph of humility and fierce resolve.

    PubMed

    Collins, J

    2001-01-01

    Boards of directors typically believe that transforming a company from merely good to truly great requires a larger-than-life personality--an egocentric chief to lead the corporate charge. Think "Chainsaw" Al Dunlap or Lee Iacocca. In fact, that's not the case, says author and leadership expert Jim Collins. The essential ingredient for taking a company to greatness is having a "Level 5" leader at the helm--an executive in whom extreme personal humility blends paradoxically with intense professional will. Collins paints a compelling and counter-intuitive portrait of the skills and personality traits necessary for effective leadership. He identifies the characteristics common to Level 5 leaders: humility, will, ferocious resolve, and the tendency to give credit to others while assigning blame to themselves. Collins fleshes out his Level 5 theory by telling colorful tales about 11 such leaders from recent business history. He contrasts the turnaround successes of outwardly humble, even shy, executives like Gillette's Colman M. Mockler and Kimberly-Clark's Darwin E. Smith with those of larger-than-life business leaders like Dunlap and Iacocca, who courted personal celebrity. The jury is still out on how to cultivate Level 5 leaders and whether it's even possible to do so, Collins admits. Some leaders have the Level 5 seed within; some don't. But Collins suggests using the findings from his research to strive for Level 5--for instance, getting the right people on board and creating a culture of discipline. "Our own lives and all that we touch will be better for the effort," he concludes. PMID:11189464

  14. Evaluating different types of malpractices in midwifery that were referred to the forensic medicine commission and the medical council between 2006 and 2011 in Isfahan province, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Beigi, Marjan; Asadi, Leila; Valiani, Mahbube; Mardani, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical malpractices in obstetrics are one of the main health concerns since in addition to the mortalities and morbidities caused for the two susceptible groups of mothers and neonates, they may lead to difficulties for the accused gynecologists and midwives in returning to their routine medical career and giving services to the patients. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate different types of malpractices in midwifery that were referred to the legal medical commission and medical council in Isfahan province. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we evaluated the data from all midwifery cases referred to the forensic medicine commission and medical council in Isfahan province between 2006 and 2011, with at least one lawsuit confirmed by the jury. Results: The results showed that in a total of 206 investigated cases at the medical council and forensic medicine commission in Isfahan, 66 cases of medical error sentences including 38 cases in medical council and 28 cases in forensic medicine commission were proved, which revealed 32% of malpractice in midwifery services in 2006–2011 in Isfahan. Negligence (39.2%), imprudence (23.5%), and disobedience of governmental regulations (19.6%) stood among the most commonly reported malpractices. Our findings also suggest that the most common malpractices happened in the postpartum period with a frequency of 44.7%; in addition, governmental hospitals were shown to have the most frequent malpractices with a frequency of 50%. Conclusions: Our results reveal that malpractices in midwifery services during and after delivery are so common, leading to irreversible complications to the mothers’ and neonates’ health in the society. On the other hand, considering the fact that most of these malpractices are preventable, related education, pertinent plans, and proper supervision sys. PMID:26257795

  15. Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

    PubMed Central

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a “junk science” of the nature of scientific knowledge. PMID:18197311

  16. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969. PMID:12333138

  17. Restoration project of geomagnetic survey in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakovs, J.; Lembere, I.

    2003-04-01

    THE RESTORATION PROJECT OF GEOMAGNETIC SURVEY IN LATVIA J. Burlakovs, I. Lembere State Land Service of Latvia, Geodesy Board juris.burlakovs@gp.vzd.gov.lv / Fax: +371-7612736 The aim of geomagnetic survey measurements is to study the geomagnetic field at global, regional as well as local scales. To determine secular changes of the geomagnetic field it is very important to do a lot of regular field work. Recalculation and comparison of measured data for corrections must be made using the observatory or magnetic station data collected nearby the investigated area in the real-time. Field geomagnetic survey measurements in Latvia have not been made since 1991. The State Land Service of Latvia, the Geodesy Board plans to restart such kind of measurements in Latvia. The repeat station network must be renewed, regular magnetic declination, inclination and total field intensity data must be gathered, compared with the observatory data and secular changes of the geomagnetic field discovered. It is also possible to do regional correlations for data to determine future trends of the geomagnetic field changes. The detection of geomagnetic anomalies and the reason of the existence of those at particular territories could be made. Such kind of measurements demands the highest accuracy and therefore is necessary to cooperate with geomagnetic research network groups in neighbouring areas - Estonia, Finland and Poland, where permanent magnetic stations are situated. One permanent magnetic station also could be established in Latvia to do permanent recordings of geomagnetic field components, which give the possibility to do regional corrections for separate measurement recordings in the field. Geomagnetic field studies are important for cartography, navigational and military needs, also it is possible to use this information together with geological and geophysical data to create and specify the geological model for the territory. In future Latvia must participate within the

  18. Medical misadventures.

    PubMed

    Lewis, K

    2003-03-01

    Historical perspective of terminations of unwanted pregnancies in the UK. Moral and ethical considerations imposed by established church's teachings becoming increasingly in conflict with the wishes and expectations of a more secular society. Recognition that illegal abortion was, as a matter of fact available, at great risk to vulnerable girls and women. Eventually public demand and a radical and reforming government led to the current Statutory Framework. Statutory provisions: Offences against the Person Act 1861, Sections 58 and 59; Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 Section 1. Recognition of the limited flexibility allowed by the law in the original restrictive statutory framework. The direction to the jury in July 1938 by Macnaghten J in the case of R. v. Bourne [1939] 1 KB 687, where an eminent obstetrician was acquitted after carrying out an abortion on a young rape victim. Then the modern statutory provisions: Abortion Act 1967, amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The statutory framework provides for healthcare professionals not to have to take part in terminations if they have a conscientious objection to doing so. While there are still fierce challenges from moral pressure groups when any changes in the detail of the law are proposed--such as reducing the maximum gestation period for a lawful termination--as a whole society seems to have accepted the current law. Issues affecting doctors who consider and provide terminations; current medico-legal problems relating to wanted pregnancies that have been lost by reason of clinical negligence, and unwanted children that have been born by reason of clinical negligence. PMID:14556352

  19. The legal aspects of the termination of unwanted pregnancies and the risks faced by the medical doctor: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C

    2003-03-01

    Historical perspective of terminations of unwanted pregnancies in the UK. Moral and ethical considerations imposed by established church's teachings becoming increasingly in conflict with the wishes and expectations of a more secular society. Recognition that illegal abortion was, as a matter of fact available, at great risk to vulnerable girls and women. Eventually public demand and a radical and reforming government led to the current Statutory Framework. Statutory provisions: Offences against the Person Act 1861, Sections 58 and 59; Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 Section 1. Recognition of the limited flexibility allowed by the law in the original restrictive statutory framework. The direction to the jury in July 1938 by Macnaghten J in the case of R. v. Bourne [1939] 1 KB 687, where an eminent obstetrician was acquitted after carrying out an abortion on a young rape victim. Then the modern statutory provisions: Abortion Act 1967, amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The statutory framework provides for healthcare professionals not to have to take part in terminations if they have a conscientious objection to doing so. While there are still fierce challenges from moral pressure groups when any changes in the detail of the law are proposed--such as reducing the maximum gestation period for a lawful termination--as a whole society seems to have accepted the current law. Issues affecting doctors who consider and provide terminations; current medico-legal problems relating to wanted pregnancies that have been lost by reason of clinical negligence, and unwanted children that have been born by reason of clinical negligence. PMID:14556349

  20. Attractors in Sequence Space: Agent-Based Exploration of MHC I Binding Peptides.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Natalie; Wisniewska, Joanna M; Hiss, Jan A; Freier, Anja; Losch, Florian O; Walden, Peter; Wrede, Paul; Schneider, Gisbert

    2010-01-12

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a meta-heuristic that utilizes a computational analogue of ant trail pheromones to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The size of the ant colony and the representation of the ants' pheromone trails is unique referring to the given optimization problem. In the present study, we employed ACO to generate novel peptides that stabilize MHC I protein on the plasma membrane of a murine lymphoma cell line. A jury of feedforward neural network classifiers served as fitness function for peptide design by ACO. Bioactive murine MHC I H-2K(b) stabilizing as well as nonstabilizing octapeptides were designed, synthesized and tested. These peptides reveal residue motifs that are relevant for MHC I receptor binding. We demonstrate how the performance of the implemented ACO algorithm depends on the colony size and the size of the search space. The actual peptide design process by ACO constitutes a search path in sequence space that can be visualized as trajectories on a self-organizing map (SOM). By projecting the sequence space on a SOM we visualize the convergence of the different solutions that emerge during the optimization process in sequence space. The SOM representation reveals attractors in sequence space for MHC I binding peptides. The combination of ACO and SOM enables systematic peptide optimization. This technique allows for the rational design of various types of bioactive peptides with minimal experimental effort. Here, we demonstrate its successful application to the design of MHC-I binding and nonbinding peptides which exhibit substantial bioactivity in a cell-based assay. PMID:27463849

  1. Beyond notification: a case study from Cloquet, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Finendale, M J

    1993-01-01

    All members of Local 158 of the United Paperworkers International Union in Cloquet, Minnesota, were invited to attend a meeting to notify them about the outcome of the Union's study concerning exposure to asbestos fiber. Union members and their families were contacted by letter, radio and television announcements, area newspapers, and word of mouth. They were informed about the medical screening that was being planned and about other information on asbestos-related diseases. During the meeting, they were asked to attend one of the educational sessions, to schedule an appointment for the screening, and to fill out a medical history. It was determined that paperworkers with asbestos-related disease might have rights to at least two types of compensation: worker's compensation from their employers and/or court- or jury-awarded compensation from asbestos manufacturers. Other sources of compensation such as social security of disability pensions might also be available to eligible individuals. The Union did not have a complete listing of all the individuals who worked at plants or in operations where asbestos exposure may have occurred. The Union solicited the aid of the Minnesota Department of Health to help identify former asbestos-exposed workers and to develop an ongoing screening and medical program for workers who were exposed but did not develop symptoms of asbestos-related disease; these illnesses usually take 20 years or more to develop. However, the Union was able to follow-up the notification and subsequent screening by sending members and their families the results of the initial screenings and other information concerning the status of any legal actions taken on behalf of the exposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8422045

  2. Court upholds $405,000 award against blood banking industry.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    The New Jersey Superior Court has ruled that the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the nation's largest blood bank trade group, was negligent during the early 1980s when it recommended that blood banks not screen and test donors to reduce the chance of HIV contamination of the nation's blood supply. [Name removed], who received HIV-contaminated blood in 1984 as a result of a transfusion at St. Joseph's Hospital in Paterson, sued and reached out-of-court settlements with his doctors and the Bergen Community Blood Center, which provided the blood. Only the AABB suit proceeded to trial, with the jury finding that one-third of the damages were attributable to the AABB's actions. In 1983, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggested that blood banks might reduce the risk of AIDS entering the blood supply by using the surrogate hepatitis B test. The AABB, the American Red Cross, and the Council of Community Blood Centers recommended against testing, saying that evidence of transmission by blood was inconclusive and unproven. In March 1985, the AABB adopted the ELISA test. This is the first time the AABB has been held responsible; the AABB said it may appeal the decision. The court disagreed with AABB's claim that it was immune from liability because it was a charity, saying it also performs a critical governance function in respect of the operation of blood banks. The decision puts considerable liability for the U.S. cases of HIV contracted through tainted blood transfusions on the AABB. PMID:11362633

