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Sample records for juvenile common sole

  1. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Zambonino-Infante, José L.; Claireaux, Guy; Ernande, Bruno; Jolivet, Aurélie; Quazuguel, Patrick; Sévère, Armelle; Huelvan, Christine; Mazurais, David

    2013-01-01

    An individual's environmental history may have delayed effects on its physiology and life history at later stages in life because of irreversible plastic responses of early ontogenesis to environmental conditions. We chose a marine fish, the common sole, as a model species to study these effects, because it inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes. We tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. We thus examined the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes. Elevated temperature and better trophic conditions had a positive effect on larval growth and developmental rates; warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. The latter suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages. We hypothesize that an irreversible plastic response to temperature occurred during early ontogeny that allowed adaptive regulation of metabolic rates and/or oxygen demand with long-lasting effects. These results could deeply affect predictions about impacts of global warming and eutrophication on marine organisms. PMID:23486433

  2. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zambonino-Infante, José L; Claireaux, Guy; Ernande, Bruno; Jolivet, Aurélie; Quazuguel, Patrick; Sévère, Armelle; Huelvan, Christine; Mazurais, David

    2013-05-01

    An individual's environmental history may have delayed effects on its physiology and life history at later stages in life because of irreversible plastic responses of early ontogenesis to environmental conditions. We chose a marine fish, the common sole, as a model species to study these effects, because it inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes. We tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. We thus examined the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes. Elevated temperature and better trophic conditions had a positive effect on larval growth and developmental rates; warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. The latter suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages. We hypothesize that an irreversible plastic response to temperature occurred during early ontogeny that allowed adaptive regulation of metabolic rates and/or oxygen demand with long-lasting effects. These results could deeply affect predictions about impacts of global warming and eutrophication on marine organisms. PMID:23486433

  3. Habitat suitability for juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) in the Bay of Biscay (France): A quantitative description using indicators based on epibenthic fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, Olivier; Baulier, Loîc; Cloarec, Aurélie; Martin, Jocelyne; Le Loc'h, François; Désaunay, Yves

    2007-02-01

    This study describes the spatial distribution of young-of-the-year common sole based on beam trawl surveys conducted in late summer in the coastal and estuarine parts of the Bay of Biscay (France). Previous studies showed that habitat suitability for juvenile common sole varies according to physical factors and notably bathymetry and sediment structure. Nevertheless, the use of these descriptors alone to model habitat suitability led to considerable unexplained variability in juvenile common sole distribution. Hence, the epibenthic macro- and megafauna collected during beam trawl surveys was taken into account to improve models of habitat suitability for these juvenile flatfish. Ecotrophic guilds based on life traits (behaviour, mobility and feeding) were used to develop generic indicators of trawled benthic fauna. These synthetic descriptors were used in generalized linear models of habitat suitability in order to characterize the distribution of juvenile common sole. This approach significantly improved the description based on physical descriptors and allowed demonstrating that young common sole distribution is related to the density of trawled deposit and suspension feeders and also of carnivorous organisms. These models provide a reliable method to develop indicators of nursery habitat suitability from trawl survey data with the aim of assessing and surveying their quality.

  4. Dynamics of an estuarine nursery ground: the spatio-temporal relationship between the river flow and the food web of the juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) as revealed by stable isotopes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, C.; Le Loc'h, F.; Roussel, J.-M.; Desroy, N.; Huteau, D.; Riera, P.; Le Bris, H.; Le Pape, O.

    2010-07-01

    Estuaries are essential fish habitats because they provide nursery grounds for a number of marine species. Previous studies in the Bay of Vilaine (part of the Bay of Biscay, France) have underlined the estuarine dependence of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) and shown that the extent of sole nursery grounds was positively influenced by the variability of the river flow. In the present study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to describe the trophic network until the young-of-the-year sole and to compare interannual variations in the dominant trophic pathways in the sole nursery areas in this bay. Particulate organic matter (POM), sediment organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos, benthic invertebrate sole prey and young-of-the-year common sole were collected during the summer over 4 years characterised by contrasting river discharges. POM isotopic signatures were used to identify the origins of nutrient and organic matter assimilated into the estuarine food web through benthic organisms to juvenile common sole. Interannual spatial variations were found in the POM carbon stable isotope signatures, with the importance of these variations depending on the interannual fluctuations of the river flow. Moreover, the spatio-temporal variability of this POM isotopic signature was propagated along the food webs up to juvenile sole, confirming the central role of river discharge and terrigeneous subsidy input in the estuarine benthic food web in determining the size of the sole nursery habitat.

  5. Sources of organic matter for flatfish juveniles in coastal and estuarine nursery grounds: A meta-analysis for the common sole (Solea solea) in contrasted systems of Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, O.; Modéran, J.; Beaunée, G.; Riera, P.; Nicolas, D.; Savoye, N.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.; Darnaude, A. M.; Brind'Amour, A.; Le Bris, H.; Cabral, H.; Vinagre, C.; Pasquaud, S.; França, S.; Kostecki, C.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine nursery grounds are essential habitats for sustaining flatfish stocks since only these shallow and productive areas provide the high food supply that allows maximizing juvenile growth and survival in most flatfish species. However, the main organic matter sources at the basis of benthic food webs might differ drastically between estuarine nursery grounds under strong freshwater influences, where food webs are mainly supported by continental organic matter, and coastal ecosystems under limited freshwater influence, where the local marine primary production is the main source of carbon for the benthos. To better understand the links between continental inputs to the coastal zone and stock maintenance in the highly prized common sole, Solea solea (L.), we investigated the variability in the organic matter sources supporting the growth of its young-of-the-year (YoY) in five contrasted estuarine and coastal nursery grounds under varying freshwater influence. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen allowed tracing the origin of the organic matter exploited by YoY soles in the very first months following their benthic settlement, i.e. when most of the juvenile mortality occurs in the species. A mixing model was run to unravel and quantify the contribution of all major potential sources of organic matter to sole food webs, with a sensitivity analysis allowing assessment of the impact of various trophic enrichment factors on model outputs. This meta-analysis demonstrated a relative robustness of the estimation of the respective contributions of the various organic matter sources. At the nursery scale, the upstream increase in freshwater organic matter exploitation by YoY soles and its positive correlation with inter-annual variations in the river flow confirmed previous conclusions about the importance of organic matter from continental origin for juvenile production. However, inter-site differences in the organic matter sources exploited for growth

  6. Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.

  7. Exploring the larval transcriptome of the common sole (Solea solea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The common sole (Solea solea) is a promising candidate for European aquaculture; however, the limited knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying larval development in this species has hampered the establishment of successful flatfish aquaculture. Although the fact that genomic tools and resources are available for some flatfish species, common sole genomics remains a mostly unexplored field. Here, we report, for the first time, the sequencing and characterisation of the transcriptome of S. solea and its application for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and morphological changes during larval-to-juvenile transition. Results The S. solea transcriptome was generated from whole larvae and adult tissues using the Roche 454 platform. The assembly process produced a set of 22,223 Isotigs with an average size of 726 nt, 29 contigs and a total of 203,692 singletons. Of the assembled sequences, 75.2% were annotated with at least one known transcript/protein; these transcripts were then used to develop a custom oligo-DNA microarray. A total of 14,674 oligonucleotide probes (60 nt), representing 12,836 transcripts, were in situ synthesised onto the array using Agilent non-contact ink-jet technology. The microarray platform was used to investigate the gene expression profiles of sole larvae from hatching to the juvenile form. Genes involved in the ontogenesis of the visual system are up-regulated during the early stages of larval development, while muscle development and anaerobic energy pathways increase in expression over time. The gene expression profiles of key transcripts of the thyroid hormones (TH) cascade and the temporal regulation of the GH/IGF1 (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I) system suggest a pivotal role of these pathways in fish growth and initiation of metamorphosis. Pre-metamorphic larvae display a distinctive transcriptomic landscape compared to previous and later stages. Our findings highlighted the up

  8. Spawning period of Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, based on juvenile otolith microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Maia, Anabela; Amara, Rachid; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2013-02-01

    The Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, is a flatfish species distributed from the Bay of Biscay to the coast of South Africa. Although it is a species of high commercial value its spawning period remains poorly known. In the Tagus estuary, Portugal, two juvenile cohorts of this species colonize two independent nursery areas within the estuarine system. Left lapilli otoliths of these 0-group juveniles were used to estimate age and back-calculate hatch dates, thus allowing the estimation of S. senegalensis spawning period in the Portuguese coast. The two cohorts of S. senegalensis completed the colonization of the two nurseries in July. The ages of juveniles were estimated to range between 46 and 111 days in nursery A, and between 33 and 61 days in nursery B. Hatch dates ranged from April to early June for juveniles colonizing nursery A, and from May to early June for juveniles colonizing nursery B. The mean hatch date in nursery A was the 7th of May, while in nursery B it was the 25th of May. It was concluded that the spawning period for this species off the Portuguese coast was from April to June.

  9. Depth and substrate as determinants of distribution of juvenile flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and rock sole (Pleuronectes bilineatus), in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, A.A.; Norcross, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    Three transects in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, were sampled in September 1994, May and August 1995, and February, May, and August 1996. Juvenile flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, and rock sole, Pleuronectes bilineatus, were the most abundant flatfishes, comprising 65-85% of all fiatfishes captured at any period. Collections of fish and sediments were made at regular depth contour intervals of l0 m. Habitat distribution was described by depth at 10 m increments and sediment percent weights of gravel, sand, and mud. Year-round habitat of flathead sole age-0 was primarily from 40 to 60 m, and age-1 habitat was primarily from 40 to 80 m. Summer habitat of rock sole age-0 and -1 was from 10 to 30 m, and in winter they moved offshore to depths of up to 150 m. Both age classes of flathead sole were most abundant on mixed mud sediments, while age-1 were also in high abundance on muddy sand sediments. Rock sole age-0 and -1 were most abundant on sand, though age-1 were also found on a variety of sediments both finer and coarser grained than sand. Flathead sole and rock sole had distinctive depth and sediment habitats. When habitat overlap occurred between the species, it was most often due to rock sole moving offshore in the winter. Abundances were not significantly different among seasons for age-1 flatfishes.

  10. Prey consumption by the juvenile soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, in the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-06-01

    The soles Solea solea and Solea senegalensis are marine flatfish that use coastal and estuarine nursery grounds, which generally present high food availability, refuge from predators and favourable conditions for rapid growth. Two important nursery grounds for these species juveniles have been identified in the Tagus estuary, one in the upper part of the estuary (nursery A) and another in the south bank (nursery B). While S. solea is only present at the uppermost nursery area, S. senegalensis is present at both nurseries. Although they are among the most important predators in these nursery grounds, there are no estimates on their food consumption or on the carrying capacity of the system for soles. The Elliott and Persson [1978. The estimation of daily rates of food consumption for fish. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 977-993] model was used to estimate food consumption of both species juveniles in both nursery areas, taking into account gastric evacuation rates (previously determined) and 24 h sampling surveys, based on beam-trawl catches carried out every 3 h, in the summer of 1995. Monthly beam trawls were performed to determine sole densities over the summer. Density estimates and daily food consumption values were used to calculate total consumption over the summer period. Sediment samples were taken for the estimation of prey densities and total biomass in the nursery areas. Daily food consumption was lower for S. solea (0.030 g wet weight d -1) than for S. senegalensis (0.075 g wet weight d -1). It was concluded that thermal stress may be an important factor hindering S. solea's food consumption in the warmer months. Total consumption of S. solea over the summer (90 days) was estimated to be 97 kg (wet weight). Solea senegalensis total consumption in nursery A was estimated to be 103 kg, while in nursery B it was 528 kg. Total prey biomass estimated for nursery A was 300 tonnes, while for nursery B it was 58 tonnes. This suggests that food is not a limiting

  11. The Great Melting Pot. Common Sole Population Connectivity Assessed by Otolith and Water Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ13C and δ18O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries. PMID:24475151

  12. Busulfan administration produces sublethal effects on somatic tissues and inhibits gametogenesis in Senegalese sole juveniles.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, T; Olague, E; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

    2014-05-01

    Busulfan, a cytotoxic alkylating agent used for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has effects in mammalian germ cells. In fish species, the use of this compound is of special interest in intra and interspecies germ cell transplants. To determine the effects of busulfan in fish a previous range finding experiment was designed. Survival and growth rate of 150-days after hatching (150DAH) Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was determined. In a second experiment, the effects of a sublethal busulfan dose in fish germ cell depletion and in somatic tissues were analysed. Sublethal effects of several busulfan treatments (B10-10 days after injection, B20-20 days after injection, B20÷-20 days after injection with double injection) were determined in somatic and gonadal tissues. Alterations were registered through histopathological techniques, TUNEL (cell apoptosis) and quantified at molecular level (Q-PCR analyses) using the vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 mRNAs) as molecular markers for germinal cells in Senegalese sole juveniles. Several sublethal effects were observed with 40 mg kg⁻¹ busulfan, a non-lethal dose, such as: pyknosis in liver, increase of melanomacrophage centres and blood stagnation in spleen and interruption of gonadal development. Females were more affected by busulfan treatments than males in terms of germ cell disruption, since a significant decrease in the expression of both Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 markers was found in the gonad of treated females rather than males. At 10 days post-treatment (B10), females already presented a decrease in germ cell proliferation, as confirmed by Q-PCR. Ssvasa expression proved to be a reliable tool for the direct evaluation of the effects of busulfan on Senegalese sole gonadal development, proving that busulfan can be a suitable treatment for causing transient sterility in recipient gonads for germ cell transplantation. PMID:24371034

  13. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  14. Vitamin A supplementation enhances Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) early juvenile's immunocompetence: New insights on potential underlying pathways.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ignacio; López-Joven, Carmen; Andree, Karl B; Roque, Ana; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) has been considered since the 1990's to be a promising flatfish species for diversifying European marine aquaculture. However, pathogen outbreaks leading to high mortality rates can impair Senegalese sole commercial production at the weaning phase. Different approaches have been shown to improve fish immunocompetence; with this in mind the objective of the work described herein was to determine whether increased levels of dietary vitamin A (VA) improve the immune response in early juveniles of Senegalese sole. For this purpose, Senegalese sole were reared and fed with Artemia metanauplii containing increased levels of VA (37,000; 44,666; 82,666 and 203,000 total VA IU Kg(-1)) from 6 to 60 days post-hatch (early juvenile stage). After an induced bacterial infection with a 50% lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, survival rate, as well as underlying gene expression of specific immune markers (C1inh, C3, C9, Lgals1, Hamp, LysC, Prdx1, Steap4 and Transf) were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed higher doses of dietary VA were more resistant to the bacterial challenge. The lower mortality was found to be related with differential expression of genes involved in the complement system and iron availability. We suggest that feeding metamorphosed Senegalese sole with 203,000 total VA IU Kg(-1) might be an effective, inexpensive and environmentally friendly method to improve Senegalese sole immunocompetence, thereby improving survival of juveniles and reducing economic losses. PMID:26272637

  15. Effects of acute handling stress on cerebral monoaminergic neurotransmitters in juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Weber, R A; Pérez Maceira, J J; Aldegunde, M J; Peleteiro, J B; García Martín, L O; Aldegunde, M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were subjected for short periods to two different types of handling-related stress: air exposure stress and net handling stress. The S. senegalensis were sacrificed 2 and 24 h after the stress events and the levels of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and their respective major metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were measured in three brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and optic tectum) and compared with those in control, non-stressed S. senegalensis. Neither type of stress caused any significant alteration of serotoninergic activity (5-HIAA:5-HT ratio) or NA levels. Dopaminergic activity (DOPAC:DA ratio) was lower in stressed fish in all of the brain regions studied. For both air exposure stress and net handling stress, DA levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control S. senegalensis. In addition, the higher DA levels after net handling stress were always significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed after acute air exposure stress, except in the telencephalon after 24 h. The significantly lower DOPAC:DA ratio (P < 0.05) in all of the brain regions studied was only observed in response to net handling stress. PMID:26387448

  16. Ecophys.Fish perspectives on growth of juvenile soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, in the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Vanessa F.; Neill, William H.; Miller, John M.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2010-07-01

    Ecophys.Fish, an ecophysiological framework to simulate fish growth in time-varying environments, was parameterized for two sole species, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858. The model gave reliable predictions of soles' growth and metabolic rates from published data under controlled environments. Differences in model parameters reflected specie's different environmental optima and were in accordance with their distributional range — northern range of S. solea and a southern range of S. senegalensis. Field application of this model to resolve the effects of varying habitat conditions on juvenile soles' growth in the Tagus estuary (Portugal), during the spring-summer period from 2003 to 2006, highlighted spatial and temporal differences in soles' metabolic scope for growth and estimated growth rates. Higher growth estimates were obtained for S. solea and S. senegalensis in Vila Franca de Xira during 2006, and for S. senegalensis in Alcochete during 2003, 2004 and 2006, and were fairly well explained by natural variation in abiotic conditions. Overall, the Ecophys.Fish model gave accurate field predictions of each sole species' growth rate and proved to be a useful tool for monitoring and assessment of habitat quality for juvenile sole.

  17. Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bolle, Loes J.; de Jong, Christ A. F.; Bierman, Stijn M.; van Beek, Pieter J. G.; van Keeken, Olvin A.; Wessels, Peter W.; van Damme, Cindy J. G.; Winter, Hendrik V.; de Haan, Dick; Dekeling, René P. A.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-)lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa) and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea) larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised. PMID:22431996

  18. Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Masaki; Sugimoto, Ryo; Hori, Masakazu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Shoji, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae were investigated around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan. Spatial distribution of radon-222 (222Rn) concentration in water showed more submarine groundwater seepage in the offshore area. The lower salinities at offshore sampling stations corresponded with the highest 222Rn concentrations. Juvenile marbled sole were collected from March through June with seasonal peak in April in 2013 and 2014. Mean abundance of juvenile marbled sole was highest at the second most offshore station where high submarine groundwater seepage was indicated. Major prey items in the stomachs of the marbled sole at the post-settlement stage (10-40 mm) were small crustaceans such as cumaceans and gammarids, which were partially replaced with polychaetes in larger juveniles (40-50 mm). Abundance of these major prey items was also higher at offshore stations. A negative correlation between gammarid abundance and salinity indicated a higher concentration of gammarids around the area of high submarine groundwater seepage, a pattern not observed for the other major prey organisms. Stable isotope analysis showed greater dependence of post-settlement stage marbled sole on the small crustaceans with low δ13C indicating that nutrients of terrestrial origin contribute to production of the juvenile marbled sole on the tidal flat.

  19. Common raven juvenile survival in a human-augmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, W.C.; Boarman, W.I.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic resource subsidies have contributed to the dramatic increase in the abundance of Common Ravens (Corvus corax) in the western Mojave Desert, California, during the past 30 years. To better understand the effects of these subsidies on raven demography, we examined whether survival to juvenile departure from the natal territory could be predicted by a set of environmental and morphological variables, such as nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and juvenile condition. We captured 240 juvenile ravens over 2 years and marked them prior to fledging. Nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and earlier fledging dates significantly predicted raven juvenile survival to departure from the natal territory. The best-fitting mark-recapture models predicted postdeparture survival as a function of time since fledging, nest proximity to anthropogenic resources, and year hatched. The positive effect of nest proximity to anthropogenic resources influenced postdeparture survival for at least 9 months after fledging, as revealed by the mark-recapture analysis. Annual survival was 47% for first-year, 81% for second-year, and 83% for third-year birds. Our results support the hypothesis that anthropogenic resources contribute to increasing raven numbers via increased juvenile survival to departure as well as increased postdeparture survival. We expect raven numbers to grow in concert with the growing human presence in the Mojave Desert unless raven access to anthropogenic resources is diminished.

  20. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuation on the body composition and energy budget of juvenile tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairnar, Sachin Onkar; Tian, Xiangli; Fang, Ziheng; Dong, Shuanglin

    2015-02-01

    Effects of the amplitude (±2, ±4, ±6, and ±8) and frequency (2, 4, and 8 d) of salinity fluctuation on the body composition and energy budget of juvenile tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) were investigated in a 64-d experiment. Results showed that the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuation had significant interaction and both substantially affected the final weight and specific growth rate of juvenile tongue sole. The tongue sole exhibited better growth in treatments with moderate amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuation (amplitude ±4-6; frequency 4-8 d) than in other treatments and the control. In terms of energy budget, salinity fluctuation strongly affected the proportions of energy components, including those deposited for growth and lost in respiration, feces, and excretion. Moderately amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuationg that favored the growth of tongue sole partitioned more energy for growth and less energy for metabolism than the constant and other amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuation. Average energy budget for tongue sole at moderately fluctuating salinity was determined to be 100 C (food) = 30.92 G (growth) + 10.30 F (feces) + 6.77 U (excretion) + 52.01 R (respiration). Energetic advantage at moderately fluctuating salinity, including increased energy intake, high assimilation efficiency, reduced metabolism expenditure, and more energy partitioned into growth, might account for the enhancement of tongue sole growth. Commercial farmers are recommended to rear juvenile tongue sole with moderate salinity fluctuations for better growth performance of this species.

  1. Role of the IFN I system against the VHSV infection in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Torres, Daniel; Podadera, Ana M; Bejar, Julia; Bandin, Isabel; Alonso, M Carmen; Garcia-Rosado, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Senegalese sole is susceptible to marine VHSV isolates but is not affected by freshwater isolates, which may indicate differences regarding virus-host immune system interaction. IFN I induces an antiviral state in fish, stimulating the expression of genes encoding antiviral proteins (ISG). In this study, the stimulation of the Senegalese sole IFN I by VHSV infections has been evaluated by the relative quantification of the transcription of several ISG (Mx, Isg15 and Pkr) after inoculation with marine (pathogenic) and freshwater (non-pathogenic) VHSV isolates. Compared to marine VHSV, lower levels of RNA of the freshwater VHSV induced transcription of ISG to similar levels, with the Isg15 showing the highest fold induction. The protective role of the IFN I system was evaluated in poly I:C-inoculated animals subsequently challenged with VHSV isolates. The cumulative mortality caused by the marine isolate in the control group was 68%, whereas in the poly I:C-stimulated group was 5%. The freshwater VHSV isolate did not cause any mortality. Furthermore, viral RNA fold change and viral titers were lower in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups than in the controls. The implication of the IFN I system in the protection observed was confirmed by the transcription of the ISG in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups. However, the marine VHSV isolate exerts a negative effect on the ISG transcription at 3 and 6 h post-inoculation (hpi), which is not observed for the freshwater isolate. This difference might be partly responsible for the virulence shown by the marine isolate. PMID:26743229

  2. Histopathological baseline levels and confounding factors in common sole (Solea solea) for marine environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, N; Zorita, I; Costa, P M; Larreta, J; Franco, J

    2015-09-01

    Liver and gonad histopathology, biometric parameters and hepatic metal bioaccumulation were assessed monthly over a one-year period in common soles from the Basque continental shelf, in order to determine baseline levels and confounding factors within biomonitoring studies. Biometric parameters and hepatic metal bioaccumulation varied according to season and gender. Accordingly, hepatic histopathological traits presented seasonal variations related to the reproductive cycle. However, the hepatic histopathological index showed that seasonality and gender were not significant confounding factors. Conversely, the gonad histopathological index was modulated by season and gender. As for organ comparison, the liver endured more severe histopathological damage than the gonad. In brief, the sampling period and gender may not affect the estimation of hepatic histopathological indices for biomonitoring purposes. Nonetheless, due to different sensitivities to environmental 'noise' variables, the sampling period and gender differentiation should be thoroughly considered for the assessment of gonad histopathology, biometrics and metal bioaccumulation. PMID:26364682

  3. Genetic structure of the common sole ( Solea solea) in the Bay of Biscay: Nurseries as units of selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinand, B.; Rolland, J. L.; Bonhomme, F.

    2008-06-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas in the Bay of Biscay are essential nursery habitats for sole ( Solea solea). Using three intronic markers, we investigated patterns of genetic differentiation among cohorts of juveniles (0+, 1+, sub-adults) inhabiting four major nurseries in the Vilaine and Loire river estuaries, the Pertuis d'Antioche strait, and the Gironde estuary. Genetic differentiation was not significant for the age 0- and 1-groups, but was among sub-adult samples ( θWC = 0.017; P = 0.031). Hierarchical analyses of genotypic frequencies by nested multivariate ANOVA using redundancy analysis indicated that northern nurseries of Loire and Vilaine rivers had different patterns of genotypic variation with age than southern nurseries of the Pertuis d'Antioche and Gironde estuaries ( F = 1.36; P = 0.007). Bay of Biscay nurseries appeared to be spatially structured between a southern and a northern group that exhibit different genotypic distributions. Genetic drift and gene flow explains this pattern poorly, but a statistical test ( P < 0.035) suggested that the metallothionein ( MT) locus may be significantly impacted by selection in southern estuaries. As metallothionein is involved in heavy-metal detoxification, and southern nurseries are known to be affected by cadmium, this indicates a possible correlation between observed genotypic distributions and some nursery habitat features in sole. Some selective patterns might also be proposed to explain patterns of linkage disequilibrium observed at amylase loci in three of the four nurseries.

  4. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Several Factors Influence the Placement of Children Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Recent reports have documented how some parents choose to place their children in the child welfare or juvenile justice systems in order to obtain the mental health services that their children need. Senators Susan Collins and Joseph Lieberman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to testify on:…

  5. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea).

    PubMed

    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Deaville, Rob; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, Jooske; Jepson, Paul D; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a rare cause of death in cetaceans. Whilst asphyxiation has been reported in smaller odontocetes, there are no recent records of this occurring in Globicephala species. Here we report the stranding, necropsy and diet study results as well as discuss the unusual nature of this phenomenon. Flatfish are not a primary prey species for pilot whales and are rarely eaten by other cetaceans, such as harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), in which there are several reports of asphyxiation due to airway obstruction by soles. This risk may be due to the fish's flexible bodies which can enter small cavities either actively in an attempt to escape or passively due to the whale 'coughing' or 'sneezing' to rid itself of the blockage of the trachea. It is also possible that the fish enter the airways whilst the whale is re-articulating the larynx after trying to ingest large, oddly shaped prey. It is unlikely that the soles entered the airways after the death of the whales and we believe therefore that they are responsible for the death of these animals. PMID:26580786

  6. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    PubMed Central

    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L.; Leopold, Mardik F.; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Deaville, Rob; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, Jooske; Jepson, Paul D.; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a rare cause of death in cetaceans. Whilst asphyxiation has been reported in smaller odontocetes, there are no recent records of this occurring in Globicephala species. Here we report the stranding, necropsy and diet study results as well as discuss the unusual nature of this phenomenon. Flatfish are not a primary prey species for pilot whales and are rarely eaten by other cetaceans, such as harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), in which there are several reports of asphyxiation due to airway obstruction by soles. This risk may be due to the fish’s flexible bodies which can enter small cavities either actively in an attempt to escape or passively due to the whale ‘coughing’ or ‘sneezing’ to rid itself of the blockage of the trachea. It is also possible that the fish enter the airways whilst the whale is re-articulating the larynx after trying to ingest large, oddly shaped prey. It is unlikely that the soles entered the airways after the death of the whales and we believe therefore that they are responsible for the death of these animals. PMID:26580786

  7. Distribution and habitat associations of juvenile Common Snook in the lower Rio Grande, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Caleb G.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Patino, Reynaldo; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Common Snook Centropomus undecimalis were once abundant off the Texas coast, but these populations are now characterized by low abundance and erratic recruitment. Most research concerning Common Snook in North America has been conducted in Florida and very little is known about the specific biology and habitat needs of Common Snook in Texas. The primary objective of this study was to describe the habitat use patterns of juvenile Common Snook and their role in the fish assemblage in the lower portion of the Rio Grande, Texas. Secondarily, we documented the relationship between age and juvenile reproductive development. Fish were collected during January–March 2006 from the lower 51.5 km of the Rio Grande using a bottom trawl and boat-mounted electrofisher. Measurements of water quality and other habitat traits were recorded at each sampling site. We captured 225 Common Snook exclusively in freshwater habitats above river kilometer 12.9. The distribution of juvenile Common Snook was not random, but influenced primarily by turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Sex differentiation and gonadal development based on histological examination of gonads established that age-1 and age-2 Common Snook were juvenile, prepubertal males. There was no difference between the age groups in their overall distribution in the river. However, age-2 Common Snook were associated with deeper areas with faster currents, higher conductivity, and steeper banks. Overall, Common Snook in the lower Rio Grande show substantial differences in habitat use than their counterparts in other parts of the range of the species, but it is unclear whether this is due to differences in habitat availability, behavioral plasticity, or some combination thereof.

  8. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  9. High dietary arachidonic acid levels affect the process of eye migration and head shape in pseudoalbino Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis early juveniles.