  3. The Body of Evidence: What Can Neuroscience Tell Us about Embodied Semantics?

    PubMed

    Hauk, Olaf; Tschentscher, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Semantic knowledge is based on the way we perceive and interact with the world. However, the jury is still out on the question: to what degree are neuronal systems that subserve acquisition of semantic knowledge, such as sensory-motor networks, involved in its representation and processing? We will begin with a critical evaluation of the main behavioral and neuroimaging methods with respect to their capability to define the functional roles of specific brain areas. Any behavioral or neuroscientific measure is a conflation of representations and processes. Hence, a combination of behavioral and neurophysiological interactions as well as time-course information is required to define the functional roles of brain areas. This will guide our review of the empirical literature. Most research in this area has been done on semantics of concrete words, where clear theoretical frameworks for an involvement of sensory-motor systems in semantics exist. Most of this evidence still stems from correlational studies that are ambiguous with respect to the behavioral relevance of effects. Evidence for causal effects of sensory-motor systems on semantic processes is still scarce but evolving. Relatively few neuroscientific studies so far have investigated the embodiment of abstract semantics for words, numbers, and arithmetic facts. Here, some correlational evidence exists, but data on causality are mostly absent. We conclude that neuroimaging data, just as behavioral data, have so far not disentangled the fundamental link between process and representation. Future studies should therefore put more emphasis on the effects of task and context on semantic processing. Strong conclusions can only be drawn from a combination of methods that provide time-course information, determine the connectivity among poly- or amodal and sensory-motor areas, link behavioral with neuroimaging measures, and allow causal inferences. We will conclude with suggestions on how this could be accomplished in

  4. Application of the Supreme Court's Daubert criteria in radiation litigation.

    PubMed

    Merwin, S E; Moeller, D W; Kennedy, W E; Moeller, M P

    2001-12-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Supreme Court set forth the standard for determining the admissibility of expert scientific evidence in litigation. This standard is known as the Daubert criteria, named after the pertinent case, Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The Daubert criteria require the courts to determine whether an expert's testimony reflects scientific knowledge, whether his/her findings are derived by the scientific method, and whether the work product is based on good science. The Daubert criteria are especially important in radiation litigation because issues involving radiation doses and effects are often complex and thus a jury will typically rely heavily on the analysis and opinions of experts. According to the Daubert criteria, scientific opinions must be based on a methodology that has a valid, testable hypothesis; has been subject to peer review; and is generally accepted in the scientific community. Additionally, the expert must be qualified to present opinions based on the methodology. Although the application of the Daubert criteria in radiation litigation is highly dependent on the specific court and judge presiding over the case, there have been recent high-profile cases in which application of the criteria has resulted in the dismissal of analysis and opinions offered by scientific experts. Reasons for the dismissals have included basic scientific errors such as failure of the expert to consider all possible explanations for an observed phenomenon, the selective use of data by the expert, and the failure to acknowledge and resolve inconsistencies between the expert's results and those of other investigators. This paper reviews the Daubert criteria as they apply to radiation litigation and provides examples of the application of the criteria from recent judgments involving the Three Mile Island and Hanford Downwinders cases. PMID:11725885

  5. Subsidence problems related to the development of siliciclastic karst on the Citronelle Formation of southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Isphording, W.C.; Flowers, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The irreversible transformation of kaolinite to gibbsite and the concomitant negative volume change associated with the reaction has resulted in residential structural damage in Mobile, Alabama. Failure of the insurance company to honor damage resulting from a sinkhole collapse clause resulted in litigation. The main points of contention in the trial were: (1) were the small depressions in the owner's yard caused by dissolution of material, resulting in the formation of subteranean voids., (2) does the language used in the policy, i.e., We cover for damages caused by sinkhole collapse due to the dissolution of limestone or similar rock formations, mean that because the Citronelle Sand is a rock formation that the resident should recover for damage to his house. Evidence introduced for the plaintiff included x-ray diffractograms, SEM photographs and grain size analyses. A summary of literature on the development of karst in non-carbonate terranes was also produced x-ray diffractograms indicated that gibbsite was being formed in the vadose zone; SEM photographs clearly revealed the presence of euhedral gibbsite crystals on both quartz grains and kaolinite. Size analyses were offered to disprove the allegation that the subsidence was a piping effect caused solely by removal of the silt component. Mass-balance equations and chemical analyses of groundwater were used to demonstrate that not only was kaolinite altering to gibbsite, causing loss of volume, but that some quartz was also being taken into solution. After consideration of the evidence, the jury found in favor of the plaintiff and the resident was compensated for damage.

  6. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  7. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) granulocytes and monocytes display variable responses to in vitro pressure exposures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Romano, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely known that marine mammals possess adaptations which allow them to make repetitive and extended dives to great depths without suffering ill effects seen in humans, the response of marine mammal immune cells to diving is unknown. Renewed interest in marine mammal dive physiology has arisen due to reports of decompression sickness-like symptoms and embolic damage in stranded and by-caught animals, and there is concern over whether anthropogenic activities can impact marine mammal health by disrupting adaptive dive responses and behavior. This work addresses the need for information concerning marine mammal immune function during diving by evaluating granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and granulocyte activation in belugas (n = 4) in comparison with humans (n = 4), with and without in vitro pressure exposures. In addition, the potential for additional stressors to impact immune function was investigated by comparing the response of beluga cells to pressure between baseline and stressor conditions. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, as well as granulocyte activation, were compared between pressure exposed and non-exposed cells for each condition, between different pressure profiles and between conditions using mixed generalized linear models (α = 0.05). The effects of pressure varied between species as well by depth, compression/decompression rates, and length of exposures, and condition for belugas. Pressure induced changes in granulocyte and monocyte function in belugas could serve a protective function against dive-related pathologies and differences in the response between humans and belugas could reflect degrees of dive adaptation. The alteration of these responses during physiologically challenging conditions may increase the potential for dive-related in jury and disease in marine mammals. PMID:25999860

  8. The cinema-cognition dialogue: a match made in brain.

    PubMed

    Dudai, Yadin

    2012-01-01

    That human evolution amalgamates biological and cultural change is taken as a given, and that the interaction of brain, body, and culture is more reciprocal then initially thought becomes apparent as the science of evolution evolves (Jablonka and Lamb, 2005). The contribution of science and technology to this evolutionary process is probably the first to come to mind. The biology of Homo sapiens permits and promotes the development of technologies and artefacts that enable us to sense and reach physical niches previously inaccessible. This extends our biological capabilities, but is also expected to create selective pressures on these capabilities. The jury is yet out on the pace at which critical biological changes take place in evolution. There is no question, however, that the kinetics of technological and cultural change is much faster, rendering the latter particularly important in the biography of the individual and the species alike. The capacity of art to enrich human capabilities is recurrently discussed by philosophers and critics (e.g., Arsitotle/Poetics, Richards, 1925; Smith and Parks, 1951; Gibbs, 1994). Yet less attention is commonly allotted to the role of the arts in the aforementioned ongoing evolutional tango. My position is that the art of cinema is particularly suited to explore the intriguing dialogue between art and the brain. Further, in the following set of brief notes, intended mainly to trigger further thinking on the subject, I posit that cinema provides an unparalleled and highly rewarding experimentation space for the mind of the individual consumer of that art. In parallel, it also provides a useful and promising device for investigating brain and cognition. PMID:22969715

  9. PG&E and Silkwood

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The Supreme Court rendered its decision in PG&E in April 1983. The decision involved a challenge by a nuclear utility to a California state moratorium on the construction of new commercial nuclear power plants until the State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission could determine that there is a demonstrated and federally approved solution for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The moratorium was based not on a state concern with the radiological hazards associated with new nuclear plants but, ostensibly on a state concern with the economics of new nuclear plants. In particular, the state had concluded that a new nuclear plant, in the absence of a solution for the permanent disposal of the high-level nuclear waste it would generate, would be an uneconomical and uncertain source of electric power. The nuclear utility that challenged the moratorium argued that its prohibition to new nuclear plant construction was in fact based on a state concern with radiation hazards. However, the Court accepted California`s {open_quotes}avowed economic purpose{close_quotes} and declined to second-guess the basis for the moratorium. The Court rendered its decision in Silkwood in January 1984. The decision involved an action brought by the administrator of the estate for a deceased employee of a nuclear fuel facility regulated by the NRC. Brought under Oklahoma state common law of torts, the action was for damages for radiological injuries suffered as a result of alleged plutonium contamination. A jury returned a verdict for the administrator as well as an award of actual and punitive damages.

  10. Supersymmetric large extra dimensions and the cosmological constant: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.

    2004-10-01

    This article critically reviews the proposal for addressing the cosmological constant problem within the framework of supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLED), as recently proposed in hep-th/0304256. After a brief restatement of the cosmological constant problem, a short summary of the proposed mechanism is given. The emphasis is on the perspective of the low-energy effective theory in order to see how it addresses the problem of why low-energy particles like the electron do not contribute too large a vacuum energy. This is followed by a discussion of the main objections, which are grouped into the following five topics: (1) Weinberg's No-Go Theorem. (2) Are hidden tunings of the theory required, and are these stable under renormalization? (3) Why should the mechanism apply only now and not rule out possible earlier epochs of inflationary dynamics? (4) How big are quantum effects, and which are the most dangerous? and (5) Even if successful, can the mechanism be consistent with cosmological or current observational constraints? It is argued that there are plausible reasons why the mechanism can thread the potential objections, but that a definitive proof that it does depends on addressing well-defined technical points. These points include identifying what fixes the size of the extra dimensions, checking how topological obstructions renormalize and performing specific calculations of quantum corrections. More detailed studies of these issues, which are well within reach of our present understanding of extra-dimensional theories, are currently underway. As such, the jury remains out concerning the proposal, although the prospects for acquittal still seem good. (An abridged version of this article appears in the proceedings of SUSY 2003.)

  11. Debris Mitigation as a Component of Space Traffic Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper Force, M.

    2012-01-01

    The necessity of a traffic management in space is a consequence of our "free use" of it over the past fifty years, during which certain orbits have accumulated a significant amount of debris that may, in the future, threaten the feasibility of their use. This paper encapsulates the primary issues involved in the concept of space traffic management through basic questions, using as a case study the recent alarm caused by two close-misses of the ISS in one week, in order to guide the reader to an understanding of the current need for a space traffic management regime. The paper will describe the fundamental elements of space traffic management, including the tracking of objects, conjunction assessment, collision avoidance and orbital mechanics to understand why Earth-bound systems cannot be extrapolated to space. The paper will then focus on the primary concern of space debris, the acceptance and use of current guidelines in light of the existing corpus juris spatialis and international law, positing that the guidelines may soon develop into a customary norm. The paper will conclude that the latest close calls with the ISS demonstrate we cannot count on the mere vastness of space to reduce the probability of collisions with space objects. Despite the significant political, technical and economic challenges recognized by the International Space University Final Report of 2007, the International Academy of Astronautics' Cosmic Study of 2006 and the IAASS An ICAO for Space?, there is a need for a system to obviate the looming peril before governments and investors will sign on to a comprehensive program which limits their "free" use of space.

  12. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  13. High standards. A decade after the law went into effect, there is still debate about the pros and cons of the HIPAA privacy and electronic transaction regulations.