    PubMed

    Boglino, A; Wishkerman, A; Darias, M J; Andree, K B; de la Iglesia, P; Estévez, A; Gisbert, E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of high dietary levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) on the eye migration and cranial bone remodelling processes in Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis early juveniles (age: 50 days post hatch) was evaluated by means of geometric morphometric analysis and alizarin red staining of cranial skeletal elements. The incidence of normally pigmented fish fed the control diet was 99·1 ± 0·3% (mean ± s.e.), whereas it was only 18·7 ± 7·5% for those fed high levels of ARA (ARA-H). The frequency of cranial deformities was significantly higher in fish fed ARA-H (95·1 ± 1·5%) than in those fed the control diet (1·9 ± 1·9%). Cranial deformities were significantly and negatively correlated with the incidence of normally pigmented animals (r² = -0·88, P < 0·001, n = 16). Thus, fish displaying pigmentary disorders differed in the position of their eyes with regard to the vertebral column and mouth axes, and by the interocular distance and head height, which were shorter than in fish not displaying pigmentary disorders. In addition to changes in the positioning of both eyes, pseudoalbino fish showed some ARA-induced osteological differences for some of the skeletal elements from the splanchnocranium (e.g. right premaxillary, dentary, angular, lacrimal, ceratohyal and branchiostegal rays) and neurocranium (e.g. sphenotic, left lateral ethmoid and left frontal) by comparison to normally pigmented specimens. Pseudoalbino fish also had teeth in both lower and upper jaws. This is the first study in Pleuronectiformes that describes impaired metamorphic relocation of the ocular side eye, the right eye in the case of S. senegalensis, whereas the left eye migrated into the ocular side almost normally. PMID:24580667

  10. Dietary Fatty Acid Metabolism is Affected More by Lipid Level than Source in Senegalese Sole Juveniles: Interactions for Optimal Dietary Formulation.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Estévez, Alicia; Bellot, Olga; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gisbert, Enric; Morais, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of dietary lipid level and source on lipid absorption and metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Juvenile fish were fed 4 experimental diets containing either 100 % fish oil (FO) or 25 % FO and 75 % vegetable oil (VO; rapeseed, linseed and soybean oils) at two lipid levels (~8 or ~18 %). Effects were assessed on fish performance, body proximate composition and lipid accumulation, activity of hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymes and, finally, on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine, and to intestinal absorption, both pre- and postprandially. Increased dietary lipid level had no major effects on growth and feeding performance (FCR), although fish fed FO had marginally better growth. Nevertheless, diets induced significant changes in lipid accumulation and metabolism. Hepatic lipid deposits were higher in fish fed VO, associated to increased hepatic ATP citrate lyase activity and up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) mRNA levels post-prandially. However, lipid level had a larger effect on gene expression of metabolic (lipogenesis and β-oxidation) genes than lipid source, mostly at fasting. High dietary lipid level down-regulated fatty acid synthase expression in liver and intestine, and increased cpt1 mRNA in liver. Large lipid accumulations were observed in the enterocytes of fish fed high lipid diets. This was possibly a result of a poor capacity to adapt to high dietary lipid level, as most genes involved in intestinal absorption were not regulated in response to the diet. PMID:26563870

  11. Modelling the transport of common sole larvae in the southern North Sea: Influence of hydrodynamics and larval vertical movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Marie; Lacroix, Geneviève; Ruddick, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    In the present work we used a particle-tracking model coupled to a 3D hydrodynamic model to study the combined effect of hydrodynamic variability and active vertical movements on the transport of sole larvae in the southern North Sea. Larval transport from the 6 main spawning grounds was simulated during 40 day periods starting on 2 plausible spawning dates, the 15/04 and the 01/05, during 2 years, 1995 and 1996. In addition to a "passive" behaviour, 3 types of active vertical movements inspired from previous studies have been tested: (1) Eggs and early larvae float in the surface waters, late larvae migrate toward the bottom and stay there until the end of the simulation; (2 and 3) Eggs float in the surface waters, early larvae perform diel vertical migrations in the surface waters, and (2) Late larvae perform diel vertical migrations in the bottom waters until the end of the simulation; or (3) Late larvae perform tidally synchronised vertical migrations in the bottom waters until the end of the simulation. These behaviours have been implemented in the model with vertical migration rates, positive or negative, which can account for buoyancy or real swimming activity. Variations in larval transport were analysed in terms of mean trajectories, final larvae distribution, larval retention above nurseries, and connectivity. Results suggest that the variations in larval retention above nurseries due to the varying hydrodynamic conditions are not consistent in space i.e. not the same for all the spawning sites. The effect of active vertical movements on larval transport is also not consistent in space: Effects of active vertical movements include decreased retention above nurseries, decreased transport and/or decreased horizontal dispersion of larvae through reduced vertical shear (depending on the zone). The variability in larval retention due to hydrodynamic variability is higher than variability due to differences in the behaviour of larvae. In terms of connectivity

  12. Digenean metacercariae parasites as natural tags of habitat use by 0-group common sole Solea solea in nearshore coastal areas: A case study in the embayed system of the Pertuis Charentais (Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Eric D. H.; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Pinet, Patrick; Sasal, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the spatio-temporal variation in the host-parasite system, 0-group sole-digenean metacercariae, in nearshore coastal areas at relatively small spatial scale. 0-group soles were sampled using a standard beam trawl in April, May, June, August and October 2005 at nine different sites in the Pertuis Charentais area (Bay of Biscay, France). Sole density, size, Fulton's condition factor K and digenean metacercariae communities were analysed. 0-group sole concentrated in shallow and muddy areas where they accumulated digenean metacercariae. Parasite communities displayed strong spatial patterns tightly linked to the distribution of the first intermediate mollusc hosts. These parasitological data suggest that 0-group sole during their first period of growth are mainly sedentary with limited movements between the different parts of the habitat. Size and density data revealed spatial heterogeneity in terms of habitat quality so that a limited zone (Aiguillon Bay) within the study area could be identified as sensu stricto nursery habitat for 0-group sole. The use of digenean metacercariae as natural tags appears as a novel powerful tool to evaluate habitat use and movements of juvenile flatfish, which could find applications in fisheries and coastal zone management programs.

  13. Acclimation temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance among juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-09-01

    Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature

  14. Physiological and molecular responses in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exposure to tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), as antifouling paints, is widely present in aquatic environment, but little is known regarding the toxicity of TBT on fish brain. In this study, the effects of exposure to TBT on the antioxidant defense system, Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity, neurological enzymes activity and Hsp 70 protein level in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (5, 10 and 20 μg/L) for 7 days. Based on the results, with increasing concentrations of TBT, oxidative stress was apparent as reflected by the significant higher levels of oxidative indices, as well as the significant inhibition of all antioxidant enzymes activities. Besides, the activities of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Monoamine oxidases (MAO) and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase were significantly inhibited after exposure to TBT with higher concentrations. In addition, the levels of Hsp 70 protein were evaluated under TBT stress with dose-depended manner. These results suggest that selected physiological responses in fish brain could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. PMID:25761124

  15. Common variable immunodeficiency associated with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma mimicking juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jesus, A A; Jacob, C M A; Silva, C A; Dorna, M; Pastorino, A C; Carneiro-Sampaio, M

    2011-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder with susceptibility to infections, autoimmune manifestations, and cancer. To our knowledge, CIVD with T-cell lymphoma mimicking juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) was not described in the literature, and one case was reported herein. An 8-year-old female was admitted in our Pediatric Immunology Unit with a clinical history of hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent upper respiratory infections, and pneumonias. She had a marked decrease of three serum immunoglobulin isotypes, and the diagnosis of CVID was established. At the age of 17 years, she presented with oral ulceration, nonerosive arthritis, nephritis, serositis, cytopenia, positive antiphospholipid antibodies, and positive antinuclear antibody fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone for three consecutive days, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and maintenance therapy of chloroquine, azathioprine and prednisone 40  mg/day. Two months later, she died of septic shock secondary to acute pneumonia. The necropsy showed hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma with diffuse involvement of bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lungs. The lymphoma cells were positive for CD3 immunostaining and negative for CD20 and lysozyme. In conclusion, the association of CVID and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma may simulate JSLE diagnosis. PMID:21776287

  16. Post-fledging movements of juvenile Common Mergansers (mergus merganser) in Alaska as inferred by satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Petersen, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We implanted satellite transmitters into eight juvenile Common Mergansers to investigate post-fledging movements from their natal river in southcentral Alaska. Subsequently, they moved widely throughout portions of western and southcentral Alaska up to 750 km from their natal areas during fall and winter months. Transmitters of two birds (one male and one female) continued to send location data into their second year and allowed us to determine the location and timing of the flightless molt period for each bird. Overall, our data suggest that juvenile Common Mergansers range widely immediately after fledging, that second year males and females may differ in their movement patterns, and that these movements have implications for population genetic structure of this species.

  17. Influence of DNA isolation from historical otoliths on nuclear-mitochondrial marker amplification and age determination in an overexploited fish, the common sole (Solea solea L.).

    PubMed

    Cuveliers, E L; Bolle, L J; Volckaert, F A M; Maes, G E

    2009-05-01

    Historical otolith collections are crucial in assessing the evolutionary consequences of natural and anthropogenic changes on the demography and connectivity of commercially important fish species. Hence, it is important to define optimal protocols for purifying DNA from such valuable information sources while avoiding any damage to the physical structure of the otolith. Before being able to conclude on the harmlessness of a method, it is important to validate protocols on different kinds of otoliths by testing purification methodologies under standardized conditions. Here we compare the effect of two DNA extraction methods on the success in identifying the age in an overexploited marine fish, the common sole (Solea solea L.). To ensure optimal future population genetic and demographic analyses, we assessed DNA quantity and tested the DNA quality by investigating the amplification success of a mitochondrial and nuclear marker. Our results show that the choice of the DNA extraction method had a significant effect on the success of using these otoliths in age and growth analyses. Standard commercial and published protocols resulted in a severe damaging of the otolith structure, hampering accurate preparation and analyses of the morphological structures of the otoliths. Shortening the lysis time and lowering the EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) and SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) concentration turned out to be beneficial for the stability of otolith structure, while maintaining an overall high DNA quality measured through polymerase chain reaction amplification success. We therefore recommend that care should be taken when choosing the extraction method for a molecular study on archived samples, in order to enable the maximal use of information embedded in historical material. PMID:21564731

  18. Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) with a new host record from the common sole Solea solea (Soleidae) and its role as a biological indicator of pollution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab

    2015-02-01

    Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) was isolated from the intestine of the common sole Solea solea (Family, Soleidae) collected from coasts along Alexandria City at the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, during the period from May to September 2013. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that this nematode parasite belongs to the family Anisakidae in the genus Hysterothylacium. The type species is named H. aduncum, based on the presence of three interlocked lips with the interlabium in between, the presence of cephalic papillae, and large numbers of caudal papillae in males. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 13.9-18 mm (16.2 ± 0.2) in length and 0.26-0.34 mm (0.30 ± 0.01) in width. Females measured 20.5-24.5 mm (22.7 ± 0.2) in length and 0.41-0.52 mm (0.45 ± 0.01) in width. The morphological characteristics of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA for these parasites followed by comparison between sequence data for them with those obtained from the Genbank showing that H. aduncum is deeply embedded in the genus Hysterothylacium with a sequence similarity between 95.5-94.3 % with close relationships to other H. aduncum specimens and Hysterothylacium sp.. Furthermore, it was shown that this parasitic nematode is able to accumulate larger concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, Cd, and Ni within its tissues than of its host fish and thus it can be used as a useful bio-indicator of water pollution. PMID:25468378

  19. Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Ten Hagen, Leonie; Rodríguez, Ariel; Menke, Norbert; Göcking, Christian; Bisping, Michael; Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Ziegler, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic communication is prominent in adult anuran amphibians, in reproductive, territorial and defensive contexts. In contrast, reports on vocalizations of juvenile anurans are rare and anecdotal, and their function unstudied. We here provide conclusive evidence for vocalizations in juvenile spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) in very early terrestrial stages. While the aquatic tadpoles did not emit sounds, first vocalizations of metamorphs were heard as early as in stages 42-43, and calls were regularly emitted from stage 44 on, often from specimens still bearing extensive tail stubs. Three main types of calls could be distinguished, of which one consists of a series of short notes, one of a typically single longer and pulsed note, and one of a single tonal note. In experimental setups, the number of calls per froglet increased with density of individuals and after feeding, while on the contrary calls were not elicited by playback. The function of these juvenile calls remains unclarified, but they might reflect a general arousal in the context of feeding. Further evidence is necessary to test whether such feeding calls could confer a signal to conspecifics and thus might represent intraspecific acoustic communication in these immature terrestrial amphibians. PMID:27590626

  20. Linking Demographic Processes of Juvenile Corals to Benthic Recovery Trajectories in Two Common Reef Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Ward, Selina; Roff, George; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mumby, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical reefs are dynamic ecosystems that host diverse coral assemblages with different life-history strategies. Here, we quantified how juvenile (<50 mm) coral demographics influenced benthic coral structure in reef flat and reef slope habitats on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Permanent plots and settlement tiles were monitored every six months for three years in each habitat. These environments exhibited profound differences: the reef slope was characterised by 95% less macroalgal cover, and twice the amount of available settlement substrata and rates of coral settlement than the reef flat. Consequently, post-settlement coral survival in the reef slope was substantially higher than that of the reef flat, and resulted in a rapid increase in coral cover from 7 to 31% in 2.5 years. In contrast, coral cover on the reef flat remained low (~10%), whereas macroalgal cover increased from 23 to 45%. A positive stock-recruitment relationship was found in brooding corals in both habitats; however, brooding corals were not directly responsible for the observed changes in coral cover. Rather, the rapid increase on the reef slope resulted from high abundances of broadcast spawning Acropora recruits. Incorporating our results into transition matrix models demonstrated that most corals escape mortality once they exceed 50 mm, but for smaller corals mortality in brooders was double those of spawners (i.e. acroporids and massive corals). For corals on the reef flat, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that growth and mortality of larger juveniles (21–50 mm) highly influenced population dynamics; whereas the recruitment, growth and mortality of smaller corals (<20 mm) had the highest influence on reef slope population dynamics. Our results provide insight into the population dynamics and recovery trajectories in disparate reef habitats, and highlight the importance of acroporid recruitment in driving rapid increases in coral cover following large-scale perturbation

  1. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  2. Susceptibility, metacercarial burden, and mortality of juvenile silver barb, common carp, mrigal, and tilapia following exposure to Haplorchis taichui.

    PubMed

    Kopolrat, Kulthida; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2015-04-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) including heterophyids and opisthorchiids are prevalent in native and aquaculture fish in Southeast Asia. FZT are reported highly prevalent in juvenile aquaculture fish that belonged to the family Heterophyidae, particularly Haplorchis taichui. Aquaculture fish are reported to have varying levels of natural infection with H. taichui, but data for their susceptibility as well as resistance to infection are not available. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of five aquaculture fish to H. taichui. Experimental infections were performed by exposing fish individually to 0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 H. taichui cercariae for 12 h. Metacercarial burden was measured at 45 days postinfection. Three out of five fish species, silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), were highly susceptible to H. taichui infection with percentage ranging from 93.33 to 100%. The Nile and red tilapia were not susceptible to infection. Among the susceptible fish species, silver barb had higher intensity of H. taichui metacercariae than common carp and mrigal (P < 0.001). Metacercarial burden significantly correlated with the dose of cercarial infection (P < 0.001). Our findings that common aquaculture fish species have varying degrees of susceptibility to H. taichui infection provide important information to reduce parasite transmission in aquaculture fish. PMID:25636245

  3. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Juvenile Firesetting.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. PMID:26593122

  5. Chronic effects of tributyltin on multiple biomarkers responses in juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the chronic toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling paints commonly present in surface and ground water, on morphological indices, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ATPase activity and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 protein in tissues (liver, gill, and white muscle) of common carp were investigated. Fish were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L, and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. When compared with the control, there was significant lower condition factor in fish exposed at the higher concentration of TBT. ROS levels in three tissues increased significantly at higher TBT concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 μg/L). The hepatic antioxidant enzymes (total antioxidative capacity and superoxide dismutase) activities were induced at higher concentrations (0.75 μg/L) of TBT. When compared with the hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities in fish exposed to 0.75 μg/L of TBT, there was a decreasing trend in those exposed to TBT with a concentration of 7.5 μg/L. However, all the antioxidant enzymes activities were significantly inhibited in gill and muscle of fish exposed to higher TBT concentrations (0.75 and 7.5 μg/L). Moreover, there was significant lower Na-K-ATPase in three tissues after long-term exposure to higher concentration of TBT, but a significant higher Hsp70 protein levels was observed. In short, environmental concentrations of TBT could not induce obvious impacts on fish, but long-term exposure to higher concentrations of TBT could affect seriously the health status of fish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 937-944, 2016. PMID:25573135

  6. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  7. Effects of chronic exposure to tributyltin on tissue-specific cytochrome P450 1 regulation in juvenile common carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Mu, Wei-Na; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-06-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to compare tributyltin (TBT)-induced cytochrome P450 1 (CYP450 1) regulation in liver, gills and muscle of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 2. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 60 days. CYP450 1A was measured at the enzyme activity level as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C1 and CYP1C2) in fish tissues. 3. Based on the results, the liver displayed the highest absolute levels of EROD activity, both under nonexposed and exposed conditions. Additional, EROD activities and CYP1A gene levels showed a good correlation in all three organs. According to the mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes, it suggested that CYP1A was to accommodate most EROD activity in fish, but other CYP450 forms also involved in this proceeding. 4. Overall, the study revealed both similarities and differences in the concentration-dependent CYP450 1 responses of the three target organs, which could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:26446983

  8. Temporal changes in lipid condition and parasitic infection by digenean metacercariae of young-of-year common sole Solea solea (L.) in an Atlantic nursery ground (Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durieux, Eric D. H.; Galois, Robert; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Sasal, Pierre; Lagardère, Françoise

    2007-02-01

    Little attention has been paid to flatfish parasitism as a potential factor of variation in year-class strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between parasitic infection and nutritional condition of young-of-year (YOY) common sole. Sole were collected monthly from May (early settlement) to November 2004 in a mussel pole culture area, using a push-net or a trawl, and dissected for parasite identification and counts. Total lipids were extracted from the whole body and lipid classes quantified. Triacylglycerols to sterols (free form) ratio (TAG/ST) was used as an index of nutritional status. Digenean metacercariae infection, characterized by two dominant genera, displayed clear seasonal dynamics and the highest records yet reported for sole. Prevalence (P%) and mean abundance (Ab ± SE) increased for Timoniella spp. (Acanthostomidae) from May (P% = 22%; Ab = 1.9 ± 1.1) to August (P% = 100%; Ab = 51.2 ± 10.4), and for Prosorhynchus spp. (Bucephalidae) from June (P% = 8%; Ab = 0.1 ± 0.0) to August (P% = 100%; Ab = 19.5 ± 1.7). Epidemiological values reached a plateau after August. In this shellfish-dominated nursery area, YOY sole accumulated metacercariae in the presence of the first intermediate hosts which live in the same habitat. Total lipids decreased significantly from May to June and then remained constant until autumn, indicating a change in the proximate composition of YOY during this high growth period. Mean (± SD) TAG/ST ratio increased from very low values in May-July (0.10 on average) to a peak in September (0.57 ± 0.31) and then fell back to values as low as before. YOY sole only stored energy as TAG prior to autumn. No relationship was found between YOY parasitic infection levels and lipid condition indices. However, the poor nutritional status and heavy infection level observed in November could dramatically lower over-winter survival of the YOY remaining in this shallow part of the nursery.

  9. In- and outdoor reproduction of first generation common sole Solea solea under a natural photothermal regime: Temporal progression of sexual maturation assessed by monitoring plasma steroids and gonadotropin mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Palstra, A P; Blok, M C; Kals, J; Blom, E; Tuinhof-Koelma, N; Dirks, R P; Forlenza, M; Blonk, R J W

    2015-09-15

    Reproduction of many temperate fishes is seasonal and maturation and spawning of gametes are under photothermal control. Reproductive success of first generation (G1) common sole Solea solea in captivity has been low. In this study, the sexual maturation status has been assessed during the prespawning months in G1 sole that were housed (a) outdoor under the natural photoperiod and temperature, or (b) indoor under artificial photothermal induction. Maturation was assessed in male and female G1 broodstock in November as controls, after which the remaining population was divided over two outdoor flow-through tanks placed in a pond and two indoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) tanks. Subsequently, maturation status (gonadosomatic index GSI and plasma levels of testosterone T and 17β-estradiol E2) was assessed in one tank for each condition in January, February and during spawning in early April, while fish in the other tank were not disturbed in achieving reproductive success. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine species-specific gonadotropin mRNA expression in females. Successful G1 spawning and egg fertilisation occurred in all experimental tanks. Gonadal development was similar under both conditions. Higher E2 and T levels were found in indoor housed females. Gonadotropin expression revealed similar profiles between outdoor and indoor housed females. G1 sole could be reproduced in the outdoor tanks under the natural photoperiod and in the indoor tanks under artificial simulation of this regime that includes a potentially crucial chilling period of 2-3 months at 5-7 °C. PMID:25583580

  10. The role of structuring benthos for juvenile flatfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaut, M.; Audfroid Calderón, M.; Van de Moortel, L.; van Dalfsen, J.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.; Desroy, N.

    2013-11-01

    Within coastal nurseries, the distribution of juvenile flatfish may depend on small-scale habitat variability. The presence of ecosystem engineers is known to have important impacts in coastal sediments. Lanice conchilega is a well-known marine ecosystem engineer of shallow soft bottom ecosystems, shaping the macrobenthic community and attracting flatfish. The present study examines the relation between juvenile flatfish and L. conchilega reefs through two experiments. In a field experiment in the Dutch part of the North Sea, the benthic habitat is evaluated by comparing relative differences in numbers of juvenile flatfish between ecosystem engineered habitats and adjacent bare sand (i.e. non-ecosystem engineered) habitats. The hypothetical shelter seeking behaviour was further examined using stomach content analyses. Results show that juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa was the dominant species within the tube worm habitat and the species selects specifically for this biogenic habitat. This selection was explained as feeding behaviour. In a complementary laboratory study, food was excluded and the shelter function of the ecosystem engineered habitat was investigated. This experiment quantifies the selection for this habitat by juveniles of the common sole Solea solea. Results from the flume experiment, manipulating the number of tube worms, show that distribution of sole was not random when current velocities are high. The selected habitat is the one with low density tube worm aggregations. Overall, we conclude that structuring benthos plays an important role for juvenile flatfish, both as refuge and as feeding ground.

  11. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    presence of MP, the negative effect caused by high concentrations of Cr(VI) on the predatory performance was significantly reduced in L-est fish but not in M-est fish, and Cr(VI) concentrations higher than 3.9mg/l caused oxidative damage in L-est fish but not in M-est fish. The acclimatization and test conditions were similar for fish from the two estuaries and these ecosystems have environmental differences. Thus, long-term exposure to distinct environmental conditions in the natural habitat during previous developmental phases influenced the sensitivity and responses of juveniles to Cr(VI), therefore, we rejected hypothesis 3. Overall, the results of this study indicate toxicological interactions between MP and Cr(VI) highlighting the importance of further investigating the combined effects of MP and other common contaminants. PMID:26004740

  12. Dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Rairakhwada, Dina; Pal, A K; Bhathena, Z P; Sahu, N P; Jha, A; Mukherjee, S C

    2007-05-01

    A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p<0.05) enhanced in the T(3) group, though the total leucocyte counts, total protein and A/G ratio did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) when compared with the control group. The respiratory burst activity (NBT) of blood phagocytes and lysozyme activity was also highest in T(3) group. The relative survival percentage after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila was highest (100%) in the T(3) group followed by 83.33% and 66.67% in the T(2) and T(4) groups, respectively. This suggests that microbial levan at 0.5% can be used as a dietary immunostimulant for C. carpio juveniles. This is the first report on microbial levan having an immunomodulatory effect on C. carpio. PMID:17158064

  13. Investigations into the effects of concentration and duration of exposure to formalin and malachite green on the survival of the larvae and juveniles of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell).

    PubMed

    Theron, J; Prinsloo, J F; Schoonbee, H J

    1991-12-01

    Prophylactic dip treatments using formalin and malachite green were applied to 4-day old larvae and 12- and 20-day old juveniles of the European common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Treatments consisted of 100 mg/l malachite green for exposure periods of 10, 30 or 90 s and 200 mg/l formalin, administered for 30, 60 or 90 min. Larvae and juveniles of C. gariepinus could be treated with 100 mg/l malachite green for 10 s, or with 200 mg/l formalin for 30 min, with minimum mortalities. Both chemicals affected the survival of the C. gariepinus juveniles, especially the 90 min exposure to formalin. Juveniles of both species were extremely sensitive to 100 mg/l malachite green concentrations. PMID:1780124

  14. SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER BOUNDARY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 7 polygons representing 6 individual sole source aquifer boundaries and one streamflow source area in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Various efforts were combined to create the final product, which represents the Federal Register boundary description. Sole source aqu...

  15. Juvenile Spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile spondyloarthropathies represent a clinical entity separate from the adult disease. Initial clinical signs of juvenile spondyloarthropathies often include lower extremity arthritis and enthesopathy, without axial involvement at the disease onset. Asymmetrical oligoarthritis of lower extremities is typically seen in this type of arthritis. Enthesopathy, which is the hallmark of the disease, is most commonly seen in the Achilles tendon, being manifested by heel pain. Anterior uveitis and HLA-B27 positivity are seen in a proportion of cases. Sacroiliitis is generally asymptomatic in the pediatric population. Ineffective treatment of childhood disease results in disease progression to typical adult form of ankylosing spondylitis. Therefore, early diagnosis and classification remains one of the most relevant questions in pediatric rheumatology. It should be kept in mind that the disease could be misdiagnosed as FMF or Behçet's syndrome in countries with a high incidence of those conditions. This review revises available classification criteria, clinical manifestations and therapeutic options for patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies. PMID:27402112

  16. Responses of the hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense system and related gene expression in juvenile common carp after chronic treatment with tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-04-01

    Recently, residual organotin compounds have generally been recognised as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the effects of these contaminants on the glutathione (GSH)-antioxidant system of fishes have not been adequately studied. In the current study, the chronic effects of tributyltin (TBT) found within antifouling paints for ships, on the GSH antioxidant system and related gene expression in the liver of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30 and 60 days. GSH levels and GSH-related enzymes activities, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were quantified in the fish liver. The levels of malondialdehyde were also measured as a marker of oxidative damage. In addition, the expression levels of gstp1, gr and gpx1 in common carp chronically exposed to TBT were determined. The results of the current study indicate that chronic exposure of TBT results in reactive oxygen species stress in the liver of common carp, and mRNA expression levels are more sensitive than related enzyme levels. In short, the measured GSH-related indices could potentially be used as molecular indicators for monitoring organotin compounds in the aquatic environment. PMID:25582114

  17. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  18. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning. PMID:25418553

  19. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  20. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  1. [Juvenile arthritides].

    PubMed

    Horneff, G

    2010-10-01

    Arthritis in children represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The diagnostic spectrum is broad and a very precise indication for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, especially in small children, is important. In addition to acute arthritides - viral arthritis, reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis and septic arthritis - secondary chronic arthritis related to an underlying disease as well as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common chronic inflammatory systemic disease in children, need to be considered. This overview is a guide to the diagnosis of arthritis in childhood and to evidence-based therapy of JIA in particular. This consists of a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic and intraarticular corticosteroids, traditional DMARDs such as sulfasalazine, methotrexate and leflunomide, the TNF inhibitors etanercept, adalimumab and, with restrictions, infliximab, other biopharmaceuticals such as anakinra, canakinumab and rilonacept, and tocilizumab and finally, abatacept. PMID:20798949

  2. Juvenile Crime. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, A. E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explores many aspects of juvenile crime. It is a commonly held view that the number of crimes committed by juveniles is…

  3. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  4. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness. PMID:25463733

  5. Juvenile Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  7. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  8. EPA - NEW ENGLAND SOLE SOURCE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the ...

  9. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  10. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  11. Development of polycystic kidney disease in juvenile cystic kidney mice: insights into pathogenesis, ciliary abnormalities, and common features with human disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurie A; Bukanov, Nikolay O; Husson, Hervé; Russo, Ryan J; Barry, Tiffany C; Taylor, Ava L; Beier, David R; Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya, Oxana

    2006-10-01

    Significant progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been made in recent years. Translating this understanding into effective therapeutics will require testing in animal models that closely resemble human PKD by multiple parameters. Similar to autosomal dominant PKD, juvenile cystic kidney (jck) mice develop cysts in multiple nephron segments, including cortical collecting ducts, distal tubules, and loop of Henle. The jck mice display gender dimorphism in kidney disease progression with more aggressive disease in male mice. Gonadectomy experiments show that testosterone aggravates the severity of the disease in jck male mice, while female gonadal hormones have protective effects. EGF receptor is overexpressed and mislocalized in jck cystic epithelia, a hallmark of human disease. Increased cAMP levels in jck kidneys and activation of the B-Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway are demonstrated. The effect of jck mutation on the expression of Nek8, a NIMA-related (never in mitosis A) kinase, and polycystins in jck cilia is shown for the first time. Nek8 overexpression and loss of ciliary localization in jck epithelia are accompanied by enhanced expression of polycystins along the cilia. The primary cilia in jck kidneys are significantly more lengthened than the cilia in wild-type mice, suggesting a role for Nek8 in controlling ciliary length. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the jck mice should be useful for testing potential therapies and for studying the molecular mechanisms that link ciliary structure/function and cystogenesis. PMID:16928806

  12. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve five or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  13. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  14. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  15. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Juvenile Arrests 1996. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    In 1996, law enforcement agencies in the United States made an estimated 2.9 million arrests of persons under the age of 18. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) figures, juveniles accounted for 19% of all arrests and 19% of all violent crime in 1996. The substantial growth in juvenile crime that began in the late 1980s peaked in…

  17. Juvenile Arrests, 1999. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin presents a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data for 1999. Data come from the FBI's annual "Crime in the United States" report, which offers the estimated number of crimes reported to law enforcement agencies. The 1999 murder rate was the lowest since 1966. Of the nearly 1,800 juveniles murdered in 1999, 33…

  18. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  19. Juvenile Arrests, 2000. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…

  20. Juvenile Arrests, 1998. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.

    This report provides a summary and analysis of national and state juvenile arrest data in the United States. In 1998, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 2.6 million arrests of persons under age 18. Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics indicate that juveniles account for 18% of all arrests, and 17% of all violent crime arrests in…

  1. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Secretary of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy § 700.311 Sole responsibilities. (a) The Office of the Secretary...

  2. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Secretary of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy § 700.311 Sole responsibilities. (a) The Office of the Secretary...

  3. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Secretary of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy § 700.311 Sole responsibilities. (a) The Office of the Secretary...

  4. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Secretary of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy § 700.311 Sole responsibilities. (a) The Office of the Secretary...

  5. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Secretary of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy § 700.311 Sole responsibilities. (a) The Office of the Secretary...

  6. NORTHERN GUAM SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER- DESIGNATED AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern Guam Sole Source Aquifer Designated Area: In the Territory of Guam, entirely contained within the island of Guam. Specifically, that area within the coastal boundary defined by the line of Mean High water and north of the Adelup-Pago fault, plus some area south of the f...