    PubMed

    Edlin, Mari; Johns, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    When congress passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability act in 1996, the goal was to create a simpler, more standardized system that would eventually lower health care costs; reduce errors through safe, universally accepted electronic communication of health care transactions; and eliminate paper claims. Ten years later, the jury is still out on whether HIPAA has been worth the time, energy, and financial investment for insurers. That's not to say, however, that HIPAA hasn't generated benefits while also creating new challenges. "Standards made sense," says Tom Fitzpatrick, Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey's director of enterprise strategic planning, "but no one ever said it would be fast, cheap, or easy. It was challenging to integrate proprietary claims systems and legacy software with the new standards that took effect in October 2003. But that wasn't the end of the story. HIPAA's privacy and security rules and the standard identifiers have meant even more upgrades and improvements and have required payers to spend millions of additional dollars over the past three years on HIPAA compliance." According to a set of quarterly surveys conducted by HIMSS/Phoenix Health Systems, progress has actually been fairly rapid. On the other hand, some things have remained much the same. In 2003, payers cited "understanding/interpreting the legal requirements" as the most difficult aspect of the HIPAA remediation process, followed by "achieving successful integration of new policies and procedures" and "resolving issues with third parties". In 2006, the barriers are similar, with users citing the same top two struggles. PMID:17175737

  14. Social influence protects collective decision making from equality bias.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Romand-Monnier, Margaux; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-02-01

    A basic tenet of research on wisdom of the crowds-and key assumption of Condercet's (1785) Jury Theorem-is the independence of voters' opinions before votes are aggregated. However, we often look for others' opinions before casting our vote. Such social influence can push groups toward herding, leading to "madness of the crowds." To investigate the role of social influence in joint decision making, in Experiment 1 we had dyads of participants perform a visual oddball search task together. In the Independent (IND) condition participants initially made a private decision. If they disagreed, discussion and collective decision ensued. In the Influence (INF) condition no private decisions were made and collective decision was immediately negotiated. Dyads that did not accrue collective benefit under the IND condition improved with added social influence under the INF condition. In Experiment 2, covertly, we added noise to 1 of the dyad members' visual search display. The resulting increased heterogeneity in dyad members' performances impaired the dyadic performance under the IND condition (Bahrami et al., 2010). Importantly, dyadic performance improved with social influence under the INF condition, replicating results in Experiment 1. Further analyses revealed that under the IND condition, dyads exercised equality bias (Mahmoodi et al., 2015) by granting undue credit to the less-reliable partner. Under the INF condition, however, the more-reliable partner (correctly) dominated the joint decisions. Although social influence may impede collective success under ideal conditions, our results demonstrate how it can help the group members overcome factors such as equality bias, which could potentially lead to catastrophic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436525

  15. The Kaye effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

  16. Did Jean-Martin Charcot contribute to stroke?

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Paciaroni, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke was never identified as a significant, autonomous field of activity of the emerging school of neurology at La Salpêtrière, which developed after the appointment of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) during the last days of 1861. However, stroke was already present in Charcot's first paper (1851), which dealt with a case of multiple organ cardiac embolism, including middle cerebral artery infarction, at a time when the studies of Rudolf Virchow on thromboembolism were unknown in France. A few years later, Charcot made a still up-to-date description of vascular intermittent claudication, which had only been reported in the horse. In the 1860s, Charcot and his pupils presented several major works dealing with cerebrovascular disease, including famous studies on miliary aneurysms in cerebral hemorrhage. This work was done with Charles Bouchard, at the time Charcot's 'interne', but who would become one of his 'political' opponents 2 decades later, when in 1892, as president of the 'agrégation' jury, he rejected the professorship application of 4 protégés of Charcot, including Joseph Babinski and Georges Gilles de la Tourette. Further work on cerebrovascular disease by Charcot included histological studies of brain 'softening', paraneoplastic cerebral arterial occlusion and consequences of stroke (e.g. arthropathies, vegetative changes, contractures and abnormal movements). Brain localization, one of Charcot's major neurological topics, was also largely based on stroke case studies. Charcot's work on stroke remains poorly recognized, but it demonstrates his unique skills in stimulating scientific work in younger colleagues, many of whom subsequently became major figures of neurology and psychiatry. PMID:20588046

  17. Sound quality assessment of Diesel combustion noise using in-cylinder pressure components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Margot, X.; Monelletta, L.

    2009-01-01

    The combustion process in direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is an important source of noise, and it is thus the main reason why end-users could be reluctant to drive vehicles powered with this type of engine. This means that the great potential of Diesel engines for environment preservation—due to their lower consumption and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions—may be lost. Moreover, the advanced combustion concepts—e.g. the HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition)—developed to comply with forthcoming emissions legislation, while maintaining the efficiency of current engines, are expected to be noisier because they are characterized by a higher amount of premixed combustion. For this reason many efforts have been dedicated by car manufacturers in recent years to reduce the overall level and improve the sound quality of engine noise. Evaluation procedures are required, both for noise levels and sound quality, that may be integrated in the global engine development process in a timely and cost-effective manner. In previous published work, the authors proposed a novel method for the assessment of engine noise level. A similar procedure is applied in this paper to demonstrate the suitability of combustion indicators for the evaluation of engine noise quality. These indicators, which are representative of the peak velocity of fuel burning and the resonance in the combustion chamber, are well correlated with the combustion noise mark obtained from jury testing. Quite good accuracy in the prediction of the engine noise quality has been obtained with the definition of a two-component regression, which also permits the identification of the combustion process features related to the resulting noise quality, so that corrective actions may be proposed.

  18. Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) granulocytes and monocytes display variable responses to in vitro pressure exposures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Laura A; Romano, Tracy A

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely known that marine mammals possess adaptations which allow them to make repetitive and extended dives to great depths without suffering ill effects seen in humans, the response of marine mammal immune cells to diving is unknown. Renewed interest in marine mammal dive physiology has arisen due to reports of decompression sickness-like symptoms and embolic damage in stranded and by-caught animals, and there is concern over whether anthropogenic activities can impact marine mammal health by disrupting adaptive dive responses and behavior. This work addresses the need for information concerning marine mammal immune function during diving by evaluating granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and granulocyte activation in belugas (n = 4) in comparison with humans (n = 4), with and without in vitro pressure exposures. In addition, the potential for additional stressors to impact immune function was investigated by comparing the response of beluga cells to pressure between baseline and stressor conditions. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, as well as granulocyte activation, were compared between pressure exposed and non-exposed cells for each condition, between different pressure profiles and between conditions using mixed generalized linear models (α = 0.05). The effects of pressure varied between species as well by depth, compression/decompression rates, and length of exposures, and condition for belugas. Pressure induced changes in granulocyte and monocyte function in belugas could serve a protective function against dive-related pathologies and differences in the response between humans and belugas could reflect degrees of dive adaptation. The alteration of these responses during physiologically challenging conditions may increase the potential for dive-related in jury and disease in marine mammals. PMID:25999860

  19. A petition to Mr Peel: Gideon Mantell and the trial of Hannah Russell.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J; Watson, K D

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 1826, Hannah Russell was tried for petty treason, viz. the murder of her husband, Benjamin Russell, by poisoning. Their lodger, Daniel Leney, was indicted as her accomplice. The exact circumstances surrounding the death were unclear but Hannah was known to have purchased white arsenic (arsenious oxide). A local surgeon, Thomas Evans, supported at the post-mortem examination by two further surgeons, not only reported severe corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, but also the recovery of nearly an eighth of an ounce of arsenic from the victim's stomach. Both accused were convicted and sentenced to death. Leney was executed, but Hannah Russell was respited because the trial judge, Sir Robert Graham, had doubts as to a direction he had given to the jury. The surgeon and paleontologist Gideon Mantell took up her case, stressing that death from arsenic could not have taken place as quickly as was alleged and maintaining that the chemical evidence of arsenic poisoning was inconclusive. He gained the support of some eminent chemists and physicians. Subsequently, forensic toxicologists [Sir] Robert Christison and Alfred Swaine Taylor pointed out that Mantell's arguments as to the possible time to death in arsenic poisoning were quite wrong. Moreover, Evans gave details of the analyses he and his colleagues had undertaken to Christison, who pronounced the findings sound, as indeed did Mantell after Evans and his colleagues published details of their investigations in the Sussex Advertiser. Papers in The National Archives show that Hannah was pardoned for the offence for which she was indicted, leaving it open to prefer a lesser charge. That this was never done may have been due to Mantell's campaign, at least in part, but the pardon she did receive was due to the concern of the trial judge as to the implications of the evidence presented at trial. PMID:19787987

  20. Contraceptive problems unique to the United States.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L B; Salas, J E

    1989-06-01

    An overview of the distinctive milieu regarding contraceptive methods available in the U.S. considers declining method options, future prospects, reasons for the poor current climate, factors affecting future options, global ramifications, and proposed reforms that may improve the U.S. situation. In the last 3 years, the U.S. lost 3 safe IUDs, and lawsuits now threaten the existence of both spermicides and their associated barrier methods. Meanwhile 2 new IUDs and the cervical cap have been introduced. Future possible methods include Norplant, transdermal patches and a disposable spermicide-releasing diaphragm. The chief reason for loss of contraceptives is the legal system in the U.S. which permits peer juries to evaluate a method's side effects relative to the claimant's former health, rather than actual risk- benefit ratios or medical data. Adverse legal decisions have escalated or eliminated liability insurance. The public is ignorant of the benefits of contraceptives, but misinformed by prominent coverage in the media of preliminary adverse findings. Even the F.D.A., for unstated political reasons, has failed on 2 occasions to approve Depo-Provera, used safely in over 80 countries and approved by the drug agencies of most western nations. Other political factors have cut government funding for contraceptive development steadily for 15 years. Apathy for contraceptive research extends from congress to donor support to numbers of new Ph.D.s entering the field. Ramifications include the highest unplanned pregnancy rate, abortion rate and adolescent pregnancy rate in the developed world in the U.S., and a suspicious stance on the part of developed countries toward U.S. contraceptives, especially those not approved here. Proposed ways of reversing the legal and insurance blocks include reform of tort law and no-fault compensation decided by arbitration. PMID:2743644

  1. Radiation litigation and the nuclear industry--the experience in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Leigh, W J; Wakeford, R

    2001-12-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 places a "strict" statutory duty on the operators of nuclear facilities to ensure that any exposure to radiation resulting from operations does not cause injury or damage. A claimant does not have to prove fault to receive compensation under the Act, only causation. The 1965 Act has been fundamental in shaping litigation involving the nuclear industry in the UK. Civil law cases brought under the Act will be heard before a single judge (with no jury or technical assessor) who must present his or her decision in a reasoned judgment. This process leads to a considerable volume of expert evidence being presented to the court and extensive cross-examination of witnesses. The expense and uncertain outcome of cases involving claims by nuclear workers that occupational exposure to radiation had caused the development of cancer has led to employers and trade unions setting up the voluntary Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases as an alternative to litigation. This Scheme has worked well and is held up as a model of alternative dispute resolution. However, a few cases concerning personal injury or damage to property have come before the courts when the defendant nuclear operator considered that the claims were technically unjustified and where settlement was not a policy option. As anticipated, these cases were lengthy, complex, and expensive. The radiation doses assessed to have been received by the individuals who were the subject of claims, whether workers or members of the public, have been crucial to the outcome. The technical expertise of health physicists and allied specialists has been vital in establishing defensible estimates of dose, and this contribution can be expected to remain of high importance in radiation litigation in the UK. PMID:11725882

  2. Announcing the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Rare Celestial Event to be Observed by Millions Summary On June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - will pass in front of the Sun. This event, a 'transit', is extremely rare - the last one occurred in 1882, 122 years ago. Easily observable in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, it is likely to attract the attention of millions of people on these continents and, indeed, all over the world. On this important occasion, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has joined forces with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE) and the Observatoire de Paris in France, as well as the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic to establish the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme. It is supported by the European Commission in the framework of the European Science and Technology Week and takes advantage of this extraordinary celestial event to expose the public - in a well-considered, interactive and exciting way - to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. VT-2004 has several components, including an instructive and comprehensive website (www.vt-2004.org). It is directed towards the wide public in general and the media, school students and their teachers, as well as amateur astronomers in particular. It invites all interested persons to participate actively in the intercontinental VT-2004 Observing Campaign (that reenacts historical Venus Transit observations) and the VT-2004 Video Contest. During the VT-2004 Final Event in November, the winners of the Video Contest will be chosen by an international jury. This meeting will also serve to discuss the project and its impact. The outcome of this rare celestial event and the overall experience from this unique public education project will clearly be of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy.