  7. Juveniles in court.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Matthew F; Scott, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Nineteenth-century American reformers were concerned about the influence of immaturity and development in juvenile offenses. They responded to their delinquent youths through the creation of juvenile courts. This early American juvenile justice system sought to treat children as different from adults and to rehabilitate wayward youths through the state's assumption of a parental role. Although these rehabilitative goals were never fully realized, the field of American child psychiatry was spawned from these efforts on behalf of delinquent youths. Early child psychiatrists began by caring for juvenile offenders. The function of a child psychiatrist with juvenile delinquents expanded beyond strictly rehabilitation, however, as juvenile courts evolved to resemble criminal adult courts-due to landmark Supreme Court decisions and also juvenile legislation between 1966 and 1975. In response to dramatically increased juvenile violence and delinquency rates in the 1980s, juvenile justice became more retributional, and society was forced to confront issues such as capital punishment for juveniles, their transfer to adult courts, and their competency to stand trial. In the modern juvenile court, child psychiatrists are often asked to participate in the consideration of such issues because of their expertise in development. In that context we review the role of psychiatrists in assisting juvenile courts. PMID:21080770

  8. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  9. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  10. Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin in Refractory Juvenile Dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    de Inocencio, Jaime; Enríquez-Merayo, Eugenia; Casado, Rocío; González-Granado, Luis Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. We report a child with steroid-dependent JDM refractory to hydroxychloroquine and subcutaneous methotrexate who experienced systemic reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin and was successfully treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin. This form of therapy has been shown to be safe, has a very low rate of adverse effects, does not require hospital admission, reduces the number of missed school days, and decreases the costs associated with treatment. PMID:26966131

  11. Chronic sole ulcerations associated with degenerative bone disease in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Luikart, Kimberly A; Stover, Susan M

    2005-12-01

    Chronic foot lesions and degenerative joint disease are common causes of morbidity in elephants. Lesions may become intractable and progressive despite intensive treatment regimens. The forelimbs of two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with chronic nonhealing sole ulcerations were examined using manual dissection and computed tomography. Both elephants had abnormal limb conformation that preceded the development of sole ulcerations. In both cases, sole ulcers were associated with remodeling and degeneration of underlying bones of the digits. Conformational abnormalities and altered weight distribution in these individuals may have induced compensatory bony degeneration and secondary ulcer formation. Sole ulcerations associated with digital abnormalities may have a guarded prognosis for resolution, even with aggressive treatment. Because limb conformational abnormalities could predispose to or result from chronic digital lesions, elephants with conformational abnormalities may have increased likelihood of having chronic sole ulcerations. PMID:17312727

  12. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Makhasana, Jashika Adil Shroff; Kulkarni, Meena A; Vaze, Suhas; Shroff, Adil Sarosh

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumor arising predominantly in the nasopharynx of adolescent males. It is an aggressive neoplasm and shows a propensity for destructive local spread often extending to the base of the skull and into the cranium. Clinically, however, it is obscure with painless, progressive unilateral nasal obstruction being the common presenting symptom with or without epistaxis and rhinorrhea. Diagnosis of JNA is made by complete history, clinical examination, radiography, nasal endoscopy and by using specialized imaging techniques such as arteriography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathology reveals a fibrocellular stroma with spindle cells and haphazard arrangement of collagen interspersed with an irregular vascular pattern. A case report of JNA with rare intra-oral manifestation in a 17-year-old male patient is presented in the article. JNA being an aggressive tumor may recur posttreatment. Thus, early diagnosis, accurate staging, and adequate treatment are essential in the management of this lesion. PMID:27601836

  13. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Makhasana, Jashika Adil Shroff; Kulkarni, Meena A; Vaze, Suhas; Shroff, Adil Sarosh

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumor arising predominantly in the nasopharynx of adolescent males. It is an aggressive neoplasm and shows a propensity for destructive local spread often extending to the base of the skull and into the cranium. Clinically, however, it is obscure with painless, progressive unilateral nasal obstruction being the common presenting symptom with or without epistaxis and rhinorrhea. Diagnosis of JNA is made by complete history, clinical examination, radiography, nasal endoscopy and by using specialized imaging techniques such as arteriography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathology reveals a fibrocellular stroma with spindle cells and haphazard arrangement of collagen interspersed with an irregular vascular pattern. A case report of JNA with rare intra-oral manifestation in a 17-year-old male patient is presented in the article. JNA being an aggressive tumor may recur posttreatment. Thus, early diagnosis, accurate staging, and adequate treatment are essential in the management of this lesion. PMID:27601836

  14. Impact of climate and hydrodynamics on sole larval immigration towards the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2007-12-01

    Spawning grounds of the soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, are distant from the estuarine nurseries where juveniles concentrate. Recruitment of these species is highly dependent on the success of the larval migration towards the inshore nursery grounds. Unfavourable climate and hydrodynamic circulation may lead to high mortality rates at this stage. The relation between river drainage, NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity over the three months prior to the end of the estuarine colonization and the densities of S. solea and S. senegalensis in the nursery grounds were investigated for both species based on a discontinuous historical dataset (from 1988 to 2006) for the Tagus estuary. Multiple linear regression models were developed for sole density and environmental data (separately for each species). Results showed that river drainage is positively correlated with juveniles' densities of both species, possibly due to the existence of chemical cues used by larvae for movement orientation. NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity relations with soles densities were non-significant. It was concluded that the high complexity of the Portuguese upwelling system makes it hard to detect causal relations of the environmental variables tested. The importance of river flow for coastal ecosystems was stressed. Since climate change scenarios predict a strong decrease in rain fall over the Portuguese river basins, as well as a concentrated period of heavy rain in winter, it was hypothesised that future river drainage decrease over much of the year may lead to lower recruitment success for soles, especially for S. senegalensis.

  15. Toward achieving global sole means radionavigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews tentative requirements for global, earth-referenced sole means of navigation systems with emphasis on integrity and availability. These requirements can be allocated to integrated navigation system architectures based on for instance GPS, GLONASS, VOR/DME, TACAN, Omega, Chayka, and Loran-C. Fault detection and isolation techniques (FDI) for integrated radio navigation systems are presented. The FDI algorithm provides a protection radius with a specified confidence level as a function of measurement geometry and algorithm requirements. This is followed by a case study of integrated GPS/Loran-C.

  16. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  17. Juvenile Courts and Public Schools in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernsey, Carl E.

    This paper calls for a coordinated effort of the public, the juvenile court system, and the schools to alleviate juvenile problems in the 1980s. The following needs are discussed and deemed necessary to this common effort: to identify the problem child at the earliest possible stage; to develop new approaches to the challenge of the child advocate…

  18. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Listonella anguillarum of diseased half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Li; Zhan, Wenbin

    2008-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther juveniles in a fish farm in Jimo, Shandong Province, China, in June 2006. Gross signs of the diseased tongue sole included several petechiae and ecchymoses on the body and fin necrosis and hemorrhagic lesion at the base of the fin. Bacteria were isolated from kidney, liver and hemorrhagic lesions of the diseased tongue sole. Among14 strains, SJ060621 was proved to be highly virulent to juvenile tongue sole with LD50 value of <1.0×105 colony forming units (CFU) mL-1, while the remaining 13 were avirulent. Among the 16 antibiotics tested, SJ060621 was sensitive to gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. It was identified as Listonella anguillarum with conventional plate and tube tests in combination with API 20E analysis. 16S rRNA gene and partial HSP60 gene sequenceing analysis revealed that the strain was highly homologous with L. anguillarum. Examination of the infected musculature by electron microscopy indicated numerous bacteria and lots of macrophages containing phagocytosed bacteria. Histopathological investigations revealed severe necrotic degenerative changes in the infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was employed to detect the location of occurrence of bacteria, and bacteria were found in aggregations in the inflammatory areas in musculature.

  19. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  20. Helpful Juvenile Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive, research-based rationale for rejecting "get-tough," punitive approaches to juvenile detention and implementing "helpful programs" in detention settings instead. Offers a review of the information that explains why and how juvenile detention should be a first step in the treatment of young offenders, rather than simply a…

  1. Standards for Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flicker, Barbara

    1977-01-01

    The Juvenile Justice Standards Project at New York University has proposed a plan to restructure family court procedure. These standards, outlined here by a former project director, cover significant aspects of the relationship of juveniles to social institutions. (Editor/RK)

  2. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Yagnik, Vipul D.

    2011-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:24765310

  3. Guide to Juvenile Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Anne L., Ed.

    This guide is designed to assist programs in developing, expanding, or improving restitution activities for juvenile offenders. The guide is divided into five major sections. Part I focuses on the most fundamental decisions for restitution programs: program philosophy and goals, organizational structure, location within the juvenile justice…

  4. Juvenile Firesetter Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Jessica

    This handbook is designed to teach communities how to develop an effective juvenile firesetter intervention program. The six chapters of this handbook can be viewed as the six building blocks essential to construct a successful program. The cornerstone of the blueprint is understanding the personality profiles of juvenile firesetters and their…

  5. Juvenile Delinquency in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Irving, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Contains nine articles which describe the causes and treatment of juvenile delinquency in China. Focuses on the social causes of delinquency, family factors shaping juvenile crimes and mistakes, criminal peer groups, psychological factors related to delinquency, and the role of education in prevention of delinquency. (JDH)

  6. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  7. Pyelonephritis Caused Solely by Escherichia hermanii

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yan Qing; Xin, Bing; Sun, Shu Qing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In contrast with Escherichia coli, the association of E. hermanii with urinary tract infections has not been described. Case Presentation: In this case, E. hermanii was the sole isolate recovered from urine specimens of a pyelonephritis patient. The organism was found to be susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cefixime, aztreonam, gentamicin, tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem and amikacin, and resistant to amoxicillin. Antibiotic treatment was initiated with oral cefixime (400 mg every 24 hours). The symptoms were relieved within 72 hours after therapy. A urine sample was taken seven days after antibiotic therapy. E. hermanii was no longer isolated. Discussion: The present case demonstrates that the uropathogenic E. hermanii clone can cause destruction of the kidneys. During asymptomatic bacteriuria or cystitis, the bacteria remain in the urinary tract. Even when pyelonephritis develops, inflammatory response of the host is still restricted to the urinary tract. These signs mean that uropathogenic E. hermanii may be not very virulent. PMID:25147714

  8. Solely Penile Skin for Neovaginal Construction in Sex Reassignment Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sigurjonsson, Hannes; Rinder, Johan; Lindqvist, Ebba K.; Farnebo, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender reassignment surgery due to transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision: F64.0) is a procedure becoming increasingly common worldwide as a result of a significant increase in diagnostic incidence. Several methods have been described for this complex surgery, but no internationally agreed upon gold standard exists, in particular with regard to which methods allow for creating a sufficient neovaginal depth. Methods: We use a 2-stage technique using solely penile skin for creating a neovaginal cavity and present the long-term outcome in terms of measured neovaginal depth. Eighty patients were included. Patients’ neovaginal depth was measured in a standardized fashion 6 months or more after initial surgery. Results were compared with published data on female anatomy. Results: The average neovaginal depth achieved was 10.2 cm. Having had a postoperative complication and noncompliance to neovaginal dilatation were both negatively correlated with neovaginal depth, whereas higher body mass index was not. Most patients received a neovaginal depth sufficient for penetrative intercourse and within the range for biological women. Conclusions: Using solely penile skin for the vaginal lining is a satisfactory surgical method to achieve adequate vaginal depth, provided that the postoperative dilatation regimen is followed. This holds true regardless of age or body mass index. PMID:27482506

  9. Micro-anatomical characterization of vertebral curvatures in Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Cardeira, J; Mendes, A C; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Cancela, M L; Gavaia, P J

    2015-06-01

    The micro-anatomical changes associated with lordotic and kyphotic vertebral curvatures (VC) in juvenile and adult Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis are described. In addition, it is demonstrated that the tissue and cellular structures of individual vertebrae can be severely affected. Two main conformations were found in deformed juvenile specimens: flattened vertebrae with dorso-ventral compression and trapezoidal vertebrae forming concave and convex sides under compressive and tensile stresses. Histological analyses revealed the occurrence of an ectopic cartilaginous tissue within the acellular bone, both in juveniles and adults, possibly to cope with altered mechanical stress in deformed vertebrae. The results suggest that the alteration in loading to which curved vertebral columns are subjected might trigger vertebral reshaping and differentiation of cells towards this ectopic tissue. In addition, mesenchymal cells appear to play an important role in its formation. It is here proposed that the acellular bone of S. senegalensis is capable of adaptively responding to altered loading regimes at the structural level by reshaping vertebrae and at the micro-anatomical level by recruiting chondrocyte-like cells to areas of altered mechanical stress. PMID:25943303

  10. Spatial analysis of the trophic interactions between two juvenile fish species and their preys along a coastal-estuarine gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Dorothée; Le Bris, Hervé; Grimaud, Lucille; Nérot, Caroline; Brind'Amour, Anik

    2013-08-01

    Coastal and estuarine systems provide nursery grounds for many marine fish species. Their productivity has been correlated with terrigeneous inputs entering the coastal-estuarine benthic food web, thereby favouring the establishment of fish juveniles. Studies in these ecosystems often describe the nursery as a single large habitat without verifying nor considering the presence of contiguous habitats. Our study aimed at identifying different habitats based on macrozoobenthic communities and morpho-sedimentary characteristics and assessing the trophic interactions between fish juveniles and their benthic preys within these habitats. It included 43 sampling sites covering 5 habitats in which we described taxonomically and quantitatively the invertebrates and fish communities with stable isotopes and gut contents. It suggested that the benthic common sole Solea solea displayed feeding plasticity at the population level, separating the juveniles (G0) from the older fish (G1) into different "feeding sub-populations". Size-based feeding plasticity was also observable in the spatial occupancy of that species in the studied bay. The demersal pouting, Trisopterus luscus, equally used the different habitats but displayed low feeding plasticity across and inside each habitat. Stable isotopes proved to be powerful tools to study the spatial distribution of trophic interactions in complex ecosystems like the bay of Vilaine and to define optimal habitats for fish that use the coastal-estuarine ecosystem as nursery grounds.

  11. 48 CFR 18.115 - HUBZone sole source awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.115 HUBZone sole source awards. Contracts may be awarded to Historically Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone) small business concerns on a sole source basis. (See 19.1306.)...

  12. 25 CFR 140.1 - Sole power to appoint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sole power to appoint. 140.1 Section 140.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.1 Sole power to appoint. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall have the sole power and authority...

  13. Managing juvenile Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver W J; Nance, Martha A; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S; Smith, Jonathan A; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditional adult-onset HD. Nonetheless, the frequent predominance of bradykinesia and dystonia early in the course of the illness, more frequent occurrence of epilepsy and myoclonus, more widespread pathology, and larger genetic lesion means that the distinction is still relevant. In addition, the relative rarity of JHD means that the clinician managing the patient is often doing so for the first time. Management is, at best, symptomatic and supportive with few or no evidence-based guidelines. In this article, the authors will review what is known of the condition and present some suggestions based on their experience. PMID:24416077

  14. Juvenile Justice in California, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This publication provides an overview of the processing of juvenile delinquency cases through the California juvenile justice system; provides information to aid administrators, planners, and researchers in the administration of juvenile justice; and maintains baseline data for further studies of the system. Information on juvenile arrests and…

  15. The Intensive Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.; MacDonald, Scott; Murphy, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Intensive Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Program, a community-based, multi-agency, multimodal delinquency prevention program. Highlights how the six organizations involved in the program overcame three common barriers to interagency collaboration-funding, climate, and communication. (GCP)

  16. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively. PMID:25770892

  17. Vision loss in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN3 disease).

    PubMed

    Ouseph, Madhu M; Kleinman, Mark E; Wang, Qing Jun

    2016-05-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL; also known as CLN3 disease) is a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder and the most common form of Batten disease. Progressive visual and neurological symptoms lead to mortality in patients by the third decade. Although ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 3 (CLN3) has been identified as the sole disease gene, the biochemical and cellular bases of JNCL and the functions of CLN3 are yet to be fully understood. As severe ocular pathologies manifest early in disease progression, the retina is an ideal tissue to study in the efforts to unravel disease etiology and design therapeutics. There are significant discrepancies in the ocular phenotypes between human JNCL and existing murine models, impeding investigations on the sequence of events occurring during the progression of vision impairment. This review focuses on current understanding of vision loss in JNCL and discusses future research directions toward molecular dissection of the pathogenesis of the disease and associated vision problems in order to ultimately improve the quality of patient life and cure the disease. PMID:26748992

  18. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  19. Polyneuropathy in juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Vogelgesang, S A; Gutierrez, J; Klipple, G L; Katona, I M

    1995-07-01

    We describe 2 patients in whom juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) was associated with well defined clinical polyneuropathies, and review the clinical and serological data. Light and electron microscopy were used to study muscle and nerve tissues from one patient. Neuropathy in our patients was associated with ulcerative skin lesions and elevated serum levels of factor VIII related antigen. Light microscopic studies of muscle revealed perifascicular atrophy and microinfarcts consistent with juvenile DM. Light microscopy of the affected sural nerve showed axonal degeneration. Electron microscopy of the same nerve demonstrated capillary endothelial inclusions characteristic of those observed as manifestations of early endothelial injury in juvenile DM muscle tissue. Polyneuropathy in patients with juvenile DM is a rare complication and is likely due to ischemia secondary to endothelial damage. PMID:7562774

  20. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    PubMed

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel. PMID:24933176

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile polyposis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... In the third type, known as juvenile polyposis coli, affected individuals develop polyps only in their colon. People with generalized juvenile polyposis and juvenile polyposis coli typically develop polyps during childhood. Most juvenile polyps ...

  2. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system. PMID:26548359

  3. Smart sensing of cardiovascular physiological information from soles without direct skin contact.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuuki; Nambu, Masayuki; Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes the development of a smart sensing measurement system using a mat-type sensor in order to obtain sole-electrocardiogram data from soles and toe-photoplethysmogram data from toes. In addition, the proposed measurement system can calculate pulse wave velocity from sole-ECG and toe-PPG. The subjective experiments revealed that the developed system can measure these parameters even when socks are being worn. Moreover, simultaneous measurements of systolic blood pressure and PWV determined by the developed system indicate a strong correlation was found between SBP and PWV. Therefore, this system can detect cardiovascular diseases or symptoms of common diseases and suggests the possibility to estimate the temporal changes in SBP without required compression using cuffs. PMID:23367249

  4. A comparison of the effects of floor mats and shoe in-soles on standing fatigue.

    PubMed

    King, Phyllis M

    2002-09-01

    In assembly line positions and other occupations, employees experience pain and discomfort associated with long periods of standing. Modifying flooring is a common intervention method used to alleviate problems associated with constrained standing. This study investigated the effects of four different standing conditions upon assembly workers' perception of general fatigue and discomfort associated with various body parts following 1 week of 8-h days of exposure to each condition. The four standing conditions were (1) on hard floor, (2) on a floor mat, (3) wearing shoe in-soles, and (4) wearing shoe in-soles while standing on a floor mat. Questions were asked regarding general fatigue and discomfort. In general, the mat, in-soles and combined conditions were more comfortable than standing on hard floor. Moderately strong correlations were found for the variables of height, age and job tenure. Shorter individuals experienced greater discomfort in the upper leg and low back when standing on a mat and when wearing in-soles. The older workers and those with more job seniority reported greater discomfort associated with body joints when standing on the hard floor and when standing on the floor mat. No significant differences in fatigue or discomfort were found when comparing the overall effects of using the floor mat to wearing the shoe in-soles or the combined condition. PMID:12236657

  5. Epidemiology of juvenile violence.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D P; Loeber, R

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to review the epidemiology of juvenile violence because few studies focus specifically on this topic as opposed to childhood aggression or delinquency in general. More research is needed specifically on juvenile violence, which is generally measured using official records or self-reports. Self-report research shows that a substantial fraction of the male juvenile population commits violence, and that very few violent acts are followed by arrests or convictions. Racial differences in violence may be explainable by reference to racial differences in community contexts. There is a great deal of versatility in juvenile violence. Juveniles who commit one type of violent offense also tend to commit other types and nonviolent offenses. Violent offenders tend to be persistent or frequent offenders, and there is little difference between violent offenders and nonviolent but equally frequent offenders. Nevertheless, there is some degree of specialization in violence. More research is needed to investigate whether risk factors exist for violence that are not risk factors for serious nonviolent delinquency (e.g., biologic factors). Violent juveniles tend to have co-occurring problems such as victimization, substance abuse, and school failure. Often, they might be described as multiple-problem youth. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to juvenile violence. An early age of onset of violence predicts a large number of violent offenses. The major long-term risk factors for juvenile violence are individual (high impulsiveness and low intelligence, possibly linked to the executive functions of the brain), family (poor supervision, harsh discipline, child physical abuse, a violent parent, large family size, poverty, a broken family), peer delinquency, gang membership, urban residence, and living in a high-crime neighborhood (characterized by gangs, guns, and drugs in the United States). More research is needed on interactions among risk factors

  6. 48 CFR 619.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sole source. 619.811-1 Section 619.811-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.811-1 Sole source. (d) If the award is to be made...

  7. Purification and partial characterization of English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) vitellogenin.

    PubMed

    Roubal, W T; Lomax, D P; Willis, M L; Johnson, L L

    1997-11-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) was purified by double-step chromatography from plasma of male English sole treated with 17 beta-estradiol. The intact protein appeared to exist as a dimer in two forms of approximately 300 and 320 kDa and had an isoelectric point of 6.63. In SDS-PAGE, it was reduced to a single monomer of approximately 130 kDa. In immunoblotting, the protein showed cross-reactivity with coho salmon VTG antiserum. Native PAGE (sample not treated with the reducing agent mercaptoethanol) and immunoblotting of plasma from control and estradiol-treated male sole and gravid female sole demonstrated that the putative English sole VTG was normally female specific and estradiol inducible in males. It was immunocytochemically localized in liver and ovary of English sole, rock sole and starry flounder, using polyclonal antiserum to the purified protein from the estradiol-treated male English sole. The protein was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein by native PAGE, staining the gels for phosphorus with methyl green, for lipid with Sudan black B and for carbohydrate by an improved periodic-acid Fuchsin sulfite method. The amino acid composition of the putative VTG was generally similar to that of VTGs from other teleosts, with the non-polar amino acids alanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine accounting for one-third of the total amino acids present. However, English sole vitellogenin contained a higher proportion of leucine and a lower proportion of glycine than most other teleost vitellogenins isolated to date. PMID:9467873

  8. 48 CFR 19.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sole source. 19.811-1....811-1 Sole source. (a) The contract to be awarded by the agency to the SBA shall be prepared in... authority for use of other than full and open competition. (2) Appropriate clauses shall be included,...

  9. 48 CFR 19.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sole source. 19.811-1....811-1 Sole source. (a) The contract to be awarded by the agency to the SBA shall be prepared in... authority for use of other than full and open competition. (2) Appropriate clauses shall be included,...

  10. 48 CFR 19.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sole source. 19.811-1....811-1 Sole source. (a) The contract to be awarded by the agency to the SBA shall be prepared in... authority for use of other than full and open competition. (2) Appropriate clauses shall be included,...

  11. Sole parenthood and the risk of child pedestrian injury.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1994-12-01

    Children of sole parents have the worst mortality record of all social groups. Road vehicle related injuries account for a large part of their excess mortality. In this case-control study the association between sole parent status and the risk of child pedestrian injury was examined. Cases (n = 258) were children killed or hospitalized as a result of a pedestrian injury in the Auckland region over a period of 2 years and 2 months. Controls were a random sample of the child population. The children of sole parents were at a significantly increased risk of injury (odds ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 2.27). However, there was a striking difference in the effect of sole parent status according to ethnic group. Among European families, sole parenthood was associated with a greatly increased risk of injury (OR = 3.13; 95%CI 1.84, 5.31), whereas in Pacific Island families sole parenthood was associated with a significant protective effect (OR = 0.40; 95%CI 0.18, 0.89). The protective effect of sole parent status in Pacific Island families may reflect the beneficial effects of the social support provided by extended family networks. Children of sole parents in the context of the nuclear family may be particularly vulnerable. PMID:7865268

  12. Performatively Queer: Sole Parent Postgraduates in the Australian Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on research that considers how gender and agency influence the engagement of sole parent postgraduates within the Australian academy. I argue that parental care responsibilities critically influence participation in higher education for sole parents. I suggest that the gendered construct of caring for children is a feminine…

  13. 40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engines used solely for competition... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.620 Engines used solely for competition. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engines used solely for competition... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.620 Engines used solely for competition. The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engines used solely for competition... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.620 Engines used solely for competition. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engines used solely for competition... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.620 Engines used solely for competition. The provisions of...

  17. 48 CFR 19.808-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sole source. 19.808-1 Section 19.808-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808-1 Sole source. (a) The SBA is responsible for initiating negotiations with the agency within...

  18. 48 CFR 19.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sole source. 19.811-1....811-1 Sole source. (a) The contract to be awarded by the agency to the SBA shall be prepared in... information in paragraphs (b) (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection. Appropriate blocks on the Standard...

  19. 48 CFR 19.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sole source. 19.811-1....811-1 Sole source. (a) The contract to be awarded by the agency to the SBA shall be prepared in... information in paragraphs (b) (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection. Appropriate blocks on the Standard...

  20. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  1. Juvenile crime and criminal justice: resolving border disputes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal architecture of the new boundary-drawing regime and how effective it has been in reducing crime. The juvenile court, Fagan emphasizes, has always had the power to transfer juveniles to the criminal court. Transfer decisions were made individually by judges who weighed the competing interests of public safety and the possibility of rehabilitating young offenders. This authority has now been usurped by legislators and prosecutors. The recent changes in state law have moved large numbers of juveniles into the adult system. As many as 25 percent of all juvenile offenders younger than eighteen, says Fagan, are now prosecuted in adult court. Many live in states where the age boundary between juvenile and criminal court has been lowered to sixteen or seventeen. The key policy question is: do these new transfer laws reduce crime? In examining the research evidence, Fagan finds that rates of juvenile offending are not lower in states where it is relatively more common to try adolescents as adults. Likewise, juveniles who have been tried as adults are no less likely to re-offend than their counterparts who have been tried as juveniles. Treating juveniles as adult criminals, Fagan concludes, is not effective as a means of crime control. Fagan argues that the proliferation of transfer regimes over the past several decades calls into question the very rationale for a juvenile court. Transferring adolescent offenders to the criminal court exposes them to harsh and sometimes toxic forms of punishment that have the perverse effect of increasing criminal activity. The accumulating evidence on transfer, the recent decrease in serious juvenile

  2. Occult infarct with acute hemorrhagic stroke in juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Alex Mun-Ching; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the common complications of type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neurological deterioration during an episode of DKA is usually assumed to be caused by cerebral edema and cerebral vascular accidents. However, hemorrhagic stroke is a very rare complication of juvenile DKA. We describe a girl who had newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with juvenile DKA developed intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:17629647

  3. Influence of temperature on Betanodavirus infection in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Souto, Sandra; Olveira, Jose G; Bandín, Isabel

    2015-09-30

    In this study Senegalese sole juveniles were experimentally infected with a reassortant Betanodavirus strain at three different temperatures: 22 °C, 18 °C and 16 °C by bath challenge and cohabitation. The results obtained showed that virus virulence decreased by reducing the water temperature. At 22 °C mortalities reached 100%, at 18 °C they ranged from 75 to 80% and at 16 °C only 8% of the fish died. In addition, horizontal transmission was demonstrated regardless of the rearing temperature. At 16 °C active viral replication was detected up to 66 days post-infection, but no signs of the disease were observed and only a very low level of mortality was recorded. The increase in water temperature from 16 to 22 °C caused a quick rise in the viral load and a subsequent outbreak of mortalities. These findings demonstrate that this reassortant Betanodavirus strain can cause a persistent infection in Senegalese sole at low temperatures (16 °C) for long periods of time, and when temperature increases the virus is able to trigger an acute infection and provoke high mortalities. PMID:26187680

  4. Recruitment dynamics of metamorphosing English sole, Parophorys vetulus, to Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.; Mundy, Bruce C.

    1987-09-01

    English sole, Parophrys vetulus, spawn in shelf waters off the west coast of North America and early development occurs in coastal waters. Near metamorphosis, however, larvae recruit to nearshore and estuarine nursery areas, an uncommon life-history feature for a species in this region. Recruitment of larval P. vetulus to Yaquina Bay, Oregon, was sampled with moored nets on a weekly basis. Recruitment began during night flood tides in late February and was characterized by three peaks during the season. Planktonic recruitment continued into June, whereas benthic juveniles began to emigrate from the estuary in late May. The data suggest that two developmental stages of recruits immigrated to Yaquina Bay. The first are newly transforming larvae which enter the bay earliest within each peak of recruitment; peaks of abundance are related to onshore Ekman transport. This transport also brings larvae to shallow areas along the open coast where they settle. These transforming stages are still capable of pelagic swimming activity and continue to recruit to the estuary, typically swimming deeper in the water column than the early stages. Estuarine factors, particularly bottom salinity at the end of ebb tide, are most strongly correlated with recruitment of these stages. It seems that tidal stream transport is the primary mechanism used by English sole to recruit to the estuary, but the mechanism of locating the estuary and timing of entry is relatively complex.

  5. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.21(e)(3)(vi)(B) and Sec. 679.21(e... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish'' by Vessels Participating in the... ``other flatfish'' by vessels participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering...

  6. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  7. Treating the Juvenile Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D., Ed.; Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Boxer, Paul, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative, highly readable reference and text is grounded in the latest knowledge on how antisocial and criminal behavior develops in youth and how it can effectively be treated. Contributors describe proven ways to reduce juvenile delinquency by targeting specific risk factors and strengthening young people's personal, family, and…

  8. Latitudinal comparison of spawning season and growth of 0-group sole, Solea solea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Amara, R.; Maia, A.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    0-Group sole, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in four nursery grounds: two on the Northern French coast and two on the Portuguese coast. Juvenile sole were collected at the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1992, in the Authie estuary (Eastern English Channel) in 1997, and in the Douro and Tagus estuary (Northern and central Portugal, respectively) in 2005. Left lapilli otoliths were used to estimate age and investigate variability in growth rates and hatch dates. In the French study areas nursery colonisation ended in early June in the Vilaine estuary and in late June in the Authie estuary. In the Portuguese estuaries nursery colonisation ended in May in the Douro estuary and in late June in the Tagus estuary. Growth rates were higher in the Portuguese estuaries, 0.767 mm d -1 in the Tagus estuary and 0.903 mm d -1 in the Douro estuary. In the French nurseries, growth rates were estimated to be 0.473 mm d -1 in the Villaine estuary and 0.460 mm d -1 in the Authie estuary. Data on growth rates from other studies shows that growth rates are higher at lower latitudes, probably due to higher water temperature. Spawning took place between early January and early April in the Villaine estuary's coastal area in 1992. In 1997, in the Authie estuary spawning started in late January and ended in early April. On the Douro estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-January and ended in late March, in 2005, while on the Tagus estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-February and ended in mid-April, in the same year. Literature analysis of the spawning period of sole along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 38°N to 55°N in the Northeast Atlantic indicated that there is a latitudinal trend, in that spawning starts sooner at lower latitudes. Results support that local conditions, particularly hydrodynamics, may overrule general latitudinal trends.

  9. 48 CFR 2419.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sole source. 2419.811-1... Sole source. (e) If the award is to be made under the Partnership Agreement cited in 2419.800, the....C. 253(c)(5) and 15 U.S.C. 637(a) as the authority for use of other than full and open...

  10. 48 CFR 2419.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sole source. 2419.811-1... Sole source. (e) If the award is to be made under the Partnership Agreement cited in 2419.800, the....C. 253(c)(5) and 15 U.S.C. 637(a) as the authority for use of other than full and open...