  3. 112 Gb/s sub-cycle 16-QAM Nyquist-SCM for intra-datacenter connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Dris, Stefanos; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Datacenter traffic is exploding. Ongoing advancements in network infrastructure that ride on Moore's law are unable to keep up, necessitating the introduction of multiplexing and advanced modulation formats for optical interconnects in order to overcome bandwidth limitations, and scale lane speeds with energy- and cost-efficiency to 100 Gb/s and beyond. While the jury is still out as to how this will be achieved, schemes relying on intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) are regarded as particularly attractive, due to their inherent implementation simplicity. Moreover, the scaling-out of datacenters calls for longer transmission reach exceeding 300 m, requiring single-mode solutions. In this work we advocate using 16-QAM sub-cycle Nyquist-SCM as a simpler alternative to discrete multitone (DMT), but which is still more bandwidth-efficient than PAM-4. The proposed optical interconnect is demonstrated at 112 Gb/s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest rate achieved in a single-polarization implementation of SCM. Off-the-shelf components are used: A DFB laser, a 24.3 GHz electro-absorption modulator (EAM) and a limiting photoreceiver, combined with equalization through digital signal processing (DSP) at the receiver. The EAM is driven by a low-swing (<1 V) arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), which produces a 28 Gbaud 16-QAM electrical signal with carrier frequency at ~15 GHz. Tight spectral shaping is leveraged as a means of maintaining signal fidelity when using low-bandwidth electro-optic components; matched root-raised-cosine transmit and receive filters with 0.1 excess bandwidth are thus employed. Performance is assessed through transmission experiments over 1250 m and 2000 m of SMF.

  4. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Timothy Ryan

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  5. Impact of Psychiatric Information on Potential Jurors in Evaluating High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (hfASD)

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Milner, Lauren C.; Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    During a trial involving an offender with a mental disorder, jurors are often required to evaluate information on the disorder and its characteristics. This evaluation relies on how jurors understand and synthesize psychiatric and other evidence on the disorder and this information's impact on the case, an offender's culpability, and the rendered verdict. The importance of this evaluation is further highlighted when jurors are faced with evaluating a disorder that may be associated with criminal actions of diagnosed offenders, such as high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (hfASD). We designed a three-part survey to assess potential jurors' attitudes concerning an offender's diagnosis with hfASD in terms of perceptions and decisions surrounding legal and moral responsibility, personal characteristics of the offender, the introduction of psychiatric and genetic information, and the condition's influence on the facts of the case. A sample of 623 jury-eligible U.S. adults completed the survey. We found the majority of participants were influenced by the information provided on hfASD. Most respondents indicated that hfASD diagnosis should generally not affect the legal responsibility of an offender, but many reported the disorder as a mitigating factor when evaluating moral responsibility and legal consequences for criminal actions. Respondents reported favorable and sympathetic perceptions of individuals with autism and associated characteristics but were unsure, even after the presentation of psychiatric information on hfASD, if these disorders should be classified as “mental illness.” Further, the majority reported their views were in some way influenced by the fact that hfASD has potential genetic origins. PMID:26843900

  6. Costs of gunshot and cut/stab wounds in the United States, with some Canadian comparisons.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Cohen, M A

    1997-05-01

    This article estimates the costs of U.S. gunshot and cut/stab wound by intent. It also compares U.S. to Canadian gunshot experience. Incidence data are from published sources, the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and cause-coded emergency department discharge and hospital discharge data systems. Medical care payments and lost earnings per case come from National Crime Survey data, a literature review, and weighting of costs by diagnosis from Databook on Nonfatal Injury-Incidence. Costs, and Consequences by Miller et al. (The Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC. 1995) with the diagnosis distribution of penetrating injuries from the discharge data systems. Quality of life losses are estimated primarily from jury awards to penetrating injury victims. In 1992, gunshots killed 37,776 Americans; cut/stab wounds killed 4095. Another 134,000 gunshot survivors and 3,100,000 cut/stab wound survivors received medical treatment. Annually, gunshot wounds cost an estimated U.S. $126 billion. Cut/stab wounds cost another U.S. $51 billion. The gunshot and cut/stab totals include U.S. $40 billion and U.S. $13 billion respectively in medical, public services, and work-loss costs. Across medically treated cases, costs average U.S. $154,000 per gunshot survivor and U.S. $12,000 per cut/stab survivor. Gunshot wounds are more than three times as common in the U.S. than in Canada, which has strict handgun control. With the same quality of life loss per victim, gunshot costs per capita are an estimated U.S. $495 in the U.S. vs U.S. $180 in Canada. Per gun, however, the costs are higher in Canada, Gunshot wound rates rise linearly with gun ownership. PMID:9183471

  7. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625

  8. Which public and why deliberate?--A scoping review of public deliberation in public health and health policy research.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Deliberative methods are of increasing interest to public health researchers and policymakers. We systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify public health and health policy research involving deliberative methods and report how deliberative methods have been used. We applied a taxonomy developed with reference to health policy and science and technology studies literatures to distinguish how deliberative methods engage different publics: citizens (ordinary people who are unfamiliar with the issues), consumers (those with relevant personal experience e.g. of illness) and advocates (those with technical expertise or partisan interests). We searched four databases for empirical studies in English published 1996-2013. This identified 78 articles reporting on 62 distinct events from the UK, USA, Canada, Australasia, Europe, Israel, Asia and Africa. Ten different types of deliberative techniques were used to represent and capture the interests and preferences of different types of public. Citizens were typically directed to consider community interests and were treated as a resource to increase democratic legitimacy. Citizens were preferred in methodological studies (those focused on understanding the techniques). Consumers were directed to focus on personal preferences; thus convened not as a source of policy decisions, but of knowledge about what those affected by the issue would accept. Advocates-who are most commonly used as expert witnesses in juries-were sometimes engaged to deliberate with consumers or citizens. This almost always occurred in projects directly linked to policy processes. This suggests health policymakers may value deliberative methods as a way of understanding disagreement between perspectives. Overall however, the 'type' of public sought was often not explicit, and their role not specified. This review provides new insight into the heterogeneity and rising popularity of deliberative methods, and indicates a need for greater

  9. Wreathes of Magnetism Built by Dynamos Without Tachoclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin

    2009-05-01

    When stars like our Sun are young, they rotate much more rapidly than the Sun currently does. Young, rapidly rotating suns also appear to have substantial magnetic activity and perhaps strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism in rapidly rotating suns with 3-D MHD simulations using the anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are realized by dynamo action in these systems. In the bulk of the convection zone, global-scale wreathes of magnetism arise and coexist with the strongly turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, as these simulations do not include tachoclines of shear and penetration. The tachocline is a crucial ingredient in many solar dynamo theories, and to date, global simulations of the solar dynamo have required a tachocline to achieve global-scale organization of magnetic field. Here we will explore how such wreathes might be built in rapidly rotating suns, how they are maintained in the midst of the convection zone, and how they undergo cycles of activity, where the fields wax and wane in strength and can even change in global polarity. This research was carried out with support by the NASA HelioPhysics Theory program and with additional support for Brown by the NASA GSRP program. This thesis research has been done in collaboration with Matthew K. Browning (CITA, Toronto), Allan Sacha Brun (CEA-Saclay, France), Mark S. Miesch (HAO, Boulder), Nicholas J. Nelson and Juri Toomre (both University of Colorado, Boulder).

  10. The cinema-cognition dialogue: a match made in brain

    PubMed Central

    Dudai, Yadin

    2012-01-01

    That human evolution amalgamates biological and cultural change is taken as a given, and that the interaction of brain, body, and culture is more reciprocal then initially thought becomes apparent as the science of evolution evolves (Jablonka and Lamb, 2005). The contribution of science and technology to this evolutionary process is probably the first to come to mind. The biology of Homo sapiens permits and promotes the development of technologies and artefacts that enable us to sense and reach physical niches previously inaccessible. This extends our biological capabilities, but is also expected to create selective pressures on these capabilities. The jury is yet out on the pace at which critical biological changes take place in evolution. There is no question, however, that the kinetics of technological and cultural change is much faster, rendering the latter particularly important in the biography of the individual and the species alike. The capacity of art to enrich human capabilities is recurrently discussed by philosophers and critics (e.g., Arsitotle/Poetics, Richards, 1925; Smith and Parks, 1951; Gibbs, 1994). Yet less attention is commonly allotted to the role of the arts in the aforementioned ongoing evolutional tango. My position is that the art of cinema is particularly suited to explore the intriguing dialogue between art and the brain. Further, in the following set of brief notes, intended mainly to trigger further thinking on the subject, I posit that cinema provides an unparalleled and highly rewarding experimentation space for the mind of the individual consumer of that art. In parallel, it also provides a useful and promising device for investigating brain and cognition. PMID:22969715

  11. PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis

    2011-06-01

    Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.

  12. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  13. Catch a Star!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  14. Exploration of the Climate Change Frontier in Polar Regions at the Land Ice-Ocean Boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    warmer climate will remain highly conservative and perhaps misleading. Furthermore, as glaciers destabilize, iceberg calving will take over. Calving depends on the height of the calving cliff, the fracturing of ice near the ice front by strain rates or water; but the jury is also out about defining a universal calving law.

  15. Building trust and confidence in laboratory ES and H policy and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.

    2000-08-01

    This report describes a successful pilot event among LANL employees that can see as a model for employee involvement and community input. The conference was designed to begin building trust and confidence in Laboratory policy and practices in the area of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H). It represents a concrete step toward fostering better relationships among Lab employees and creating a new, innovative approach to communication that can also be used to build trust in the larger community. Based on the proven methods of the National Issues Forums and the Jefferson Center Citizen Jury Process, this conference enabled management to learn more about the thoughts and advice of LANL employees, During the course of the day, a random sample of Lab employees representing the LANL workforce learned about issues of health, safety and the environment, and some of the options available to increase trustworthiness in these areas. These Employee Advisors then discussed the options at some length and presented recommendations to senior Lab managers in the role of Decision Makers. At the end of the day, the participants offered their reflections and discussed what they learned during the conference, and Decision Makers responded to what they heard. The most common view expressed by the Employee Advisors was that a bottom-up approach was necessary to develop more relevant ES and H policies. They were unanimous in their desire for more employee inclusion into the decision making process. All Employee Advisors were in support of a Lab wide survey to determine employee concerns about ES and H issues. After listening to the deliberation, the Decision Makers responded with several commitments. The most significant was the pledge to meet with Employee Advisors by the end of February to discuss the status of their recommendations on ES and H policy and practices. The ensuing follow-up meeting explored employee concerns in greater depth resulting in forward-looking action steps

  16. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    identified with cruelty or abuse offenses to people. Less than 3% of the cases advanced to adjudication, and these were likely to be decided by a judge rather than a jury. Judgments of guilty verdicts and pleas were 9 times more common than acquittal. Challenges for equine investigations cases included lack of funding, limited availability of facilities for horses, and providing educational materials for horse owners to aid in prevention and resolution of neglect cases. PMID:24663185

  17. Gender Differences in Sport Injury Risk and Types of Inju-Ries: A Retrospective Twelve-Month Study on Cross-Country Skiers, Swimmers, Long-Distance Runners and Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Ristolainen, Leena; Heinonen, Ari; Waller, Benjamin; Kujala, Urho M.; Kettunen, Jyrki A.