  11. Papular granuloma annulare of palms and soles: case report of a rare presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Sonthalia, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old Indian male patient who presented with mildly tender isolated papular lesions confined to the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The histopathology was characteristic of granuloma annulare. There was an excellent response with 4-week treatment with a potent topical steroid ointment and no recurrence was reported at the follow-up one year later. This report is interesting because of the rare presentation of a common disease. PMID:24627801

  12. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded. PMID:7472737

  13. [Pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Hertzberger-ten Cate, R; Fiselier, T

    1991-10-01

    On basis of clinical and immunogenetic factors most children with pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis can be included in one of the subtypes: type 1 and type 2 pauciarticular JCA. Type 1 occurs in young children, mainly girls, with involvement of knees, ankles or elbows. In the majority of children antinuclear antibodies can be detected. The presence of these autoantibodies is associated with chronic anterior uveitis. Type 2 or the juvenile spondylarthropathies include morbus Bechterew, the reactive arthritides and arthritis associated with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Large joints of the lower extremities are involved, back pain is unusual at onset, but enthesitis is frequently present. There is a strong association with HLA-B27. Treatment of both subsets consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, application of intra-articular steroids, physio- and hydrotherapy and splinting. In children with a polyarticular course of type 1, or a prolonged course of type 2 disease modifying drugs are often needed. PMID:1957301

  14. [Juvenile psoriatic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shan; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xin-Ying; Liu, Dong-Ming; Liu, Xiang-Yuan

    2007-08-01

    A case of juvenile psoriatic arthritis in a 12 year-old boy was reported. The patient had a history of one and half a year of bilateral heel pain, followed by pain in the right knee and ankle and right hip joint. He developed psoriatic lesions affecting his nails and skin. He had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) contents. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27 was detected but serum rheumatoid factor was not in the patient. A skin biopsy revealed psoriasis and ultrasonography demonstrated synovitis in right knee and ankle. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis was diagnosed based on his physical, laboratory and skin biopsy findings. A treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and sulfasalazine produced no effect. Leflunomide in conjunction with anti-TNF biologic agents (Etanercept) was administered, followed by symptomatic improvement 2 weeks later. PMID:17706035

  15. Clinical presentations and outcomes of Filipino juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) varies by location and ethnicity. This study describes the clinical, laboratory profile and outcome of juvenile SLE seen at Philippine General Hospital (PGH) from 2004-2008. Method Medical charts of all Filipino Juvenile SLE cases admitted at PGH during the 5-year period were reviewed collecting demographic profile, clinical and laboratory manifestations and treatment during disease course. Results Seventy-eight cases of juvenile SLE were reviewed. There were 7 boys and 71 girls. The mean age at diagnosis was 14 years (SD 2.7) with a range of 8-18 years. Fever (52.5%) and malar rash (41.0%) were the most common features at disease onset. At the time of diagnosis, the most common features were malar rash (65.3%), renal involvement (62.8%) and photosensitivity (55.1%). Mucocutaneous (92.3%), renal (71.7%) and hematologic (69.2%) involvement were the most common features during the entire course of illness. Infection (34.5%) and neurologic (19.0%) complications were observed most frequently. Corticocosteroid treatment was given in most of the patients in the form of prednisone (97.4%) and concomitant methylprednisolone intravenous pulses (29.4%). Nine patients died during the study period. The overall 5-year mortality rate was 11.5%. Infection (77.0%) was the most frequent cause of death. Conclusion Malar rash was a common feature at disease onset and at diagnosis among Filipinos with juvenile SLE. Throughout the disease course, renal involvement occurs in 71.7% of patients. Infection was the leading cause of complication and death. The clinical presentations of Filipinos with juvenile SLE were similar to juvenile SLE in other countries. PMID:21306603

  16. Oman metamorphic sole formation reveals early subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Plunder, Alexis; Ildefonse, Benoît; Yamato, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500m thick tectonic slices welded beneath most of the large-scale ophiolites. They typically show a steep inverted metamorphic structure where the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization increase upward (from 500±100°C at 0.5±0.2 GPa to 800±100°C at 1.0±0.2 GPa), with isograds subparallel to the contact with the overlying ophiolitic peridotite. The proportion of mafic rocks in metamorphic soles also increases from the bottom (meta-sediments rich) to the top (approaching the ophiolite peridotites). These soles are interpreted as the result of heat transfer from the incipient mantle wedge toward the nascent slab (associated with large-scale fluid transfer and possible shear heating) during the first My of intra-oceanic subduction (as indicated by radiometric ages). Metamorphic soles provide therefore major constraints on early subduction dynamics (i.e., thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology along the nascent slab interface). We present a detailed structural and petrological study of the metamorphic sole from 4 major cross-sections along the Oman ophiolite. We show precise pressure-temperature estimates obtained by pseudosection modelling and EBSD measurements performed on both the garnet-bearing and garnet-free high-grade sole. Results allow quantification of the micro-scale deformation and highlight differences in pressure-temperature-deformation conditions between the 4 different locations, showing that the inverted metamorphic gradient through the sole is not continuous in all locations. Based on these new constraints, we suggest a new tectonic-petrological model for the formation of metamorphic soles below ophiolites. This model involves the stacking of several homogeneous slivers of oceanic crust leading to the present-day structure of the sole. In this view, these thrusts are the result of rheological contrasts between the sole and the peridotite as the plate interface progressively cools down

  17. Treatment for juveniles who sexually offend in a Southwestern state.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, Philip A; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H Elaine

    2009-11-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average success rate of 87%. The most commonly used approach was cognitive behavioral therapy with relapse prevention. The most common sexual offense was indecency with a child involving sexual contact, contrary to studies that found that in the Probation Commission data, aggravated sexual offense was the most common. These results have ramifications for state policies on treatment for juvenile sex offenders. PMID:20183420

  18. Histologic Examination of an Assemblage of Psittacosaurus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) Juveniles From the Yixian Formation (Liaoning, China).

    PubMed

    Bo, Zhao; Hedrick, Brandon P; Chunling, Gao; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R; Fengjiao, Zhang; Caizhi, Shen; Dodson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Psittacosaurus is one of the most abundant dinosaurs known, which allows for extensive study of its growth and form. Previous studies have evaluated growth trajectories of Psittacosaurus using bone histology. However, we present the first study of Psittacosaurus comparative juvenile histology and describe the histology of Psittacosaurus within its first year of life based on multiple sections taken from an exquisite monospecific assemblage of juveniles from the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, China. Specimens studied had femur lengths ranging from 30 to 36 mm. The five juveniles examined all have similar histologic patterns in the midshaft and epiphyseal regions showing that there is limited plasticity in bone development in juvenile Psittacosaurus and that all of the specimens in the assemblage were likely the same age. The microstructure patterns are compatible with the hypothesis that Psittacosaurus was precocial and that these juveniles were neonates. Based on comparisons with other juvenile ornithischians, juvenile Psittacosaurus had a growth rate similar to Orodromeus, slower than that of Maiasaura, Dysalotosaurus, or hadrosaurs consistent with small body size. Our results support previous studies that demonstrated that the orientation of vascular canals is likely not solely reflective of growth rate, but is also affected by underlying biomechanical, structural processes. The number of studies done on theropod and sauropodomorph histology dwarfs those of ornithischians. More studies of ornithischian histology are necessary in order to better establish phylogenetic trends in microstructure and to learn more about growth in this important clade. PMID:26864238

  19. Juvenile Spring Eruption: A Variant of Perniosis?

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Rosman, Ilana S; Sturza, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile spring eruption (JSE) is a unique condition that typically affects the helices of the ears of boys and young men. The classical clinical picture of JSE includes the abrupt onset of lesions after spending time outdoors in the early spring. Because of the papulovesicular nature of the rash and the history of sun exposure, JSE is considered a variant of polymorphous light eruption. In addition to the term "juvenile spring eruption," this entity has also been described under other less common terms such as "perniosis juvenilis vernalis aurium" or "spring perniosis," which emphasizes the onset in the spring and the possible pathogenic role of cold weather. We present a case of likely JSE with histopathologic features more consistent with perniosis than polymorphous light eruption and present a review the literature. PMID:26291421

  20. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  1. Juvenile Mentoring Program: A Progress Review. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotney, Laurence C.; Mertinko, Elizabeth; Lange, James; Baker, Tara Kelley

    The greatest support offered by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention for youth mentoring has been through the Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP), which provides one-to-one mentoring for youth at risk of delinquency, gang involvement, educational failure, or dropping out of school. Information on JUMP has been collected through…

  2. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  3. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. PMID:25902270

  4. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  5. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  6. Iatrogenic Effect of Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study uses data from a community sample of 779 low-SES boys to investigate whether intervention by the juvenile justice system is determined, at least in part, by particular individual, familial and social conditions, and whether intervention by the juvenile courts during adolescence increases involvement in adult crime.…

  7. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  8. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  9. Characterization of Malassezia microbiota in the human external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Makimura, Koichi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Of the fungal skin microbiota, the lipophilic yeast genus Malassezia predominates at all body sites. Of the members of this genus, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis are the most common on the face, limbs, and trunk. In the present study, the Malassezia microbiotas in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot were characterized. M. slooffiae was the most common species in both the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot, followed by M. restricta. Principal component analysis further revealed that the Malassezia microbiota in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot constitute a different cluster from those on the scalp and cheek and in the nasal cavity. Additionally, five new Malassezia phylotypes were detected on the sole of the foot and in the external auditory canal. Our results suggest that a distinctive Malassezia microbiota is present in the external auditory canal and on the sole of the foot, although the clinical significance of this finding remains unknown. PMID:22500932

  10. 48 CFR 619.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sole source. 619.811-1... source. (d) If the award is to be made under an MOU cited in 619.800, the contract to be awarded by the... and open competition. (2) The contracting officer shall insert FAR 52.219-14, Limitations...

  11. 48 CFR 619.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sole source. 619.811-1... source. (d) If the award is to be made under an MOU cited in 619.800, the contract to be awarded by the... and open competition. (2) The contracting officer shall insert FAR 52.219-14, Limitations...

  12. 48 CFR 619.811-1 - Sole source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sole source. 619.811-1... source. (d) If the award is to be made under an MOU cited in 619.800, the contract to be awarded by the... and open competition. (2) The contracting officer shall insert FAR 52.219-14, Limitations...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... set speed records are also considered racing events. Engines will not be considered to be used solely... exemption for that engine. (g) If we request it, you must provide us any information we need to...

  14. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  15. HYPEREOSINOPHILIC SYNDROME: CUTANEOUS INVOLVEMENT AS THE SOLE MANIFESTATION

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramurthi, Vidya lakshmi; Prabhavathy, D; Somasundaram, S V; Wahab, Afthab Jameela

    2011-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) encompasses a group of leukoproliferative disorders with variable involvement of the internal organs. More than half of all patients have cutaneous involvement. In a minority of the reported cases, skin involvement has been the only manifestation of HES . We report one such rare case of HES, with cutaneous involvement as the sole manifestation. PMID:21572808

  16. 42 CFR 412.92 - Special treatment: Sole community hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Sole community hospitals. 412.92 Section 412.92 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain Facilities Under the...

  17. Parental Postdivorce Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coysh, William S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined postdivorce adjustment of 149 men and 149 women with joint or sole physical custody of their children. Shared custody arrangements and access of parents to their children had no significant relationship to parents' postdivorce adjustment or relationships with their ex-spouses. Prior levels of individual functioning were indicators of…

  18. Children's Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined patterns of custody and their relationship to the behavioral-emotional and social adjustment of 93 children of 3-14 years of age. Found no evidence that joint physical custody arrangements differ from sole physical custody arrangements with regard to postdivorce child adjustment. (RH)

  19. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  20. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent). PMID:26793812

  1. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  2. Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…

  3. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  4. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  5. The community structure of over-wintering larval and small juvenile fish in a large estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, Peter; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Casini, Michele; Rudolphi, Ann-Christin

    2014-02-01

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat are estuarine straits of high hydrographical and ecological diversity, situated between the saline waters of the North Sea and the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. These sustain important nursery grounds of many fish species, of which several overwinter during the larval and early juvenile stages. In order to give more insight into the communities of the overwintering ichthyoplankton in estuarine areas, we examine an annual series of observations from a standard survey carried out 1992-2010. Species differences and annual variability in distributions and abundances are described, and linkages between ichthyoplankton abundances and corresponding hydrographical information are analysed by GAM methods. Communities were dominated by herring, gobies, butterfish, sprat, pipefishes, lemon sole and European eel (i.e. glass eel), and all the sampled species showed large annual fluctuations in abundances. The species showed quite specific patterns of distribution although species assemblages with common distributional characteristics were identified. Within these assemblages, the ichthyoplankton abundances showed linkage to environmental characteristics described by bottom-depth and surface temperature and salinity. Hence the study points to a significant structuring of overwintering ichthyoplankton communities in large estuaries, based on the species habitat choice and its response to physical gradients.

  6. Chronic pathology and longevity of Drepanocephalus spathans infections in juvenile channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a common parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The cercariae of D. spathans have been shown infective to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The developing metacercariae concentrate in the cranial regio...

  7. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Krupa H; Karjodkar, Freny R; Sansare, Kaustubh; Patil, Darshana

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential. PMID:24808703

  8. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  9. Sweating on the palm and sole: physiological and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Masato; Poudel, Anupama; Hirano, Shigeki

    2015-06-01

    In mammals, sweating is a multifunctional response that aids in locomotion, thermal regulation, self-protection, and communication of psychological state. Humans possess three types of sweat glands (apocrine, eccrine, and apoeccrine) that are differentially distributed on the body surface and make unique contributions to these distinct functions of the sweating response. In humans, eccrine glands, which are widely distributed on hairy skin, play an important role in thermoregulation. They are also found on the glabrous skin of the palm and sole, where they are not usually activated by heat, but rather by deep respiration, mental stress, and local tactile stimulation. Sweating on the palm and sole, so-called "emotional sweating", acts to prevent slippage while grasping or performing a delicate task using the fingertips. Although the central pathways of emotional sweating are not yet elucidated in detail, it is thought that the amygdala, cingulate cortex, and medulla participate via efferent fibers that descend through the spinal cord and connect to preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the nucleus intermediolateralis. The limbic system, including the amygdala and cingulate cortex, is critical for emotional processing and many cognitive functions. Thus, measurement of sweat output on the palm or sole is useful for evaluating sympathetic function and limbic activity in autonomic and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25894655

  10. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  11. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed. PMID:26078691

  12. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  13. Serum neopterin is not increased in obese juveniles.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Freytag, Florian; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Bauer-Denk, Carmen; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation and immune activation, concentrations of immune activation markers like neopterin predict outcome in adults. Methods. Serum neopterin concentrations and early metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms were analyzed in 295 obese juveniles and 101 normal weight controls of similar age. Additionally, the influence of a 12 months weight reduction program on neopterin levels was investigated in 31 obese juveniles. Results. Intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in the obese juveniles (P < .001). Also triglycerides, oxidized LDL, fasted insulin levels, HOMA-index, leptin, liver transaminases and uric acid were increased compared to the controls. However, serum neopterin was decreased in the obese versus non-obese juveniles (P < .03). The intervention consisting of regular sports, nutritional devices, and a psychologic attendance led after 12 months to an increase of neopterin concentration (P < .05; paired test). Conclusions. Neopterin concentrations in juvenile obesity behaved considerably different from what was demonstrated in adults, levels did not correlate with metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms found in early phases although early vascular burden and chronic low grade inflammation was indicated by increased IMT and CRP. Neopterin concentrations increased after a 12 months intervention program. PMID:21274279

  14. Juvenile spondyloarthropathy: an important clinical lesson to remember.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Radhika; Ngiu, Chai Soon; Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana; Said, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of inflammatory conditions that include spondylitis, sacroiliitis, asymmetrical peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. This condition is known as juvenile SpA when the diagnosis is made in patients up to 16 years of age. Enthesitis is a highly specific feature that occurs more often in juvenile SpA than in the adult form. In contrast to adult onset SpA, the initial manifestation of juvenile SpA rarely presents as inflammatory back pain. Peripheral arthritis is the more common presenting feature. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a 1-year history of progressive low back pain, gluteal pain and thigh pain. There were no clinical symptoms of arthropathy of the distal extremities. MRI of the whole spine was performed twice, which, unfortunately, was unyielding. Finally, MRI of the sacroiliac joints revealed asymmetric sacroiliitis as well as enthesitis of the hips and pelvis. Further laboratory data showed negative rheumatoid factor and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. A diagnosis of juvenile SpA with sacroiliitis and enthesitis was made. The imaging characteristics of juvenile SpA are highlighted. PMID:26677159

  15. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  16. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    PubMed

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level. PMID:27183997

  17. Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Sole Patent Cerebral Artery in Two Patients with Takayasu’s Aortoarteritis

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Kiron; Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M.

    2016-01-01

    We report two female patients with Takayasu’s aortoarteritis, who presented with symptoms of cerebral ischemia due to critical stenosis of the sole patent cerebral artery. Both had occlusion of both vertebral arteries and one carotid artery with critical stenosis of the other carotid artery and presented with hemiparesis contralateral to the patent but stenosed cerebral artery. They also had transient ischemic attacks attributable to the culprit vessel. In the first patient, balloon angioplasty alone was not successful, and hence, a self-expanding stent was deployed in the right common carotid artery. In the second patient, successful balloon angioplasty was performed for the left common carotid artery. Distal protection devices were not used, and neither patient experienced any periprocedural neurological event. Clinical follow-up at six months revealed no significant cerebral events. PMID:27042151

  18. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: Different from the Adult Chronic Pain Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; King, Christopher; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M

    2016-04-01

    While a majority of research has focused on adult fibromyalgia (FM), recent evidence has provided insights into the presence and impact of FM in children and adolescents. Commonly referred as juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), youths, particularly adolescent girls, present with persistent widespread pain and cardinal symptoms observed in adult FM. A majority of youth with JFM continue to experience symptoms into adulthood, which highlights the importance of early recognition and intervention. Some differences are observed between adult and juvenile-onset FM syndrome with regard to comorbidities (e.g., joint hypermobility is common in JFM). Psychological comorbidities are common but less severe in JFM. Compared to adult FM, approved pharmacological treatments for JFM are lacking, but non-pharmacologic approaches (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise) show promise. A number of conceptual issues still remain including (1) directly comparing similarities and differences in symptoms and (2) identifying shared and unique mechanisms underlying FM in adults and youths. PMID:26984803

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... juvenile Paget disease: Genetic Testing Registry: Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease These resources from MedlinePlus offer information about the ... familial osteoectasia hyperostosis corticalis deformans juvenilis hyperphosphatasemia ... idiopathic idiopathic hyperphosphatasia JPD juvenile Paget's ...

  20. New Treatments Helping Kids with Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159984.html New Treatments Helping Kids With Juvenile Arthritis Several biologics have been approved by the FDA ... 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New treatments for juvenile arthritis offer hope to children with the chronic autoimmune ...

  1. Characteristics of adopted juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Zrull, J P; Davenport, C W; Weaver, M

    1992-05-01

    There have been many reports describing the uniqueness of adopted children and adolescents' delinquent behaviors in terms of both their delinquent characteristics and courts' treatment of them. A total of 43 adopted juveniles, 32 extrafamilial (1.0%) and 11 intrafamilial (0.3%) adoptions were initially identified out of 3,280 juvenile delinquents. The adopted subjects were then compared with the demographically matched and offense matched nonadopted subjects. The family variables, such as marital and employment status of parents, were significantly different. However, there were only a few discernible trends, and in general there were no significant differences between the adopted and nonadopted juveniles in terms of their offense characteristics and dispositions. PMID:1592787

  2. Comparative bacteriology of juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R

    1985-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing (experimental) gingivitis. However, the subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was not significantly different from the flora of sites with gingival index scores of 1 or 2 in adults with developing (experimental) gingivitis. Of 357 bacterial taxa among over 18,000 isolates, 54 non-treponemal species, 2 treponemal species, and mycoplasma were most associated with diseased periodontal sulci. These species comprised an increasing proportion of the flora during developing gingivitis and constituted over half of the cultivable flora of diseased sites. PMID:3988344

  3. Our Children Are Hurting: Fact Sheet on the Disproportionate Involvement of Indian Young People in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems in Ontario, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Stan

    This fact sheet documents the disturbing overrepresentation of status Indian youth in the juvenile justice and child welfare systems of Ontario (Canada). However, the information represents only the tip of the iceberg. Data relate solely to children and youth whose parents resided on an Indian reserve; who were dealt with by the family court (not…

  4. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  5. Families, Juvenile Justice and Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the Juvenile Justice…

  6. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  7. Guidelines for Juvenile Information Sharing. OJJDP Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankey, Jennifer; Baca, Patricia; Rondenell, Stephanie; Webb, Marilyn; McHugh, Denise

    2006-01-01

    The juvenile information sharing (JIS) guidelines were prepared by the Center for Network Development (CND) for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The guidelines suggest a course of action for key agency and organization stakeholders involved in a state or local effort to implement and sustain juvenile information…

  8. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  9. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  10. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly more physical,…

  11. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  12. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  13. Special Education and the Juvenile Justice System. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Sue; Warboys, Loren

    This bulletin summarizes provisions of federal law as they pertain to special education and juvenile justice. It discusses provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1997 including: the definition of disability; free appropriate public education; identification, referral, and evaluation; the individualized education program…

  14. Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; Snyder, Howard E.

    This bulletin examines the effect of race on police decisions to take juvenile offenders into custody. Analysis of 1997 and 1998 data on 17 states from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Incident-Based Reporting System indicates that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that police are more likely to arrest nonwhite juvenile…

  15. Prevention of Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Miller, Laurie S.; Cothern, Lynn

    This bulletin explores the proximal risk factors for juvenile offending, reviews the early developmental precursors to violent offending, and summarizes approaches to prevention. It also discusses components of intervention programs, limitations of single-focus prevention, examples of multi systemic interventions, and limitations of prevention…

  16. Lunar and daily spawning rhythms of Senegal sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C; Dinis, M T; Soares, F; Cabrita, E; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2009-07-01

    A periodicity of 29 days was observed in spawning rhythms in Senegal sole Solea senegalensis, with an acrophase around the last quarter and the new moon. In both spring and autumn, a very marked nocturnal spawning rhythm was registered, with spawning beginning after dusk and the acrophase occurring around 2300 hours. When the photoperiod was artificially extended (from 10L:14D to 14L:10D), S. senegalensis synchronized to the new photoperiod: spawning took place after the new 'dusk', the beginning gradually shifting from 2100 to 2300 hours and the acrophase from 2325 to 0032 hours. Under continuous light conditions, fish sustained rhythmicity for 2 days, with an acrophase at 2249 hours, which suggested the existence of an endogenous pacemaker controlling the daily spawning rhythm. These findings provided new insights for better understanding the reproductive physiology of this species and for optimizing the timing protocols of egg collection and larvae production in S. senegalensis aquaculture. PMID:20738482

  17. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  18. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  19. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts-a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Laitano, Francisco Felipe; Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  20. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts—a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  1. Sole larval supply to coastal nurseries: Interannual variability and connectivity at interregional and interpopulation scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Lunghi, M.; Archambault, B.; Baulier, L.; Huret, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-05-01

    Simulating fish larval drift helps assess the sensitivity of recruitment variability to early life history. An individual-based model (IBM) coupled to a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate common sole larval supply from spawning areas to coastal and estuarine nursery grounds at the meta-population scale (4 assessed stocks), from the southern North Sea to the Bay of Biscay (Western Europe) on a 26-yr time series, from 1982 to 2007. The IBM allowed each particle released to be transported by currents, to grow depending on temperature, to migrate vertically depending on development stage, to die along pelagic stages or to settle on a nursery, representing the life history from spawning to metamorphosis. The model outputs were analysed to explore interannual patterns in the amounts of settled sole larvae at the population scale; they suggested: (i) a low connectivity between populations at the larval stage, (ii) a moderate influence of interannual variation in the spawning biomass, (iii) dramatic consequences of life history on the abundance of settling larvae and (iv) the effects of climate variability on the interannual variability of the larvae settlement success.

  2. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Muñoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV = 23%), growth (CV = 25%) and behavior (CV = 100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r = −0.65 and r = −0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r = 0.66) and growth (r = 0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r = −0.55) and growth (r = −0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity. PMID:21738651

  3. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  4. Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions. PMID:26593117

  5. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    PubMed

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type. PMID:132916

  6. Juvenile Court: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether juveniles who commit criminal law violations should be tried in the same courts as adults. Addresses the issue of transfers that is a legal mechanism used to move youth to criminal court. Considers alternative proposals for handling youth brought to the judicial system and the role of the federal government. (CMK)

  7. Juvenile Criminals: Who Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonov, A. I.; Lebed, O. L.

    2005-01-01

    Many adolescents who were born in the late 1970s and 1980s in Russia became juvenile criminals due to the change in the social structure, the proclamation of the values of the comfortable way of life, the institution of property ownership and so forth. Many young people have to help relatives who are in need, and this as well often causes them to…

  8. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  9. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  10. Assessment of resource selection models to predict occurrence of five juvenile flatfish species (Pleuronectidae) over the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew T.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Cooper, Dan W.

    2016-05-01

    According to the nursery size hypothesis, flatfish recruitment is constrained by nursery area. Thus, if resource selection models can be shown to accurately predict the location and geographic extent of flatfish nursery areas, they will become important tools in the management and study of flatfish population dynamics. We demonstrate that some resource selection models derived previously to predict the presence and absence of juvenile flatfishes near shore were applicable to the broader continental shelf. For other age-species groups, derivation of new models for the continental shelf was necessary. Our study was conducted in the western Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during October 2011 on four groups of age-0 juvenile flatfishes: Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon); and three groups of age-1 juvenile flatfishes: northern rock sole, flathead sole, and yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera). Sampling occurred at 33 sites across the continental shelf. Fish were collected using a 3-m beam trawl, and a midwater trawl. Environmental data were collected on sediment composition and water temperature and depth. Many of the age-species groups co-occurred in the Shumagin and Barnabus sea valleys; however, age-0 arrowtooth flounder occurred at more locations than other juveniles, perhaps due to a relatively broad tolerance of environmental conditions and to the utilization of midwater habitat. Thus, the large nursery area of arrowtooth flounder may be one reason why they are currently the most abundant GoA flatfish. In fact, among all species, mean recruitment at age 3 increased with the percent occurrence of age-0 juveniles at the 33 sites, a proxy for relative nursery area, in accordance with the nursery size hypothesis, suggesting that mean recruitment among GoA flatfishes is structured by nursery size.

  11. Juvenile myasthenia gravis: a paediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Finnis, Maria F; Jayawant, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies are directed against the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigability. Juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) is a rare condition of childhood and has many clinical features that are distinct from adult MG. Prepubertal children in particular have a higher prevalence of isolated ocular symptoms, lower frequency of acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and a higher probability of achieving remission. Diagnosis in young children can be complicated by the need to differentiate from congenital myasthenic syndromes, which do not have an autoimmune basis. Treatment commonly includes anticholinesterases, corticosteroids with or without steroid-sparing agents, and newer immune modulating agents. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are effective in preparation for surgery and in treatment of myasthenic crisis. Thymectomy increases remission rates. Diagnosis and management of children with JMG should take account of their developmental needs, natural history of the condition, and side-effect profiles of treatment options. PMID:22110902

  12. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. PMID:26233829

  13. Pelvic MRI findings of juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet Halit; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kanberoglu, Kaya

    2010-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common clinical subgroup of sero-negative spondyloarthropathies. Radiographic and clinical signs of bilateral inflammatory involvement of sacroiliac joints are the gold standard for the diagnosis of juvenile AS. Although radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis is included in the definition, it is not mandatory for the diagnosis of juvenile AS. The aim of this study is to describe pelvic enthesitis-osteitis MRI findings accompanying sacroiliitis in a group of juvenile AS. Eleven patients suffering from low back pain underwent MRI of the pelvis and were enrolled in this retrospective study. The mean duration of symptoms was 12 months. The mean age of the 11 cases in our study was 12.18 years (range, 6-19). There were eight boys and three girls. Anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were obtained in all patients. Sacroiliac joint involvement was detected in all of the cases by pelvic MRI. Pathologic signal changes were detected in the pubic symphisis (osteitis pubis) in ten cases, trochanteric bursitis in six cases, coxofemoral joint in five cases, crista iliaca in three cases, and ischion pubis in three cases. There was increased T2 signal intensity in eight of the 11 cases (72.7%) relevant with soft tissue edema/inflammation. This high correlation between sacroiliitis and enthesitis suggests that enthesitis could be an important finding in juvenile AS. PMID:20549278

  14. 31 CFR 800.223 - Solely for the purpose of passive investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solely for the purpose of passive..., ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.223 Solely for the purpose of passive investment. Ownership interests are held or acquired solely for the purpose of passive investment if...

  15. 42 CFR 57.2003 - Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determinations of increased enrollment solely for... increased enrollment solely for the program. In the event the Secretary of Defense decides to enter into one... increased its total enrollment in any fiscal year for the sole purpose of accepting members of the...

  16. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in a Premature Neonate Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Luen; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Shu-Jen; Hung, Giun-Yi; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Soong, Wen-Jue

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of JMML that mimicked neonatal sepsis. Three weeks after birth, JMML was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of JMML presenting in a premature infant in Taiwan. PMID:24269860

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Betanodavirus Isolated from Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Huang, Jie; Geng, Wei Guang; Wang, Sheng Qiang; Su, Zi Dan

    2014-01-01

    Betanodavirus, commonly called nervous necrosis virus (NNV) of fish, has emerged as a major constraint on marine aquaculture worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a betanodavirus (strain CsCN128) isolated from diseased half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) in China. The genome sequence of strain CsCN128 shares ≥98.7% similarity with seven-band grouper nervous necrosis virus from Japan. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain CsCN128 belongs to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype of betanodavirus. The genome of the strain CsCN128 will facilitate further study on the molecular epidemiology and natural susceptible host range of betanodaviruses. PMID:25523771

  18. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  19. Juvenile mycosis fungoides diagnosed before 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amitai, Dan; Michael, David; Feinmesser, Meora; Hodak, Emmilia

    2003-01-01

    The literature regarding mycosis fungoides in children is sparse. To shed further light on the characteristics of mycosis fungoides in the paediatric population we analysed the clinicopathological features of 10 patients in whom this malignancy was diagnosed before the age of 18 years. All were Jews and Arabs with histologically proven patch/early plaque stage disease: 4 in stage IA, 4 in IB and 2 with unilesional disease. Seven patients had hypopigmented lesions either constituting the sole manifestation (2 patients) or in combination with classic lesions (5 patients); of these, 3 had light skin and 4 pigmented skin. Most patients had immunohistochemical features characteristic of mycosis fungoides, with a predominance of CD4+ T cells. Some had deletion of CD7+ cells. In 3 patients, however, the epidermotropic cells were exclusively or predominantly CD8+ cells. All patients responded to conventional therapy and during an average follow-up of 3.4 years only one patient showed stage progression, but without extracutaneous involvement. It is concluded that juvenile mycosis fungoides is characterized by early stage disease, occasionally with unilesional disease, usually with hypopigmented lesions irrespective of skin colour, and a good response to therapy. On the basis of our experience and review of the literature, it appears that the CD8+ phenotype is over-represented in juvenile disease. PMID:14690342

  20. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  1. Total reproductive value of juvenile females is twice that of juvenile males under X-linkage and haplodiploidy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy

    2014-10-21

    Grafen (2014) has shown that, although the total reproductive value of females is not generally equal to that of males in an age-structured population under diploidy and autosomal inheritance, the total reproductive value of juvenile females is equal to that of juvenile males, provided there is a stable class distribution. It is the latter equality that is key to R.A. Fisher׳s famous explanation for equal investment into daughters and sons. Here, I simplify the derivation of Grafen׳s key result and extend the analysis to consider X-linkage and haplodiploid inheritance, i.e. scenarios in which a female receives one set of genes from her mother and one set from her father but where males receive genes only from their mother. I find that, although the total reproductive value of females need not be twice that of males, as is commonly supposed, the total reproductive value of juvenile females is twice that of juvenile males. This recovers the principle of equal maternal investment into daughters and sons in panmictic populations. PMID:25017725

  2. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26489640

  3. The influence of a new sole geometry while running.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  4. The influence of a new sole geometry while running

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  5. Anaerobic biogranulation using phenol as the sole carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; He, Y.X.; Yan, Y.G.

    2000-04-01

    The granulation process was extensively examined using phenol as sole carbon source in a 2-L laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The study was conducted mesophilically at 35 C. Anaerobically digested sludge was used as seed after a 14-day activation period with glucose feed. Massive initial granules were developed after 3 months of startup, grew at an accelerated pace for 6 months, then became fully grown. The granulation process can be broken into three phases: acclimation, granulation, and maturation. However, granulation with phenol proceeded more slowly than it did in UASB reactors fed with readily biodegradable carbohydrates studied previously. The granular sludge cultivated had a median diameter of 1.8 mm, phenol-degrading activity of 0.65 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/g volatile suspended solids (VSS){sm_bullet}d, and a sludge volume index of 14 mL/g. Phenol COD removal efficiency of 86% was achieved when the reactor was operating at an influent phenol concentration of 1,260 mg/L (corresponding to 3,000 mg COD/L), hydraulic retention time of 12 hours, and volumetric loading rate of 6 g COD/L{sm_bullet}d. However, the lower-than-expected phenol COD removal efficiency could be attributed to inhibition by the high influent phenol concentration or loading. The batch test demonstrated that the sludge methanogenic activity was reduced by 52 and 75% at phenol concentrations of 420 and 840 mg/L, respectively.

  6. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  7. Depth classification based solely on incoherent sonar information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklovic, Donald W.

    2005-09-01

    Most work on sonar contact depth estimation has been based on deterministic, coherent propagation modeling of the sound channel, e.g., matched-field processing. This has met with limited success due to the inability to precisely predict the sound-pressure field in realistic scenarios. This paper addresses the problem of using probabilistic, incoherent information from the sonar itself for depth classification with active sonar, without having to depend on precise and accurate propagation models and ancillary environmental measurements. In particular, the problem of deciding whether or not a given contact is on the bottom based solely on the sonar data is looked at, i.e., without resorting to the use of any additional environmental measurements or predictive models. To do this, the in situ local bottom reverberation is used to calibrate the channel. Probability theory is explored to provide a theoretical basis for the development of a single-hypothesis decision metric to best exploit this information. The methods are tested on a combination of broadband sonar data and detailed ocean simulations. The particular metric proposed for this problem seems to be important for achieving good performance, and may be of some interest in its own right for other types of single-hypothesis decision problems.

  8. Annual evapotranspiration retrieved solely from satellites' vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, David; Lensky, Itamar; Givati, Amir

    2015-04-01

    We present a simple model to retrieve annual actual evapotranspiration (ETannual) solely from satellites. The model is based on empirical relationships between vegetation indices (NDVI & EVI from MODIS) and ETannual from 16 fluxnet sites. These sites represent a wide range of plant functional types and ETannual. A multiple regression model is applied separately for (a) annuals vegetation systems (i.e., croplands and grasslands), and (b) combined annuals and perennials vegetation systems (i.e., woodlands, forests, savanna and shrublands). It explained 80% of the variance in ETannual for annuals, and 91% for combined annuals and perennials systems. We used this model to retrieve ETannual at 250 m spatial resolution for the Eastern Mediterranean from 2000 to 2013. The models estimates were highly correlated (R = 0.96, N = 7) with ETannual calculated from water catchments balances along the rainfall gradient of Israel. Models estimates were also comparable to the coarser resolution ET products of MSG (LSA-SAF MSG ETA, 3.1 km) and MODIS (MOD16, 1 km) in 148 Eastern Mediterranean basins, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.79 (N = 148), for both.

  9. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  10. Dietary vegetable oils: effects on the expression of immune-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) intestine.

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Benitez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María José; Ponce, Marian; Torrecillas, Silvia; Izquierdo, Marisol; Zamorano, María Jesús; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The decreased availability of fish oil, traditionally used as oil source in marine aquafeeds, has lead to the search for alternatives oils. Vegetable oils (VO) are being extensively used as lipid sources in marine fish diets, inducing an imbalance on certain dietary fatty acids. Alteration on the dietary ratio of w-6/w-3 has been described to have detrimental effects on fish immunity. Senegalese sole has high susceptibility to stress and diseases, and little is known on the effects of dietary VO on its immunity. In this study, Senegalese sole juveniles were fed diets (56% crude protein, 12% crude lipid) containing linseed (100LO), soybean (100SO) or fish (100FO) oils as unique oil source. Growth, cortisol and intestinal fatty acid composition were determined after 90 days. Moreover, at the final of the experiment a stress test (5 min of net chasing) was carried out. To evaluate the effect of diets and stress on intestine immunology, expression profiles of a set of 53 immune-related genes using RT-qPCR was also performed. The use of VO did not induced changes in fish growth, but affected fatty acid profile of intestine and expression of immune-related genes. The use of SO (rich in n-6 fatty acids) induced an over-expression of those genes related to complement pathway, recognizing pathogen associated to molecular patterns, defensive response against bacteria, defensive response against viruses, antigen differentiation, cytokines and their receptors. This general over-expression could indicate an activation of inflammatory processes in fish gut. When a stress was applied, a decrease of mRNA levels of different immune-related genes with respect to the unstressed control could be observed in fish fed 100FO. However, fish fed 100LO, with a higher ALA/LA ratio, seemed to ameliorate the effects of combined effects of FO substitution plus stressful situation whereas fish fed 100SO did not show this type of response. PMID:25655325

  11. The quest for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy genes.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Bailey, Julia N; Medina, Marco T; Durón, Reyna M

    2013-07-01

    Introduced into a specific population, a juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) mutation generates linkage disequilibrium (LD). Linkage disequilibrium is strongest when the JME mutation is of recent origin, still "hitchhiking" alleles surrounding it, as a haplotype into the next thousands of generations. Recombinations decay LD over tens of thousands of generations causing JME alleles to produce smaller genetic displacements, requiring other genes or environment to produce an epilepsy phenotype. Family-based linkage analysis captures rare epilepsy alleles and their "hitchhiking" haplotypes, transmitted as Mendelian traits, supporting the common disease/multiple rare allele model. Genome-wide association studies identify JME alleles whose linkage disequilibrium has decayed through thousands of generations and are sorting out the common disease/common allele versus rare allele models. Five Mendelian JME genes have been identified, namely, CACNB4, CASR, GABRa1, GABRD, and Myoclonin1/EFHC1. Three SNP alleles in BRD2, Cx-36, and ME2 and microdeletions in 15q13.3, 15q11.2, and 16p13.11 also contribute risk to JME. PMID:23756480

  12. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. PMID:25658216

  13. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers. PMID:26549699

  14. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  15. A New Mass Mortality of Juvenile Protoceratops and Size-Segregated Aggregation Behaviour in Juvenile Non-Avian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Hone, David W. E.; Farke, Andrew A.; Watabe, Mahito; Shigeru, Suzuki; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav

    2014-01-01

    Background Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together) or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage). In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians (“horned dinosaurs”) are known from both types of assemblages. Methods/Principal Findings Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered) aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. Conclusions The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of ‘sociality’ in dinosaurs. PMID:25426957

  16. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  17. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-08-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  18. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p<0.0001), while 33% of children with JIA were unable to attend school due to their condition. The students with JIA who were able to attend school were absent much more often than controls (63% compared to 20%), with a highly significant p value (p<0.0001). Slightly less than half of the JIA patients (48.5%) failed in their schooling. In univariate analysis, there was an association between absenteeism and tender joints (p=0.02), disease activity score (DAS28) (p=0.007), Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) (p=0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only association persisted between DAS28 and absenteeism. Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:23289498

  19. Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Trahan, William R; Snow, Jesse E

    2013-01-01

    Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a recently described benign condition that affects the gingiva of children and young adults. Clinically distinctive, LJSGH presents as a localized area of erythema on the attached gingiva, with a subtly papillary surface architecture. The lesions are generally biopsied because of the lack of resolution with conservative oral hygiene therapeutic measures and esthetic concerns. The histopathology has a characteristic appearance of subtle papillary epithelial hyperplasia, acute inflammation, and numerous engorged capillary vascular spaces in the lamina propria, although clinical correlation is necessary to make the diagnosis. The purposes of this paper were to: introduce localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia to the pediatric dental community; document its clinical and histologic features and treatment and the follow-up of three cases; and discuss the most common clinical differential diagnoses. PMID:23930637

  20. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND YOUTH CRIME, TASK FORCE REPORT, REPORT ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND CONSULTANTS PAPERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, Washington, DC.

    THIS REPORT CONSISTS OF A DETAILED DISCUSSION OF THE JUVENILE COURT SYSTEM AND THE PREVENTION OF DELINQUENCY. THE COMMISSION'S RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY INCLUDE THE AREAS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM, HOUSING AND RECREATION, FAMILIES, INVOLVING YOUTHS IN COMMUNITY LIFE, SCHOOLS, AND EMPLOYMENT. THE APPENDIXES, WHICH CONSTITUTE THE…

  1. The JDAI Story: Building a Better Juvenile Detention System. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Rochelle

    This monograph describes the work of five Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites designed to streamline and rationalize local juvenile detention systems and to reduce overcrowding in juvenile detention centers, thus improving conditions and saving jurisdictions money in overtime and additional staff and millions of dollars to…

  2. Black Juveniles in the Juvenile Justice System: A Cause for Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFlore, Larry

    This report examines the representation of black youth in the juvenile justice system, describes changes in juvenile justice philosophy, and discusses policy implications. Black youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system compared to white youth. Positivist theories explain this overrepresentation as the result of…

  3. A Juvenile Justice System for the 21st Century. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    This bulletin describes the objectives and elements of an effective juvenile justice system and suggests legislative and administrative strategies for its implementation. An effective juvenile justice system must meet the three objectives of holding the juvenile offender accountable, enabling the offender to become a capable and productive…

  4. National Implications in Juvenile Justice: The Influence of Juvenile Mentoring Programs on At Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belshaw, Scott H.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    In 1972 the federal government created the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act that procured funding for various governmental programs to combat the sudden increase in juvenile crime. A provision of this Act set out the creation of mentoring programs to help decrease the juvenile crime rate and dropout rates in secondary schools. This…

  5. Runaway Juvenile Crime? The Context of Juvenile Arrests in America. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziedenberg, Jason; Schiraldi, Vincent

    The Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997 (S-10) was to be debated in the Senate in spring 1998. This bill would blur the distinction between juvenile and adult criminal systems, making it easier to imprison children as young as 14. Supporters of S-10 were citing statistics to indicate that juvenile crime was on the rise. In fact, the…

  6. A Handbook for Juveniles and Parents on Maine's Juvenile Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehnert, Irene

    This guide explains Maine's juvenile justice system so that juveniles and/or their parents can know what to expect or what to do in a situation involving juveniles, public officials and the law. Although it is geographically specific, it could serve as a model to other states. The booklet can serve as a checklist to make sure law enforcement…

  7. Juvenile colour polymorphism in the red rock crab, Cancer productus: patterns, causes, and possible adaptive significance.

    PubMed

    Krause-Nehring, Jacqueline; Matthias Starck, J; Palmer, A Richard

    2010-05-01

    Juveniles of the common red rock crab of the Northeastern Pacific, Cancer productus, display a stunning diversity of colours and patterns, while adults all have the same drab colouration. Although this is widely known, key questions remain: (1) Does the frequency of different juvenile colours or patterns vary among collection sites or seasonally? (2) Does juvenile colour polymorphism reflect genetic heterogeneity or phenotypic plasticity in response to variable environmental conditions? (3) Do juveniles of different colours or patterns prefer substrata of different heterogeneity or brightness? We therefore: (i) described the variation in colour and pattern of juvenile C. productus; (ii) tested for associations between colour/pattern morphs and crab size, collection site, and season, in the field; (iii) conducted preliminary tests for habitat preferences (background colour, substratum type, light level) of different colour/pattern morphs in laboratory experiments, and (iv) tested the effect of diet (mussels versus shrimp) and feeding rate (high versus low) on juvenile colour/pattern. We describe 30 phenotypes that embrace a wide range of colour and pattern variants. The proportions of these phenotypes did not vary significantly among four collection sites, but they did vary significantly with season: over the summer and fall, juvenile colour and pattern variation was gradually replaced by the uniform adult colouration. The number of crabs displaying adult colouration also increased with crab size. Laboratory experiments suggest no significant preferences of different juvenile morphs for different backgrounds, substrata, or light levels. Diet (mussels versus shrimp) and feeding frequency had no effect on colour/pattern. Collectively, these results, although limited in scope, are not consistent with two likely hypotheses that could explain the extensive colour and pattern variation in juvenile C. productus: (i) selection for background matching by different cryptic

  8. TEMPERATURE AFFECTS SOLE CARBON UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  9. Temperature affects sole carbon utilization patterns of Campylobacter coli 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  10. Juvenile fibromatosis of the orbit: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R. J.; Garrity, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Proliferation of fibrous tissues to form a localised mass with infiltrating margins may occur anywhere in the body; involvement of the orbit is rare. Children and young adults are most commonly affected. The term 'juvenile fibromatosis' is one of several synonyms. Of the two main forms of this entity, the solitary form is the more common and the prognosis is good. The multicentric form has a poor prognosis. The patients described, a 2 1/2-year-old boy, had a solitary nodule of juvenile fibromatosis removed from the right orbit and was asymptomatic 2 3/4 years postoperatively. Images PMID:2036353

  11. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the δ15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  12. Clinical aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Genton, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothee G A; Medina, Marco Tulio; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a recognizable, frequent epileptic syndrome. The most typical ictal phenomenon is bilateral myoclonia without loss of consciousness (M), with most patients also presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and some with absence seizures (ASs). The most striking features of JME are its onset around the time of puberty and the fact that seizure episodes occur after awakening from a sleep period or in the evening relaxation period and are facilitated by sleep deprivation and sudden arousal. Photic sensitivity is common in the EEG laboratory but uncommon or unrecognized in daily life. The clinical features of JME make it easy to diagnose. In recent years, awareness of JME has increased, and patients are often accurately diagnosed clinically before confirmation by EEG. The typical circumstance at diagnosis is a first GTCS episode, and one learns during the interview that the patient has had M in the morning for some time before the GTCS episode. There are only few differential diagnoses: the adolescent-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsies, or other forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence. With JME being so common, we propose that a first GTCS episode in a teenager should be considered as revealing JME until proven otherwise. PMID:23756488

  13. Hepatic manifestations in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Farrag, Mona I

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by multisystem involvement and diverse clinical and serological manifestations. Clinically significant hepatic disease is generally regarded as unusual in JSLE, but many studies have showed that hepatic disease may be more common in SLE than was usually thought. Hepatic disease does not cause significant morbidity and mortality, but subclinical liver involvement is common. One of the hepatic disorders associated with JSLE is autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The precise etiology of AIH and JSLE remains unknown, however both AIH and JSLE are associated with antinuclear antibody (ANA) and multisystem disease manifestations. A shared immunologic response and genetic predisposition were suggested. Recently, new approaches for treatment of SLE and recent patents that could develop into novel therapeutic agents in clinical management of SLE have been proposed. An array of promising new therapies is currently emerging or being developed including B-cell depletion therapies, agents targeting B-cell survival factors, blockade of T-cell co-stimulation and present review, we will also report the case of a 12-year old girl who developed JSLE four years after her preliminary diagnosis with AIH. PMID:24383439

  14. 29 CFR 500.73 - Required purchase of goods or services solely from any person prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker... migrant or seasonal agricultural worker to purchase goods or services solely from such farm...

  15. 29 CFR 500.73 - Required purchase of goods or services solely from any person prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker... migrant or seasonal agricultural worker to purchase goods or services solely from such farm...

  16. Predators reverse the direction of density dependence for juvenile salmon mortality.

    PubMed

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Folt, Carol L

    2008-06-01

    The effect of predators on prey populations depends on how predator-caused mortality changes with prey population density. Predators can enforce density-dependent prey mortality and contribute to population stability, but only if they have a positive numerical or behavioral response to increased prey density. Otherwise, predator saturation can result in inversely density-dependent mortality, destabilizing prey populations and increasing extinction risk. Juvenile salmon and trout provide some of the clearest empirical examples of density-dependent mortality in animal populations. However, although juvenile salmon are very vulnerable to predators, the demographic effects of predators on juvenile salmon are unknown. We tested the interactive effects of predators and population density on the mortality of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using controlled releases of salmon in natural streams. We introduced newly hatched juvenile salmon at three population density treatments in six study streams, half of which contained slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), a common generalist predator (18 release sites in total, repeated over two summers). Sculpin reversed the direction of density dependence for juvenile salmon mortality. Salmon mortality was density dependent in streams with no sculpin, but inversely density dependent in streams where sculpin were abundant. Such predator-mediated inverse density dependence is especially problematic for prey populations suppressed by other factors, thereby presenting a fundamental challenge to persistence of rare populations and restoration of extirpated populations. PMID:18317816

  17. Ecological risk aversion and juvenile ring-tailed lemur feeding and foraging.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, M Teague

    2015-01-01

    The extended primate juvenile period has been linked to interactions between feeding ecology and sociality. However, accumulating field data on juvenile primates suggest variation in the linkages between foraging efficiency, group foraging and social behaviour. In many non-human primates, juvenile ability (strength, coordination and motor skills) does not limit foraging success. If predicted limitations in feeding are not found in juvenile monkeys, it is possible that the gregarious strepsirrhines may show foraging patterns similar to those implicated in the evolution of a life history where long juvenile periods are advantageous. To test these behavioural predictions, I present a mixed longitudinal sample of observations on feeding and foraging behaviour from ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. Like several platyrrhine species, close proximity during foraging, low feeding efficiency and low dietary diversity are not typical of ring-tailed lemurs. The lack of ecological trade-offs in these species may indicate stronger common roles of sociality and social complexity in structuring the elongation of the primate juvenile period. PMID:26022305

  18. Biologic agents in juvenile spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Katsicas, María Martha; Russo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile spondyloarthropathies (JSpA) are a group of related rheumatic diseases characterized by involvement of peripheral large joints, axial joints, and entheses (enthesitis) that begin in the early years of life (prior to 16(th) birthday).The nomenclature and concept of spondyloarthropathies has changed during the last few decades. Although there is not any specific classification of JSpA, diseases under the spondyloarthropathy nomenclature umbrella in the younger patients include: the seronegative enthesitis and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthritis. Moreover, the ILAR criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis includes two categories closely related to spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.We review the pathophysiology and the use of biological agents in JSpA. JSpA are idiopathic inflammatory diseases driven by an altered balance in the proinflammatory cytokines. There is ample evidence on the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-17 in the physiopathology of these entities. Several non-biologic and biologic agents have been used with conflicting results in the treatment of these complex diseases. The efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, have been analysed in controlled and uncontrolled trials, usually showing satisfactory outcomes. Other biologic agents, such as abatacept, tocilizumab and rituximab, have been insufficiently studied and their role in the therapy of SpA is uncertain. Interleukin-17-blocking agents are promising alternatives for the treatment of JSpA patients in the near future. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with JSpA have recently been proposed and are discussed in the present review. PMID:26968522

  19. Juvenile justice and substance use.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the

  20. Juvenile xanthogranuloma: unusual intraoral finding.

    PubMed

    Collins, L; Banks, R; Robinson, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that usually presents as a self-limiting dermatological condition in young children. Rarely, extracutaneous sites may also be involved. We report a case in a 3-year-old girl that presented intraorally as a solitary, well-defined, soft, purple palatal swelling. Patients with these rare intraoral lesions may present to dentists and subsequently to oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Diagnosis requires histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Further investigation from other specialties is required to rule out involvement of other organ systems. PMID:25300889

  1. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations. PMID:26593118

  2. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  3. Special Education in Wisconsin's Juvenile Detention System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenz, Tamara; Langelett, George

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at incarcerated youth in the public juvenile detention facilities of Wisconsin. State percentages of youth in Wisconsin public schools with Emotional, Learning, Cognitive, and/or Low Incidence Disabilities are compared to percentages reported from the state and county operated juvenile detention facilities. The study investigates…

  4. Juvenile Justice in Indiana: Facing the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Doreen L.

    The Indiana juvenile justice system is charged with intervening on behalf of youthful offenders for the purposes of providing care, treatment, protection, or rehabilitation. This report provides an overview of the state's juvenile justice system, which has fallen under widespread criticism for many years. The following issues are identified: data…

  5. Role Socialization of Juvenile Court Probation Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the degree of association between probation officers' sent and received roles and role behavior in four juvenile courts. Found the role communicated to probation officers by their superiors was predictive of the role the probation officers perceived but not of the role as enacted with juveniles. (Author)

  6. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  7. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  8. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  9. Peer Relationships Among Institutionalized Juvenile Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preveaux, Neal E.; Ray, Glen E.; LoBello, Steven G.; Mehta, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    This study examined peer relationships (sociometric status and friendship) of institutionalized juvenile males ages 12 to 18. Results replicated previous studies using "normal" nondelinquent samples demonstrating that sociometrically popular status juveniles were evaluated higher on sociability and leadership than were average- or rejected-status…

  10. Genetic and clinical evaluation of juvenile retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Judy E; Ruttum, Mark S; Koeberl, Matthew J; Hassemer, Eryn L; Sidjanin, D J

    2009-04-01

    Juvenile retinoschisis is a rare retinal dystrophy caused by RS1 gene mutations.(1) Clinical examinations and molecular testing definitively diagnosed juvenile retinoschisis in 2 male infants, one of whom had a novel mutation not previously reported in the United States. Genetic testing may be the simplest way to confirm this diagnosis in infants. PMID:19393523

  11. Genetic and clinical evaluation of juvenile retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Judy E.; Ruttum, Mark S.; Koeberl, Matthew J.; Hassemer, Eryn L.; Sidjanin, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile retinoschisis is a rare retinal dystrophy caused by RS1 gene mutations.1 Clinical examinations and molecular testing definitively diagnosed juvenile retinoschisis in 2 male infants, one of whom had a novel mutation not previously reported in the United States. Genetic testing may be the simplest way to confirm this diagnosis in infants. PMID:19393523

  12. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  13. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  14. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. This report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report offers Congress,…

  15. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    This report offers the Congress, state legislators, and other state and local policymakers, professors and teachers, juvenile justice professionals, and concerned citizens solid answers to the most frequently asked questions about the nature of juvenile crime and victimization and about the justice system's response. Citing FBI and other data…

  16. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  17. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  18. Juvenile Delinquency: Research, Theory, and Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Bernice Milburn

    While this booklet on juvenile delinquency does not attempt a full review of the literature, it has been designed to further an understanding and appreciation of the social-psychological problems of deviant behavior. The booklet briefly covers the publicity which juvenile delinquency has been given in recent years, as well as the difficulties…

  19. Literacy Levels of Male Juvenile Justice Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; Watkins, Renae

    2004-01-01

    The assessment records detailing the reading and spelling performance of a group of male juvenile justice detainees admitted over a 3-month period were examined in an attempt to quantify the basic literacy levels of juvenile offenders. Results of student self-ratings of their reading ability were also analysed. The participants comprised 68 males…

  20. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  1. Progressive kidney failure as the sole manifestation of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Supreet; Relia, Nitin; Syal, Gaurav; Kaushik, Chhavi; Gokden, Neriman; Malik, Ahmad B

    2013-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disorder characterized by an accumulation of T lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes, non-caseating epitheliod granulomas and derangement of normal tissue architecture in affected organs. Sarcoidosis can affect any organ system, however approximately 90% of patients with sarcoidosis have pulmonary, lymph node, cutaneous or ocular manifestations. Renal involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and clinically significant renal dysfunction even less common. We present a case of isolated renal sarcoidosis which manifested with progressively worsening renal function and hypercalcemia. A systematic diagnostic approach with pertinent laboratory studies, imaging and renal biopsy elucidated the diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis without any evidence of systemic involvement. PMID:24079056

  2. Genetic heterogeneity in juvenile NCL

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Y.M.; Andermann, E.; Mitchison, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of related lysosomal storage diseases classified according to the age of onset, clinical syndrome, and pathology. The clinical syndromes include myoclonus, visual failure, progressive dementia, ataxia and generalized tonic clonic seizures in varying combinations depending on the age of onset and pathology. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive in most cases, except for several families with the adult form (Kufs` disease) which have autosomal dominant inheritance. Linkage for the infantile (Halatia-Santavuori) form (CLN1), characterized ultrastructurally by lysosomal granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD), has been demonstrated with markers on chromosome lp, while the gene for the typical juvenile (Spielmeyer-Vogt) form (CLN3), characterized by fingerprint-profile inclusions, has been linked to chromosome 16p. The gene locations of the late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky) and adult (Kufs` disease) forms are unknown, although it has recently been shown that the late infantile form does not link to chromosome 16p. We describe three siblings, including a pair of monozygotic twins, with juvenile onset NCL with GROD in whom linkage to the CLN3 region of chromsome 16p has been excluded. This would suggest that there is genetic heterogeneity not only among the different clinical syndromes, but also among identical clinical syndromes with different ultrastructural characteristics. Preliminary studies of linkage to chromosome 1p employing the microsatellite marker HY-TM1 have been uninformative. Further studies with other chromosome 1 markers are underway.

  3. Juvenile delinquency and adolescent fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Atika; Gavazzi, Stephen M

    2011-08-01

    This study examined ecological risk factors associated with teen paternity in a sample of 2,931 male adolescents coming to the attention of juvenile courts across five midwestern counties. In contrast to previous studies documenting significantly higher rates of teen paternity among African American youth, we found that the European American court-involved youth in our sample were as likely to be teen fathers as their African American counterparts. However, an in-depth examination of the social ecologies of these court-involved youth revealed significant racial differences (regardless of the paternity status), with African American males reporting more prior offenses, delinquent peer associations, traumatic pasts, risky sexual behaviors, and educational risks as compared to European American youth, who reported greater involvement in substance use. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that after controlling for age and racial background, youth who reported greater exposure to trauma and prior offenses had significantly greater odds of having fathered a child. Surprisingly, youth who were teen fathers reported lower rates of behavioral problems as compared to their nonfathering peers. Given the cross-sectional nature of our data, interpretation of this result is limited. Overall, our findings underscore the need for developing a comprehensive understanding of the ecological risk and protective factors present in the lives of teen fathers coming in contact with the juvenile justice system, as an essential first step in designing effective and relevant intervention programs and services for this at-risk population. PMID:20508087

  4. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending. PMID:20879178

  5. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  6. 76 FR 14559 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... the meeting notice that was published in the Federal Register on August 31, 2010 at 75 FR 53269... Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES: Department of...) sole-source contracts over $20 million, as required by section 811. DATES: Effective Date: March...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The exchange, without...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1081-5 - Distribution solely of stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distribution solely of stock or securities. 1...-5 Distribution solely of stock or securities. (a) In general. If, without any surrender of his stock... holding company or a majority-owned subsidiary company receives stock or securities in such corporation...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....c. Orders § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The...

  10. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  11. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  12. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  13. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  14. 48 CFR 1513.170 - Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Competition exceptions and justification for sole source simplified acquisition procedures. 1513.170 Section 1513.170 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170 Competition exceptions and justification for sole source...

  15. 31 CFR 315.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment during life of sole owner. 315.36 Section 315.36 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... § 315.36 Payment during life of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form...

  16. 48 CFR 1513.170-1 - Contents of sole source justifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contents of sole source justifications. 1513.170-1 Section 1513.170-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170-1 Contents of sole source justifications....

  17. 48 CFR 1513.170-1 - Contents of sole source justifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of sole source justifications. 1513.170-1 Section 1513.170-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170-1 Contents of sole source justifications....

  18. 48 CFR 1513.170-1 - Contents of sole source justifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of sole source justifications. 1513.170-1 Section 1513.170-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES General 1513.170-1 Contents of sole source justifications....

  19. Molecular characterization of a novel type II keratin gene (sseKer3) in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): Differential expression of keratin genes by salinity.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Ponce, Marian; Asensio, Esther; Zerolo, Ricardo; Manchado, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Keratins make up the largest subgroup of intermediate filaments and, in chordates, represent the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which only two type I keratin genes, sseKer1 and sseKer2, have been described. We obtained the entire cDNAs encoding for a novel type II keratin, referred to as sseKer3. Main features and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian type II keratins are described. Expression profiles during larval development and in juvenile tissues were analyzed using a real-time PCR approach. In juvenile fish, sseKer3 was strongly expressed in gills, intestine, skin and stomach. During metamorphosis climax a drop in sseKer3 expression was observed. Transcriptional regulation of sseKer3 by thyroid hormones (THs) was also evaluated. Larvae exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU) exhibited higher mRNA levels than untreated control. Moreover, adding exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae restored or even reduced the sseKer3 transcript levels with respect to the untreated control. The possible role of keratins in osmotic stress response was evaluated in juvenile gills exposed to three different water salinities (15, 37 and 60psu). Whereas no significant changes in sseKer2 expression were detected; sseKer1 was early (12h) up-regulated at hypo-osmotic conditions and sseKer3 was down-regulated both at low and high salinity after 24h and 48h. Their possible role is discussed. PMID:21536146

  20. Assessment of Barotrauma from Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radiotelemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Feil, Daniel H.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure of acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.

  1. Experimental manipulation reveals few subclinical impacts of a parasite community in juvenile kangaroos

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Ploeg, Richard; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. In many host species, these helminths cause clinical disease and may trigger conspicuous mortality events. However, they may also have subclinical impacts, reducing fitness as well as causing complex changes to host growth patterns and body condition. Theoretically, juveniles should experience significantly greater costs from parasites, being immunologically naive and undergoing a significant growth phase. The aims of our study were to quantify the subclinical effects of helminths in juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), which commonly harbour large burdens of gastrointestinal nematodes and are susceptible to associated mass mortality during cold, wet conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging kangaroos, removing nematodes from one group of juveniles using an anthelmintic treatment. We then compared growth parameters (body condition and growth rates) and haematological parameters of this group with an age-matched, parasitised (untreated) control group. Treated juvenile kangaroos had significantly higher levels of plasma protein (albumin) but, contrary to our predictions, showed negligible changes in all the other parameters measured. Our results suggest that juvenile kangaroos are largely unaffected by their gastrointestinal helminth burdens, and may be able to compensate for the costs of parasites. PMID:25161906

  2. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  3. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  4. Assessment of self-organizing maps to analyze sole-carbon source utilization profiles.