    2009-01-01

    This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05), and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05). When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05) while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05). After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours) significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05). Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05), but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training. Key points Only a few sport injury studies have compared in-jury rates between the sexes Overall gender-related risk for acute and overuse injuries in top-level athletes between the sexes was small Some gender differences in the specific

  18. Gender and race in beliefs about outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Universal need for, or reactions to, risk communications should not be assumed; potential differences across demographic groups in environmental risk beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors could affect risk levels or opportunities for risk reduction. This article reports relevant findings from a survey experiment involving 1,100 potential jurors in Philadelphia concerning public responses to outdoor air pollution and air quality information. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found significant differences in risk ratings for multiple hazards, and in generic risk beliefs, between white men (or a subset) and all others (white women, nonwhite men, and nonwhite women). This study examined whether white men had significantly different responses to air pollution and air pollution information. An opportunity sample of volunteers from those awaiting potential jury duty in city courts (matching census estimates for white versus nonwhite proportions, but more female than the city's adult population and more likely to have children) filled out questionnaires distributed quasi-randomly. On most measures there were no statistically significant differences among white men (N = 192), white women (N = 269), nonwhite men (N = 165), and nonwhite women (N = 272). Nonwhites overall (particularly women) reported more concern about and sensitivity to air pollution than whites, and were more concerned by (even overly sensitive to) air pollution information provided as part of the experiment. Nonwhites also were more likely (within-gender comparisons) to report being active outdoors for at least four hours a day, a measure of potential exposure to air pollution, and to report intentions to reduce such outdoor activity after reading air pollution information. Differences between men and women were less frequent than between whites and nonwhites; the most distinctive group was nonwhite women, followed by white men. Flynn et al. (1994) and Finucane et al. (2000) found a far larger

  19. Introducing new contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Segal, S J; Coutinho, E

    1986-12-01

    At this time, private research efforts to discover new contraceptives are threatened. Drug companies, particularly in the US, have reduced their interest in contraceptive development due to concern over the rising cost of product liability insurance, the cost of lawsuits in defense of liability claims, and the fear of extremely high awards by juries in product liability cases. The current form of private-public collaboration, now threatened by the liability crisis, works under a few simple principles of agreement. Private industry agrees to supply its patented chemical compounds for assessment as contraceptive agents, to be willing to enter into negotiations with public sector organizations to develop the contraceptive drugs if initial tests warrant it, and to release compounds to another company if the patent-holder declines to proceed with contraceptive development. The public-sector program agrees to fund the studies, keep the industry informed, and maintain confidentiality. When the technology is discovered by the public sector and is of potential interest to private industry, the collaboration involves other issues. The public agency agrees to supply manufacturing know-how and all biological and clinical information, to license under applicable patents, and to permit cross reference to regulatory agency filings. Private industry agrees to use its best efforts to bring the product to market, to manufacture the product at reduced cost for public sector use, or to provide know-how for others to do so. It also agrees to assume product liability and to grant the public sector agency licenses to any patented improvement in its product. Contraceptive research both within and outside the US is feeling the effects of the US litigious atmosphere. Companies from abroad now wish to steer clear of contraceptive research, even though these companies would be prepared to meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration. Contraceptives, considered to be high risk

  20. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  1. A Perspective on information fusion problems, Extended Abstract, Journal of Distributed Sensor Neworks

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S

    2009-04-01

    Information fusion problems have a rich history spanning four centuries and several disciplines as diverse as political economy, reliability engineering, target tracking, bioinformatics, forecasting, distributed detection, robotics, cyber security, nuclear engineering, distributed sensor networks, and others. Over the past decade, the area of information fusion has been established as a discipline by itself with several contributions to its foundations as well as applications. In a basic formulation of the information fusion problem, each component is characterized by a probability distribution. The goal is to estimate a fusion rule for combining the outputs of components to achieve a specified objective such as better performance or functionality compared to the components. If the sensor error distributions are known, several fusion rule estimation problems have been formulated and solved using deterministic methods. In the area of pattern recognition a weighted majority fuser was shown to be optimal in combining outputs from pattern recognizers under statistical independence conditions. A simpler version of this problem corresponds to the Condorcet Jury theorem proposed in 1786. This result was rediscovered since then in other disciplines including by von Neumann in 1959 in building reliable computing devices. The distributed detection problem, studied extensively in the target tracking area, can be viewed as a generalization of the above two problems. In these works, the underlying distributions are assumed to be known, which is quite reasonable in the areas these methods are applied. In a different formulation, we consider estimating the fuser based on empirical data when no information is available about the underlying distributions of components. Using the empirical estimation methods, this problem is shown to be solvable in principle, and the fuser performance may be sharpened based on the specific formulation. The isolation fusers perform at least as good

  2. Catch a Star 2008!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education have just launched the 2008 edition of 'Catch a Star', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its sixth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. CAS logo The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. In teams, students investigate an astronomical topic of their choice and write a report about it. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) or future telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) could contribute to investigations of the topic. Students may also include practical activities such as observations or experiments. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star' also offers an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. Last year, hundreds of students from across Europe and beyond took part in 'Catch a Star', submitting astronomical projects and artwork. "'Catch a Star' gets students thinking about the wonders of the Universe and the science of astronomy, with a chance of winning great prizes. It's easy to take part, whether by writing about astronomy or creating astronomically inspired artwork," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. As well as the top prize - a trip to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile - visits to observatories in Austria and Spain, and many other prizes, can also be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners

  3. Amplified interactive toxicity of chemicals at nontoxic levels: Mechanistic considerations and implications to public health

    SciTech Connect

    Mehendale, H.M.

    1994-11-01

    It is widely recognized that exposure to combinations or mixtures of chemicals may result in highly exaggerated toxicity even though the individual chemicals might not be toxic. Assessment of risk from exposure to combinations of chemicals requires the knowledge of the underlying mechanism(s). Dietary exposure to a nontoxic dose of chlordecone (CD; 10 ppm, 15 days) results in a 67-fold increase in lethality of an ordinarily inconsequential dose of CCl{sub 4} (100 {mu}l/kg, ip). Toxicity of closely related CHCl{sub 3} and BrCCl{sub 3} is also enhanced. Phenobarbital (PB, 225 ppm, 15 days) and mirex (10 ppm, 15 days) do not share the propensity of CD in this regard. Exposure to PB + CCl{sub 4} results in enhanced liver injury similar to that observed with CD, but the animals recover and survive in contrast to the greatly amplified lethality of CD + CCl{sub 4}. Investigations have revealed that neither enhanced bioactivation of CCl{sub 4} nor increased lipid peroxidation offers a satisfactory explanation of these findings. Additional studies indicate that exposure to a low dose of CCl{sub 4} (100 {mu}l/kg, ip) results in limited jury, which is accompanied by a biphasic response of hepatocellular regeneration (6 and 36 hr) and tissue repair, which enables the animals to recover from injury. Exposure to CD + CCl{sub 4} results in suppressed tissue repair owing to an energy deficit in hepatocytes as a consequence of excessive intracellular influx of Ca{sup 2+} leading initially to a precipitous decline in glycogen and ultimately to hypoglycemia. Supplementation of cellular energy results in restoration of the tissue repair and complete recovery from the toxicity of CD + CCl{sub 4} combination. In contrast, only the early-phase hepatic tissue repair (6 hr) is affected in PB + CCl{sub 4} treatment, but this is compensated for by a greater stimulation of tissue repair at 24 and 48 hr resulting in recovery from liver and animal survival. 85 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  5. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  6. Effects of subpopulation structure on probability calculations of DNA profiles from forensic PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Gallo, J C; Thomas, E; Novick, G E; Herrera, R J

    1997-01-01

    DNA typing for forensic identification is a two-step process. The first step involves determining the profiles of samples collected at the crime scene and comparing them with the profiles obtained from suspects and the victims. In the case of a match that includes the suspect as the potential source of the material collected at the crime scene, the last step in the process is to answer the question, what is the likelihood that someone in addition to the suspect could match the profile of the sample studied? This likelihood is calculated by determining the frequency of the suspect's profile in the relevant population databases. The design of forensic databases and the criteria for comparison has been addressed by the NRC report of 1996 (National Research Council, 1996). However, the fact that geographical proximity, migrational patterns, and even cultural and social practices have effects on subpopulation structure establishes the grounds for further study into its effects on the calculation of probability of occurrence values. The issue becomes more relevant in the case of discrete polymorphic markers that show higher probability of occurrence in the reference populations, where several orders of magnitude difference between the databases may have an impact on the jury. In this study, we calculated G values for all possible pairwise comparisons of allelic frequencies in the different databases from the races or subpopulations examined. In addition, we analyzed a set of 24 unrelated Caucasian, 37 unrelated African-American, and 96 unrelated Sioux/Chippewa individuals for seven polymorphic loci (DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC, and D1S80). All three sets of individuals where sampled from Minnesota. The probability of occurrence for all seven loci were calculated with respect to nine different databases: Caucasian, Arabic, Korean, Sioux/Chippewa, Navajo, Pueblo, African American, Southeastern Hispanic, and Southwestern Hispanic. Analysis of the results demonstrated

  7. Fuselets: an agent based architecture for fusion of heterogeneous information and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerer, Jürgen; Heizmann, Michael; Sander, Jennifer

    2006-04-01

    A new architecture for fusing information and data from heterogeneous sources is proposed. The approach takes criminalistics as a model. In analogy to the work of detectives, who attempt to investigate crimes, software agents are initiated that pursue clues and try to consolidate or to dismiss hypotheses. Like their human pendants, they can, if questions beyond their competences arise, consult expert agents. Within the context of a certain task, region, and time interval, specialized operations are applied to each relevant information source, e.g. IMINT, SIGINT, ACINT,..., HUMINT, data bases etc. in order to establish hit lists of first clues. Each clue is described by its pertaining facts, uncertainties, and dependencies in form of a local degree-of-belief (DoB) distribution in a Bayesian sense. For each clue an agent is initiated which cooperates with other agents and experts. Expert agents support to make use of different information sources. Consultations of experts, capable to access certain information sources, result in changes of the DoB of the pertaining clue. According to the significance of concentration of their DoB distribution clues are abandoned or pursued further to formulate task specific hypotheses. Communications between the agents serve to find out whether different clues belong to the same cause and thus can be put together. At the end of the investigation process, the different hypotheses are evaluated by a jury and a final report is created that constitutes the fusion result. The approach proposed avoids calculating global DoB distributions by adopting a local Bayesian approximation and thus reduces the complexity of the exact problem essentially. Different information sources are transformed into DoB distributions using the maximum entropy paradigm and considering known facts as constraints. Nominal, ordinal and cardinal quantities can be treated within this framework equally. The architecture is scalable by tailoring the number of agents

  8. "Sound law and undoubtedly good policy": Roe v. Wade in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Mylchreest, I

    1995-01-01

    This article traces the abortion reform processes in the US, the UK, and Australia to reveal the underlying rhetoric and policy rationales which served to fuel abortion reform. The early abortion legislation in Great Britain, Australia, and Texas is described to lay the groundwork for a discussion on the widespread modification the laws were subject to through medical practice and judicial interpretation. In 1938, a trial judge in Britain carved out a legal loophole to sway a jury to acquit a physician who openly performed an abortion on a 14-year-old rape victim. The judge found that the law neither prohibited abortion absolutely nor permitted unrestricted medical discretion, but rather lay within the two extremes. Before the 1960s, psychiatric subterfuges were used by physicians as justification for performing abortions for "social" reasons, but reform was spearheaded by concerns about rape, incest, and fetal damage (especially after exposure to rubella or thalidomide). Reformers also argued that abortion would reduce poverty, and it soon became clear that all but the poor could obtain safe abortions. Claims were also made that abortion had historically been allowed before quickening. A new consensus grew and was encouraged by physicians who accepted abortion because it furthered social justice. The law struggled to keep up. In Britain a major reform bill was enacted by Parliament. In Australia, the police gave up trying to prosecute doctors as judges interpreted the law in such a way as to render the doctors innocent of wrongdoing, and, in the US, some states adopted liberal laws. The Roe vs. Wade decision in the US, therefore, may have made abortion a constitutional issue through use of the doctrine of privacy, but the other elements of the decision reflected the situation in the UK and Australia. For example, the Row decision relies on the physician-patient relationship to regulate abortion on demand. Also, the decision acknowledges that conflicting rights

  9. Disorders of Arousal From Sleep and Violent Behavior: The Role of Physical Contact and Proximity

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To review medical and legal case reports to determine how many appear to support the belief that violence against other individuals that occurs during Disorders of Arousal - sleepwalking, confusional arousal, and sleep terrors – is triggered by direct physical contact or close proximity to that individual and does not occur randomly or spontaneously. Design: Historical review of case reports in the medical and legal literature. Measurements and Results: A total of 32 cases drawn from medical and legal literature were reviewed. Each case contained a record of violence associated with Disorders of Arousal; in each, details of the violent behavior were available. Violent behaviors associated with provocations and/or close proximity were found to be present in 100% of confusional arousal patients and 81% of sleep terror patients. Violent behaviors were associated with provocation or close proximity in 40%–90% of sleepwalking cases, depending on whether the legal verdict and other factors were taken into account. Often the provocation was quite minor and the response greatly exaggerated. The specific manner in which the violence was triggered differed among sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors. Conclusions: In the cases reviewed, violent behavior directed against other individuals associated with Disorders of Arousal most frequently appeared to follow direct provocation by, or close proximity to, another individual. Sleepwalkers most often did not seek out victims, but rather the victims sought out or encountered the sleepwalker. These conclusions are tempered by several limitations: the selection of cases was not random and may not represent an accurate sample of violent behaviors associated with Disorders of Arousal. Also, final verdicts by juries in reported legal cases should not be confused with scientific proof of the presence or absence of sleepwalking. The pathophysiology of Disorders of Arousal with and without violent

  10. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    evolving needs and budget constraints. On 24th September 2013, REWARD project received a prize as the best Innovative project related to the Not Conventional Threat (NCT) Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear explosives (CBRNe) products. A highly distinguished jury stated that "the developed detection and surveillance system offers a perfect solution for end-users to enhance crucial capabilities in RN analysis, risk communication and surveillance in case of a radiation incident". A demonstration of the REWARD system is planned in Naples on September 2014. More information about the REWARD project can be found at www.reward-project.eu.

  11. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J

    2011-07-18

    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing green building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2's most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a cafe and river vistas for miles of New York City's skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects, selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy was

  12. PREFACE: SQM2007 International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šafařík, Karel; Šándor, Ladislav; Tomášik, Boris

    2008-04-01

    The International Conference on `Strangeness in Quark Matter' (SQM) was held from 24-29 June 2007 at the Congress Hall of the city cultural centre in the charming mediaeval town of Levoča in north-eastern Slovakia. The Institute of Experimental Physics of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Faculty of Science of the P J Šafárik University in Košice shared the duties of main organizers of the conference. SQM2007 was attended by more than 100 participants from about 20 countries. The natural beauty and the rich cultural and historical monuments of the surrounding Spiš (Scepusium) region created an inspiring setting for the scientific, social and cultural framework of the conference. Continuing the trend started at the SQM2006 conference, heavy flavour physics in heavy-ion collisions was a topic given equal importance in the SQM2007 programme alongside strange quark physics. The Symposium for Students, from Students, organized by Christian Klein-Boesing and Boris Tomášik on the basis of the contributed abstracts, was again an integral and successful part of the conference. The jury, drawn from the organizers, awarded William A Horowitz (Columbia University) the title of best student contribution. The good news is that many students and younger researchers attended the conference. This could not have happened without generous support from our sponsors whom we would like to thank for valuable financial support: CERN, Journal of Physics G, the Prešov self-governing region authorities and the Slovak Physical Society. The kind assistance of the mayor of the town of Levoča is also warmly acknowledged. We would like to extend our gratitude to our colleagues and students from the organizing institutions for their diligent work prior to and during the conference, which ensured that everything worked smoothly. Our special thanks go to our secretaries, Adri Chomičová and Mery Šemš'aková, as well as to the management of the SATEL Hotel in Levoča for their highly

  13. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P<0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P<0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  14. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P < 0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P < 0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  15. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Telescope in Paranal, Chile, with guided tours and the opportunity to participate in a night's observations. Runner-up prizes included an iPod, books and DVDs. Furthermore, the highest ranked images will be released for the world to see on www.eso.org as Photo Releases or Pictures of the Week, co-crediting the winners. The jury evaluated the entries based on the quality of the data processing, the originality of the image and the overall aesthetic feel. As several of the highest ranked images were submitted by the same people, the jury decided to make awards to the ten most talented participants, so as to give more people the opportunity to win a prize and reward their hard work and talent. The ten winners of the competition are: * First prize, a trip to Paranal + goodies: Igor Chekalin (Russia). * Second prize, an iPod Touch + goodies: Sergey Stepanenko (Ukraine). * Third Prize, VLT laser cube model + goodies: Andy Strappazzon (Belgium). * Fourth to tenth prizes, Eyes on the Skies Book + DVD + goodies: Joseph (Joe) DePasquale (USA), Manuel (Manu) Mejias (Argentina), Alberto Milani (Italy), Joshua (Josh) Barrington (USA), Oleg Maliy (Ukraine), Adam Kiil (United Kingdom), Javier Fuentes (Chile). The ten winners submitted the twenty highest ranked images: 1. M78 by Igor Chekalin. 2. NGC3169 & NGC3166 and SN 2003cg by Igor Chekalin. 3. NGC6729 by Sergey Stepanenko. 4. The Moon by Andy Strappazzon. 5. NGC 3621 by Joseph (Joe) DePasquale. 6. NGC 371 by Manuel (Manu) Mejias. 7. Dust of Orion Nebula (ESO 2.2m telescope) by Igor Chekalin. 8. NGC1850 EMMI by Sergey Stepanenko. 9. Abell 1060 by Manuel (Manu) Mejias. 10. Celestial Prominences NGC3582 by Joseph DePasquale. 11. Globular Cluster NGC288 by Alberto Milani. 12. Antennae Galaxies by Alberto Milani. 13. Sakurai's Object by Joshua (Josh) Barrington. 14. NGC 1929, N44 Superbubble by Manuel (Manu) Mejias. 15. NGC 3521 by Oleg Maliy. 16. NGC 6744 by Andy Strappazzon. 17. NGC 2217 by Oleg Maliy. 18. VIMOS.2008-01-31T07_16_47j by

  16. Unconventional forms of popularization of science - festivals 'Science on Stage" in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    could enter the show rooms and had an opportunity to try their hand at carrying out experiments prepared for them beforehand. All presentations were evaluated by a jury consisting of research workers of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Warsaw University, University of Silesia and members of the Polish Physical Society. Within each category three best presentations were selected, and their authors then represented Poland at the international festival. From many years the chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the festival has been professor Wojciech Nawrocik, the winner of the prestigious competition "Propagator of Science", organized by Polish Press Agency and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Each festival was inaugurated with a performance prepared by the youngest participants of the festival - kindergarten children, who are outside of the competition. The theme of the last one was: "Preschoolers also are waiting for the Higgs particle!". Next edition of "Science on Stage 4" festival will be held on 24-25 September 2010, also at the Department of Physics at the University of Poznań. Its aim is to show the contribution of physics, other natural and technical sciences in solving energy problems of the world and Poland, and also finding new solutions in power engineering, which will meet a rapidly rising demand for clean and cheap energy.

  17. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  18. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovics, A.

    2007-06-01

    had led to the establishment of the chair of Electrodynamics and Continuum Mechanics in 1970, the first head of which was professor Juris Mikelsons. In the early 90's, when all research institutions in our country underwent dramatic changes, not all research directions and institutions managed to adapt successfully to the new conditions. Fortunately, the people who were involved in computer modelling of physical processes were among the most successful. First, the existing and newly established contacts in Western Europe were used actively to reorient the applied researches in the directions actively studied at the universities and companies, which were the partners of the University of Latvia. As a result, research groups involved in these activities successfully joined the international effort related to the application of computer models to industrial processes, and the scientific laboratory for Mathematical Modelling of Environmental and Technological Processes was founded in 1994. The second direction of modelling development was related to the application of computer-based models for the environmental and technological processes (e.g., sediment transport in harbours, heat transfer in building constructions) that were important for the companies and state institutions in Latvia. Currently, the field of engineering physics, the core of which is the computer modelling of technological and environmental processes, is one of the largest and most successfully developing parts of researches and educational programs at the Department of Physics of the University of Latvia with very good perspectives in the future for the development of new technologies and knowledge transfer.

  19. Obituary: Jason G. Porter, 1954-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-12-01

    Jason Porter, a solar astronomer at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), died on 23 July 2005 from complications associated with his 18-year battle with a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He was born on 28 June 1954. Jason was Texas born and bred. He received his Bachelor's degree from Texas A&M in 1976 and then went to the University of Colorado for his graduate work. He received his PhD from the Department of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences in 1984. His thesis, "Ultraviolet Spectral Diagnostics of Solar Flares and Heating Events," was written under the guidance of Katharine Gebbie and Juri Toomre. The ideas behind his thesis and much of his later work were formulated while he was a Graduate Research Assistant at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) working on analysis of data from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, a major instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). While at Goddard, he met his wife-to-be, Linda Zimmerman, who was working as a computer system administrator at the SMM Operations Center. They married and moved to Huntsville, Alabama in 1984 where Jason had an appointment as an NAS/NRC Resident Research Associate in the Solar Physics Branch of MSFC and Linda was a system administrator for the Space Science Laboratory. After a short stint at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Jason joined NASA as a Senior Scientist in the Space Science Laboratory in 1987, a position he still held at the time of his death. Jason's early work brought forth the idea that "microflares" make a significant contribution to the heating of the solar corona, an idea which he continued to champion throughout his career. He also searched for coronal emission from white dwarf stars using the ROSAT and Chandra Space Observatories, and served as the NASA Project Scientist for a lunar based ultraviolet telescope. More recently he was leading a team of engineers and scientists, from MSFC, GSFC, and the National Solar Observatory on the

  20. Past climate variability between 97 and 7 ka reconstructed from a multi proxy speleothem record from Western Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterhalder, Sophie; Scholz, Denis; Mangini, Augusto; Spötl, Christoph; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Pajón, Jesús M.