    PubMed

    Leflaive, Joséphine; Céréghino, Régis; Danger, Michaël; Lacroix, Gérard; Ten-Hage, Loïc

    2005-07-01

    The use of community-level physiological profiles obtained with Biolog microplates is widely employed to consider the functional diversity of bacterial communities. Biolog produces a great amount of data which analysis has been the subject of many studies. In most cases, after some transformations, these data were investigated with classical multivariate analyses. Here we provided an alternative to this method, that is the use of an artificial intelligence technique, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM, unsupervised neural network). We used data from a microcosm study of algae-associated bacterial communities placed in various nutritive conditions. Analyses were carried out on the net absorbances at two incubation times for each substrates and on the chemical guild categorization of the total bacterial activity. Compared to Principal Components Analysis and cluster analysis, SOM appeared as a valuable tool for community classification, and to establish clear relationships between clusters of bacterial communities and sole-carbon sources utilization. Specifically, SOM offered a clear bidimensional projection of a relatively large volume of data and were easier to interpret than plots commonly obtained with multivariate analyses. They would be recommended to pattern the temporal evolution of communities' functional diversity. PMID:15823397

  5. Modern management of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common genetic epilepsy syndrome usually presenting in adolescence and characterized by myoclonic jerks, predominately in the arms, associated with tonic-clonic seizures and less often generalized absences. Although the evidence base for treating JME is weak, most experts regard sodium valproate as drug of first choice. The recent diktat from the European regulatory agency - recommending that sodium valproate should not be prescribed to female children, adolescents or women of childbearing potential unless other treatments were ineffective or not tolerated - has substantially changed the way JME is being managed in this population. This paper reviews the literature underpinning the pharmacological treatment of JME. Data reporting associated symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction in some patients with JME are discussed, as is the importance of counselling on lifestyle issues as an essential component of management. Long-term studies examining pharmacological and quality-of-life outcomes are reviewed, indicating a range of different phenotypes and likely genotypes underpinning this fascinating disorder. Lastly, a practical approach to managing JME in young men and women is summarized. PMID:27082040

  6. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health].

    PubMed

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health. PMID:27180959

  7. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditional adult-onset HD. Nonetheless, the frequent predominance of bradykinesia and dystonia early in the course of the illness, more frequent occurrence of epilepsy and myoclonus, more widespread pathology, and larger genetic lesion means that the distinction is still relevant. In addition, the relative rarity of JHD means that the clinician managing the patient is often doing so for the first time. Management is, at best, symptomatic and supportive with few or no evidence-based guidelines. In this article, the authors will review what is known of the condition and present some suggestions based on their experience. PMID:24416077

  8. Challenging the Myths: 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    This bulletin, extracted from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report," examines juvenile crime statistics, demonstrating that the predictions in the early 1990s of the emergence of juvenile superpredators (juveniles for whom violence is a way of life) is not supported by current data. Research indicates that levels of predatory…

  9. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3 Section 236.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile...

  10. Juvenile Offenders with Mental Health Needs: Reducing Recidivism Using Wraparound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullmann, Michael D.; Kerbs, Jodi; Koroloff, Nancy; Veach-White, Ernie; Gaylor, Rita; Sieler, Dede

    2006-01-01

    The rate of youth with mental health needs is disproportionately high in juvenile justice. Wraparound planning involves families and providers in coordinating juvenile justice, mental health, and other services and supports. This study compares data from two groups of juvenile offenders with mental health problems: 106 youth in a juvenile justice…

  11. Physiotherapy in pauciarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Case study.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Beata; Kaczor, Zofia; Zuk-Drążyk, Berenika; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthropathy of childhood and adolescence. This term encompasses a group of chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of the connective tissue which cause arthritis in patients under 16 years of age lasting at least 6 weeks. The authors presented the characteristic features of physiotherapy based on functional examination results on the basis of two cases of girls with pauciarticular JIA treated according to an established pharmacological regimen. Physiotherapy should be introduced at an early stage of the disease. Kinesiotherapy preceded by history-taking and a functional examination of the patient, has to focus on both primary and secondary joint lesions. PMID:25041889

  12. The effect of shoe sole tread groove depth on the friction coefficient with different tread groove widths, floors and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Wu, Horng Huei; Lin, Yu-Chang

    2006-11-01

    Slipping and falling are common phenomena in both workplaces and our daily activities. The risks associated with slipping and falling are related to the materials of footwear/floor, contamination condition, and geometric design of the sole. Shoe soles of various tread design are very common. Tread pattern of the shoe affects friction especially under liquid-contaminated conditions. Verification of the effects of tread groove depth is significant in assisting designers in designing proper footwear for workers exposed to slippery floor conditions. In this study, we measured the friction coefficients using the Neolite footwear pads on the terrazzo, steel, and vinyl floors under three liquid-contaminated conditions. A Brungraber Mark II slipmeter was used. The footwear pads had tread grooves with a width of either 3 or 9mm. The depth of the tread grooves ranged from 1 to 5mm. The results showed that tread groove depth affected the friction coefficients significantly. Higher friction values were recorded for footwear pads with deeper tread grooves on wet and water-detergent-contaminated floors. The averaged coefficient of friction (COF) gain per tread groove depth increase in millimeter under these two surface conditions ranged from 0.018 to 0.108, depending on the tread groove width, floor, and contaminant. PMID:16427022

  13. Identification of arsenobetaine in sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Riekwel-Booy, G.; Greef, M.C.; de Brauw, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Organo-arsenic has been isolated from sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by extraction or ion-exchange in combination with thin-layer chromatography. An alkaline digestion of the samples, followed by a reduction with sodiumborohydride leads to the formation of trimethylarsine. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) can be used to identify arsenobetaine in the isolates. Sufficient purification by thin-layer chromatography is found to be a prerequisite for the detection of a protonated molecular ion of arsenobetaine. If this situation is not met acid enchanced FDMS or Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry in high resolution can be used successfully.

  14. The Mathematics of Risk Classification: Changing Data into Valid Instruments for Juvenile Courts. NCJ 209158

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Don M.; Snyder, Howard N.

    2005-01-01

    This report is meant to help juvenile courts develop practical risk-screening instruments. Courts increasingly are using some method of risk classification to assist in assignment of youth to differential service/supervision programs. A comparison of commonly used or advocated risk classification methods may provide courts with guidance in…

  15. Psychiatric Symptoms of Children and Adolescents with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, M. L.; Santavuori, P. R.; Aberg, L. E.; Aronen, E. T.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in childhood and adolescence. The clinical picture includes diverse and complex psychiatric symptoms that are difficult to treat. Only symptomatic treatment is available. To improve symptomatic therapy, it is important to recognize the symptoms.…

  16. The Interaction between Juvenile School Fire Setting and Bullying: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Amy; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Boberg, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide school social workers with an outline of the indicators common to school fire setters regarding their experiences of bullying and victimization by bullies. A sample of juvenile fire setters (N = 379) between the ages of five and seventeen years attending a fire-setter intervention program completed a modified…

  17. Association with Delinquent Peers: Intervention Effects for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Although association with delinquent peers is a recognized precursor to ongoing delinquency problems, youth in the juvenile justice system are commonly prescribed intervention services that aggregate delinquent youth. However, little is known about the process variables that mediate the relationship between aggregating youth in intervention…

  18. Anchoring the Clade: Primate-Wide Comparative Analysis Supports the Relationship between Juvenile Interest in Infants and Adult Patterns of Infant Care.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Female-biased juvenile interest in infants is common in primates. Proposed hypotheses to explain juvenile infant interest are that it helps immature individuals learn to parent, is a by-product of selection on adult infant care behavior, is kin-selected cooperative rearing, or is a form of harassment. If juvenile infant interest is associated with adult infant care, either functionally or as a by-product, sex-biased patterns of juvenile infant interest and adult infant care should show correlated evolution; if juvenile infant interest functions as cooperative rearing or harassment, they should not. Comparisons of nested bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo models of independent and dependent evolution of juvenile infant interest and adult infant care indicate strong support for coevolution of juvenile infant interest and adult infant care. Expanding comparative analysis to include available data from lemurs strengthens this support, suggesting that the function of juvenile infant interest does not differ between strepsirrhines and haplorhines. As such, strepsirrhine taxa currently maintained in captivity will be particularly useful in future work aiming to test between the learning to parent and by-product hypotheses for juvenile infant interest. PMID:26022307

  19. Juvenile curfews: are they an effective and constitutional means of combating juvenile violence?

    PubMed

    Fried, C S

    2001-01-01

    Curfew ordinances have become a popular way to attempt to combat juvenile crime and victimization. Although the Supreme Court has yet to hear a curfew case, several constitutional challenges have been brought in lower federal courts. The cases are replete with psychological assumptions for which there is limited empirical evidence. In applying the "strict scrutiny" standard, several courts have also questioned whether juvenile curfews are narrowly tailored to further the State's interest in reducing juvenile crime and victimization. While public opinion and reports from several police jurisdictions support the utility of juvenile curfews, recent empirical studies indicate that curfews are not effective at reducing juvenile offending or victimization. This paper argues that the emerging evidence does not support the use of juvenile curfews and urges policy makers and the courts to examine the efficacy of curfew legislation. Directions for future research that could be helpful to the courts in applying the Bellotti factors to curfew cases are also suggested. PMID:11241685

  20. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too. PMID:23032673

  1. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors. PMID:26602194

  2. Sociologic perspectives on juvenile violence.

    PubMed

    Currie, E

    2000-10-01

    In sum, there are four sets of social factors that help us understand why juvenile violence appears when, and where, it does, and why some communities and entire societies are persistently wracked by youth violence whereas others are largely spared its worst expressions. When it comes to the first three factors in particular--deprivation, disorganization, and brutalization--the evidence for these links is as strong as anything in social science, and that evidence is supported by a variety of sources and a variety of methods of investigation. Such investigation includes the knowledge we gain through social intervention. Some of the most effective violence prevention programs are successful precisely because they confront and deflect the social forces that otherwise often lead to violence. Consider, for example, the home-visiting programs that work with poor parents in disorganized communities to lower the risks of child abuse; and some of the more "holistic" or "multisystemic" efforts to work with violent juvenile offenders. The best of these programs work by tackling the problems of social isolation and lack of supports in the community, as well as immediate issues of economic survival for vulnerable families and children. More generally, we know that the availability of steady and rewarding work in the future, of the kind that can reliably sustain a family, is one of the most important factors allowing some youths to "desist" from violence as they mature. These conclusions give us much to be encouraged about, and much to be alarmed about. On the one hand, understanding that youth violence often is rooted in a set of adverse social conditions that are identifiable, and potentially modifiable, is a fundamentally optimistic message. It reminds us that the level of juvenile violence we suffer in America today is neither fated nor inevitable. Other societies that are in many respects much like us suffer far less of it; so could we, and we increasingly understand some

  3. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the renin-angiotensin system genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858): differential gene regulation by salinity.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Cousin, Xavier; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Asensio, Esther; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the complete cDNA sequence encoding angiotensinogen (agt) in the euryhaline flatfish Senegalese sole was obtained. Additionally, putative coding sequences belonging to other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes including renin (ren), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), as well as angiotensin II receptor type I (agtr1) and type II (agtr2), were also identified. In juvenile tissues, agt transcripts were mainly detected in liver, ren in kidney, ace and ace2 in intestine, agtr1 in kidney and brain, and agtr2 in liver and kidney. Expression analysis of the six RAS genes after a salinity shift revealed a clear increase of agt mRNA abundance in liver just after transferring soles to high salinity water (60 ppt) with a peak at 48 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis in gills showed transcriptional regulation of ace and agtr1 at 48 h and agtr2 at 96 h after transferring soles to 60 ppt. Incubation of larvae before mouth opening (until 3 days post hatch; dph) at low salinity (10 ppt) resulted in a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of RAS genes. Nevertheless, no differences in mRNA abundance between salinities were observed when larvae were cultivated to low salinity after mouth opening. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) signal for agt and ace in 3 dph larvae incubated at 10 ppt and 35 ppt confirmed that the former gene was mainly expressed in liver whereas the later gene was mainly located in pharynx and posterior gut, without pronounced differences in intensity between salinities. Possible physiological significance of all these results is discussed. PMID:25645294

  4. Sole means navigation and integrity through hybrid Loran-C and NAVSTAR GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangraas, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A sole means navigation system does not only call for integrity, but also for coverage, reliability, availability and accuracy. Even though ground monitored GPS will provide integrity, availability is still not sufficient. One satellite outage can affect a large service area for several hours per day. The same holds for differential GPS; a total satellite outage cannot be corrected for. To obtain sufficient coverage, extra measurements are needed, either in the form of extra GPS satellites (expensive) or through redundant measurements from other systems. LORAN-C is available and will, hybridized with GPS, result in a system that has the potential to satisfy the requirements for a sole means navigation system for use in the continental United States. Assumptions are made about the qualification sole means, mainly based on current sole means systems such as VOR/DME. In order to allow for system design that will satisfy sole means requirements, it is recommended that a definition of a sole means navigation system be established. This definition must include requirements for availability, reliability, and integrity currently not specified. In addition to the definition of a sole means navigation system, certification requirements must be established for hybrid navigation systems. This will allow for design and production of a new generation of airborne navigation systems that will reduce overall system costs and simplify training procedures.

  5. Traction characteristics of chemical agent protective footwear soleing materials. Final technical report, October 1991-January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Static Coefficient of Friction (SCF) values were determined for several footwear soleing materials on different walkway surfaces, and for different surface conditions, to establish which soleing materials provided the best traction performance for shipboard application. The soleing materials evaluated included a standard Navy safety boot with nitrile rubber sole, a Vibram nitrile commercial sole, the Army's prototype nitrile/ neoprene multipurpose overboot (MULO) and vinyl overshoe, and three butyl chemical protective footwear covers. The walkway surfaces employed were stainless steel, aluminum, and new and worn non-skid coated steel. The SCF values were obtained with the surfaces dry, wet, and contaminated with oil. The ASTM Standard Test Method for Static Coefficient of Friction of Shoe Sole and Heel Materials, as measured by the James Machine, was used to determine the SCF values. The standard and MULO nitriles performed best when all walkway surfaces and conditions were considered. The excellent chemical resistance of the nitriles, and their high SCF values for a variety of surfaces and surface conditions evaluated in this study, makes them good candidate soleing materials for chemical agent protective footwear.

  6. Social reward among juvenile mice

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, J B; Lahvis, G P

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian social relationships, such as mother–offspring attachments and pair bonds, can directly affect reproductive output. However, conspecifics approach one another in a comparatively broad range of contexts, so conceivably there are motivations for social congregation other than those underlying reproduction, parental care or territoriality. Here, we show that reward mediated by social contact is a fundamental aspect of juvenile mouse sociality. Employing a novel social conditioned place preference (SCPP) procedure, we demonstrate that social proximity is rewarding for juvenile mice from three inbred strains (A/J, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), while mice from a fourth strain (BALB/cJ) are much less responsive to social contact. Importantly, this strain-dependent difference was not related to phenotypic variability in exploratory behavior or contextual learning nor influenced by the genetic background associated with maternal care or social conditioning. Furthermore, the SCPP phenotype was expressed early in development (postnatal day 25) and did not require a specific sex composition within the conditioning group. Finally, SCPP responses resulted from an interaction between two specifiable processes: one component of the interaction facilitated approach toward environments that were associated with social salience, whereas a second component mediated avoidance of environmental cues that predicted social isolation. We have thus identified a genetically prescribed process that can attribute value onto conditions predicting a general form of social contact. To our knowledge, this is the first definitive evidence to show that genetic variation can influence a form of social valuation not directly related to a reproductive behavior. PMID:17212648

  7. [The complete mitochondrial genome of peacock sole Pardachirus pavoninus (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) and comparative analysis of the control region among 13 soles].

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Shi, W; Si, L-Z; Wang, Z-M; Kong, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the peacock sole Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède, 1802) was determined. The total length is 16 536 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes, as well as one control region (CR). The L-strand replication origin (OL), which is typically located in the WANCY cluster, is lost in P. pavoninus. The gene arrangement is identical to that in most teleosts. Comparison of the CR sequences among 13 soles reveals that a 211-bp fragment at the 5'-end of the CR is lost in the P. pavoninus mitogenome, responsible for its short sequence with a length of 872 bp. All typical conservative blocks (TAS, CSB-F, E, D, C, B, A, CSB-1, 2, 3) are identified. Seven out of 13 soles contain tandem repeats in the CR and the possible mechanisms of their formation are discussed. These results may provide the consensus sequences of the conserved units in the sole CR as well as molecular data for phylogenetic studies on Soleidae and Pleuronectiformes. PMID:26107900

  8. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0°C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19°C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon

  9. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, H A; Kvasnicka, J

    1978-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl with seronegative systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis developed acute cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis and systemic corticosteroids resulted in complete recovery of the pericardial involvement. This was followed by complete remission of rheumatoid disease. Images PMID:686861

  10. Juvenile Arthritis: Discoveries Lead to Newer Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Juvenile Arthritis: Discoveries Lead to Newer Treatments Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... better for different subgroups of the disease. In recent years, FDA has approved several of these treatments. ...

  11. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups. PMID:25431437

  12. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by a shortage of calcium and other minerals in bones (decreased bone mineral density), which makes the bones brittle and prone ... protein is involved in the regulation of bone mineral density. LRP5 gene mutations that cause juvenile primary ...

  13. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  14. Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R A; Page, R C; Wilde, G

    1977-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated in nine patients with juvenile periodontitis, with normal subjects and patients with the adult form of periodontitis as controls. Defective chemotactic responses were observed in neutrophils from seven of nine juvenile patients, and a reduced level of complement-derived chemotactic activity was demonstrated in serum from four patients. These determinations were normal in all the patients with adult periodontitis. Serum from five of the juvenile patients contained a heat-stable, non-dialyzable factor that markedly inhibited the chemotaxis of normal neutrophils. Thus the characteristic tissue destruction seen in juvenile periodontitis may be, at least in part, a consequence of a failure of host defense mechanisms. PMID:591063

  15. Juvenile participation in conversations with probation officers.

    PubMed

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Stevens, Gonneke

    2012-05-01

    Juvenile probation work comprises a mixture of repressive and empowering strategies, since probation officers need to control young offenders' conduct and at the same time help the offender to take responsibility and live life within the margins of society. This ambiguous nature of juvenile probation work may confuse the communication between probation officers and juveniles. Interviews with offenders of Moroccan origin and their probation officers in the Netherlands show that both parties are unhappy with the mutual communication. According to the youngsters, a restrictive policy is inevitable but might be more effective if this would go together with an empowering approach. Interactional analysis of the conversations shows that the lack of juvenile participation is caused by professional conversational dominance, as seen in topic control, poor role clarification, and a cross-examining style of the conversations. PMID:21429957

  16. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    El Assar de la Fuente, S; Angenete, O; Jellestad, S; Tzaribachev, N; Koos, B; Rosendahl, K

    2016-05-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease of childhood and represents a series of chronic inflammatory arthritides of unknown cause. Involvement of the temporomandibular joint has been reported in up to 87% of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis when based on magnetic tomography imaging; it can be asymptomatic and may lead to severe long term complications. In this review a summary of the contemporary literature of imaging of the temporomandibular joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis will be provided, including ultrasound which is a valuable method for guided joint injections, but does not necessarily allow detection of acute inflammation, cone beam computed tomography, which has emerged as a feasible and accurate low-dose alternative as compared to conventional computed tomography to detect destructive change, and magnetic resonance imaging which is considered the method of choice for assessing acute, inflammatory change, although the lack of normative standards remains a challenge in children. PMID:26924432

  17. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:26084946

  18. Female Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Understanding Who They Are and Possible Steps That May Prevent Some Girls From Offending.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Brian E; Holmes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that sexual abuse committed by females is not rare and can be just as traumatic as sexual abuse committed by males. Despite the increased recognition given to sex offending by adult women, however, very little attention has been given to sex offenses committed by juvenile females. There has further been very little published material that has focused specifically on intervening with female children and adolescents before they offend. In an attempt to fill this gap, this article describes common characteristics of juvenile female sex offenders, ways in which juvenile female sex offenders are similar to and different from juvenile male sex offenders, and the limitations that exist related to our knowledge about these offenders. Based on this information, suggestions are given for possible ways to intervene in the lives of at-risk female youth before they offend. PMID:26340075

  19. Social factors leading to juvenile delinquency.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, T

    1996-12-01

    According to the White Paper on Crime 1994 published by the Ministry of Justice in Japan, the delinquent rate in Japan was highest when juveniles were approximately 14 to 16 years old, and declined as they grew older. The analysis of juvenile offenders in Japan showed that 70% of them had two living parents, 90% of them from families which were financially stable or affluent. The breakdown of their parents attitudes showed, however, that 48.2% were classified as neglectful, followed by harshness at 30.3% and spoiling or overprotection at 17.3% in 1993 in Japan. In the following, social factors leading to juvenile delinquency were reviewed. Factors leading to juvenile delinquency were classified into social factors, school factors and home factors, and recent findings concerning those three factors were explained. A fairly clear outlook on the efforts required by society, schools and families to reduce juvenile delinquency was shown by revealing important factors leading juveniles to delinquency. PMID:9023445

  20. Self-reported suicidal behavior in juvenile offenders in custody: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jenny; Hawton, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates in prisons in England and Wales are high, including those in juvenile detention centers. Previous deliberate self-harm (DSH) is the strongest predictor of suicide in the general population. There is limited information on how many juvenile offenders (15 to 18 year-olds) have a history of DSH at the time of entering custody, or on factors associated with previous DSH. We aimed to determine the prevalence of previous DSH and suicidal ideation in a population of juvenile offenders in custody and to identify factors associated with DSH and suicidal ideation. Seven out of 45 subjects (15.6%) reported an act of DSH in the past. Twelve (26.6%) reported past suicidal ideation. Peer relationship difficulties and sexual abuse were significantly associated with DSH (p < 0.05). Other factors showed a trend toward being more common among those with DSH, but the premature ending of the project by the juvenile detention center prevented full investigation of the extent of DSH and associated factors. Nevertheless, the results indicated a much higher rate of DSH in this population than in young males in the community. A larger joint project with juvenile detention centers is required to confirm the extent of previous DSH at the time young offenders are admitted, and the associated risk factors, in order to assist prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:15384651

  1. Indirect consequences of fishing: reduction of coralline algae suppresses juvenile coral abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, J. K.; Potts, D. C.; Braga, J. C.; McClanahan, T. R.

    2012-06-01

    Removing predatory fishes has effects that cascade through ecosystems via interactions between species and functional groups. In Kenyan reef lagoons, fishing-induced trophic cascades produce sea urchin-dominated grazing communities that greatly reduce the overall cover of crustose coralline algae (CCA). Certain species of CCA enhance coral recruitment by chemically inducing coral settlement. If sea urchin grazing reduces cover of settlement-inducing CCA, coral recruitment and hence juvenile coral abundance may also decline on fished reefs. To determine whether fishing-induced changes in CCA influence coral recruitment and abundance, we compared (1) CCA taxonomic compositions and (2) taxon-specific associations between CCA and juvenile corals under three fisheries management systems: closed, gear-restricted, and open-access. On fished reefs (gear-restricted and open-access), abundances of two species of settlement-inducing CCA, Hydrolithon reinboldii and H. onkodes, were half those on closed reefs. On both closed and fished reefs, juveniles of four common coral families (Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, Agariciidae, and Faviidae) were more abundant on Hydrolithon than on any other settlement substrate. Coral densities were positively correlated with Hydrolithon spp. cover and were significantly lower on fished than on closed reefs, suggesting that fishing indirectly reduces coral recruitment or juvenile success over large spatial scales via reduction in settlement-inducing CCA. Therefore, managing reefs for higher cover of settlement-inducing CCA may enhance coral recruitment or juvenile survival and help to maintain the ecological and structural stability of reefs.

  2. Sole hospital commitment to health promotion and disease prevention (HPDP) services: does ownership matter?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Carretta, Henry J; Hurley, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Hospitals have been increasingly involved in health promotion and disease prevention (HPDP) in the last two decades. Concurrent with this trend, environmental changes and market pressures have resulted in more hospital consolidations and conversions from not-for-profit (NFP) to for-profit (FP) organizations. The emergence of a large number of sole community hospitals has attracted the attention of policy-makers and community stakeholders because sole community hospitals have more power in the local market and may discontinue unprofitable services to pursue profit maximization. This may be especially true when the sole hospital is a FP organization. On the other hand, sole community hospitals are confronted with a variety of expectations to offer community-oriented services that promote community population health, regardless of ownership. There is relatively little literature that has attempted to examine the behavior of sole community hospitals. This study depicts the profile of sole hospitals' involvement in HPDP services and estimates the possible influence of community constituencies on hospitals with respect to their providing community-oriented services. The results indicate that typically, when there is only one hospital in the community, hospital ownership has no significant influence on hospital HPDP services than their NPD counterparts. Implications for policy-makers and health care leaders are also discussed. PMID:15330381

  3. The structure of the SOLE element of oskar mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Bernd; Masiewicz, Pawel; Ephrussi, Anne; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    mRNA localization by active transport is a regulated process that requires association of mRNPs with protein motors for transport along either the microtubule or the actin cytoskeleton. oskar mRNA localization at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte requires a specific mRNA sequence, termed the SOLE, which comprises nucleotides of both exon 1 and exon 2 and is assembled upon splicing. The SOLE folds into a stem–loop structure. Both SOLE RNA and the exon junction complex (EJC) are required for oskar mRNA transport along the microtubules by kinesin. The SOLE RNA likely constitutes a recognition element for a yet unknown protein, which either belongs to the EJC or functions as a bridge between the EJC and the mRNA. Here, we determine the solution structure of the SOLE RNA by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. We show that the SOLE forms a continuous helical structure, including a few noncanonical base pairs, capped by a pentanucleotide loop. The helix displays a widened major groove, which could accommodate a protein partner. In addition, the apical helical segment undergoes complex dynamics, with potential functional significance. PMID:26089324

  4. Growth of Escherichia coli Coexpressing Phosphotriesterase and Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase, Using Paraoxon as the Sole Phosphorus Source

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Sean Yu; Jackson, Colin; Liu, Jian-Wei; Ollis, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphotriesterases catalyze the hydrolytic detoxification of phosphotriester pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents with various efficiencies. The directed evolution of phosphotriesterases to enhance the breakdown of poor substrates is desirable for the purposes of bioremediation. A limiting factor in the identification of phosphotriesterase mutants with increased activity is the ability to effectively screen large mutant libraries. To this end, we have investigated the possibility of coupling phosphotriesterase activity to cell growth by using methyl paraoxon as the sole phosphorus source. The catabolism of paraoxon to phosphate would occur via the stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis of paraoxon to dimethyl phosphate, methyl phosphate, and then phosphate. The Escherichia coli strain DH10B expressing the phosphotriesterase from Agrobacterium radiobacter P230 (OpdA) is unable to grow when paraoxon is used as the sole phosphorus source. Enterobacter aerogenes is an organism capable of growing when dimethyl phosphate is the sole phosphorus source. The enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing dimethyl phosphate has been previously characterized as a nonspecific phosphohydrolase. We isolated and characterized the genes encoding the phosphohydrolase operon. The operon was identified from a shotgun clone that enabled E. coli to grow when dimethyl phosphate is the sole phosphorus source. E. coli coexpressing the phosphohydrolase and OpdA grew when paraoxon was the sole phosphorus source. By constructing a short degradative pathway, we have enabled E. coli to use phosphotriesters as a sole source of phosphorus. PMID:14711669

  5. First pressure- and temperature estimates of the metamorphic sole of the Pinarbasi ophiolite, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Kalijn; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje; Drury, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    Ophiolites are interpreted as remnants of oceanic lithosphere. Many have a so-called supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signature, suggestive of formation at a spreading ridge overlying a subduction zone. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites frequently have a several-hundred-meter thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: the metamorphic sole. These dominantly mafic and generally heavily sheared metamorphic rocks have been shown to preserve an inverted metamorphic gradient with the highest pressures and temperatures at the top of the sole, decreasing downwards. Pressure estimates from rocks found at the top of metamorphic soles may be as much as 10-15 kbar with temperature estimates up to 875°C. The metamorphic grade varies from greenschist near the base, up to granulite facies at the top, with the bulk comprising of amphibolite facies rocks. At some locations a blueschist overprint of the amphibolite facies mineral assemblages has been described. The relative high pressures preserved in the metamorphic sole cannot simply result from overburden pressure of the currently overlying ophiolite, which is a long-standing problem. This raises the question of what process(es) can explain pressures up to 10-15 kbar in the top of metamorphic soles, in relation to the approximately synchronous formation of the SSZ oceanic lithosphere above the sole. One of the places to study the formation of SSZ ophiolites and their metamorphic soles is the Neotethyan Suture zone. Remnants of Neotethyan lithosphere are preserved as ophiolites that are discontinuously exposed from the Mediterranean region through the Himalaya to SE Asia. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites are particularly widespread in Turkey. The Pinarbaşi ophiolite is located in the SE of Central Anatolia, and overlies the Tauride fold-and-thrust belt that formed since the Late Cretaceous. It comprises mantle tectonites consisting of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite with remnants of gabbro to the

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  7. Reducing Racial Disparities in Juvenile Detention. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoytt, Eleanor Hinton; Schiraldi, Vincent; Smith, Brenda V.; Ziedenberg, Jason

    In 1992, the Annie E. Casey Foundation launched a multiyear, multisite project known as the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). This report focuses on reducing racial disparities in juvenile detention. The number of youth held in secure detention nationwide increased by 72% from 1985 to 1995. During this period, the number of white…

  8. Collaboration and Leadership in Juvenile Detention Reform. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Kathleen

    This report addresses governance and leadership prerequisites for implementing specific strategies essential to juvenile detention reform. Chapter 1, "Why Are Collaboration and Leadership Essential to Detention Reform?" discusses principles of collaboration and leadership that emerged from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI).…

  9. Tracking Juvenile Recidivists: Three Options for Creating Statewide, Longitudinal Records of Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Teresa L.

    This document describes three options for a statewide statistical system for tracking recidivism of juvenile delinquents placed outside their homes in treatment programs. The information is intended for use by the state in allocating resources. The options described involve potential use of juvenile court records, placement data, and/or…

  10. Characteristics of Crimes against Juveniles. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This Bulletin reviews data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's 1997 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data file that pertain to juvenile victims, revealing that while juveniles made up 26% of the population of the 12 states participating in NIBRS in 1997, they accounted for only 12% of the reported crime victims. At the same…

  11. Creation of the sole regional laser lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kenneth J.; O’Keefe, Scott; Légaré, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing need for laser lead extraction has grown in parallel with the increase of implantation of pacing and defibrillating devices. We reviewed the initial experience of a regional laser-assisted lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all consecutive patients who underwent laser lead extraction at the Maritime Heart Centre in Halifax, NS, between 2006 and 2015. We conducted univariate and Kaplan–Meier survivorship analyses. Results During the 9-year study period, 108 consecutive patients underwent laser lead extractions (218 leads extracted). The most common indication for extraction was infection (84.3%). Most patients were older than 60 years (73.1%) and had leads chronically implanted; the explanted leads were an average of 7.5 ± 6.8 years old. Procedural and clinical success (resolution of preoperative symptoms) rates and mortality were 96.8%, 97.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. Sternotomy procedures were performed in 3 instances: once for vascular repair due to perforation and twice to ensure that all infected lead material was removed. No minor complications required surgical intervention. Survival after discharge was 98.4% at 30 days and 94% at 12 months. Conclusion Atlantic Canada’s sole surgical extraction centre achieved high extraction success with a low complication rate. Lead extraction in an operative setting provides for immediate surgical intervention and is essential for the survival of patients with complicated cases. Surgeons must weigh the risks versus benefits in patients older than 60 years who have chronically implanted leads (> 1 yr) and infection. PMID:26999473

  12. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain. PMID:26224442

  13. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012-February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.

    2014-01-01

    The in-reservoir movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were studied at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, near Detroit, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. The goal of the study was to provide data to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives and factors affecting downstream passage rates with the existing dam configuration. In 2012, 468 juvenile Chinook salmon and 200 juvenile steelhead were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 514 juvenile Chinook salmon were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the fall. The fish were surgically implanted with a small acoustic transmitter with an expected life of about 3 months and a passive integrated transponder tag with an indefinite life, and were released into the two main tributaries several kilometers upstream of the reservoir. Juvenile Chinook salmon migrated from the release sites to the reservoir in a greater proportion than juvenile steelhead, but once in the reservoir, juvenile steelhead migrated to the forebay faster and had a higher dam passage rate than juvenile Chinook salmon. The routes available for passing water and fish varied throughout the year, with low reservoir elevations in winter and high reservoir elevations in summer in accordance with the flood-control purpose of the dam. Most dam passage was through the spillway during the spring and summer, when the reservoir elevation was high and the spillway and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation, and via the powerhouse during the fall and winter period, when the reservoir elevation was low and the regulating outlet and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation. Few tagged fish passed when the powerhouse was the only route in operation. Dam passage rates during the spring and summer were greatest at night, increased with dam discharge, and were greater when water was passed freely over the

  14. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  15. The Etiology of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato; Bosco, Annalisa; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Over the years, the commonly used term to describe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed. By definition, JIA includes all types of arthritis with no apparent cause, lasting more than 6 weeks, in patients aged less than 16 years at onset. JIA pathogenesis is still poorly understood: the interaction between environmental factors and multiple genes has been proposed as the most relevant working mechanism to the development of JIA. The concept that various microbes that colonize or infect not only the mucosal surfaces, like the oral cavity, but also the airways and gut might trigger autoimmune processes, resulting in chronic arthritides, and JIA was first drafted at the outset of last century. JIA development might be initiated and sustained by the exposure to environmental factors, including infectious agents which affect people at a young age, depending on the underlying genetic predisposition to synovial inflammation. Many data from patients with JIA suggest a scenario in which different external antigens incite multiple antigen-specific pathways, cytotoxic T cell responses, activation of classical complement cascade, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, emphasis is paid not only to the potential role of parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in primis but also to the general involvement of different bacteria as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and Streptococcus pyogenes for the development of immune-mediated arthritides during childhood. No unequivocal evidence favoring or refuting these associations has been clearly proved, and today, the strict definition of JIA etiology remains unknown. The infection can represent a random event in a susceptible individual, or it can be a necessary factor in JIA development, always in combination with a peculiar genetic background. Further studies are needed in order to address the unsolved questions

  16. Juvenile pleomorphic adenoma of masticator space: The first case report

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Rajat G.; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Panda, Swagatika; Lenka, Sthitaprajna; Padhiary, Subrat Kumar; Bhuyan, Ruchi; Bhuyan, Sanat

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), also called benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. About 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland and 10% in the minor salivary glands. Juvenile PAs are uncommon and about 5-10% of minor salivary gland PA affects patients aged 20 years and under. The most common sites of PA of the minor salivary glands are the palate followed by lips and cheek. Other rare reported sites include the throat, floor of the mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx, retromolar area and nasal cavity. The masticator space is a deep facial space with a complex anatomical structure where PA is not known to occur. Here, we report an unusual case of PA of left masticator space in a 16-year-old girl patient, which to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case in English language literature. PMID:24403803

  17. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  18. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  19. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  20. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  1. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  2. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  3. Juvenile Crime Control and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1997. Report from the Committee on Education and the Workforce, Together with Dissenting and Minority Views [To Accompany H.R. 1818], House of Representatives, 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    In view of the dramatic increase in juvenile delinquency, a two-track common sense approach including quality prevention programs and programs that assist in holding juveniles accountable for their actions is presented by the Committee on Education and the Workforce to the House of Representatives recommending that HR 1818 be passed. Title I…

  4. Development of cooperative territoriality in juvenile lions.

    PubMed

    Heinsohn, R; Packer, C; Pusey, A E

    1996-04-22

    African lions, Panthera leo, engage in many cooperative activities including hunting, care of young, and group territoriality, but the contribution of juvenile lions to these activities has never been documented. Here we present experimental evidence that juvenile lionesses make a gradual transition to group-territorial defence between weaning (8 months) and sexual maturity (42 months). When challenged by simulated intruders played from a loud-speaker, juvenile females (but not males) become progressively more likely to join the adult females in territorial defence with age, and their behaviour is affected by both the number of defending adults and the number of intruders. We interpret the ability of juveniles to assess relative numbers as an adaptation for assessing the risk of territorial conflict according to their own fighting ability, and the ability of their pride of successfully defend the territory. The difference between the sexes reflects the greater value of the natal territory to philopatric females. Adult females display a variety of strategies when defending the territory, including unconditional and conditional forms of cooperation. We show here that individuals display the rudiments of these strategies as juveniles. PMID:8637927

  5. Association of digital cushion thickness with sole temperature measured with the use of infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, G; Trojacanec, P; Ganda, E K; Bicalho, M L S; Bicalho, R C

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between digital cushion thickness and sole temperature measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected from 216 lactating Holstein cows at 4 to 10d in milk (DIM). Cows were locomotion scored and sole temperature was measured after claw trimming (a minimum delay of 3 min was allowed for the hoof to cool) using an infrared thermography camera. Temperature was measured at the typical ulcer site of the lateral digit of the left hind foot. Immediately after the thermographic image was obtained, the thickness of the digital cushion was measured by ultrasonography. Rumen fluid samples were collected with a stomach tube and sample pH was measured immediately after collection. Additionally, a blood sample was obtained and used for measurements of serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and haptoglobin. To evaluate the associations of digital cushion thickness with sole temperature, a linear regression model was built using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Sole temperature was the response variable, and digital cushion thickness quartiles, locomotion score group, rumen fluid pH, rumen fluid sample volume, environmental temperature, age in days, and serum levels of NEFA, BHBA, and haptoglobin were fitted in the model. Only significant variables were retained in the final model. Simple linear regression scatter plots were used to illustrate associations between sole temperature (measured by infrared thermography at the typical ulcer site) and environmental temperature and between NEFA and BHBA serum levels and haptoglobin. One-way ANOVA was used to compare rumen fluid pH for different locomotion score groups and for different digital cushion quartiles. Results from the multivariable linear regression model showed that sole temperature increased as locomotion scores increased and decreased as digital cushion thickness

  6. ConSole: using modularity of Contact maps to locate Solenoid domains in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Periodic proteins, characterized by the presence of multiple repeats of short motifs, form an interesting and seldom-studied group. Due to often extreme divergence in sequence, detection and analysis of such motifs is performed more reliably on the structural level. Yet, few algorithms have been developed for the detection and analysis of structures of periodic proteins. Results ConSole recognizes modularity in protein contact maps, allowing for precise identification of repeats in solenoid protein structures, an important subgroup of periodic proteins. Tests on benchmarks show that ConSole has higher recognition accuracy as compared to Raphael, the only other publicly available solenoid structure detection tool. As a next step of ConSole analysis, we show how detection of solenoid repeats in structures can be used to improve sequence recognition of these motifs and to detect subtle irregularities of repeat lengths in three solenoid protein families. Conclusions The ConSole algorithm provides a fast and accurate tool to recognize solenoid protein structures as a whole and to identify individual solenoid repeat units from a structure. ConSole is available as a web-based, interactive server and is available for download at http://console.sanfordburnham.org. PMID:24766872

  7. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  8. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  9. Diet overlap between juvenile flatfish and the invasive round goby in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Florin, A. B.; Kruze, E.; Zilniece, D.; Elferts, D.; Knospina, E.; Uzars, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study offers a comprehensive analysis of changes in the abundance and diet composition of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus) and turbot (Psetta maxima), along with other dominant coastal fish species, before and after the establishment of the alien round goby off an exposed stretch of coast in the eastern Baltic Sea. In the study area, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was recorded for the first time in 2009. After a few years of low abundance, a sharp increase in the population occurred. After the round goby invasion, flatfish juveniles exhibited an increased diet overlap with other species and had a lower feeding success, reflecting an increase in resource competition. For juvenile turbot, the increase was mainly caused by the round goby, while for flounder it was due to both the round goby and the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus). Juvenile turbot, whose dominant food item before the round goby establishment had been mysids, shifted their diet towards Crangon crangon, reflecting a decrease in mysid abundance by three orders of magnitude and a concurrent doubling in C. crangon abundance in the habitat. At the same time a significant decrease in turbot recruitment was observed. Juvenile flounder had the widest food spectrum of the studied species. When the availability of the primary food item, Bathyporeia pilosa, decreased, flounder juveniles adapted by increasing the share of zooplankton in their diets. No changes in flounder feeding success and recruitment were observed. However, the recruitment estimates of flounder and turbot show an increasing co-variation after the round goby invasion, suggesting that recruitment of the species may currently be regulated by processes in the common nursery habitat.

  10. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s. PMID:2122167

  11. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers. PMID:26084948

  12. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of the jaws

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, N; Radhika, T; Thamizhchelvan, H; Ravindran, C; Ramkumar, S; Giri, GVV; Gopal, Deepika

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon, benign, bone-forming neoplasm with aggressive local growth that is distinguished from other fibro-osseous lesions primarily by its age of onset, clinical presentation and aggressive behavior. Although a benign entity, juvenile ossifying fibroma is known to be locally aggressive and has a high tendency to recur. Two distinctive microscopic patterns have been described: A trabecular variant and a psammomatoid variant. This latter variant is predominantly a craniofacial lesion and occurs rarely in the jaws. We present herein two cases of psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma involving the jaws. The first case was a mandibular lesion in a 31-year-old female whereas the second case presented with maxillary involvement in a 46-year-old female. In addition, the pathology of the lesion was analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:22144839

  13. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Malathi, N; Radhika, T; Thamizhchelvan, H; Ravindran, C; Ramkumar, S; Giri, Gvv; Gopal, Deepika

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon, benign, bone-forming neoplasm with aggressive local growth that is distinguished from other fibro-osseous lesions primarily by its age of onset, clinical presentation and aggressive behavior. Although a benign entity, juvenile ossifying fibroma is known to be locally aggressive and has a high tendency to recur. Two distinctive microscopic patterns have been described: A trabecular variant and a psammomatoid variant. This latter variant is predominantly a craniofacial lesion and occurs rarely in the jaws. We present herein two cases of psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma involving the jaws. The first case was a mandibular lesion in a 31-year-old female whereas the second case presented with maxillary involvement in a 46-year-old female. In addition, the pathology of the lesion was analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:22144839

  14. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents. PMID:11915414

  15. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  16. Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist overprint: early obduction dynamics witnessed by W. Turkey ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating

  17. Evidence for neurotoxicity associated with amoxicillin in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Atli, O; Demir-Ozkay, U; Ilgin, S; Aydin, T H; Akbulut, E N; Sener, E

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, and childhood is the period to have the highest risk for toxicity cases including drug-induced adverse reactions. Some neurological adverse effects (anxiety, hyperactivity, confusion, convulsions, and behavioral changes) have been reported related to AMX treatment. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of AMX administration at clinically relevant doses in female juvenile rats. AMX was administered in single oral daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days. According to our results, while AMX administration caused a significant increase in the immobility time of animals, swimming time of these animals significantly decreased. AMX administration significantly reduced the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. The serotonin levels of brain tissues in the AMX-administered groups were decreased significantly, which is thought to be related to depression. The glutamate levels in brain tissues increased significantly in AMX-administered groups, which is thought to be related to convulsion. Otherwise, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly decreased in brain tissues of AMX-administered groups. In conclusion, AMX administration triggered depression and shortened the time of the appearance of first seizure in juvenile rats. Also, altered brain neurotransmitter levels and increased oxidative stress observed in our study were thought to be the possible underlying mechanisms of AMX-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26429924

  18. Juvenile probation officers' mental health decision making.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Gail A; McReynolds, Larkin S; Whited, Andria L; Keating, Joseph M; Musabegovic, Hana; Huo, Yanling

    2008-09-01

    We reviewed case records for 583 juvenile delinquency intakes in four county juvenile probation offices; 14.4% were receiving mental health or substance use services at case opening, and 24.9% were newly identified during probation contact. Youths were significantly more likely to be newly identified if they were repeat offenders, if their probation officer knew more about mental health and if they resided in a county without a shortage of available mental health professionals. Probation officers were especially likely to underidentify internalizing disorders. Policy implications for promoting identification of mental health needs and improving linkage to community service providers are discussed. PMID:18642071

  19. First isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from wedge sole, Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau).

    PubMed

    López, J R; Núñez, S; Magariños, B; Castro, N; Navas, J I; de la Herran, R; Toranzo, A E

    2009-07-01

    The first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from wedge sole, Dicologoglossa cuneata, is reported. The pathogen was recovered from ulcers of cultured fish, from three different outbreaks. The six isolates obtained were biochemically and serologically characterized and diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic group; however, they belong to two of the different serotypes described within this species. A virulence evaluation of the isolates using Wedge sole fry was also performed. PMID:19486238

  20. SOLE: Applying Semantics and Social Web to Support Technology Enhanced Learning in Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Jiménez-López, Diego; García-Crespo, Ángel; Blanco-Iglesias, Borja

    eLearning educative processes are a challenge for educative institutions and education professionals. In an environment in which learning resources are being produced, catalogued and stored using innovative ways, SOLE provides a platform in which exam questions can be produced supported by Web 2.0 tools, catalogued and labeled via semantic web and stored and distributed using eLearning standards. This paper presents, SOLE, a social network of exam questions sharing particularized for Software Engineering domain, based on semantics and built using semantic web and eLearning standards, such as IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification 2.1.

  1. Juveniles in Adult Jails and Lockups: It's Your Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    Issues relevant to juveniles in adult jails are discussed in this guide which is designed to aid concerned citizens who want to promote public interest and support for the removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. Statistics on the number of juveniles in adult jails, their ages, seriousness of offenses, and suicide rate are given. The…

  2. Juvenile Justice and Public Policy: Toward a National Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ira M., Ed.

    Some of the most critical and troubling issues in juvenile justice are addressed to serve as a catalyst and resource for developing sound juvenile justice public policy decisions. The following chapters examine juvenile court policies, special issues, and cost-effective interventions, and present findings of a national survey of public attitudes…

  3. Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes: Serious Criminality by Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    The increasingly serious nature of juvenile criminal behavior has led to greater efforts to understand the roots, causes, and correlates of juvenile violence and chronic delinquency, as well as develop more effective means of identifying at-risk youth and treating serious and violent juvenile offenders. This book examines the realities and…

  4. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  5. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  6. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  7. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  8. Promoting Better Interaction between Juvenile Court, Schools, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Lili Frank; Nelson, Renelle

    2004-01-01

    The PACER Center is advocating for greater involvement of parents whose children have become involved in the juvenile justice system. Coalition for Juvenile Justice reported in January 2004 that of the 300,000 to 600,000 juveniles who cycle through detention facilities after arrest awaiting legal action, more than half are under 16 years of age…

  9. Best Practices in Juvenile Accountability: Overview. JAIBG Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Marty

    This bulletin examines the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) program, which asserts that juvenile offenders should be held accountable for their crimes as a matter of basic justice and to prevent and deter delinquency. It reviews the developmental perspective shaping…

  10. Race, Legal Representation, and Juvenile Justice: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Lori; Spohn, Cassia; Herz, Denise

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of type of counsel across race on juvenile court outcomes. Using data from a sample of juvenile court referrals from two midwestern juvenile courts, this study examined the interaction of race and type of counsel on disposition outcome. The results indicated that youth without an attorney…

  11. Short- and long-term metabolic responses to diets with different protein:carbohydrate ratios in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858).

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Duarte, Marta M; Pelusio, Nicole F; Soengas, José L; Valente, Luísa M P

    2016-06-01

    Four isolipidic and isoenergetic diets with different protein:carbohydrate (CH) contents (48:38, 52:34, 56:30, 60:26) were fed to juvenile Senegalese sole (22·01 (sem 0·01) g) during 104 d. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at the beginning (4 d) and at the end (104 d) of the experiment to assess the effect of the dietary treatment on glucose tolerance. Samples of blood, liver and muscle of all dietary groups were also obtained at the initial and final phases of the trial at different postprandial times (0, 1, 5 and 10 h after feeding) in order to analyse glucose and NEFA in plasma, and metabolites and enzyme activities involved in glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis pathways in liver and muscle. The results obtained in this study suggest a good glucose tolerance in Senegalese sole. This species tolerated important amounts of CH in the diet without showing any deleterious signs in terms of growth or any metabolic disorders. After 104 d of feeding diets with an important amount of CH (48:38 and 52:34), the control of glycaemia was maintained and even postprandial glucose levels in plasma were (in general) lower than at the beginning of the experiment. This reasonable tolerance to glucose is also reflected by an increased use of glucose through glycolysis in liver (indicated by glucokinase activity), and the absence of changes in lipogenic potential in the same tissue (indicated by ATP citrate lyase activity). No clear changes were induced in the muscle by the dietary treatments. PMID:27046056

  12. Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT): an actuarial risk assessment tool for predicting problematic child-rearing situations in juvenile offenders on the basis of police records.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2013-12-01

    In the juvenile justice system, much attention is paid to estimating the risk for recidivism among juvenile offenders. However, it is also important to estimate the risk for problematic child-rearing situations (care needs) in juvenile offenders, because these problems are not always related to recidivism. In the present study, an actuarial care needs assessment tool for juvenile offenders, the Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT), was developed to predict the probability of (a) a future supervision order imposed by the child welfare agency, (b) a future entitlement to care indicated by the youth care agency, and (c) future incidents involving child abuse, domestic violence, and/or sexual norm trespassing behavior at the juvenile's address. The YO-CNAT has been developed for use by the police and is based solely on information available in police registration systems. It is designed to assist a police officer without clinical expertise in making a quick assessment of the risk for problematic child-rearing situations. The YO-CNAT was developed on a sample of 1,955 juvenile offenders and was validated on another sample of 2,045 juvenile offenders. The predictive validity (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve) scores ranged between .70 (for predicting future entitlement to care) and .75 (for predicting future worrisome incidents at the juvenile's address); therefore, the predictive accuracy of the test scores of the YO-CNAT was sufficient to justify its use as a screening instrument for the police in deciding to refer a juvenile offender to the youth care agency for further assessment into care needs. PMID:23815118

  13. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    PubMed

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency. PMID:27046512

  14. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  15. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  16. Pharmacokinetics of sulfamonomethoxine in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) after intravenous and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Xin; Li, Jing-Bao; Wang, Ying-Zi; Li, Jian

    2014-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) were investigated in flatfish tongue soles in the present study. After a single injection of SMM (40 mg/kg BW) to caudal vein of tongue sole at 20 °C, plasma drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model, characterized with 0.2, 5.7, and 80.4 h for the half-life (t 1/2) of fast distribution, slow distribution, and elimination, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.1 L/kg, and the body clearance was 0.03 L/h/kg. After oral administration of SMM (200 mg/kg BW) to tongue soles at 20 °C, plasma drug concentrations were best fitted to a two-compartment model, of which the mean half-life of absorption (t 1/2ka) and elimination (t 1/2β ) were 1.7 and 95.7 h, respectively. The maximal absorption concentration (C max) was estimated as 58 mg/L at 2.5 h, and the mean systemic bioavailability (F) was 39.5 % in tongue soles after oral administration. PMID:24577641

  17. 48 CFR 819.7008 - Sole source awards to veteran-owned small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sole source awards to veteran-owned small business concerns. 819.7008 Section 819.7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... businesses are registered and verified as eligible in the VIP database prior to making an award....

  18. TLR7 is required for optimal immune defense against bacterial infection in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-peng; Sun, Li

    2015-11-01

    In mammals as well as in teleost, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is known to be involved in antiviral immunity by recognizing viral RNA. However, the antibacterial potential of fish TLR7 is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the TLR7 of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), CsTLR7, and examined its potential involvement in antibacterial immunity. CsTLR7 is composed of 1052 amino acid residues and shares 64.0%-75.9% overall sequence identities with known teleost TLR7. CsTLR7 possesses a toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain and six leucine-rich repeats. Constitutive expression of CsTLR7 occurred in relatively high levels in kidney, spleen and liver. Bacterial infection upregulated CsTLR7 expression, whereas viral infection downregulated CsTLR7 expression. Knockdown of CsTLR7 significantly enhanced bacterial dissemination in the tissues of tongue sole. Treatment of tongue sole with the imidazoquinoline compound R848 (TLR7 activator) and the endosomal acidification inhibitor chloroquine (TLR7 inhibitor) caused enhanced and reduced resistance against bacterial infection respectively. These results indicate that CsTLR7 plays an essential role in the antibacterial immunity of tongue sole. PMID:26327112

  19. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... the citizens of Bainbridge Island and that this aquifer system, if contaminated would create a... aquifer which is the sole or principal drinking water source for the area and which, if contaminated... which the Administrator determines may contaminate such aquifer through a recharge zone so as to...

  20. SOLE SOURCE AQUIFERS AND SOURCE AREAS IN WASHINGTON, OREGON, AND IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The map shows sole source aquifers and their source areas in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Aquifers that have been designated are shown along with those that have been petitioned for designation. County outlines, and the Columbia river system are also shown. The aquifers.tar.g...

  1. 42 CFR 57.2003 - Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program. 57.2003 Section 57.2003 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Armed Forces...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purpose. Any use of exempt engines in recreational events is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You... engines used solely for competition? 1054.620 Section 1054.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... competition teams, professional competitors, or other qualified competitors. For replacement engines, the...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... runs and lobsterboat races, is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label... engines used solely for competition? 1045.620 Section 1045.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., professional racers, or other qualified racers. For replacement engines, the sale of the engine itself must...

  4. 48 CFR 819.7008 - Sole source awards to veteran-owned small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... veteran-owned small business concerns. 819.7008 Section 819.7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Acquisition Program 819.7008 Sole source awards to...

  5. 48 CFR 819.7008 - Sole source awards to veteran-owned small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... veteran-owned small business concerns. 819.7008 Section 819.7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Acquisition Program 819.7008 Sole source awards to...

  6. Bringing Up Boys: A Parenting Manual for Sole Mothers Raising Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jo

    This manual for parent educators presents the "Bringing Up Boys" program, a series of group sessions designed for sole mothers raising sons up to age 12. Mothers raising sons without a father's input face a range of concerns. Participants are encouraged to share ideas and experiences in a supportive, non-judgmental environment. The program's focus…

  7. 36 CFR 902.52 - Records related solely to internal personnel rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records related solely to internal personnel rules and practices. 902.52 Section 902.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Exemptions From Public Access...

  8. 36 CFR 902.52 - Records related solely to internal personnel rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records related solely to internal personnel rules and practices. 902.52 Section 902.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Exemptions From Public Access...

  9. Biometrics security by dynamics of left and right sole pressure while walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takahiro; Kuramoto, Kei; Kobashi, Syoji; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a biometric personal authentication method based on fuzzy logic using dynamics of sole pressure distribution while walking. The method employs a pair of right and left sole pressure data. These data are acquired by a mat type load distribution sensor. The proposed method has two processes. First, we calculate a fuzzy degree of each sole pressure data. In this process, we extract several gait features based on weight shift and shape of footprint. Fuzzy ifthen rules for each registered person are introduced. In it, their parameters are statistically optimized in learning process. Second, we combine fuzzy degrees of right and left sole. In this process, we employ five operators. The method authenticates walking person with the combined fuzzy degree. We calculate the fuzzy degree of an interest person for all registered persons, and identify the interest person as the registered person with the highest fuzzy degree. While, we verify the interest person as the target person if the fuzzy degree of the interest person calculated for a target person is higher than a threshold. In an experiment on 50 volunteers, we obtained low false rejection and false acceptance rates.

  10. 31 CFR 360.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment during life of sole owner. 360.36 Section 360.36 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I General Provisions for Payment § 360.36 Payment during life of...

  11. 31 CFR 353.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment during life of sole owner. 353.36 Section 353.36 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH General Provisions for Payment § 353.36 Payment during...

  12. 48 CFR 819.7008 - Sole source awards to veteran-owned small business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sole source awards to veteran-owned small business concerns. 819.7008 Section 819.7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly...

  14. Serological subsets of juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies--an update.

    PubMed

    Tansley, Sarah L; McHugh, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    In this review we explore the different characteristics of the serological phenotypes identified in juvenile-onset myositis and consider how the serological sub-classification of patients with juvenile myositis can be advantageous both in terms of reaching what can be a difficult diagnosis and informing on prognosis. Recent studies have described the autoantibody associated disease phenotypes and outcome for those with juvenile-onset disease and include analyses of large juvenile-onset myositis cohorts. Here we describe the autoantibody associated disease features for patients within juvenile-onset myositis in detail and discuss the expanding opportunities and strategies for myositis specific autoantibody testing in clinical practice. PMID:26651264

  15. Costs of Juvenile Violence: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ted; Fisher, Deborah A.; Cohen, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the magnitude of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania in terms of victimization and perpetration. Used archival data on violent crimes in Pennsylvania during 1993 to develop cost estimates reflecting the costs incurred by society for both victims and perpetrators. Overall, violence against children and adolescents proved to be a much…

  16. Effective Instructional Practices in Juvenile Justice Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Schoenfeld, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The majority of youths involved with the juvenile justice system struggle to make academic progress. This article reviews the characteristics of youths in these settings and highlights evidence-based instructional practices that are effective with struggling students, as well as practices that have been documented as successful in secure…

  17. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  18. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  19. 76 FR 54978 - Special Immigrant Juvenile Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Congress did not intend for married juveniles to be eligible for SIJ classification. See 58 FR 42843-51...-162, and Public Law 110-457. 74 FR 30312. The one comment that USCIS received on the revised form did... not receive any further comments. 74 FR 46216. On December 30, 2009, the Office of Management...

  20. Bilateral spontaneous hyphema in juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, P; Shetty, Shashikant; Jethani, Jitendra; Devi, T B Uma

    2006-03-01

    This report describes a rare occurrence of bilateral, spontaneous, nontraumatic hyphema in a 6 weeks old infant, associated with a small, multiple skin lesions. The diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma was confirmed by histopathological examination of the cutaneous lesions. The hyphaema cleared gradually in 2 weeks time with conservative management. PMID:16531672

  1. Application of Megan's Law to Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivits, Lisa C.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2002-01-01

    Examines the history of registration and notification statutes for sex offenders and concerns and legal challenges they have faced, noting psychology's limited knowledge about normal versus abnormal sexual development and research suggesting that recidivism rates for sexual offenses may be lower for juveniles than adults who have received…

  2. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard; And Others

    This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

  3. Rehabilitation of the Personality of Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Dmitriev, M. G.; Apal'kova, I. Iu.

    2009-01-01

    Russian youth has in recent years been increasingly involved in crime, narcotics addiction, and alcoholism, possibly due to a failure of socialization in childhood. Researchers are seeking the origins of this phenomenon and searching for ways to combat it through rehabilitation of juvenile offenders. The essential nature of social and pedagogical…

  4. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis mimicking cold abscess.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra P; Bharati, Joyita; Sheriff, Abraar; Priyadarshini, Praytusha; Chumber, Sunil; Kabra, S K

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dystrophic calcification presenting as soft cystic swelling in a patient with juvenile dermatomyositis. A 15-year-old boy with lumbosacral cystic swelling, which was considered a cold abscess clinically, was evaluated for nonresponse to antitubercular therapy. The cystic swelling had liquefied calcium with a well circumscribed calcified wall on imaging, which was subsequently excised. PMID:27586213

  5. Predictors of Juvenile Delinquency and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Violence among youth has reached epidemic proportions. Every five minutes a child is arrested for a violent crime. To understand this trend, this paper examines characteristics of adolescent males who come into contact with the juvenile justice system. The study focuses on drug and alcohol involvement, the relevance of education, sexual practices,…

  6. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  7. Youth for Justice. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Youth for Justice uses the power of active learning to teach youth practical information about the law while addressing the risks associated with being young in the United States today. This unique initiative is a law-related education (LRE) program supported by the United States Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency…

  8. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  9. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  10. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  11. Prevention of Potential Juvenile Delinquency Through Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddie Kamp Corp., Boston, MA.