    2016-04-01

    . Due to the competing influence of the NA, the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, the proposed severe changes in the tropical hydrological cycle during that time (such as variations of the ITCZ, insolation and the thermohaline circulation (THC)) have potentially lead to significant changes in sources and trajectories of precipitation in Western Cuba. Our record, thus, provides an important contribution towards understanding and differentiating these parameters on Caribbean climate during glacial climate changes. References: Fensterer, C., Scholz, D., Hoffmann, D., Spötl, C., Pajón, J.M., Mangini, A., 2012. Cuban stalagmite suggests relationship between Caribbean precipitation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the past 1.3 ka. The Holocene, 0959683612449759. Fensterer, C., Scholz, D., Hoffmann, D.L., Spötl, C., Schröder-Ritzrau, A., Horn, C., Pajón, J.M., Mangini, A., 2013. Millennial-scale climate variability during the last 12.5 ka recorded in a Caribbean speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 361, 143-151. Winter, A., Miller, T., Kushnir, Y., Sinha, A., Timmermann, A., Jury, M.R., Gallup, C., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., 2011. Evidence for 800years of North Atlantic multi-decadal variability from a Puerto Rican speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 308, 23-28.

  1. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  2. Development of hot-pressed and chemical-vapor-deposited zinc sulfide and zinc selenide in the United States for optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2007-04-01

    By the mid 1950s, there was a need for infrared-transmitting materials with improved optical and mechanical characteristics for military and commercial instruments. The newly invented "heat-seeking" missile also required a more durable infrared-transmitting dome. Some properties of ZnS were known from studies of natural minerals. More properties of pure ZnS and ZnSe were measured with single crystals grown in Air Force and industrial laboratories in the 1950s. In 1956, a team led by William Parsons at the Eastman Kodak Hawk-Eye Works in Rochester, New York began to apply the technique of hot pressing to make infrared-transmitting ceramics from powders. This work led to commercial production of six materials, including ZnS (IRTRAN® 2) and ZnSe (IRTRAN® 4) in the 1960s. Because the hot pressed materials could not be made in very large sizes and suffered from undesirable optical losses, the Air Force began to look for alternative manufacturing methods around 1970. Almost immediately, highly successful materials were produced by chemical vapor deposition under Air Force sponsorship by a team led by James Pappis at the Raytheon Research Division in Waltham, Massachusetts. Chemical-vapor-deposited materials replaced hot pressed materials in most applications within a few years. From a stream of Air Force contracts in the 1970s and early 1980s, Raytheon produced two different grades of ZnS for windows and domes, one grade of ZnSe for high-energy CO II laser windows, and a composite ZnS/ZnSe window for aircraft sensor pods. In 1980, a competitor called CVD, Inc., was formed by Robert Donadio, who came from the Raytheon Research Division. CVD began with a license from Raytheon, but soon sued Raytheon, arguing that the license violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. Raytheon countersued for breach of employment contracts and misappropriation of trade secrets. In 1984, a jury ruled in favor of CVD, which went on to build a lucrative business in ZnSe and ZnS. CVD was eventually

  3. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  4. [Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloe species and effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Akira; Takeo, Satoshi

    2003-07-01

    some organs in mice was demonstrated, and FITC-AM was metabolized to a smaller molecule (MW 3000) by the large intestinal microflora in feces. The modified aloe polysaccharide (MW: 80000) with cellulase under restricted conditions, immunologically stimulated the recovery of UV-B-induced tissue in jury. Thus the modified polysaccharides of aloemannan, together with acemannan (MW: about 600000), are expected to participate in biological activity following oral administration. The effects of tanshinone VI, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the heart are reviewed. First, the effects on the posthypoxic recovery of contractile function of perfused rat hearts were examined. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced a release of purine nucleosides and bases (ATP metabolites) and resulted in little recovery of contractile force of reoxygenated hearts. Pretreatment of the perfused heart with 42 nM tanshinone VI under hypoxic conditions attenuated the release of ATP metabolites during hypoxia/reoxygenation. Treatment with tanshinone VI enhanced the posthypoxic recovery of myocardial contractility. These results show that tanshinone VI may protect the heart against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and improve the posthypoxic cardiac function. Second, the effects of tanshinone VI on in vitro myocardial remodeling were examined. Cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal rat hearts, and simultaneously prepared insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) induced the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. IGF-1 increased the collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts, that is, in vitro fibrosis. The hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes was attenuated in the presence of tanshinone VI in the culture medium. The fibrosis of cardiac fibroblasts was decreased by treatment with tanshinone VI. When tanshinone VI was added to cardiac fibroblast-conditioned medium, the medium-mediated hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes was also attenuated. These results show that tanshinone VI may attenuate in

  5. Strongly correlated f-electron systems: A PES study

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Sarrao, J.; Thompson, J.D.; Morales, L.; Fisk, Z.; Henkie, Z.; Cichorek, T.

    1998-12-31

    much larger than the SIM expectations (equivalently, n{sub f} values are far too small); (3) the KR and its sidebands does not lose spectral weight with T, but rather only broadens; (4) f-electrons in both Ce and U systems form narrow bands already far above T{sub K} (the jury is still out for Yb systems); (5) the width of these bands is much larger than k{sub B}T{sub K}; (6) f-character is obtained in only some regions of the Brillouin zone; i.e., momentum dependence of the KR above T{sub K}. While the PAM seems to predict the correct trends, they have no reason yet to rule out other models, such as those of Liu and Sheng and Cooper. Such discrimination may occur when the models develop sufficiently to allow real system calculations.

  6. Marine Science and Education in one Word: "planeetzee.org"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seys, J.; Copejans, E.; Ameije, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a major challenge to bring science and technology to the public at large and more particular to young people. This is even more true for marine sciences, due to the very nature of the study field and the fact that the underwater world is difficult to experience and communicate. Therefore it is not surprising that in Europe there are only few examples of marine educational projects that try to go beyond the ‘observe and describe' approach. In 2004 SHE Consultancy, the Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ and DAB Vloot developed a first Belgian e-learning programme dedicated to oceans and seas, with the support of the Flemish government ("Action plan Science Communication"). This programme ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw' (www.expeditiezeeleeuw.be), ran from 2005 till 2007 and challenged some 3000 Flemish students of 16-18 years old all over Flanders to find creative solutions for 10 major marine issues at the Belgian coast. The class that could convince the jury to have discovered the most creative and intelligent solutions, wan a one-week scientific expedition at sea on board the vessel Zeeleeuw. As a successor to ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw', a new e-learning project on marine science was developed in 2007: ‘Planeet Zee' i.e. ‘Planet Ocean' (www.planeetzee.org; info via info@planeetzee.org + demo-site in English available at www.planetocean.eu). The new marine and coastal e-learning project is presented as a virtual sailing trip on the Atlantic Ocean. It follows the adventures of two youngsters "borrowing" the yacht of their father and getting into trouble on the open ocean. On this journey they face 21 problems (eg. out of food, drinking water or fuel, fear for whales, Bermuda triangle, tsunami's etc… ), each of them introduced by a short movie clip. When they realize they can not solve the problem, they ask for radio help and - what a surprise! - get interesting answers from the Zeeleeuw research vessel and its 21 marine scientists on board, that appears to be in the

  7. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  8. Ensemble Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  9. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    students are allowed to use any method they like, are coached by teachers, and are encouraged to ask for help from experts at research centres or universities. Finally, they must prepare a 12-minute presentation. A tournament consists of different contests. In each contest, three teams are involved: the reporting team is challenged by an opponent team to present a task. This presentation is then criticized by the opponent, pointing out merits and possible weak parts. The discussion between the two representatives of the teams is a central element of a contest. The third team acts as reviewer, giving final comments on the performances of the contesting teams. At the end, a jury grades the performances of all three teams. Then, the different roles of the teams rotate, and the students also rotate roles within the teams. The competition started in the former Soviet Union in 1988 and became international for the first time in 1994 when it was organized in Groningen, The Netherlands. In the 2008 tournament in Trogir, Croatia, teams from 24 countries participated [5]. Since this tournament is younger and less known, the national pre-selections are not as well established and numerous as for the Olympiad. Also, the training is different: in addition to developing experimental skills and physical understanding of the problems, the students must organize their performances, share work and responsibilities, and must train in the techniques of presentation and debate (in English). The winner of the tournament in Croatia was the team from Germany. Their presentation in the finals was an experimental and theoretical investigation into the Kaye effect. The students wrote up their presentation, and it is reproduced here as the second paper in this special section. Again, different in spirit and aim is 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics' [6]. This competition started in 1991 in Poland and encourages students to take their first steps in physics research. Students of 20 years old or

  10. Summing Up the Unique Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    interested parties to expose a theme around the transit, e.g., preparations for the event and the actual observations, as well as conveying the personal impressions. A professional jury has now selected among the many excellent entries the laureates (see the list below) who will present their videos at the Paris conference this week, competing for one of the top prizes, including a trip by the winning team to the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile), home of the Very Large Telescope. The "Venus Transit Experience" Conference The Venus Transit Experience conference will take place at "Le Carré des Sciences" at the French Ministry of Research in Paris. It brings together the main participants in this project from many different European countries. A main aim is to discuss the impact of the project, identifying possible differences from country to country and showing how to share good practices in the future. The VT-2004 programme provided an exciting field test for the execution of large-scale public activities relating to a particular, scientific event with strong operational constraints, including the requirement to act in real-time as this event progressed. Much valuable experience was gathered for future continent-wide activities involving the same mechanisms and carried out under similar conditions. Thus, the overall outcome of this unique public education project is clearly of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy. The Distance to the Sun Remeasured A central feature of the VT-2004 programme was the VT-2004 Observing Campaign, aimed at re-enacting the historical determination of the distance to the Sun (the "Astronomical Unit") by collecting timings of the four contacts made by participating observers and combining them in a calculation of the AU. A large number of groups of observers registered; at the end, there were 2763 all over the world. Among these were almost 1000 school classes, demonstrating the large interest among students and teachers to

  11. Long-range Prediction of climatic Change in the Eastern Seaboard of Thailand over the 21st Century using various Downscaling Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejranonda, Werapol; Koch, Manfred; Koontanakulvong, Sucharit

    2010-05-01

    the different scales of the hydrological (local to regional) and of the GCM (global), one is faced with the problem of 'downscaling' the coarse grid resolution output of the GCM to the fine grid of the hydrological model. Although there have been numerous downscaling approaches proposed to that regard over the last decade, the jury is still out about the best method to use in a particular application. The focus here is on the downscaling part of the investigation, i.e. the proper preparation of the GCM's output to serve as input, i.e. the driving force, to the hydrological model (which is not further discussed here). Daily ensembles of climate variables computed by means of the CGCM3 model of the Canadian Climate Center which has a horizontal grid resolution of approximately the size of the whole study basin are used here, indicating clearly the need for downscaling. Daily observations of local climate variables available since 1971 are used as additional input to the various downscaling tools proposed which are, namely, the stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG), the statistical downscaling model (SDSM), and a multiple linear regression model between the observed variables and the CGCM3 predictors. Both the 2D and the 3D versions of the CGCM3 model are employed to predict, 100 years ahead up to year 2100, the monthly rainfall and temperatures, based on the past calibration period (training period) 1971-2000. To investigate the prediction performance, multiple linear regression, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are applied to the time series of the observation data which are aggregated into monthly time steps to be able compare them with the downscaling results above. Likewise, multiple linear regression and ARIMA models also executed on the CGCM3 predictors and the Pacific / Indian oceans indices as external regressors to predict short-term local climate variations. The results of the various downscaling method are