    A two-year demonstration project, to determine whether a short-term (30 days) summer camp experience could contribute to prevention of juvenile delinquency, found that camping induced positive attitudinal change and improved adjustment to school. The project involved 200 adolescent boys from varied social backgrounds who were selected on evidence…

  12. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  13. The Need To Know: Juvenile Record Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, James A.; And Others

    Responding to the needs of children, particularly juvenile offenders, requires both good judgment and good information. Knowledge and awareness of a child's background and problems gives teachers, counselors, administrators, police, and other legal professionals guidance in developing proper education, programs, and counsel for the child.…

  14. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  15. Multiple Substance Use Disorders in Juvenile Detainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the 6-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method: Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1,829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic detainees (1,172 males, 657 females, aged 10 to 18). Patterns and…

  16. Spatial and temporal relations of the ophiolites and the metamorphic soles along the Tauride belt, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlak, Osman; Simsek, Emrah; Ezgi Ozturk, Selena; Simsek, Gokce; Simsek, Tugce; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht; Köpke, Jürgen; Karaoglan, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    The Tauride belt ophiolites were generated above an intra-oceanic subduction zone and emplaced in the Late Cretaceous over the Tauride carbonate platform. The Tauride ophiolites are underlain by well-preserved metamorphic soles that have a constant structural position between the ophiolitic mélange, below and harzburgitic mantle tec- tonites, above. The dynamothermal metamorphic soles display a typical inverted metamorphic sequence, grading from amphibolite facies directly beneath the highly sheared harzburgitic tectonite to greenschist facies close to the melange contact. They display variable structural thickness (up to 500 m). The metamorphic soles beneath the Tauride ophiolites are interpreted to relate to the initiation of subduction and emplacement processes. The metamorphic soles are intruded by isolated post-metamorphic diabase dikes, derived from island arc tholeiitic magmas. In some places along the Tauride belt (Koycegiz and Pozanti-Karsanti regions), the contact between the metamorphic sole and the overlying serpentinized harzburgites is characterized by a 1.5-2 m thick zone of sheared serpentinized harzburgitic mantle tectonites, intercalated with amphibolites. These lithologies are cut by thick mafic dikes (7-8 m thick, individually) which postdate intraoceanic metamorphism and high-temperature ductile deformation. This contact is interpreted as an intra-oceanic decoupling surface along which volcanics in the upper levels of the down-going plate were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies and accreted to the base of the hanging wall plate. The geochemistry of the metamorphic sole amphibolites suggests their derivation from different geochemical environments; i.e. seamount-type alkaline basalts, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and island arc basalts. Zircon and rutile separates from the crustal rocks (gabbro and diabase) and from the metamorphic soles of the Tauride ophiolites have been dated by U-Pb SIMS (Edinburgh University) and LA-MC-ICP-MS (ETH Zurich

  17. Bilateral genu valgum: an unusual presentation of juvenile primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Kumar, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a generalized disorder of bone and mineral metabolism caused by autonomous secretion of parathyroid hormone. It is primarily seen in adults with typical age of presentation between third and fifth decades of life. Juvenile hyperparathyroidism is a rare disorder. The common presentations in order of incidence are fatigue and lethargy, headache, nephrolithiasis, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and polydipsia. Though skeletal symptoms include bone pains and fractures, but the presence of limb deformity is atypical. We report a case of young girl who presented with isolated progressive genu valgum of both lower limbs and pigeon-shaped chest deformity. She was found to have hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia with raised parathyroid hormone levels. The neck imaging showed a single adenoma in the left inferior parathyroid gland. The surgical removal of parathyroid adenoma was performed. PMID:27471596

  18. Treatment of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bou, Rosa; Iglesias, Estíbaliz; Antón, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Chronic anterior uveitis affects 10-30 % of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and is still a cause of blindness in childhood. In most patients it is asymptomatic, bilateral, and recurrent, so careful screening and early diagnosis are important to obtain the best long-term prognosis. The treatment of chronic uveitis associated with JIA is challenging. Initial treatment is based on topical steroids and mydriatic drops. Methotrexate is the most common first-line immunomodulatory drug used. For refractory patients, biologicals, mainly the anti-tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF) drugs adalimumab and infliximab, have been revealed to be effective and have changed the outcome for these patients. Collaboration between pediatric rheumatologists and ophthalmologists is important for the successful diagnosis and treatment of patients with uveitis associated with JIA. PMID:24938442

  19. Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) and the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Bozorg, Sara; Ramirez-Montealegre, Denia; Chung, Mina; Pearce, David A

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (JNCL) or Batten disease is the most common type of NCL in the United States and Europe. This devastating disorder presents with vision failure and progresses to include seizures, motor dysfunction, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade, but some patients die before age twenty. Though the mechanism of visual failure remains poorly understood, recent advances in molecular genetics have improved diagnostic testing and suggested possible therapeutic strategies. The ophthalmologist plays a crucial role in both early diagnosis and documentation of progression of JNCL. We update Batten disease research, particularly as it relates to the eye, and present various theories on the pathophysiology of retinal degeneration. PMID:19539834

  20. Dermatopathy in juvenile Angus cattle due to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas J; Rood, Kerry A; Kelly, E Jane; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-07-01

    In juvenile cattle, vitamin A deficiency is reported most commonly as a neurological condition; only rarely are there dermatologic manifestations. In the current study, alopecia, severe epidermal and follicular orthokeratosis, and acanthosis due to hypovitaminosis A are reported in 2 of 32 Angus calves, with a third animal suspected. Affected animals responded to vitamin A supplementation, and no additional calves displayed signs. Vitamin A acts on skin by regulating DNA transcription in keratinocytes, reducing the number of tonofilaments and desmosomes, both involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Hence, adequate levels of dietary vitamin A are necessary for normal keratinocyte turnover, and deficiencies result in retention of keratinized cells (orthokeratosis). The present report reminds diagnosticians to consider vitamin A deficiency in cases of orthokeratotic dermatopathy in cattle. PMID:22585959

  1. Enhanced superoxide anion production in activated peritoneal macrophages from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) exposed to PACs

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, E.; Arkoosh, M.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    In fish, as in mammals, macrophages play a vital role in the destruction of infective organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine if peritoneal macrophages (M{O}s) from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), a marine benthic fish, have an altered ability to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) after exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). ROIs are the principle product of M{O}s used to destroy engulfed organisms. Assay conditions, including the concentration of M{O}s, type of in vitro stimulant, tissue culture media, and incubation time were optimized to measure the production of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{minus}), the progenitor ROI, in English sole M{O}s. English sole were injected with an organic solvent extract of a PAH-contaminated sediment, equivalent to 20g sediment/kg fish, via their dorsal lymphatic sinus, and peritoneal M{O}s were harvested on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post injection. Activated peritoneal M{O}s from English sole injected with the sediment extract produced significantly more superoxide radicals after stimulation in vitro with either opsonized zymosan (OZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than the vehicle injected or control fish. Specifically, activated peritoneal M{O}s stimulated with PMA in vitro produced greater amounts (compared to controls) of O{sub 2}{minus} on days 7 and 14 after exposure, whereas the same cells stimulated with OZ showed heightened production only on day 7 after exposure. No differences in the basal amounts of O{sub 2}{minus} production from activated peritoneal M{O}s between the treatment groups were observed. This study shows that exposure of English sole to PACs altered production of O{sub 2}{minus} by macrophages, however, the consequence to the immunocompetence of exposed fish remains to be elucidated.

  2. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections. PMID:24377911

  3. Suicidal Ideation and its Correlates among Juvenile Delinquents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Kim, Hyekyeong; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Han-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated suicidal ideation and its correlates among juvenile delinquents in South Korea. Methods Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire in 1682 juvenile offenders aged between 15 and 18 years in 2012. Results The prevalence of suicidal ideation in juvenile delinquents was 15.2%. Girls were more likely to report suicidal thoughts than boys (30.3% vs. 12.7%). Suicidal ideation was more common among adolescents who were not living with their family prior to entering detention centers (22.6% vs. 13.2%) than their counterparts. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84], psychedelic drug use (OR = 2.04), feeling unhappy (OR = 3.05), feeling sad or depressed (OR = 13.37) after controlling for sociodemographic factors, other health behaviors and perceptions. Conclusion The present study provides evidence for an association between suicidal ideation and psychological health and health risk behaviors among juvenile delinquents. It also highlights the importance of mental health and behavioral interventions for this population to prevent suicidality. PMID:25389511

  4. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, N. E.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.; Mieog, J. C.; Negri, A. P.

    2009-06-01

    Algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium play a key role in the nutrition of reef building corals and strongly affect the thermal tolerance and growth rate of the animal host. This study reports that 14C photosynthate incorporation into juvenile coral tissues was doubled in Acropora millepora harbouring Symbiodinium C1 compared with juveniles from common parentage harbouring Symbiodinium D in a laboratory experiment. Rapid light curves performed on the same corals revealed that the relative electron transport rate of photosystem II (rETRMAX) was 87% greater in Symbiodinium C1 than in Symbiodinium D in hospite. The greater relative electron transport through photosystem II of Symbiodinium C1 is positively correlated with increased carbon delivery to the host under the applied experimental conditions ( r 2 = 0.91). This may translate into a competitive advantage for juveniles harbouring Symbiodinium C1 under certain field conditions, since rapid early growth typically limits mortality. Both symbiont types exhibited severe reductions in 14C incorporation during a 10-h exposure to the electron transport blocking herbicide diuron (DCMU), confirming the link between electron transport through PSII and photosynthate incorporation within the host tissue. These findings advance the current understanding of symbiotic relationships between corals and their symbionts, providing evidence that enhanced growth rates of juvenile corals may result from greater translocation of photosynthates from Symbiodinium C1.

  5. Studies of certain sulfonamide drugs for use in juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1969-01-01

    In the work described in this paper, the efficacies of sulfisoxazole and sulfadimethoxine were compared to the efficacy of sulfamethazine. Experiments were designed to determine the rate of intestinal absorption, the rate of elimination from the blood, the effect on growth, and the toxicity of each drug in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The comparative bacteriostatic activity against two common fish pathogens was also determined for each drug. 

  6. Juvenile skeletogenesis in anciently diverged sea urchin clades.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Petsios, Elizabeth; Erkenbrack, Eric; Moats, Rex A; Bottjer, David J; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistic understanding of evolutionary divergence in animal body plans devolves from analysis of those developmental processes that, in forms descendant from a common ancestor, are responsible for their morphological differences. The last common ancestor of the two extant subclasses of sea urchins, i.e., euechinoids and cidaroids, existed well before the Permian/Triassic extinction (252 mya). Subsequent evolutionary divergence of these clades offers in principle a rare opportunity to solve the developmental regulatory events underlying a defined evolutionary divergence process. Thus (i) there is an excellent and fairly dense (if yet incompletely analyzed) fossil record; (ii) cladistically confined features of the skeletal structures of modern euechinoid and cidaroid sea urchins are preserved in fossils of ancestral forms; (iii) euechinoids and cidaroids are among current laboratory model systems in molecular developmental biology (here Strongylocentrotus purpuratus [Sp] and Eucidaris tribuloides [Et]); (iv) skeletogenic specification in sea urchins is uncommonly well understood at the causal level of interactions of regulatory genes with one another, and with known skeletogenic effector genes, providing a ready arsenal of available molecular tools. Here we focus on differences in test and perignathic girdle skeletal morphology that distinguish all modern euechinoid from all modern cidaroid sea urchins. We demonstrate distinct canonical test and girdle morphologies in juveniles of both species by use of SEM and X-ray microtomography. Among the sharply distinct morphological features of these clades are the internal skeletal structures of the perignathic girdle to which attach homologous muscles utilized for retraction and protraction of Aristotles׳ lantern and its teeth. We demonstrate that these structures develop de novo between one and four weeks after metamorphosis. In order to study the underlying developmental processes, a method of section whole mount in

  7. Unique Challenges, Hopeful Responses: A Handbook for Professionals Working with Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Lili Frank; Jordan, Dixie; Kragthorpe, Candy

    This book provides information about emotional, behavioral, learning and developmental disabilities; disability-specific entitlements; and approaches for professionals who work with youthful offenders with disabilities throughout the juvenile process. Chapter 1 describes characteristics of common disabilities among youthful offenders and details…

  8. Unique Challenges, Hopeful Responses: A Handbook for Professionals Working with Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Lili Frank; Jordan, Dixie; Goldberg, Paula; Pernu, Caryn; Bill, Lissa A.

    This handbook provides information about emotional, behavioral, and learning and developmental disabilities; disability-specific entitlements; and approaches for professionals who work with youthful offenders with disabilities throughout the juvenile process. Chapter 1 describes characteristics of common disabilities among youthful offenders and…

  9. Molecular cloning, expression of, and regulation by thyroid-hormone receptor α A in the half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W T; Liu, K; Xiang, J S; Zhang, L Y; Liu, W J; Dong, Z D; Li, Y Z; Li, H L; Chen, S L; Wang, N

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of thyroid hormone receptor α A (thraa) on metamorphosis, the full length cDNA of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis was cloned. The relative gene transcript level of thraa at different development stages was quantified using real-time PCR. Transcription of thraa increased and declined rapidly during metamorphosis. Hyperthyroidism was induced in juveniles and larvae with exposure to T3 and T4, and hypothyroidism with thiourea (TU), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI). thraa mRNA was higher in fish treated for 6 days with MMI than in untreated controls, although inhibited larvae did not complete metamorphosis. The addition of exogenous T4 reversed this effect in the MMI-treated group, but not in the TU-treated group. In situ hybridization revealed progressive tail end of body growth and change during developmental stages, with corresponding changes in thraa expression. This process may be induced by thyroid hormones with thraa as a major mediator. The morphological changes of tip of the tail may be associated with the development of lateral swimming. PMID:26953104

  10. Metamorphic sole formation and early plate interface rheology: Insights from Griggs apparatus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Hirth, Greg; Yamato, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500 m thick highly strained metamorphic rock units found beneath mylonitic banded peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites, as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are mainly composed of metabasalts deriving from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and metamorphosed up to granulite-facies conditions by heat transfer from the mantle wedge. Pressure-temperature peak conditions are usually estimated at 1.0±0.2 GPa and 800±100°C. The absence of HP-LT metamorphism overprint implies that metamorphic soles have been formed and exhumed during subduction infancy. In this view, metamorphic soles were strongly deformed during their accretion to the mantle wedge (corresponding, now, to the base of the ophiolite). Therefore, metamorphic soles and banded peridotites are direct witnesses of the dynamics of early subduction zones, in terms of thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology evolution across the nascent slab interface. Based on fieldwork and EBSD analyses, we present a detailed (micro-) structural study performed on samples coming from the Sumeini window, the better-preserved cross-section of the metamorphic sole of Oman. Large differences are found in the deformation (CPO, grain size, aspect ratio) of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase, related to mineralogical changes linked with the distance to the peridotite contact (e.g., hardening due to the appearance of garnet and clinopyroxene). To model the incipient slab interface in laboratory, we carried out 5 hydrostatic annealing and simple-shear experiments on Griggs solid-medium apparatus. Deformation experiments were conducted at axial strain rates of 10-6 s-1. Fine-grained amphibolite was synthetized by adding 1 wt.% water to a (Mid-Ocean Ridge) basalt powder as a proxy for the metamorphic sole (amphibole + plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± garnet assemblage). To synthetize garnet, 2 experiments were carried out in hydrostatic conditions and with deformation at

  11. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Marc; Muñoz, Manuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Cathelineau, Michel; Picard, Christian; Quesnel, Benoit; Boulvais, Philippe; Couteau, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  12. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, M.; Munoz, M.; Guillot, S.; Cathelineau, M.; Picard, C.; Quesnel, B.; Boulvais, P.; Couteau, C.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  13. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally be located directly under the metarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs), but this has not been directly evaluated. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the influence on plantar loading of different locations of the shoe sole flexion point. Method Twenty-one asymptomatic females with normal foot posture participated. Standardised shoes were incised directly underneath the metatarsophalangeal joints, proximal to the MTPJs or underneath the midfoot. The participants walked in a randomised sequence of the three shoes whilst plantar loading patterns were obtained using the Pedar® in-shoe pressure measurement system. The foot was divided into nine anatomically important masks, and peak pressure (PP), contact time (CT) and pressure time integral (PTI) were determined. A ratio of PP and PTI between MTPJ2-3/MTPJ1 was also calculated. Results Wearing the shoe with the sole flexion point located proximal to the MTPJs resulted in increased PP under MTPJ 4–5 (6.2%) and decreased PP under the medial midfoot compared to the sub-MTPJ flexion point (−8.4%). Wearing the shoe with the sole flexion point located under the midfoot resulted in decreased PP, CT and PTI in the medial and lateral hindfoot (PP: −4.2% and −5.1%, CT: −3.4% and −6.6%, PTI: −6.9% and −5.7%) and medial midfoot (PP: −5.9% CT: −2.9% PTI: −12.2%) compared to the other two shoes. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that the location of the sole flexion point of the shoe influences plantar loading patterns during gait. Specifically, shoes with a sole flexion point located under the midfoot significantly decrease the magnitude and duration of loading under the midfoot and hindfoot, which

  14. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  15. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  16. A simple surgical treatment for bovine digital dermatitis-associated white line lesions and sole ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J; Glonegger-Reichert, J; Dietrich, J; Sykora, S; Tichy, A; Brandt, S

    2015-05-01

    Non-healing white line disease (nhWLD) and sole ulcers (nhSU) are seen increasingly in herds endemically affected with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). In 35 cows with 42 nhWLD or nhSU lesions, the healing process was monitored for up to 28 or 38 days following extensive debridement of loose horn and infected corium under regional anaesthesia, and topical application of tetracycline spray with bandaging. By 28 days, 27/42 (64%) nhWLD and nhSU were completely covered by a new horn layer and this increased to 30/42 (71%) that had healed by 38 days. Lesion sizes on day 0 correlated with clinical healing within the study period. In view of this satisfying therapeutic result, the terms nhWLD and nhSU are proposed for BDD-associated white line disease (BDD-WLD) and BDD-associated sole ulcers (BDD-SU), respectively. PMID:25920757

  17. Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Facco, E; Pasquali, S; Zanette, G; Casiglia, E

    2013-09-01

    A female patient with multiple chemical sensitivity and previous anaphylactoid reactions to local anaesthetics was admitted for removal of a thigh skin tumour under hypnosis as sole anaesthesia. The hypnotic protocol included hypnotic focused analgesia and a pre-operative pain threshold test. After inducing hypnosis, a wide excision was performed, preserving the deep fascia, and the tumour was removed; the patient's heart rate and blood pressure did not increase during the procedure. When the patient was de-hypnotised, she reported no pain and was discharged immediately. Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs. PMID:23845031

  18. Use of aspirin as the sole antiplatelet agent following prosthetic valve replacement in rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    John, S; Bashi, V V; John, C N; Ravikumar, E; Kumar, H P; Rao, S

    1994-01-01

    Aspirin was administered as the sole antiplatelet agent in 147 patients following valve replacement, who were at low risk for thromboembolism. Of these, 67 underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), 61 aortic valve replacement (AVR) and 19 combined aortic and mitral valve replacement (DVR). The mean follow up period was 6.63 years (range 1-14 years). The incidence of thromboembolic episodes (TEE) in patients following MVR, AVR, and DVR was 0.41, 0.80 and nil respectively. The TEE free survival at the first year follow-up was 98.4%, 99.3% and 100% in patients following MVR, AVR and DVR respectively. Fatal intracranial haemorrhage was not encountered. Valve thrombosis in this patient population was not seen. In conclusion, aspirin as the sole antiplatelet agent appears to be safe and effective following prosthetic valve replacement in selected patients. Further studies involving larger number of patients are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:7797223

  19. [A woman with a tumour on the sole of her foot].

    PubMed

    Roest, Yvonne; Kuijpers, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman came to de department of Dermatology with a tumour on the sole of her foot that appeared 5 years ago. A histology test revealed a desmoplastic melanoma. This is a rare type of melanoma that is, in an early stage, frequently mistaken for a benign tumour. Desmoplastic melanoma has a high rate of local recurrence and a low incidence of distant metastases, unlike other melanomas. PMID:25336314

  20. How I do it – sole innominate cannulation for acute type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We describe sole direct innominate cannulation for arterial return for establishing both cardiopulmonary bypass and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion in the repair of acute type A dissection and compare it with femoral, axillary, direct aortic and apical cannulations. We believe innominate cannulation has all the advantages of right axillary cannulation and none of its disadvantages. It can be used in all patients in whom innominate artery is not dissected, obstructed, calcified or otherwise diseased. PMID:23167966

  1. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  2. Synthesis of boron-doped graphene monolayers using the sole solid feedstock by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Di; Liao, Lei; Zhao, Shuli; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2013-04-22

    Substitutionally boron-doped monolayer graphene film is grown on a large scale by using a sole phenylboronic acid as the source in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. The B-doped graphene film is a homogeneous monolayer with high crystalline quality, which exhibits a stable p-type doping behavior with a considerably high room-temperature carrier mobility of about 800 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . PMID:23463717

  3. An overview of the understanding of ions containing solely fluorine atoms.

    PubMed

    Ponikvar-Svet, Maja; Edwards, Kathleen F; Liebman, Joel F

    2013-01-01

    We discuss in the current paper ions containing solely fluorine atoms, F-, F2- and F3-, their corresponding cationic and/or multiply charged counterparts. While the emphasis of the paper is on gas phase species, their energetics and reactions, aqueous solutions are also discussed. In particular, biomedical and analytical aspects of F- are also considered. The new trichotomy of convenience, anthropocentrism and folksonomy is also applied to the understanding of our fluorine-containing ions. PMID:24169700

  4. Bilateral Inguinal Hernia Containing Urinary Bladder as Sole Content With "Pelvic Mickey Mouse Sign".

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2016-04-01

    Inguinal hernias may contain urinary bladder as one of its contents, but very rarely have it as sole content. Inguinal vesical hernias may be unilateral or bilateral. When bilateral, inguinal vesical hernia may produce "pelvic Mickey mouse sign." This case reinforces the "pelvic Mickey mouse sign" in bilateral inguinal hernia containing only urinary bladder as content, which has been described only once before. PMID:26775075

  5. Blurred vision as the sole initial presentation of disseminated lung malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mary K.; Pinheiro, Cecil; George, Prasad; Zaidi, Zafar A.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic choroidal metastasis (CM) is a rare presenting feature of disseminated lung malignancy. Detection of the primary malignancy usually precedes ocular findings. We report a rare case of blurred vision secondary to bilateral CM as the sole initial manifestation of disseminated lung malignancy in a female patient. Pulmonary symptoms appeared 2 months later. She received radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy and survived for 7 months after the initial presentation. PMID:24371427

  6. Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wanis H; Elalamy, Osama R; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Mobyaed, Hassan; Darweesh, Adham

    2010-01-01

    Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis. PMID:21483588

  7. Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Wanis H.; Elalamy, Osama R.; Doiphode, Sanjay H.; Mobyaed, Hassan; Darweesh, Adham

    2010-01-01

    Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis. PMID:21483588

  8. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of tracheostomy site in a patient with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Violet Wilmot, Victoria; Nixon, Iain James; Nixon, Ioanna Fragkandrea

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis is the commonest cause of benign epithelial tumours of the larynx. Following diagnostic biopsy, surgical debulking is the mainstay of therapy. The condition is often recurrent with further papillomas forming after debridement, requiring serial procedures and occasionally demanding tracheostomy. Rarely, the disease can undergo malignant transformation; most commonly to squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the first reported case of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma occurring in the previous tracheostomy site of a 29-year-old male with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis. The patient, with a background of multiple treatments for juvenile papillomas, presented with voice change, breathing difficultly and erythema at the site of previous tracheostomy. Induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation was used to treat the lesion with a good response to initial therapy. PMID:27507691

  9. Histopathology, enzyme activities, and PAH metabolites in English sole collected near coastal pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The bottom-feeding flatfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), is widely distributed along the B.C. Pacific coast and fulfills a majority of the requirements as a sentinel species for environmental effects monitoring programs. Studies involving the use of histopathological, biochemical, and chemical tools with English sole collected near the vicinity of B.C. pulp mills are currently being conducted. Analysis, to date, has revealed idiopathic liver lesions to be strongly dependent on location of capture with a prevalence of 30% preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions found in fish collected near pulp mills. All fish residing near pulp mills show hepatocellular hemosiderosis, an iron storage disorder. The mixed-function oxidizing enzyme, EROD, was found to be induced in fish collected near pulp mills. However, the levels of conjugating enzymes, GST and UDP-GT, were found to be unchanged when compared with reference fish. PAH metabolites, measured as FACs in bile, are also present in English sole collected from the mill sites and the conjugated derivatives are presently being identified by HPLC/ES-MS techniques, The relationships between these observations will be discussed.

  10. Effects of sediment remediation on reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Sol, S.Y.; Lomax, D.P.; Myers, M.S.; Collier, T.K.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor, near Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, WA is currently designated as an EPA Superfund site because of high levels of creosote-derived PAHs in the sediments. In 1986--88, the authors conducted a series of studies evaluating reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor. These studies showed that only about 60% of adult female sole from the Eagle Harbor site entered vitellogenesis, in comparison to 80--90% of females of comparable age and size from minimally contaminated Puget Sound sites. Eagle Harbor fish also exhibited reduced spawning success and lowered egg viability in comparison to fish from unpolluted sites. Both types of reproductive function were associated with depressed plasma levels of reproductive steroids (e.g. 17-B estradiol) in Eagle Harbor fish. In September of 1993 the EPA began placement of a cap of uncontaminated sediment over the most contaminated portions of Eagle Harbor, as a means of providing clean habitat for benthic organisms and reducing risk from the contaminants contained in the sediments. Since the time of capping, the authors have been monitoring reproductive development in English sole and related benthic flatfish to determine whether this restoration will result in improved reproductive success in the resident flatfish of Eagle Harbor. Preliminary results indicate that the proportion of maturing females has increased to approximately 75%. Other reproductive parameters, including plasma steroid hormone concentration and ovarian atresia, are currently being assessed. Nonetheless, the initial data suggest that sediment remediation is associated with improved reproductive function in Eagle Harbor bottom fish.

  11. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.

    2013-02-01

    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  12. Analysis of human locomotion by recording sole-floor reaction forces from anatomically discrete points.

    PubMed

    Warabi, Tateo; Kato, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Kiichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi

    2004-12-01

    Sole-floor reaction forces were recorded from five anatomically discrete points to analyze characteristics of human locomotion. Strain gauge of 14 mm diameter were firmly attached to the sole of bare-foot for recording force changes from the following five points: (1) medial process of calcaneus, (2) head of 1st metatarsal, (3) head of 3rd metatarsal, (4) head of 5th metatarsal and (5) great toe. Fifteen healthy adults were asked to walk at 2, 4, 6 and 8 km/h and to run at 8 km/h on the treadmill. Sole-floor reaction forces from 1st to 5th metatarsals show reciprocal changes during stance phase, while force from 1st metatarsal is strong 5th metatarsal shows weak reaction and vice versa. This phenomenon may be an expression of locomotor program to maintain vertical stability of the body during stance phase. There was a linear relation between walking speeds and sum of force from the five points, although sum of forces from three metatarsals did not change significantly during the walking speeds, indicating mainly calcaneus and great toe contribute to increasing walking speed. During running the sum of force from the three metatarsals increased sharply, joining the other two points to increase thrust. PMID:15567479

  13. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Definition and classification].

    PubMed

    Deslandre, C

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of diseases defined by the presence of arthritis of more than 6weeks duration in patients aged less than 16years and with unknown etiology. The international classification based on clinical and biological criteria define each type of JIA: systemic, oligoarticular, polyarticular with and without rheumatoid factor, enthesitis-related arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. However, some discussions persist concerning systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, whose clinical symptoms and pathogenic mechanisms are quite similar to those observed in autoinflammatory diseases, arthritis with antinuclear factors (poly- and oligoarticular) that could be considered as a homogenous group, and a family history of psoriasis that frequently led to unclassified arthritis. Better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms should improve the initial clinical classification with more homogeneous groups of patients and reduce the number of unclassified cases of arthritis. PMID:26968301

  14. Juvenile glaucoma linked to GLCIA in a Panamanian family.

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, P R; Richards, J E; Boehnke, M; Othman, M; Cameron, B D; Stringham, H M; Downs, C A; Lewis, S B; Boyd, B F

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To carry out clinical and genetic characterization of juvenile-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in a Panamanian family. METHODS: Twenty-two members of a six-generation Panamanian family underwent an ophthalmologic evaluation. Blood samples were collected from 20 of these individuals for preparation of DNA for use in screening of microsatellite repeat genetic markers via polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Eleven living family members covering 4 generations were diagnosed as affected with open-angle glaucoma of primarily juvenile onset. Four of 6 other at-risk individuals examined and enrolled were characterized as unaffected and two as indeterminate. Two additional individuals were not included in this study because they were too young to characterize or to provide a blood sample. Three spouses of affected family members were also examined and found not to have glaucoma. Of clinical importance was the finding of markedly elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in 2 affected brothers, both of whom were advised to have urgent filtration surgery; the finding of elevated IOP in the only seeing eye of the mother of these brothers, causing us to advise her to pursue more aggressive treatment; and the finding of early signs of glaucoma in a previously undiagnosed 9-year-old family member. Linkage analysis using selected microsatellite repeat markers in the 1q21-q31 region revealed strong evidence for linkage to the GLC1A gene with a maximum lod score of 3.75 for marker D1S431 at a recombination fraction of 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: The most likely interpretation of our data is that a mutation in the GLC1A gene is responsible for juvenile-onset POAG in this Panamanian family, thus expanding the countries of origin where this gene has been found to exist. The numbers of families with GLC1A glaucoma now reported from only a few centers worldwide raise questions about whether this disease may be more common than once thought

  15. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1960–2013

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan L.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Michet, C. John; Mason, Thomas; Muskardin, Theresa Wampler; Matteson, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota in 1994–2013 and trends in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in 1960–2013. Methods Cases of arthritis in 1994–2013 were identified by diagnosis code with medical chart review to confirm diagnosis separately for JIA and JRA. Overall incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were age and sex adjusted to the 2010 US white population. Comparisons were made with an earlier (1960–1993) cohort from this same population. Results Seventy-one incident cases of JIA in 1994–2013 were identified, with an overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of 10.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 7.9–12.7). Forty-two (59%) were female, with an incidence of 12.4 per 100,000 (95% CI 8.6–16.2), as compared to 8.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 5.2–11.3) in males. The most common subtype was oligoarthritis (63%). The mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 8.2 ± 5.3 years. The prevalence of JIA on January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2010 was 51.0 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.2–76.8) and 57.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 31.0–94.5), respectively. When the annual incidence of JRA was compared over time from 1960 to 2013, there was no significant change in incidence overall; however, the incidence decreased among females (P = 0.003). A cyclic pattern of incidence was observed, with peaks approximately every 10 years. Similar to the findings with regard to incidence, prevalence did not change overall, but decreased among females (P = 0.048). There were 4 deaths in the cohort of JRA patients diagnosed in 1960–2013; the standardized mortality ratio was 1.50 (95% CI 0.41–3.83). Conclusion Incidence of juvenile arthritis overall in Olmsted County, Minnesota has not changed significantly in the past 53 years. A consistent cyclic pattern was noted. PMID:26316119

  16. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  17. [Optimal feeding strategy for juvenile Hucho taimen].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Xue; Yin, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Bai, Qing-Li

    2013-11-01

    Three experiments including starvation and re-feeding, starvation and re-feeding recovery, and feeding frequency per day were conducted to approach the optimal feeding strategy for the growth and survival of juvenile Hucho taimen. In the experiment of starvation and re-feeding, all groups of restricted feeding showed non-compensatory growth. However, in the experiment of starvation and re-feeding recovery, different degrees of compensatory growth appeared in different starving groups, among which, the half a day starvation and half a day feeding group (S1/2) had a weight increment approximately the same as the control, and showed completely compensatory growth, indicating that the S1/2 could be a useful feeding strategy for the juvenile H. taimen at its early growth stage with the body mass from 0 to 2 g and at the water temperature from 9 to 15.3 degrees C. In feeding frequency experiment, the group T3 (three meals per day) had the highest body length, body mass, specific growth rate, and relatively high food conversion ratio, indicating that three meals a day could be more effective for improving the growth performance of juvenile H. taimen at its late stage with the body mass from 2 to 21 g and at the water temperature from 8.8 to 15.5 degrees C. PMID:24564159

  18. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  20. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...