  12. Countdown for the Cluster quartet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    Following the successful completion of the Cluster II Flight Readiness Review on 23 June, final launch preparations are progressing smoothly and combined operations with the Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle are now under way. The dual launches, each involving two Cluster spacecraft built under the prime contractorship of Astrium (former Dornier Satellitensysteme GmbH, Germany), are currently scheduled for 15 July with a launch window opening at 14:40 CEST, 12:40 GMT and lasting 6 minutes, and 9 August from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan. A number of press events have been organised in various countries to coincide with both launches. The main press centre for the first launch will be located at ESA's European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt in Germany. Local press centres are also being set up in the other ESA establishments: ESRIN (Italy), ESTEC (The Netherlands), and VILSPA (Spain). See attachment for more detailed information and reply form to register at the various sites. Details of the second launch press event, which will be held in London (UK), will be available at a later date. Cluster II Competition Attracts Record Entries. A highlight of the first launch event at ESOC will be the announcement of the overall winner of ESA's "Name the Cluster quartet" competition and the chosen names of the four Cluster II satellites. Last February, members of the public in all of ESA's 15 member states were asked to suggest the most suitable names for the Cluster II spacecraft. The satellites are currently known as flight models (FM) 5, 6, 7 and 8. Competitors were asked to propose a set of four names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but not living persons) and explain in a few sentences the reasons for their choice. After sifting through more than 5,000 entries from all over Europe and debating at length the merits of the various suggestions, the multinational jury eventually produced a list of 15 national prize winners - one

  13. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  14. EDITORIAL: The Internet and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Paul

    1998-05-01

    Feature Issue Editor The World Wide Web has been described as a `distributed heterogeneous collaborative multimedia information system'. It began as a networked information project at CERN, where Tim Berners-Lee, now Director of the World Wide Web Consortium [W3C], developed a vision of the project. The Web has a body of software and a set of protocols and conventions. Through the use of hypertext and multimedia techniques, the Web is easy for anyone to roam, browse and contribute to. It was developed by physicists at CERN to fulfil a communication need, and is one of the fastest growing resources worldwide. The number of available sites increases hourly, the ability to find information becomes easier, and contacting anyone with an e-mail address is as easy as picking up the telephone and talking to them. A pupil researching a project on say `alternative energy' simply launches a web browser with the relevant search criteria. Some 13 500 references later they cut and paste sections together and, hey presto, they have their article. The teacher, on the other hand, has to discern what input to this work the pupil has made! What credit should be given for such an attempt? I believe we are going to have to teach how to value a site, by comparing it with other similar sites and exercising some judgement on what we find. Using a search with `physics' as my only keyword found more than 3.5 million references! Clearly the researcher has to become discerning, being judge and jury as it were. Will the Internet catch on? I fear so, is the simple answer. However, I am concerned that with so much information available the ability to discern quality sites from inferior ones and fact from fiction will become a major issue for educationalists. Pupils are going to have to be taught how to assess a site, how to judge its validity and learn to give correct references in their reports. Because Internet sites are ephemeral, a reference given today may not be active next week. Indeed

  15. The 26th International Physics Olympiad: On top down under!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    As they opened the plane door on arrival at Canberra it was like stepping inside a freezer. I had escaped from the heatwave in Britain to experience winter in Australia. I have not found anyone who believes that there was really frost! The Australian welcome did its best to combat the cold, however, and Professor Rod Jury had soon introduced our guides and got us settled in on the campus of Canberra University. The British team of five students, selected through the British Physics Olympiad, were: Alan Bain of Birkenhead School, Chris Blake of King Edward VI School, Southampton, Richard Davies of Dulwich College, Tom Down of Embley Park School, Romsey and Chris Webb of Royal Grammar School, Worcester. The two Leaders of the party were Cyril Isenberg of the University of Kent and Guy Bagnall of Harrow School. Chris Robson of St Bee's School and myself from Stoke on Trent Sixth form College were interested Observers and Guy's wife, Jenny, completed the party. For the old hands there were many friendships stretching back years to renew, and with 51 countries this year many new ones to be made. Â Photo Figure 1. Photograph taken by C Robson of the British Physics Team immediately after the Awards Ceremony in Canberra in July 1995. From left to right: Chris Webb, Richard Davies, Tom Down, Alan Bain and Chris Blake. In addition to the confusion caused by the Sun being in the North and the Moon appearing to lie on its back, we had to get used to the flocks of chattering parrots browsing on the lawns and the kangaroos on campus! Everyone was presented with a boomerang and there were several sessions introducing the art of throwing them, even in the dark! The Opening Ceremony was colourful and a good mix of ceremony and fun with the Aboriginal entertainment and the Flame of Science to be lit. This was followed by my first examiners' meeting. Once the questions have been introduced no one is allowed to leave the group until ten hours later when the students are in bed! The

  16. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO and EAAE Launch Web-based Educational Programme for Europe's Schools Catch a star!... and discover all its secrets! This is the full title of an innovative educational project, launched today by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It welcomes all students in Europe's schools to an exciting web-based programme with a competition. It takes place within the context of the EC-sponsored European Week of Science and Technology (EWST) - 2002 . This unique project revolves around a web-based competition and is centred on astronomy. It is specifically conceived to stimulate the interest of young people in various aspects of this well-known field of science, but will also be of interest to the broad public. What is "Catch a Star!" about? [Go to Catch a Star Website] The programme features useful components from the world of research, but it is specifically tailored to (high-)school students. Younger participants are also welcome. Groups of up to four persons (e.g., three students and one teacher) have to select an astronomical object - a bright star, a distant galaxy, a beautiful comet, a planet or a moon in the solar system, or some other celestial body. Like detectives, they must then endeavour to find as much information as possible about "their" object. This information may be about the position and visibility in the sky, the physical and chemical characteristics, particular historical aspects, related mythology and sky lore, etc. They can use any source available, the web, books, newspaper and magazine articles, CDs etc. for this work. The group members must prepare a (short) summarising report about this investigation and "their" object, with their own ideas and conclusions, and send it to ESO (email address: eduinfo@eso.org). A jury, consisting of specialists from ESO and the EAAE, will carefully evaluate these reports. All projects that are found to fulfill the stipulated requirements, including a

  17. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    derive its age and other characteristics. The second subject, to build and test an astronomical instrument, posed a welcome challenge to teams with a particular interest in technology. Some of the instruments were quite advanced; in France, for instance, the winning team built a working solar radio interferometer. In the same direction, but with a more theoretical touch, some teams chose the third subject, to design on paper an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System for the exploration of Pluto and the newly discovered Transneptunian Objects. The last subject, which secured the first prize for the Dutch winning team, concerned the study of a hypothetical, stable planetary system around another star, its properties and the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth. With the recent discovery of a planet around the nearby star 51 Pegasi, this theme has unexpectedly gained added relevance. During the past few weeks, the work by the teams was evaluated by specially established, national juries, consisting of scientists, educators and ministerial representatives (addresses below). The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year contributed to the Europe-wide interest in these matters and many EAAE members have been involved in the present contest, as participants or in its organisation. The national winners have now been selected; their names are listed below. In most countries, the award ceremonies have already taken place. Media Coverage The main event, i.e. the stay of the winning teams at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) from November 14 - 20, 1995, will be covered by the various media in the appropriate ways. More information, including a detailed programme of the many (day and night) activities during this event, may be obtained at request from the ESO Education and Public Relations Department at the Headquarters. In this connection, ESO is also pleased to invite the media to

  18. Challenges of Modeling Flood Risk at Large Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guin, J.; Simic, M.; Rowe, J.

    2009-04-01

    Flood risk management is a major concern for many nations and for the insurance sector in places where this peril is insured. A prerequisite for risk management, whether in the public sector or in the private sector is an accurate estimation of the risk. Mitigation measures and traditional flood management techniques are most successful when the problem is viewed at a large regional scale such that all inter-dependencies in a river network are well understood. From an insurance perspective the jury is still out there on whether flood is an insurable peril. However, with advances in modeling techniques and computer power it is possible to develop models that allow proper risk quantification at the scale suitable for a viable insurance market for flood peril. In order to serve the insurance market a model has to be event-simulation based and has to provide financial risk estimation that forms the basis for risk pricing, risk transfer and risk management at all levels of insurance industry at large. In short, for a collection of properties, henceforth referred to as a portfolio, the critical output of the model is an annual probability distribution of economic losses from a single flood occurrence (flood event) or from an aggregation of all events in any given year. In this paper, the challenges of developing such a model are discussed in the context of Great Britain for which a model has been developed. The model comprises of several, physically motivated components so that the primary attributes of the phenomenon are accounted for. The first component, the rainfall generator simulates a continuous series of rainfall events in space and time over thousands of years, which are physically realistic while maintaining the statistical properties of rainfall at all locations over the model domain. A physically based runoff generation module feeds all the rivers in Great Britain, whose total length of stream links amounts to about 60,000 km. A dynamical flow routing

  19. Live Webcasts from CERN and ESO for European Science and Technology Week

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ) - 2002 . See also ESO Press Release 08/02. This project revolves around a web-based competition and is centred on astronomy. It is specifically conceived to stimulate the interest of young people in various aspects of this well-known field of science, but will also be of interest to the broad public. Three hundred groups of up to four persons (e.g., three students and one teacher) have selected an astronomical object of their choice - a bright star, a distant galaxy, a beautiful comet, a planet or a moon in the solar system, or some other celestial body. They come from 25 countries. Until tomorrow, November 1, 2002, they have to deliver a comprehensive report about their chosen object. All reports have to conform with certain rules and are judged by a jury. Those fulfilling the criteria (explained at the Catch A Star! website) will participate in a lottery with exciting prizes, the first prize being a free trip in early 2003 for the members of the group to the ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile, the site of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) . The lottery drawing will take place at the end of the European Week of Science and Technology, on November 8th, 2002, beginning at 13:00 hrs CET (12:00 UT) . This event will be broadcast by webcast and the outcome will be displayed via a dedicated webpage. All accepted reports (that fulfill the criteria) will be published on the Catch A Star! website soon thereafter.

  20. "Catch a Star !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    ESO and EAAE Launch Web-based Educational Programme for Europe's Schools Catch a star!... and discover all its secrets! This is the full title of an innovative educational project, launched today by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It welcomes all students in Europe's schools to an exciting web-based programme with a competition. It takes place within the context of the EC-sponsored European Week of Science and Technology (EWST) - 2002 . This unique project revolves around a web-based competition and is centred on astronomy. It is specifically conceived to stimulate the interest of young people in various aspects of this well-known field of science, but will also be of interest to the broad public. What is "Catch a Star!" about? [Go to Catch a Star Website] The programme features useful components from the world of research, but it is specifically tailored to (high-)school students. Younger participants are also welcome. Groups of up to four persons (e.g., three students and one teacher) have to select an astronomical object - a bright star, a distant galaxy, a beautiful comet, a planet or a moon in the solar system, or some other celestial body. Like detectives, they must then endeavour to find as much information as possible about "their" object. This information may be about the position and visibility in the sky, the physical and chemical characteristics, particular historical aspects, related mythology and sky lore, etc. They can use any source available, the web, books, newspaper and magazine articles, CDs etc. for this work. The group members must prepare a (short) summarising report about this investigation and "their" object, with their own ideas and conclusions, and send it to ESO (email address: eduinfo@eso.org). A jury, consisting of specialists from ESO and the EAAE, will carefully evaluate these reports. All projects that are found to fulfill the stipulated requirements, including a